Citation
Conversion tables and equivalents for use in work relating to insect control

Material Information

Title:
Conversion tables and equivalents for use in work relating to insect control
Creator:
Nelson, R. H
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publisher:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
25 p. : 27 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Weights and measures ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Control ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 25).
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"November 1940."
General Note:
"E-517."
Statement of Responsibility:
by R.H. Nelson.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
030271295 ( ALEPH )
778788248 ( OCLC )

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Sk INRARY
TATE PLANE BOAYD






E-517 5 aN November 1940
\\ DEPARTMENT
AGRICULTURE
BUREAU OF
ENTOMOLOGY AND
PLANT QUARANTINE
CONVERSION TABLES AND EQUIVALENTS FOR USE
IN WORK RELATING TO INSECT CONTROL
; By R. H. Nelson, Division of Truck Crop
and Garden Insect Investigations
Contents
Page
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rc BROCE LLOS WOLGIL.... csc cccecccntecceseceennerees Rc dei ois gia ve ad cuneee dues cae 3
a PRE et ely) AVOATAUPOLS WEUGNE.....ccccc..ccscccscsscsecssecnonsesescossonsnenrsvsateceesvegs 3
PereneemOn WOLSTL 1 ENO FOUL SYSTEMS... i... cei csscseesesvenedeeseveveusnsceseuneneses 4
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aan TUNE SUG a Uva cca cig ulss cv esi os'euie cnn adjoins visine Vayu aneosvpoeedeenaececeesceavoneunsadereens 5
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wen tS Ol Capacadty in the three SYSTOMS.............. cess eeceeseeeseneneeenenenseanes 6
MvcivscOr Geaspooniful, tablespoonful, And CUP..............cseccserssecessensennees a
TESTU CSET ences a fee ese o feed vena ciihc cso ss snes tesuvecviareesyeressacsestensevsvesverseantennenesadesing €
a TO TT STUE USO oo, gece ssc dn concen <4 uns saievcdeevcnsctinersssccvsetvsccssnscucectseccustecenesoneanes Mi
INIT SEL SUING Wy panos oc -s bue ne ose cn descniyes cach seb evocnesyenauswnevscnesarerassesscpecseearsannaneres ih
0 A rhe ILLES gc es vices vu so due bas dyes tv dane ve cee veo sehowveredssenctaerdensvstoscccapnsseestonerne 8
Pictu SwOLeGapaca ry Jn the three SYSTEMS...............:cesccncnnsesecerneenseteresaees 8
NN AY ds seas ncleNssteun yy enter stnedevessenevaneuarcurnectbercnssessraneusnseussavedsees 9
ee yaaa we acesdusasasastnwssecesv st grey ir eennthiereeesescapsenvancerevenceunasnetoceesans 9
TON ST tet ae ae ities ual dis coeeveuurs Gp woven en's vbeechennn sxx tdaraetvigheassaseaveneveseones 2
I SE TIE MgB leg oi

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n= NUN oo Ca oo co cv acre os cylens du.p noon wv th de-tngos + censaceenssnsansancswag ts AL
ae cece rihccwa ences vstcsecrcaussersdveccswsinstscssonevssasdversseonens anes nf
a YIN esc nev esp cecons+cccesierotennsesssengsen esse ondsarascceccasescavaupasenees i}

R@Uivearomts Of ArCd In CNS Three SYSTEMS.............ccsecssseeene Eich etvarciiacinat pelea i





Volume (cubic Meageu Pre i tats tee tee eM oo... ccccses cece ee eseoscungeen tial 12:

United States syst Omega te ae ee a I te cccdcakeasapesessecescanccnscrenceueel 1
Metric: SYS COD, . 5c i cc cc len. eee nee tea ee a Io ccc cana vseucnecncersavenseuneceuvtauas 12
Imperial Systemic. c.. ciccceccce tee eee eee eRe so gaia accasevccescescecurseanesrccsnestans 12
Equivalents Of VOLUME, AM TMS TEUTOS SV eM icccc ect cccws cece ne cece ccceceneecescracnuenseerenas 12
Dilutions Of LNSOCT LGR rec reper mete ee ciec RIG tte eta ea ceca eae cons casuncerseevecgyerstane Le
Equivalent quantities of insecticidal material for various
Quantities OF Wate rin, ener eee: ee meee Rie cans csnscous cess cedsansvaveanin 12
Dilutions of insecticides in parts by weight and by liquid measure........ or
Quantity of insecticide on basis of active ingredient. ............ccccceecseeseneeees 20
Percentage of active ingredient when insecticide is diluted by parts.... 2l
Equivalent dilutions of active ingredient in parts and percentages........ al
Conversion of small-scale dosages to large-scale quantities................:::.0 oe
Dusts and soil inSe@CtLOLAS Serer cercere cies eee eee eens eer eM enna as heap en aacsxocnneny 22
Fumi gants..............:sccceneeeocnsasatnone tan dames ee dle eee ME ander LA ely ya =< 4 25
WMiscel Laneous. ....::...is.,scsn:2 eee sad CN ct RAE et ea MES Alas lad PAROS cen Sabin vy ovis nan xtNNR 24
Capacity of sprayer. tanlis. ic. icclec cep ee neta aetna me Rasen sia mestmeS nia nANg ko .k-sya te vsss 24
Dilutions of alcohol and Other Diep neers 24
Temperature CONVETSION....0iss..cevsssaseneenien estat enna RiameS Ua eet SRM Mesa nivas Ciantaxds Literature CONSULTEL......cccccceccesessynts chelate eOete asinine tee seo cats eee Gay Wee tk 290
INTRODUCTION

In the literature on economic entomology the weights and measures
used in expressing insecticide dilutions, dosages, and the like may be in
one or more of three systems--the United States, the imperial (British),
and the metric. Since information on the relationships and equivalents
in these systems is not always readily available to entomologists in the
field, it has been assembled here for their benefit. The data are taken
principally from publications of the National Bureau of Standards (2, 3)
and the International Critical Tables (4). A comparative discussion of
United States and British units, by Bearce (1), of the National Bureau
of Standards, was also consulted.

Tables for dilutions of insecticides, methods of calculating dilu—
tions on the basis of active ingredients, and certain other miscellaneous
information useful to entomologists working with insecticides have also
been included.

In the tables of equivalents the values shown are correct to the
decimal place given, but in most cases are not to be taken as exact. They
are, however, carried out far enough so that the individual worker may round
out at the decimal place best suited for his equipment and the conditions
of his experiment with a minimum of error.

The abbreviations used are those recognized in the January 1939
edition of the United States Government Printing Office Style Manual (6).







Sone
WEIGHT TABLES

United States Avoirdupois Weight

27 11/32 grains (gr.) = 1 dram (dr.)
16 drams = 1 ounce (0oz.)
16 ounces = 1 pound (1b.) = 7,000 grains
100 pounds — 1 hundredweight (cwt.)
2,000 pounds — 1 short ton
2,240 pounds = 1 long ton

Metric Weight

1,000 micrograms 1 milligram (mg. )
1,000 milligrams - 1 gram (gm.)
1,000 grams 1 kilogram (kg.)
1,000 kilograms 1 metric ton

tt

\\

{|

Apothecaries' Weight

20 grains (er. ) = 1 scruple (s.)

3 scruples — 1 dram (dr.)

8 drams = 1 ounce (0z.)

12 ounces = 1 pound (1b.) = 5,760 grains

Although not commonly used in entomological work, the system of
apothecaries' weight is included for purposes of comparison. In all other
parts of this paper the terms "dram," "ounce," and "pound" refer to avoir—
dupois weight unless otherwise specified.

Imperial (British) Avoirdupois Weight

ei li/s2 grains = 1 dram
16 drams — 1 ounce
16 ounces = 1 pound = 7,000 grains
14 pounds = 1 stone-
8 stone } ;
112 pounds) — 1 hundredweight
20 hundredweight )
2,240 pounds j= 1 ton

The imperial avoirdupois units, although differing in definition,
are for practical purposes equal to the United States units of the same
name. The same conversion values may be used with either. This table is
included to show certain variations in terminology between this system and
that commonly used in the United States.



-4- a
Equivalents of Weight of the Four Systems
Avoirdupois,

United States Metric Apothecaries'
and imperial :



1 grain 64.7989 milligrams i grain

1_ dram L785 milligrams 0.4557 dram
1.77185 grams

1 _ ounce 28.3495 grams 0.9115 ounce



1 pound 453.59 grams 1.21528 pounds
0.45359 kilogram



0.015432 grain 1 milligram 0.015432 grain



15.432 grains 15.432 grains
0.56438 dram 1 gram 0.2572 dram

0.03527 ounce 0.03215 ounce

35.2740 ounces 1 kilogram 52.1507 ounces
2.2046 pounds 2.6792 pounds

0.7314 dram 1,295..98 milligrams 1 _scruple
1.29598 grams

2.19429 drams 3.8879 grams 1 dram

Phe ounces $1.10548 grams 1 ounce

0.8229 pound 373.24 grams 1 pound

0.57324 kilogram









Sey.
CAPACITY TABLES (LIQUID)

United States Liquid Measure

Seourcnarams (fl. dr.) = L fluid ounce (fl. oz.)

4 fluid ounces = er)

4 gills = pint (pt..)

= pPInts =- 1 quart (qt.)

4 quarts = 1 gallon (gal.) = 231 cubic inches

At maximum density, 39.164° F. (3.98° C.), a gallon of pure water
weighs 8.345 pounds; at 59° F. (15° C.) the weight is 8.338 pounds.

P7000 milliliters {ml.)Â¥/= 1 liter (1.) = 1,000.027 cubic
centimeters
HO liters - 1 dekaliter (dkl.)
100 liters = 1 hectoliter (hl.)
1,000 liters =i katoliter (kl.)

el

Imperial Capacity Measure

8 fluid drams = 1 fluid ounce

5 fluid ounces = 1 gill

4 gills = 1 pint

2 pints = 1 quart

4 quarts = 1 gallon = 277.42 cubic inches

An imperial gallon of pure water weighs 10 pounds at 62° F. (16.67° C.)

The units of the imperial system for liquid measure have the same
names as those used in the United States system. In no case, however, are
they equal. The imperial gallon, quart, and pint are about 20 percent
larger than the United States units of the same name, whereas the imperial
fluid dram and fluid ounce are about 4 percent smaller than homonymous
United States units. :

1/ The term "cubic centimeter (cc. or cm.3)" has been commonly used
in chemical and entomological literature instead of "milliliter (ml.)."
Technically this is not correct, since the cubic centimeter is a measure of
volume, not of capacity. Their relationship is: 1 milliliter = 1.000027
cubic centimeters. For practical purposes, however, they may be regarded
as equal in the same sense as 1 gallon equals 231 cubic inches.



f
» :
ie
— eee pa!



