Lonchocarpus (barbasco, cube, and timbo)


Material Information

Lonchocarpus (barbasco, cube, and timbo)
Physical Description:
Roark, R. C ( Ruric Creegan )
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. -- Division of Insecticide Investigations
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Insecticide Investigations ( Washington, D.C )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030261744
oclc - 03911872
System ID:

Full Text
owen:-w *. .








Washington, D. C.

October 1938




Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013


E- 453 October 1938

United States Department of Agriculture
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Q(.'rantine



By R. C. Roark, Division of Insecticide Investigations

Introduction ....... ........... ............... 2
Common names ..... ... .... . . . . . . ...... ........... 2
References to the botany of
Lonchocarpus ............ ...... .. ..................... 13
Cultivation of Lonchocarpus ............................ 16
Pests attacking Lonzhocarpus ............................ 23
Use of Lonchoc-arpus as a fish poison .................... 23
Pharmacology of Lonchoc-rp.us .................. .......... 25
Chemistr,- of Lonchocarpu 96
Chemistry- of1 onchocarpus .............................. 26
Assay of Lonchocarpus ............ .. .................... 30
Use of Lonchocarpus as an insecticide ................... 37
List of insects mentioned ............................... 82
Common and scientific names of insects ........................ 93
Patents ............................................................................. 95
Proprietary insecticides made from Lonchocarpus ......... 103
Statistics and prices ........... 103
Laws relating to Lonchocarpus .. ....................0.... 113
Reviews :nJ miscollneous information ................... 118
Acknowledgment .......... .. ............ ................... 126
Biblio,-u aphy *... .... *. .................. ......... ..*........... 127
ibl & ....... o.. 127
Index of junior authors ................................. 169
Patent index .......................................... 171
Chronological index ............ ................. ... .... 172



In March, 1936, the Pur..'au of Entomoloty and Plant Qarantine of the
United. States Departmcut of Agriculture is-.uee. mnimeographc'd publication lTo.
E-367, entitled, "Lonchocarpus species (B-irbasco, Cube, Haiari, Nckoc, and
Timbo) Used as Insecticides", in which all available information on the sub-
ject was reviewed. The purpose of this p:'.per is to sujriruirize information
on Lonchocarpus that has become available since March 1936, or that was
overlooked in the compilation EI-367.

Lonchocarpus has become the principal source of rotonone.used in the
United States. In 1936 this country imported 704,120 pounds cruoec cube,
timbo or barbasco root, 1,124,936 pounds powdered timbo root, and 510,337
pounds crude derris root.

Although the literature on insecticides cont.,ins many more references
to derris than to Lonchocarpus, the latter is receiving an increasing shorc
of attention. Insects controlled by the one are in most cases also control-
led by the other, and entomologists arc bcginning, to speak of rotonono dusts
and sprays without specifying whether m-adc from derris or Lonclcarpus.

The reader interested in the r6tcnone-be.tri: plants will find adIi-
tional ir.formiation on this subject in the publication E-402, "Tephrosia as
an Insecticide--A Review of the Literatura", issued February, T'937?.'eT in-
formation conccrnirg derris is now bcing compiled, and it is hoped that
eventually all the information on rotenone and related insecticides, whether
occurring in Derris, Lonchocarpus, Tophrosia, Mur.dulea, or other genera, will
be assembled in one publication.


Martius (270) in 1843 recorded that in Brazil P-iullinia pinnata L.
was called timbo and tinbo-sipo.

The Lima Geographic Society (261) in 1894 published a paper entitled,
"El barbasco (cubi o cumu)t)". This gn.ve information on several kinds of
barbasco which arc mostly species of Tcphrosia. Lonchocarpus is not men-

The following common rn.nLs for species of Lonchocarpus have been noted:

Commnon names of Lonchocarpus spccics

Species Comeon naxe Where used Reference

atropurpureus jebe Veic zueI a Pittier,
Benth. 329,330

blackii (F. lucll.) bloody bark Not specified Gerth, 16

Quoensland lance-pod "


Common nrnc

blainii C. right

bussei Harns

chrysiphyllus l{leinh.

Whorc used

guaa cinarron Cube
giuri. hodiondo
guara hcdiondo honbra "
giura do San Bartolonc "


ol bararuai

black haiari


'., :KL-ro-koda



East Africa
11 It

British Guiana


British Guiana


Roig, 359

Stancr and

B .,ly, 14

Krukoff and
Smith, 255

I.'.rtyn and
Snith, 271

Krukoff and
Snith, 255

Pullc, 337

Krukoff and
Smith, 255

crucisrubicrac Pitticr

cyancsccins (Schum. &
Thonn.) Benth.






Pittier, ,

Kew, 240

Kcw, 240;

i ndigo
T'c^.1..,10 sa

West African indigo


ot specified

Kew, 240
Gcrth, 164
Kow, 240

Kew, 240;
Mol money,
285; Gerth,

- 3 -



Conor- niLic

Yoruba indigo

denrsiflorus Bcnth.

donsiflorus noritzianus

dipter-nourus Pittier

dbningenr.is (Pors.) DC.

criocalyx Harms

fondlori Benth.

floribund.us Bonth.

hintoni Sandwith

katvngcnsis do Wild.

bastard haiari




guuia d.e naj .ua
gvm ina do so-a


T 14h,. 10

mrv.rj ono


t i-'oo rana
tinbo vcnonoso

timbo vcnonoso do P't.r.

wv/riri nok uru

a ricuahuc
: !jurica
palo do Are
z oppi acuaguo


latifolius (Willd.) E.B.K. acurutu

"' bitch 7ood
fuc r tc-vontura

guara cnL'c1lon

Whcro used


British Guina





Eas, t Africa





Surin -on



Vce czuc la

Iot specified
Pucrt-, Rico



AOv, 240;
Gcr-ti, 164;
K 'Hckcr 1D6

S.-. :ith, 271


329 ,330


Roi-, 359

S2lly, 14

a, 330

Krukoff and
S:'ith, 255

L C,''into,
"ru::off acd
Sni th, 255

Ko,-:, 241

djc tUildc-
..,.", 469

G.rth, 164
Roi', 359

2 C cic s

laxiflorus Guill. and

5 -

ConInon na:.o

guana do costva
7u vvn hcdionch
palo hocioondo

savonette jaurne


n owi ul oh

pamn a.

longipos Urb. & Ei-.

martwnii A. C. Snith

nirankinus Pitticr

nossu.',biccnis Si,,

nicou (Aubl.) DC,

pictus Pitticr

punctatus H.B.K.

ua'iaa de costa


whitc haiari



chicus ma

hai ari

tinbo lc.itino
tttbo rC'W'2i2L
white hoairi



Whoro usoed

Plcrto Rico

Not spccificod





British Guiana



Po tucrucfO
Z-.t Africa




Brit. Guiana




K..ig, 359
oi, 359
Pittior, 330;
Stcrhi, 393
G.rtl:, 164

Kcu, 240;
Sin, 377
Ke7, 3240;
Grant & Oli-
ver, 172
Keo7, 240;
Sin, 377

RoiLj, 359

Krukoff and
Snith, 255

Pittier, 330

Sin, 377


In'L- s, 136


L ac.rtyn onc
Snith, 271
Er:nst, 132
F-'Cundes, 136

Fnunxldos, 136
LcCcintc, 258
Martin Pnac
Sni th, 271

Pittier, 329

Pittior, 329,



rariflorus Mart.

roses DC.

rubiginosus Benth.

rufescens Benth.

Conn:on nanc

black haiari



faia-fai(a) noroko


t'izibo a o..crei-
tdibo c-U."run. *.


Saint-Martin rouge

bois enivrant
liane a enivrer les

Where used

Brit. Guiana

Braz il

Brit. Gul.ana




Not specified


Martyn and
Smith, 271
Krukoff and
Smith, 255
Krukoff std
Smi th, 255
Martyn and
Smith, 271
Krtukoff 'nd
Suith, 255

Dupes, 121

Gerth, 164

liane a nivre
real hiarree
robinier nicou
vicchgiftl iaair.

sericeus (Poir.) H.B.K.

box lonchocarpus
buchsrrnlo nchcc-trpus
gu-na bobo
lonchocarpo a boites
mutala-mc rha

Not specified

116t spe'i fied
1 Tigeria
i.T'.t specified


yoruba "i

Lindley, 252
Gorth, 164

Kow. 240
Gorth, 164
Roig, 359
Kow, 240
Gorth, 164
Kcw, 240;
Kew, 240;
285; Paris
Kow, 240

- 7 -


Common name

sylvestris A. C. Smith

barbasco del no nte

sacha barbasco

tonentosus Tul,

urucu Killip and Smith


tinbo assu

tinbo cnrajura
timbo carajura
tinbo uassu

timbo urucu
timbo urucu
timbo urucu
tinbo vcrnelho
tinbo verelho

tinbo verniclho


cube do alnidon

tinbo legitino
tinbo nacaquino
timbo urubu
tinbo verdLadeiro

Where used




Brazil 1








Ecuir dor


Krukoff 'and
Snith, 255

Cortes, 91

Gleason, 166
Krukoff and
Smith, 255

LeCointe, 25E
Kruj:off and
Smith, 255

Fagundes, 136
LeCointe, 256
Silva, 374
Krukoff and
Snith, 255
LeCointe, 258






violaceus (Jacq.) H.B.K.

gene geno
M.argari ta
stinkhDl. t
tingi hoedoe

Not specified
Not specified
Not specified



utilis A. C. Snith


Connon iaico

guano negro

n 0
oonan nekoe

reddi nokoo
red haiari
tinbo branco

timbo do nassa
tinbo legitino
tijibo nanso
tinbo pao
timbo pau (do nassa)
tinbo vordadoiro

Whore used


rr'nch Guiana

Brit. Guiana


yurabo indigo



Roth, 360
Roth, 360
Ba?-.-: : "', 16;
Roth, 360

Sack, 363
Krukoff and
S.-i th, 255

Kapplor, 233
Sack, 363
Krukoff and
Smith, 255


LeCointo, 258
Krukoff and
Smith, 255
Crntloy, 64


L. sp.

-9 -

BotanicaL identity of plants listed alphabetically according to co:;non nano,

Coannon nwno

barbasco del monte
bastard haiari
bitch wood
black haiari '
black haiari
bloody bark
bois enivrant
box lonchocarpus
buchsenloncho carpus
cube de almidon
faia-fai (a) norodeo
geno gono
guama bobo
guama cc.ndclon
guam-n, cimarron T.
guama de costa
guama do costa
guama hediondo

Species of Loncho carps

L. punctatus H.B.K.
L. latifolius (Willd.) H.B.K.
L. violaceus (Jacq.) H.B.1.
L. bussel Earnris.
L. sericeus (Poir.) H.B.K.
L. hintoni Sandwith
L. martynii A. C. Smith
L. violaceus (Jacq.) H.B.K.
L. nicou (Aubl.) DC.
L, urucu Killip and Smith
L. utilis A. C. Smith
L. sylvestris A. C. Smith
L, densiflorus Benth.
L. tomentosus Tul.
L. latifolius (Willd.) H.B.K.
L. chrysophyllus Kleinh.
L. rariflorus Mart.
L. blackii (F. Muell.) Benth.
L. rufescens Benth.
L. sericeus (Poir.) H.B.K.
1. scriceus (Poir.) H.B.K.
L. roseus DC.
L. hintoni Sandwvith
L. mossambicensis Sim
L, mossambicensis Sim
L. nicou (Aubl.) DC.
I.utilis, A..vSith
L.nicou (hubiX.)D B.u
: tlis C Sith
L. 'tLis A.C. Smith
L. rariflorus Mart.
LI. cyanescens (Schum. & Thonn,)
L. cyanescens (Schum. & Thonn.)
L. rariflorus Mart.
1. rariflorus Mart.
L. latifolius (Willd.) H.B.K.
L. cyanescens (Schum. & Thonn.)
L. violaceus H.B.K.
L. cyanoscens (Schum, & Thoni,.)
L. dipteroneurus Pittier
L, mirandinus Pittier
L, domingonsis (Pers.) DC.
L. serious (Poir.) H.B.K.
L. latifolius (Willd.) H.B.K.
I. blainii C. Wright
L. latifolius (Willd.) H.B.K.
L. longipes Urb. & Ekm.
L. blainii C. WrighAt




Species of Lorchocarpus

guaima hediondo
guana hodiordo hembra
guana d.o majagua
guana negro
guana do San Bartolone
guura de soga
guano nogro Q
liano a enivrer l1s poisons
liano a nivro
lonchocarpe a bites
Margari ta
nenudi to
neko o
oenan nekoe
ol bararuai
o s sani
palo do .Iro
palo hecdiondo




. L.
. L.

, L.

latifolius (Willd.) H.B.K.
bldinii 0. Wright
doningonsis (Pors.) DC.
s p *...
blainii C. Wright
domiirgnnsis (Pers.) DC.
donrisiflorus Bonth.
nicou (Aabl.) Do.
laxiflorus Guill. and. Porr.
cyamniscons (Schun. & Thorm.) Bcnth.
nicou (Aubl.) DC.
soriceus (Poir.) H.B.K.
aprrp-rpjura'us Bonth.
rufeocens Benth.
rufocsrois Bonth.
scricous (Poir.) H.B.K.
fnndlcri Benth.
densiflorus naritzianus Benth.
fendleri Bonth.
violaceus (Jacq.) H.B.K.
bussoi Harms.
crucisrubierao Pitticr
laxiflorus Guill. and Perr.
nosssnbicensis Sin
Aericous (Poir.) H.B.K.
eriocalyx Harrs
cyanoscerns (Schlui. & Thonn.) 3Bcnth.
chrysophyllus Kleinh.
violaccus (Jacq.) H.B.K.
cynnescens (Schun. & Thonn.) Bcnth.
cyanoscens (Schun. & Thonn.) Bcnth.
nicou (Aubl.) DC.
rufoscons Benth.
rarifloras Mart.
bussoi Harms
sericcus (Poir.) H.B.K.
nicou (Aubl.) DC.
utilis A. C. S:-ith
hintoni Sandwith
latifoliuas (Willd.) H.B.K.
laxiflorus Guill. and Porr.

Columori nojno

- 11 -

Coy ,1on nmom

Species -f Lrnchocaryis

Queensland lance-pod
real hiarreo
reddi nelcoo
red haiari
robinier nicou
sach7. barbasco
Saint-Marti:i rcugo
savonotto Jauno
tirbo amarello
tinrbo assu
tinrabo bronco
tinbo carajura
tinbo cururu
tinbo de nassa
tinbo legitino
tinbo logitimo
tirbo logitimo
tinbo macaquino
tinbo nacaquino
tinbo nmanso
tinbo pao
timbo pau (do nassa)
tinbor ia
tinbo uassu
tinbo urubu
tinbo urucu
tinbo vonenoso
timbo vonenoso do Para
timbo vordadeiro
timbo vcrdadeciro
tinbo vcrnoilbo
t inu-m.b i
tingi hoodoo








nossanMbicensis Sin
blackii (F. Muell.) Benth.
rufescens Benth.
rufoscons Benth
sylvestris A. C. Snith
rubigino sias Bonth.
latifolius (Willd.) H.3.K.
violaceus (Jacq.) H.B.K.
violaceus (Jacq.) H.D.X.
floribundus 3cnth.
nicou (Aubl.) DC.
sylvestris A. C. Smith
utilis 0. C. Smith
rai iiflo ms J.art.
uruc.u Xillip and Smith
urucu Killip a.nd Smith
rarif'lorus Mart,.
nicoui (Aubl.) DC.
utilis A. C. Smith
utilis A. C. Smith
nicou (Aubl.) DC.
filoribundlu.s Bonth.
sylvestris A. C. Smith
urucu Killip and Smith
utilis A. C. Sr-ith
urucv. Killip rnd Smith
floribuidus 3cnth.
floribtumdus 3Bcnth.
utilis A. C. #Smith
urucu Killip and Smith
sylvcstris A. C. Smith
utilis A. C' Snith
utilis A. C. Smith
violacous H.B.K.
kat -Lnonsis do Willd.
crucisrubicrac Pittier
pictuis Pittier
rufescens Denth.

sp._,_ "'f Li chlocLL-_qpus

West African indigo
white haiari
white haiari
wiriri ranekuru
yurabo indigo
yoruba indigo

L. chrysophyllus Klcinrh.
L. chrycophyllus Kleinh.
L. chrysoplyllus Kloinh.
L. cyanescens (Schmri. & Thonn,) 2onth.
L. -.iartynii A. C. Snith
L. nicau (Aubl.) DC.
L. floribundas Bcntli.
L. scriceus (Poir.) H.D.K.
L. sp.
L. cyanoscenr.s (Schun. & Thonn.) Denth.
L. hintoni Sandwith

Com';on at lC.20

- 12 -

- 13 -


Willdenow, in the fourth edition of Linne's (263) Species Plantar-
um, published in 1801, described Robinia scandens Willd. Lonchocarpus
nicou) from Guiana.

Gaillmin, Perrottet and Richard (179) in 1833 described Lonchocar-
pus formosianus DC. and L. laxiflorus Guill. and Perr. from Senegambia, Africa.

Information concerning the genus Lonchocarpus H.B.K. was given by
Endlicher (127) in 1840, and by Meisner (280) in 1843.

Miquel (284) in 1844 described Lonchocarpus hedyosmus and L.
pterocarpus [Derris pterocarpus (DC.) Killip] from Surinam.

Mueller (288) in 1A61 described Milletoja blackii, which according
to Bentham and Mueller (Flora Australiensis 2: 272. 1864) is Lonchocarpus
blackii Benth.

Harvey and Sonder (189) in 1862 described plants of the Cape Colony,
Africa, region, including Lonchocarpus philenoptera Benth. This is stated
to be a native also of Mozambique and Abyssinia.

Grant and Oliver(172) in 1872 described Lonchocarpas laxiflorus
Guill. and Perr., and L. violaceus H.B.K. from eastern Africa.

Holmes (195) in 1875 reported on a specimen of timbo collected in
the province of Rio, Brazil, by Cyriax and Farries and presented to the
Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society, London. It was not identified botan-
ically. The taste was not bitter. When chewed the root caused only a
slight but persistent tingling of the tongue.

Lindley (262) in 1876 described Lonchocarpus as an extensive genus
of leguminous plants, of which the greater number are tropical American,
seven tropical African, and one Australian. Some are small trees, seldom
exceeding 30 or 40 feet in height, and others tall climbing shrubs with
woody stems. They have alternate pinnate leaves, except in a solitary
species from Southern Mexi=o, in which they are reduced to a single leaflet;
and their pea-like flowers are in racemes and either purple reddish or white,
but never yellow. The genus is solely distinguished from its congeners by
its pods, the structure of its flowers not differing from that of Piscidia
and other allied genera. The pod is flat, much longer than broad, varying
from a thin paperlike to a hard woody consistency, and without wings along
the edges, the seed-bearing edge being merely thickened or flattened.

Duges (121) in 1881 recorded "Cacahuananchi" as a common name
applied in Jalisco, Mexico, to Lonchocarpus roseus.

Ernst (130) in 1881, in a description of the most important families
of plants found in Venezuela, included Lonchocarpus violaceus as an example
of a plant belonging to the tribe Dalbergieas.

- 13a -

Vatke (448) in 1881 described Tonehocarpus? incobnstans Vatke from

Baker (12) in 1887 described L; paullinioides as anew species from

Moloney (285); in 1887 described Lonchocarpus sericeus H.B.K. as" an
erect tree 30 to 40 feet high, very common on the sea-shore of Upper Guinea
and Lower Guinea. The wood is close-grained and durable. L. cyanescens Benth.
is a woody climber, 20 to 30 feet long.'

Hooker (196) in 1887-1888 published drawings of Lonchocarpus cyanescens
Benth. from West.tropical-Africa.

Baker (13) in 1889 described L. polystachus as a new species from

Bolus (33) in 1889 described Lonchocarpus speciosus Bolus as a very
distinct new species from South Africa. This has large and handsome bright
blue flowers.

Tenison-Woods (401) in 1889 wrote of fish-poison plants used in
Malaysia. In speaking of one of these, Pongamia volubilis Zoll. and Mor.,
he says, "it is a climbing plant very much like Derris: in fact it is only
separated from that genus and Lonchocarpus by the peculiarity of its pods.'1

Sacleux (364) in 1891 included L. laxiflorus Guill. and Perr. in a
list of plants of Zanzibar and other African countries.

Engler (128) in 1895 wrote that Lonc'Locarpus laxlflorus Guill. and
Perr. is widely distributed throughout tropical Africa.

Durand and de Wildeman (122) in 1897 gave information concerning
the following Congo species: Lonchocarpus eetveldeanus Micheli, L. dewevrei
Micheli, L. comosus Micheli, and L. barter Benth.

Cortes (91) in 1898 published information on Lonchoir-:us atropurpureus,
L. guatomalensis Benth., L. latifolius H.B.K., L. longifJ-is, L. macro-
phyllus H.B.K., L. sepium DC., L. sericeus H.B.K., L. tor:entosus Tul., L.
velutinus Benth. and L. violaceus H.B.K. growing in Colombia.

Chevalier (73) in 1902 described, with drawings, Lonchocarpus cyan-
escens Benth. growing in French Sudan.

- 14 -

GrancliClier (17.) il. 1902 published inforratJon on tho synonryn,-,
botanic-! ch-aracteristics and. occurrence in Madagascar of Lonchocarpus
icthyoctonus h. liill-n, Lcnc -carnmus inconstans Vat3e, Lonchocorpus
p:au 1 i nioid 3.O raker, and "Lon-aus -polystachus Bakcer, and stated.
that this rc.rls scarcely dAiffer8 f'rom Kiilletia and. in the absence of
nature fruits the allocation of a species to one or the other of thece Gen-
era is rather arbitrary.

I.inderlein (303) in a descriptinca of the plant resources of the French
colonies published in 1902 1l sted LTonchocarnus latifolius H.D.K. as occurring
in Hartinique, L. nrbifinos-as Jernt.. .n Gua:lelmupe, French Guiana an.d- else-
where and other species of LonchIocz:-rrus in the sa;ie cnuntriE-s. L. nicot is
listed front French CuLnE i unLer "nucicinal plants."

Mi-heli (281) in 1903 doscribeod, with drawings, Lonchoca.rpus criocar-
inalis as a new species. L. er-'opo. lus Lenth., ;;uatern.alc.sis Lonth.,
and. L. violaceus H..K. are lis4ed as Me:.ic:=n species.

6.d Wildenan (469) in 1905 public'-ic descriptions cf useful or inter-
estin; plants found in the Corjo, inclulinr Loncihocarpus Dewevrei Micheli,
L. services H.D.K. an,' L. ataV-c.isis doe W1ild.

Hams (188) in 1906 dcscr'ibed ?olus ..thus Haxis as a neow *-r-i. He
also nado the transfer BoluqL.nthus snuciosus (Dolus) Harris ( Lonchocarpus
speciosus Bolus) from South Africa.

Pulle (337) in 1906 include. L-ncIocarpus ser"icvs ... and rorris
guyanensis Denth. in a list cf Surinw:i plants.

Sin (377) in 1909 described, with drawings, Lonchocarpus laxiflorus
Guill, and. Porr. a:-d L. nossanbiconsis Sin front Portia uose East Africa.

Engler anOd Drude (129) in 1910 published a drawi:-ug f Lonchocrarpus
cyamescens Denth, from West Africa.

The Rcw Fo.:'l Dot-.nic Gardens (240) in 1911 pfibli:hrJ. information
on the botan,-, vernacular ianes and uses of Lonchocarpu c:anescons Lenth.,
L. laxiflorus Guill. and Perr. and L. scriceus H..K. Thee are all found
in Niccria.

Pittier (328) in 1923 described. Lonchocarpus pi-.tus Pittier as a
new species found in Venezuela.

Dl'ackc (119) in 1925 published I'otanical information concerning
Lonchocarpus nuitus DLuc':eC, L. nicou (Aubl.) DO., L. paniculatus Duc,:c, and
L. rariflorus ecn'.t. rirowing in the Araazon region of -L:-azil.

Pittier (329) in 1926 publisher a nanual of Venezuelan plants.
Included are: L. atrop-iro',ireus Denth., L. dCensiflorus noritzianus Denth.,
L. diptcronourus Pittier, L. fendleri 3enth., L. latifolius (Willd.) H.D.K.,
L. pictUs aid L. punctaius H.B.K.

- 15 -

Pittier (36C) in 1928 described the following species of Louehiocarpus
growing in Venezunla;: L. -tr.-pu,"pu-cur, Donth., L. crucis-r'uibierac Pittier,
L. ducsiflorus 2entn,, L. Oiptermneurus Pittier, L. fcrdlcrri Lenth., L. cuar-
icensis Pittier, L. iarunsis Pitkier. L. irtifolius (1711,V.) H.D.K., L. lutus-
cAc.s Pittier, L. i.acrocarpus -enth., L. .ira-nmdinus Pittier, L.1 ic7grensls
month _L. niticuluzs 'ontih. L. 2ictus Pittier, L. punctib-us H..::., L. sor-
iccu3s H.D.X. L. stcnopteoris Pittier, L. stonuras Pittier, stri__,ous
Pitticr, aixd L. violacoUs (Jacq.) H..I:.

In Gleason's (166) accoujit of botanical explorations in the region of
Mt. Duidc.a, Venezuela, A. C. Snith has a description of Lornchc.c-%uis urucu
Killip andCI SnitJh. It is calleL. barbasco and used. to poison fish. The species
is so ftr known o.rly fro- Gurupa, ir. the 3tJ.te of Para, but is to be cx-
pectc! alone tributariee of the I.AnaZo and ITjJ'rj.

Pull.e (338) i, 1.933 ciscussod the btany of Lonchocarpus chrysophyllus
Kleinh. and L. hL'.-,p:-c :;iq.

Accordclin, to rl.in (244) Rosinia nico..' = Lonchocarpus rufescens,

Silva (375) in 1935 published 'nl illustration of Ti-be v:'rnLlho
( Lonchocarpus uirucu).

Lartyn an(l Follett-Smith (271) in 1936 r;corded that tho follow ir.
species of Lonchocarpus used as fish poisons have eoon reported from 'ritish
Guiana: L. nicou (Au-1.) DC., L. consiflorm's ernth. ard L. rarifiorus Hart.

Stahl (393) in 1936 pjublishcl. rnfom.ntion on the botany, s.'no.iyr,.y
and distribution i- th' .t-tillcs of L. latifoliius E..K. and. L. violaceus
H. .K.

The Kow Royal :otanic Gardens (241) in 1936 described Ln nchccarous
hintoni Sandwith as a new species from Mexico. It is, a 30-fo't. trCCee with
bluc or pinrc flo,.:crv.

Kriikoff mnd Smith (255) in 1937 rel.ortedrl a study of ten species of
South .iorican rotonone-yielO.di-v, plants includin- three neoi species (Ljncho-
carpus sylvcstris, L. Martynii, and- L. utilis), with special reference to
native naics, distribution, economic importance, and speci,,ens ex=anined.
Descriptions and crr.,.''risons of foliage are sufficiently- complete to permit
the identification of sterile -natoriai. Niots of use to field workers have
been incorporated. The species concorneo(, fcr the nost part, 'clon- to the
le,-Lu.inous r;cnus Lonchiocarous, Series Fasciculti. Other species d.cscribod
are L. floribnundus Donth., L. r-.riflorus :,.a-'t., L. url.cu Killip and Smith,
L. chrys!.'hyllus Kleinh., and t;.r'L unknown species of I-nchocarus. Dcrris
anazonica Killip (L. :-. :rt "ifIs Donth.) is also described.

A lcg-'ni::ous Gllant collected in iAnazonas and i:atto Grosso, irazil,
contained an oavcrae of 0.6 percent rotenono in the root. This plant :no.n
locally as Timbo verielhn and Timbo nelancia, oes -n.t bcloni to Lonchocarpus,
Derris, T-phrosia or Ornocarju2,,. The bulk of cube or barbacco :roots exported

- 16 -

fro--, Peru come from L. utilis A. C. Smith and not L. niicou (Aubl.) DC.,
Which is iounid in the Guianas. Thec bulk of roots and powder exported from
Para and Mar'A.nos is the product of L. urucu.

Pa:.shin (514) in 1937 published a description of the wood anatomy of
the rotenone-yielding plants collected by Krukoff and Smith in South America.
His conclusions:

"A critical analysis of deta indicates a striking sinilarity
in so far as the structure of xylem of the species described
in this paper is concerned, The -aatomical variations recorded
were most3y those of size and fre'-uercy of different types of
wood elements, Horevcr, those varation Were in many cases rno
greater than those found in the sections of stem and root taken
From different parts of the seane plant. Since the n-unber of
specinens available front different plants of eaich species was
in some cases srall., it is iMpossible at this writing to ascer-
tain whether the variations in size and number of xylem elements
are sufficiently constant to provide a reliable neans of separ-
ation for these closely allied species. The difference in color
of root wood in some cases appear to be constant enough to be of
aid in the field identification of these plants."

Staner and Boutique ("o95 in 1937 sunnarizd information on the botany,
geographical distribution and use as medicine of the Belgiar Cirngo species
of Lonchocarpus bussel Hirms., L. cyanescens Benth. and L. sericeus H.B.K.
taken largely from de Graer, Holland and Bally.

Chevalier and Chevalier (78) in 1937 described the anatomy of a root
of Lonchocarpus nicou from Peru and also of a root of timbo from the State
of Para, Brazil.


