Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine

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Material Information

Title:
Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Running title:
Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Agricultural Research Administration
Annual reports of Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Physical Description:
v. : ; 22 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:
Frequency:
annual

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1935-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: 1953.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Fiscal year ends June 30.
General Note:
Title from caption.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030261108
oclc - 04300772
lccn - sn 86033745
Classification:
lcc - SB823 .A182
ddc - 632.906173
System ID:
AA00022935:00016

Related Items

Preceded by:
Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology

Full Text

STATE P NT
BOARD OF
BA LUBRARY EC






REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF THE BUREAU OF ENTO-
MOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE, 1937



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRIC ULTURE.
BUcREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE,
Wa'shibngton, D. C., Se pteinber 1J, 1,3,7.
Hon. HENRY A. WALLACE.
Secretary of Agriculture.
DEAR MR. SECRETARY : I submit herewith a report of the work of
the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine for the fiscal year
ended June 30, 1937.
Sincerely yours,
LEE A. STRONG, Chief.

CONTENTS
Page Page
Introduction---.---------------------------- 1 Black stem rust quarantine enforcement ... 43
Publications and editorial work.. ----------- 2 Barberry eradication ..---..---..........-... 43
Library -_.---------------------------------- 2 Truck crop and garden insect investigations___ 48
Insect pest survey and information --------. 2 Cotton insect investigations--------..---..... 55
Fruit insect investigations-------------------- 3 Pink bollworm control------------....-----.. 60
Fruitfly investigations ----------------------- 7 Thurberia weevil control--------...--..---- 63
Mexican fruitfly corol---------------------- 8 Bee culture -----------------------------.... 64
Japanese beetle quaraintine and control------- 11 Investigations of insects affecting man and
Phony peach disease control ----------------- 17 animals-.-----------------------------.... 65
Control of peach mosaic disease-------------- 18 Screwworm control--- -------.--------....--. 71
Citrus canker eradication. ...---------------- 18 Insect identification --.---------------.-- 75
Insects affecting forest and shade trees-------- 19 Foreign parasite introduction__-----.-----_-- 75
Gypsy moth and brown-tail moth control _-- 22 Control investigations -....------------.----- 77
Gypsy moth and brown-tail moth quarantine Insecticide investigations .------------.------ 79
enforcement------------------------------ 28 Transit inspection ------------------ -----. 84
Dutch elm disease eradication --------------- 29 Terminal inspection of mail shipments ------ 85
White pine blister rust control ------------- 33 Convictions and penalties imposed for viola-
Enforcement of the white pine blister rust tion of the Plant Quarantine Act .--.-..... 85
quarantine ------------------------------ 38 Foreign plant quarantines -----.---.......... 86
Cereal and forage insect investigations -------- 38 Certification for export .--------------.-----. 97
European corn borer inspection and certifica-
tion..---.--------..-------.--------------.. 43


INTRODUCTION

The organization of the Bureau activities has continued along substantially
the same lines and with the same division leaders as during lle previous1 eair.
The special investigations begun last year with allotments fro)m processing
t. taxes collected in Hawaii and Puerto Rico were c lc!udled. A snall anurlt
of funds available for work in Hawaii remains available and will he used
for special studies having a direct be:ring on the control of fruil lies in
Hawaii during the fiscal year 1938.
As in the preceding year. activities concerned with tlhe eradication and
control of plant pests were materially ex paded by ;llotmetls of emergency
funds for relief. The results of the work done under these special a!lotnients
are discussed under approplriate hadlings and include the following activities:
Gypsy month control, brownl-tail nmIqhli c(ltrol. I)utchi elm diliase eradication,
barberry eradication, white pine blister rust control, citrus canker eradication,
phony peach disease control, eradication o f peaclh to s~~fic,. elinmination of wild
cotton ill southern Florida, and T1le dest rutl ion of 'Thurberia pl:lant in solt h-
L3^ eastern Arizona.
24G695-37-' 1 1


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ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QIUARANTIIlNE 3

Cooperative extension work in entomology was supervised under the direction
of the Bureau and the Office of Cooperative Extension Work.
Approximately 222,600 copies of publications were distributed, exclusive of
those sent out on regular mailing lists and miscellaneous nimeographed ni:-
terial.
FRUIT INSECT INVESTIGATIONS
APPLE INSECTS