Equivalents of Capacity in the Three Systems os
United States Metric _ Imperial
1 fluid dram 5.6966 milliliters 1.0408 fluid drams
1 fluid ounce 29:5729 milliliters 1.0408 fluid ounces
a eal T1S..2¢r milliliters 0,83268 gill

0.118292 liter

1 pint ATS 6 | milliliters 0.83268 pint
0). 473167. Laer,

1 quart 946.33 milliliters 0.83268 quart
0.94635 liter

1 gallon 3 -1eo saa milliliters 0.83268 gallon
Sb lodoe ee Lters







0.270518 fluid dram ]) mpita tar ter 0.28157 fluid dram
270.518 fluid drams ) (281.57 fluid drams
35.8147 fluid ounces) 1 liter - ( 35.20 fluid ounces
1.0567 quarts’ ) ( 0.880 quart
0,264178 gallon ) ( 0.2200 gallon
2.64178 gallons 1 dekaliter 2.200 gallons
26.4178 gallons 1 hectoliter 22.00 gallons
264.178 gallons ]_ kiloiiter 2L9:98 gallons
0.96075 fluid dram 3.5515 milliliters 1 fluid dram
0.96075 fluid ounce 28,412 milliliters 1 fluid ounce
1.20094 gills 142.06 milliliters Loris,
0.14206 liter
1.20094 pints 568.245 milliliters 1 pint
0.568245 liter
1.20094 quarts 1,136.49 milliliters 1 quart
1.13649 liters
1.20094 gallons 4,545.96 milliliters 1 gallon

4.54596 liters












oF

Equivalents for Teaspoonful, Tablespoonful, and Cup

A measuring cup and measuring spoons, the latter obtainable in nests
of several sizes, are useful in making dilutions under practical conditions
where great accuracy is not required. The values given below are also useful
in transposing the precise measurements of the laboratory into commonly
used and understood units when an insecticide is recommended to dooryard
gardeners. The values as given are those recognized by the Bureau of
Standards.

5 teaspoonfuls = 1 tablespoonful
2 tablespoonfuls = 1 fluid ounce
16 tablespoonfuls) = 1 cup

8 fluid ounces )

teaspoonfuls)
fluid ounce ) = 1 tablespoonful
fluid drams )
milliliters )

be
O1 Bxvlrk Ww

re
Orn W O

tablespoonfuls)
gills )
pint ) = i cup
fluid ounces )
go? milliliters )

L pint )
16 fluid ounces) = 2 cups
A73 milliliters )
CAPACITY TABLES (DRY)
United States Dry Measure
2 pants (pt.) = 1 quart (qt.)

8 quarts 1 peck (pk. )
4 pecks = 1 bushel (bu.) = 2,150.42 cubic inches

\

In the United States system the pint and quart of dry measure are
about 16 percent larger than the units of the same name used in liquid
measure. Wherever these unit names are used in this paper, other than in
this section, they refer to liquid measure.

Metric Capacity Measure

In the metric system both dry and liquid capacity are measured by
ime liter and its secondary units. See Capacity Tables (Liquid), p. 5.



eS

Imperial Capacity Measure

2 pints =1 quart
8 quarts = 1 peck
4 pecks = 1 bushel = 2,219.34 cubic inches

|

The pint and quart of the imperial system are the same for both liquid
and dry measure. The imperial gallon may also be used as a unit of dry
measure. The pint and quart of the United States dry measure are approxi-
mately 3 percent smaller than the imperial units of the same name. The
Unitec States bushel is the same as the Winchester bushel, sometimes men—
tioned in publications from the British Empire.

Equivalents of Capacity in the Three Systems





United States Metric Imperial
1 pint 550.60 milliliter 0.96895 pint
0.55060 liter
1 _guart 1.10120 liters 0.96895 quart
1 peck 8.810 liters 0.96895 peck
0.8810 dekaliter
1_ bushel 395.258 liters 0.96895 bushel
3.5238 dekaliters
0.35238 hectoliters
1.816 pints 1. ator 1.760 pints
0.908 quart 0.880 quart
0.1135 peck 0.110 peck
1.135 pecks 1 dekaliter 2.0 pecks
0.28378 bushel 0.275 bushel
2.8378 bushels l_hectoliter eaerve bushels
1.03205 pints 568.245 milliliters 1 pint
0.568245 liter
1.03205 quarts 1.13649 liters 1 quart
1.035205 pecks 95092 liters 1_peck
0.9092 dekaliter
1.03205 bushels 36.368 liters 1 _ bushel
3.6368 dekaliters
0.36368 hectoliter







a
LINEAR-MEASURE TABLES

United States System





jan anches (in.) = 1 foot (ft.)

5 feet =.l yard (vd.)
53 yards) = 1 rod (rd.)
165 feet )
320 rods )
1,760 yards) = 1 mile

5,280 feet )

Metric System



micron 2
millimeter (mm. )
centimeter (cm.)

1,000 millimicrons 1 -— 1
al
i
1 decimeter (dm. )
1
I
li
if

‘cr 1,000 microns =
10 millimeters
10 centimeters
10 decimeters
10 meters

10 dekameters
10 hectometers =

\|

meter (m.)

dekameter (dkm. )
hectometer (hm. )
kilometer (km. )

Imperial System




Except for small differences in standards, this system is the same
as that used in the United States and the same conversion values may be
used.

1 Abbreviation is "m" followed by the Greek letter "mu."
2 Abbreviation is the Greek letter "mu."



United States and



= 10 =

Equivalents of Length is the Three Systems



Imperial Metric
25.4 millimeters
i inch 2.04 centimeters
30.48 centimeters

J ofook 3.048 decimeters

9.144 decimeters
i_yard 0.9144 meter

5.029 meters
rod 0.5029 dekameter



T6095) meters

1 mile 1.60935 kilometers
0.03937 inch 1 millimeter
OFS937 anch 1 centimeter

oor inches
0.328 foot 1 decimeter

39.357 inches

1.0936 yards 1 meter
1.98838 rods 1 dekameter
19.8838 rods l hectometer

198.838 rods
0.62137 mile 1 kilometer







ore
AREA-MEASUREMENT TABLES

United States System



144 square inches (sq. in.) = 1 square foot (sq. ft.)
square feet = 1 square yard (sq. yd.)
304 square yards = 1 square rod (sq. rd.)
43,560 square feet |
4,840 square yards) = 1 acre
160 square rods )
Metric System
100 square millimeters (mm. 2) 1 square centimetei (cm. 2)
100 square centimeters = 1 square decimeter (dm. 2)
100 square decimeters = 1 square meter (m, 2)
100 square meters = 1 are (a.)
100 ares = 1 hectare (ha. )
Imperial System

Except for slight differences in standards this is the same as the

- United States system for area measurement, and the two are combined in the

following table:

















1_ square inch
1 square foot

1 square yard

1 _ square rod

l_acre

0.00155 square

0.155 square
15.5 square
0.1076 square
1.1960 square
5.9537 square

2.471



acres

Equivalents of Area in the Three Systems

a eee

_ United States and Imperial

inch
inch

inches
foot

yards

rods





Metric
6.452 Square centimeters
9.29035 square cecimeters
0.86361 square meter
20nno square meters -
Usa0ro are
0.40469 hectare

l_ square centimeter

1_ square decimeter
1 _ square meter
1_are

1 hectare



= oe
VOLUME (CUBIC MEASURE) TABLES
United States System

1,728 cubic inches (cu. in.) = 1 cubic foot (cu. ft.)
27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard (cu. yd.)

Metric System



1,000 cubic millimeters (mn. 3) 1 cubic centimeter (cc. or cm. 3)
1,000 cubic centimeters = 1 cubic decimeter (dm. 3)
1,000 cubic decimeters 1 cubic meter (m. 3)

\|

Imperial System

This is the same as the United States system except for small dif-
ferences in standards, and the two are combined in the following table:

Equivalents of Volume in the Three Systems

United States and Imperial Metric
i cubic ineh 16559 cubic centimeters
iL cubic foot 28.317 cubic decimeters
1 _ cubic yard 0.7646 cubic meter
0.06)" (cubie 2nch 1 cubic centimeter

61.023 cubic inches

0.0353 cubic foot 1 cubic decimeter
1.308 cubic yards 1 cubic meter

DILUTIONS OF INSECTICIDES

Equivalent Quantities of Insecticidal Material

—- Ss— —— see

Dry material.--The quantity of powdered insecticide recommended for
use against a given insect is usually stated in pounds per 50 or 100 gallons
of water. Tables 1 and 2 show the quantities necessary for making the same
dilutions in smaller quantities of water as are made with 1 to 10 pounds,
inclusive, in 100 gallons. It will be noted in table 1 that the number of
pounds per 100 gallons is the same as the number of ounces per 64 gallons,
and that the same is true for 50 and 34 gallons. For 2% gallons, which is a
convenient amount of spray solution for use in most knapsack sprayers, the
quantities are given in both ounces and grams to one decimal place.





ee A



In table 2, for quantities of water of 1 gallon or more, the nearest
’correct value at one decimal place is given. For values of less than 1
pound the equivalent quantities are given in grams directly beneath the
United States values. The gram being of smaller mass than the dram and the
ounce, the metric values are, in most cases, more nearly correct than the
avoirdupois values. The quantities to be used in 1 quart and 1 liter of
water are given only in metric units and are carried out to three places,
Since they will presumably be used for small-scale, precise experiments.

Table 1.~-Equivalent quantities of dry insecticidal material
for certain aliquots of 100 gallons of water

——— —— ————

i nn a ne



100 50 25 124 4 3 24

gal, gal, gal, gal. gal, gal. gal.
ie Lb: * Lb. 4 #0Z; B OZ. LOZ: 5 OZ. 0.4 oz.
11.3 gm
eo Lb © lb 8! .0Z 4 oz 2.0Z ie) az Or erez
ge.7 gm
3 lb 13 1b L222 6s 07 omOZ 15 oz. leceOgn
- 54.0 gm.
4 1b By LD Pie ib 8. 0Z 4 oz Pe LOZ 1.6.02
A5.4 gm.
5 lb. 24 Ib. 14 lb. 10 oz. Brom.) #22 oz: 2.0 oz.
56.7 gm
6 lb ® ,1b 14 1b 2) Le 6.02z 3 OZ 2.4 OZ
68.0 gm
7 1b 31 1b 1 ib, 14 oz. T oz. 3} oz. 2.8 o2.
79.4 gm.
. 8 lb 4 lb 2 1b cL ks 8 oz 4 oz 512/62
| 90.7 gm.
ez Lb 14 1b 9 oz 4+ 0Z 3.6 0Zz
102.1 gm.
e> Lb. 13 lb. 10 OZ. > OZ, 4.0 oz.

115.4 gm.











fable 2.—Equivalent quantities of dry insecticidal material for various quantities of water.

Quantity of material for indicated quantity of water

ro os. foo en] wen. | wen. [ore fron. [soa [ver [ser [em [ron | rene} ruse

6.4 OZe

4.8 oz.



3.2 OZ.

181.4 gn. 136.1 gn. 90.7 ga.