Africa.--Preuss (336) described the effects of a tornado on the night
of March 20-21, 1902, on the botanical g-rden at Victoria, Cameroons, Africa.
Lonchocarpus sericeus resisted the storm and is being considered as a pro-
tective tree for plantings of rubber Strophanthus, etc.

Brazil.--Ducke (119) in 1925 stated that L. nicou is cultivated in
Gurupa, Brazil, under the n-une "timbo urucu". NabOuco de Araujo, Jr., (292)
in 1936 reported on the growing of timbo in Brazil. In the Amazon Basin the
cultivation of timbo is being actively encouraged for the production of in-
secticidal products. All the household insecticides marketed in Brazil use
the timbo root received fromL the State of Para. Lonchocarpus species grow
abundantly throughout the Amazon region, and Brazil seems destined to become
the largest producer of cube or timbo, as it is called in this country. The
demand. for the roots seems to be so -reat that several firms and individuals
have recently started a camp aign locally to create interest in the cultiva-
tion of the species of timbo that will give the largest percentage of roten-
one. The species known as macaquinho gives the highest yield. Approximately

- 17 -

25 metric tons of c'.be or ti-ibo were Thip-'ei fror Para during 1934. The
average export price- on this nateripl 5n 1934 was about $480 per metric
ton, f.o.b., Beltr. Several pu-lverizer and xt-actioni plants are in oper-
ationi iin the states of -iazonas and Para. The averao contort of rotcnono
in the Brazilian. tinbo is about 5.5 to 6 percent. Carbon tetrachloride is
largely used for the extraction of rotenone from tinbo, ard the Brazilian
Govermiont has aided several in the importation of this solvent when used
for the extraction of rotunone.

An anonywious (5) writer in 1K37 referred to the interest in ro-tonono
Plants in Brazil and. the efforts of the -ouvorrnent to foster the growing of
tinbo arud the extraction of rot none. Only poftdrced root containing a min-
inum of 3.5 percent rotenone 'crai be exported. from the state of Para.

British Guiana.--The British Guian- Dcp.artncnt of Agriculture (48) in
its annual report for 1932 reported that haiari grew better in the open than
under shade. The 1.h-ite h,'oiari grows moro vigorously than the black. The
growth of both typo- is bettor on sandy soils than on laterite. Haiari is
easily established from cuttings put in the ground after clearing the bush
and needs little attention beyond periodic weed.:. In its 1933 annual re-
port (49) this department recorded that inr onlv one snple of haiari, a
nature root front the forest, die the rotonone contr-ent approach 3 percent.
The root system of the haiaris is not lar-\e and that of the black variety
is very poor. Experiments with plants of i'asectici al value, black and white
haiari (Lonchocarpus sp. ) havo been continued at 'the Hosororo Ex-orinent
Station. The black a.id .':1ite haiaris pln.ntoC in tLo open at the a,'Lu-ia sub-
station are r-aking better growthh than thlse planted In the shaded areas. In
its 1934 report (50) the Pritish Guiana Depyart:eiont of ALriculture again ao-
ported that the haiaris z'ryi more vigorously in the open than undcr sha0lc.
The black haiari, which -undor similar conditions had not at first aD. carcd
so vigorous as the wnite variety, was now almost equal to it in rate of
growth. In the North West District of British Guiana no cultivation of
poison plants wats cerriod out during 1934, the plants boinC; allowed. toTc'.7

Mlartyn and Follett-Snith (271) in- 1936 reported on the growving of
Loiichocarpus in Britich C-'iana. Since 1929 the Department of Agriculture
has had. the "bl-.ck" and "white" haiaris of the North West District -ncO.,r
cultivation at their expcri:ient stations in that district. At Hosororo
the plants were grown both under shade and in the open ,n latorito soil,
and at the .Tu.rin, substatiaon undcr similar conditions of light and shnado but
on a sandy soil. The shr.ade' aroa in both ca.scs consisted of zoc:nd.ary
forest in which the unedcr r-wtl and smaller trees had. been cut hnwn. The
plants jrow easily from sto. cuttlrn',s, alm it has become a,-penrent that growth
on the sandy soil is more vigorous than on latcrito, and that much bettor
growth is made in the open. At first the bl-,c, haiari grew rather more
slowly than the white, but this difference was not noticeable after the first
three years or so. The plants in the open were assisted by periodic weeding
for the first 3 to 4 -ears of- their dC.cvolopment, rfter which they :-.intained
themselves. The value of limestone as a fertilizer for the haiaris is being
studied. .White haiari roots age-i 7 ycars were analyzed for rotenone with
the following results:

18 -
Percenta;e of rotern-ono
Air-dry basis Ovon-c.ry bascs

Sonple A 1.6 14 7
Svzple B 1.0 1.0

Barrett (17) in 1936, in describing; the vegetative prori.-.7tion of
derris, expressed the opinion thit prolonged. intensive cultivation of Dcr-
ris an!d clonchocarpus night result in an increase up to 16 percent of the
"alk[-ilids" rotenoneo?] in the roots.

Colonbia.--Neathery (299), Assistant Traoe Conn:isoioncr at Borota,
Colonbia, reported on January 19, 1937, on the active interest in exploita-
tion of barbasco in Coloibia. Several varieties of bo.trbasco kno'.rn to exist
in various regions of Colon-bia and which have heretofore bbeen used almost
exclusively as a fish poison by native fishcrnen, arc boil; stuicied by of-
ficials of the Ministry of Agriculture and! Ccr--crco in Bogota. in an effort
to determine the rotenono contents of sone of the nost .Qmuj-idant plaits. It
is understood, also, tha-t an oxped tion into the Amazon region will be naclo
in the near futLure to ascertain the potential supply mand chemical content of
plants which are reported to abound in that section of the republic. Scnor
Luis Uribe A-uirro, reported: to bo associated with Lawrence C. Seville of
ITew York, will lead the investiCation. The Ministry of Agriculture and Cor-
norce has received spln of barb.s.poc front Tuinaco, Leticia, and other nunic-
ipalities of the Anazon territory, the Depatrt-cent of Boyaca, and the Mota
region. An analysis of the Tunaco spccirien, accordir.Cf to statenonts %adco
recently, reveals a nininul and naxinun rotcn-one. content of 2,93 and-. 5.27
percent, respectively. While barbasco exports have beeoon insi;'--nifican.t in the
past, an increase in the volume nay be expected if present investigations
result in the discovery of a high rotononc content of oxisting7 stands.

Malaya.--The Federated T-L.-y States Depart!cnt of kiriculturo (140) in
1233 introduced black and whito haiari front British Guiana at Serdani:, F. M. S.
Cantloy (64), in a list of the principal economic plants contained i- the
forest experimental nurseries, Straits Settlements, in 1886, included! Len-
chocarpus sp. (Yurabo indigo) front the West Indies.

In its anr.ual report for 1935 (141) the Federated Malay States De-
partnlent of Agriculture stated that plants of haiari root were propaf'atcd
by laycring. A--.alysz of these haiaris from Scrc'n'ij, a.";ed about 25 months,
wero as follows:

Percent on a moisture-free basis
Ethcr extract Rotcnone

Black haiari 7.9 3.0
White haiari 7.7 0.8

Georgi (160) has also rofvrrcd to the low rotcnonc and ether extract
content of those haiaris Crown at Sordang. Analyses will be nad.c ',;ain Vheon
the plants are 4 years old.

- 19 -

The Koloniaal Instituut (250) of Aistera.'. in 1935 q3_tcc the a-ove

MVilsun and! Gnor.r;i (283)in' 1937 reported on CLorris cultivation in
M2.Ij.-a. They. wrote:

"While at present the extent to which toxicity is an
inherent cha.racter is uncertain, there are indications that
the pro ortions both of rotcnonee ani, of ether extract renain
constant within limits for suAccessive generations Should a
much closer relationship be found! to exist, the value of:
clona. nuatorial -.ill be of the X:reatest importance since It
will permit of the export of a% stancarc. prodIlict. TI-is will
enable derris to withstand competition front other vc&, t'wble
insecticides possessin, toxic.principles of a similar nature,
notably, cube root (Lonchocarpus sp.) from Soi-th A-inrica."

Peru.--P-7-e (313), chief of the roonic Sta"tion of Lor" to, Pcru,-
in Aui--ust 1935 publish! an account of the ro/inr of barasco in" th'-.t
pr6Vinc,. Huasco barbasco (Lonchocarp.us nicc'.) is richer in roter-one than
the species knovn as sacia barbasco, lafvarto bar-Jr..Loco, tirano bjarbbaco,
etc., in most cases contai.Ain, from 5 to 15 pcrcc:'t of this c'nstit'ecnt.

A region that is loss hiu;iAzl AnA less hot than that aloni" the rivers
is favorable to a hi{,h rotenono content in barbasco. In the Arrorn -nic
Statio-7 it has boen o'bservec. that the h-uascoa bar' -.sco plants which arc
plai.ted icL rotation with 'ucc'L plants behave much better than those planted?
free. in the open without any plants to shade them. The farmers'in the neigh-
borhood who cultivate b.rbasco on their land agree that it is necessary, to
protect the plants against .bright sunlight upoecially in the first months of

The natives of the r.-fion use various ways of planting huasca barbasco;
some plant two pieces of roots at distance of oie to two meters and others
place various pieces, sometimes up to eight or ten, in one row ,ith rre.ator
distances up to four meters between each row. "

Barbasco roots, wven pulled up, contain moisture according to the
time of harvestirng and the nature of the soil. The root taken from a single
plant, 1-1/2 years old, .rowing ih the region of San Juan .7ciLeicd one kilo
at the moment of :xtra-ction from the soil (plants at this n'o co:m.-onl.y -pro-
duce in this region, more than 4 kilos of root per plan-t), and 575 grams
after the roots had been st.rcd for about 15 .ays in the opten ir but in a
sh-i,]2 place. These roots were h-.rvested onr dried duri-gL A-ril-4.1y, which
is a very rainy period. The experiment was repeated in AuL-ust when there
was C.-- weather, with roots of another plant -rowing at the sanec place an2
of the sae rio c. Thon the roots wero pulled up thcy weihed 1.8 idlcgrams
and after 15 days 1.54 kil]. :'v...r The tr.oaders usually :iake a deduction of
20 to 30 pcrccnt in the orice to cover loss in weight when they purchase
fresh br'rb.a sco.

- 20 -

In order to avoid this unsatisfactory condition between sellers and
buyers i, is advisable that each producer of barbasco sell his product only
in a dry state. For the drying process, a kind of stove would not be out
of place, and it nay also suffice to dry them An the sur.

Only the variety huasca barbasco should be offered for sale, because
if mixed with other similar roots the content of the active -orincipole lo'.ers
the price. A well organized prop^'a.-da in favor of the Peruvian bs.arbasco
should be started in foreign countries.

Prlge is of the opinion that huasca barbasco, en account of its hi ..-
content of rotenone and other valuiablc substances, will have a great future
and will displace other similar products competing with it, that are of in-
ferior quality, such as dorris and barbasco of different countries.

It is advisable to recommend official intervention of the A I'icul-
ture Dopartment that a farmer never store his barbasco ancd pile it up be-
fore it is ,absolutely dry. If this is not done the chances "'re that the
product will deteriorate, mold, and take onr a disagreeable must odor.
Furthermore, when barbasco is in such condition it is easily att-ci:cd by fungi
and also by insect larvae.

Exteriorly the roCts of huasca borbasco, as those of othor varieties,
resemble in color the soil in which they grow. Thus if a root -rcr in a clay
sod it seems to have a yellowish color no Fatter what the variety Iry be. If
it was cultivated in a sandy soil it appei:.'s to be of a light color al-most
white. On drying later, it takes on a clearer color in almost all cases.
If a section of huasca barbasco root is observed under a microscope, it will
be noted that ligneous vessels in the center and of the rind are always of a
finer texture and are closer together than in the other varieties. In these
the rind also app-ears to be darker in general, or spotted. Th.ces differences
are more conspicuous in the roots of plants more than 2 years old.

A snfple of huasca b.-rbasco coming from Parana Pura, in the neighbor-
hood of Yuri.-.1-guas, which was analyzed. by I.r. Massoy in his private labor-
atory, showed a content of 13 percent rotenone.

Dennis (113) in 1935 delivered an address on cube at the line., Peru,
High School, which was published in two articles in the 7ost Coast Loader.

"',r interest in Cube Barbnscr, dx-tcs front 1917, when, for
the first tine, I saw it used for fishing purposes in the :.intaro
River, near Huarncayo...From that day on I comnmoncod my studies and
research work: in order to doteminc whether the Barbasco had any
commercial value. I believed that an cxtrct from the root would
kill ants and other parasites or land-insects attacking the crops.
Lacking a laborator-, and other facilities for expcrimcnting, I final-
ly decided to send a few roots to a chemical concern in the United
States, manufr.cturors of a woeill-known insecticide preparation. They
replied, advising nc that they Lad at their service a Poru.ian
Chemist, to whom they had refere-d the matter and who had informed
then that ho was quite fi.niliar with this particular plant, the root

- 21 -

of which, he added, .was of no cony-prcila value. I2./rote to another
factor: in n.: ct.untr-' and got no reply.,

"The follow-ing year a scientific cx,-cd tion front the Uni-
versity of Ind U:nr, U. S. A., carie to Peru, for the pi'rpose of .
studying fish-life in the sierra or -ioun-tain region. The leader
of this expedition, Dr. Eigennan, called on no in Hu1anc.-ryo, (Lmc I
then nade known to hi.-i ny ideas on Cube Barbasco and tiarir possi')lo
col- :crcial use. He purchased a quantity of Cube in Hu.a.cao, for use
in his fish-collectia.g. On his return to the Statco, after a trip
in the interior, Dr. 'ig-nnan haned ovor to -h-. iLcTndoo a for:-.cr
pupil of his a few of the roots left over. L.-I:-ndoo at thItt tinTe was
en entonologist enployod by the Washinrton Gov,"r -a.it. Dr. 1icIndio
iL- iodiately rccoi-.izoCd the :>erit of cube as an insecticide and. re-
questcJ.L no to furnish hin with a furth.-r swjppl:" of roots vwherewith
to effect his oxpori:-ents.1t

Dennis arguLco that cube is rnupcrior to -orris n". Brazilian ti'.
The price of fresh root at Iquitos in 1935 --,,:-dc. fro:n 30 to 80 ccntavos per
kilo. In the third --car a. crop nay be harveste, which Jill yield at lo.Gst
four tons for each hectare sown, *:ihic rate of production, .at the price of
30 contavos kilo w'ill give a profit of S/.1,200 (Peruvian soles). As far
as lan(. is concerned, cube boerbasco can be grown with success in any part of
the jungle where it is sufficiently- hot and hero the rivers -', not florC. the
lands. Barbasco grows equally in s1eet lanC.s anrl bitter ones. A "wc-vil"
penetrates to the heart of the stone's fresh wo" d arnd Lru't1: d.'.ages the

The question of a trv'.c nc1o is dliscussoc.. Huasca in Spanish -icons
to climb. The wore,. cube is used in the Chanch. :jo country, also thlirouhout
the So.tipo, Apurinac, Huanuco and ur"'Oa-ba dListricts, panc, as its c'," crcial
use s-tartCed with the roots purh-,mec' in Hu -.nca-o, it was naturally eployed
by the publicity peoplc who wore endc.vouri.r-j to push the sale of the Per-
uvian root. 0win- to the fact that there are nany barbascos, it is of the
utnost importanLce that the product be kn'n-wn unde.or a different nano, n',?
)wing also to the fact that the tern cube has boon dul- approved cby those ."is-
tributing the propm-inda natter and, moreover by the world's scientific liter-
ature, it is quite reasonable to believe th .t the tcrns cube barbasco -T
siirply. cube arc the best and nest adcquato w-or's it has booeen possible to fii:'.

It is sugtyctofc that ovens be sot up at Iquits to Ory coube. This
could be done in 3 'ays as co;ie-.r)--,:. to 3 wocks at present and even thcn 14%
water remains in the roots because of the. 0ur-p atr'osphcrc. C.ubo can not be
kept for nore than thrcc: nonths in wareLouscs, without the exporter b-ii-i;
subject to a loss of 20% by reason of the weevil pest, and the inpoitcr fin'.s
himself in the sane -,rclicnrcnt, plus the loss of a further 144 o'n account of

Young (473), Acrican Consul General at Li::a, Peru, -n October 26, 1935,
report.?. that there .re scvcra.i ty.oc of b:Lrbsco only .-.C of .7hicl' is desired
so far as the export tr,'.e is concernled.

- 22 -

Groonu, (174), Aoirican Co; mncrcial Attachc at L'M;, Peru, on April 7,
1936, r;-:portecd on the culture and ox.-rtation of Pcr.iai. cube or barb.-.sco,
a'Id Crillc; (101,106), Assistant Co-.c.orcial Attache at Li-a, Peru, on
October 20, lJ6, reported that the Peruvian G.ovc.rncrcnt had invcstigfated
cuCbe r:ot stanearc's. These reports arc based on anI article Ipubllshe( in
"La Vio. A;riccl,." aaiO on the report by Pa,c.

Clark (83), Assistant Trade. Co:.iissioner at Lina, PCru., en October
7, 1237, called attention to these articles and al.o a later one by Dennis.

The Koloniaal Instituut (250) of Amstcrdrn. in 1936 publish&c the
results of sone of its work on insecticides of the ecrris typmc. Three sanolcs
of barb: sc-, root fror: Peru were cw.-.rinec' with the following results:
II il IGood '.crris rout
thcr extract 16.7% 21. 1 5.34% 15 to 20;
Rotcr-no 6..% ll.o. traces 5 to C"

The o.vility of the first two sanpleo ir regarct as Aond or very Cood;
that of the tlird sriplo, which conistOd cnt.roly 'f picces of root Lark,
as very i.nl'-vourable. On the vihnle, the quality of the barbasco root requisi-
tioned front. Akicrica secns to h.avc bocn re.arod fa.vorably. With ur'.n. parcels,
however, there is the objection that the difforeoncc in the l.tndec'. wci;ht and
that at the tine of shipment front South Akorica is about 20 to 40 percent,
a fact rhich points to a very faulty dryinj of t2he -ro.uct. Tho evaporation
in parcels of derris root durin- the voy-ac frr I'.ia to Europ or Aerica
is rarely mnorc than a fcw percent. BinloC-ical tost( *'a with narbasco roct
have not led to definite conclusions, but it is considcrcd that with equal
rotonono content iprefoerenco nust be fCivon to derris root over barbasco, a
distinction that should be duo to the ;"rcat effectiveness ,f the secondary
substances of d-crris ..'hich, next to rotenone, occur in the ether c.-ctr-.ct.

UJrnite State s,--Floyd L. Cooper (90), A.LI cxp.ri;.cntal nurserFu.uai of
Huntit-.ct-n Park, Calif. wrote Roark on Scptonbcr 15, 1936, that cuttin;:s of
Lo nch carpus nicou received fror: Britishi Gui:.na ha, been grown successfully
in southern California. The cuttii-:s were potted Novc:-fcr 28, 1935, and
transfcrrccl to the groun' June 7, 1936. On Scptcnbcr 14, 1936, the plants
had e;ro._n to a height of 4 to 5 feet.

The United States Dcpartfont of Agriculture, Puerto Rico Zxporincnt
Station (428), in 1937 publishdL the results _of the Dur!.h:-, test which was
used in a prclininia-ry w.ay on '-any of the introcduccd fish-poison plants
prori-%ated at this station. The rc-i eants for the test wore applied directly
to freshly cut tissues of 29 introd'uctions .nd. 18 indi'-cn-,us species of
fish-poison llants. Of the 47 kinds of -.1 \nts tcted, 8 species wore posi-
tive to the t..cst, inclu.'in; the roots of Lonchocarpus nicou.

On the basis of the above results a.d of the growth r.spj-nsc of the
plants to local environ cr.t, only Derris clliptica and Tc1.hrosia toxicaria
have shown .roiiso of b'c-rnin; comicrcially irnporta,,nt in Pueirto Rico. Most
of the plantss of Linnhoc!.r-L)ur, nicou have not been established long enough
to permit appIraisal of their probable worth.


In 1934 Wille (470) recorded 2hizopertha dorminica F. attacking cube
root (Lonchocarpus sp.) in Peru. In 1937 7i4le etal. (471) and in 193E
Jone's (223, 224) recorded Dinoderus bifoveolatus ",oll. as a pest of cube


As early as 1665 the use of fish poisoning plants by thb'. natives of
the Antilles was recorded by do Rochefort (358). He wrote of dic use b;- the
Caraibes of a certain wood which is cut into pieces, beaten up, and thrown
into fish pools.

Barrare (16) in 1743 wrote an interesting account of fish poisoning
by the natives of French Guiana who used inokoi. (= Lonchocnrpus) as one of
the plants for this purpose,

Gunilla (180) in 1791 described the catching of fish on the Orinoco
River by means of cuna, (TcpLrosia) and barba.co.

Stedman (396) in 1796 wrote of his travels in Surinam during 1772 to
1777. The natives there catch fish by inclosirg the entry of small crczks
or shoal water with a paling, shooting: them with tkcir trident arrows, or
poi.6ning the water by t.row.irig in it the roots of hiarce, in Surin-m called
tringoe-wo-odo or kDnumnce, by which the fish boco.o stupefied, :nd arc t'tcen
by hanl, while they float on the surf-o.ce of the wator.

Eilhouse (192) in 1832 in writing of the Indiai_ living in the In-
terior of British Gui-uana described their method of catching fish by stop-
ping creeks at high water, and infusing the hai-arry, or the ronanni, in the
shallow, the intxicatinr qualities of which causL the fish to rise ?.nd
float ir.sonsibly on the surface.

Hilhouse (193) in 1834 further (,'ccribcl fish .1 rith hnai-arry. The
root, hich is of slow growth, is, when full rr.,'n. three inches in diL-.xctcr;
it contains a white ,-ar'jr iilk, which vhcr. ex:.prcssed is a most po" orful
narcotic, an.k is corino-ly usc.',k by the Irn.ians in poisoning the water to take
the fish. Tchey beat it nith hci-vy, stick till it is in shreds like coarse
heap; thecy then fill 2. coorial ".ith '.wI7ter, ,.ndif innerc the hai-o.rry in it;
the water bcco.ncs i7 mcdiatel.[ of a nilky whitcnoss, a-a7 when fully s.turatcd,
they take the coorial to the spot they have sleete'., ..rd throwing over the
infusion, in about twenty minutes over- fish 1ithi. its influence rise. to
the -urface, and is either t- cubic foot of the root will poison an acre of "7.-atr' cvc in the falls, hero
the current is so strong. The fish arc ni.t c.etcriorato& in quali y, nor
do they taint nere rapic.l:T whon thus-, killed, than by being :-nettcd or other-
wiso taken.

St. Clair (392) in 1834 ncntio.icC ne-:. or hicri (-. bush) --nd nobc
(a vinc)', the roots of which arc used to stupefy fish by the Indi-ins of
the Guianas.

- 24-

Bernau (28) in 1847 described the use of qi-ar leaves Fe-)rojia
toxicaria] ar.d hai-arry root as fish poisons by the natives of British
Guiana. The roots are pounded; the juice of the root is washed into canoes
nearly full of water; then the poison is thrown in all directions.

Kappler (232) in 1854 described the use of Stinkolz (Lonchocarpus)
conami and G-wnap-ilu (family ETphorbiaceae) for catching fish in Surin.u..,

Brett (46) in 1868, in an account of the Indian tribes of Guiana,
wrote that the Acawoios suprplyr the coast tribes with considerable quanti-
ties of the haiarri root, which is used in poisoning fish. These root; are
usually cut in pieces of about tio feet in length, and tied up in small
bundles which have a powerful and disagreeable scent.

Lindlcy (262) in 1876 referred to the use by the Indians of South
America of the leaves and-young branches of several species of Lonchocarpus
for intoxicating fish. One species used in Guiana is nicou (L. rufesccns).

Boddam-Whetham (31) in 1879 described the taking of fish by the
natives of British Guiana by the use of the juice beaten from the roots of
the leguminous creeper n-.i-ari.

Crevaux (98) in 1883 stated that the natives of French Guiana use the
cultivated plants con..mi auid sinapou and the wild plant Lonchoc'..rpus (Robinia)
nicou, which is collected in the forests alonj rivers, for taking small fish.

Kappler (233) in 1887 described fishing in Surinam with the sap of
narcotic plants. One of the 3 plants used is ITkko, stated to be Lonchocarpus
scandens [Dorris scandens]

Ernst (131) in 1887 listed 187 species of plants ised as fish poisons.
Lonchocarpus species include the following: L. densiflorus Benth., L. flori-
bundus Benth., L. latifolius H. 3. K., L. nicou DC., and L. rariflorus Mart.
Among doubtful. species of Lonchocarpus are tulonimibi and inecu, from the

Ernzt (132) in 1868 identified the fish-noisocning plant inecou of Bre-
ton (Dict. Caraibe-francais, Auxorro 1665, p. 244) as Lonchocarpus nicou DC.

Koch-Griunborg (247) in 1923 wrote that in rn.:rthwest Brazil the tcim
timbo includes a groat number of fish poisons, but Paullinia pinnata is
usually meant.

Roth (360), of the Bt-.rcau of Anericz'n Ethnology, in 1924 published a
study of the arts, crafts and customs of the GuianL. Indians. Timbo is the
lingua geral and barbasco the Spanish tern for vegetable poisons in general.
On the upper Rio lTecro these would include species of Paullinia and Sorjania.
The publicati-.ns of earlier writers are thor-ughly7 reviewed. The following
are certain of the fish poisons that have been identified: Lonchocarpus of
various species (e.g. donsiflorus, rufoscons). It is kno,.n as hiari, heri,
or nako, as nekko in Su2rinam, apparently identical with the Robinia nicou,
or inekou, of Cayennc. Dance mentions three kinds of haiari bush ropo--a
white, red, and black..

- 25 -


According to a catalog of the products of Gabon in French Equatorial
Africa exhibited at the Paris Exposition (315) of 1867 and also according
to Moloney (285) in 1887 the bark of Lonchocarpus sericouc H. B. K. has been
employed in West Africa for abdr-ninal complaints and as a laxative for chil-

Drake and Spies (118) in 1932 reported that an acetone c:cfract of
barbasco root of unknown botanical origin from Costa Rica, used-at the rate
of 1 cc. of extract (representing 0.2 gram plant material) per liter of water,
killed goldfish in 184 minutes. A similar extract of derris rotenonec =
1.7 percent) killed in 92 ninutos.

Haogele (182) in 1934, in reporting sprayingp tests with cube and der-
ris against the codling moth at Parma, Idaho, status that the derris rnd. cube
dust' became srrneo-hat nauseating t- those exposed to the dust or spray for a

Abrose and H-.ai (7) in 1936 reported a toxicological study of dorris.
One saiuple of cube containing 4.7 percent rotonone -nd 21.4 percent total
carbon tetrachloride extractives was also tested a-i found to Lc sr.nilar to
derris in action when fed to rabbits, rats, cavies anid ongs, A spucinen of
derris (9.6 percent rotenone and 28.5 percent total c.rb-n tetrachloride ex-
tractives) had a fatal oral toxicity of 600 rg. per kg. of bodty- weight for
rabbits, 100 for rats, 75 for cavies and 150 for dgs.

Mathows and Lightbody (273) in 1936 reported on the tpxicity of three
samples of derris and one of cube to rats. The cube contained 3.8 percent
rotenone, and to houc:flies its toxicity was equivalent to 8.5 perce-it ro-
tenone. When fed to rats, an olive oil extract of this cube had an 1. d.
(dose necessary to kill 50 percent of a group of rats) of 300 ig. per kg,
body weight. A carbon tetrachloride extract gave a value of 370. Based on
toxicity to rats, this cube had an apparent rotenone content of 8.3 ncrcent
based on the olive oil extract, or 6.7 percent based on the carbon totra-
chloride extract.

Viohoever (449) in 1936 reported on the action of various materials
on Daphnia--a transparent crustacean which h serves as a biological rca e-nt.
"Insecticides, as rotenone, rotenone resin and cube extract contaiining ro-
tenone, cause the paralysis of the breathing ; legs. If the rotononc is not
oxidized in the upper food canal, then the fdi estive canal will also be
paralyzed--a toxic action uvhich has correspondirigly been observed in higher
aniIals, such as cats, rats and rabbits."

The United States Department of agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry
and Soils (415), in its annual report for 1936 rcpcrt'_.d that diets containing
cube or derris root did not interfere with the normal growth of rats when
the concentration was below 0.06 percent. Mirkoe. retardatior. occurred with
a diet containing; 0.12 percent. Experirents with rotenonc in cozir:.rison
with cube and derris root indicated that the growth-inhibitory effects of
cube an(, derris were not produced by their roteno.-c. content.

- 26 -

Haag (181) in 1937 discussed the toxicity of rotenone to humans.
The acute oral toxicity of a sample of cube containing 4.7 percent rotenone
and 21.4 percent total carbcn tetrachloride extrartives was determined and
the lethal dose (smallest quantity that proved fatal to .ab-ut 70 percent of
the experimental nimral) expressed as mg. per kg. of body weight, was
found to be: guinea pigs 200; white rats 200; rabbits 1,000.

