|Table of Contents|
Outstanding entomological features in the United States for the period from November 1, 1922, to April 1, 1923
Outstanding entomological features in Canda for the period from November 1, 1922, to April 1, 1923
Cereal and forage-crop insects
Southern field-crop insects
Insects attacking greenhouse and ornamental plants
Forest and shade-tree insects
Insects affecting domestic animals
THE INSECT PEST SURVEY
A periodical review of entomological conditions throughout the United States,
issued monthly from March to October inclusive.
ume 3 Number 1
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
THE STATE ENTOMOLOGICAL
Collaboaators of the 'United State Department of Agriculture
acting as Reporters for the Insect Pest Survey
Alabamna Dr. 7. E. Hinds, Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment
Arizona Dr. Oscar Bartlett, State Entomologist, Phoenix.
Arkansas Mr- W.T J. Baerg, Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment
California Dr. W. B. Hers, Head of Division of Entomology and
Parasitology, University of California, Berkeley.
Mr- H. S. Smith, Entorologist, University of California, Berkeley.
Mr. Theodore Urbahns, Department of Agricdlture, Sacramento. Colorado Dr. C. P. Gillette, State Entomologist, Agricultural
Exmerir.enz StIation, Fort Collins. Connecticut Dr- T-. Britton, State Entomn.olocist, Agricultural Expririent Stition, New Haven. Ldlawate Prof- C- 0. Houghton, Biologist, A-ricultural Experiment
Florida Mr. Jeff Chaffin, Assistant Nursery Inspector, State Plant
Idaho Mr. Claude Takelad, Experiment Station Entomologist,
Box 37, Para.
Mr- Don B. Thelan, University Extension Division, Boise.
Illinois Dr- W- P. Flint, Entomologist, State Natural History Survey,
Inliana Prof. J- J, Davis, Entomologist, Purdue University, LaFayette.
Iowa Dr- F. A. Fenton, Aericultural Experiment Station, Ames.
Kansas Dr- G- A. Dean, Entcuologist, Agricultural Experiment
Prof.S. J- Hunter, Entomologist, University of Kansas, Lawrence.
Kentucky Prof. H. Garmcan, Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment
Louisiana Mr. T. H. Jones, Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment
Station, Baton Rouge.
Maine Dr- E- M. Ptch, State Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment
Maryland Prof. E- INT. Cory, State Entomologist, Maryland University,
Massachusetts Dr- H. T- Fernald, Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment
Michigan Prof. R. H. Pettit, Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment
Station, East Lansing.
Minnesota Prof. A. G-. Ruggles, State Entomologist, University Farm,
Mississippi Prof. R. W. Earned, Entomologist, State Plant Board,
Missouri Dr. L. Haseman, Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment Station,
Montana Prof. R. A* Cooley, State Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment
Uontana Mr. A. L. Strand, Assistant State Entomologist, Agricultural
Experiment Station, Bozeman.
Nebraska Erof. M. H. Swenk, State Entomologist, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Nevada Prof. C. 7. Creel, Entomologist, University of Nevada, Reno.
New Hampshire Prof. W. C. O'Kane, Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment Station,
New Jersey Dr. T. J. Headlee, State Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment
Station, New Brunsl:ick.
Mr. Harry B. 7eiss, Chief of Dureau of Statistics and Inspection,
Department of Agriculture, Trenton.
New Mexico Dr. R. L. Liddlebrcok, Agricultural Experiment Station, State College. New York Dr. E. P. Felt, State E:iomologist, University of the State of
New York, Al "
Prof. C. R. Croabv, 'E-.tension Entomologist, Cornell University,Ithaca.
Mr. P. J. Parott, entomologist, Agricultural Experiment Station,
North Prof. F. Sherman, Chief in Entomology, State Department of Agriculture,
North Dr. R. L. Webster, Agricultural Experiment Station, Agricultural
Ohio Prof. H. A. Gossard, Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment Station,
Dr. Hercart Osborn, Entomologist, Ohio State University, Columbus.
Dr. R. C. Osburn, Entomologist, Ohio State University, Columbus.
Oklahoma Prof. C. E. Sanborn, Entomologist, Agricultural Expbriment Station,
Mr. E. F. Scholl, Agricultural and e-chanical College, Stillwater. Oregon Prof. A. L. Lovett, Entomologist, Oregon Agricultural College,
Pennsylvania Mr. J. G. Sanders, Director, Bureau of Plant Industry, State
DBpartment of Agriculture, Harrisburg.
Rhode Island Dr. A. E. Stene, Entomologist, State Board of Agriculture, Kingston. South Prof. A. F. Conradi, Chief Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment
Carolina Station, Clemson College.
South Prof. H. C. Severin, State Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment
Dakota Station, Brookings.
Tennessee Prof. G. .. Bentley, State Entomologist and Plant Pathologist,
State Board of Agriculture, Knoxville.
Texas Dr. 1. C. Tanquury, State Entorologist, Agricultural Experiment
Station, College Station.
Utah Prof. H. J. Pack, Entomologist, agriculturall Experiment Station,
Virginia Prof. W. J. Schoene, State Entomologist, Crop Pest Commission,
Mr. Herbert Spencer, Virginia Truck Experiment Station, Norfolk. West Prof. W. E. Rumsey, State Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment
Virginia Station, Morgantown.
Prof. L. M. Peairs, Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment Station,
Wisconsin Prof. S. B. Fracker, Etate Entomologist, State Department of
Agriculture, Yadis on.
Prof. H. F. Wilson, Entomologist, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
In this the first number of the third volume of the Insect Pest Survey bulletin, ,e are inauurating a new feature. Through the generous cooperation of the entomological forces of the Dominion of Canada we are able to include a monthly review of the outstanding entomological features of the ireat territory lying north of the United States which has so many enrtoological problems in comcn with the northern States of this Union.