In the search for insecticides which may be substituted for lead arsenate
in the control of the codling moth, approximately 250 new compounds, chietly
organic materials supplied by the Division of Insecticide Investigation s, \weNr
given preliminary test at the Beltsville, Md., laboratory. In practically -ill
cases the results were so poor that the materials were eliminated from further
consideration; a few warrant further laboratory study.
Certain nicotine combinations, particularly nicotine-bentonite, have continued
to give encouraging results in field and laboratory, and one form of this ma-
terial is being tested on a semicommercial scale in orchard plots of about 21,
acres each in southern Indiana. A number of growers have been very minu
impressed by the results with the nicotine bentonite and are using it on portionI
of their acreage. If found practical, this material will be especially useful on
early varieties such as the Yellow Transparent, which does not lend itself very
readily to the washing process for residue removal. The high cost of nicoti e-
bentonite is, in part at least, offset by additional benefits in the control of (otier
insects and by the more favorable effect on the tree than results from the use-
of lead arsenate.
In the Pacific Northwest phenothiazine has continued to give outstanding
control of the codling moth, but the difficulties formerly pointed out have not
yet been overcome. The chief disadvantage is the serious skin irritation suffered
by some of the men doing the spraying, and by the men who later work in
the trees thinning or harvesting. A minor disadvantage is a more or less un-
favorable effect on the coloring of the fruit. In the East and Middle We(st
the results with this material are still irregular but have offered suffi:ient
encouragement to justify further work.
At Vincenne s, Inr., more use is beiing made of a "field-laboratory" method
of testing insecticides. Field plots are laid out and sprayed as usual, and at
intervals the apples are taken to the laboratory and artificially infested with a
known number of newly hatched codling moth larvae. The experiments are
thus independent of the natural infestation, which is often very irregular within
the same orchard. This method gives a running picture through the season of
the relative effectiveness of the materials tested. The detailed information
resulting from the use of this method is of great value in suppllementig that
obtained by the usual methods of field testing, in which the results are judged
largely by the condition of the fruit at harvest time.
The program of recolonization of the codling moth parasite Ascog.Usfer qura,-
ridentatus Wesm. has been completed. A large number of living adults of the
eastern parasite Phanerotoma tibialis Hald. have been sent to Parma. Idaho,
for liberation in an orchard which is being used at that point for a parasite
project in which this Bureau is cooperating with the Idaho Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, and a small colony of the native parasite Acnoplcx cnrpocupsae
Cushm. has been sent to the same place. The European codling moth varasite
Ephialtes extensor Tasch. was received in small numbers from the Division
of Foreign Parasite Introduction and was propagated in the laboratory, and
small colonies were liberated in New Jersey and Idaho. Studies of the ccoon
parasite A. carpocapsae showed that breeding nearly ceases during July and
August, but becomes normal again in September. After being quite abundant in
certain orchards in southeastern Illinois in 1935, this species virtually dis-
appeared from the same orchards in 1936.
The program of distribution of Aphlclinu mali Hald.. a parasite of the
woolly apple aphid, to the Western States in which this effective beneficial
insect was not already present, has been completed.
Studies of the biology and seasonal history of the pear thrips in the North-
west have indicated that the time of emergence from hibernation, with refer-
ence to the blooming period, varies considerably from year to year: and this
makes the proper timing of spray applications difficult, although, when properly
timed, applications of nicotine in several combinations have given very large
reductionR in the losses caused by this insect. Studies of the part played by







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ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 5

NUT INSECTS
A new laboratory was established in the spring of 1937 at Monticello, Fla.,
in cooperation with the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station for a study
of pecan insects. At the outset special attention is being directed to the con-
trol of the pecan nut casebearer. The results obtained in the control of this
insect in the spring of 1937 by the use of nicotine sulphate in combination
with white oil emulsion were in line with those previously rel;orted by the
Albany, Ga., laboratory. That laboratory is now giving all of its attention
to the hickory shuickworm on pecan, for the control of which adequate meas-
ures are not yet available. Special emphasis is to be placed on the relation of
natural enemies to the control of this insect and to possible cultural methods
of controlling it.
In experiments with the obscure scale in northern Louisiana it was learned
that oil sprays have an important residual effect which is not evident ulntil
the female scales reach maturity. In orchards sprayed with 2- or 3-percent
lubricating-oil emulsions during February and March, only from 1.3 to 9.5
percent of tie females that reached the appearance of maturity were abie to
lay eggs, whereas in unsprayed trees in the same orchards, (ii to B(G percent
of the mature female scales laid eggs in a normal 11manner. This means that
it is p ossible to obtain satisfactory control of the obscure scale in pecan
orchards with low strengths of oil emulsion, which is fortunate in view of
the susceptibility of pecan trees to injury by oil sprays.
The use of lead arsenate as a spray at a strength of 3 pou(nds in 100 gallons
of water, with 3 pounds of hydrated lime, has given very effective protection
of young pecan trees from attack by the adult May beetles of the genus
Phyllophaga in northern Louisiana. In most cases four or five applications
were made at frequent intervals, but it is believed that the beetles should be
well controlled by three applications put on during the early part of their
feeding period. Observations have indicated that most of the protection results
from a repellent action on the part of the spray. A little foliage injury de-
veloped from five applications, but this was not at all serious,