G-Gbol (167) in 1` 37 found that an aqueous solution of tirbo extract
(3W,1) rotcen.n) killed Ox-uaris vermicularis L. and Ascaris lurnbricoidcs L.
a- a concentration of 1:5000. Dogs without food were not affected by 250
mg. per kg. of this extract. Three experiments were made on man. Pure ro-
tenonc 0.1 gram and tinbo extract 0.25 gram '-hen followed by castor oil,
glycerin or s.7Ceetened water had no injurious effect on huna-n beingr4s w.7hen
tokn on an emnpty stomach and all intestinal worms (Oxyuris)x-ere .killed.

Gc'bcl suggested th.'t rotenone and tinbo extract should be effective
'iA.nst Anclosto,-a duodcnale Dubini; Necator americanus, Stillcs solitaires,
and also a;ainst the infictive -rga:-is;ns of yellow fever, malaria, etc.,
either by mouth or by injection.

Taken shortly after a meal, timnbo extract causcO. a strong indisposi-
tion accon.panicd by a painful anxiety, a state that lasted about 3 hours.
The Indians of the Anazonas in order to punish a criminal force him to take
tinbo. In order to avoid any consequences in nan, it is necessary to give
rotonone or tinbo extract 'n an enpty stomach with castor or mineral oil.

The Journal of the Americal Medical Association (9) in 1937, in an-
swer to an inquiry, stated that as jud.j-d front animal (and to some extent,
hunrian) experincntation there is no cnnrcr of acute poisoning as a result of
ingestion of vegetables sprayed with rotenone, cube or derris. The problem
of a possible chronic intoxication following the prclo'gek1 use of vegetables
treated with derris or rotenone has 1ccn studied. on animals and, while fur-
ther work is desirable, results of these observations also lead one to be-
lieve that the human health hazard hero is also low. Reference is made to
the publications of Haag, Akbrose, Mathews and Lightbody.

Bally (14) in 1937 sunumarized. informattion on native medicinal plants
of East Africa. The root of Lonchocarpus bussci Harns is used as a galacta-
gogue and a remedy for Conorrhoer.; the root of L. e-riocalyx Harms is used to
cure eruptions on the skin.


The occurrence of indigo in the leaves of Lonchocarpus cyanescons
Bonth. h-.s beeoon rccordc. by several writers. In 1883 Dyer (123) called at-
tention to the plant call ed West African indigo or Elu in the Yoraba dialect
and stated that it had boon conjecturally referred to Lonchocarpus by Bentham
and it nay be closely allied to L. cyancscens. Tho young leaves are pounded
into paste in a nirtar and made into balls. One ball to 1 gallon of water
imparts a fine deep blue to cloth so.ik<.O in it 4 <'iys. The dye is fixed with
potash. M1oloncy (285) in 1887 gave the same account. The Kew Royal Botanic
Gardens (238) in 1888 reprinted. this information and referred to the plant as

- 27 -

Yoruba ..indigo. Later (239) Ke7w Gardens reproduced the drawing of this species
that is -iven in H oker's Iconos Plantaruni. Maguire (266) in 1906 in an ac-
count of West African dyoin; nothods inserted a footnote which statocd t-'t.one
shade of dark blue used at Sierra Leone is, occorring to Aug. Chevalie.r, not
indigo, but the product of a ]iana, Lonchocarpus cyaicnscens. Pcrkins1 (318)
work on indigo fron Lonchocarpus cynne eccns calledd the Gara plant in Sierra
Leone) was reviewed by the Imperial Institute of Great Britain (215 and 216)
in 1907 and 1909. In Gro-et Britain (173), Miscellaneous Colonial Report
I,. 51, Thc.:rpzon in 1908 reported that in the Manu forests of the western
Province of southern Nircria'-there w .s noticed Lonchocarpus cyancscens, from
the leaves of which the bulk of the indig. used by the natives of the Western
Province is extracted.

F. M. Bailey (11) in r1909 (Cescribed two species of Lonchocarpus grow-
in;- in QueConsland, L. blackii Benth. and L. nesiotes Bail. The former species,
called bloodbark, exudes a blood-red juice which on exposure dries to a
brownish ju~t containing arabin 3.8 percent, resin 1.4 percent, tannic acid
74.3 percent, and water 20.6 percent.

The Handelsmuseou cf the Koloniaal Instituut of kAstcr-',a (248) in
1934 reported analyses of 3 mr-nples of nekoe root (L. chrysophyllus Kleihh.).
These tested from 1.2 percent to 2.5 percent rotenone, avera, e 2 percent.

Banners (27) in October 1935 submitted (through Concannon) a sample
of nokoc from Dutch Guiana to the Division of Insacticide Investigations which
was found to be apparently L. nicou. The root contained only 0.8 percent
rotenone and 3.5 percent total carbon tetrachloride extractives, and a quali-
tative test revealed the presence of rotenone in the stem.

Tattersfield (399) in 1936 published a valuable review of recent work
on fish poison plants as insecticides.

"Sonme samples of cube and tinbo havc been found with very
high rotonone-contont, occasional specinomens of the former contain-
ing; as much as 12 pcrcont rotenone and of the latter one as high
as 15-16 percent have booeen reported, but these are exceptional.
Comr>orcial samples of cube exanihoed at Rothamstcd have usually
ranged from 5-6 percent and rood samples of Derris elliDtica have
touched 8-2 percent. There is, however, little or no question that
these South Arcrican plants are being produced in continually in-
creasint amounts and that in course of tine competition with dcrris
is likely to be severe.

"It hks been recently established that the White Haiari of
British Guiana is Lonchocarpus nicou (Aubl.) DO. and conspecific
with cube of Peru, thus there are obviously several strains of this
plant which differ so: whatt widely in rotenono-content. Htiari
plants taken from forests of British Guiana, and from their appear-
ance of many years' growth, analyzed at Rothu.isted, showed appreci-
able amounts of roten6nc. Black Haiari roots contained over 3 per-
cent andc! the stems about 0.8 percent. White Haiari roots gave 1.8

- 28 -

and the stems 0.6 percent of crude rotenone by the carbon tctrachlorido
mencthod. Cultivated spccinens, six years old, of Black Haiari g.ve 1.4
percent and of White Haiari 0.9 percent rotenonc, the stonems in both
cases containing only traces. A further search for other and richer
strains of Lonchocarpus in that colony would appear to be worth while.
There is always the possibility, as Killip and Smith point out, that
in Peru the cube plant, cultivated for centuries as a fish-poison nay
represent a selected strain in which the content of toxic principles.
of the roots is at a naxinun."

John Powcll and Company (332), in letters dated April 28 and July 6,
1936, presented average analyses of cube and dcrris recently imported by then.

Total extractives by--
Ilaterial Rotenono Ether CC14 Acetone
(percent) (percent) (percent) (percent)

Brazilian cube 5.29 (12)* 19.49 (11) 20,95 (8) 23.29 (4)
Peruvian cube 5.29 (7) 16.53 (7) 18..75 (5) ---
Malay derris 5.35 (2) 14.07 (2) -

*The number of saziplos analyzed appears in the parenthesis.

The Federated Malay States Department of Agriculture (143) in its 1936
report stated that further samples of cube or haiari root (Lonchocarpus spp.)
from plants at Sordang aged about 36 months wcre analysed by the Division of
Chemistry, C. D. V, Georgi, Agricultural Chc'iist. Compared with derris, the
results wore acvain disappointing as the following- figures, calculated on a
moisture-free basis, show. Further, there was no indication of any marked in-
crease in toxic content with ao. .

Type Ether Extract
2 years old 3 years old
(percent) (percent)

Black haiari 7.9 8.9

White haiari 7.7 8.0

Chevalier and Chevalier (78) in 1937 reviewed infor:-ation on derris and
cube. The authors have found up to 6,7 percent rotenone in cube. Peruvian
cube imported into Franco in 1936 was more uniform in composition than derris.
Rotenono was not below 4 percent and usually was 5 to 6 percent; total extract
varied front 15 to 19 percent.

Georgi (161) in 1937 published additional analyses of black haiari
(Lonchocarpus chrysoplhyllus Kleinh.) and white haiari (L. Martynii A. C. Smith)
introduced from British Guiana and grown in IMalaya.

- 29 -

The average yield of air-dry root from plants of varying ago was:

kAL:c of Plants

.' 2 years 4 years

L. cirysophoyllus no plants 7 ounces
L. Liart-nii 32.55 ounces 37.35 ounces
D. elliptica Chanci Ko. 3

The rotenono content of the fine roots of L. chrysophyllus was 3 per
cent for the 2-yoar old plants and 4.3 per cent for 4-year old plants. The
total other extracts on these samples were 7.9 and 8.8 per cent respectively.
L. Marty-nii, 4 years old, contained only 0.8 percent rotenono in the fine
ro-)ts but 1.1 percent in the coarse roots. Derris olliptica Changi No. 3
contained an avera-e of 9 per cent rotenone and 27 per cent ether extract.
All these figures are on a noisturo-free basis.,

Goodcn and Smith (168) in 1937 invcstiat.cd the principal optical and
physical properties of the carbon tetrachloride solvatc of rotenone, which is
formed in the analysis of dorris and cube. The principal results of the op-
tical doeterninations are: alpha l. 563; bata=l.612;gamma,1.631;optical character,
negative; elongation, cor only nc&ative; system, orthorhonbic. The density at
30 is 1.40 c,. per cc. The dissociation pressure in the rahro 60 to 90 is
expressed by the equation log P P-i. 9.308 (2313/TK). The "dcconposition
temperature" is consequently 870, and the heat of dissociation-vaporization 69
calories per gran of carbon tetrachloride.

According to Krukoff. and Smith (255) the rotonono. content of certain
South Aierican plants is as follows:

Average content (on an air-dry
basis of 12 percent moisture) of--

Rotenone Extractive s
(percent) (Pcrcent)

Lonchocarpus chrysophyllus Kloinh. 2.1 9.4
L. floribuandcs Benth. poor ---
L. Martynii A.'C, Sith 2.3 10.1
L. rariflorus Mart. trace 7
L. sylvestris A. C. Smith none
L. urucu Killip and Smith 4.4 17
L. utilis A. C. Smith 12 25
L. sp. (Tinbo branco) 7 16
Derris anazonica Killip 0.3 2

- 30 -

Jon.s (223) in 1938 reported a chemical oxa-iiiation of a sanpIe of cube
root which -;hen received by the Division of Insect.I, ,vesti, nations was found to
be infested with BDin:odcrus bifovcolatus 7-11. This whole root and the powder
nade by the insects were nal'zc.' for rotenone vith the follow-inw results:

Analysis for rotenone content of two samples )f cube rooft.

Sa& ple Percent Rotenom

Ori-.'nal sa-nle _Thole- root 3.3
Pv:'."or forne> by insc;cts 1.4
STUecim.en .2a:.,I of Whilo root 4.1
ori Linal whole root Po.'dcr forced by insects 2.3

It is scene that the portion of the root throu.L hich tLe.c insects tun-
neled, an.l -ahichi was thus reduce. to powder by then, vwas lower ini rotenone
content than Kc remainder of the root. 'liat there .ias no rec.uctio- in the
total rotononc. c ntcnt of the r-.ot as a result of tho insect attack ,ras shown
by tho fact that the net rotcnono content of the holoe spocinen srjipie, when
the relative vioirhts of whole root and powder ar.rc tai:cn in account, ,-as about
the sale as that of the ori,;inal sample of whole root. Thus in a ship..cnt of
cube root infested by, these insects it nirht be cxpcctcr1 that there would be
no loss in the total rotenone content provi,".cr none of t.hc pro-7ccred liatcrial
was lost.

Reference to this publication by Jones is nac.o in the Yow.n' Lctter (224)
of the Unit(c1 States Depart:.ent of Akriculture, Bureau of Entonolog;- and Plant
Quar-ant ine.

Cupplcs (110) in 1936 stated. that soaps containing frcc allnali or which
hyd.rolyzu readil- with the for nation of free .o1Ycli car.mrt be usc( w-itih pyre-
thm:a, dcrris, or cube, because the active principles *f these plants f.re
easily dcconposcd into inert curnpouns in the presence of 1lkolinc solutions.


Pozzi-Escot (333,334) in 1935 described a nodificatio)na of the carbon
Stetrachloridc nrc.thod of dotcminirc: rotonono w:it.". special reference to its
application to cube.

J. Prentiss opand-, Inc., (335) in 1935 ar'ue ,r that for the
evaluation of the !nuecticidal value of c'usts le,,s enphasis be placed on ro-
tenonc content nid norc on total ether cxtractivc. Yo deorris or cube poT.'/cr
cont.ai.:in iclss than 15 percent total other extractives will give satisfactory
results 1h:;-. use,, in a dust at the usual dilutions.

"The situ:tir. on cubo is sonowhat similar. There arc avail-
able sonewvhat linitce s%.-plies of ;,hat Twiy be described as hi-gh ro--
tcnone cube, "..hich .ioldo pO.7.cr contai.-Ain,; 5 percent or nioro rotenono
but as a rule only 15 percent or 16 percent total ether extractives.

- 31 -

There are Ulso available apparently large amounts of a different t1pe
of cube which has a lower .rote:nonc content, usually 3 percent to just
under 5 percent, but with a go d mount of other cxtr-ctives, from
18 percent to as hiCh as 22 percent. The indications are that this
nay be about as effective and satisfactory as the first type for use
in a-:ricultural dusts but noro complete information on it is badly

Hoycr and LeonardC (205) in 1936 proposed an "In'dex .-)f Relative Toxicity"
for the evaluation of C.derris and cube. This fii-ar,. is the ratio: percent total
ether cxtractives divided by percent rotenone. Exanolcs arc 4ivn.- of rotonono-
bearin) roots whose index of relative toxicity varies from 2.5 to 4.5. The
total other extr-ctives in dusts standardized to a 0.75 percent rotonone con-
tent, nace by diluting these derris powders with clay, talc or sulphur,
ran.:6s from 1.87 percent to 3.38 percent. The authors conclude: (1) "IThe
percentage rotenone alone is not an acctr-.te indcx of toxicity; (2) Roots hav-
ing the greatest relative amounts of ether extractives are the best; (3) By the
use of the Index of Relative Toxicity the value of several roots, rQ;ar(dlcss
of species and source If ricin, i-ay be put on the sane basis for comparison."

Jones and Sm:ith (230) in 1936 o-roposcd the following; formula to ex-
press the approximate toxicity of cubc as deoer. e.cd by chemical analysis:
Toxicity value = percent rotenone +0.4 (total extractivcs rotenono);
total extractives may be deterninod with acetone, benzene -r carbontotra-
chlorido. This formula expresses fairly well the relation between toxicity
to houseflies (doterineid by the Camipbcll turntable noethode) and chemical
analysis of 5 samples of cube containing' front 0.8 to 12.1 percent actual ro-

Attention is called in the Bureau of Ertor:.ology and Plant Quarantine
News Letter (169) for February, 1936, to Goodhue's (Jour. A. 0. A. C. 19:118)
improvement in the Gross-Smith colorinetric method for rotenone. The method
is suitable for the analysis of spray residues of derris onn cube.

Robinson (356) in 1936 called attention to the difficulty of ostinat-
ing the rotenone content of haiaris *rown in British Guiana by the metho'.ds
of Jones, Cahn and Beo, and of Tattersfiold and IMartin, and pror.sed a :od-
ification of the carbon totrachloride :-e.othod.

Beach (23) in July, 1936, described a method of extracting rotonone
from: 20-mesh powdered cube root with chloroform at room t-npcraturo. Roten-
one is dcetcrmineft in an aliquot of the filtrate as the carbon tetrachloricde
solvato in the usual way.

Bcgtrup (25) in 1937 described a method ir :hi i 100-mesh cube powder
paclkedC tightly in an ordinary funnel is -xtr tcted oy pouring toluene through
it 6 tines at room temperature. Rotenone is 'cithcd as the carbon tetra-
chloride solvate.

Jones (219) in 1936 reported on the optical rotatory power of extracts
of derris amd cube roots. His conclusions were:

- 32 -

"Values f:r rotenone' equivalent to th4 combined optical
rotator powers of both acetone and benzene extracts of derris and
cube roots gave an approximate measure of the insecticidal effec-
tiveness of these materials to houseflies. Values calculated from
the rotation of benzene extracts did not agree with toxicity so well
as did the combired values, and in about half the samples results
derived from the optical activity of acetone extracts were widely
different from the toxicity values.

PSince a method has already been proposed for calculating the
approximate toxic value to houseflies of derris and cube roots based
on the rotenone and total extractive contents, which is both simpler
and less open to question,, the use of optical rotatory power cannot be
rccom. ended as a means of evaluation.

"From the chemical standpoint the results indicate that op-
tically active constituents other than rotenone and deguelin were prob-
ably present in the samples of derris and cube tested. Dextrorotatory
materials were undoubtedly present in the sam-ples of derris root con-
taining no rotenone, and possibly in other samples. The use of opti-
cal rotation should prove of considerable value in further chemical
study of the components of extracts of derris and cube roots."

Ten samples of cube ranging in actual rotenone content from 0.8 to
12.1 percent and in total acetone extract from 14.1 to 25.4 percent were used
in these studies.

Spoon (390) et al., of the Koloniaal Instituut of kmsterdam, in 1937
reported a means of distinguishing powders made from Derris and Lonchocarpus
by the characters of the starch grains. Besides the shape also the size of
the grainrs is characteristic for both genera. An exact description and figures
are Civc-n. For 1,063 measured grains of Derris starch the aver_.,e length is
6.38 microns +0.1; for 1,197 measured grains of Lonchocarpus starch the aver-
age sizu is 9.FO microns +0.2. A drawing shows the size of the grains. By
means of the differences described it is %possible to distinguish with cer-
tainty between Derris powder and Lonchocarpus powder as well as between dusts
for insocticidal purposes, prepared with both roots. It is claimed that nix-
tures can be exa-iined and the average percentage of Lonchocarpus powder mixed
with pure Derris powder detected.

Scabcr (310) in 1937 reported analyses of derris, barbr sco and timbo
for rotenono, using chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene and
ethyl acetate as solvents. In all cases chloroform gave higher results.
Scabor suggests that the best nethorl for the determination of rotenono is to
extract with cold chloroform (Beachts method), crystallize from carbon tetra-
chloride, determine the purity of the solvato by polarization, and re-ort the
percentage of purc rotenono.

Graham (170), Rofcrec on Insecticides for the Association of Official
Agricultural Chemists, in 1937 reported that during 1936 he investigated a
number of methods for the determination of rotcnonc in derris and cube and that
their collaborative study vould probably be undertaken next ,year.

- 5.3 -*

Jones (221) in May 1937 published a. odif-cd procedure for the crys-
tallization of rotenone-carbon-tetrachloride bolvac.te from cxTracts of dorris
and cibe roots. Accurate results by- this crystallizotion method wc.e obtained
only when the rotenono present was equivalent to at least 4 ocrercnt of the
root, or in lieu of this, whoe; sufficient rotcnone was ad'c-d, or a sufficiently
large saplco taken, to bring the cnount present '.urin. crystal!J.-iz:.ton ibovc
this value. A doternmination of the precision of replicate results on one
s5-ple of derris with about this rotenone content showed a stac.ndard deviation
of + 0.05 percent. In a studv of the accuracy eight extracts, containing
known amounts of rot.. n:e in the range of most ,ccuirato results, gave average
,values which in view of the precision were not significantly different from
the actual rotenone content. In other worCs, results for rotenone in the re-
gion of 4 percent should only be quoted to about 0.1 percent.

It is probably, that the nonrotenono portion of the extract only exerts
a retardLn; action on the crystallization and has little or no actual solvent
effect on the rotenone. The so-called Sunatratype derris extracts show no
unusual retarding action and no apparent solvent effect, indicating the "hidd."t
rotenono of Cahn and Boan to be a result of retardd crystallization similar
to that found in other extracts *f low rotenone content.

The exact procedure of the i:ij-roved nothod is as follows:

"Tie extract from a 25-grani sonple of root in a 125-cc. Erlcn-
icyer flask is evap rated on the steam bath in a current of air until
free of solvent. T.c residue is trcati6. with exactly 25 cc. of carbon
tetrachloride, the ilask is loosely stcpoero1, and complete solution
is effected by gentle warning. The extract is next cooled in an ice
bath for several minutes and then seeded with few crystals of ro-
tenone-carbon tetrachloride solvate. The flask is then tightly stop-
pered and swirle1. until crystallization is apparent. If at this 9tage
only a small amount of crystalline material separates, an accur,-tely
weighed quantit:'- of pure rotenone should be adOded, the mixture warned
to effect complete solution, and crystallization again irndu.ced. Suf-
ficient rotenone must be present so that the result, expressed as
"11pure" rotenone, is at least 1 ra,1.. At the sane time a solution of
rotenone in carbon tetrachliorid cont.-:inirg 0.27 grand per 100 cc. of
solution (the solubility at 00 C.) is prepared for use in washing.
The extra,.t and. the washing solution .re the:- ploccd in an ice bath
capableof maintaining a temperature of 0 C. overnight.

"In the morning (the methodd is based'on a crystallization time
of 17 to 18 hours; the extract is filtered rapidly through a weighed
Gooch crucible in the bottom of which has been placed a disk of filter
paper, the flask being removed from the ice bath only long enough for
pouring a s-iall portion of extract into the crucible. The separated
crystalline nateria'. is rinsed from the flask and washed under suction
with sufficient of the ice-cold saturated solution (usually 6 to .10 cc.)
to remove the excess mother liquor. Suction is amplicd for about 5
minutes, and then the material is dried to constant weight a.t 40 C.,
which usually requires about 1 hour. This is the weight of cruce ro-
tenonc-carbon tetrachloric'.e solvate.

7";e contends of the cruib'.e are then broken up with a spatula
and th!oroughly mixed, and a 1-gram sa-ple is _-olacd in a 50-cc. Frl-
en.-i. ya- flak where it is treated. with 10 cc. of alcoboi which has
be.n saturated with rntenone at room te-wperature. 7 f-lasi- i s irled
for a few minutes rnd thin ,tightly stoppered and sot aside b.t the s.anie
temperature for 4 houls. The uixt-ire is thon filtered a-t the sne
ierpernt-'e through a weighed. Gooch crucible with filter-oaper disk.
The crystals are rinsed from thl, flask and wo.shed under suction with
tho solution of alcohol sat'irated with roteoricne at the ten-crature of
tho rocrystallisat-on. Abo'-t 5 c,. arc usually required for this.
Suction is applied for abou, 3 ain.ates, and then the material is d-ried
at 1050 C. to constant .eigat, or for about 1 hour. The weight in
i,r.r.s is multiplied by the weight of crude solvatc, and to the product
is adled 0.07 ]rc,i, representing the correctiion for roterone 'ecld in
solutionn in the 25 cc. of cf.rb-n tetrac'hicride used in crystallizAticn.
If any pure rotenore '.-as added, its eight nust be subtracted frorn the
value obtained. This gives the 'igiit of "rpur-1" otonone contained
in the extract of the 25-grar root sanpi."

Cassil (66) in 1937 reported that the Gross-S-iith-Goodhue (J. A. 0. A. C.
19: 118-120. l1?16) red-cblor test for micro anounits of rotenone previously
developed in the Division of Insecticide6 Investj igtions can be apgliec to the
study of derris cr cube residues cm cbb.- e. Jhlorophyll and vax from the
outside leaves complicated the re'ov'r:,- of the rotcnor.e, but the procedure
finally developed cverca-c the difficulty. It was fond that cabb.ocs from a
plot that had. receive, a tobal of 94 pounds of derris dcust (9.4 pounds of
derris) in six appllcatiors, retai,.cd, 5 days after the last dusting, 0.006
grain derris per pound, equivalent to 0.0 p.p.:.. Five-sixths of this was on
the four outer lea"es, which normally are disc^tidce before -he cabbage is sold
to the rotai'. trade.

According to a report of tne Har-rid..lsnuscum of the Koloniaal Instituut
Of AnOde7 ( 2/3_2 in13,Lsco-
of Akiterdan (352) in 1937, Lonbhoc-.rpus povder' is only 1/0 to 2/3 as active
insecticidally as derris powder. :I;.iation of 19 samples of povrder repre-
sented to be derris powder showed 10 sa-mples to cornsirt exclusively of dorris
powv'-r, 3 samnplos to be mixtures of derris and Lonchocarpus, and 0 samples to
consist solely of Lonchoc;rpus :o','cr. E:.a-,inntion of 7 s-U:;jcs of derris
dusting mixture showed that all 7 contained aerris powder. This information
.is also given by Spoon (389).

The United States Departmeneit of Apxiculture, Food eand. Dua- ArLiiniistra-
tion (425), in its ,oi .1al report for 1937 stated that more satisfactor-' rtohods
for dote.ini2' rotcnoro in derris and cube, both ir the root powder and in
miAxtucs of these pc.7d'.crs with sulphur, hLd been devroi':'d.

Jones and G-rahAi.-n (229) in 1939 presented the results of a study of the
relative r.orits of various slvcnts for the extraction of rotenonc from. dorris
and cube. Tests were madc. with cl.oroform, benzene, acetone, ethyl acetate,
carbon tetrachloride, ethylone dichloride, trichlorocth.,'l ene and an nzeotropic
mixture of bcnzene-alcohol. The noisturc content of the samples tested ranged
from 4.9 to R.5 percent, The -Luthors draw thoe following conclusi -ns from
their work:

- 34 -

- 35 -

"In tn,* nd1ysis of fiiely powrd.red st.Dplcs of corris aw cu-be
roots a nothor. involving treti:oiit with chlor-forn at roor temoeraturc
followe(O by r-,-ioval of ,n aliquot of the filtered extract gives s-itis-
factorily conplctc extraction of t"ia rotonone.

'"Finc:,'ss of the sarpplc is an e..xcecdiri-ly it.port.ait factor in
obtaining complete extraction by an, nmothod. If co.rsc srmo1es arc
ground so that at least 95 per cent passes a 60-r-osh sieve, the;C '-ill
usually give satisfactory extraction b- the nliquo-i.in, procedures.
"So-plcs containing a i-.i ratio of ro tenono to total extrac-
tives worero found to be more difficult to cxtriact thmn thc.,o with lower
percentaoges of rotonon.c. Whr:, the ratio of roterone tc 'total tract
*.as aboit 40 nper cent or over, particularly in the case -f ferris
roots, it was necessar-- to enploy extrnction. at rooT: tenpraturc with
successive lots of chloroform in order to obtain satisfactory extrac-
tion of the rotcnone. This ncthcd should also be implnoyco. as a check
vlhenev-r there is 0ou2bt as to the comnolctcness of extraction by the
aliquo bing procedure.

"Cube roots in general arc nero r o;.ivy extractor! of their ro-
tenone content thani are dcrris roots.

"TieC moisture content of derris an'- cube ..roots as r-ccivcd in
this covintry has not been found to be sufficiently Crc:.t to interfere
with their analysis, and Lence prclir.inary drying of s:plcs seeons
unnecessary. 1'

J'ones and Graha-i (229) in Fobruary 1938 published the procedure rocon-
ncn-lcd by then for the dect( r.i-.nation of rotenono in dorris -nd. cube. This
is as follows:

"Weoigh 30 gra-.s of the finely pri7dcre r-ot into a 500 cc. glass-
stoppered Erlenmeyor flask. A,'dr 300 cc. of CHCl3 nea-urud at a dofin-
ite ro-n tenporature; place the flask on a shaikin- machine anc'. faten
the stoppers securely. Agitatc vigorously for not less than 4 m-)urs,
preferably interrupting the shakinc with ovorn.,-ht rest. (As %. alter-
native procedure the flask nay be shaken contiiuou"l,7 overni,,ht.) Re-
move the flask front the nrichino and allow to c3 1 in a rcfriecrator
for at least an hour. Filter the mixture rapidly into a suitable flask,
using a fluted paper witLout suction and koopiun the funnel covcrec
with. a watch-t'lass to avoid_ loss frcr .:vfporation. Stopper the flask
and arjust the t npcraturo of the filtr-te to that of the original
"Transfer c.:-.ztly 200 cc. of this solution to a 500 cc. Pyrex
Erlonroyer flask and pistil until only about 25 cc. remains in the
flask. Transfer the extract to a 125 cc. Erlmcnncer flask, using CCI4
to rinse out the 500 cc. flask. E-aporate almost to dryness on the
steam bath in a current of air. Then renovc the renaindcr of the
solvent under reduced pressou'e, heating cautiously on the stcan bath
when necessary to hasten the evaporation. (Tihe suction r:ay be applied
directly to the flask.) Dissolve the extract in 15 cc. of hot
CC14 and again, in a similar manner, remove all the solvent. Repeat

with another 10-15 cc. portion of hot CCl4. (This treatment rcnovas
all the CHCl. from the resins.) The CHC13 extract is usually conplete-
ly soluble in CCI0. If snail quantities of insoluble material are
present, t.le purification procedure described later will eliminate
then. However, if a large quantity of insoluble residue should remain
when the extract is dissolved in the first portion of CC14, it should
bo filtered. off and thoroughly washed with further portions of hot
solvent, after which the filtered solution plus washings should bo
tro ated as described above for the removal of CHC1.
"Add exactly 25 cc. of CC14 and heat gently to completely dis-
solve the extract. Cool the flask in an ice bath for several minutes
and. seed with a few crystals of rotenone-carbon tetrachloride solvate
if necessary. Stopper the flask and swirl until crystallization is
apparent. If at this stage only a small quantity of- crystalline mater-
ial separates, add an accurately weighed quantity of pure rotonono,
estimated to be sufficient so that the final result, expressed as pure
rotenone, is at least 1 gra;. Then warn to effect complete solution,
and acain induce crystallization. At the sans tine,)preparo a saturated
solution of rotencne in OC14 for washing. Place the flasks containing
the extract ne. the bashing solution in an ice bath capable of main-
taining a temperature of 0 C. and allow to remain overnight.