12.8 oz. 9.6 oz. 6.4 oz.
362.9 gn. 272.2 gm. 181.4 gm.

1 1b. 3.20z.] 14.4 oz. 9.6 oz.
408.2 gn. 272.2 gm.

1 10.9.6 oz.] 1 1b.3.202. |12.8 oz.
362.9 gm.

J 2 1b. 1 1b.8 oz. {1 1d.

2 1v.6.4oz.

2 1b.12.80z.

3 1b.3.202.

3 1v.9.602.

4 1b.

1 1b.12.80z.

2 1b. 1.602.

2 1b. 6.4oz.

2 1b.11.202.

3 1d.

1 1b.3.20z.

1 1v.6.4oz.

1 1v.9.60z.

1 1b.12.802.

2 lb.





= he

Liquid material.--Tables 3 and 4 have been worked out in a manner
‘similar to tables 1 and 2 but are in fluid measure for use with liquid
insecticides, wetting agents, and the like. The relationship of pounds and
ounces noted for table 1 holds for pints and fluid ounces in table 3.
Quantities for 23 gallons are given in both United States and metric unit
to one decimal place.

In table 4 an equivalent value in fluid ounces is given for the
fractional pint values. For quantities of less than 1 pint equivalent

quantities in milliliters are given for the fluid-ounce and fluid-—dram
values.

Table 3.--Equivalent quantities of liquid insecticidal material for
certain aliquots of 100 gallons of water

Quantities of material for indicated quantities of water





100 50 25 123 64 34 22
gal. gal. gal. gal. gal. gal. gal.
+ pt. si pt. mie bab OZ Lie PLOZ. Seb lnO 2. Fivbl sOZ. 0.2) fies
4 fl.oz. 3, Sinks
es 2 a $e, ebb Peete OZ. eeloee ~ Ll) tl.o0m. + fl.oz. 0:4 fl.oz.
6 | £1.02. Lissend.
Sept. el) pitt. mrivoze a.°4 tl.0z. a rhoz.24 Boz. 0;8 £1 7o2e
“at. 2027 Meh,
a. pt. 13 pt. ie Ll0Zz. GO fl Oa, woe thsoz.. Ls w1foz. 142 Pore
13 qt. 35.5.ml
pt. e.| pu Lo iph. Pal. O2.. &, 11,02. 8 22 Flog. 1. S tiseme
eo Gt. ta at. ATS i
6 pt 2% pt 14 pt LGi fl.oz, ©, fl.oz. 2b PB.ce 2.0 fl.oz
25 qt 14 qt 59.1 ml.
6 pt ot pu. 13 pt. lgeblnga, wo Thon. 4S) af l.az. e.4 Thee.
3 qt 13 qt. Tl).0 aid.
13-pt Mf bag oT Pon S4-f1l vez. 2.8 fl.oz.
82.3 Wk.
a. Bo. i pt. Oo {[F.ez.< 4 Tl.oz. Sn Ti.Ga
TA iG 94.6 ml
LIBRARY

STATE PLANT





—_—

a

$ pt.

*

pt.

qt.

qt

qt.

qt

qt.

qt

fable 4.—Equivalent quantities of liquid insecticidal material for various quantities of water.

ot.
4 fl.oz.

i pt.

8 fl.oz.

1 pt.

14 pt.

2 pt.
1 qt.

3 pt.
qt.

3 pt.
1s at.

pt.
qt.
y pt.
2 qt.

3.2 fl.oz.
94.6 ml.

6.4 fl.oz.
189.3 ml.

12.8fl.oz.
378.5 ml.

1.2 pt.
19.2 fl.

1.6 pt.
25.6fl.oz.

2 pt.
2.4 pt.
38.4fl.oz.

2.8 pt.
4k. 8fl.oz.

3.2 pt.
51.2fl.oz.

Quantities of material for indicated quantities of water

2.4 fl.oz.
71.0 ml.

4.8 fl.oz.
141.9 ml.

9.6 fl.oz.
283.9 ml.

14.491. 02,
425.8 ml.

1.2 pt.
19.2fl.os.

1 pt.

1.8 pt.
28.8f1.02.

21 pt.
33.6fl.oz.

2.4 pt.
38.4fl.oz.

fe

1.6 fl.oz.
47.3 ml.

3.2 fl.oz.
94.6 nl.

6.4 fl.oz.
189.3 ml.

9.6 fl.oz.
283.9 ml.

12.8fl.oz.
378.5 ml.

1 pt.
1.2 pt.
19.2fl.oz.

1.4 pt.
22.4fl.oz.

1.6 pt.
25.6fl.oz.

6.4 fl.ar.
23.7 mil.

1.6 fl.oz.
47.3 ml.

3.2 fl.oz.
94.6 ml.

4.8 fl.oz.
141.9 ml.

6.4 fl.oz.
189.3 ml.

$ pt.
8 fl.oz.

9.6 fl.oz.
283.9 ml.

11.2fl.oz.
331.2 ml.

12.8fl.oz.
378.5 ml.



3.2 fl.dr.
11.8 ml.

6.4 fl.ar.
23.7 ml.

1.6 fl.oz.
47.3 ml.

2.4 fl.oz.
71.0 ml.

3-2 fl.oz.
94.6 ml.

4 fl.oz.
118.3 mi.

4.8fl.0z.
141.9 ml.

5.6fl.os.
165.6 ml.

6.4f1.02.
189.3 ml.

V9) Frans
Tel mi.

3.8 fl.dr.
14.2 nl.

7.7 fl.ar.
28.4 ml.

1.4 fl.oz.
42.6 ml.

1.9 fl.oz.
56.8 ml.

2.4 fl.oz.
71.0 ml.

2.9fl.oz.
85.2 ml.

304 fl.oz.

1.3 fl.dr.
4.7 ml.
2.6 fl.ar.
9.5 mi.
5.1 fl.dr.
18.9 ml.

7-7 fl.dr.
28.4 ml.

1.3 fl.oz.
37-9 ml.

1.6 fl.oz.
47.3 ml

1.9 fl.oz.
56.8 ml.

2.2ef1.086
66.2 ml.

2.6fl.oz.
75-7 ml.

fre |



2.366m1.

3.549m1

4, 732ml.

5.915ml.

7.097ml.

8.280 ml

0.625

1.250ml.

-500m1.

3.750m1.

5.000ml.

6.250m1.

7-500m1.

8.750ml.

10,







lara cas

Dilution of Insecticides in Parts by Weight
and by Liguid Measure

The quantities of dry insecticidal material giving certain dilutions
by weight in various quantities of water are given in table 5. In calculat-
ing these quantities the weight of 1 gallon of water was considered as
8.545 pounds, or 3,785.5 grams. Quantities of less than 1 pound are given
in both ounces and grams.

Table 6 contains similar data worked out in liquid measure for certain
dilutions of liquid insecticides.

In both tables the quantities to be used in 1 gallon or more are
calculated to the nearest correct value at one decimal place. For 1 quart
and 1 liter these values are carried out to three places.







Table 5.--Quantities of dry insecticidal materiale giving certain dilutions in parts by weight in various quantities of water.

11.0 oz. |8

2.8 oz.

12.5 oz.

1.4 oz.

10.7 oz.

6.3 oz.

lb. 0.7 oz.

13.4 oz.
378.5 em.

11.1 os.
315.4 gn.

8.3 oz.
236.6 gm.

6.7 oz.
189.3 gm.

Wetcht of inse

lb. 5.5 0o2-
1b. 2.8 oz.
1b. 1.4 oz.
1b.

lb. 0.7 oz.

13.4 oz.
378.5 ga.

11.1 os.
315.4 gm.

8.3 oz.
236.6 gm.

6.7 oz.
189.3 gm.

5.6 oz.
157-7 gm.

4.2 oz.
118.3 gm.

3.3 OZ.
94.6 gm.

4 1b. 2.8 oz.

2 ld. 1.4 oz.

1 lb. 0.7 oz

11.1 os.
315.4 gn.

8.2 oz.

236.6 gm.

6.7 oz.
189.3 gm.

5.6 oz
157.7 gn.

4.2 oz.
118.3 gn.

33 0%

94.6 gm.

2.2 oz.
78.9 gn.

2.1 OZ.
59.1 gm.

1.7 og.
47.3 gm.

2 lb. 8.0 oz.

1 1b. 4.0 oz.

10.0 oz.
283.9 gn.

6.7 oz.
189.3 gn.

5.0 oz.
141.9 gn.

4.0 oz.
113.6 Qe

3.3 oz.
94.6 em.

2.5 oz.
71.0 gn.

2.0 oz.
56.8 em.

1.7 02.
47.3 gm.

1.3 OZ.
35-5 em.

1.0 oz.
28.4 gm.

cticide in indicated quantity of water

eo

Lp. 1057-07.

13.4 oz.
378.5 gm.

6.7 oz.
189.3 gn.

4.5 oz.
126.2 gm.

3.3 o-
94.6 gm.

2.7 oz.
15-7 gi.

2.2 02.
63.1 en.

1.7 oz.
47.3 em.
1.3 oz.
37.9 gm.

1.1 of.
31.5 gn.

13.4 ar.
23.7 gm.

10.7 dr.
18.9 gm.

13.4 oz.
378.5 gm.

6.7 oz.
189.3 gm.

3.3% 02.

-

94.6 gn.

2.2 Of.
63.1 gm.

1.7 OZ.
47.3 gm.

1.3 oz.
37-9 gm.

1.1 os.
31.5 gm.

13.4 ar.
23.7 gm.

10.7 dr.
18.9 gn.

8.9 dr.
15.8 em.

6.7 dr.
11.8 gm.

5.3 ar.
9.5 gm.

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fabdle 6.—Quantities of insecticidal materials giving certain dilutions in parts by liquid measure in various quantities of water.

1-loo

1-500

n-600

11-800

1-1, 000

-1,200

1-1, 600

2,000

1 qt.
1.6 pt.

2/3 at.
1 1/3 pt.

1 pt.

8 pt.
12.8 fl.oz.

2/3 pt.
10.7 fl.oz.

4 pt.

& fl.oz.

4 pt.
6.4 fl.oz.

4 at.
1 gl.

2 qt.
1 qt.

2/3 ate
1 1/3 pt.

1 pt.

8 pt.
12.8 fl.oz.

2/3 pt.
10.7 fl.oz.

4 pt.
& fl.oz.

4 pt.
6.4 fl.oz.

1/3 pt.
5.3 ison,

¢ pt.
4 fl.oz.

3.2 fl.oz.
94.6 ml.

2 qt.
1 qt.
1 pt.
2/3 pt.

10.7 fl.oz.

+ pt.
8 fl.oz.

-4 pt.
6.4 fl.oz.

1/3 pt.
5.3 fl.oz.

+ pt.
4 fl.oz.

3.2 fl.oz.
94.6 ml.

2.7 fl.oz.
78.9 ml.

2 fl.oz.
59.1 ml.

1.6 fl.oz.
47.3 ml.

4 pt.
6.4 fl.oz.