DRIED-FRUIT INSECTS
The motor-driven raisin cleaner developed by the Fresno, Calif., laboratory
in 1935 was further improved, and it appears to be particularly effective in
removing infestation of the raisin moth from Sultanina (Thompson Seedless)
raisins, reducing the numbers of the insects in many cases more than 90 percent,
and in addition removing most of the sand and debris. The paper trays on
which the raisins are now extensively dried prevent infestation to a certain ex-
tent, and by the use of the paper trays, the cleaning machine, and shade-cloth
covers over the boxes of raisins while temporarily stored on the ranch, the
delivery of comparatively clean raisins now appears possible. Dried pears
practically free from infestation were obtained by covering the fruit with cloth
during the final stages of drying, confirming the results of previous experiments
with various dried fruits. In Arizona, cotton-cloth extensions on the paper rain
covers used for dates gave promise of success in the exclusion of certain in-
sects that have been attacking dates in the final stages of ripening or drying
while still on the tree.
The practical utilization of cotton cloth for the prevention of insect infesta-
tion of dried fruits while being held in stacked trays on the ranches is being
stimulated by a cooperative project carried on by the Agricultural Extension
Service of the University of California. For this work alout 20.000 yards of
cotton cloth have been furnished by the Agricultural .Adjustment Administration
as a part of a cotton-diversion program. This is being distributed to repre-
sentative growers, and detailed records will be kept of the results.
In addition to the mulberry, which in most localities is practically the only
food available to the raisin moth in the spring during the first generation,
Mission figs were found in one locality to be of considerable importance in the
building up of the raisin moth population e:rly in the season. For the first
time serious injury by larvae of the raisin moth to fresh grapes on the vines
was observed.
SUBTROPICAL FRUIT INSECTS
Field experiments to determine the effect on the trees of tartar emetic when
used as a bait spray on citrus trees have been continued by the Orlando, Fla.,
laboratory, in cooperation with other bureaus. Plots of trees have been sprayed








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L~Ot31: 'ratlfnLI1'I IrIv dO JXS:AcxAIvd"t: AdO s,,11HO1I0d "IVI. KV 9