"After 17-18 hours in the ice bath, rapidly filter the extract
through weighed Gooch crucible fitted with a disk of filter paper,
removing the flask from tho ice bath only long enough to pour each
fraction of extract into the crucible. Rinse the residue of crystal-
line material fro-' the flask and wash under suction with sufficient of
the ice-cold saturated solution (usually 10-12 cc.) to remove the ox-
cess mother liquor. Allow the crucible to ronemain under suction for
about 5 minutes and then dry to constant weight at 40 C., which usualUy
required about an hour. The weight obtained is the "crude rotenono-
c:rbon tetrachloride solvatc."

"Break up the contents of the crucible with a spatula, nix
thoroughly, and weigh 13. grai into a 50 cc. rleonneyor flask. Add 10
cc. of alcohol that has previously been.saturated with rotenono at roon
temperature, swirl the flask for few minutes, stopper tightly, cand
set aside for at least 4 hours, preferably overnight,. at the sane tem-
porature. Filter on a weighed G.oich crucible fitted with a disk of
filter paper. Rinse the erystalg front the flask and wash under suction
with a solution of ethyl alcohol saturated with rotenone at the toaper-
ature of recrystallizatlon (5-10 oc. will usually be required). Allow
the crucible to remain undr action for 3-5 minutes and then dry at
105Q 0. to constant weigM, iMoh should be effected in 1 hour.

"Multiply the weight, empressec in graas, by the weight of the
crude rotenone-carbon totrzhloride solvate, and to the product add
007 grand, which represents the correction for rotenone held in solu-
tion in the 25 cc. of c03 .s ed in crystallization. If any pure ro-
tenone hao been added, W" l Its weight from the value obtained.

- 37 -

This gives the weight of pure rotenone contained in tl-hc -liquot of the
extract, representing 20 grams of the sanplc."

Reference to this ncthodC of Jones and Grahzam for the detcrnin:.tion of
rotononc in cube and dorris is Liadanthc 1Tcws Letter (227) of the Bureau of
Entomology andL Plant Quarantine.


Probably the ea.rliest published account of the use of cubc as an in-
secticidolc occurs in an article by Klinge (245) in the February 1910 Boletin
de la Direccion dCLe Fo-cnto, Lina, Peru. A translation from theoSpaliish is as

"At present I an studying and testing out a liquid for the con-
trol of ticks on llnans of which I sp-kc in ono rf ny recent letters.
There is a plant here calledO "CUBj" in the Qucchumn dialect -rhich is
used for catching fish in daned up streams by poisoning the '.-ater -lith
the root. From tests that I -:are it results that maceoration produces
an effective insecticide, which destroys the tick; but I do not know
whether it will be toxic to the llamas, if these anir-als should t2ake it
accidentally internally, as would be the case in a dipping, process. I
an making solutions by crushing and niaceratioz- in various proporrtions,
in order to find nne, if possible,which kills the tick and is not
poisonous to the lla:as in quantities lar.'cr than one liter, which is
the maxi:-um that can be taken during a dipping bath. The work is done
in the laboratory of the collc. e )an in a peasant house in the neighbor-
hood of the town. This will delay no a fev morc days."

Dolassus, Lepigre, and Pasquier (112) in 1933 wrote that rotenone (from
the roots of Derris, Tephrosia, Lonchocarpus, etc.) may be used like piyrcthrx-'
insecticides a: ainst insects attacking gr.apcvines in AiLecria.

The British Guiana Dcpart:ent of Agriculture (48) in 1734 published
results of tests of cold water, hot water, and. carbon tetrachlo'ridc extracts
of the bark, stems, mand lcavcs of fresh young shoots of hai?.ri a ainst the
red stinging ant, Solonopsis sp. iT:1-ro of the extracts had any effect on the
ants. An aqueous extract of haiari gave excellent results c'-ainst another
species of ant, probably Prenolepis sp., infesting coffee trees.

Garnan. andc Turner (158) in March 1934 published information on sub-
stitutes for lead. arsenate on fruits and vegetables in Connecticut. Rotenone
preparations made from cube or dcerris are promising both as stn,.ach and con-
tact poisons, an& are recco:nnendcA. against insects attoac.in currants, goose-
berries, raspberries, strawberries, beans, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli,
celery, and leafy vegetables such as beets, turnips, lettuce, spinach, Swiss
char(, New Zealand spinach, etc.

The United States Departnent f A;riculture, Bureau of E'tonology (417),
on March 14, 1934, .issued a n:ireoo 'raphed nemorandu-. rcc-)o ending derris or

- 38 -

cube dust containing 0.5 to 1.5 percent rotenone and combined pyrethrunm-
derris extract as a spray for combating the common cabb-4;e worm, cabbage loop-
er, cabbage webworm, and diamondback moth on. cabbage; melon and pickle worm
on squash; leaf-feeding insects on lettuce and spinach; and Mexican bean
beetle on beans. Satisfactory diluents for the dusts are finely-ground tobacco
dust, clay, talc, and sulphur which has proved especially successful on cab-
ba,e anid squash.

The opinion of one of the large insecticide manufacturers as to the
relative merits of derris and cube is of interest. McCormick and Company (274)
in 1934, in a full-page advertisement on the properties and uses of derris
powder, wrote as follows:

"It is reasonable to asunme that, if the rotenone content nnd
total ether cxtractives are identical in dorris and' cube, their ef-
fectiveness should be identical. However, experience has shown us that
the rotenone content and ether extractives in dorris are uniformly
higher than are these two elements in other rotenone bEaring roots.
This is probably true bcaase derris is more extensively cultivated
than any of the other varieties."

Crosby and Chupp (109) in 1 934 reccnnieondcd 0.5 percent rotenone dusts
made from cube or derris ni;:ed with talc or clay for the control of cab'`-go
worms (Picris r,,pac L., Autographa brassicae Rile, and Plutclla raculipennis
Curtis) and the- Mexican bean beetle.,

Haegelc (182) in 1934 reported that cube powder at the rate of 10 lbs.
per 100 gals. applied on a 7-day schedule and also at the rate of 5 lbs. per
100 gals. plus 0.5 percent oil applied on the regular spray schedule proved
most unsatisfactory (more worms per 100 apples) in controlling the codling
moth at Parna, Idaho. Heavy residues were left on the fruit from the 7-day
pyrethru:1, derris, and cube treatments, but there was no injury or lack of
color apparent. Use of these organic insecticides resulted in the least number
of' stings per 100 apples.

The Colorado Agricultural E-pcrinm-nt Station (87) reported that in 1934
a satisfactory control of the imported cabbage worr- on cabb and cauliflower
was secured with derris or cube dusts carrying 0.5 percent rotenone.

F. IL. Campbell (69), at the 1935 Ccdlirig Moth Conference, asserted
that because derris and cube are so toxic to codling noth larvae in laboratory
tests they should be tested further.

R. E. Ca-mpbell (62) in 1935 reported that laboratory tests at Alhambra,
Calif., against the imported cabbage worn showed cube dust to be slightly more
toxic than dorris dust with an equivalent rotenone content. Talc was used as
a diluent in each case and applications were made *ith a precision duster at
a dosage of 1 grand per plant.

An anony-ious (3) writer in 1935 stated that roach powders containing
from 5 to 25 percent cube or derris and 95 to 75 percent pyrethrium wore on the

- 39 -

Childs (79) in 1935 reported cube as well as derris ineffective against
the codling moth in Oregon.

Cassidy and Barber (65) reported in .1.935 that in plat tests cube was
less effective (45.2 percent control) than derris (62.8 percent control) in
controlling the following hemipterous cotton insects in Arizona:; Euschistus
impoictiventris Stal, Chlorochroa sayt Stal, Thyanta custator F., Dysdercus
mimulus Hussey, and Lygus hesperus Knight.

Feytaud and Lapparent (147) in 1935 reported favorable results against
the Colorado potato beetle in France with a terpinolene extract.of derris (or
cube) emulsified in water. These workers prepared terpinolene extracts of
derris and cube by macerating 8 grams of root with 100 grams terpinolene for
3 tc 5 days. After being filtered and emulsified, this extract killed larvae
of the Colorado potato beetle at a dilution of 1 to 19 with water. A spray of
2 percent of this extract has been used to destroy caterpillars on tob?.cco,
roses, cherries, pears and coquelicot.

A good emulsion is made by nixinig 700 giams of the terpinolene extract
with 300 grams of sulphated higher fatty alcohol (oleyl, lauryl, cetyl). This
is bettor than sodium resinate. Terpinolene, or essence of pine, is rich in
iso-cineol. Emulsions of 8-10 percent strength of the terpinolene extract are
being tried as a substitute for anthracene oil.

Later Feytaud and Lapparent (148) reported that in laboratory tests
against the Colorado potato beetle it was necessary to use the following
quantities of a product containing about 16 percent of the extractives of
derris of which 5 percent was rotenone: 100 grams per hectoliter-of water for
young larvae, 200 grams per hectoliter of water for old larvae, 500 grams per
hectoliter of water for adults.

Derris extract in tcrpinolene is made as follows: 15 grnnams powdered
derris or cube (rotenone = 5 percent) is macerated for 5 days at a temperature
not above 30 C. in 100 grains terpinolene, then filtered and kept in a tinted
glass flask to escape the action of light. A mixture is made of derris ex-
tract in terpinolene, 60 parts; torpineol, 20 parts; sulphated oleyl alcohol,
20 parts.

Preferably the last two ingredients arc mixed first and the derris ex-
tract then added. For use this mixture is added to water to mnko a 0.5-per-
cent emulsion. A monium sulphoricinate niay also be used as an eiulsificr. A
0.5-percent emulsion of this applied to fourth-statie potato beetle larvae
killed 30 percent in 24 hours, 75 percent in 48 hours, and 100 percent in 4

Howard and Davidson (200) in 1935 advised that derris sprays or dusts
were the best insecticides for the control of cc.bbgo worms in Ohio. Derris
or cube dust containing 0.05 to 0.1 percent rotenone, applied at the rates of
from 20 to 25 pounds per .crc, gave good control of the imported cabbage worn.
It was indicated that three or four applications may be required. to obtain
control in sq.o instances. Good results were also obtained by the application

of Oorris or c-fo re t. sprat s containing 0.(01 percent rotenono. For th.a con-
trol of the cabb-o looper it was nocesszry to usc derris or cube dusts con-
taining 0.4 to 0.5 percent of rotenone, or to use derris or cube root sprays
containing 0.015 to 0.02 percent of rotenone. Applications were made every
10 to 14 days after the worms appeared in large numbers. There was no sig-
nificant difference in the degree of control obtained from the use of dorris
root or cube root dusts or sprays, provided the rotenono contents of the in-
secticides were practically equivalent. The addition of spreaders or stickers
to derris root suspensions in water applied as spra's seemed to increase
slightly the control obtained. Very little difference in the degree of control
resulted from the use of a number of dciluonts for derris or cube dusts.

H. H. Richardson (340) in 1935 reported that both derris and cube were
effective ag'-Linst the common red spider, on greenhouse plants. Suspensions
of pow'.dered cube root (5.3 percent of rotenone and 17.3 percent of total carbon
tetrachloride extractives) at the rate of 0.25 percent (rotenone approximately
1:8,000) in combination with 0.25 percent by volume cf sulphonated castor oil
gave high mortality. Cube killed 97.2 percent of the adults and 96.6 percent
of the nymphs as compared to 99.2 and 99.5 percent kill, respectively, for
adults and nymphs r-eused by the sane concentration of derris with 0.5 percent
sulphonated castor oil.

The South Carolina A.ricultural E::pcrinent Station (386) in 1935 tested
powdered cube root (rotenone 5 percent) mixec with talc or tobacco powder as
a dust and also undiluted as a spray a-i.inst the Mexican bean beetle. Cube
compared favorably with derris of equal rotenone content.

Weigel and Richardson (461) in 1935 reported that the proportion of
sulphonated castor oil is an important factor in the effectiveness of derris
sprays against red spider. Tests conducted against the rocd spider mite,
Tctr-uniychus telarius L., at Barberton, Ohio, indicated that spray composed
of derris root powder in water, with a rotcn-ne content of a-pproxinately
0.0034 percent, which has not proved entirely effective, showed a narked in-
crease in effectiveness when the proportion of sulphonated castor oil was in-
creased from 1:400 to 1:300. With this proportion, kills of 98.4 percent of
the adults and 96.4 percent of the nymphs were obtained. It was observed that
increasing the rotenone content to 0.0052 percent without incrc-.Sin, the pro-
portion of sulphonated castor oil did' not appreciably increase the effective-
ness. Similar results were obtained when cube ro.t jcwO'.er in water, containing
aproximately 0.0095 percent o-)f rotenone, was used. with the sulphonatec. castor

The Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (418) in 1935 assembled
the results of codling moth investigations during 1934. Gcntner at Talent,
Oreg., reported that powdered cube root mixed with kaolin, to a rotonono con-
tent of 1 percent, at a dosage of 10 lbs. to 100 gals., appliedoc at seven-day
intervals (calyx and first cover of lead arsenate) gave much poorer control
then lead arsenate on Bartlett pears.

F. L. Thomas (405) in 1935 reco:i-ended 1 part derris contr .i:-in. 5
percent rotenone nixec'. with 9 parts finely ground conditioned sulphur for the
control of cabb-e worms (Pieris rapao L., Autographa brassicac Riley, and
Plutella maculipennis Curtis) and the tomato fruitworm (Heliothis obsoleta Fab.)

- 41 -

in Te-':as4 The following is said concerning cube: "Cube, another comicrcial
rotenone-be.ring )lant, is approxi:.ately equiv..le:.t to derris in its role/one

Hervey, Huckett, and Glasgow (191) in 1S35 reconrended a dust contain-
ing 0.5 percent rotehone made by diluting dcrris or cube with talc or clay,
used. at the rate of 30 pounds per acre for the control of the inportcd cab-
bae wcrii, Pieris rapae L., the cabbage looper, Auto, rapha brassicae Rile;,
and the larvae of the diamond-back moth, Plutolla naculiponnis Curtis. The
Zebra c-terpill-.r, M..nestra picta Harr., is very resistant to derris -dust.
Insteac. of dust, derris spray at the rate of 100 gallons per acre nay be used.
This is uadCe by add.in, 4 lbs. derris powder (4% rotcnono) -.nd 4 lbs. slir.
mill powder to 100 gals. water.

"Eorvey (190), in discussing the European corn borer, stated that s-ray-
ing or Oustit-ng sweet corn may become feasible whcre' the value of the crop is
high. Insecticides showing the host proiiso include derris or cube, pheno-
thiazine, an- nicotine.

F- .: L.i..c (146) in 1935 mentioned rote.on ponDers for combating the
Colorado pot Ato beetlo in France. The type forr.ula is 5 parts potdcred cerris
or cube (rotzn.onc not less than 5%) and 95 parts talc or kaolin.

The Colorao Agricultural Experiment St-,.tion (86) in 1935 reported
that pyrothrum- and rote.-..-.aro-bearing materials arG nore effective on cabbla.-e
worms as dlust than as sprays. Dusts of these materials that are effective
against cabbLao worms do not give satisfactory control of olant lice. The in-
ported cabbage worm is controlled, with pyrothrin- and rotenone-boarinL C-sts
C;)-iba-- lo--.cran dixazone.--bI-ck --icth.
of lower strengths than will control the cabbage loocr and diaon-back cth.
Calcium. arsenate dusts gave very poor control of the i"-portec' cabbajo -or, but
paris green dust gave a satisfactory control. Derris an'. cube dusts were equal-
ly effective when usek. at the sane rotenone content, altl;ugh the cube appear-
oe somewhat nore erratic when use." during cool weather in the fall,

Rotenone and pyrethrins are known to break ('omwn -i:re rapidly- in direct
sunliglht; how..;ver, there were no significant differences in the results from
morning and evening applications.

The New Jersey Agricultural Expjrinment Station (302) in 1935 reported
that derris -anu- cube roots are practically equal in their toxicity to aphids,
provided that they contain about the sane a-mounts of rotcr.one and total ex-

Fenton (145) in 1936 con-piled infornatior- on the u-ase of sulphur in the
control of truck crop and cane fruit insects and. diseases. Information is
in-cluc'.cd on nixtuireL of sulphur with derris or cube.

Boyce (37) in 1936 reportcc finely pow:7cred cube rojt ineffective
against the citrus r0., mite, Par.-itetraychus citri McG., anO. its cc-.'.s Ldcr
fioldl conditions in California.

42 -
F. S. Chamberlin (68) in 1936 reported tests made at Quincy, Fla.,
in 1934 in which he found that derris and cube, diluted with a fine nearly
neutral denicotinized tobacco dust to a rotenone content of 0.05 percent,
were equally effective (85 percent mortality) when dusted on the tobacco flea
beetle, Epitrix pqrila Fab., under cage conditions.

Brannon (40) in 1936 reported that best simultaneous control of the
Mexican bean beetle and powdery mildew on snap beans at Norfolk, Va., was
obtained by adding 2 pounds of wettable sulphur to derris or cube powder sus-
pensions containing about 0.02 percent rotenone or by diluting derris or
cube powder with sulphur down to a rotenone content of 0.5 percent.

Brannon (41) in 1936 reported that no significant control of the corn
earworm, Holiothis obsoleta Fab., on lima beans on the Eastern Shore of Vir-
ginia was obtained with derris-talc dusts containing 0.75 or 1 percent roten-
one, and that sprays of powdered derris and cube roots containing 0.025 per-
cent rotenone gave even poorer control.

Farrar (138) in 1936 reported that tests made in Illinois showed that
against the aphids Hysteroneura sotariao Thomas, Aphis pomi Deg., and A.
spiraecola Patch extracts of pyrethrum, derris, or cubec are not so efficient
as nicotine when mixed with oil emulsion. The addition of soap will increase
the killing power of an oil containing such extracts, but not enough to war-
rant the added cost of the extracts.

Brannon (42) in 1936 reported that cube dust containing 0.5 percent
rotenone was less toxic than cryolite-talc (60:40) dust in field cage tests
against tho adult sweetpotato leaf beetle, Typophorus viridicyanous Crotch,
at Norfolk, Va.

Fleming and Baker (150) in 1936 reported results of tests of insecti-
cides against the Japanese beetle under controlled laboratory conditions.
Cube and timbo with a rotsnone content and total extractives equivalent to
derris were only half as effective as repellents.

Bronson (52) in 1936 described a ball mill for mixing cube or derris
powder with a diluent and with an activator or conditioner. These dusts
have proved to be toxic against the pea aphid, Illinoia pisi Kalt., in small
experimental tests.

[ Hammer (186) in 1936 recorded tests made in New York for the control
of the gooseberry fruitworm, Zophodia grossulariae Riley, on currants. Pow-
dered derris and cube root containing 5 pcrccnt rotenone gave good control
when used in sprays. The best results were obtained when two applications
were made with either of those materials used at the rate of 2 pounds in 100
gallons of water. The first application was made on May 21 (one day after
the calyx spray was begun on McIntosh apples) aad a second spray was applied
on June 3. Almost as good results were obtained from one application using
4 pounds of derris or cube in 100 gallons of water. This spray was applied
on May 29, just as the worms were beginning to wob the clusters together.

Derris gave slightly better results than cube when used in sprays, Dlust
mixtures containing either derris or cube root and. having 0.5 percent ro,-
tenono gave good control but wore slightly inferior to the sprays. There
was no apparent difference in toxicity between dorris and cube when used as
dusts in these tests. Both clay and talc proved satisfactory as diluents.

Howard (198) in 1936 reported tests T *ade at Columnbus, Ohio, the
previous year Y;ith insecticides 4.:ainst the Mexican bean beetle. Sa.tis-
factory control. was obtained with suspensions of derris rot powder and cube
root i-,owcr in wauer at dilutions of 0.01, 0.015, 0.02, and 0.025 percent of
rotenone. Fairly satisfactory results were obtained with derris sprays
containing 0.005 percent of rotenone. The incorporation of /artous wetting
agents, spreaders, and stickers did not improve the efficiency of these spray
suspensions. In general, cube proved to be approxinately equal in effective-
ness to derris when tested at the sare dilution of rotenone. Derris cbdst
mixtures and cube dust mixtures containing 0.4, 0.5 and 0.75 percent of ro-
tononc, respectively, with various diluonts, all gave satisfactory control.
As a result of special tests of various diluen-ts, it w.C concluded that it
was not important to obtain .o-y particular diluent for use with derris or
cube dust, provided such diluent is nonalkaline in ch-::-.z ter. The resvlts
indicated that talc-flotation sulphur (50:.50), wheat flour, ground [pyre-
thrum] marc, talc, bentonite, and finely ground dusting sulphur in the order
named, with the last two almost equal in effectiveness, were as good as, or
slightly superior to, any of the diluents 'tested. In general, derris dusts
appeared to be slightly superior to cube dusts in effectiveness.

Howard, Brannon and Mason (199) in 1936 recoriended derris or cube
spray as the best control measure for the Mcxican boan beetle. Three pounds
of powder (containing 4 percent rotenone) per 100 Ei-llons gives a rotonono
content of about 0.015 percent. The trcat:ient should c. started vihen beetles
are foundC in the field and should be repeated at intcrvals of 7 to 10 days.
Dusts containing 0.5 percent rotenone Day be usor'. at the rate of 20 to 25
pounds to the acre per application. Spra-!' are rcc'-:. tended in preference to
dusts for b.o: beetle control', since sp-a'ing will ,_ivo better control and
longer protection to the plants. In the case of hoie-nixed dusts, either
talc, dusting sulphur, infusorial earth, kaolin (china clay), or other finely
ground inert clay, .7Tps'1u, rliatenaceous earth, wheat flour or tobacco dust
nay be used as a diluent or carrier, but recent exporriicnts have indicated
that talc is the most satisfactory. Dusts containing 0.5 or 0.75 percent
rotcanone should not be used for nakine spr.ys. 3c.in spraying when the
adults are found in the fielc or when the c:?s of the beetle beccome numerous
on the unidersides of the leaves. One to three, sonetines four, applications
are required, depending on the ab""nJnce of the insect.

Howe (204) in 1936 rcp-irted tests r.idc at Cl-.rksville, T.-nn., -gainst
the tobacco flea beetle, Epitrix parvula Fab., which indicatec1 that a cube
root dlust mixture having; a rotenone content of approximately 1.5 percent
was the nost toxic of the natorials tested against the flea beetle cn dark-
fired tobacco, but that a similar dust mixture containing 2 percent rotenone
was nost efficient in the tests with Burley tobacco. In -cncral, however,

- 43 -

-- 44 -

it aipe-redl that the dust mix-ture contai:.irg 1.5 percent rotenone was so
nearly quoal to the mixture conpLiii"ng 2 percent rotenone that the former
dilution is preferable beercuse of its lower cost. Tho cube dust uixturo
proved more effective than a mixture of 50 percent cryolite .nd 50 percent
kaolin, or a mixture composed of 8 percent paris green, 42 percent load ar-
senate, and 50 percent kaolini. Results indicated that there -71 very little
difference in the relativo toxicity to flea beetlos on tobacco plant beds
between the two last-montioned dust mixta-res.

Hutson (200) in 1936 published directions for the control of insects
wvithi dorris and pyretnhrun. Hutson states "The tern Derris is used for con-
venience. Present information rd-Lcates that cube cof equivalent rotonono
contcnt .is just cs satisfactory."

Laakeo (256), of the Dallas, Tex., station of the Bureau of Entonol-
ogy and Plant Qiarantine, Livision of Insccts ALfectii-. Man and Anmnals, in
1936 reported that po.jdered cube rrt, rotenone concontrzte, on0. many other
ts for o f lies andi horn flies.
materials wore i-neffective as repellents for stable flies and horn flies

Edwards (124) in 1935 rece-aicndcd Oerris or cube dust containing 0.5
percent rotenone for the control of spittle ou, Aphroplhora pernutata Uhl.
and Philaonus spurarius (Louccohthln'-is) L. on strawberries in 0rcc' r.
About 150 pounds of dust per acre %rc needed to secure control.

Ewing (133) in 1936 r,-p)rtod that in cage toxicity tests against
the cotton flea hopper, Psallus seriatvs PEeut, at Port Lavaca, Te::., a :iix-
turo of 10 parts prrethrun, 10 pr.rts c.be, arn-d 80 parts sulphur killed 15
percent of the aOults and 67 percent o-f the nyiphs. Best control of adults
(82 percent) .-:as obtainod by sulphur-paris green, cO.:lC, and best control
of ny'nhs (93.5 percent) r.s ob'ioi-ied with sulphur-pyrethrux', 60:40.

Smith and Scales (382) reported tne following results of cage tests
ra>.: at Tallulali, La., during 1936:
Control percentt)

Tr,'atncnt Laf,-.o __pInt "bug 3oll weevil
i'T ioh A.lt-

Cube 40%, sulphur 60%, 72 54 49 45
(rotonono 1.9 64)

Cube 206, sulphur 80%, 58 -- 33 28
(rotenone 0.98%)

Cube 10%, sulphur 90%, 31 -- 12 6
rotenonee 0,49%)
Cube 10%, pyrcthrui 10*, 63 71 21 9
(sulphur 80% (rotenone 0,49%)

Cube (rotenone 4.9%)

50 80

- 45 -

Cube was slightly better than derris n.irst the boll weevil and
about equal to derris a4;ainst the- leaf-orn, while dorris was slightly nore
effective against the tarnished plant bug. Calcium arscnate was -.iro
effective than cube Lgainst the boll weevil und the leafworm.

Chapman, HIollingsworth and Robertsonr (71) reported only slight re-
duction in the pink bollworm infestation in plats heavily dusted with a mix-
ture of 20 percent cube and 80 percent sulphur (1 percent rotenone) at
Presidio, Tcx., in 1935. Cube (5 pcrccrt rotenone) used as a spray, 10 lbs.
to 50 gals. of water and 2 lbs. of flour, also g!%ve very little control.

Chapna-L and Willians (72) reported that a dust of 10 pycrcent cube,
10 percent pyrethrui, ar-nd 80 percent sulphur (0.49 percent rotenone) used
against the pink bollworm in caec tests in 1936 was not so effective as
barium fluosilicate or calciui arsenate.

McKinney (278) in September 1936 reported that the application of dust
mixtures containing 1 percent rotenone, derived from derris or cube, with
talc as a diluent, proved effective in contrlli-Lrg the western striped cu-
cumber beetle, Diabrotica trivittata MLnn., on cantaloupes in the Salt River
Valley, Ariz. Treated plots yielded apProxinately 1.6 tines more fruit than
did untreated plots grown unrier comparable conditions, and the protected
plants also produced more fruits earlier in the sc-i.son, when prices were

Murphy andv Var on,'b-.'g (289) in 1936 wrote that nrest household sprays
contain as the insecticialu principle an extract of pyrethrum flowers, an
extract of derris o:. cube root, a solution of an aliphatic thiocyanate, or
some combination of these toxic egonts.

The New York (Geneva) State Agricultural Ef:-erinent Station (304) in
its annual report for 1935 (published in 1936) stated that when stomach in-
secticides are needed for the control of the imported currant worn on cur-
rants a rotenone spray or dust mnay be used. Studies made in 1934 show that
derris or cube dusts containir; from 0.3 to 0.5 porce:.t rotenone were very
effective in killing the currant worm.

Extensive experiments were conducted in western New York in lK34 on
the control of the cabbage aphid and cabbao worr:s on Danish cabbr7e. Both
of these insects were unusually' prevalent and caused serious damage in many
fields. Dorris dust containing 0.5 per cent rotenone proved more satis-
factory for worn c' ntrol than arsenate of lead or calcium arsenate, but ap-
peared to have little value in protecting the plants against the cabbage
aphid. On such crops as broccoli, cauliflo'7cr, 'crussels sprouts, and early
or loose hoadec' cab'agc, a dorris dust is advised to avoid arsrenical residues.
Where the cabbage arhid becomes abundant on these crops it will be necessary
to 2rlako a separate treatment of a 4-pcrccnt linc-nicotinc drust, since derris
and line .rc not compatible.

Comparative tests were mad.e of derris and cube roots in powdered form
and as extractives containing the toxic ingredients for the control Of cab-
Iage worms. Field tests indicated that extractives were inferior to pow7dered

- 4.6-

root for spray purposes, and that sprays were not so effective as dusts.
For spray purposes, the most satisfi.ctory results were obtained with a
mixture containing 4 pounds of powdered derris root to 100 gallons of water
in addition to neutral coconut oil soap, ponotrol, skin nilk powder as a
sticker. For dusting, equally satisfactory results were obtaineC with
dorris and cube mixtures of 0.5 to 1 percent rotonone strength, containing
talc, cl.y, or air-floated gypsun as the siluent. Hot all cabbage wonis,
hMwovcr, were killed by rotcnenc-contalning powders, for example the zebra
caterpillar. Contact dusts containing pyrethrwu or nicotine wero highly
toxic to this insect if applied in the early stajges of larval dcvelo-nont.