1.6 pt.
25.6 fl.oz.

8 pt.
12.8 fl.oz.

4 pt.
6.4 fl.oz.

4,3 fl.oz.
126.2 ml.

3.2 fl.os.
94.6 ml.

2.6 fl.oz.
75-7 ml.

2.1 fl.os.
63.1 ml.

1.6 fl.oz.
47.3 nl.

1.3 fl.oz.
37.9 ml.

1.1 fl.oz.
31.5 ml.

6.4 fl.ar.
23.7 ml.

5.1 fl.ar.
18.9 ml.

378.5 ml.

6.4 fl.oz.
189.3 ml.

3.2 fl.oz.
94.6 ml.

2.1 fl.oz.
63.1 ml.

1.6 fl.oz.
47.3 ml.

1.3 fl.oz.
37-9 ml.

1.1 fl.oz.
31.5 ml.

6.4 fl.ar.
23.7 ml.

5.1 fi.dr.
18.9 ml.

4,3 fl.ar.
15.8 ml.

3.2 fl.dr.
11.8 ml.

2.6 fl.ar.
9.5 ml.

7-7 fl.oz.
227.1 ml.

3.8 fl.oz.
113.6 ml.

1.9 fl.oz.
56.8 ml.

1.3 fl.oz.
37.8 ml.

7-7 fl.dr.
28.4 ml.

6.2) 21. ar.
22.7 ml.

5.1 fl.ar.
18.9 ml.

3.8 fl.dr.
14.2 ml.

3.1 fl.ar.
11.4 mi.

2.6 fl.ar.
9.5 ml.

1.9 fl.dr.
7.1 mil.

1.5 fl.ar.
5.7 ml.



5.1 fl.oz.
151.4 mi.

2.6 fl.oz.
15-7 ml.

1.3 fl. of
37-9 ml.

6.8 fl.dr.
25.2 ml.

5.1 fl.ar.
18.9 ml.

4.1 fl.ar.
15.1 ml.

3-4 fl.ar.
12.6 mi.

2.6 fl.ar.
9.5 nl.

2.U fl.dr.
7-6 ml.

1.7 fl.dr.
3 ml.

6.

1.3 fl.ar.
4.7 ml.
g

dr.

2B;

we

2.6 fl.oz.
75.7 mi.

1.3 fl.oz.
37-9 ml.

5.1 fl.édr.
18.9 ml.

3.4 fl.dr.
12.6 ml.

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3.2 ml.

2.4 ml.

1.9 ml.

18.926 ml.
9.463 ml.
4.732 ml.
3.154 ml.
2.366 ml.
1.893 ml.
1.577 ml.
1.183 ml.
0.946 ml.
0.789 ml.
0.591 ml.

0.473 ml.

0-000 ml.
10.000 ml.
5.000 ml.
3-333 ml.
2.500 ml.
2.000 ml.
1.667 ml.
1.250 ml.
1.000 mil.
0.833 ml.

0.625 ml.

0.500 ml.



ac

——S—_ eee O_O

In preparing sprays or dusts with certain insecticides, notably the
finely ground rotenone—bearing roots, the dilution is based upon the percent—
age (by weight) of the active ingredient desired in the finished combination.
The following formulas may be found useful in determining the correct quan—
tity of insecticide to be used,

Water suspensions or solutions.—-To determine the quantity of insecti-
cide necessary for a given percentage of active ingredient in the diluted
spray, multiply the number of gallons of water by 8.545 by the percentage
of active ingredient desired in the spray, and divide by the percentage of
active ingredient in the insecticide. If, when making up small quantities
of spray, it is desirable to calculate the quantity of insecticide in grams,

substitute 3,785.35 for 8,345.

Example: Fifty gallons of spray containing 0.025 percent of rotenone
is desired. The powdered root to be used contains 3.9 percent of rotenone.
The quantity of this powder to be used is

50 X 8.345 X 0.025 = 2.7 pounds.
3:9

To determine the percentage of active ingredient in a given quantity
of diluted spray when the quantity of powder used and its active of ingredient
content are known, multiply the number of pounds of powder by the percentage
of active ingredient it contained and divide by the number of gallons of
spray times 8.345. -—

Example; One pound of ground derris root containing 4.8 percent of
rotenone was used to make 50 gallons of spray... The rotenone content of
the spray was

1X 4.8 =0,.0115 percent.
50 X 8,345

Dusts. To determine the quantity of insecticide to be used in pre—
paring a dust containing a given percentage of active ingredient, multiply
the percentage of active ingredient desired by the number of pounds of dust
to be made and divide by the percentage of active ingredient in the insecti-
cide to be used.

Example: One hundred pounds of dust containing 0.50 percent of
rotenone is to be prepared. The powdered roct to be used contains 4.0 per-
cent of rotenone. The quantity of the roct necessary is

0.50 X 100 = 12.5 pounds.

-—--=— =

Sufficient diluent is then added to make 100 pounds.

To determine the percentage of active ingredient in a dust when the
quantity of insecticide used, its percentage active ingredient, and the
total weight of the prepared dust are known, multiply the number of pounds
of insecticide used by the percentage of active ingredient it contains and
divide by the number of pounds of dust prepared,



5
a
-
:
%





mentee Li ee













Example: Twenty pounds of ground cube root containing 4 percent of
» .rotenone had been used in making up 100 pounds of dust. The rotenone
content of the dust was

20 X 4.0 = 0.8 percent.
100

Percentage of Active Ingredient When Insecticide Is Diluted by Par s



When the percentage of active ingredient (rotenone, etc.) in the
insecticide is known, the dilution, in parts, necessary to give a stated
percentage of the active ingredient in the spray is obtained as follows:
Divide the percentage of active ingredient in the insecticide by the per-—
centage desired in the diluted spray.

Example: A spray containing 0.05 percent of nicotine is desired.
The insecticide contains 40 percent of nicotine.

40_ = 800

--———

0.05
The dilution is therefore 1 part of the insecticide to 800 parts of water.

When the percentage of active ingredient in the insecticide and the
dilution (by parts) that was used are known, the percentage of active in-
gredient in the dilute spray may be obtained as follows: Divide the per-
centage of active ingredient in the insecticide by the dilution used.

Example: An alcoholic extract of pyrethrum containing 2 percent of
total pyrethrins was diluted 1 to 400. The percentage of pyrethrins in the
diluted spray was

2_ = 0.005 percent.

400

"
©

Equivalent Dilutions of Active Ingredient in Part nd Percentages





Dilutions of rotenone and pyrethrins are often given as 1-5,000,
1-10,000, etc. The equivalent percentages for a number of these dilutions
are given below.

Parts Percent Parts Percent
1-500 0.2 1-5 ,000 0.02
1-1, 000 Onl 1-6, 000 0.0167—
1-1 ,500 0.0667— 1-7 ,000 0.0143-
1-2 ,000 0.05 1-8 ,000 0.0125
1-2 ,500 0.04 1-9, 000 0.0111+
i-3 ,000 0 .0333+ 1-10,000 0.02
1-4,000 02025 1-20,000 0.005



= os






CONVERSION OF SMALL-SCALE DOSAGES TO LARGE-SCALE QUANTITIES :
Dusts and Soil Insecticides

The quantities of dust or soil insecticides necessary for large——
scale application, in pounds per acre, may be calculated from the quantities ©
used in small-scale tests as foilows: Multiply the number of grams or
ounces per square foot by 43,560, or per square yard by 4,840, and divide
by 455.59 if the dosage is in grams, and by 16 if it iS in ounces.

Example: A dust has been found effective in small-scale tests when
used at the rate of 0.30 gram per square foot. The equivalent dosage per
acre would be

0.30 X 43,560 = 29 pounds.
453.59

To determine the number of square feet (or square yards) that 1 pound
of a given material will cover when the small-scale dosage per square foot
(or square yard) is known, divide 453.59 by this dosage if it is in grams,
and 16 by this dosage if it is in ounces.

Example: In the case of the 0.50 gram per square foot dosage men—
tioned above, 1 pound of the material would cover

453.59 or 1,512 square feet.
0.30

To determine the quantity of material to be used for 1 square foot
when the large-scale dosage is known, multiply the number of pounds per acre
by 453.59 to obtain dosages in grams, and by 16 to obtain dosages in ounces,
and divide the product by 43,560. For dosages per square yard the divisor
is 4,840.

Examples: A dosage equivalent to 50 pounds per acre of a given dust
is to be tried on a small scale. The dosage per square foot is

30 X 453.59 = 0.31 gram.
43,560

or 30 X 16 = 0.011 ounce.
43,560

Some of these values that have been worked out and may be convenient
for reference are given in the following table:







= 25

Equivalent small- and large-scale dosages

sess











Pounds
Dosage per square foot Square feet that 1 pound will cover per acre
Gram
O21 4,536 9.6
.10413 4,356 10.0
. 15619 2,904 15:0
.20 1,814 24.0
260352 1,742 20.0
Ounce
0.005 5,200 13.61+
.008 2,000 21.78
.O1 1,600 27 .22+
.016 1,000 43.56
025 640 68 .06+
.064 200 174.24
LS 100 435.6

FUMIGANTS

The dosages of fumigants used in laboratory tests are readily con-
verted to quantities to be used in large-scale work by the following relation-
Ship: Milligrams per cubic decimeter (liter) is approximately equal to
ounces per 1,000 cubic feet.

The concentration of a given fumigant in the gaseous state within
the fumigation chamber, generally determined by aspiration, is usually
calculated in milligrams per cubic decimeter, and therefore, the same rela-
tionship would apply.

A series of tables, and formulas to use in connection with then,
On the maximum weights of a number of common fumigants that can exist in
vapor form in a 1,000 cubic foot fumigation chamber has been published
by Roark and Nelson(5).



_

= 2
MISCELLANEOUS

Capacity of Sprayer Tanks




The capacity of the tanks of hand or power sprayers, in gallons, be
calculated by 0.0034 as follows:

Cylindrical tanks: Multiply length by square of the diameter, in inches,
by 0.0034.

Rectangular tanks: Multiply length by width by depth, in inches, by 0.004329.

Tanks with elliptical cross section: Multiply length by short diameter by
long diameter, in inches, by 0.0034.

From the commercial grain alcohol of 95 or any other known percentage,
solutions of lower percentage can be prepared as follows: Into a 100-ml.
graduate pour as many milliliters of the stronger solution as the percentage
required in the weaker. Then add water until the mixture reaches the
milliliter mark equivalent to the percentage of the stronger solution.

For example, to make 70—percent from 95-percent alcohol, pour into
the graduate 70 ml. of the 95—-percent solution and fill to the 95-ml. mark
with water. The result is 95 ml. of a 70-percent solution.

The same procedure can be used for any other liquid, such as acetone,
that is miscible with water, and in fact for any pair of miscible liquids.

The percentages obtained by this procedure must be expressed in
terms of volume, not weight.

|





ae
Temperature Conversion

Degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Centigrade: °C. = °F, — 32 X 5/9.