ENTOMOLOGY AND PLATNT QUARANTINE 7


pounds per acre of greensand marl, which is promising for use in soils to
overcome or reduce arsenical injury to plants, did not significantly modify the
insecticidal action of lead arsenate within 30 days after application. Further
studies of the use of lead arsenate in various types of soil from difIerent locali-
ties have shown that the character of the soil has a considerable inlluence on
the effectiveness of the lead arsenate treatment, but that 1,50i pounds per
acre, as at present recommended for nursery treatment, is adequate in most
soils usually encountered. Some modincation of recommendations for certain
soils may, however, be necessary.
A large number of females of the imported hymenopterous parasite Tiplhia
rernalis Roh. have been collected in the tield Irom well-established colonies
and recolonized in other localities. During the early summer of 1937, 162
colonies, totaling 16,553 females, were placed in New Jersey, Pennsyilvania,
Delaware, Maryland, New York, and the New England States. With colonies
that were established in 1933, parasitizations as high as 58 percent have been
found. Among the imported parasites, this species appears to be by far the
best adapted to the biology of the Japanese beetle.
The introduced parasite Tiphia popilia roru I(oh. is well established in many
localities, and during the summer of 1936 field-collected females to the nunber
of 4,818 were recolonized at 44 points in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Dela-
ware. It has been found that a number of adults of this species have not
emerged until the second or third year following that in which the cocoons
were formed. The form of T. popillia cora first introduced is, unfortunately,
rather poorly synchronized with its host in the Moorestown, N. J.. area. Spe-
cial attention has therefore been given to a Korean strain of this parasite,
which emerges later, at a time much more favorable to parasitization. During
1956 nine colonies of this strain were liberated in New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
Further studies have been made of the diseases attacking the immature
stages of the Japanese and Asiatic beetles in the soil. Examinations in the
field at frequent intervals during the season showed in the early spring a low
percentage of diseased grubs; the proportion increased rapidly to a peak of 36
percent late in June. The disease rate fell rapidly as the new brood of larvae
developed, then rose to a maximum of about 13 percent in September, and fell
off again as cold weather came on. Observations on feld plots in which types
A and B milky diseases were artificially introduced in 1935 indicated the estab-
lishment of the disease with spring introductions, the disease rate increasing
to as high as 44 percent by June 1936. Similar plots started in the fall of 19.'1
indicated that fall is not a satisfactory time for introducing a disease organism,
because of falling temperatures and unfavorable weather conditions.
Material of Tiphia sternlata Park, a parasite of the Asiatic garden beetle.
was received from the Division of Foreign Parasite Introduction and increased
in the laboratory for further colonization. Foutteen hundred adult females
of this species were liberated at five centers in Pennsylvania and New Jersey.
At least a few of this species passed the winter of 1936-37 successfully, as
evidenced by the recovery at Palmyra, N. J. T. ascricae A. and J. was like-
wise recovered in the spring of 1937.
In order to keep in touch with the progress of the Japanese beetle in the
more recently infested areas and to determine its behavior under new cndi-
tions, as a basis for studies of control measures in connection with efforts to
retard its spread. a new field laboratory has been established at Salisbury.
N. C. For the present the work deals primarily with the biology, food plantls.
and behavior of the beetle under conditions in the outer zone of spread this
is to be followed as soon as feasible by experiments with the control of the
insect under the new conditions.

FRUITFLY INVESTIGATIONS

The research work on fruitflies has been continued as in the past in the
laboratories in Mexico c'ity, IIonolulu Myiaguez. 11.. and tlhe 'anal Zone.
In Mexico work has been done on the sterilization of fruit by refrigeration
to guarantee its freedom from living eggs and larvae of the Mexican fruitfly.
Studies at 340 to 353 F. resulted in adults emerging after 16 days of exposure.
Puparia were formed by larvae which had been exposed for 17 and for 18
days, but no adults emerged from these puparia. The results indicate that the






. ANNUAL, IREI'ORTS OF )DEPARTME.T. OF AGRICULTURE, 1937

Mexican fruitfly is more resistantI to low temteratures tlhaln ar the other fruit-
iies so far studied.
The resistance of adults to low- temperatures was studied with an instrument
designed by W. E. Stone which permits the reproduction of a continuous tem-
eratuire record taken in any locality. The exposure co(ered t days of cold
we ather during which the temperature ranged as low as 2I.0) F. Only I0 per-
ient ,o t he young fiess used were killed and tle remainder subsequently infested
fruit ill a iormial mianner.
Sprayin-g experimients with 4 Iounds of tartar emetic aid '2t) pounds of
gra ailated sugar in 101j gallons of water gave promising r~ ults in reducing
the populat ions of the Mexican fruit fly, as high :as ;0 percent reduction b eiin
,obl aiiled ill one installce. lSprayel gr apfrtlit treesli hl lh ir < .TI well oll
inito wJu hereas t lie entire crop fell fromI the uusI'rayIed trees early in tlhe
sea son.
I1 IIawa ii low-lellpe' lltre steriliza tion experiiliis witlt f i tsWi itifst 1'd by
thie Mlediteraiea:ll frunit liv were colltilllued. At .T: F. 1n larvate were ltble
to Illatllle to i;i 's afte'r 1 dalys of eXp 1 s1 l A.\ t l II >'r;I ilr of 3( .. to
adu1lls \wvere obtai ed after ali exposire of 12 days. Tlie early sta1es of tile
n1. ..lly Qa ppared more susceptiblfe to low (Iellip ratireos, sillence Ino adults were
hcbI; ,.. *, ( ;ll;..iT alfterl aii exl posiir'e of 10 tdays. Ill tIie treatir i roo ml tliere was
a lhii'cialiim of 1I, so that for short periods the larvae were "eld at slightly
below 1~; .
Studies were coIndulted witll pIapyas to determine their susceptibility to
attack by the Imelofly. Bolt ripe and comninercially picked pap tas proved to
he dhfiiitely suscepllible.
Studies willt screen harriers against the drift ef melohtlies into cuuniber
plots have showin a definite reduction in infestation. The barrier cost, however,
has not been offset by tlie retllurns. More promising results from ilie lnllnetary
vie\poinit Were (otnilled withi a nicotine slpay.
Studies on holdling fruits infested by the Mediterram an fruitfly in sealed
containers showed that 100 percent mortality of toh early st es of tlie insect
(;1n e obtained in this way, but effects of such treatment on sound fruits have
not as yet been obtailned.
In Puerto Rico studies on low-temperature sterilization of fruit infested by
the two species of fruitflies Alastrepli a s'uMprNi/ Liew and .1. (acid/sI Walk.
have been continued. Work at 32 F. has shown that 11 dlays of exposure at
this temperature will prevent the early stages from maturing to adults. Later
studies at 34 F. gave complete mortality of the early stages after exposure of
1:3 days at this temperature. Studies at 36 F. were inaugurated and show
that larvne exposed to this temperature for a period of 15 days are still able to
form pilparia. No adults, however, have so far been obtained after ai exposure
of 12 days.
Steriliza-tion studies with the vapor-heat )process. exposing fruits to 110 F.
for 8 hours with an approach period of 8 hours before the temperature of 1100
is reached, showed that the Puerto Rican species off fruit lies require a sliihtly
longer period for a complete kill to be obtained by this method than does the
Mediterranean fruitfly, since there were a few survivals after S hours.