The Texas Aricultural ExpLriment Station (402) in its 48th annual
report (published in 1936) reported that derris was considerably nmorc ef-
fective than cube against the cabbage looper, Autographa brassicae, and the
larvae of the dianrnd-back noth, Plutell n.xcui.iponnis, regardless of the
carrier used, accor(in': to tests con Eucted at Weslaco and Wintcrhavon dlur-
ing January 1935. The derris nixturos and the cube mixtures wore nmor ef-
fective against the larvae of the diamondback noth thai: agai:ist the cab-
ba:ge looper. Derris-sulphur (15-85) or cube-sulphur (15-85) containin,.-
0,75 percent rotenone gave better control of cabbage wro-ms than either ar-
senate of lead or bariun fluosilicate on the average in the lower Rio Grande
Valley, the Winter Garden, or G-alveston County,

The Colorado agricultural Experiment Station (87) in 1936 reported
that during 1934 the insect infestation on cabbage and cauliflower consisted
largely of the imported cabbage worn. A satisfactory control of those was
secured with pyrethrm- dusts containing 0.18 percent pyrethrins and with
Oderris or cube dusts carrying 0.5 percent rotenone. The ninimnmi amount of
material and the number of applications to give seasonal protection remain
to be detcrnil-ed. T.ic infestation of the imported calbce worry was so light
il- 1935 that this part of the work could not be completed.

The 1935 infestation consisted of the cabbage looper, alfalfa
looper, and the dianondback moth. These are more difficult to kill. Dusts
carrying 0.2 percent pyrothrins or 0.75 rotenone, which is higher than
most reco:r'ondations and also higher than the contents of most commercial
dusts, failed to give satisfactory control.

The Idaho Agricultural Experinent Station (210) in 1936 reported
that cube-kaolin dust is effective against several insects. Preliminary
tests were made with a cube-kaolin dust mixture containing 0.02 percent
rotenone. This mixture, applied in the center and over the top of ant
hills, killed most of the colony, and a second application two weeks later
usually sorve C to exterminate the colony. Occasional light dustingrs of the
nixturo around shrubbery or ornamentals or at places where the insects
entered the buildings effectively controlled ants. The dust readily killed
nymphs of the squash bugs but squash vines soon wore rcinfestcd. One
thorough dusting of Virginia creeper killed most of the nymphs and adults
of the grape leafhopper and a second dusting 10 clays later produced con-
plete control. Two hustings of the mixture, 10 days apart, controlled the
grape leafhopper on grapes.

A con..ittec of entnmologistb rupre-finr4ing a nunbr.r of the St.tc anri-
cultural cxyrincnt stv.tions and the Bureau of Entad)lofy ard Plant Qu.aran-
tine, 'United State's Dcpartmont of A;.riculture, issued. the following sUCes-
tions (421) for the control of tho pea aphid(' at the 1936 noting of the
Anericrn Association of Eccnomic Mntonologists in Atlantic City.

"Dusting with '.erris or cube: Prll.i.aar;,y cncricnts with
these materials, with a carrier such ,.s talc, coxiitionodl .ith a
spreaaer and. wettin2 acont, have given satisfactory, control. Their
use is sug&csted only on an oxpori-acntal basis. Such. Oust should con-
tain op'-roxin tcly 1 percent rntononel .t

"Spra;:.in* With dorria or cube: On. the basis of -;rroun'. dcorris
or cube root containing 4 -)orcont rotenono, 3 pounds should be used
per 100 gallons of water. Corrcs)cnding dilutions should be useO wi.th
derris or cube containing more or lcss than 4 percent rotcnono. A
spreader "-ndO. wotting ornt is nucc('s',ry. The application -,)cr c.crc
should be from 150 to 200 {all;)ns. Pressure should not be less than
300 pounds. For information roCar .in i.pr ".'i-: and rotting -cents,
consult your Experiment Station entor.clo;ist, or the Burcau of EntD-
nolo.i;- anc1 Plant Quarantino, United States Dopartriecnt of A7riculture."

C. A. Thornas (404) in 1936 reported. tests nadOe in Pennsylvania for the
control of the tomato pin worn, Gnorinoscha-i lycop rrsi-r lln Busck. Exper-
ients show that pin vion larvae are very e2.%sily affected by derris, pyrcthrur
cube andL nicotine dusts -and sprays,' and proprieta.ry insecticidos containing
these materials, or extr'icts of then in ccr.win'\tion with Various carriers.
Ground deorris and cube ront, of 2 to 4 porcont rotonono content, rnd raixtures
of these with carriers such as "dustinrc sulphur, bentonite, inert C, etc.,
also are toxic, nathoueh the larvae dic quietly without the violent reactions
and strong; ro-iirnitation characteristic of pyrethrun effects. To'iato loaves
dusted! with a deorris powder containing 4 percent rotenonc were still quite
toxic to those larvae at the end of four weeks, although the plants were ex-
posod in a window duringg that time,

The Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (420) in its annual
report for 1936 reported results of various tests with rotenono, !'.crris and
cube, Field exp.erinents with insecticides in Ohio anO. Virginia on beans
growvn for the grcenbean market or for canning, have O.cnronstratod that the
Mexican boan *beetl.o can be controlled at a nininun cost by applying sprays
or dusts containing,; rotenono derived front dorris or cube without danger of
incurring harmful residues on the rziarket product.

Experiments in California dononstiatcd that dust nixturcs of derris,
cube, or pyrethrun gave satisfactory results in the control of the three
nmoro cor.non species of cabba;e 7worns on cauliflower.

For the control of the pink bollworm, barium fluosilicato, cube, and
cube-sulphur rmiixtures were selected for additional field-plot tests. All of
these gave some control, as indicated by a reduction of the numnbor of worms
per boll, but none was very effective or satisfactory.

- 47 -

- 48 -

Tci,,el and Ielson (458) in September, 1936, reported that in green-
house tcsto at Bultoville, Md. sprays oo'taini: 0.0056 perce-ont rotcnoio and
yrethr :u extract (1:10,OOC) with sulphon.-t, castor oil addod (1:300) as
a spreder, and organic thiocyanate. s-ray dlutecOd 1:300 wcro effective in
killing; adults andc ny rphs of Thri) taibaci vTwithouat injurL. to the trcatcd
cucumber plants in the 'rcecnhousc. These sjrays were applied at 300 pouncs
pressure by a sp)ucia;lly dOviscd r(relnhouse p)wer sprayer, 'he addition of
'irotlrun extract to oithor the dorris or cuie powder sIir"'., was found to
enhance their efficiency ,against the thris. A inmondiatc offoct was evi-
dent a',ain-st both the adults and the n-y2hs. The cube powder, plus the sul-
phonatoC castor )il, was not so cfeoctaivo a a derris powdC spray, even
thouc:h the rotonnon contoient (0.0056 porcort) of both was th. sane. inciden-
tall it was observed that no nildcw apCcarcd in any of the sprayed plots,
whioreac in the check plots it ras consistently present. This nF, indicate
sone fumnici.dal action on the part of the spra3-s containing; rotcnono or or-
Canic thioc--.,ratcs under the cor:ditiolis of the expcrir.Cnt.

T7hite (463) in 1936 in thiie pubiicatior, E-376 of tle Eureau of En-
tonolo;:y and Plant Cuarantino, issued rc, r2cn,.Qtions for the control of in-
sects attacking" ceo:ta1in ,erotables, smal"' fruits nrLO tobacco. Dorris is
recoMnmendod for the control of several insects and by i'rplication cube nay
be used in piace of dorris. Cute is .pecificall noiitioned as follows:

"Pre.liminary xxprin-ic: r'ts in California have shown that derris,
or cube, or pyrothru.i dust r',i:tur,-s, atb the sreic dilutions as have
been mentioned for c1.. a fe, vc -s as .,at i.sfactory results in the con-
trol of the thrQoe nrore coron s)0ecic of cab'Y.-e ;orns on cauliflower
as they did en ca.blal.c."

Cube is given as the equivalent of d frrIs for the control of the Mex-
ican bean beetle ancd the tobacco flea b.etl.,

Wisecup (473) in 1936 reported la'orctory tests directed acairst
quartor-jrown larvae of the imported cab- :c r-0rn, Pieris rao:ac L. at San-
ford, Fla. A cube dast mixture containing_ 0.055 percent rotnonoo was very
offoctivo in kilir; the larva. of this species, ,n;. this dilution is the
nest suitable of any of the dilutions tostO, for use in -btaininc comparative
results of the reactions of insecticides to P. raj-ao larvae.

Wisc2L:? (474) in 1936 also reported laboratory tests n-adc at Sanford,
Fla., with half-,-rown larvae of the southern imroyworn, Prodiiia e ri dania
Cra Ini general, these laboratory tests indicated that poisoned-bait mix-
tures consisting of bran, cottonseed nmeal, or corr.n nmeal, paris -rcon, cryolite,
phcnbthiazino, or cube, with syrui, and ("round Icnons, were not sufficient to
overcome the attractiveness of the natural &recn fo'd of the southern army-
worm larvae. Paris ,:recn ar.d synthetic cryolite were much superior to cube.

Felt and Bronley (144) in 1937 roportoc thc.t cube pcwder appeared
slightly less toxic than d(orris powder when aplpied as sprays at the rate of
3 lbs. of powder (rotononc = 4 percent) to 100 gallons of spray. Cube
powder was also ae.plied in a ni-:Lt-re of surr.tor oil 1 :200 as a contact insec-
ticide a:-.Linst shadow tree insects in Connecticut. In Ccnural, results on ox-

- 4c9 -

posed tent caterpillars, -'al cocoma americana FaLb., were better than on
cankerworms, Alsophila poletaria Harris.

Ewing and Hicarr (134) in 1937 reported that neither powdered derris
nor cube (each containing about 4 percent rotenone) showed any promise
when dusted on cotton flea hoppers in ca;es. Cube root mixed with phenc-
thiazine failed to give promising results.

"Morrill and Lacroix ('87) in 1937 reported tests to control the
potato flea beetle, Epitrix cucumeris Marris, oi shade and field tobacco
in tobacco in the Connecticut valley. The following dusts containing
rotenone were tested:

1 part cube pow-der (4>; roten:one) plus 3 parts
sterile tobacco dust (finely ground and certified by
the manufacturers to be a by-product in the manu-
facture of nicotine sulfate) applied at the rate
of 4 to 8 lbs. per acre.

2 parts cu-c powdeo-r (4; rotenone) plus 8 parts barium
fluosilicate applied at the rate of 4 to 8 lbs. per acre.

Dust containing 1/j rotenone applied at the rate of
12 Ibs. per acre.

1 part cube powder (1,' rotenone) plus 1 part barium
fluosilicate applied at the rate of 15 lbs. per acre.
Proprietary dust containing 0.557, rotenone applied at
the rate of 12 lbz. ,or acre.

Proprietary dust containing 0.83;. rotenone applied
at the rate of 8 lb., per acre.

All those treatments, and also cryolite iave a distinct improvement
over the untreated check. The mixture of cube root powder and tobacco dust
showed the highest number of dead beetles and the next to the least total Cleaf
injury. The mixture of barium fluosilicato and cube root powder was somncv;hat
more effective if judged by the number of live boetlus and the total leaf
injury. This superiority is not believed to be sufficient to justify the
increased cost of the mixture, since each material was used at nearly the
same strength as when used alone.

Cube as a spray was also tested -. aiir.st tlih, tobacco thrips,
Frankliniella fusca Minds. The cube powder (4,/ rotenone) was tried at 5 l1s.
and also at 12 lbs. per 100 oIs. plus sulfonatcd phcnylphonol .It 1:400 as a
spreader. lon of the materials (nicotine, pyrethrum, and lauryl thiocyanate
were included) proved satisfactory.

- 50 -

Several growers have stated that they were of the opinion that the
dusting with proprietary cube root powders, when the plants were v'et with dew,
had a controlling effect .on the tnirips population. They described the thrips
infestation as potentially the worst in several yoars, but actual da'maae as
being smaller than it has been at tLms in the pact. The sprays were applied
at the rate of.50 gallons per acre, equalling a dust of three to six pounds
per acre. Snce the dust is applied at the rate of ei-ht pounds per acre,
a heavy dew -iig.t form a toxic mixture, as in the case with the flea beetle.
This heavier dosage is said to have been reported from Australia ,s Qffective
and will be tested next season,

The South Carolina Agricultur.l Experinunt Station (387) in its 1936
annual report stated that, upon the basis of recent experiment. v.ork,
rotenone may be recommended for the control of the txican bean beetle.
Slightly superior results have been secured wheLi this product was used :s
a .pray, but it may also be used as a du'"t when the -proper diluent is used.

The following formulae have given best results;

Formulae for Liquid Spray mixture

Large quantities

Small quantities

Yo. 1 Powdered air-floated dorris
or cube root containing 5
percent rotenone.


No. 2 Powdered air-floated derris
or cube root containing 4 per-
cent rotenone.


1-3/4 pounds

50 gallons

2-1/4 pounds

50 gallons

1-3/4 ounces

3 gallons

2-1/4 ounces

3 gallons

Smaller portions of rotenone than th. above may be used with good
results, but the residual effect will not be as great. To obtain good pro-
tection the insecticide would have to be applied more frequently. One
'hundred to 150 gallons should be a.-plied per acre at vach spraying.

Formulae for Dust iLlisturcs

To make
0.75' dust

To make
0.50.' dust

INo. I Powdered air-flcat,.d derris
or cube root coi-tainin. 5
percent rot onono.

Talc or inert clay

15 pounds

85 pounds

10 pounds

90 pounds

- 51 -

Forunlac. for Dust Mlixtures (cont'd)

To make To make
0.75: dust 0.50' dust

;"o. 2 Powdcrd air-floated derris or
cube root containing 4 percent
rotcuonc. 18-3/4 pounds 12-1/2 pounds

Talc or inert clay 81-1/4 pounds 87-1/2 pounds

The rotnone content of the finished dust should not be loss than
0.50 percent, and it is believed that the use of the 0.75 percent dust may
be justified in view of the bettor protection afforded. Twenty to 25 pounds
of the finished dust should be applied per acre; at each dusting.

Many of the proprietary rotnono insocticids r.o'; on the market will
givw. good r sults if used according to the instructions of the manufacturer.

Nine different combinations of insecticides wore used in triplicate
on seedling cotton as a oortrol for thrips. Only one application of the
materials wa- made. The following table shows the percentage of reduction in
thrips population in each case. '.ihen the plants wore practically mature in
size, a count was made of injured stalks to determine any difference in
protection given by the various materials used. The stalks considered as-
injured were those having two central stens instead of one.

The results of this count is also shown in the table. The stalks
were counted on one row out of each of the six-row plots.

T(sts of Insecticides for Control of Thrips,
Pee Dee Experiment Station

Application of a.', 13 Pcrcent
Reduction Stalks Stalks Percent
of thrips injured uninjured injured

Rotenono 15V*
Sulfur 42.5'
Tobacco dust 42.5/ 65.56 147 144 50.52

Check '7.62 156 124 55,71

Paris green 10,7
Sulfur 90' 100.00 116 178 39.46

* This probably means 15 percent of a material containing 4 or 5 percent of
rot enono..

- 52 -

At the Peo Doee Experiment Station tests a>c.iL.st tobacco flea beetle
were made with derris dust (l7 rotonon-:-) and cube dusts (0.5 and 1.0",, rotcnono).
The difference in the percentage of reduction of living PCetlcs with the
rotononc and the non-rotononc dusts at the end of 72 hours was not sufficiently
great to warrant the selection of any of the materials as outstanding. How-
ever, when the number of dead booties is considered the derris and cube of
1 percent rotenone content yielded greater plant protection than the other
materials. There was no significant difference between these two insecticides,
although there was a tendency for the cube of 1 percent rotenone content to
lose its effectiveness faster than the derris.

The Secretary of the United States Departir.ent of Agriculture (413) in
his 1933 annual report wrote as follows:

"Laboratory and field tests wit'. organic insecticides,
particularly derris and cube, have brought :iany modifications
in the recom-nendations for the control of certain insect pests.
It has baen denonstrat-:C. that th-se insecticides which do not
leave residues objectionable fror.i the standpoint of human health
can be effectively used against a nubir of different truck-crop
pests, such as certain cabbage worms and the Mexican bean beetle,
and that they are zffectiv- aj' ainst flea beetles destructive, to
growing tobacco. rlc furtLor usefulness of these recently
developed materials Is f.vidoncod by the determination that one
application of sprays or dusts of d;rris or cube is effective
against the pea aphid over a longer period than other recomiiended
materials such as pyrcthrurm and nicotine."

In discussing insecticides suitable for combating the Colorado
potato boctle at the Conference- Internationalc pour 1'Etude du la Lutto on
Commun control le Doryphore held in 'rus3sols J.nuary 22 and 23, 1933, under
the auspices of the 3Belgian Department of Agriculture (26), Fcytaud stated
that powders containing 5 percent of cube or derris were in use for this

The Handelsmuseum of the Kolonia-al Instituut of AmAsterdea (249) in
S1936 reported thut comparative tests on derris and cube demonstrate that
derris is more toxic than cube having the same rotenone content.

The T'isconsin Agricultural Experimental Station (472) in its ani.ual
report for 1935-1936 reported that derris-talc dust containing 0.48 percent
of rotenone controlled the striped cucumber beetle. Alkaline diluents
(e.g., hydrated lime, pH 12.5) reduce the effufctivcecse of derris and timbo
for cabbage worms, but the more acid samples retcA.in their effectiveness in

S":l':er'and Andcrson (452) in 193( reported experimints for the control
of cabbage worms which woro made in 1932-1936 inclusive. The authors conclude
that repeated applications of derris and cube dusts containing from 0.5 to
0.75 percent rotenone and from two to three percent total cxtractives, and
pvrthr., dusts containing from 0,3 to 0.5 percent pyrethrins have given good

53 -

control of those cabbage worms, while dusts of weaker concentrations of
rotonono and pyrothrins wore loss offootivo= Dorris and cube dusts having
approximately the same rotonone and total cthcr extractive content appeared
to be about equally effective 'fbr the control of thcso posts.

Van Gundia (447) in 1936 reported that control of the Japanese baetlo
with applications of rotonono dust, made from either cube or dorris, was un-
satisfactory. "We arc not particularly intorestod in killing them by contact
whoro the foliage is sacrificed, but we are interested in keeping them .*ray
from those treated plants. We are quite confident that something can be
worked out to accomplish this."

LoPolloy and Sullivan (260) in 1936 reported a study of the toxicity
of rotenocno and pyrethrins, alone and in combination, to houseflies, whan
tested by the turntable method. A sample of foliage of Tcphrosia vogolii was
about one-fifth as effective as commercial samples of dorris and cube.

The Now Jersey Agricultur.l Experiment Station (303) in its 193d
annual report (published in 1937) reported that the discovery that insect
toxication by cube is apparently identical with insect toxication by derris,
provided the component toxic qualities are the same, is a matter of great
importance because the price of derris has boon skyrocketing, while the
price of cube has remained much more stable.

The New York Agricultural Experiment Station at Cornoll University
(307) in its 1936 annrmual report (published in 1937) reported that rotonone
added to naphthaleno-talc dust slightly increased the effectiveness of this
treated against onion thrips. Rotonono dust used undiluted was not
satisfactory as a control for onion thrips. Ground dorris root and cube root
as sources of rotonono in sprays controlled the immature stages, but they
wore not so effective against the adults. There wore no noticeable differences
in the effectiveness of these two sources of rotenone.

Against the hairy chinch bugs attacking lawns, nicotine sulfate,
both as a spray and as a dust, has proved offoctive. Rotcnono and tobacco
dust also have given effective control in experimental work.

Lettuce yellows caused considerable losses to lettuce growers on Staten
Island in 1935. Tests proved that the method of control by barriers afforded
some reduction in the disease. Dusts containing sulfur, pyrethrum, and
rotonone reduced the amount of yellows in experimental plots, through the
control of loaf-hoppers which spread the disease.

Growers were supplied with full and timely information regarding the
use of rotonone and pyrethrum insecticides to avoid objectionable residue
on such crops as string beans, cauliflower, and market cabbage.

The Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station (88) in its 1936-1937
annual report reported that rotenon, was found superior to pyrothrins
in controlling the imported cabbage worm; 2.84 pounds of rotcnono dust
per acre gave a significant kill. The tests of the season failed to give
a satisfactory control of cabbage loopers. The diamondback moth larvae
rank about midway between the imported cabbage worm and the cabbage looper
in resistance to pyrethrins and rotcnono.

-54 -

Nonpoisonous -dusts -were also used ori the Mexican bean beetle and
the cherry slug. A dust containing 0.75 percent rotenone used on th._ Je'an
beetle failed to give satisfactory-control. A spray of rotnonie, 2 pounds
of derris containing 4 percent of rotenone to 50 gallons of water, gave
control equal to that effected by arsenite of zinc and -arsenato of
magnesium or phenothiazinc, 2 pounds to 50 gallons of water, under heavy
infestation. On the cherry slug, rotenone sp-ra.,s, with 2 pounds of either
dcrris or cube powder containing 3 percent rotenone to 50 gu.llons of water,
gave controls equal to those effccted by arn-cn.te of lead.

The Texas Agricult'ntral Experiment Station (403) in its 1936 annual
report (published in 1937) repo-trJ on r)mcaial measures for the pink
bollworm, Seasonal infestation courts indic' ted that barium fluooilicate
and cubo-sulphur used separately as dusts or sprays reduced the worm
population. This was more apjarcnt on the nlats dusted with barium flue-
silicate. FTurther investigations are necessary to determine the merits of
insecticides for pink bollworm control.

Results in two series of experiments indicated that there was very
little difference between culhuxr and fuller's earth when mixed with cube
for the control of the cabbage looper.

The Idaho Agricultural E:.-periment Station (211) in 1937 reported
that a kill of 94.31 percent of the -ra'e leafhopper was obtained with one
spray containing 0.49 percent nicotine sulphate and 0.63 percent summer oil.
Better and more lasting results wore obtn.i-ind with this combination than
with derris or cube powder in either dust or liquid form or with pyrethru=
spray. Dcrris as a spray was more effective than as a dust.

Huckett (206) in 1937 recommcmidcd dorris or cube for the control of
the asparrguz beetle, Crioceris asparagi L., and the spotted asparagus
beetle, Crioceris duodecimmunctata L. In beds injury may be pr.:vc ted by
spraying or dusting the tips thoroly with dcrris Lixtures during the cut-
ting season to kill beetles and slugs. As a spr.y use 5 pounds of derris
and 4 pounds of skimmilk or Kayso to 100 gallons of water. As a dust use
15 pounds of derris to 85 Younds of clay or talc. Use powdered derris root
of 4 to 5 percent rotenono content and 15 to 18 percent total. extractive
content; or, if derris is not available, substitute po-vdered cube or timbo
root of comparable analysis.

Kcarns and Umpleby (237), cf the Long Ashton Research Station,
England, in 1937 reported that grafts cn be effectively protected from
weevil injury by liberally painting them with a mixture consisting of 1
pound of derris or b-.rba.sco ground root cont-irnirg tot less than 1,5 per-
cent rotenone, plus 2 pounds of lead -orsenite powder (or 4 pounds paste
or 2 quarts colloidal), plus 4 ounces of size. The derris ar-d arsenate
should be mixed with water to a consistency of thick creTu and to this
mixture the size added (previously soaked in 1 pint warm water). The
grafts should be painted just prior to bud burst, and in some seasons a
second application may be necessary, as the leaf weevils feed over a long
period. Those weevils are the clay-colored weevil, Otiorrhynchus singularis,

- 55 -

and the leaf-sating weevils 'h-yllobius p1ri and P. cbon. us.

Kearns and Marsh (235) in 1937 recommended derris or derris extract
as a spray for the control of the plum savfly. The wash should contain not
less than 0.004 percent crystalline rotenone. The trees should be sprayed
about May 10-20 and again 7 days later. Barbasco or any other rotenone-
containing material may be used as a substitute for d rris provided it is
suitable for use with a *hite ..oil emulsion.

For the control of the pear slugworm or s.vfly it is stated the
second brood is best controlled by the application in mid-July of a wash
containing 6 ounces of nicotine and 1/2 pound of wetter to 100 gallons of
water, or 1-1/2 pounds of derris or barbasco root (containing not less
than 1.5 percent rotenone) may be substituted for the nicotine.

Suitable wetteis are Agral 2, Lethalate Wettirng Preparation, and
Suli1pcnr-ted Lorol.

The Agricultural and Horticultural Research St.t.ion of the University
of Bristol, England (47), at Long Ashton in 1937 reported that investiga-
tions were continueO or the chemical and biological evaluation of rotenone-
containing materials. The work in.-ludled experiments with the ground root
and extracts of ;r- is and Lorchocurpu spp.

Kearns, Marsh, and Martin (236) in 1937 reported tests made in
England with combined washes to test the efficacy of Trroaders. Tests
,.:ere made with derris, derris extract, and barbasco (.3; rotenone and 17%
ether e_)trrctives).

Rotenone-containing insecticides Are shown to be suitable for use in
field trials for the comparison of the relative efficiencies of spray supple-
ments as penetrants. The synthetic spreaders Agr.l 2 and sulphonated lorol
used with rotenone-containing insecticides for the control of Ppnle sawfly
(Hoplocampa testudinia) have b.3en proved more effective at 0.05 percent
than sulphite lye at 0.75 perc-nr.t,, ;am-na-sulphonates at 0.05 percent being
intermediate in efficiency. The most effective spray supplement uxamined
was a refined (Eri.>e G) petroleum oil emulsified with sulphite lye, the
superior efficiency of which as a penetrant may have been associated with
solubility factors. The grade G petroleum oil proved more effective than
a water-soluble spreader as a supplement for rotzrncne-containing sprays
applied for the control of the plum saw.fly, HIoplocampa flava.

In field tests a.,irnst the tobacco flea beetle, "pitrix parvala, F.
on shi.de-gro,-n tobacco in Florida,- Chamberlin (69) found cube dusts
containing 1 or 1.5 percent rotenone more effective than a cube dust
containing 0.5 percent rotenone.

White (464), in a revision of E-376 issued March 1937, gave
essentially the spnae information as far as cube is concerned as in the
previous edition.

Dudley, Eronsorn and Carroll (120) in 1937 reported no difference
in the-value of derris and cube sprays for the control of the pea aphid.

- 56 -

A spray containing not less than 0.005-percent rotenone applied at the
rate of 144 gals. per acre increased the yield of peas about 100 percent.
A cube-talc dust gave good results when applied at the average rate of
46 lbs. per acre.

Brannon (43) in 1937 summarized the results of insecticide tests
performed against the Mexican bean beetle in 1936 on Fordhook lima
beans, at the Ncrfolk, Va., laboratory. The best control was obtained
with dust mixtures of derris-sulphur and cube-sulphur, each containing
0.5 percent rotenone. Derris-wettable sulphur and cube-wettable sulphur
sprays (each containing 0.01 percent rotenone) also gave good control
of the insect. The percentage of control with the dust mixtures was
slightly superior to that obtained with the sprays.

Brannon (44) in 1937 reported that the sweetpotato leaf beetle,
Typophorus viridicyaneus Crotch, has developed into a pest of distinct
importance in northeastern North Carolina. Results of cage toxicity
experiments demonstrated that '-indiluted calcium arsenate was more toxic
to the inject than was a derris or cube dust mixture containing 0.5
percent rotenone or a water suspension of ground derris root contain-
ing 0.02 percent rotenone.

The Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station (212) in 1937
issued directions for spraying fruits in Illinois. The currant worm
on currants and gooseberries may be controlled by spraying with 8
pounds ground derris or cube (containing 0.75 percent rotenone) in 100
gallons of water. Spraying should be done before the worms appear, just
after the plants come into full foliage.

Danzel (ill) in 1937 stated that derris has a greater activity
than cube or other rotenone-bearing plants, but no experimental figures
are presented.

Spoon (390) et al. of the Koloniaal Instituut of Amsterdam
in 1937 compared the relative insecticidal value of dusts made from
derris and cube. Eight sets of powders were prLpared, each set con-
sisting of one powder prepared with Derris, the other with Lonchocarpus,
both powders containing equally high amounts of rotenone and ether
extract. These powders were mixed with diatomaceous earth in order to
obtain dusts with definite amounts of rotenone (0.5, 0.75 and 1 percent),
according to the sensitivity of the various insects.

Thp dusts containing 0.5 percent rotenone were tested on larvae
of Lphrus pini L. and on i!yrmica ruba L.; those with 0.75 percent
rotenone on caterpillars of Buproctis chrysorrhoea L. (Nygmia
phaeorrhoea Donovan) and on M. rubra L.; those with 1 percent rotenone
on M*, rubra L. only.

The results, shown in diagrams, are based on the observation of
120 specimens at least. The heights of the columns show the percentages
of dead insects after 24 hours. In 7 of the 8 sets the effect of Derris
is stronger than that of Lonchocarpus. The effect of Derris dust on
caterpillars of Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Nygmia phaeorrhoea) and on larvae

A- 67 -

of ILophyrus pini is aboit 1 1/2 times stronger than the effect of
Lonchocarpus dust; and on Myrmic. rubra the effect of Derris is twice as
strong as that of Lonchocarpus.

Howard and Mason (201)' in 1937 summarized information on derris
and cube taken largely from United States Department of Agriculture
Farmers' Bulletin 1624, revised.

"While much is yet to be learned concerning the
relative value of the numerous toxic ingredients present
in derris and cube roots as they come from the factory, we
are especially fortunate that we are able to dilute these
materials on the basis of their rotenone content with very
satisfactory results. For this reason, we speak of rotenone-
bearing materials in the terms of rotenone content."

It has been found by growers in Few Jersey that the use of
hoods behind power or traction dusters allows a considerable saving
in the amount of dust applied for the control of the Mexican bean
beetle. When hoods were used in dusting on the experimental plots of
Howard and Mason, one-half the dosage gave as satisfactory results as
could be obtained with a full dosage without the hoods. These hoods
may be constructed of light framework, such as barrel hoops and bamboo
poles, and may be covered with a cheap grade of muslin and attached
behind the duster. They are, of course, not practicable for use on
the hand machines.