Degrees Centigrade to degrees Fahrenheit: oF, = °C. X 9/5 + S32.

A number of equivalents of the two scales are presented below:



oF, = 2B Ps
0 -17.78 110 43.33
10 -12.22 120 48 .89
14 -10 Len 50
20 - 6.67 150 04.44
50 ret alee La 140 60
32 0 150 65.56
40 4.44 158 70
50 10 160 ig
60 15.56 170 Gyo r
68 20 176 80
70 Ble 180 Sener
&0 26.67 190 87.78
86 10) 194 90
| 90 DeLee 200 93.53
100 Oto 210 98.89
104 40 really 100

LITERATURE CONSULTED
(1) Bearce, Henry W.
1936. United States and British units of weights and measures. Sci.
Monthly 43:566-568.

(2) National Bureau of Standards.

1914. Units of weights and measures. Definitions and tables of
equivalents. U. S. Dept. Commerce, Bur. Standards, Cir. 47,
68 pp.

(3) National Bureau of Standards.
1920. Household weights and measures. U. S. Dept. Commerce, Bur.
Standards, Misc. Pub. 39, 2 pp.

(4) National Research Council.
1926. International critical tables of numerical data, physics,
chemistry and technology. v.11, pp. 1-15. New York.

(5) Roark, R. C., and Nelson, QO. A.
2 Maximum weights of various fumigants which can exist in vapor

form in a 1,000 cubic foot fumigating chamber. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 22:3581-387.

©
Or

(6) United States Government Printing Office.
1939. Style manual, rev. ed. 346 pp. Washington.





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

MM

62 09224 73



Full Text


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Sk INRARY
TATE PLANE BOAYD






E-517 5 aN November 1940
\\ DEPARTMENT
AGRICULTURE
BUREAU OF
ENTOMOLOGY AND
PLANT QUARANTINE
CONVERSION TABLES AND EQUIVALENTS FOR USE
IN WORK RELATING TO INSECT CONTROL
; By R. H. Nelson, Division of Truck Crop
and Garden Insect Investigations
Contents
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Metric: SYS COD, . 5c i cc cc len. eee nee tea ee a Io ccc cana vseucnecncersavenseuneceuvtauas 12
Imperial Systemic. c.. ciccceccce tee eee eee eRe so gaia accasevccescescecurseanesrccsnestans 12
Equivalents Of VOLUME, AM TMS TEUTOS SV eM icccc ect cccws cece ne cece ccceceneecescracnuenseerenas 12
Dilutions Of LNSOCT LGR rec reper mete ee ciec RIG tte eta ea ceca eae cons casuncerseevecgyerstane Le
Equivalent quantities of insecticidal material for various
Quantities OF Wate rin, ener eee: ee meee Rie cans csnscous cess cedsansvaveanin 12
Dilutions of insecticides in parts by weight and by liquid measure........ or
Quantity of insecticide on basis of active ingredient. ............ccccceecseeseneeees 20
Percentage of active ingredient when insecticide is diluted by parts.... 2l
Equivalent dilutions of active ingredient in parts and percentages........ al
Conversion of small-scale dosages to large-scale quantities................:::.0 oe
Dusts and soil inSe@CtLOLAS Serer cercere cies eee eee eens eer eM enna as heap en aacsxocnneny 22
Fumi gants..............:sccceneeeocnsasatnone tan dames ee dle eee ME ander LA ely ya =< 4 25
WMiscel Laneous. ....::...is.,scsn:2 eee sad CN ct RAE et ea MES Alas lad PAROS cen Sabin vy ovis nan xtNNR 24
Capacity of sprayer. tanlis. ic. icclec cep ee neta aetna me Rasen sia mestmeS nia nANg ko .k-sya te vsss 24
Dilutions of alcohol and Other Diep neers 24
Temperature CONVETSION....0iss..cevsssaseneenien estat enna RiameS Ua eet SRM Mesa nivas Ciantaxds Literature CONSULTEL......cccccceccesessynts chelate eOete asinine tee seo cats eee Gay Wee tk 290
INTRODUCTION

In the literature on economic entomology the weights and measures
used in expressing insecticide dilutions, dosages, and the like may be in
one or more of three systems--the United States, the imperial (British),
and the metric. Since information on the relationships and equivalents
in these systems is not always readily available to entomologists in the
field, it has been assembled here for their benefit. The data are taken
principally from publications of the National Bureau of Standards (2, 3)
and the International Critical Tables (4). A comparative discussion of
United States and British units, by Bearce (1), of the National Bureau
of Standards, was also consulted.

Tables for dilutions of insecticides, methods of calculating dilu—
tions on the basis of active ingredients, and certain other miscellaneous
information useful to entomologists working with insecticides have also
been included.

In the tables of equivalents the values shown are correct to the
decimal place given, but in most cases are not to be taken as exact. They
are, however, carried out far enough so that the individual worker may round
out at the decimal place best suited for his equipment and the conditions
of his experiment with a minimum of error.

The abbreviations used are those recognized in the January 1939
edition of the United States Government Printing Office Style Manual (6).




Sone
WEIGHT TABLES

United States Avoirdupois Weight

27 11/32 grains (gr.) = 1 dram (dr.)
16 drams = 1 ounce (0oz.)
16 ounces = 1 pound (1b.) = 7,000 grains
100 pounds — 1 hundredweight (cwt.)
2,000 pounds — 1 short ton
2,240 pounds = 1 long ton

Metric Weight

1,000 micrograms 1 milligram (mg. )
1,000 milligrams - 1 gram (gm.)
1,000 grams 1 kilogram (kg.)
1,000 kilograms 1 metric ton

tt

\\

{|

Apothecaries' Weight

20 grains (er. ) = 1 scruple (s.)

3 scruples — 1 dram (dr.)

8 drams = 1 ounce (0z.)

12 ounces = 1 pound (1b.) = 5,760 grains

Although not commonly used in entomological work, the system of
apothecaries' weight is included for purposes of comparison. In all other
parts of this paper the terms "dram," "ounce," and "pound" refer to avoir—
dupois weight unless otherwise specified.

Imperial (British) Avoirdupois Weight

ei li/s2 grains = 1 dram
16 drams — 1 ounce
16 ounces = 1 pound = 7,000 grains
14 pounds = 1 stone-
8 stone } ;
112 pounds) — 1 hundredweight
20 hundredweight )
2,240 pounds j= 1 ton

The imperial avoirdupois units, although differing in definition,
are for practical purposes equal to the United States units of the same
name. The same conversion values may be used with either. This table is
included to show certain variations in terminology between this system and
that commonly used in the United States.
-4- a
Equivalents of Weight of the Four Systems
Avoirdupois,

United States Metric Apothecaries'
and imperial :



1 grain 64.7989 milligrams i grain

1_ dram L785 milligrams 0.4557 dram
1.77185 grams

1 _ ounce 28.3495 grams 0.9115 ounce



1 pound 453.59 grams 1.21528 pounds
0.45359 kilogram



0.015432 grain 1 milligram 0.015432 grain



15.432 grains 15.432 grains
0.56438 dram 1 gram 0.2572 dram

0.03527 ounce 0.03215 ounce

35.2740 ounces 1 kilogram 52.1507 ounces
2.2046 pounds 2.6792 pounds

0.7314 dram 1,295..98 milligrams 1 _scruple
1.29598 grams

2.19429 drams 3.8879 grams 1 dram

Phe ounces $1.10548 grams 1 ounce

0.8229 pound 373.24 grams 1 pound

0.57324 kilogram






Sey.
CAPACITY TABLES (LIQUID)

United States Liquid Measure

Seourcnarams (fl. dr.) = L fluid ounce (fl. oz.)

4 fluid ounces = er)

4 gills = pint (pt..)

= pPInts =- 1 quart (qt.)

4 quarts = 1 gallon (gal.) = 231 cubic inches

At maximum density, 39.164° F. (3.98° C.), a gallon of pure water
weighs 8.345 pounds; at 59° F. (15° C.) the weight is 8.338 pounds.

P7000 milliliters {ml.)Â¥/= 1 liter (1.) = 1,000.027 cubic
centimeters
HO liters - 1 dekaliter (dkl.)
100 liters = 1 hectoliter (hl.)
1,000 liters =i katoliter (kl.)

el

Imperial Capacity Measure

8 fluid drams = 1 fluid ounce

5 fluid ounces = 1 gill

4 gills = 1 pint

2 pints = 1 quart

4 quarts = 1 gallon = 277.42 cubic inches

An imperial gallon of pure water weighs 10 pounds at 62° F. (16.67° C.)

The units of the imperial system for liquid measure have the same
names as those used in the United States system. In no case, however, are
they equal. The imperial gallon, quart, and pint are about 20 percent
larger than the United States units of the same name, whereas the imperial
fluid dram and fluid ounce are about 4 percent smaller than homonymous
United States units. :

1/ The term "cubic centimeter (cc. or cm.3)" has been commonly used
in chemical and entomological literature instead of "milliliter (ml.)."
Technically this is not correct, since the cubic centimeter is a measure of
volume, not of capacity. Their relationship is: 1 milliliter = 1.000027
cubic centimeters. For practical purposes, however, they may be regarded
as equal in the same sense as 1 gallon equals 231 cubic inches.
f
» :
ie
— eee pa!



Equivalents of Capacity in the Three Systems os
United States Metric _ Imperial
1 fluid dram 5.6966 milliliters 1.0408 fluid drams
1 fluid ounce 29:5729 milliliters 1.0408 fluid ounces
a eal T1S..2¢r milliliters 0,83268 gill

0.118292 liter

1 pint ATS 6 | milliliters 0.83268 pint
0). 473167. Laer,

1 quart 946.33 milliliters 0.83268 quart
0.94635 liter

1 gallon 3 -1eo saa milliliters 0.83268 gallon
Sb lodoe ee Lters







0.270518 fluid dram ]) mpita tar ter 0.28157 fluid dram
270.518 fluid drams ) (281.57 fluid drams
35.8147 fluid ounces) 1 liter - ( 35.20 fluid ounces
1.0567 quarts’ ) ( 0.880 quart
0,264178 gallon ) ( 0.2200 gallon
2.64178 gallons 1 dekaliter 2.200 gallons
26.4178 gallons 1 hectoliter 22.00 gallons
264.178 gallons ]_ kiloiiter 2L9:98 gallons
0.96075 fluid dram 3.5515 milliliters 1 fluid dram
0.96075 fluid ounce 28,412 milliliters 1 fluid ounce
1.20094 gills 142.06 milliliters Loris,
0.14206 liter
1.20094 pints 568.245 milliliters 1 pint
0.568245 liter
1.20094 quarts 1,136.49 milliliters 1 quart
1.13649 liters
1.20094 gallons 4,545.96 milliliters 1 gallon

4.54596 liters









oF

Equivalents for Teaspoonful, Tablespoonful, and Cup

A measuring cup and measuring spoons, the latter obtainable in nests
of several sizes, are useful in making dilutions under practical conditions
where great accuracy is not required. The values given below are also useful
in transposing the precise measurements of the laboratory into commonly
used and understood units when an insecticide is recommended to dooryard
gardeners. The values as given are those recognized by the Bureau of
Standards.