MEXICAN FRUITFLY CONTROL
INFESTATIONS
Trap)s were used extensively on this project in Texas to determine the extent
of lith adult popl)ulation of the lexicann fruitfly (.inAtftrcph a lud ns Loew). Few
flies were t;akn ,l before tihe first of tlie yoar. In Ja nary, hioever it became
a)lmarent tlIat tlier( were many more flies in the area thaln during :ay previous
sealsoul, a11ld I hl l if ct ti ins renl m in ed favorable, h1 rvIa illfest:ftiallS might
beo'(iie glneral. TlI Iillulber of flies r 'cove\re(rd ), frull I rlS o(' tlllillllei I t Ill mount
t hro ugiotlli FI thriury., i ll no inlfe.sted fruit was found l11til toward the close of
the 111mo11h. Erly in Ma ri. lihe condition changed radically. Relt Z ively few
fli(s \were trlaped. liut larva : infestat ionls were found in all districts. In April
Ile fly 1pol(pulation :agin mounted, a1nd the numiIber of Ilrval infestations
lde1ro(raseId. In May only a small :ammunt of infested fruit was found during the
tree-lo-tre irnsil)'etiion work. and none was discovered in June. Throughrout
these 2 months thle fly catch contiueld o to declile to a point where only four flies
were tlrnlald the latter half of June.







ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 9


The records of the infestation of Anastrepha ludens in the Rio Grande Valley
suggest it may be the result of flies coming from Mexico during the winter
months rather than a continuing permanent population in the area. If such a
migratory movement occurred this season it evidently reached a peak during
the first half of February, the incoming flies disappearing by the middle of
March. The larger number of flies taken during April and May may have
resulted from larval infestations in February and March.
Adult and larval infestations are shown by districts in table 1.

TABLE 1.-Infestations of the Mexican fruitfly in Texas, fiscal year 1937

Adults trapped Larval Adults trapped Larval
infesta- infesta-
District tions District tions
Speci- Prem- (prem- Speci- Prem- (prom-
mens ises ises) mens ises ises)

Mission-.-- --........-.-- 404 43 221 Raymondville.--.-----.. 8 4 2
McAllen -----.------.--. 675 35 82 Harlingen.-..---.----. --. 98 25 43
Edinburg. ------------- 780 38 89 San Benito ....--.---... 110 30 38
Pharr-San Juan-Alamo 491 31 108 Brownsville.------------- 46 12 45
Donna---------------- 760 29 85 Falfurrias.--------------. 75 10 9
Weslaco .---_---------. 592 36 136 ----
Mercedes ..------------- 276 27 70 Total ..--------. 4,714 349 1,062
La Feria---..---.... ---- 399 29 134


OTHER SPECIES OF FRUITFLIES TRAPPED

Other species of Anastrepha and Toxotrypana are frequently taken in traps
along with A. ludens. The host of one Ily (A. pallens Coq.) is known: it is
Bumelia angustifolia, a noneconomic sapotaceous plant. No local hosts for the
other flies have been found, and it is believed that the occurrence of these flies in
this area is likewise the result of a migratory tendency. Flies were taken
throughout the area, as shown in table 2.