An Insect Pest Survey of the Dorinion of Canada, w-orkin7 along similar lines and with the same general purpose as this Survey, has recently been institute: i ":i is xnsr the supervision of Mr- R. C. Treherne, Chief of the Piviision of Field Crop and Garden Insects of the Canadian Dep_ rtrent of r-iculture.
The appearance of he Ar-ual Su7-ary of insect condition,
throughout the United S ,,t' f: the season of 1922 will be delayed somewhat, as the Survey is at-eptin to review a ::_uch more comprehensive broup of inects than -as reviewed in the first Annual Summary. In addition to the 1-arger scope of the summary the mass of data being received from the States is constantly increasing.
During the past winter the distribution records of the Survey
have been very materially au- ent. by the extreme generosity of our collaborators in three State-, who have very kinily loaned us their entire file of correspondence record cards, in one case extending back to 1888. These cards indicate the name of the insect, the date and the place, and in some cases the crop attacked as referred to in each letter received at the Station. These records very clearly iri4cate the parts of the State where certain insect pests are most frequently attracting the attention of the agricultural population, and when similar data are lrou ht to-cother over a reasonably large area Sthe region of optimr conditions for the successful life of a givenppest can soon be ascertained.
OUTSTANDING ENTOMOLOGICAL FEATURES IN THE UNITED STATES
FOR THE PERIOD FROM NOVFM!FR 1, 1922, to APRIL 1, 1923
The temperature throughout the United States during the period covered by this report was generally above normal except during the first, second, and third weeks in February when below-normal departures were experienced over the greater part of the country. During the second and third weeks in Dececber there were also minus departures throughout the greater part of the T'ississippi Valley, New England, and the I'iddle Atlantic States. The New England States, as a whole, experienced a somewhat below-normal winter, minus departures bein, almost continuous from the beginning of January to the end cf February. The Pacific Coast States had cold weather during Ncverber and the first half of December and again the temperatures were below norr-al during the last week in January and the first two weeks in February. Abnormally cold weather prevailed in the Great Basin during November and February. Tercpratures were above normal in the Southrest from early in Novrmbr until the end of January. Th' Rocky Iountain region had minus departures during November, tho second and third weeks in December, and the first three weeks in February. Temperatures in the' North-Central States were above normal w1ith the exception of the second and third weeks in December and the ronth of February, similar conditions rrevailing ovur the est-Contral and East-Central States. The temperature in the Lower hississippi Valley was gen rally above normal as was also the case in the Middle Atlantic States except in the month of February when minus departures were recorded. The South Atlantic States had very similar departures to those of the Middle Atlantic.
The drought that prevailed between the .ississippi Valley and the Rocky Mountains during the latter part of the summer was relieved early in Nov mber; droughty conditions, however, continued in most of the Middle Atlantic and South Atlantic States during this month. In December the drought was relieved in the
Lower MIiddle Atlantic and South Atlantic States, while this month showed a deficiency of rainfall in the Hississippi Valley. The January rainfall was below normal in the South Atlantic and Gulf States and above normal in the Middle Atlantic and New England, while in most of the Upper Tississippi Valley, except Wisconsin and Minnesota, it was belo' normal. The Rocky Mountain States also showed a deficiency of rainfall in January. In February from the Great Plains to New England the rainfall was below normal, while in the Rocky ountain focthills and the Gulf region it was above normal. The South Atlantic States during this month, as well as the Great Basin, the Pacific Coast, and the Rocky Mountain States, were all experiencing dry w:at'er.
The mild weather has favored the successful overwintering of the chinch bug and it is now found to be present in winter quarters in threatening numbers over the greater part of southern and central Illinois, southern Nebraska, and eastern Kansas.
The green bug appeared in numbers sufficient to produce an epidemic early in the season in northern Texas, Oklahoma, and southern Kansas. Though still widespread, it is not at present considered to be a serious menace. During the spring it was also reported from Louisiana and New 7exico.
The annual examination of hibernating quarters of the cotton boll weevil made by the Bureau of Entomology's Delta Laboratory indicates that
this insect has not passed the winter well in northern Louisiana and we may expect a much decreased spring emergence in the general region than was the c~'se last year. In Alabamal however, reports have been received that a very high percentage of the weevils has passed the winter successfully.
The clover-leaf weevils are still, apparently, on the increase in Illinois and heavy damage is anticipated this season.
The spring cankerworm was observed in flight on M arch 9 in M'issouri and on March 13 in West Virginia.
The fall cankerworm was emerging and ovipositing in serious numbers in
Morris County, N. J., the last week in March.
The San Jose scale is attracting increasing attention in Rhode Island, Ohio, Georgia, Indiana, Illinois, Idaho, Texas, arnd New Fexico. The limesulphur spray, possibly owing to faulty application, is not proving as satisfactory as formerly and some States are recorrrending lubricating-oil sprays.
The first adult of the plum curculie was observed on March 5 in Georgia,
indicating that the beetles will probably appear in numbers from hibernation by the tire the peach trees are in full bloom.
The large numbers of hibernacula. of the pecan case-bearer that are
present in the semiarid pecan-growing sections of Texas seriously threaten the
otherwise promising crop for 1923.
The orange basketworm is reported as causing serious darrage to the fruit and young growth of several large plantataions in Florida, the dara -e in sore
cases running as high as 20 per cent of the fruit.
The European red mite is now quite prevalent in the fruit sections of
New York, Connecticut, and Ohio and scattering infestations have been found in 1:aryland .
Indications of a serious outbreak of the pea aphid in the San Francisco Bay region of California have been reported.