Methods of making derris sprays and dusts and their use against
the Mexican bean beetle, pea aphid, cabbage worms (3 species) harlequin
cabbage bug, cucumber beetles, flea beetles on young tomato plants and
young egg-plants are described. Derris or cube is ineffective against
the celery leaf tier. For most purposes a dust containing 0.75 percent
rotenone is considered of greatest value. It is possible that it may be
necessary to use a 1 percent dust in the control of the pea aphid and
the pea weevil.

Boyd (39) in 1937 discussed rotenone (from derris or cube)
for the control of household insects. Reference is made to the use
of rotenone in fly sprays and in bedbug sprays, for the control of
clothes moths, as a remedy for follicular mange, in sprays for ants
and roaches, and as a poison in baits for ants. Mixtures of rotenone
with pyrethrum or thiocyanates are mentioned.

The New York Agricultural Experiment Station (305) in 1937
reported that powdered derris or cube root proved to be the most
successful insecticide for use against the gooseberry fruitworm,
Zophodia'grossulariae (Riley), in 1935 tests. These materials may be
applied either as sprays or dusts. When dusting, a mixture of cube
or derrie root with some inert carrier such as talc to give a 0.5
percent rotenone content, is suggested. For the spray, 3 pounds of
the undiluted root in 100 gallons of water may be used. Two treat-
ments are advised for heavy infestations. The first should be timed
to coincide with the petal fall spray on apples, the second 10 to 14
days later. A single treatment applied halfway between the two should
handle a light to moderate infestation.

- 58 -

T'i- imported currant wormn, teronidea ribe.,ii Scopoli, is
also really controlled with rotenone sr.a-s a1d 6usts. As i1-
fe.)taaiona of this insect in a given planting are often locali:ed,
"spot" spraying or duoti-g nay be practiced to advantage.

All of the pests of crrreznt for which arsenic;-.ls have previously
been -ised may now be controlled byr rotenone spravu or dusts o0 the
use of which there are no logal restrictions.

Field tots of po-:de-ed derris, cube., and timbo root of
comparable aral.tical qu!i y showed, that such powders were about
eaual in effEctiv-.1,e3s wncn iV ?c. for the control of the imported
cabbage worn. With this insect, dusts of 0.5 percent rotenone cortent
gave optimum results, and those of 0.3" percent rotenone content : Yve
results that were comr.endably satisfactory considering costs. Spray
mixtures containing 4 pounds of -g-od grade ro"ve.red root in 100 -allons
of water with a sticker gave fair results', the degree o:" control
effected not being equal to that attn by the use of dusts. n-
festations of thrips and aphids in thb caulif..ower seed-bed during
July were effectively controlled '1y tr.atm:nt with rotenone-containing
dusts of 0.5 and 0.335 percent rotz.none concenS, nhe r piications being
made late in the evening -uaner c Ir conditions in anticipation of a
more or less extt-.,del pArioa o0 high re'itiv':. humidity lurn; the

Comparative tests were r-.adc of d:-rr's, cube, and timbo powder-
having abcut the same content in active ingrekie:ts in ap-"y snd
dust mixtures for the control of the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna
corrupt varivestiss) >.:Us. The results showed th-.at f1l three
powders Then used at coDLrarable strengths in terms of Active
ingredients were effective, a Fli-ht superiority favoring derris.
Spray mixtures contaii.ing 2 to 3 poiu.ds of good Lrade ,--wd.ered root
in 100 gallons of viater with sticker gave satisfactory results.
Sprays during the current season were more beneficial to plant growth
thna.n dusts. Of the dust mixty.rcs te3ted those of 0.5 and 0.75 percent
rotenone content g-avw the best results. It is interesting, to note
that the yield of snap beans from plants effectively srt:,r.-,-d or dusted
did not invariably result in mark.jd increases in yield of rod.. rrnm
such evidence it seemed highly probable that to 'formulate ca r&.ticnal
method of control for the Mexican bean beetle emphasis should be
placed more on the making of a fey op-ortu-.e number of applications
and less on the necessity for the fulfilment of a definite series of
applications according to schedule.

Beard. (24) in 1937 reported tests of insecticides against the
striped cucumber beetle in Connecticut. Potted squash plants were
used for food material, and were covered - cczr:r vir- screen cages.
Beetles were introduced into the cages, and the insecticides were
applied through the wire screen. Five insecticides were tried, as

Derris dast: containing 0.6 percent rotenone (dorris
root diluted with clay).

Derris spray: gound derris root used at a dilution of
1:200 with SS-3 spreader at a dilution of

P.otenone spray: a commercial product of cube root, con-
ta'ningl 2.5 percent rotenone, used at a
dilution of 1:200.

Calcium arsenate: 1 part diluted with 9 parts of gypsum.

Pyrethrum dust: a concentrated pyrethrum dust containin,- 2
percent pyrethrins diluted with talc 1:9.

Beetles were also caged over untreated plants to serve as a check.
T1enty-four hours after the insecticides were applied, counts were
made to deterrinr-i the killing powers of the dusts and sprays. The
results obtained are as follows:

IiLrnber Number of l.Tuaber Percent
Treatment of tests beetles killed killed

Derris dust 4 70 70 100.0
Derris spray 3 47 46 97.9
Commercial rotenone spray 3 58 39 67.2
(derived from cube)
Calcium arsenate 2 40 18 45.0
Pz'rethrum dust 1 38 38 100.0
Check 4 87 1 1.1

Derris was also the most effective insecticide when beetles were
introduced into the cages 5 days after spraying or dusting.

In a block of Hubbard squash, one-half of the plants wore
treated with derris dust and one-half with cube dust, also containing
0.6 percent rotenone. There was no perceptible difference between the
two, as the killing action was immediate in both cases.

From these tests it may be concluded that derris dust, con-
taining 0.6 percent rotenone, is the most effective treatment against
the striped cucumber beetle and is to be preferred to the calcium
arsenate, which heretofore has been the standard recommendation of
this Station.

Batchelder et al. (22) in 1937 reported good control of the
European corn borer, Pyrausta nubilalis Hbn., in Connecticut with
derris spray, but derris dust was unsatisfactory. As a spr:.y finely
powdered derris (rotcnone 4 percent) was used at the rate of 4 pounds
per 100 gallons of water. In dust form 1 part derris to 8 parts of
talc were used to obtain approxirately 0.4 percent rotonono content.

- 60 -

Cube dil.,ted w tn ta'.c to % r-ite-ono content of 0.9 percent and
z-oiicc as a dlAst, was oL:, to be less effective insecticidally
than dc -fixed nicoui-ne `-xt (4 percent nicotine), which gave the
same re ucticn cf 'borers a-s a derris dust contai: ln 0.8 percent
rotenot-. in ccrmar" .<-,* performance of du.t preparations tested
in 19?6, however, ;h7 freqctrz m-ad -h extcnt of trie rainfall
occurri-i; d-ring the critical "---iol of resiiuc effectiveness should
be consider carufuily. It i 1 lie'xved that th, effectiveness of
all materials wes w rcati-y -d-duced by those rains arnd that incon-
sistsent results are attriar to residue losses ccasioncd by

The Bureau of En-tomI!o-y and Plant Oj-antine (-41.) in 1937
recomLended 1-1/2 pounds of f-n6ly g:oanc- 4d.crris or cube (Ictecone, 4
percent) to 50 ,agi2on of water as a spray; o- a du-,t containing 0.5
percent rotenonc for the co-trol of the --c.. can 'ieai beetle, Fri11 ahna
varivestis IATlf. Suita'ble diluenis are tac, cly, vulrphur, -obacco,
s 'psun, or ot,.'-r -ow-er: e::eet _in.>. S-':.; 1 Tha ivcn better results
than dusting,. lh.. ).c' s'sc of the ioavs should be thoro *.'-ly
covered. The first apication of insectinido ('priy or dust) should
be nmade when ':-ican bear o-.etles ar. found in thIe field or -ih cn 7c -
become numerous on thC ,u.dir.V side of thJ 1;vUs. F. r: .t .vecy .7eU or
10 days if the inqccb., %re uun -Ir')tL.

Wclker and Anderson (453) in IS37 reported on the control of
larvae of dirmor__a Ik roth, Plutclla 2ac'2lipcnnis Cu-'ctis in V:'--*v-ia.

~-.Ie pl-ntq infested with newly watched larvae of the di2.nond-
back moth were dusted on OCtober 31 nid i-jvcMocr 10, 1936, at the rate
of about 25 pourIds pr acrJ with drri"--c mand cube-talc dusts co--
taining 0.5 percent rot._onc, oth' in c- o.nation i. -h and vrit.out
Aresket, The dcrris-taic, derris-Ar 7t-tal, cue--talc usts
-ave 82 ,,-.rcecnt coi-trol dusd tho cube-Ar skt-tle dust gave 37 per-
cent control., indicating V t t -chcre i very little diff, roncc between
0 1 t ( U S r n ha ) l d w o t h~e ',a r v a e
the effects of .".n: of tie usts .d thnt if aplid vhn the larvae
of the 3iamondbac.: moth -re yoiuig, either a dcrris-talc or Ca cubo-
talc dust cont..,..nir rpprox'i..tely 0.5 --ercent rotenone --. 2 per-
cent total extractives wiill give s.tlsfactory control of this insect.

The Ohio A-riculturai E:I-:riment Station (310) in 1iC7
reported tests made bvy 3. _,,iswandcr for the control of the
strawberry leaf roller, Ancyli comptana Freool.

The efficiency of various insoct-cidos waz im:apairc by the
number o-" inju-cd strawbrr;,- la.eflets in a 600-leafict sample taken
from each replicate o0 each plot.

Sixteen insocticidal treatnmnts w7ere tested against the first
brood in sout.hwcsLrrn Ohio and each "-as re)licat.- five times.

- 61 -

Applications v.'ero made on May 11-12, 1.,aj 21-22, and May 27. In the
third application, iLowvver, orly those materials were used vhich 'WCuld
leave no poisonous resiIdue on the berries. Differences in the amount
of injury that could be detected in the various plots on May 21 were
slight, but these differences increased as the season advanced. On
June 10, 600 leaflets from each of the more outstanding plots were
examined for leaf roller injury.

The powderc i cabti root, although. it contained the same amount
of rotenone (4 poci cut) and was used in the same nannor (diluted 1 to
7 with gypsum), vas si;nific-.ntly less effective than powdered Jcrris
root (47.2 percent control for cube; 75.7 percent control for dcrris).

Knowlton and Sorenson (246) of the Utah A-r*cultural E-..eriment
Station in 1937 reported that cube or der-is sT--'aycL applied with
properly adapted poorer spray equipment at a pressure of at least
300 pounds, has given good control of the pea al}-id in several States.
Ground cube root or derris .o:er with a 4 percent rotenone content
should be used at the rate of 3 pounds to 100 gallons of water. Other
strengths of dust should be diluted to a like strength. To be
most effective, such a p.-,'y should be applied on a quiet, warm day,
and before the pEa aphta cauoes noticeable injury to the plants.

The Fun,-er.bor ei*Bestrl.jdings-Commissie (362) of Holland in
1937 reccmmended aqueous sus-nensions of derris root for the effective
control of the cattle grub. Derris powder containing some Lonchocarpus
powder is encountered in commercial derris products. Although
Lonchocarpus powder contains rotenone, and frequently has as high a
rotenone content s.s Oerris, it is, nevertheless, much less effective
than derris. Experiments at the Koloniaal Instituut showed derris
to be from 1.5 to 2 times as effective as Lonchocarpus, in a large
number of comparative biological tests.

n-neBureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (.) in its
annual report for 1937 reported that sprays or dusts of cube or derris
control the Mexica.n bean beetle at a minimum cost. Cube or derris
dusts plus sodium oleyl sulphate are effective against pea anohids
and leave no rotenone or other 'constituents in peas taken front;
treated plants. Cube and derris dusts gave negative results against
the corn earworm on lima beans. Tobacco flea beetles, Epitrix
parvula F. and E. cucumeris Harr., are controlled by cube or derris
dusts containing sterilized tobacco dust as the diluent. Cube dust
did not control thrips on cotton.

Wallace (454), Secretary of Agriculture of the United St:..tes
of America, in the United States Department of Agriculture YLarbook
of Agriculture, 1937. wrote as follows:

"Labor-tory .and field tests with or._U.ic insecticides,
particularly, derris and cube, have brought many modifications iZ
the recommnd:.tions for the control of certain insect pests. I

62 -

has been demonstrated that these insecticides which do not leave
residues objectionable from the. standpoint of human health c.an be
effectively used against a number of different truck-crop posts,
such as certain cabbage corms and the 'L:.ican bean beetle, and that
they are effective against flea beetles destructive to growing
tobacco. The further usefulness of these recently developed
materials is evidenced by the determination that one application
of sorays or dusts of derris or cube is effective against the
pea aphid over a longer period than other recommk'nded materials
such as pyrcthrum and nicotine."

Will, Oampo, Weberbauer, and Schofield (471), of the Agricultural
Experiment Station at Lima, Peru, published a complete review of information
on cube in 1937. Insects against wtich cube has prov,-d effective are
listed in their families and also those 'anair.t which it is ineffective.
In tests against the chief pests of cotton in Peru, sprays of cube extract
containing 0.05 or 0.01 percent rotenone proved as effective against
Aphis gossypii Glov. as 0.5 percent nicotine sulphate. Dusts of ground
cube root of 5 and 1 percent rotenone content gave 50 arnd 15 percent
mortality, respE:ctively, of adults of Anthonomus ve st-is Boa. in the
laboratory. Sprays of cube extract of up to 0.05 pcrcurt rotenone content
had no effect on larvae of Anomis luridula Gn. (texanr.a Riley) and Al.abama
arilac'?a Hbn., but in another series of tests, a spray of 0.01 percent
rotenone content gave 75 percent mortality after 8 days, and surviving
larvae were unable to moult normally. A suspension of cube dust in water
to give a spray containing 0.3 percent rotenonre killed 73 percent of the
larvae in 5 days, but was not effective in the field, probably owing to
imperfect wetting.

In laboratory tests against 20 adilts of Dysdercis ruficollis L.,
a cube dust containing 5 percent rotenone killed 4 and paralyzed the others
in 24 hours, and after 4 days, 19 were dead. Dusts of lower rotenone content
also gave good results, one of 0.01 percent giving 80 percent mortality
in 5 days. One unfavourable result of this slow rate of toxicity was that
females were able to oviposit normally and their eggs hatched. Sprays of 0.1
percent rotenone content in three tests gave 52, 80 and100 percent
mortality, respectively.

It is concluded that in Peru cube root and its products cannot
replace the customary insecticides against plant pests. On the other
hand, highly satisfactory results were obtained against parasites of
domestic animals.

Part of this publication deals with the use of cube in dips against
Mclophagus ovinus L. and Sarcoptes sp. on sheep, Haematopinus ourysternus
Nitzsch on cattle, H. suis L, on pigs, and a species of Psoroptos on
alpaca in Peru. In 1935 more than 300,000 sheep were treated with cube
dip in the Junin region, and 150,009 in that of Puno. The dips were
obtained either from an extract prepared by soakin" the chopped roots in
water for 48 hour, or from a powder finely ground so that 85 percent
passed a sieve of 0.074 mm. mesh. Their practical application was studied
in 1936 by J. F. Mitchell, who stated that the powder yielded a dip that

- 63 -

wias more saponaceous, and theTefore penetrated better, than that from
the extract. Dips made with the powder did not keep for more than
48 hours, a disadvantage owing to the number of animals to be treated,
whereas those made with the extract kept for up to a week. The addition
of 1/2 pound of soap per 100 U. S. gallons wLs recimm,'nded and also
that of 1/2 pound of sodium carbonate to counteract the hardness of the
water. For complete control of the parasites, cattle usually required
two dips, with about a fortnight's interval, twice a year, and sheep
the same, except when seriously infested, in which caso a third pair
of dips wvas necessary.

The effective concentrations of ground root containing 6.8 percent
of rotenone, and of extract containing 5.5 percent of rotenone were,
respectively, 1:2000 and l.10,000 for I. ovinus, 1:3000 and 1:15,C00
for H. eurystornus, 1:2000 and 1:8000 for H. suis, and 1:1000 and
1:6000 for Sarcoptes sp. and Pso-optes sp. The ground root and the
extract wore equally effective, and were in no way inferior to other dips.

In preliminary tests, cube rpoot containing 5 percent of rotenone had
no effect on the larvae of Anopheles p seudopunicti- 1 .r- s Theo., after
15 hours, when used at a concentration at which it killed fish in 30

Smith and Scales (383) in 1937 reported the results of insecticide
tests against three cotton insects.

Tests were planned to compare derris, cube, and devil's shoestring
containing equal amounts of rotenone in mixtures with sulfur. The mixtures
wore prepared, however, before the analyses were received, and the rotonone
contents of the mixtures are only approi:lately equal.

Cube containing 4.9 percent of rotenone produced a higher mortality
of boll weevils than derris containing 3.9 percent of rotenone, Devills
shoestring (1.7 percent of rotenone), or calcium arsenate. The mortality
from calcium arsenate, however, was higher than that from derris, devil's
shoestri- or mixtures of cube, derris, and devil's shoestring with sulfur.
Calcium arsenate caused a higher mortality of leaf worms than did either
derris, cube, or devil's shoestring, used alone or in mixtures with sulfur.

Results were as follows:

- 64 -

Cage toxicity tests against the boll weevil and the leaf
worm with derris, cube, and devil's shoestring.

Materials and proportions
(and percentage of rotenone)

Boll Leaf
weevil worm

Boll Leaf
weevil worm

Derris-sulfur 40:60 (rotenone 1.56)
Derris-sulfur 20:80 (rotenone .78)
Derris-sulfur 10:90 (rotenone .39)
Cube-sulfur 40:60 (rotenone 1.96)
Cube-sulfur 20:80 (rotenone .98)
Cube-sulfur 10:90 (rotenone .49)
Devil's shoestring-sulfur 94:6
(rotenone 1.6)
Devil's shoestring-sulfur 47:53
(rotenone .8)
Devil's shoestring-sulfur 23.5:76.5
(rotenone .4)
Derris (rotenone 3.9, total
extractives 11.6)
Cube (rotenone 4.9, total
extractives 17)
Devil's shoestring (rotenone 1.7,
total extractives 7.5)
Calcium arsenate No. 2

Cube with pyrethrum and sulfur was tried against these insects
and also Lygus pratensis with the following results:

Cage toxicity tests against the boll weevil, the leaf worm,
and Lygus pratensis with pyrethrum and pyrethrum mixtures

Materials and proportions

Pyrethrum-cube- sulfur
Pyrethrum- sulfur
Pyrethrum (.76% total

Percent mortality
Boll Leaf Lygs
weevil worm pratensis
Nymphs Adults

34 65 79

36 74 74

Percent control
Boll Leaf Lygus
weevil worm pratensis
Nymphs Adults

9 63 71 21

78 12

37 92 90 88
70 41
27 5 29 40

73 63

92 86

- 65 -

Walker (451) in 1937 recorded tests with a sodium sqlt of vater-
soluble petroleum oil sulfon.tes designated as Ultrawet which possesses
desirable qualities as a wetting rud spreading egont for spray materials.
Ultrawet at 1:1600 in winter did not damage the foliage of many economic
plants. Ultrawet is compatible with the insecticides and fungicides in
common use.

The addition of Ultrawet to cube dust resulted in increased control
of the potato flea beetle. The addition of Ultrawet to cube in sprays
gave promising results in controlling onion thrips. The use of Ultra.wet
with cube root in sprays to control the European corn borer gave slightly
increased protection.

Ultrawet added to Eprcys and dusts to control the Mexican bean
beetle, striped cucumber beetle, imported cabbage worm, and cabbage looper
did not provide increased protection.

One-half pound of Ultrawvet addpd to 3 pounds' of cube (4% rotenone
and 14% total extractives) in 100 gallons water increased the control of the
pea aphid from 93.5 to 98.7 percent and 1 pound of Ultrawet plus 3 pounds
of cube gave a control of 98.8 percent. Ul'trawet was added to derris-clay
dust (0.75. rotenone) and also cube spray (3 Ibs. per 100 gals.) and in
both cases its addition enhanced the control of the potato flea beetle.

Bordeaux (4-4-50) plus 4 pounds of cube per 100 gallons was increased
in effectiveness in the control of Europoan corn borer in potatoes by the
addition of Ultrawet 1:1600.

In tests against onion thrips, 4 pounds of cube per 100 gallons plus
pounds of a mixture of sulfur and Ultrawet (16 to 1) gave a control of
56.4 percent as comrared with 31.4 percent for the same mixture without

Tests with miscellaneous truck crop pests.--Cube dusts (0.75 per-
cent rotenone) and sprays (3 pounds per 100 gallons) were used to control
the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestris Kuls., the striped cucumber
beetle. Diabrotica vittata Fab., the imported crbb.ge worm, Picris rpae L.
and the cabbage looper, Autograpla brassicae Riley, both with anrd without
Ultrawet. Im most cases the addition of Ultrawet did not result in in-
creAsed protection of the plants from these pests. The sprnys and dusts
without Ultrawet usually provided control.

Bromley (51) in 1937 reported that sprays of rotenone and other
toxic extracts from derris and cube, if used at sufficient strength and
with satisfactory wetting agents, will kill certain unprotected insects,
but their use in c-hade trre spraying is to date rather limited. These
materials possess little, value as stomach poisons. The derris or cube
rosin-resieue emulsion is a promising repellent for the Japanese beetle.
Various insecticides, including derris and cube, are known to have
repellent qualities eg-ainst certain insects, but their use for this
purpose has not been developed to any extent for shade trees as yet.

- 66 -

Bourne and Boyd (36) in 1937 gave directions for the control of
common insect pests in the home garden. Derris or cube dusts should
contain 0.5 to 0.75 percent rotenone. For plant lice pyrethrum and
rotenone sprays are also effective. For the control of the asparagus
beetle, during the cutting season, leave occasional shoots uncut to
attract the beetles for feeding and egg laying, and keep the rest of the
bed closely cut; or apply non-poisonous pyrethrum or rotenone spr.ays or
dusts. For the control of the Mexican bean beetle, after pods have
formed, spray or dust pyrethrum or rotenone compounds as recommended
for each brand. For cabbage worms, when caterpillars first appear,
apply a fresh pyrethrum dust mixture containing at least 30 percent
pyrethrum or a rotenone mixture containing 0.5 to 0.75 percent rotenone,
using about 30 pounds to the acre. Commercial pyrethrum or rotenone
sprays or dusts may also be used. They should be diluted as recommended
by the manufacturer. In cases of light or "spotty" infestations only
the infested plants need to be treated. Usually it is advisable to
treat the entire planting. For the striped cucumber beetle, when
beetles first appear, dust plants with a rotenone mixture containing
at least 0.5 percent rotenone.

The Lassachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station (272) in 1937
reported that for the control of the squash vine borer the most effective
insecticidal treatment was a spray prepared from cube powder at the rate
of 5 pounds in 100 gallons of water, which was made wettable with fish-oil
soap at the rate of 1 quart in 100 gallons of spray. This reduced the
injury 74 percent.

The United States Department of Commerce (439) in October 1937
reported that the government of the Union of South Africa is conducting
researches to discover a cheap, efficient locust killer less poisonous
than sodium arsenite. Some preliminary investigations undertaken with
powders containing rotenono and with liquid sprays have not yielded
very favorable results, but further investigations will be made,
especially with powders containing rotenone from derris and cube for
use in baits.

Bronson (53) in 1937 described an improved apparatus for mixing
derris or cube powder with a diluent and a conditioner.

A dust containing 1 percent of rotenone for use against the pea
aphid is made by mixing derris or cube root powder (containing 4 percent
of rotenone), 15 pounds; talc (or other suitable diluent), 43.2 pounds;
conditioner (wetter and spreading agent), 0.6 pound; water, 1.2 pounds.
Satisfactory conditioners are sodium oleyl sulphate and an alkylphenyl-
benzenesulphonic acid.

The derris or cube root powder Bhould be of such a degree of
fineness that not less than 90 percent of it will pass through a sieve
having 200 meshes per linear inch and all of the material (100 percent)
should pass through a sieve having 80 meshes per linear inch. The talc
or other suitable diluent used should be of such a degree of fineness
that all of the material will pass through a sieve having 300 meshes
per linear inch.


The derris or cube root powder and the diluent are first poured
together into the mixer. Approximately 10 to 12 quarts of rounded stones,
1 to 1-1/2 inches in diameter, are then placed in the mixer to aid in
the mixing process. The cover of the hopper is clamped on, the mixer is
placed in operation, and the material is mixed for 5 minutes. After
this preliminary mixing, the mixture of the conditioner and water is
atomized into the mixture of dorris or cube root powder and talc inside
the mixer (while the latter continues to roll) through the hole cut for
this purpose in the center of the cover. The nozzle of the atomizer is
inserted in this hole and held steadily while the mixer, with its contents,
continues to revolve. It requires usually about 3 minutes to atomize
the proper quantity of the conditioner into a 60-pound batch of the dust
mixture. As soon as this process is completed the hole in the center of
the cover of the mixer is plugged, and the mixing is continued for a
period of 25 minutes. At the expiration of this period the mixer is
thrown over to the emptying position and the dust mixture is dumped onto
a large-mesh screen which separates the finished material from the stones.

Although talc has been mentioned specifically as a suitable diluent
for use in preparing a dust mixture for combating the pea aphid, it should
be emphasized that there are other available non-alkaline materials, such
as finely ground clay, diatomaceous earth, infusorial earth, tobacco dust,
or sulphur, which may be used for this purpose. Hydrated lime, however,
should not be used as a diluent for derris or cube or other rotenone-
containing insecticides.

Brannon (45) in December, 1937, reported that recent experiments
at the Norfolk, Va., laboratory, designed to determine the relative
effectiveness of derris, derris-sulphur, cube, cube-sulphur, pyrethrum-
sulphur, and sulphur alone, applied as dusts or as sprays for the control
of the Mexican bean beetle in association with the green clover worm,
Plathypena scabra Fab., infesting snap beans, showed that in general
the dusts were more effective th-n sprays for the control of the latter
insect on beans. The derris and cube dust mixtures contained 0.5 percent
rotenone, the derris and cube sprays contained 0.0.15 percent rotenone,
and the pyrethrum-sulphur dust mixture contained 0.1 percent total
pyrethrins. Wettable sulphur was used as a spray at the rate of 2 pounds
to 50 gallons of water. It was also noted that sulphur dust alone gave
foliage protection against Plathypena scabra comparable with that obtained
when sulphur was used in combination with derris, cube, or pyrethrum, and
that a derris-sulphur dust mixture gave better protection than a derris-
talc dust mixture. These results indicate that sulphur acts as a repellent
against P. scabra and that in instances where this pest occurs in
association with a Mexican bean beetle infestation, sulphur should be used
as a diluent for derris or cube for the combined control of the two insects.

Weigel and Ielson (459) in December, 1937, reported that experiments
performed against Tetranychus telarius L. and Thrips tabaci Lind. on
greenhouse-grown tomato and cucumber plants, in which four sprays were
applied at 4-day intervals, gave the following results: A derris spray
having a rotenone content of 0.0056 percent was as effective as one with
0.0112 percent rotenone content; the derris sprays used were superior to

- 68 -

cube sprays of the same rotenone content, the difference being explainable
on the basis of the total extractives-content, which was 18.6 percent
for the derris and 12.3 percent for the cube; the addition of pyrethrum
extract aided in killing thrips but did not improve the effectiveness
of the sprays against the red spider; with sprays of the same rotenone
content, containing sulphonated castor oil as a sprecier, the result
was a better kill than when either alkylphenylbonzenesulfonic acid, or
rosin residue, was used.

In a second series of experiments, using the same insecticides
as in the first but applied for times at weekly intervals, approximately
the spme results were obtained, except that on tomatoes the spray containing
derris, pyrcthrum, and alkylphenjlbenzenesulfonic acid appeared to be as
effective as the sulphonated castor oil sprays. None of the sprays except
lauryl thiocyanate caused any perr.mancnt injury to either tomato or cucumber.

ChFunamberlin (70) in 1938 reported that experiments and observations
during the last several years have indicated that finely ground and
sterilized tobacco dust is the most satisfactory diluent for cube or
derris when applied to shade-grown tobacco in combating the tobacco flea
beetle, Epitrix parrvula Fab. The addition of clay to the customary cube-
or derris-tobacco dust mixture used for combating the tobacco flea beetle
apparently did not improve its dusting qualities when applied with rotary
hand-operated dusters. It appeared that the use of a dust mixture
containing 1 percent rotenone, with 75 percent tobacco dust and 25 percent
finely ground Georgia clay as a diluent, on shade-grown tobacco under
favorable weather conditions at the rate of 6 pounds per acre did not
leave conspicuous residues on the cired. tobacco leaves. Heavier appli-
cations of this dust mixture, however, did leave conspicuous deposits on
the cured product. In general, these experiments demonstrated that the
addition of finely ground clay to the derris- or cube-tobacco dust
mixture did not result in any appreciable improvement in the finished
dust mixture and may cause a permanent white residue to remain on the
treated leaves.

Cressman (97) in 1938 reported tests of sprays applied to lemon
trees heavily infested with California red scale.