TABLE 2.-Other fruitflies trapped in Texas, fiscal year 1937

Anastre- Anastre- Anastre- Anastre- Other Toxotry-
District pha ser- pha aci- pha pal- j pha Anastre- pana cur-
pentina dusa lens species Y pha spe- vicauda
cies

Mission.--...----- ----------------. -- 6 5 382 20 2 22
McAllen ...................------------.. 19 6 143 25 4 26
Edinburg---------------.------------- 7 6 1,871 35 5 14
Pharr-San Juan-Alamo ------------------ 15 11 311 26 0 8
Donna..---... -- --------------------. 13 15 182 28 4 21
Weslaco..---..--..--.- --------- ---. 35 11 486 29 5 15
Mercedes ----------------.. ---..... --.. 7 3 277 10 0 8
La Feria --------...------.............-- .. 7 5 392 18 0 9
Raymondville -------------.. .......---... 0 1 270 4 0 0
Harlingen -------..---.. --.... ----------- 6 4 553 12 1 3
San Benito ---------.....----------..-..- 9 7 209 7 2 3
Brownsville------........ -----------.. 1 0 179 5 0 1
Falfurrias.--------------.. -----........ . 13 5 387 14 0 1
Total ---------------------------- 138 79 5.642 233 23 131

GROVE AND PACKING-HOUSE INSPECTIONS

The purpose of grove inspections is twofold. Inspections are made to deter-
mine if the fruit is free from larval infestations and also to enforce the sanitary
provisions of the quarantine regulations. This season the issuance of permlits
to harvest fruit was based upon the condition that the fallen fruit had been
picked up and properly buried at weekly intervals. lackiig houses are in-
spected regularly to enforce quarantine sanitary requirements and to check
records of origin of fruit harvested and shipped.
The monthly sunLnary of these inspections, together with certain information
relative to trapping and the removal of alternate host-fruit trees, is shown in
table 3.







10 ANNUAL REIEPHI TS (F DEIPARl-EII-NT ()F AGRII.'LTURE, 1937


TAImLf 3.- -Fil Id illxpccf 'tion in T '.rx, fi~icui y1far J107



( irni e Pre; it: Traxps Tr:p in- fruit
(10noi I III tt i

Sti r. tr'lr mde Trrees d- Premises
troyed cleaned

July ................................ .... 5 5 5i1 9, 7 :-I, 2:2 3 3
Au t .. ..... .. ..... ............. .I 2. I 34.7 2 I 1
et: hI er---.............................. ;4 4 27, -(7, 3 2
)ct er. 3 M .i :( 17. 1: 11 2 2
I)eop b r i (r................................l 13.stmi :,M 5.74J 7 22. 72'2 2 2
J ry ........ ...................... 12,749 1 5. 7 20.7 0
Febru iry........ ............... ....... .. 13, 151 3 .. 52 9. 13 0 0
M arch.................................... 2 -.72, 2 1
Apu ril ....... .... .. ...... .. ...... 1, 72- -* 5- 5 -.- --2 40
y... ......................... . ...... i i t ) ;3
June-Ta-----r------------------------- 6, 792 :7, 9
Total or av erage ................... 73, 96 3 (4 6, 792 27, 91 f23 92


ACTIVITIES IN MEXICO

Larcg quant it ics of various kinds of fruit are suhilqed regularly from the
interior of .texi(co to the bo(rder. Frequently part of this fruit is infested with
fruit fly larvae. In preceding years larval infestatios have ldevelope(d in local
hosts in the horder towns. To reduce infestations in Mexico adl pr( v nt their
spreadinig to) Texas groves, one inslpector alid one lahorer are staticoned at
Matamoros to )collect infested fruit and operate traps. The success of this
phase of the work is proved by the fact that in spite of the wormy fruit being
sold there, no larval infestations have been detected in any fruit produced in
Mattamoros during the last 4 years. Traps are operated continuously, and
whenever adults arce taken, poison spray is applied to thie trees.
Table 4 shows the number of adults and larvae taken in Mexico during the
year.