The onion thrips is causing serious trouble in the important canteloupe growing section of the Imperial Valley in California. The thrips are now attacking the early vines under their frost protectors.
The common field cricket is reported as seriously infesting 2C0 acres of lettuce in San Benito County, in some places necessitating planting the crop three times.
Reports have been received froir California that the cattle tick and cattle scabies are no longer present in that State.
OUTSTANDING ENTOMOLOGICAL FEATURES IN CANADA
FOR THE PERIOD NOVEMBER 1, 1922, to APRIL 1, 1923
The winter in Canada has been more severe in the eastern sections than in
the 17est. The depth of snow in the I-aritime Provinces has been exceptional. In V7estern Ontario, except for a few mild days in the latter part of February, the winter has been cold and steady, with a much greater fall of snow than is usual. The same applies, to some extent, to Yanitoba; but in Alberta the winter season has been mild, with a light snowfall. In British Columbia the winter season has been open and the spring is earlier than usual.
The European corn borer has inciaased its area of infestation in Ontario
during 1922 by 45 townships, and now involves an area of 12,616 square miles, with
162 townships under quarantine, There was, however, but slight increase in the area of heaviest infestation and a light general decrease in intensity in the area where cooperative control measures have been carried on. Overwvintering larvae in
the crop refuse under observation, to date (February 25), have suffered slight mortality, protection being afforded by the sncw blanket over the whole infested area.
The roadside grasshopper (Camnula pellucida Scudd.) occurred in extreme outbreak form on the cattle ranges of thb Nicola Valley in British Columbia during 1922. The general situation and the winter conditions would indicate a continuance of the outbreak during 1923. In the Prairie Provinces the situation is much relieved, though an ascendency in the numbers of the lesser migratory graesopper has been observed in many sections.
The pale western cutworm remains the most important grain-insect Trobler in southern Alberta. It would appear that the same acreage is infested year after year with the centres of infestation constantly shifting. From the precipitation records of 1922, the greatest degree of prevalence will probably occur in southeastern Alberta and western Saskatchewan, with the infestation somewhat diminished in western Alberta.
The grape leafhopper was extremely prevalent in the grape sections of Ontario in 1922. Leaves, weeds, grass, and rubbish, in neglected fence rows, are providing satisfactory hibernation quarters for the adults which have not been reduced apparently to any extent by winter. A noticeable migration is expected to vineyards in the middle of Iay with favorable spring and early surnver weather conditions. The species concerned in last year's outbreak were Erythroneura cores Say, E. tricincta Fitch, E. vulnerata Fitch, and the varieties of cores, viz: Vit Harr. and ziczac 7alsh.
The rose-chafer occurred in severe outbreak form in several sections of
Ontario during 1922, the greatest numbers being present in the sandy 7rape-growing areas of the Niagara Peninsula. It is not possible to state to what extent this
insect will be present in 1923 but winter conditions have not been unfavorable to its successful hibernation.
The forest tent caterpillar will doubtless again occur in outbreak form in
New Brunswick, particularly over the southeastern portions of the Province, judging 'rol the number of egg masses now present. Spring frosts in the past have had a
-y marked influence in controlling this insect and it is possible that this save influence will reoccur this year. The outbreak of the orchard tent caterpillar which assumed important proportions in 1922 in New Brunswick may also continue dui ing this coming season, particularly in the St, John River Valley.
INSECT PEST SURVEY BULLETIN
Vol. 3 April 1, 1923 No. 1
CEREAL AND FORAGE-CROP INSECTS
CHINCH BUG (Blissus leucopterus Say)
Illinois 71. P. Flint and assistants (March 20): From 97 to 9S per cent of
the bugs in winter quarters throughout southern and central Illinois
are still alive. The winter has been milder than the average and only from 2 to 3 per cent of the bugs died during the winter. 77e
expect from moderate to heavy infestations in about 65 counties this
Nebraska M. H. Swenk (Harch 10): The chinch bug seems at this time quite
threatening in the southern part of the tier counties along the
southern border of Nebraska, from Jefferson County 7'est at least to Furnas County, and in the northeastern corner of the State in Boyd
County, the latter being a southward extension of a serious infestation in southeastern South Dakota.
Kansas E. G. Kelly (January 29): Chinch bugs seem to be more abundant than
during average years. The temperatures have been above normal and
very dry. Burning of hibernating quarters is being practised throughout the State.
HESSIAN FLY (Phytophaga destructor Say)
Nebraska M. H. Swenk (March 10): In spite of the dry summer and fall in 1922
the Hessian fly seems to be still quite numerous in early-sown winter
wheat in some parts of eastern Nebraska. A field in Dodge County
examined in the middle of January contained on the average five
puparia of this insect to each wheat plant.
California C. M. Packard (March 7): The Hessian fly is present in considerable
numbers bordering San Francisco Bay, and in a region in the northern
part of Monterey and San Benito Counties and the southern part of
Santa Cruz County.
GREEN BUG (Toxoptera graminum Rond.)
Kansas S. J. Hunter (January 15): Mr. Beamer has completed a survey of the
southeastern tier of counties of Kansas and finds no evidence whatever of the green bugs; this region, owing to the unusual drought
last August, had no volunteer grain.
G. A. Dean and J. 71. McColloch: Mild winter and a backward spring
followed by excellent growing conditions have materially reduced the
amount of green bug in the western part of the State.
E. G. Kelly (January 20): A few adults were observed in Pontgoerory
and Labette Counties. They have already started to multiply.
Oklahoma J. R. Horton (January 23): Mr. H. H. "alkden has found three fields
infested with the green bug in small colonies in Noble County. The
largest of the injured spots measured 20 feet in diameter. No
evidence of parasites was found, but adults of Hicrrodaria conversens
were moderately numerous. (January 291: Thirty-six wheat and
volunteer oat fields were examined in Oklahoma, Logan, and Carter Counties. In Carter County no aphib of any kind were observed; in Oklahoma aphids were found but none of then were Tcxottera; in
Logan County one wheat field was infested with the green bug. This
field was very thoroughly infested and covered 20 acres.