One percent of a heavy petroleum oil was used in all treatments.
One application consisted of oil alone. In a second treatment nicotine
was added at the rate of 1 part of nicotine to 1800 parts of total spray
liquid. In a third treatment an extract of timbo was used to give a
rotenone concentration of 1 to 10,000. The ratio of total extract of
timbo to rotenone was 4 to 1. The concentration of toxicants in the
third spray was not determined.

Determinations of the relative efficiency of the different treat-
ments were based on counts of the late gray and later stages. Population
density was estimated from the number of scales counted per leaf and the
average number of scales counted per square centimeter on quarters of

- 69-

The treatments in which toxicants were used showed a considerably
higher scale mortality-than the application of oil alone. Mortality on
the leaves sprayed with oil alone ranged from 92 percent when there were
5 scales per leaf to 21 percent when there were 55 scales per leaf with
an average mortality of 71 percent. Mortalities in treatments with oil
plus timbo extract were 91 and 89 percent respectively, with few' indica-
tions, of any effect of population density. On the fruit the ranges in
mortalities as the average infestation of scales counted changed from
1 to 5 scales per square centimeter were as follows: oil alone, from
86 to 58 percent; oil-timbo extract, from 93 to 84 percent; oil-nicotine,
from 98 to 89 percent. There is no evidence that the addition of the
toxic agents caused any injury to the trees.

The extract of timbo was prepared by a Whittier, Calif,, company
dealing in this product. The ratio of rotenone to other timbo extractives
was stated to be 1:4. A mixture of 30 percent trichlorethylene and 70
percent butyl phthalate was used as a solvent. The butyl phthalate was
incorporated at Cressman's suggestion in order to provide a relatively
nonvolatile solvent which would increase the solubility of the rotenone
in the oil phase. A small amount of this mixture was used in all
emulsions in order to make them identical in respect to the oil content.

Emulsions were made up with a high speed stirrer using ground glue
as an emulsifier. All sprays contained 1 percent of oil. One treatment
consisted of oil alone. For another treatment, an amount of timbo
extract calculated to give a rotenone content of 1 part td 10,000 parts
of dilute spray was added to the soil before emulsification. However,
there was a discrepancy between the statements on the label and state-
ments of the company representatives as to the rotenone content, so
that final information as to the rotenone concentration applied cannot
be furnished until a sample that has been forwarded is analyzed. In
a third treatment, nicotine was added at the time of dilution of the
emulsion in the spray tank to make 0.054 percent of nicotine. This was
equivalent to 1 part of nicotine to about 1800 parts of dilute spray.

Turner and Walker (409) in 1938 reported the results of tests
of insecticides for the control of the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind.,
in Connecticut during 1933 to 1937. In 1933 an extracted rotenono
spray (Insct-Nox) plus 0.5 percent (by dry weight) potash-coconut oil
soap applied twice reduced the number of thrips but was slightly less
effective than nicotine sulphate at 1:800.

In 1936 cube dust (0.75 percent rotenone) and cube-sulfur dust
containing 73 percent sulfur were applied 3 times. There was no satis-
factory control of thrips, and sulfur caused some injury to the onion

In 1937, cube, cube +Jltrawet, cube+Aresket, and cube + sulfur
+ Ultrawet were tried. The writers conclude as follows:

"The combination of pure ground cube root with a
suitable spreader apparently protected onion plants from
thrips if spraying was begun before the plants were heavily

infested. In the one -.rios applied after hc-.vy infesta-
tion, the reduction in number of thrips was not as
satisfactory as in- the other tests. The addition of sulfur
increased the mortality in hot weather, but apparently
reduced it in.cooler weather. Since these tests ,were
conducted, on irrigated fields, drought did not seriously
affect the yield of onions, but the irrigation had no
marked effect on the number of thrips.

"ISince the productive parts of this work cover only
one soe-son, no finpJ. conclusions can be drawn as to the
practical effectiveness of sprays containing pure ground
cube root and a suitable spreader. However, the use of
such sprays offers promise as a control for onion thrips."11

"Addition of a spreader to cube increased its
effectiveness, and with a suitable spreader cube was more
effective tbp-n nicotine sulfate."

Roark (352) in 1938 reviewed the comparative action of derris and
cube of equal rotenone content on many insects. The results are
tabulated as follows:


Alabama argillaceae Hbn.,
cotton leaf worm

Ancylis comptana Froel.,
strawberry leaf roller

Anthonomus eugenii Cano,
pepper weevils

Anthonomus grandis Doh.,
boll weevil

Aphis rumicis L.,

Copaarative Action

derris > cube

derris cube

derris a cube

cube !- derris

derris > cube

derris = cube


Smith, Clark and Scales

Smith and Scales

Ohio Agr. Expt. Sta.


Smith, Clark and Scales

Smith and Scales

Dusts, water suspensions, Ginsburg and Granott
and acetone extracts:
derris > cube

Ascia rapa. L.,
cabbage worms

dorris > cube

derris = cube


List and Sweetman


AutoQrapha brassicae

Byturus tomentosua F.,
raspberry and loganberry

Cabbage worms

Carcapsa pomonella L.,
codling moth

Ohlorochroa sayi Stal

Diabrotica vittata F.,
striped cucumber beetle

Dysdercus mimulus Hussey

Epilachna varivestis Muls.,
Mexican bean beetle

Comparative Action

derris > cube

derris > cube

derris cube

Dusts or sprays:
derris = cube
derris = cube
derris = cube

derris > cube

Kaolin mixtures:
little effectiveness

derris > cube

derris = cube

cube > derris

derris cube

derris = cube



Walker and Anderson


How-ard and Davidson

Huckett and Hervey

Huckett and Hervey


Cassidy and Barber


Cassidy and Barber



Dusts and

Epitrix parvula F.,
tobacco flea beetle

Euproctis chrysorrhoea L.
(aiNyfji phaeorrhoea
Dohov.), caterpillars


derris = cube

cube = derris

derris > cube

NO Y. Agr. Expt. Sta.

S. C. Agr, Expt. Sta.


Spoon et al.

- 72 -


Euschistus imp ictiye ntris

Illin.ioia pisi Kalt.,
poa aphid

Lophyrus pini L., larvae

Lygus heoperus Knight

;is pt calis Fieb.,

Lys apicalis Fieb.,

Lygus pratensie L.

ygs sp.

Musca domestic L., house

Myrmica rubra L., larvae

Pectinophora o ssypiella
Saund., first-instar pink

Pieris rapao L.

Plutella i.aculipen-lis Curt.,
dianondback caterpillars

Popillia japonica Nevin.,
Japanese beetle

Pyrausta nubilalis Hbn.,
European corn borer

Comparative Action

cube > derris

derris = cube

derris.- cube

derris > cuObe

derris > cube

cube > derris

cube > derris

derris > cube

Kerosene extracts:
derris > cube
derris > cube

derris> cube

cube "> derris

derris = cube

cube = derris

derris'> cube

cube = derris

Extract ives:
derris > cube

derris > cube


Cassidy and Barber

Dudley, Bronson, and

Spoon et al.

Cassidy and Barber

Smith, Clark, and


Smith and Scales

Cassidy and Barber

Campbell, Sullivan,
and Jones

Jones and Smith

Spoon et al.

Chepm-in and Cavitt

X. Y. Agr. Expt. Sta.


Walker and Anderson(193!

do. (1937)

Fleming and Baker

Batchelder et al.

- 73 -

Insect Cpnparative Action Reference

Shade tree insects Sprays: Felt and Bronloy
derris> cube

Stictoce-phala festina Say Dusts:
cube > derris Cassidy and Barber

Tetranychus telarius L., Sprays:
coymon red spider derris = cube Richardson

Thrips tabaci Lind. derris > cube Weigel and Nelson

Thyanta custator F. Dusts:
: dorris>cubo CGassicy and Barber

Zophodia gro s sulariae Sprays: HAmer
Riley, gooseberry derris > cube
fruitwor.1 Dusts:
derris = cube do.

Roark concludes that the apparent superiority of derris over cuboo
nry be due to its finer particle size and to a higher rotenone content than
is shown by analysis.

From information now available, ay insecticidal superiority of derris
over cube is more than offset by the present difference in price, which is
11 or 12 cents per pound. One hundred and thirty-two pounds of powdered
cube can be purchased for the price of 100 pounds of powdered dorris of the
same (5 percent) rotenone content. Moreover, the principal agricultural
insect pests against which rotenono is used, such as the Mexican bean beetle,
the pea aphid, and three species of cabbage worms, are as readily controlled
by cube as by derris of equal rotenone content. At present prices more
economical control of those insects susceptible to rotenone can bo secured
with cube than with derris.

Tho Now York Agricultural Experiment Station (306) in its 1937
annual report (published in 1938) reported that insecticides tested under
orchard conditions against the apple maggot (Phagoletis pomonella Walsh)
in 1936 included phenothiazine, powdered cube root, and hydrated lime.
Six small orchards were treated, all the trees in each block receiving a
single test material as is customary in such experiments. Little or no
control was obtained where hydrated lime alone was used, but the results
were sufficiently promising with cube root and phenothiazine to warrant
additional testing.

In tests conducted on the control of the gooseberry fruit worm
(Zophodia grossulariae Riley) in heavily infested currant fields, excel-
lent results were obtained with powdered dorris or cube root applied
either as a dust or spray. Two pounds por 100 gallons of a dorris or cube

- 74 -

root .c... .in/n about 5 percent rotenono is the suggested spray formula,
c.ni. a C.Lat s.o..ild centuii. about 0.5 percent rotenieno.

Roteononu-boel ing wprPoys, bhfn properly applie)lo with p-1.jquate equip-
ment, have proved highl.. cf'ectivo in killing tho poa apohid. The more
recently developed roteni.e-bc-Cing lults, as well as insecticides applied
by mcons of airplanes, wbhjio p^-mi.i.ig, have not yet beeL subjected to
field tests sufficiently -vcrae to br'ng out all their possible limitations.
Final judgment on th-'se uothcd-s will havo to b. deferred until another
season's v:o:k has been co-paut-.

Field trials with derris, cube, tinbo, arand pyrothrum powders for
control of cabbage worms indicated clearly that pyrethramn mixtures were
more effective in circumstances where tno cabbage looper (Aut._rr h.
brL.ssicae .i] cy) b-icamn the procloinrn,.nt Lfcies. iIixtures of comparable
strength containing cub-e and. o.-rctlur'.. pov.ders wore nct as effective as
those containing p.-reothr-a powder alone. Spray -.ixturos were loss
effective than .iust 'xt're .

Tests against th3 Le-icar. bean beetle wore z:a.le with bordeaux mixture
and rotenone-contar.ing nowltrs as a combination fungicide-insecticide sjrac
for use on fall-grown lima beans. The r usilts indicated that tLjbo powder
in combination with borde.taus mixture was as effective as tiLbo powder alone
as a spr.-y.

The United Statcs Lcp-.retiat of Agriculture, bureau of 7nton.olojy
and Plait Curar.-rntine (316), in )938 published suggestions for the control of
the pea aphid prepared by a committee of entomologists at th .cannual meeting
of the American Association of Econoaic Er.tomologists at Indiaaaolis,
Indiana, December 27, 1SJ7.

Thile following recnmnr-nd-.tions are based on ob.ervetions and data
accumulated fror, e-cperimmntal wor: done east of' the Rocky Mountains.

Satisfcctory control of the pe,. a.hid has been accomplished by
sevor-'l methods. These include, without suggestion of prefer-nce, (1)
dusting, (2) use of nicotine vn.porlzer, and (3) spraying. Success in the
use of any of these m.rthods will .iofpnd entirely upon adcq.urte and efficient
equipment and properly timed, thorough application. (1) Dusting with
Dor'is or CJoe.b Field eoxperimerts with a.rris or cabo dust i.-'txtures con-
taining talc or other suitaele carriers, conditioned with a liquid spreading
and wecttinrg c.gent, h.ve ros-.lted in u.at factory control. Such dust should
contain, :prC'xLately 1 percent of rotenono.

For information concerning spreading and -jetting Lgeoits in sprary. or
dusts consult your Experimont Stati on Entomolo.ist or the bureau of Ento-
mology and Plant Qurar.-tine, U. S. DopartmeAt of g-riculture.

In applying those dusts the boom should be completely enclosed a-nd a
trailer 25 feet or more in lLnrgth should bo used. Dusts should be applied

- 75 -

at the rate of 35 to 40 pounds per acre. The speed of the machinie- should
not exceed 3 miles per hour or 300 feet per minute. Dusting is much less
effective when the wind velocity exceeds 8 to 10 miles per hour. Spraying
is an effective method of control but its economic usofulnes5 is con-
ditioned by the nearnosn of an adequate water supply.

On tLe besis of ground d.erris or cube root containing 4 percent of
rotcnona, 3 pounds should. be used per 100 gallons of water. Corresponding
dilutions should be used with derris or cube containLing more .or loss than
4 percent of roto none. A sproadiig and wetting agent, in either liquid
or dry form, is necessary. .io *pplication .er acre should be from 125 to
200 gallons. Pressure should be 225 to 300 pounds, and depends on size of
disc apertures, type of nozzle, ard pump cnpacitZT.

It is believed that an infestation that is reflected by 35 aphids
per sweep for an average of 5 sweeps in different parts of the field, with
a standard collecting net, is usually an indicar.tion that treatment should be

The U. S. De)Partmnent of Agriculture, B-reau of Entomolo.Tj and Plant
Quarantine, in FYbraary 1938 distributed -1 s'mirfii217 of the remarks made at
the Pea Aphid Conferenco (316), Indianapolis, Ind., Dec. 27-28, 1937.
Shropshire of Illinois reported on the efficiencyr of the numerous wetting
agents offered for use with derris ard cube. Over 50 of these combinations
and dilutions were tested in replicated plots. It was found from these that
some of the best wetting agents were the poorest for use with derris or
cube for aphid control on peas. More detailed laboratory t3sts will probably
be necessary to find out why this difference occurred in field tests.

Results of experimental work in 1937 tend to verify results obtained
in 1936 with both nicotine and derris or cube for pea aphid control. They
further show that cube is as effective as derris, assuming that the rotonono
ancd total extractives are approximately theic same in both samples. Dorris
or cube with a rotenone content of 4 percent was effective for pea aphid
control when, used at the rate of 2 or 3 pounds per 100 gallons of spray,
assuming that the s)ray was applied at the rate of 125 to 150 gallons per
acre. Arezkct (liquid) usd at the rate of 1 to 600 was used as a standard
for comparison with other spreaders.

A rather ?xt nisive set of dust trials was -plnnod for 1937 following
a limited amount of work on them during 1936. Most of the dusts wore made
up to contain 1 percent of rotcnonJ, other ingredients being varied as
desired. Variables included diluonts, wetting agents, some suggested by
Dudley and Bronson, and irritants such as nicotine and certain thiocyanatos.
Results with roter.onc-bcaring dusts wore variablo in 1937 as was the case
in 1936. In many cases the results were excellent; however, in certain
instances they wore far from satisfactory. These cases were not easy to
un-dorstand, but apparently the poor performance was duc to some weather
condition, such as absence of free moisture (dew or rain) on the plants. In
spite of some very poor results obtained with rotenono-beering dusts it is
felt that they have sufficient merit to warrant recommendation with reser-

- 76 -

The use of wetting agents or irritants in dusts for use on peas is
not recommended.

Graham and Ditman of Maryland reported that in 1937 derris and
cube sprays, when properly applied, gave good results. Nicotine fumigation
gave the most complete. and quickest kill. Derris dusts seemed less
effective than sprays, possibly because of improper application of dusts.
Derris powder (8% total extractives) was used at the rate of 2 pounds
or 4 pounds per 100 gallons, plus sodium lauryl sulphate (1/4 or 1/2 lb.)
or Orthex Spreader (1 pint) as a wetting agent.

Hutson of Michigan re-ported the order of effectiveness of insecti-
cides for the control of the pea aphid to be as follows--nicotine vaporizer,
nicotine dust, sprays, and rotenone dusts.

Pepper of New Jersey reported tests with derris powder diluted with
talc to a rotenone content of 1 percent. When the wind velocity and
temperature were favorable at the time of application the 4-percent
nicotine dust proved to be more effective than did the derris root dust
mixtures. The derris root dust without a conditioning agent proved to
be more effective than the derris, root dust containing a conditioning agent
(1 percent). This was also true in a series of small plot experiments.
Io significant differences could be noted in the kill of aphids between
applications on dry foliage and wet foliage. Fron the small plot tests
no residual effects of derris root dust to pea aphid was noted. The
aphid population, however, was depleted very rapidly by ncr.tural enemies.

Preliminary experiments were conducted with vaporized oil sprays
applied from an airplane. The oil, of course, contained an insecticide.
The insecticides tested in the vaporized oil were nicotine, derris extract,
and pyrethrum extract. Mixtures of derris and pyrethrum extracts were
also tested. The data from the experimental plots showed a kill of
approximately 75 percent with some of the oil-insecticide combinations.
Derris root dust applied from an airplane proved totally unsatisfactory
as a control for the pea aphid.

Hugh Glasgow of New York reported that in the case of the rotenone-
bearing dusts, the initial kill was often surprisingly gnod, but the fact
that this kill -as not always as consistent or as uniformly high as where
either rotenone sprays or nicotine preparations were used was somewhat

Knowlton of Utah reported that ground cube and derris root gave
good control as a spray when diluted at the rate of 3 pounds of 4 per-
cent rotenone bearing dust (or equivalent) to each 100 gallons of water,
to which a liquid spreading and wetting agent was added. "Agicide"
semi-fluid spray concentrate'also was effective, no significant dif-
ference in control being noted between applications at strengths of
1:50, 1:100, 1:150, and 1:200.

- 77 -

Cube and derris dust.mixtures containing from 1 to 2 percent
of rotenone usually gave good control, but the results were less con-
sistent than the derris and cube spray treatments.

Dudley and Bronson of the Madison, Wis., station of the Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine reported that in a large replicated
plot experiment satisfactory aphid control was secured by treatment
with derris spray, derris dust mixture, and nicotine vapor, but not with
nicotine dust. The largest increase in the yield of shelled peas
resulted from the derris dust treatments, with the nicotine.vapor
treatment second, and the derris spray treatment third. The plots
treated with nicotine dust yielded less than the checks. Derris sprny
was used at a rotenone concentration of 0.01 percent plus sodium oleyl
sulphate and in some cases also 1 percent aliphatic thiocyanate.

Hamilton (185) in 1938 reported the results of tests of cube and
derris powders (4% rotenone and 16 to 18% total extractives) applied
as a spray at the rate of 4 pounds per 100 gallons, with the addition
of 4 pounds of rosin residue emulsion.

Cube powder appeared to be as effective as derris powder in the
rosin emulsion spray, both as a contact insecticide and as a repellent.

These tests were made by members of the National Shade Tree
Conference under a cooperative project with the Hercules Powder Company,
manufacturers of rosin residue, and five of the principal suppliers of
derris and cube powders. Sufficient spray material to make from 500 to
1000 gallons of diluted spray was sent to each of 38 cooperators in 14
States, together with instructions for using the spray and a report
blank to be used in giving the results of the tests.

The results against insects were as follows;

Cankerworms (various species of Lepidoptera, Geometridae) on
various shade trees were satisfactorily controlled. The spray acts as
a contact poison and as a repellent. The effective period is 3 days
to 2 weeks. One spraying before larvae were more than two-thirds grown
gave good kill.

Tent caterpillars (Malacosoma ameoricana F., Lepidoptera,
Lasiocampidae) on wild cherry, apple, and hawthorn trees were satis-
factorily controlled. The spray acts as a contact poison and as a
repellent. The effective period is 6 to 8 days. Caterpillars would not
feed on sprayed foliage.

Fall webwbrms (Hyphantria cunea Drury, Lepidoptera, Arctiidae)
on walnut trees were satisfactorily controlled. The spray acts as a
contact poison, the effective period being 6 days. There was 100 percent
kill of larvae in sprayed webs.

- 78 -

Catalpa sphinx moth caterpillar (Ceratomia catalpae Boisduval,
Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) on catalpa trees was controlled satisfactorily.
The spray acts as a contact poison. Within a few hours there was 100
percent kill of all sizes of caterpillars.

Spiny elm caterpillar (Euvanessa) Aglcis antiopa L., Lepidoptera,
Nymphalidae) on elm trees was satisfactorily controlled. The spray acts
as a contact poison. The effective period is 3 to 4 days. There was
100 percent kill by actual count.

Oak leaf rollers (Argyrotoxa semipurpurana Kearf., Lepidoptera,
Tortricidae) on pin oak trees were controlled satisfactorily in one test
out of three tests given. The spray acts as a contact poison. The
effective period is 3 to 4 days. There is 50 to 100 percent kill.

The tussock moth larvae (Hemerocampa leucostigma Smith and Abbott,
Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) on various shade trees were not satisfactorily
controlled. The spray acts as a contact poison and as a repellent. There
was 10 percent control in one test and 50-75 percent control, in other

Bagworms (Thyridopteryx erhemeraeformis Haworth, Lepidoptera,
Psychidae) on evergreen trees were satisfactorily controlled in 3 out
of 4 tests. The spray acts as a repellent. The period of effectiveness
was 3 to 4 days. Bags do not fall off the trees, larvae cease feeding
and do not increase in size.

Larch case bearers (Coleophora laricella Hbn., Lepidoptera,
Coleophoridae) on larch trees werd 75 percent controlled. The spray
acts as a stomach poison. The effective period is 3 to 4 days. Results
are slow.

Fear slugs (Eriocampoides limacina Retzius, Hymenoptera,
Tenthredinidae) on pear trees were controlled 100 percent. The spray
acts as a contact poison and as a repellent. The effective period is
6 days.

Pine sawfly larvae (Neodiprion lecontei itch, Hymenoptera,
Tenthredinidae) on white pine trees were controlled 100 percent. The
spray acts as a contact poison. The effective period was 4 to 6 days.
Full-grown larvae were fairly easily killed.

Currant worms (Pteronidea ribesii Scop., Vmenoptera, Tenthredinidae)
on currant trees were controlled 100 percent. Th spray acts as a contact
poison. There was 100 percent kill in 1 or 2 daas.

Elm leaf beetles (Galerucella xanthomelaena Schrank, Coleoptera,
Ohrysomelidae) on elm trees were not satisfactorily controlled. Five
tests were made, two of which were satisfactory. The spray acts as a
contact poison and as a repellent. The period of effectiveness is 5
to 7 days. Control seems to depend on time of application.

- 79 -

Japanese beetles (Popillia jaronica IIewm., Coleootera, Scarabaeidae)
on various trees, shrubs and flowers were fairly well controlled. The spray
acts as a repellent. The effective period is 6 to 7 days. Satisfactory
repellency can be obtained by spraying 6 or 7 days apart.

Asiatic garden beetles (Autoserica castanea Arrow, Coleoptcr%.,
Scarabaeidae) on various flowers were fairly well controlled. The spray
Pcts as a repellent. The effective period was 4 to 5 dpys. Control is not
as good as for Japanese beetle.

June bugs (Lachnosterna spp. = Phyllophaga spp., Coleoptern,
Scarabaeidae) were fairly well controlled. The spray acts as a repellent.
The effective period was 6 days. Feeding is checked for 6 or 7 days.

Rose leaf beetles (Niodonata puncticollis Say, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae
on bush honeysuckle were 60 percent controlled. The spray acts as a repel-
lent. The effective period is 4 to 6 days. Repeated sprays should give
satisfactory control.

Willow leaf beetles (Lina spp. = Chrysemela spp., Coleoptera,
Chrysomelidae) on black willow trees were well controlled. The spray acts
as a repellent and contact poison. There is good control of larvae.

Mexican bean beetles (Epilachna varivestis Mule. corruptpa Muls.)
Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) on beans were satisfactorily controlled. The
spray acts as a contact poison and as a repellent. The effective period is
8 days. Eighty percent kill of larvae, 20 percent repellency on beetles.
Repeated sprayings would give good control.

Striped cucumber beetles (Diabrotica vitjtda P., Coleoptera,
Chrysomelidae) on cucumbers were controlled 100 percent. The spray acts
as a contact poison or as a repellent. The-effective period was 2 weeks.
No beetles were observed after more than 2 weeks after 'Spraying.

Woolly aphids (various species of Homoptera, Aphididae) on beech,
elm, larch, and white pine trees were.iot satisfactorily controlled. Very i
little kill by contact against any of the woolly aphids.

Aphids (species of Homoptera, Aphididae) on roses and white pine
trees were satisfactorily controlled. The spray acts as a contact poison.
Good kill on roses, poor on pine.

Lace bugs (Corythuca arcuata Say, Hemiptera, Tingidee) on Sycamore,
azaleas, and asters were satisfactorily killed in three out of four tests
made. The spray acts as a contact poison. There was 90 to 100 percent kill.

Euonymous scale (Chionaspis euonymi Comst., Hemiptera, Coccidae)
on euonymus trees was controlled satisfactorily. The spray acts as a
contact poison. Control was satisfactory against young scales.

--Juniper scale (Diaspis carueli Targ., Hemiptera, Coccidae) on juniper
trees was satisfactorily controlled if applied against young scales. The
spray acts as a contact poison.

- 80 -

Cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria vitis L., Homoptera, Coccidae)
on maple trees was fairly well controlled. Nicotine was better. The sprey
acts as a contact poison.

Spider mites (Tetranychus telprius L., clss Arachnids, order
Acarina, family Tetranychidae) on spruce, juniper, and privet trees were
controlled in four tests out of six tests made. The spray, acts as a contact
poison. Probably not effective against the eggs.

Wallis (455), in February 1938, summarized the results of tests
performed with insecticides against the Mexicen bean beetle in Colorado in
1937. He reported that sprEys containing derris and cube gave better
results than any other materials tested, the increase in yield ranging from
10.4 to 48.7 percent over the check plots.

Elmore (126) in 1938 reported tests of insecticides against the
tomato pinworm, %norimoschema lycopersicella Busck, at Alhambra, Calif.
Cube extract was ineffective. Cryolite and cuprous cyanide, in either sprays
or dusts, were the most effective.

Bntchelder (21) in 1933 rcportrd that during the previous year at
New Haven, Conn., derris spray reduced the corn borer population in ears
of early market sweet corn 77 percent. Cube dust reduced the corn borer
population infesting dahlias in experimental plots about 90 percent.

Huckett (207) reported tests of cube miyed with crch of the following:
sulphur, sulphur and celite, bordeaux mixture, -n. cclite and clepy for the
control of the Yexican bean beetle, Fpi rra w iv>stiss Muls. Two samples
of cube powder were conmpared, one &r..rzng 2 pea-cent rotenone and 18 percent
total ether extractives and the other 5 percent rotenone and 12 to 14 percent
total ether extractives. These powders were applied in sulfur spray and
dust mixtures at strengths equivalent to 4 pounds of cube powder to 100
gallons of wettable sulfur spray and 10 pounds of cube powder in 100 pounds
of a cube plus celite plus ground sulfur dust mixture.

Huckett concludes that accordinng to larval population counts of
BE. varivestis and yield of pods, mixtures containing cube powder of 2 per-
cent rotenone and 18 percent total ether extractives were as effective at
the dosages used as those containing cube powder of 5 percent rotenone and
12 to 14 percent total ether extractives.

In field tests on lima beans sprayed and dusted with copper-lime
mixtures for control of plant diseases it was observed that bordeaux mixture,
as applied, possessed considerable merit in that it had notably reduced
the amount of feeding by E. varivestis. This effect, it vwas observed, was
slightly enhanced by the addition of cube powder to the mixture at the time
of application or by making separate applications of cube-clay dusts fol-
lowing treatment with bordeaux mixture.

Weigel and Nelson (460) tested derris and cube with various wetting
agents (alkylphenylbenzenesulphonic acid, sulphonated castor oil, ammonium
caseinate plus rosin residue emulsion, etc.) for the control of the common

-81 -

red s-ider, Tetranychus telarius L., and thrips, especially onion thrips,
Thrips tabaci Lind., on greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers. The authors
conclude that the results of the first series indicate that a derris spray
having a rotenone content of 0.C056 percent is as effective as one with a
0.0112 percent rotenone content when sulfonated castor oil is used as a
spreader; that the derris sprays used in these tests are superior to cube
sprays of the same rotenone content, the difference being explainable on
the basis of the total extractives; that the addition of pyrethrum extract
aids in killing thrips but does not improve the spray's effectiveness
against the red spider; that with sprays of the same rotenone content
with sulfonated castor oil as a spreader, the kill is better'than with
either alkylphenylbenzenesulfonic acid or ammonium caseinate with rosin
residue; and that proprietary thiocyanate spray is as effective as the
derris spray plus sulfonated castor oil. hone of the derris or cube sprays
plus the spreader or the proprietary thiocyrnate caused any permanent injury
to either tomato or cucumber. The lauryl thiocyansto spray with sodium oleyl
sulfate plus synthetic resin spreader caused severe injury to both the
foliage and fruit of tomato.