5 teaspoonfuls = 1 tablespoonful
2 tablespoonfuls = 1 fluid ounce
16 tablespoonfuls) = 1 cup

8 fluid ounces )

teaspoonfuls)
fluid ounce ) = 1 tablespoonful
fluid drams )
milliliters )

be
O1 Bxvlrk Ww

re
Orn W O

tablespoonfuls)
gills )
pint ) = i cup
fluid ounces )
go? milliliters )

L pint )
16 fluid ounces) = 2 cups
A73 milliliters )
CAPACITY TABLES (DRY)
United States Dry Measure
2 pants (pt.) = 1 quart (qt.)

8 quarts 1 peck (pk. )
4 pecks = 1 bushel (bu.) = 2,150.42 cubic inches

\

In the United States system the pint and quart of dry measure are
about 16 percent larger than the units of the same name used in liquid
measure. Wherever these unit names are used in this paper, other than in
this section, they refer to liquid measure.

Metric Capacity Measure

In the metric system both dry and liquid capacity are measured by
ime liter and its secondary units. See Capacity Tables (Liquid), p. 5.
eS

Imperial Capacity Measure

2 pints =1 quart
8 quarts = 1 peck
4 pecks = 1 bushel = 2,219.34 cubic inches

|

The pint and quart of the imperial system are the same for both liquid
and dry measure. The imperial gallon may also be used as a unit of dry
measure. The pint and quart of the United States dry measure are approxi-
mately 3 percent smaller than the imperial units of the same name. The
Unitec States bushel is the same as the Winchester bushel, sometimes men—
tioned in publications from the British Empire.

Equivalents of Capacity in the Three Systems





United States Metric Imperial
1 pint 550.60 milliliter 0.96895 pint
0.55060 liter
1 _guart 1.10120 liters 0.96895 quart
1 peck 8.810 liters 0.96895 peck
0.8810 dekaliter
1_ bushel 395.258 liters 0.96895 bushel
3.5238 dekaliters
0.35238 hectoliters
1.816 pints 1. ator 1.760 pints
0.908 quart 0.880 quart
0.1135 peck 0.110 peck
1.135 pecks 1 dekaliter 2.0 pecks
0.28378 bushel 0.275 bushel
2.8378 bushels l_hectoliter eaerve bushels
1.03205 pints 568.245 milliliters 1 pint
0.568245 liter
1.03205 quarts 1.13649 liters 1 quart
1.035205 pecks 95092 liters 1_peck
0.9092 dekaliter
1.03205 bushels 36.368 liters 1 _ bushel
3.6368 dekaliters
0.36368 hectoliter




a
LINEAR-MEASURE TABLES

United States System





jan anches (in.) = 1 foot (ft.)

5 feet =.l yard (vd.)
53 yards) = 1 rod (rd.)
165 feet )
320 rods )
1,760 yards) = 1 mile

5,280 feet )

Metric System



micron 2
millimeter (mm. )
centimeter (cm.)

1,000 millimicrons 1 -— 1
al
i
1 decimeter (dm. )
1
I
li
if

‘cr 1,000 microns =
10 millimeters
10 centimeters
10 decimeters
10 meters

10 dekameters
10 hectometers =

\|

meter (m.)

dekameter (dkm. )
hectometer (hm. )
kilometer (km. )

Imperial System




Except for small differences in standards, this system is the same
as that used in the United States and the same conversion values may be
used.

1 Abbreviation is "m" followed by the Greek letter "mu."
2 Abbreviation is the Greek letter "mu."
United States and



= 10 =

Equivalents of Length is the Three Systems



Imperial Metric
25.4 millimeters
i inch 2.04 centimeters
30.48 centimeters

J ofook 3.048 decimeters

9.144 decimeters
i_yard 0.9144 meter

5.029 meters
rod 0.5029 dekameter



T6095) meters

1 mile 1.60935 kilometers
0.03937 inch 1 millimeter
OFS937 anch 1 centimeter

oor inches
0.328 foot 1 decimeter

39.357 inches

1.0936 yards 1 meter
1.98838 rods 1 dekameter
19.8838 rods l hectometer

198.838 rods
0.62137 mile 1 kilometer




ore
AREA-MEASUREMENT TABLES

United States System



144 square inches (sq. in.) = 1 square foot (sq. ft.)
square feet = 1 square yard (sq. yd.)
304 square yards = 1 square rod (sq. rd.)
43,560 square feet |
4,840 square yards) = 1 acre
160 square rods )
Metric System
100 square millimeters (mm. 2) 1 square centimetei (cm. 2)
100 square centimeters = 1 square decimeter (dm. 2)
100 square decimeters = 1 square meter (m, 2)
100 square meters = 1 are (a.)
100 ares = 1 hectare (ha. )
Imperial System

Except for slight differences in standards this is the same as the

- United States system for area measurement, and the two are combined in the

following table:

















1_ square inch
1 square foot

1 square yard

1 _ square rod

l_acre

0.00155 square

0.155 square
15.5 square
0.1076 square
1.1960 square
5.9537 square

2.471



acres

Equivalents of Area in the Three Systems

a eee

_ United States and Imperial

inch
inch

inches
foot

yards

rods





Metric
6.452 Square centimeters
9.29035 square cecimeters
0.86361 square meter
20nno square meters -
Usa0ro are
0.40469 hectare

l_ square centimeter

1_ square decimeter
1 _ square meter
1_are

1 hectare
= oe
VOLUME (CUBIC MEASURE) TABLES
United States System

1,728 cubic inches (cu. in.) = 1 cubic foot (cu. ft.)
27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard (cu. yd.)

Metric System



1,000 cubic millimeters (mn. 3) 1 cubic centimeter (cc. or cm. 3)
1,000 cubic centimeters = 1 cubic decimeter (dm. 3)
1,000 cubic decimeters 1 cubic meter (m. 3)

\|

Imperial System

This is the same as the United States system except for small dif-
ferences in standards, and the two are combined in the following table:

Equivalents of Volume in the Three Systems

United States and Imperial Metric
i cubic ineh 16559 cubic centimeters
iL cubic foot 28.317 cubic decimeters
1 _ cubic yard 0.7646 cubic meter
0.06)" (cubie 2nch 1 cubic centimeter

61.023 cubic inches

0.0353 cubic foot 1 cubic decimeter
1.308 cubic yards 1 cubic meter

DILUTIONS OF INSECTICIDES

Equivalent Quantities of Insecticidal Material

—- Ss— —— see

Dry material.--The quantity of powdered insecticide recommended for
use against a given insect is usually stated in pounds per 50 or 100 gallons
of water. Tables 1 and 2 show the quantities necessary for making the same
dilutions in smaller quantities of water as are made with 1 to 10 pounds,
inclusive, in 100 gallons. It will be noted in table 1 that the number of
pounds per 100 gallons is the same as the number of ounces per 64 gallons,
and that the same is true for 50 and 34 gallons. For 2% gallons, which is a
convenient amount of spray solution for use in most knapsack sprayers, the
quantities are given in both ounces and grams to one decimal place.


ee A



In table 2, for quantities of water of 1 gallon or more, the nearest
’correct value at one decimal place is given. For values of less than 1
pound the equivalent quantities are given in grams directly beneath the
United States values. The gram being of smaller mass than the dram and the
ounce, the metric values are, in most cases, more nearly correct than the
avoirdupois values. The quantities to be used in 1 quart and 1 liter of
water are given only in metric units and are carried out to three places,
Since they will presumably be used for small-scale, precise experiments.

Table 1.~-Equivalent quantities of dry insecticidal material
for certain aliquots of 100 gallons of water

——— —— ————

i nn a ne



100 50 25 124 4 3 24

gal, gal, gal, gal. gal, gal. gal.
ie Lb: * Lb. 4 #0Z; B OZ. LOZ: 5 OZ. 0.4 oz.
11.3 gm
eo Lb © lb 8! .0Z 4 oz 2.0Z ie) az Or erez
ge.7 gm
3 lb 13 1b L222 6s 07 omOZ 15 oz. leceOgn
- 54.0 gm.
4 1b By LD Pie ib 8. 0Z 4 oz Pe LOZ 1.6.02
A5.4 gm.
5 lb. 24 Ib. 14 lb. 10 oz. Brom.) #22 oz: 2.0 oz.
56.7 gm
6 lb ® ,1b 14 1b 2) Le 6.02z 3 OZ 2.4 OZ
68.0 gm
7 1b 31 1b 1 ib, 14 oz. T oz. 3} oz. 2.8 o2.
79.4 gm.
. 8 lb 4 lb 2 1b cL ks 8 oz 4 oz 512/62
| 90.7 gm.
ez Lb 14 1b 9 oz 4+ 0Z 3.6 0Zz
102.1 gm.
e> Lb. 13 lb. 10 OZ. > OZ, 4.0 oz.

115.4 gm.








fable 2.—Equivalent quantities of dry insecticidal material for various quantities of water.

Quantity of material for indicated quantity of water

ro os. foo en] wen. | wen. [ore fron. [soa [ver [ser [em [ron | rene} ruse

6.4 OZe

4.8 oz.



3.2 OZ.

181.4 gn. 136.1 gn. 90.7 ga.

12.8 oz. 9.6 oz. 6.4 oz.
362.9 gn. 272.2 gm. 181.4 gm.

1 1b. 3.20z.] 14.4 oz. 9.6 oz.
408.2 gn. 272.2 gm.

1 10.9.6 oz.] 1 1b.3.202. |12.8 oz.
362.9 gm.

J 2 1b. 1 1b.8 oz. {1 1d.

2 1v.6.4oz.

2 1b.12.80z.

3 1b.3.202.

3 1v.9.602.

4 1b.

1 1b.12.80z.

2 1b. 1.602.

2 1b. 6.4oz.

2 1b.11.202.

3 1d.

1 1b.3.20z.

1 1v.6.4oz.

1 1v.9.60z.

1 1b.12.802.

2 lb.


= he

Liquid material.--Tables 3 and 4 have been worked out in a manner
‘similar to tables 1 and 2 but are in fluid measure for use with liquid
insecticides, wetting agents, and the like. The relationship of pounds and
ounces noted for table 1 holds for pints and fluid ounces in table 3.
Quantities for 23 gallons are given in both United States and metric unit
to one decimal place.

In table 4 an equivalent value in fluid ounces is given for the
fractional pint values. For quantities of less than 1 pint equivalent

quantities in milliliters are given for the fluid-ounce and fluid-—dram
values.