Louisiana T. H. Jones (February 1): A few small areas in oat fields at the
Louisiana Experiment station showed damaged by the green bug on this
date, the oats being stunted in growth h and of a brownish color.
material determined by Dr. A. C. Baker.
Texas E. E. Russell (January 5): Found two heavily infested spots in heat
fields near Celina, Collin County. The first of these spots was
noted by the farmer on December 21; by January 5 this sot was entirely bare. Parasitized species wre quite plentiful. Syrphidae and Coccinellidae were also present. This field was lightly infested last year. Examinations of fields in northern Dallas, Collin, and Grayson Counties failed to show further infestations.h (January 2 the
T-o additional fields have been found to be infested withireen bur
in Grayson an.d nothern Collin Counties.
C. H. Gable (February 21): The winter has been exceptionally mild followed by a cold snap, t February 3 the temperature reaching 2 degrees at San Antonio. The past sunmrer w-as unusually hot and dry :,ith practically no volunteer growth of grain until late in the
fall. Toxoptera are in such numbers that it does not seem possible that they passed the surrer on native grass. The general 7reen busituation does not appear to be alarming, although there is sufficient infestation to cause serious injury should there be unusually
favorable weather conditions for the develop rent of the a-hids.
New Pexico R. L. 7iddleorcok (:arch 11): This insect has damaged about 10 nar
cent of the wheat in Dona Anna County. Parasites have not as yet
GRF!T PLAINS FILSE mlR"oR" (Elecdes oaca Say)
Nebraska M. H. Swenk (March 10): In Nance County early in November the areat
Plains false wireworm as injurious in the wheat fields, one farmer
suffering a loss of dn entire field that -as sown the last of August.
CORN EAROIREI (Heliothis obsoleta Fab.) Nebraska M. H. Swenk (March 10): In November our attention was drawn to a
cornfield in Scottsbluff County that had been extensively damaged
by a combination of the corn leaf aphid and the corn earorm during
ALFALFA PND CLOVER
CLOVER-LEAF "TFYIL (Hypera punctata Fab.) Illinois 7. P. Flint (:arch 20): The larvae of this species are more than
usually abundant in southern Illinois. Very little feeding has
been done as yet as the eaterhr has been cold.
LESSER CLOVEIR-LEAF "TEVIL (Phytonomus nizrirostris Fab .)
Illinois YJ. P. Flint (March 20): Adults of this species are tore abundant
than has ever been the c~se before throu-hout southern and northern
Illinois. IYe anticipate rather heavy damage from this insect during
the coming season.
LEAFFOPPER (Stictocenhala festina Say) New Mexico R. L. Middleorook (March 11): This insect is more plentiful than
usual in the Pecos and Rio Grande Valleys where it is attacking
Illinois S. C. Chandler (!'arch 17): Aphid e.-s are fairly abundant in southern
Illinois in a few: localities. As a -hole, they are not generally
ROSY APPLE APHID (Anurarhis roseus Baker) Connecticut Philip Garman (March): Many omws noted in New Haven County.
CODLINTG MOTH (Carpocapsa pcmonella L.) New Mexico R. L. Middlebrook (March 11): This insect was observed as some-.T;hat
abundant in Dona Anna County.
FRUIT-TREE LEAF-ROLLER (Cacoecia aravrospila Walk.)
Idaho D. B. 7helan (March 1): The following counties are known to be infested on this date: Bonner, Kootenai, Nez Perce, Adams, Gem, Canyon,
Twin Falls, and Madison.
SPRING CANKEROR,, (Paleacrita vernata Peck)
Eissouri A. F. Satterthwait (Harch 9): Moths were flying at extension lights
at Webster Groves until about 8 or 8:15 p. m. None seen after 8:15.
Elms are common here, but I do not know of cultivated apples close by. .est
Virginia L. 1A. Peairs (March 13): Adults, male and female, observed on and near
apple trees in considerable numbers.
APPLE MAGGOT (Rhagoletis pomonella "alsh)
Maine E. !. Patch (Iarch 15): One correspondent from Brunswick reports that
his apples were completely destroyed by this insect last year.
SAN JOSE SCALE (Asoidiotus oerniciosus Const.) Rhode
Island A.E. Stene (Yarch 15): This insect, though not found in large numbers,
is apparently on the increase in the northern section of Rhode Island.
Ohio T. H. Parks (Iarch 23): Several growers in Laurence County complained
that the San Jose scale is increasing in spite of careful spraying
with lime-sulphur solution. 7'e note that this scale is worst in an
orchard that did not receive the dormant spray in 1922. In this
orchard much fruit was ruined by the insect. Well sprayed orchards
also have some. Approximately 40 per cent of the over-intering scales
are now dead from natural causes other than parasites. Some parasitism
exists among the scales.
Illinois W. P. Flint (1:arch 20): Large percentage of unsprayed scale found
alive, 60 to 80 per cent. Many orchardists are changing from limesulphur to lubricating-oil emulsion sprays, as there is general dissatisfaction in the southern half of the State.
Idaho Chaude Wakeland (March 16): Very heavy infestations of the scale on
willow along the shores of the Snake River and on islands in the River.
Fruit orchards adjoining are repeatedly reinfested from this source.
Scale generally scattered in apple orchards at Emmett and Parma with here and there heavily encrusted trees in many of the best cared for
orchards. In Boise this pest occurs on currants, pear, cherry, aPTple,
Texas 1. C. Tanquary (March 17): Serious infestations of the San Jose scale
have been reported from :ilam, Sabine County.