TABLE 4.-Adult.s of Anastrepha spp). trapped and larrac of the came collected
in JlMbico, fiscal year 1937


Adults trapped Larvae collected in imported fruit

Location A nas- Anas- ,. na- .
as- na- As- Ai s- .lnas- t- as-
trepha 1rha 1.)
trepha trepha trpha pha ptreph trepha trph trep'ia Ir taa
uIens tripn-a acidlt striata pe palens ludent serpn-' acidus stnata
tina acidusa y tina

Miatmrnoros-----.. ---. 0 1 1 1 10 3, 149 19 3,057 50
JReynoLa .-..... 12 0 0 o0 0 2 0 0 0
eynosa brush..... 0 3 2 0 0 136 0 0 0 0
Total....----. 30: 3 3 1 1 14S 3, 149 19 3,057 50


ROAD TRAFFIC INSPECTION

Two road stations were ol)perated on the main highways le:ding from the
regu.lated area. The personnel of ltese stations insleclted all vehicles and
contisealted fruit mo)ved in violation of (lquranltine regulations. The fruit pass-
ing ltese tw() stations approximated ,)00) earlots. ('nfis(tlions totaled 456
lots of frlit. In only n few cnses did it :ipp-ear that the drivers of vehicles
fronmll i which this fruit was t;ke(n were attemplting to viol :1e qu:r antlilne regula-
ti n1s. Il oily oe, c'as(ie wre c'li' rges tiled and a tine alssesse(d.

SHIPMENT OF FRUIT

qThe comIlnercial fruit produced in the Iio Grande Valley increased fromn
9!)117 eiiivalent carlots for 1983 :;~ to 30.701 equivalent earlots for 193~-37.
Thiis ini(creaseld prodution taxIed lhe epacking an d shipping facilities of the
fIdustry as well as the inspectlion force on this p)roject to certify it for ship-






ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 11

ment. All regular means of transportation shared in the increase, and, in
addition, 193 equivalent carlots were moved by steamer to seaboard markets.
This is the first season that ocean transportation has been available from
valley ports.
Table 5 shows the shipments of fruit from this area for the seasons 1932-33
to 1936-37.

TABLE 5.-Equiralent carlot shipmlents of citrus fruit from the lower Rio Grande
Valley, Tex., and total production in stated yU'ars

By rail By truck By boat y Con-
S---_ express Grape- mIercial
Shipping season anid fruit produc-
Grape- Or Grape- Oranges rape- Orane psen- canned tion
fruit Oranges fruit Oges fruit pger car t

1932-33 ---.....---........... 2,897 230 80S 586 ------- ------- 101 127 4,821
1933-34-------------------...................... 1,74 114 1, 23t 877 --- --- -.----- 99 240 4,314
1934-35-.......-- ------..-- .. 4,617 225 1,731 1,095 ..---- ------- 239 1, 131 9, 03
1935-36------------------- 4, 262 600 1,454 1, 12 .---- -..---- 267 1. 62 9,447
1936-37---.------......--.... 15, 616 2, 729 2, 578 2, 351 176 17 532 6,702 30,701

CANNING PLANTS
The grapefruit canning industry consumed 25 p)ercent of the grapefruit pro-
duced. This amounted to 6,702 equivalent carlots. Practically all the plants
were equipped with steam sterilizers for sterilizing canning-plant debris.
This equipment was designed by workers in the Bureau in order to kill any
larvae that might have been in fruit sent to a cannery. The increase in the
volume of fruit processed since 1932 is shown in table 5.