McTavish (279), in an address before the 24th annual meeting of the
National Association of Insecticide and Disinfectant Manufacturers, New York,
December, 1937, discussed mothproofing problems. Frequently vegetable
insecticides are dissolved in hydrocarbons--the favorites are pyrethrum
extract, cube and derris roots. These tend to prolong the larvicide action
after the solvent has evaporated away. Unfortunately deterioration of
these natural insecticides under ordinary atmospheric conditions is relatively

Friend and Plumb (153) in 1938 reported the results of tests made in
1936 and 1937 to control the European pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana
Schiff. Derris (4% rotenone, 14% etLer extractives) plus the proprietary
wetting agent SS3 or powdered skFim milk gave greater reduction in infestation
than lead arsenate. Cube (same analysis as the derris) was tried with
powdered skim milk, milk, rosin residue, and Ultrawet. The authors conclude
that field experiments on th? control of the European pine shoot moth on
red pine in Connecticut have shown that spraying with a mixture of 4 pounds
of ground derris root or ground cube root and 1 pound of powdered skim milk
in 100 gallons of water is superior to spraying with a mixture of 3 pounds
of lead arsenate and 1 pint of fish oil in 100 gallons of water. One appli-
cation of cube about July 2 is as effective as three or four applications
of lead arsenate at 10-day intervals in June and July. Two applications
of cube, one July 2 and one July 12, are significantly more efficient in
reducing tip injury than one application July 2. As a spreader Pnd sticker,
powdered skim milk is Ps efficient as any other materials tried at the
concentrations used. It was found that spraying during the first half of
June did not give good results in controlling the insect in 1936 and 1937.

Derris and cube were equally good. Exposure to sunshine for 166
hours did not completely destroy the insecticidal value of these materials.
The laboratory experiments with newly hatched larvae on sprayed twigs show
that, after an exposure of 11 days in the field, ground cube root used with
powdered skim milk or Ultrawet was as effective in preventing boring as was
the lead arsenate and fish oil combination. 4

- 82 -

E.qeriments performed in 1937 at South Point, Ohio, against Epilachna
varivestis Muls. by N. F. Howard and H. C. Mason, (202) of the. -olanmb's, Ohio,
laboratory, gave the following results with the various insecticides tested:
Phenothiazine at 2 pounds to 50 gallons of water gave good control, but
slight plant injury resulted; derris, cube, timbo, and devil's shoestring
gave good control at a concentration of 0.015 percent rotenone and usually
at concentration of 0.01 percent rotenone. While the use of a varnish
sticker with derris and cube increased the degree of control in one instance,
no increase could be noted in two other experiments. The use of sulphur
with derris or cube sprays, and its use as a diluent with dust mixtures of
these materials, does not consistently result in improved control in Ohio;
however, its use farther east usually results in better bern crops.

Wilcox and Stone (468), in March 1938, reported that cube dust
mixtures containing as high as 2 percent rotenone have given inferior results
and are not recommended for use against the tomato fruit worm, Heliothis
obsoleta F. '

Johns-Manville (218), in April 1938, called attention to Celite 209,
an amorphous esilica which on account of its fineness (essentially below 10
microns particle size) and its lightness (8 pounds per cubic foot) is useful
as a diluent for insecticides, especially powdered derris, cube, and


Insects mentioned in this review against which cube has been tested
or recommended are listed as follows:

A list of insects against which cube has been tested.

Insect Result Reference

(Euvanessa) Aglais antiopa L. Effective Hamilton 185
Alabama argillacea Hbn. Equal to derris Smith and Soales 382
(76% control)

Ineffective Wille et al. 471

Less effective Smith and Scales 382,
than calcium 383

Alfalfa looper Ineffective Colo. Agr. Expt. Sta.

Alsophila pometaria Harris Less effective Felt and Bromley 144
then derris

Anasa tristis DeGeer Effective against Idaho Agr. Expt. Sta.
nymphs 210

- 83 -


Ancylis comptnna Froel.

Anomis luridula Gn. texanaa

Anopheles pseudopunctipen

AnthOnomus grandis Boh.

Anthonomus vestitus Boh.



Aphids on cauliflower


Effective against



80% control

More effective
than calcium

Ineffective against




Aphids on roses and white pine Effective

Aphis gossypii Glover do.

Aphis pomi DeGeer Less effective
than nicotine

Aphis spiraecola Patch do.

Aphrophora permutata Uhl. Recommended

Argyrotoxa semipurpurana Kearf. Effective

Autographa brassicae Riley Effective


Ohio Agr. Expt. St%;..

Will, Ocampo, Weber-
bsuer, and Schofield


Smith apd Scales 382
383 .


Wille et al. 471

Idpho Agr. Expt. Sta.
210; Boyd 39

Bourne and Boyd 36

New Jersey Agr. Expt.
Sta. 302

NTew York Agr. Expt.
Sta. 305

Hamilton 185

Will et al. 471

Farrar 138


Edwards 124

Hamilton 185

Howard and Dividson 200


- 84 -




Autographa brassicae Riley

Autoserica castanea Arrow

Bruchus pisorum L.

Cabbage aphids

Cabbage worms



Less effective
than derris

Less effective
than pyrethrum

More effective
than lead


Some control

Fairly effective



Dust more
effective than

Less effective
than pyrethrum


Howard and Mason 201;
U. S. Dept. Agr. 414,
420; Walker 451; White
463, 464

Colo. Agr. Expt. Sta.
87, 88
Texas Agr. Expt. Sta.

New York (Geneva) Agr.
Expt. Sta. 306

Texas Agr. Expt. Sta.

Crosby mand Chupp 109;
Hervey, Huckett, and
Glasgow 191; F. L.
Thomas 405; U. S. Dept.
Agr. 413

Texas Agr. Expt. Sta.

Hamilton 185

Howard and Mason 201

Colo. Agr. Expt. Sta.
86; New York (Geneva)
State Agr. Expt. Sta.

Colo. Agr. Expt. Sta.86;
New York (Geneva) State
Agr. Expt. Sta. 304

N. Y. Agr. Expt. Sta.

U. S. Dept. Agr. 413;
Wallace 454; Walker
and Anderson 452; White
463; Wisc. Agr. Expt.
Sta. 472

Bourne and Boyd 36


- 85 -

Insect Result

Cankerworms Effective

Carpocapsa poinonella IL. Highly toxic
in laboratory

Ineffective in
the orchard

Ceratomia catalpae Bdv. Effective

Cherry slug Dust ineffective

Spray equal to
lead arsenate

Chionaspis euonymi Comst. Effective

Chlorochroa sayi Stal Less effective
than derris

Chrysomphalus aurantii Maskell Effective

Clothes moths do.

Coleophora laricella iHbn. 75% effective

Corythuca arcuata Say Effective

Crioceris asparagi L. Recommended

Crioceris duodecimpunctata L. do.

SCucumber beetles Effective

Diabrotica' trivittata Mann. do.

Diabrotica vittata F. do.

Effective and
equal to derris

100% effective



Hamilton 185

F. L. Campbell 60

Childs 79; Haegele 1821
U. S. Dept. Agr. 418

Hamilton 185

Colo. Agr. Expt. Sta.


Hamilton 185

Cassidy and Barber 65

Cressman 97

McTavish 279
3oyd 39

Hamilton 185


Huckett 206; Bourne
and Boyd 36
Bourne and Boyd 36

Howard and Mason 201

McXinney 278

Walker 451; Wisconsin
Agr. Expt. Sta. 472

Beard 24

Hamilton 185

Bourne and Boyd 36

- 86 -




Diaphania hyalinata L.

Diaphania nitidalis Stoll
Diaspis carueli Torg.

Dysdercus mimulus Hussey

Dysdercus ruficollis L.

Epilachna varivestis Muls.


Effective against
young scales
Less effective
than derris



Dust ineffective


Some control

Epitrix cucumeris Harris


Effective with

Epitrix FPuscula Crotch

U. S. Dept. Agr. 417

Hamilton 185

Cassidy and Barber 65

Wille et al. 471

Bourne and Boyd 36
Brannon 40, 43, 45;
Hamilton 185; Howard
198; Howard, Brannon,
tand Mason 199; Howard
and Mason 201; Huckett
207; N. Y. Agr. Expt.
Sta. 305; S. C. Agr.
Expt. Sta. 386; U. S.
Dept. Agr. 413, 414,

Bur. Ent. & P1. Quar.
423; Walker 451;
Wallace 454; Wallis
455; White 463, 464

Colo. Agr. Expt. Sta.

Crosby and Chupp 109;
S. C. Agr. Expt. Sta.
387; U. S. Dept. Agr.
417, 422

Walker 451

Morrill and Lacroix 287;
S. C. Agr. Expt. Sta.
387; Bur. Ent. & Pl.
Quar. 423
Walker 451

Howard and Mason 201


- 87 -




Epitrix parvula F.

Eriocampoicdes limacina Retz.

Erythroneura comes Say

Euproctis chrysorrhoea L.
(Nygmia phaeorrhoea Donovan)

Euschistus impictiventris Stal

Flea beetles on tobacco

Frankliniella fusca Hinds

Galerucella xanthomelacna

Gnorimoschema lycopersicella

Grapevine pests

Haematobia irritans L.

Haematopinus eurysternus

Haematopinus suis L.

Hairy chinchbugs

Heliothis obsoleta F.


100% effective

Less effective
than nicotine
Less effective
than derris

Less effective
than derris






Ineffective as
a repellent





Chamberlin 68, 69, 70;
Howe 204; S. 0. Agr.
Expt. Sta. 387; Blir.
Ent. & PI. quar. 423;
White 463. 464

Hamilton 85

Idaho Agr. Expt. Sta.

Spoon 390

Cassidy and Barber 65

U. S. Dept. Agr. 413;
Wallace 454

Morrill and Lacroix 28'

Hamilton 185

Elmore 126;
C. A. Thomas 404

Delassus, Lepigre, and
Pasquier 112; Idaho
Agr. Expt. Sto. 210

Laake 256

Wille et al. 471


N. Y. State Agr. Expt.
Sta. at Cornell Univ.

Brannon 41; Bur. Ent.
and PI. Quar. 423;
Wilcox and Stone 468:

Effective with

F. L. Thomas 405

- 88 -




Hellula undalis F.

Hemerocampa leucostigma Smith
and Abbott

Hoplocampa flava

Hoplocampa testudinia

Hyphantria cunea Drury

Hypo derma larvae

Hysteroneura setariae Thomas

Illinoia pisi Kalt.

Lachnosterna spp. = Phyllophaga

Leafhoppers on lettuce


Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say

Lina spp. Chrysor-.la spp.
Locust (grasshopper)






Less effective
than derris

Less effective
than nicotine



More effective
than pyrethrum
and nicotine

Fairly effective


Equal to



U. S. Dept. Agr. 417

Hamilton 185

Kearns and Marsh 235;
Kearns, Marsh and
Martin 236

Kearns, Marsh and
Martin 236

Hamilton 185

ings- Commissie 362

Farrar 138

Bronson 52, 53; Dudley,
Bronson, and Carroll
120; Howard and Mason
204 Knowlton and Soren-
son 246; Pea Aphid Conf.
316; U. S. Dept. Agr. 413,
417, 421, 423;Walker, 451
N. Y. Geneva Agr. Expt.
Sta. 304

U. S. Dept. Agr. 413;
Wallace 454

Hamilton 185

N. Y. Agr. Expt. Sta.
at Cornell Univ. 307

Smith and Scales

Feytaud 146; Feytaud
and Lapparent 147, 148

Hamilton 185
U. S. Dept. Comn. 439

- 89 -


Lophyrus pini L.

Lygus hesporus Knight

LYgus pratensis L.

Malacosoma americann. F.

Mamostre picta Harr.

Melittia satyriniformis Hbn.

Melophagus ovinus L.

Murgantia histrionica Hahn

Musca domestic L.

lI'.yrmica rubra L.

Neoliprion lecontei Fitch

Nodonata puncticollis Say

0tiorrhynchus sinularis

Paratetranychus citri McG.
(Adults and eggs)

Pear slugworm or sawfly

Pectinophora gossypiella Saund.


Less effective
than derris

Less effective
then derris


Less effective
than derris







Less effective
than derris

100o effective

60% effective




Some control



Spoon 390

Cassidy and Barber 65

Smith and Scales 382,

Felt and Bromley 144

Hamilton 185

Hervey, Huckett and
Glasgow 191; N. Y.
(Geneva) Agr. Expt. Stp.

Mass. Agr. Expt. Sta.

Wille et al. 471

Howard and Mason 201

LePellcy and Sullivan

Spoon 390

Hamilton 195
Hamilton 185

Kearns and Umpleby 237

Boyce 37

Kearns and .Iarsh 235

U. S. Dept. Agr. 420

ChapmRn, Hollingsworth,
Robertson 71

- 90 -




Pectinophora gossypiella Spmund. Less effective

Philaeus sumarius (leucoph-
thalmus) L.

Phlyctaenia rubigalis Guen.

Phyllobius oblonagus

Phyllobius pyri

than calcium
Less effective than
barium fluosilicate




Less effective
t1an barium
or calcium

Some control

Pieris rapae L.


More effective
than pyrethrins


Plathypena scabra F.

Plum sawfly

Plutella mnaculipennis Curtis

Cube dust plus
sulfur effective


Effective against
young larvae

Chapman and Williams

Texas Agr. Expt. Sta.,
Edwards, 124

Howard and M,1ason 201

Kearns mand Umpleby 237

K-earns and Umpleby 237

Chapman and Williams 72

Bur. Ent. and PI. Quiar.
420; Texas Agr. Expt.
Sts. 403

R. E. Campbell 62; Colo
Agr. Exp)t. Ste. 86, 87
Howard and Davidson
200; Howard and Mason
201; U. S. Dept. Agr.
414, 417, 420; Walker
451; White 463, 464;
Wisecup 473

Colo. Agr. Expt. Sta.

Crosby and Chupp 109;
Hervey, Huckott and
Glasgow 191; N. Y. Agr.
Expt. Sta. 305; F. L.
Thomas 405

Brannon 45

Kearns and Mprsh 235

Walker and Anderson


Plutella maculipennis Curtis

Popillia japonica Newm.

Prenolepis sp.

Prodenia eridania Cram.

Psallus seriatus Reut.

Psoroptes sp.

Pteronidea ribesii Scop.

Pulvinaria vitis L.

91 -
Result Reference

Effective Howard and Mason
Decpt. Agr. 414,
White 463, 464

Ineffective Colo. Agr. Expt.

Cube less effec- Texas Agr. Expt,
tivo than


Some control

One-half as
effective as
derris as a

Promising as
a repellent

Fairly effective



Less effective
than paris
green against




100% effective

Dusts very

Fairly effective




U. S.



Crosby and Chupp 109; Hervey,
Huckett and Glasgow 191;
F. L. Thomas 405; U. S.
Dept. Agr. 417

Colo. Agr. Expt. Sta. 88

Fleming and Baker 150

Bromley 51

Hamilton 185.

van Gundia 447

British Guiana Dept. Agr. 48

Wisecup 474

Ewing 133; Ewing and McGarr

Wille et al. 471

Illinois Agr. Expt. Sta. 212;
N. Y. Agr. Expt. Sta. 305

Hamilton 185

N. Y. (Geneva) Agr. Expt. Stab

Hamilton 185

- C2 -


Pr- ,t nabilralis Hbn.

Rhagolotis romcnellq Valsh

Rhyacionia buolimna Schiff.


S.trcopt ecs sp.

Solenopr1is so.

Stomoxys calcitrars L.

Ttletrn-chus telarius L.

Thrips on cauliflower

Thrips on cotton

Thrips ta2baci Lirnd.

Thya.nta custator F.

Thyridopterrx cphomeraeformis
K wo-, th



Less effective
thbi derris or





I:-. -"ff (-C ui-tivo

1; rLpcllent


Less effective
than dcrr -. s





Effective with

Effective against
immat'ire stages


Less effective
th ,n derris

Less effective
than dcrris



B.,,.tcheldor 21; Hervey 190;
.."lkcer 451

Batchcldcr (t al. 22

K. Y. Agr. Bxpt. Sta. 306

Frie-ind aid. Plumb 153

Boyd. 39

illeo et al. 471

Brit. Guiana Dept. Agr. 48

Laako 256

HnTmilton 184; Richardson 340;
Weigel and Richtardson 461

Wcigcl and Nelson 459,460

11 Y. A-r. Expt. Sta. 306

S. C. Aor. Expt. Sta. 387

Thur. Ent. & PI. Quar. 423

Wcigcl and Nclson 458

Wallcr 451

'T Y, Agr. Expt. St-,. at
Cornell Univ. 307

Turner and Talkcr 409

WTeigel end :Je]son 459, 460

Casoidy and Barber 65

Hamilton '-65

- 93 -


Ticks on llamas

Typophorus viridicyaineus

Typophorus viridicyaneus

Woolly aphids on beech, elm,
larch, and white pine trees

Zqphodia grossulariae Riley


Tf ectivc

Less effective
than cryolite

Less effective
than t-ndilated
calcium arsenate



Very effective


Klinge 245

Brannon 42

Brannon 44

Hamilton 185 -

Hammer 186; N. Y. Agr. Expt..
Sta. 306

N. Y. Agr. Expt. Sta. 306


The common and scientific nares of the insects mentioned in this
publication arc listed below. The names marked with an asterisk (*) are those
approved by the American Association of 7,ccnoL-ic E.itomologists.

Common name

*Apple maggot
Apple sawfly
*Asiatic garden beetle
*Asparagus beetle
*Boll weevil
*Cabbage looper
Cabbage webworm
*Catalpa sphinx noth caterpillar
Celery leaf tier
Clay colored weevils
*Citrus red uite
*Codling moth
*Colorado potato beetle
Common cabbage worn
*Common red spider
Corn carworn
Cotton boll weevil
*Cotton flea hopper
*Cotton leaf worn
*Cottony iaple scale
Currant worn
*Diaziondback noth

Scientific name

Rhagoletis poronolla Walsh
Hoplocan.,a testudinia
Autoserica castanea Arrow
Crioceris asparagi L.
Thyvridoptcryx epheneraeformis Haw.
Lnthonomus grandis Boh.
Autographa brassicae Riley
Hellula undalis F.
Alsophila pometaria Harris
Cern.tor.ia catalpae Bdv.
Phlyctaenia rublgalis Guen.
0tiorrhynchus singularis
Parattranychus citri McG.
Ca.pocaps. pomonella L.
Leptinotarsa decemlinoata Say
Pieris rapae L.
Totranychus telarius L.
Heliothis obsolete Fab.
Anthoiionus grandis Boh.
Psallus seriatuc Rout.
Alabaria argillacea Hbn.
Pulvinaria vitis L.
Ptcronidca ribosii Scop.
Plutolla maculipennis Curtis

- 94 -

O (Omioln na-ie

S*''astern tont 'caterpillar
*Egj.Jant flea beetle
*Elrn leaf beetle
Euon ymus scale
European corn bore'r
*BTarcpevn pine shoot moth
*Fall canikerworm
*Fali webworm
*Gooseberry fruit worm
*Green clover worm
* Har.equin bug
*Horn fly
*Imiported cabbage .V6or3
* Imported cuirant worn
*Japriese beetle
June bug
Juniper scale
Lace buz
*Larch casebearer
Leaf-eating weevils
*Moxican bean beetle
Oak leaf roller
Onion thrips
*Pea aphid
*Pea weevil
*Pear slug
Pine sawfly larvae
Plum sawfly
*Potato flea beetle
R-.d spider mite
Raed stinging ant
*Rose leaf beetle
* Southern ar-yvworm
Spider nites
Spiny elm caterpillar
Spittle bug
Spittle bug
* Spfiotted asparagus beetle
* Squash borer
*Strawberry leaf roller
*Striped cucunbcr beetle
Sweetpotato leaf beetle
* Tarnished plant bug
Trnt caterpillar
*Tobavco flea beetle

Scientific nrie

Mal.m;co7orr a:17erin..:a .
:pitr.: fasc2^a (C'rotch
C-P.teruplpi. xanrhomnlacna Schr.
Ghionaspis eucnyrii Comst.
P:, rmusfi nublaTjs "lbn.
Phy.ci-niL buaoliana Schiff.
.1ophi3a poeaetaria Harr.
Lantrin, c-rea Driry
Zcnho1iP. grossulrriae Rilcy
Plathypcna sn&br2 F.
Murcan+.ia histriorica :-VL
HaeLzatobia irritans L.
Kasca dom'n-tica L.
Pi3ris rape L.
Ptaroniiicea riLesii Scop.
Popill.& japonica NewM.
Iac!-inocterna spp. Phyllo: h1'U' spp.
Ziabpis carucTi Targ.
Ocrytyhuc arcraiw. Sry
Coleop.o)crr l.riccll Hbn.
Phy, lo'b'iL, obiLongus
i prch.ia i.,':i.. L.
Spilaclam vat ivstis Rtils.
Argyrot-oxa scoipArprrFia ]tc:r .
Thnrips t. Jnht tL .n
Ileinoia pisi X-p
Bruchaus pi.t:r i L.
Eric__poid~es limraina Rctz.
ris phanip hiid-ais Stclil
Neodiprion lecontfci Fitch
Hoplocampa -
Epitrlx c3Cuceris Farr.
*T 3ura;yzhus t4eriUs I.
Sol]enopsis sp.
Nodfonata pi-acticollis S"ty
Proci :a er'.dania Cra..
Te'Praji7'..s tel2.rius I.
(Ev .___) A _'T s r.ntiopr, L
Aphr-hcor.r pernutata LhiL.
Philaen jir sumiar ilus (1eicophtha] ruc) 1
Crioccris d d .ci"ipui,' t.ta L,
Melittia satyrinifonris Kbi
Stc mo:...y3 c2.cit. zrmh -,
Ancylis conptana Froel.
Diabrotic< vittata F.
Top-horr s v7ir i dicyaneus Crotch
Lygus pratensis L.
Malacowo.u. a-nericana F.
D)T it s tpalaci Lin .
-pit.ix parvula F,

- 95 -

Common name Scientific name

Tobacco flea beetle Epitrix cncumneria Harr.
*Tobacco thrips Frankliniella fusca Hinds
Tomato fruitworm Heliothis obsoleta F.
* Tomato pinworm Gnorimoechema lycopersicella Busck
Tussock moth larvae Hemerocampa leucostigma Smith & Abbott
*Western striped cucumber beetle Diabrotica frivittata Mann.
Willow leaf beetles Lina spp. a Chrysomela spp.
*Zebra cater-illar Mamcstra picta Earr.


These abstracts of patents are arranged in order of their dates of
issuance under each country; the countries are listed alphabetically.

The Standard Oil Dcvelopment Co, (394), assignee of Sankowsky and
Fulton, in British patent 394,977, issued July 4, 1933, applied for January
4, 1932, in the United States January 5, 1931, claim an improved insecticide
comprising hydrocarbons rich in unsaturated hydrocarbons and obtained by
the extraction of a petroleum naphtha with a solvent having a preferential
solvent action for said unsaturated hydrocarbons in admixture with an
insecticidal plant extract. The insecticidal plant extract may be from
pyrethrum, cube, derris or the like.

The Booth Steamship Co., Ltd., and Ward (34 and 35), in British patent
437,171, issued October 24, 1935, applied for March 30, 1935, and in French
patent 794,206, published February 11, 1936, applied for August 27, 1935,
have patented a process of extracting rotenone and other toxins from derris,
barbasco and timbo roots which consists in digesting the ground root with
alcohol acidulated with sulphuric acid. The filtrate may be neutralized
with sodium carbonate and refiltered. The final filtrate is mixed with
soft soap so as to obtain a semisolid product which can be diluted with
water before use.

Fawcett and Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., (139 and 213), in
British patent 446,576, issued April 29, 1936, applied for October 29, 1934,
and also in French patent 797,052, published April 20, 1936, applied for
October 29, 1935, claim a process for the production of rotenone and/or
preparations having insecticidal value and containing rotenone, which corn-
prises subjecting the natural substances containing rotenone, to distillation
at raised temperature in a high vacuum and collecting the distillate. A
vacuum of between 10-2 and 10-6 mm. of mercury is used. The condensate
from the distillation may suitably be removed from the condensing surface
by melting down, by scraping, or by rinsing with a solvent. An example of
the process is as follows: Fifty parts of dry ground cube root are i-.ixed
with 100 parts of a linseed oil stand oil which has prCviously been treated
in a high vacuum at 2OO C. to remove volatile constituents. The mixture
of cube root and oil is fed on to a heated surface or surfaces maintained
at about 1200 C. and in close proximity to a cold condensing surface, the
whole apparatus being evacuated to about l0-4 mm. of mercury. A pale

- 96 -

yellow condensate is obtained, giving the reactions of rotenone and
containing substantially all the active material present in the original

Other carrier liquids such as Apielon, heavy rnincral oil, cotton-
seed oil, olive oil, etc., may be used when it is desired to obtain a
solution of the active ingredients as distillate, the dry powdered derris or
cube root may be mixed with a carrier liquid which is either wholly dis-
tillable at the tonporatures and pressures employed, or comprises a portion
so distillable. Thus a mixture of the oils kiown respectively under the
trade nanes "Apiozon Al and "Apiezon K" niy be used. The active ingredients
distil over together with the "Apiezon A"t' leaving behind a suspersior. or
solution of the residue in the "Aplezon K." The distillate, which is a more
or less concentrated solution of the rotunone etc. in "Apiezon A"t' (the
concentration can be varied by varying the proportion of "Apiezon A" taken),
is suitable for dilution with kerosene or other volatile mineral oil for
use as insecticidal spray.

Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., assignee of Fawcett (214), in
Canadian patent 369,499, issued October 26, 1937; applied for October 28,
1935; claims the process for the production of rotenone preparations
which comprises subjecting a natural rotenone-containinC substance to
distillation without ebullition at a pressure of 10-2 to 10-6 mm. of
mercury ulndcr such conditions that the evaporating and condensing surfaces
are substantially co-extensive and are in close proximity to one other, and
collecting the distillate. The material may be dried and ground and mixed
with a carrier liquid which is substantially volatile at the tPmperature
and pressure to be employed. This is similar to iritish patent 446,576,
French patent 797,052, and United States patent 2,096,678.

Eichhorn (125), in German patent 630,483, issued May 28, 1936,
applied for November 22, 1932, extracts powdered derris (or cube) powder
at 40 to 500 C. with an eq'ial quantity of a dilute (10 percent) solution
of sodium bisulphite, then neutralizes and concentrates in vacuo.

Chromek (80), in German patent 643,804, issued April 17, 1937,
applied for February 7, 1932, claims an insecticide consisting tf an
extract of a rotenone-bearing root in aliphatic hydrocarbons, especially
petroleum, hexachloroethane, ammonium linoleate and water. An e_:ample
is derris powder 7 parts, hexachloroothane 12 parts, ammonium linoleate
4 parts, petroleum 25 parts, methyl salicylate 2 parts, and water 50

Schotte and Gdrnitz (368), assignors to Schering-Kahlbaum L..G.
of Berlin, in U. S. patent 2,024,392, issued Decemiber 17, 1935, applied
for December 12, 1933; in Germany Tovember 13, 1931, claim an insecti-
cidal preparation consisting of a mixture containing rotenone and veratrin.
They state:

"As is well known to those skilled in the art,
insecticides prepared from the roots of plants belonging
to the genus Derris, Lonchocarpus and others and containing

- 97 -

rotenone or the like are particularly efficient, but the
high price of these drugs has proven to be prohibitive as
regards their use on a large scale."

Hamilton (84), in U. S. patent 2,030,584, issued February 11, 1936,
applied for June 5, 1934, claims an insecticide including water, a
suitable oil and finely powdered natural parts of a plant selected from
the group consisting of derris and. crbe root containing an inherent
emulsifier and properties toxic to insects. Reference is made to the
use of acetone, alcohol, ether and ethylene dichlorides as solvents for
the activeprinciples of derris and cube. To prepare the paste, 3 or 4
parts of finely powdered derris or cube root aro added to 8 parts of
water and 8 parts of oil, either mineral, vegetable or animal, and the
mixture emulsified in a suitable machine. In case the derris is reduced
to 1 part it is necessary to add 2/3 to 1 part colloidal clay (wilkeite,
bentonite, ot6.) to make a physically stable emulsion. A preservative
such as 1/2 to 1 percent carbolic acid may be added; a sodium, potassium
or an ethanolamine soap may be used instead of the clay, and an anti-
oxidant such as tannic acid may also be added.

The paste emulsion insecticide produced as aforesaid, makes a
quick breaking emulsion when diluted with water for spraying. Insecticide
sprays of this invention possess from 15 to 20 percent greater toxicity to
plant lice than sprays of the same hih dilution made from derris and cube
insecticides of the chemically extracted kind.

Buc (56), of the Standa-Lrd Oil Development Co., in U. S. patent
2,042,296, issued May 26, 1936, applied for March 12, 1931, uses an aryl
alkyl ether to keep rotenone and rotenoids from dcrris or cube in solution
in kerosene.

An example of the invention is 0.5 percent rotenone, 5 percent
secondary hexyl cresyl ether, 94.5 percent petroleum oil having a gravity
of 270 A.P.I. and a viscosity of 115 S.ayolt at 100 F. Buc states that
he has- prepared a stable kerosene solution containing 0.25 percent of
rotenone with only 0.75 percent of secondary hexyl phenyl ether as mutual

Wotherspoon (476), in United States patent 2,052,374, issued
August 25, 1935, applied for April 28, 1934, claims an aqueous diseminatable6"
composition of matter consisting of an insecticide obtainable from derris
and similar insecticidal-containing plant materials containing rotenone,
deguelin, tephrosin and toxicarol and a water-soluble phenol containing
at least two hydroxyl groups.

"I have found that if rotenone, dihydrorotenone,
finely ground derris or cube, solid extracts of derris
or cube, the hydrogenated derivatives of same, either
alone or in mixtures, are melted or intimately mixed with a
solid water-soluble phenol containing two or more nydroxyl
groups, the resulting product after cooling and grinding
is soluble, or miscible, with water in any proportions.