New Mexico R. L. Yiddlebrook (March 6): Infestation by the San Jose scale seers
to be particularly heavy in the Pecos Valley and a sample wvith the twigs badly encrusted was received from San Juan County, where our
records indicate that heretofore it has been unknown. This county,
in the northwestern corner of the State, is very much isolated.
OYSTER-SHELL SCALE (Leridosaphes ulmni L.) Rhode
Island A. E. Stene (March): Reports accompanied by material have been received to the effect that entire trees are dying from the attack of
Nebraska M. H. Swenk (Varch 10): During the winter infestations of apple
orchards by the oyster-shell scale were reported.
ROUNDHEADED APPLE-TREE BORER (Saperda candida Fab.)
New Mexico R. L. Middlpbrook (March 11): The roundheaded apple-tree borer is
more numerous than usual in Dona Anna County. Another species lacking the stripes of candida is also occurring in great numbers in this
EUROPEAN RED VITE (Paratetranvychus oilosus Can. & Fanz.)
Connecticut Philip Garman (March): A great many eggs may be found in orchards in
New Haven County, where no injury was noticed last summer.
Maryland E. N. Cory (Yarch 27): Scattering infestations are to be found at
this time in the egg stage.
Ohio H. A. Gossard (March 22): The European red rite has been found distributed over rost of northern Ohio. Eggs of this species are very
abundant in apple orchards in Mahoning County west to Lucas County
and southward as far as Delaware County. It is probably distributed
all over the State.
CLOVER VITE (Bryobia praetiosa Koch)
Idaho Claude Wakeland (March 16): Very heavy infestations at Parma and
Roswell of eggs, indicating that injury may be expected this season.
PEACH BORER (Aeeria exitiosa Say)
New York G. 1. Codding (March 20): Practically all peach trees in Westchester
County are infested. Have taken from 8 to 10 borers from one tree.
Have never seen as many before.
SHOT-HOLE BORER (Scolytus rugulosus Ratz.)
New Mexico R. L. Middlebrook (March ll): This insect is present, but notserious,
in Dona Anna County.
PLt CURCULTO (Conotrachelus nenuphar Hbst.)
Georgia 0. I. Snapp (March 5): The first adult curculio was taken from a
peach tree early this morning while jarring. A few peach blossoms
just beginning to appear. Beetles will be appearing in numbers from
hibernation by the tire the trees are in full bloom.
Louisiana T. H. Jones (March 17): Observations made today on a few peach trees
on which abundant fruit has set; some fruit having reached a diameter
of 3/4 inch failed to show any evidence of the curculio.
PEACH-TTIG MOTH (Anarsia lineatella Zell.)
New Mexico R. L. IHiddlebhook (March 11): This insect has been observed in
Dona Anna County.
SAN JOSE SCALE (Aspidiotus perniciosus Comst.)
Georgia 0. I. Snapp (March 10): Homemade engine-oil emulsion has given
excellent control of this insect, and to date no injury to peach twigs has been discerned from the use of the 2 per cent emulsion.
Liquid line-sulphur has given only fair control, and the dry materials in many cases poor results. Cra 'lers have been found each
month during the winter, proving that full-grown females are living through the winter in the 5outh. These mature scales are difficult
to kill with the lime-sulphur. Had low temperatures occurred in
middle Georgia during the past several winters the full grown females,
in all probability, .:ould have been killed and scale breeding during
the winter prevented.
PECAN CASE BEARER (Acrobasis hebescella Hulst)
Texas A. I. Fabis (!.arch 14): Seasonal conditions are very favorable to the
production of a large pecan crop in the semiarid section of Texas.
Acrobasis hebescella hibernaculas are, however, unusually abundant
this winter, and unless parasites check the ravages of this pest the
pecan crop will be very short.
GRAPE CANE-BORER (Imohicerus bicaudatus Say)
Nebraska M. H. Swenk (Iarch 10): The grape cane-borer was found numerously
infesting grapevines in Furnas County late in December and in Douglas
County early in January.
CITRUS P'D SUBTROPICAL FRPUITS
COTTON APHID (Aphis gossnii Glov.)
California Roy E. Campbell (March 15): Reports from many localities indicate
that the aphids are just beginning to get numerous but no dar-e has
yet been done. Control measures, mostly dusting, have begun.
ORANGE BASKET 0 R (Platoeceticus gloverii Pack.)
Flarida Chas. 0. Hunt (1:arch 5): This insect is causing serious damage to
fruit and young growth in several large orange groves at Sebring and
Avon Park. In one large orange grove damage is estimated at not
less than 20 per cent.
CiRUS THRIPS (Scirtothrips citri Moulton) California A. J. Flebut (Iarch 19): Young individuals first found on March 14.
Found in considerable numbers in foothill groves in Lindsay District
and generally throughout the Citrus area. No feeding, and young
growth not affected. Prospects of a bad year, however.
SWEET POTATO WEEVIL (Cylas formicarius L.)
Louisiana T* H. Jones (January ll). "Mr- W. E. Anderson, entomologht
of the State board of agriculture, reports weevils as being very abundant in a storage warehouse at Stevensiale- later
investigations by Mr% C. E. Smith, U. S- Bureau of Entomology,
showed potatoes in this house to be of the 1921 crops The
weevils had, apparently, been introduced at Stevensdale
through infested material brought here from elsewhere and
had, apparently, been spread to various farms in that section
through this materialCABBAGE AYD KOHLRABI
HARLEQUIN CABBAGE BUG (MuVlzrantia histrionics Hahn)
Louisiana T. H. Jones (March 14)) Adults and a few eggs were observed
at Baton Rouge today. No nymphs have so far been seen.