Table 3.--Equivalent quantities of liquid insecticidal material for
certain aliquots of 100 gallons of water

Quantities of material for indicated quantities of water





100 50 25 123 64 34 22
gal. gal. gal. gal. gal. gal. gal.
+ pt. si pt. mie bab OZ Lie PLOZ. Seb lnO 2. Fivbl sOZ. 0.2) fies
4 fl.oz. 3, Sinks
es 2 a $e, ebb Peete OZ. eeloee ~ Ll) tl.o0m. + fl.oz. 0:4 fl.oz.
6 | £1.02. Lissend.
Sept. el) pitt. mrivoze a.°4 tl.0z. a rhoz.24 Boz. 0;8 £1 7o2e
“at. 2027 Meh,
a. pt. 13 pt. ie Ll0Zz. GO fl Oa, woe thsoz.. Ls w1foz. 142 Pore
13 qt. 35.5.ml
pt. e.| pu Lo iph. Pal. O2.. &, 11,02. 8 22 Flog. 1. S tiseme
eo Gt. ta at. ATS i
6 pt 2% pt 14 pt LGi fl.oz, ©, fl.oz. 2b PB.ce 2.0 fl.oz
25 qt 14 qt 59.1 ml.
6 pt ot pu. 13 pt. lgeblnga, wo Thon. 4S) af l.az. e.4 Thee.
3 qt 13 qt. Tl).0 aid.
13-pt Mf bag oT Pon S4-f1l vez. 2.8 fl.oz.
82.3 Wk.
a. Bo. i pt. Oo {[F.ez.< 4 Tl.oz. Sn Ti.Ga
TA iG 94.6 ml
LIBRARY

STATE PLANT


—_—

a

$ pt.

*

pt.

qt.

qt

qt.

qt

qt.

qt

fable 4.—Equivalent quantities of liquid insecticidal material for various quantities of water.

ot.
4 fl.oz.

i pt.

8 fl.oz.

1 pt.

14 pt.

2 pt.
1 qt.

3 pt.
qt.

3 pt.
1s at.

pt.
qt.
y pt.
2 qt.

3.2 fl.oz.
94.6 ml.

6.4 fl.oz.
189.3 ml.

12.8fl.oz.
378.5 ml.

1.2 pt.
19.2 fl.

1.6 pt.
25.6fl.oz.

2 pt.
2.4 pt.
38.4fl.oz.

2.8 pt.
4k. 8fl.oz.

3.2 pt.
51.2fl.oz.

Quantities of material for indicated quantities of water

2.4 fl.oz.
71.0 ml.

4.8 fl.oz.
141.9 ml.

9.6 fl.oz.
283.9 ml.

14.491. 02,
425.8 ml.

1.2 pt.
19.2fl.os.

1 pt.

1.8 pt.
28.8f1.02.

21 pt.
33.6fl.oz.

2.4 pt.
38.4fl.oz.

fe

1.6 fl.oz.
47.3 ml.

3.2 fl.oz.
94.6 nl.

6.4 fl.oz.
189.3 ml.

9.6 fl.oz.
283.9 ml.

12.8fl.oz.
378.5 ml.

1 pt.
1.2 pt.
19.2fl.oz.

1.4 pt.
22.4fl.oz.

1.6 pt.
25.6fl.oz.

6.4 fl.ar.
23.7 mil.

1.6 fl.oz.
47.3 ml.

3.2 fl.oz.
94.6 ml.

4.8 fl.oz.
141.9 ml.

6.4 fl.oz.
189.3 ml.

$ pt.
8 fl.oz.

9.6 fl.oz.
283.9 ml.

11.2fl.oz.
331.2 ml.

12.8fl.oz.
378.5 ml.



3.2 fl.dr.
11.8 ml.

6.4 fl.ar.
23.7 ml.

1.6 fl.oz.
47.3 ml.

2.4 fl.oz.
71.0 ml.

3-2 fl.oz.
94.6 ml.

4 fl.oz.
118.3 mi.

4.8fl.0z.
141.9 ml.

5.6fl.os.
165.6 ml.

6.4f1.02.
189.3 ml.

V9) Frans
Tel mi.

3.8 fl.dr.
14.2 nl.

7.7 fl.ar.
28.4 ml.

1.4 fl.oz.
42.6 ml.

1.9 fl.oz.
56.8 ml.

2.4 fl.oz.
71.0 ml.

2.9fl.oz.
85.2 ml.

304 fl.oz.

1.3 fl.dr.
4.7 ml.
2.6 fl.ar.
9.5 mi.
5.1 fl.dr.
18.9 ml.

7-7 fl.dr.
28.4 ml.

1.3 fl.oz.
37-9 ml.

1.6 fl.oz.
47.3 ml

1.9 fl.oz.
56.8 ml.

2.2ef1.086
66.2 ml.

2.6fl.oz.
75-7 ml.

fre |



2.366m1.

3.549m1

4, 732ml.

5.915ml.

7.097ml.

8.280 ml

0.625

1.250ml.

-500m1.

3.750m1.

5.000ml.

6.250m1.

7-500m1.

8.750ml.

10,




lara cas

Dilution of Insecticides in Parts by Weight
and by Liguid Measure

The quantities of dry insecticidal material giving certain dilutions
by weight in various quantities of water are given in table 5. In calculat-
ing these quantities the weight of 1 gallon of water was considered as
8.545 pounds, or 3,785.5 grams. Quantities of less than 1 pound are given
in both ounces and grams.

Table 6 contains similar data worked out in liquid measure for certain
dilutions of liquid insecticides.

In both tables the quantities to be used in 1 gallon or more are
calculated to the nearest correct value at one decimal place. For 1 quart
and 1 liter these values are carried out to three places.




Table 5.--Quantities of dry insecticidal materiale giving certain dilutions in parts by weight in various quantities of water.

11.0 oz. |8

2.8 oz.

12.5 oz.

1.4 oz.

10.7 oz.

6.3 oz.

lb. 0.7 oz.

13.4 oz.
378.5 em.

11.1 os.
315.4 gn.

8.3 oz.
236.6 gm.

6.7 oz.
189.3 gm.

Wetcht of inse

lb. 5.5 0o2-
1b. 2.8 oz.
1b. 1.4 oz.
1b.

lb. 0.7 oz.

13.4 oz.
378.5 ga.

11.1 os.
315.4 gm.

8.3 oz.
236.6 gm.

6.7 oz.
189.3 gm.

5.6 oz.
157-7 gm.

4.2 oz.
118.3 gm.

3.3 OZ.
94.6 gm.

4 1b. 2.8 oz.

2 ld. 1.4 oz.

1 lb. 0.7 oz

11.1 os.
315.4 gn.

8.2 oz.

236.6 gm.

6.7 oz.
189.3 gm.

5.6 oz
157.7 gn.

4.2 oz.
118.3 gn.

33 0%

94.6 gm.

2.2 oz.
78.9 gn.

2.1 OZ.
59.1 gm.

1.7 og.
47.3 gm.

2 lb. 8.0 oz.

1 1b. 4.0 oz.

10.0 oz.
283.9 gn.

6.7 oz.
189.3 gn.

5.0 oz.
141.9 gn.

4.0 oz.
113.6 Qe

3.3 oz.
94.6 em.

2.5 oz.
71.0 gn.

2.0 oz.
56.8 em.

1.7 02.
47.3 gm.

1.3 OZ.
35-5 em.

1.0 oz.
28.4 gm.

cticide in indicated quantity of water

eo

Lp. 1057-07.

13.4 oz.
378.5 gm.

6.7 oz.
189.3 gn.

4.5 oz.
126.2 gm.

3.3 o-
94.6 gm.

2.7 oz.
15-7 gi.

2.2 02.
63.1 en.

1.7 oz.
47.3 em.
1.3 oz.
37.9 gm.

1.1 of.
31.5 gn.

13.4 ar.
23.7 gm.

10.7 dr.
18.9 gm.

13.4 oz.
378.5 gm.

6.7 oz.
189.3 gm.

3.3% 02.

-

94.6 gn.

2.2 Of.
63.1 gm.

1.7 OZ.
47.3 gm.

1.3 oz.
37-9 gm.

1.1 os.
31.5 gm.

13.4 ar.
23.7 gm.

10.7 dr.
18.9 gn.

8.9 dr.
15.8 em.

6.7 dr.
11.8 gm.

5.3 ar.
9.5 gm.

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=15-

fabdle 6.—Quantities of insecticidal materials giving certain dilutions in parts by liquid measure in various quantities of water.

1-loo

1-500

n-600

11-800

1-1, 000

-1,200

1-1, 600

2,000

1 qt.
1.6 pt.

2/3 at.
1 1/3 pt.

1 pt.

8 pt.
12.8 fl.oz.

2/3 pt.
10.7 fl.oz.

4 pt.

& fl.oz.

4 pt.
6.4 fl.oz.

4 at.
1 gl.

2 qt.
1 qt.

2/3 ate
1 1/3 pt.

1 pt.

8 pt.
12.8 fl.oz.

2/3 pt.
10.7 fl.oz.

4 pt.
& fl.oz.

4 pt.
6.4 fl.oz.

1/3 pt.
5.3 ison,

¢ pt.
4 fl.oz.

3.2 fl.oz.
94.6 ml.

2 qt.
1 qt.
1 pt.
2/3 pt.

10.7 fl.oz.

+ pt.
8 fl.oz.

-4 pt.
6.4 fl.oz.

1/3 pt.
5.3 fl.oz.

+ pt.
4 fl.oz.

3.2 fl.oz.
94.6 ml.

2.7 fl.oz.
78.9 ml.

2 fl.oz.
59.1 ml.

1.6 fl.oz.
47.3 ml.

4 pt.
6.4 fl.oz.

1.6 pt.
25.6 fl.oz.

8 pt.
12.8 fl.oz.

4 pt.
6.4 fl.oz.

4,3 fl.oz.
126.2 ml.

3.2 fl.os.
94.6 ml.

2.6 fl.oz.
75-7 ml.

2.1 fl.os.
63.1 ml.

1.6 fl.oz.
47.3 nl.

1.3 fl.oz.
37.9 ml.

1.1 fl.oz.
31.5 ml.

6.4 fl.ar.
23.7 ml.

5.1 fl.ar.
18.9 ml.

378.5 ml.

6.4 fl.oz.
189.3 ml.

3.2 fl.oz.
94.6 ml.

2.1 fl.oz.
63.1 ml.

1.6 fl.oz.
47.3 ml.

1.3 fl.oz.
37-9 ml.

1.1 fl.oz.
31.5 ml.

6.4 fl.ar.
23.7 ml.

5.1 fi.dr.
18.9 ml.

4,3 fl.ar.
15.8 ml.

3.2 fl.dr.
11.8 ml.

2.6 fl.ar.
9.5 ml.

7-7 fl.oz.
227.1 ml.

3.8 fl.oz.
113.6 ml.

1.9 fl.oz.
56.8 ml.

1.3 fl.oz.
37.8 ml.

7-7 fl.dr.
28.4 ml.

6.2) 21. ar.
22.7 ml.

5.1 fl.ar.
18.9 ml.

3.8 fl.dr.
14.2 ml.

3.1 fl.ar.
11.4 mi.

2.6 fl.ar.
9.5 ml.