FLEA-BEETIE: (Haltica litiZata Fall)
Louisiana T. H. Jones (February 14): Larvae of this beetle were noted
at Pmchatoula on strawberry plants ron this date. Most of the larvae were full grown and had entered the soil.
Adults were very abundant on strawberries at Independence
on this same date. These reports were made by Mr. Ca E.
SmithCOTTON RED-SPIDER (Tetranychus telarius L.)
Louisiana To H. Jones (March 17): Mr. C. E. Smith reports the redspider as being present in injurious numbers quite generally
in strawberry fields in TangipFahoa and Livingston Parishes
from the middle of February up to the present die.
PEA APHID (Illinroia ii Kalt.)
California E* 0. Essi (March 12): Indications are for a various pea
aphid year. Many fields of early market peas in the San
Francisco Bay region are already seriously infested.
R. E. Campbell (,March 19): Through the kindness of Mr- R.S.
Woglum, I am able to furnish you with the following localities
in which purple vetch has been la-aged by the peadaphid:
Santa Paula and Filmore in Ventura County; San Fernando ani
Alhambra in Los Angeles County, and LaHabra in Orange County.
Illinois C. C# Compton (March 20): Eeiworms were seriously daiyaging
cucumbers at Kankakee.
ONION THRIPS (Thri-Ps tabaci Ljn-I,)
California Re E- Can~pball (1-arch 1i, Severa-l reports have :een received
during the-.past nonth of dx->a,--e to young canteloupe vines under
their frost protectors in the Ierrperial Valley. Gro'vers are
combatin; it with nicotine last. No specin.ens have been seen,
so the identif icatlions have not been verified.
COISD:N FIELD CIC.17T (Grylhis assirrilis Fab.)
California To D. TUrbahns (Ma!_-rch 19): H3.-.vy black soil bout Hollister
heavily infested with criclkets, in all staqas, very recently
hatched to adults. The lettuce crop has been planted twice over
a 60-acre patch and after st~zrtin;- to 7rov7 was co!-pletely
destroyed each time by this cricket. It is no-i being planted
for the third tine. Applied poisoned bran rash on 60 actes.
Results are still quiestionabla- Ap-Dromirnately 200 aces are
known to be infeste;d.
New M-exico Re L, MiiUlebrook: Laafhoppars are very active -and so7.e corplaitt
is cor-in- in in regard to their activities on lettuce and late winter spinach. One of the 7Tost severe stores w-hich wea have had in this part of the country at this tie_ of year occurred
this week. The ter-peratur3 iropped to 150F- This froze
practically all the lettuce and other :,reen stuff which was
up but had no appreciable effect upon the hoppers.
S0U T HE R N F I ELD -l0?0 INS EC T S
BOLL 'TTVIL (JAnthono:-us 7ranis Boh.)
Louisiana Be R. Coad (Mxch 8): The rem:lar annual exarminations made by
the Delta Laboratory have just been cor~platei. These exaowinations are 7-ade to ascertain per(,enta~a of succs ssfu. hibernations of the
b'oll weevil and. indiicat34"that --%, 7:y expect this spring a weevil
emergence very L-uch less than last year -and probably slightly
less than in 1916 and 1921. The aeT.er-ence will just about attain
the ten-year a~era7_e.
Usually the wee vils die in about qqual numbers during each
of the winter Y-ionths but durin-- the past r-inter there was but
.little -rortal-ity until the February blizzard. This was
undoubtedly due to the abnormally warm weather preceding th-,
dudeen Jrop in enperatursIn the States .vestrcf tp.e -Kississippi River a rather "Spottel"
infestation may be e-- T-,ected, due to the cotton leafwor- eatinthe cotton leaves, defoliatin7 the plants in liL-ited areaz,
Alabama Wo E- Hinds (March 23): 7e are find p ;.-,a at iluburn. -a very hi h
percenta-e of boll weevils still alive in hi'----r-.ia*ion- 80 pr
cent on March 5.
CUTTIING ANT (.Atta tex, na Buck-)
Texas M.-C. Tanquary ( ,!-trch 17), Th3 cuttin- ant, Atta. texara, is
reported by Mir- R- R- RepjD ?rt, extension ento=lo7ist, as dcinlserious injury in several in c-: ntral sout-h-,,es tern
Texas from the region of Uvalle. an! Bexar Counties north-,,vard
I N S E C T S A T M A C K I N G G R E E Y H 0 U S E
AND 0 R 1TA-1,ENTAL -'PLA1 T
LL-IEGE (Diarthronoryia hypazaea
New Ham F. LoeN-)
pshire P-R-Lowry (February and rch): These mil-ess have done
considerable dariaE a t-- youn-7 plants in the A--ricultura1 Colle7e
--reenhouse at Durham di tactic and stuntin-7 many of the plants.
GRYFITHOLBE LFAF-TY7-R f rruqalis Hubn-)
Massachu- P. R. Lowry (February ani 1'-T,- ,rch)i This insect is reported
satts from Salem and Swa=pscol-t as doin7 serious da-a7e in :---Cenhouses.
TULIP IPHID (Anura-ohis tuli-pap Boyer)
California California 'Teekly News 'Letter, Vol.,---,, 0-5 (N,-;Lrch 10), 1--at-s
ap-:,arently the tu iD aphid r- c- ntly t3 ; n on 'ulir
arriving froir Holland. Sp-C4 L-:an-- ha 7-e -Deen -o
7::-.tshin.-t-)n for confirrat 41on oE ou r iI ntificationThis aphid lives on the '-ulb lbetveen the scales and its way well into the inLerior Specimens
infestation ---,ras h aavy, the aPhils on the orz:rbyonic
blossom bud. Their rarL7--er of feeding undoubtedly
normal growth and a,;:ar--ntly r,: sults in a misshaped blos,;c7even if.it does not entirely prevent its levalopment.
It is believed that further invzsti-ations -,,,ill show t"I-is pest quite qii3spraai in the State as it is haru t D
that with all the tulips brought into California
insect has not at so:-e time been introluceio In fact, check bulbs planted in 1921 were infested with aphid b1at not bein;
dognizant of the status of that particular aphid nothin further
was thought of it. These recent developments lend,,eight to the
belief that it was the tulip aphid.
FO REST AND SHADE TREE INSECTS
WESTERN PINE BEETLE (Denlroctonus brevicomis Lec.)
California A. J. Ja-enicke (Decencer, 1922): This beetle killed 33,000,000
board feet of timber in 1921 over an area of 430,000 acres in the Modoc National Forest. Plans are now bein- considered to
combat the pest on this area. The xz-ige amounts to over
J. IMiller (Dec-ber,1922): This beetle killed 100,000,000
board feet of timber over an area of about 300,000 actes
in the California National Forest lurinz 1921. The loss amounted
to at least $300,000 and vwas very conspicuous, whole hillsides
appearing red as though swept by fire.
Oregon A- J* Jaenicke (Decedater 1922): This insect killed 40,060,000
board feet of yellow pine value at $120,180 during 1921 on the
area surrouning the control project in southern Oregon (Klarath
and Lake Counties), coverin- 3,370, acres. This loss is not
much above ithe normal and approachts one-fourth of one rer cent
of the stand each year.
F. K. Keane (March 12): On the control project
this insect killed 91,961,000 board feet of limber in 1921,at
an estimated value of $275,883- This was determined by a
5 per cent cruise of the territory, -which included 1,250,000
acres of forested land. A cooperative control project is now
under way to curb this loss.
EUROPEA N ELM SCALE (Gossyparia spuria Modeer)
Nebraska M. H. Swenk (March 10): The elr. scale was injuring the trees
in the park of one of our central Tebraska cities.
Idaho Don B. Thelan (March 16): This insect is destroying many fine
trees in the City of Boise. Spraying with Tiscible oil is now
B0XEEDER-PLANT-BJG (Leptocoris trivittatus Say)
Nebraska M- E_ Swenk (Tarch 10): The boxelier plant-bug has been unusually nur-erous _Iurin, the winter of 1923-23 in houses.
Complaints be-ran tc be receivel eqrly in Dece::ber an! continue..
throu7-hout the winter, but becam-e ruch ore mu-erous Iurin;::
the past week or ten days, -vith the buss be-7inningr tc resume their
activity. We have, in fact~receivel more inquiries concerning
the boxelder plant-bu7 than concerning any other insect pest
durin- the perial coverecI by this report.
COTTONY TAPLH 13C.= (Pulviraria vitis L.)
New MJexico R-L-Mildlebrooh (March 6): !, letter wias received to1~ay from
hast LasVegas where the county a-Ient reports an extremely heavy
scale infestation. An examination reveals that it is the
cottony iraple scale and. is the only outbrea-k of any i-portance
that we have had in this State.
MISCLT_i'rnUS FE- D-T
COTTONYCUSHION', SC, L'Z (Icprva -purchasi Mask.)
Texas Mo C- Tanquary (March 17): The cottony-cushion scale has bceen
reported as bein- present in de structive numbers in the City of Galveston. A corresponle--nt sent specL-zons to this office and reports it as be.-in7 present on rataina ani bay tree and a
FALL C.APTF7R0I'i (A17,ophila14 -ro'--tari- Harr.)
New Jersey H* B. '7eiss (March 23): Thous~snl's of 7oths are appear2.nT- now
and depositing, e7-s on forest trees in the vicinity of MtPaul, near Men iham.
DIESQUT BORER (Schizax senex Lec.)
New Mexico R. L. Midlebrook (January 214): This insect is lovattatin;g cur
zesquite,-,vhich is the principr1 fuel wool of this re-ion.
IPALE_17AP=I D L ISH BORER (Eburc;:i _-,aiie-inata Say)
New Mexico R. L. Miillebrook (March 11): This insect vas observedI attackin:locuist trees in Dona Ana County.
INSECTS AFFECT ING DO ES TIC ANIMALS
BITING LOUSE OF CATTLE (L ojectes scalaris Nitzsch)
New Hamp- P. R. Lowry (March): This insect has been found on practically
shire every animal exam inei about Durham. Much more numerous than
BLOOD-SUCKING CATTLT LOUSE (Solenorotes cntllatus Enderlein)
New Hamp- P. R. Lo-vry (January 10): Found on a few cattle in the vicinity
shire of Durham.
New York R. W* Wells (February 15): Several heai of cows were heavily
infested with the blooi-suckin7 louse as well as the -ore
colnron H. iurvsterrus ani H. vituli.
STABLE FLY (Sto:oays calcitrans L-)
Texas F. C. Bishopp (Narch 26): "'ith the exception of a few short
periods during the coldest weather the stable fly was present and annoying stock throu-hoit the winter. Durin- warm periods
they were more abunLant and troublesome than usual for winter
HOUSE FLIES (usc a do7-estica L*)
Texas F. C- Bishopp (March 36): House flies have been active except
.for short periods iring the ?ntir3 winter. At tizcs they're
so numerous as to be bothersome in houses when screens were not
BLACK BLOWFLY (Phoria r3cina Meic.)
Texas F. C. Bishopp (March 26): Owin7 to the mill winter the black
blowfly was present in considerable numbers and much lamace was done by it through its attack on live stock, especially
following; dehorning. In one instance foliowin- iehorning of
a large Lriber of cattle 100 per cent infestation was experience
The freeze of March 19 (16oF- Dallas) appears not to have
greatly reduced the number of adtlse.