1.9 fl.dr.
7.1 mil.

1.5 fl.ar.
5.7 ml.



5.1 fl.oz.
151.4 mi.

2.6 fl.oz.
15-7 ml.

1.3 fl. of
37-9 ml.

6.8 fl.dr.
25.2 ml.

5.1 fl.ar.
18.9 ml.

4.1 fl.ar.
15.1 ml.

3-4 fl.ar.
12.6 mi.

2.6 fl.ar.
9.5 nl.

2.U fl.dr.
7-6 ml.

1.7 fl.dr.
3 ml.

6.

1.3 fl.ar.
4.7 ml.
g

dr.

2B;

we

2.6 fl.oz.
75.7 mi.

1.3 fl.oz.
37-9 ml.

5.1 fl.édr.
18.9 ml.

3.4 fl.dr.
12.6 ml.

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3.2 ml.

2.4 ml.

1.9 ml.

18.926 ml.
9.463 ml.
4.732 ml.
3.154 ml.
2.366 ml.
1.893 ml.
1.577 ml.
1.183 ml.
0.946 ml.
0.789 ml.
0.591 ml.

0.473 ml.

0-000 ml.
10.000 ml.
5.000 ml.
3-333 ml.
2.500 ml.
2.000 ml.
1.667 ml.
1.250 ml.
1.000 mil.
0.833 ml.

0.625 ml.

0.500 ml.
ac

——S—_ eee O_O

In preparing sprays or dusts with certain insecticides, notably the
finely ground rotenone—bearing roots, the dilution is based upon the percent—
age (by weight) of the active ingredient desired in the finished combination.
The following formulas may be found useful in determining the correct quan—
tity of insecticide to be used,

Water suspensions or solutions.—-To determine the quantity of insecti-
cide necessary for a given percentage of active ingredient in the diluted
spray, multiply the number of gallons of water by 8.545 by the percentage
of active ingredient desired in the spray, and divide by the percentage of
active ingredient in the insecticide. If, when making up small quantities
of spray, it is desirable to calculate the quantity of insecticide in grams,

substitute 3,785.35 for 8,345.

Example: Fifty gallons of spray containing 0.025 percent of rotenone
is desired. The powdered root to be used contains 3.9 percent of rotenone.
The quantity of this powder to be used is

50 X 8.345 X 0.025 = 2.7 pounds.
3:9

To determine the percentage of active ingredient in a given quantity
of diluted spray when the quantity of powder used and its active of ingredient
content are known, multiply the number of pounds of powder by the percentage
of active ingredient it contained and divide by the number of gallons of
spray times 8.345. -—

Example; One pound of ground derris root containing 4.8 percent of
rotenone was used to make 50 gallons of spray... The rotenone content of
the spray was

1X 4.8 =0,.0115 percent.
50 X 8,345

Dusts. To determine the quantity of insecticide to be used in pre—
paring a dust containing a given percentage of active ingredient, multiply
the percentage of active ingredient desired by the number of pounds of dust
to be made and divide by the percentage of active ingredient in the insecti-
cide to be used.

Example: One hundred pounds of dust containing 0.50 percent of
rotenone is to be prepared. The powdered roct to be used contains 4.0 per-
cent of rotenone. The quantity of the roct necessary is

0.50 X 100 = 12.5 pounds.

-—--=— =

Sufficient diluent is then added to make 100 pounds.

To determine the percentage of active ingredient in a dust when the
quantity of insecticide used, its percentage active ingredient, and the
total weight of the prepared dust are known, multiply the number of pounds
of insecticide used by the percentage of active ingredient it contains and
divide by the number of pounds of dust prepared,



5
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Example: Twenty pounds of ground cube root containing 4 percent of
» .rotenone had been used in making up 100 pounds of dust. The rotenone
content of the dust was

20 X 4.0 = 0.8 percent.
100

Percentage of Active Ingredient When Insecticide Is Diluted by Par s



When the percentage of active ingredient (rotenone, etc.) in the
insecticide is known, the dilution, in parts, necessary to give a stated
percentage of the active ingredient in the spray is obtained as follows:
Divide the percentage of active ingredient in the insecticide by the per-—
centage desired in the diluted spray.

Example: A spray containing 0.05 percent of nicotine is desired.
The insecticide contains 40 percent of nicotine.

40_ = 800

--———

0.05
The dilution is therefore 1 part of the insecticide to 800 parts of water.

When the percentage of active ingredient in the insecticide and the
dilution (by parts) that was used are known, the percentage of active in-
gredient in the dilute spray may be obtained as follows: Divide the per-
centage of active ingredient in the insecticide by the dilution used.

Example: An alcoholic extract of pyrethrum containing 2 percent of
total pyrethrins was diluted 1 to 400. The percentage of pyrethrins in the
diluted spray was

2_ = 0.005 percent.

400

"
©

Equivalent Dilutions of Active Ingredient in Part nd Percentages





Dilutions of rotenone and pyrethrins are often given as 1-5,000,
1-10,000, etc. The equivalent percentages for a number of these dilutions
are given below.

Parts Percent Parts Percent
1-500 0.2 1-5 ,000 0.02
1-1, 000 Onl 1-6, 000 0.0167—
1-1 ,500 0.0667— 1-7 ,000 0.0143-
1-2 ,000 0.05 1-8 ,000 0.0125
1-2 ,500 0.04 1-9, 000 0.0111+
i-3 ,000 0 .0333+ 1-10,000 0.02
1-4,000 02025 1-20,000 0.005
= os






CONVERSION OF SMALL-SCALE DOSAGES TO LARGE-SCALE QUANTITIES :
Dusts and Soil Insecticides

The quantities of dust or soil insecticides necessary for large——
scale application, in pounds per acre, may be calculated from the quantities ©
used in small-scale tests as foilows: Multiply the number of grams or
ounces per square foot by 43,560, or per square yard by 4,840, and divide
by 455.59 if the dosage is in grams, and by 16 if it iS in ounces.

Example: A dust has been found effective in small-scale tests when
used at the rate of 0.30 gram per square foot. The equivalent dosage per
acre would be

0.30 X 43,560 = 29 pounds.
453.59

To determine the number of square feet (or square yards) that 1 pound
of a given material will cover when the small-scale dosage per square foot
(or square yard) is known, divide 453.59 by this dosage if it is in grams,
and 16 by this dosage if it is in ounces.

Example: In the case of the 0.50 gram per square foot dosage men—
tioned above, 1 pound of the material would cover

453.59 or 1,512 square feet.
0.30

To determine the quantity of material to be used for 1 square foot
when the large-scale dosage is known, multiply the number of pounds per acre
by 453.59 to obtain dosages in grams, and by 16 to obtain dosages in ounces,
and divide the product by 43,560. For dosages per square yard the divisor
is 4,840.

Examples: A dosage equivalent to 50 pounds per acre of a given dust
is to be tried on a small scale. The dosage per square foot is

30 X 453.59 = 0.31 gram.
43,560

or 30 X 16 = 0.011 ounce.
43,560

Some of these values that have been worked out and may be convenient
for reference are given in the following table:




= 25

Equivalent small- and large-scale dosages

sess











Pounds
Dosage per square foot Square feet that 1 pound will cover per acre
Gram
O21 4,536 9.6
.10413 4,356 10.0
. 15619 2,904 15:0
.20 1,814 24.0
260352 1,742 20.0
Ounce
0.005 5,200 13.61+
.008 2,000 21.78
.O1 1,600 27 .22+
.016 1,000 43.56
025 640 68 .06+
.064 200 174.24
LS 100 435.6

FUMIGANTS

The dosages of fumigants used in laboratory tests are readily con-
verted to quantities to be used in large-scale work by the following relation-
Ship: Milligrams per cubic decimeter (liter) is approximately equal to
ounces per 1,000 cubic feet.

The concentration of a given fumigant in the gaseous state within
the fumigation chamber, generally determined by aspiration, is usually
calculated in milligrams per cubic decimeter, and therefore, the same rela-
tionship would apply.

A series of tables, and formulas to use in connection with then,
On the maximum weights of a number of common fumigants that can exist in
vapor form in a 1,000 cubic foot fumigation chamber has been published
by Roark and Nelson(5).
_

= 2
MISCELLANEOUS

Capacity of Sprayer Tanks




The capacity of the tanks of hand or power sprayers, in gallons, be
calculated by 0.0034 as follows:

Cylindrical tanks: Multiply length by square of the diameter, in inches,
by 0.0034.

Rectangular tanks: Multiply length by width by depth, in inches, by 0.004329.

Tanks with elliptical cross section: Multiply length by short diameter by
long diameter, in inches, by 0.0034.

From the commercial grain alcohol of 95 or any other known percentage,
solutions of lower percentage can be prepared as follows: Into a 100-ml.
graduate pour as many milliliters of the stronger solution as the percentage
required in the weaker. Then add water until the mixture reaches the
milliliter mark equivalent to the percentage of the stronger solution.

For example, to make 70—percent from 95-percent alcohol, pour into
the graduate 70 ml. of the 95—-percent solution and fill to the 95-ml. mark
with water. The result is 95 ml. of a 70-percent solution.

The same procedure can be used for any other liquid, such as acetone,
that is miscible with water, and in fact for any pair of miscible liquids.

The percentages obtained by this procedure must be expressed in
terms of volume, not weight.

|


ae
Temperature Conversion

Degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Centigrade: °C. = °F, — 32 X 5/9.

Degrees Centigrade to degrees Fahrenheit: oF, = °C. X 9/5 + S32.

A number of equivalents of the two scales are presented below:



oF, = 2B Ps
0 -17.78 110 43.33
10 -12.22 120 48 .89
14 -10 Len 50
20 - 6.67 150 04.44
50 ret alee La 140 60
32 0 150 65.56
40 4.44 158 70
50 10 160 ig
60 15.56 170 Gyo r
68 20 176 80
70 Ble 180 Sener
&0 26.67 190 87.78
86 10) 194 90
| 90 DeLee 200 93.53
100 Oto 210 98.89
104 40 really 100

LITERATURE CONSULTED
(1) Bearce, Henry W.
1936. United States and British units of weights and measures. Sci.
Monthly 43:566-568.

(2) National Bureau of Standards.

1914. Units of weights and measures. Definitions and tables of
equivalents. U. S. Dept. Commerce, Bur. Standards, Cir. 47,
68 pp.

(3) National Bureau of Standards.
1920. Household weights and measures. U. S. Dept. Commerce, Bur.
Standards, Misc. Pub. 39, 2 pp.

(4) National Research Council.
1926. International critical tables of numerical data, physics,
chemistry and technology. v.11, pp. 1-15. New York.

(5) Roark, R. C., and Nelson, QO. A.
2 Maximum weights of various fumigants which can exist in vapor

form in a 1,000 cubic foot fumigating chamber. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 22:3581-387.

©
Or

(6) United States Government Printing Office.
1939. Style manual, rev. ed. 346 pp. Washington.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

MM

62 09224 73