HORN FLY (Haeratobia irritans L.)
Texas F. C. Bishopp (March 26): The horn fly was present in small
numbers on cattle in this vicinity (Dallas) throughout the
winter, with the exception of short periods following the
heaviest freezes. This was unusual as the pest usually
disappears for a few months during the winter.
Texas F. C. Bishcpp (Iarch 26): Green:botttles were present about the
packir7 houses in D illas and Fort 7orth =st of the winter
thors-,h they were considerably outnua'.1--rei -.-y the black blowfly,
P- rp7inq.- Durin,7 ,arch thera was considerable increase in
OX 7L^,.RBLE (H-irc -r- --t I i r, -t tuT -, De Vi 11
New York 1 77 7 e 11 s (F a -.- rua r y l'-; F4-r- c d c -rr,4 pp a.-Ired in the backs
of cattle about February 15 in Or-,n7e, County.
Texas F, 0- Bishopp (1"' Irch 36): wore -ore a:tuniant in cattle
in north central Te- -is 3 the past winter than for sevE ral
years, the pr s:- nt Jn a nur-ber of -inL7als observe-1 ',ein-r
about ninety. Heel flies -.-,er3 :.ctive in north Texas throu-ho-ut
March thouirh it is 1cubtful if they in -r.?ater nu7.-,bers
than nornnal, partly no 11ou7ot to the v ?ry lovr temppratiixes
lurin.,, the month.
CA'1"IME SC,'-B (Pz-'orn-qtRS co--.1-7min Furst.)
California California weekly Nevs L, ttarVol-4, 11o-6 : (P7arch 17):Fcr1V-unate2y
we have no more cattle scab in our StateCPTTLE TICK (-':ir7: r0rJU1:; arnvlatus Say)
California California 7eek.ly Ye-vs Let-3r, Vol- 4, 'To-6 ("arch 17)t 71c
have been cleanin.7 house of cattl:- diseases in California for
a number of years anl it i rith a feelinl- of exultant pride that the cattl-L-en of this -rea-t, 6tat3 can -pcint to th fact
that Texas fev,-3r h,-.s -1,een entirely cleaned out.
BRO71T '-'Il,,T---'R TICK (D. r--acqntor njZ17 kl in- -atus Pack. Texas F- C- Bisho- 1
,pp ( .'Tarch 26):- Durin:j- the p st minter i any reports of the occurrence of thi6 species in injurious nu:----1ters on
horses and cattle in central anI w,?st Te: --s hav-? been receive-1.
The species -i )ounds thrcu,-- hout the T--.cuntain and plateau re:7icn
and eastw'-3,rd throu-7h -1-h: ru--ad esc-trprent to the plains. few
specimens r- ceived fro-,:, Dr. S- Valiez froaz, Chiapas, Tv,1exicc,
indicate that the spaci- s follo-vs t"he mountains to southern
SHEEP-i"-7 1') GO-",TS
SH= SC,'3 (Psororte-, cori--,unis Furst.)
California California Veekly Nevs Letter, Vol-4, No-6 (14arch 17): On
account of the presence of sheep scab infe-,tation, effective imeiiataly and until further notice ship---ents of sheep frcm
the State of Ore7gon into California for any purpose except
for i=..ediate slauh71ter? have been prohibDited, unless such
shipments are accorpanied bty an inspection certificates
COD O0N\ GOAT LOUSE (Tctecliax Nitzsch)
New Harp-P. Rs, Lowry (January 28): This insect was very co::-.on in -a flock
shire exaziined at Hookset, soire- ixfiiviiuals bein- very heavily infested.
BRO'7N DOG TICK (Rhipic, phalus sanruineulsLU
Texas F.. C- Bishopp (March 216): Thc b,7.ro-n lo- tick has been found
in certain lo-- and cat hos-:itals- This to,-ether w-~ith the
finding of a few. infestations on local -logs and the )resencc
of the species7 in all sta-es indicate th-at it has b~ecoz.e
fairly well esta'tlishei'.
CHICKET =LJ LOUSE (Liurus hpt!r-ahu;Ntsh
New Har-p- P- R. Lowvry (March): Generally present but not as nuzerous
shire as A.t this tiLu.e list year.POULTRY '1TE (Dr-aVSSUZ a~jinae Reli)
New Hax-p- P. R- Lowiry (March): These insects have b-een found ctt fowls
shire in the daytimie, of ten in consi 1erable nuz-bers, at both Durhaz.
LARGE 11E,'D LOUSE (V enonnb~rau Pia7-et)
New Harap- P* Rw Lowry (March): co on in all flock's exa7:inel at Dulura,
shire birds ze-st heavily infested appearin7 unthrifty.
FEATHER MITE (Li-ponvssus silviar=i Can, & Fahz.)
United F. C-~ Bishopp and assistants (M1arch 26): On account of the States & seriousness of the fe7.ather -rite as a poultry pest it rnay be' Canad~a well to sux=_arize th3iclca~lities in which it has 'been fcun..A
It should be borne in zi._ni th,,t rost of these infestations
occurred in sin le floJck, and eralaication has been accorplished.
The localities are ais .followsz: Beltsvilie, Mi..; Harvel, Ill.; Plattsbur;, NY_; Laayatte, In2.-; Bloourfield, Ind..; Ithaca,
N.-Y.; Oxf or., Ohio) and Port Dover, Ontario.
Now JerseyF. C- Bishopp (March 26): The feather -ite of chiekgs has been
found to exist in -a flock in Closter. The infestation attained
considerable Proportions before the raatter was reported to the
New Jersey Experiment Station, 'but throu,7h ener!-etic cfontrcl
measures the pest seairns to have been eralicated..
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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