JAPANESE BEETLE QUARANTINE AND CONTROL
TRAP SCOUTING IN NONREGULATED TERRITORY

Trap scouting for the Japanese beetle was carried on during the summer of
1936 in 324 towns and cities in 19 States, an increase of 111 communities and
6 States over those trapped in the previous year's annual survey of non-
regulated territory. Approximately 103,500 traps were set, doubling for tile
second consecutive year the number of traps set as compared with the previous
summer's trapping program. This extensive survey was made possible by the
use of 90,000 lightweight, collapsible traps, developed by project personnel and
manufactured at the Bureau's warehouse in Pennsylvania. Savings of 75
percent in manufacturing cost, 80 percent in freight cost, and 25 percent in
set-up and removal expense were effected by the use of these traps.
Results of trapping in 1936 disclosed 36 first-record infestations. 16 of which
were in Maryland, 3 in West Virginia, 2 each in Georgia, Indiana. Kentucky,
North Carolina, Ohio, and Virginia, and 1 each in Maine, Michigan, New
York, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. With exceptions of first-record infesta-
tions at Jessups, Millersville, New Market, Point of Rocks, and Riviera Beach,
Md., Grafton and Hollidays Cove, W. Va., Sharon, Pa., and Brewer, Maine,
all these initial finds involved fewer than 10 beetles each. Beetles were caught
in 108 communities in which incipient infestations had been determined.
Trapping in 183 cities and towns gave negative results.
Initial trapping in four localities in Tennessee resulted in the capture of
four beetles at Bristol.
Capture of one beetle each in Augusta and Savannah was the net result of
trapping resumed in Georgia after a lapse of 4 years.
In Greenville. S. ('., trapping revealed a reduction from 89 bteetles in 19)35
to 33 beetles ii 19362. All oult one of these appel'ared in tle area where delayed
applications of lead arsenate were made in the spring of In:;. In Charleston,
S. C., where trapping was with negative results in 135, 11 beetles were caught.
These were scattered in the southeastern section of the city near the water
front and freight terminals, a section in which lead arsenate was applied in 1931.
None of the 1936 finds were in the blocks previously treated.
Traps set in 35 communities in North Carolina reveailed infest:ations in 15
localities. Small infestations failed to reappear in seven towns. The catch at
Winston-Salem showed a reduction from 109 beetles in 1935 to 37 beetles this







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ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 13

There were six other scattered locations where beetles were caught in numbers,
and a scattering of single catches. Dearborn reported a one-beetle first-record
infestation. Results in five other Michigan cities were negative.
There was a drastic reduction in the infestation at St. Louis, Mo. Whereas
1,351 beetles were caught in 1934, and 1.232 in 193", this year's catch was
reduced to 88 beetles. Of this total, only 14 canme from lhe extensive area
treated in 1934 and 9 of these came from two adjoining blocks in the center
of the treated area. This amounts to a 99-percent reduction in beetle popula-
tion in treated sections. In blocks treated for the first line in 19:1', the
catches totaled 59 beetles in 4 blocks. This represeints a reduaction of approxi-
mately 85 percent. Most of the 13 remaining beetles were taken in blocks
contiguous to previously treated areas. As fast as beetles were trapped this
year in unpoisoned sections, lead arsenate was applied. No beetles were
caught in traps distributed in five other Missouri colmunities.
Traps were operated in four Kansas cities this year with negative results,
Placement of traps in this State was largely occafsioned by the erroneous
report of the finding of a Japanese beetle near Manhattan early in May.
Early-season trapping activities in 1937 began withl the pliacenet of traps
in Miami. Fla., on April 21. Trapping was completed before the end of the
fiscal year in Mobile, Ala., in five cities in Florida, in two localities in Georgia,
in New Orleans, La., and in two nonregulated communities in South Carolina.
At the end of the year traps were in operation in 231 cities and towns in 10
States.
Trap captures recorded during May and June 1987 included 1 eetle at
Atlanta, Ga.; 160 beetles at Greensboro; 126 at Winston-Salem: 36 at Spencer;
35 at East Spencer, and small captures at five other comnumnities in North ('aro-
lina 8 at Marietta and 3 at Gallipolis, Ohio; 7 at C harlottesvile, Va.; and 2
at Charleston, S. ( The find at Atlanta, Ga., was a first record; the
others were survivals of previously determined infestations. A first-record
collection of 754) beetles at the George Washington Birthplace National Monu-
ment at Wakefield, Va., was reported on June 19.
SUPPRESSIVE MEASURES
With the extent of the Chicago infestations as well deifined as could be
accomplished in one season, the Illinois officials were in a position to inaugurate
a control program in the city. Approximately 130 acres were sprayed with
lead arsenate at the usual dosage of 1,000 pounds per acre. Treatment of 95
acres was accomplished between August 24 and November 16, 193(. Operations
were resumed on May 6, 1937, and treating of the remaining 35 acres was
accomplished by June 11. Lead arsenate and labor for its application were
supplied from a $17.000 State fund. This Bureau furnished a supervisor, two
sprayers and operators. Two spray outfits borrowed from the Chicago Park
Department were utilized. Illinois State officials and Chicago municipal
officials cooperated fully in this control work. In addition the State main-
tains an intrastate quarantine to restrict the movement of host plants from
infested sections. This quarantine was revised effective February 1, 1937,
to add the additional infestations disclosed by the 1936 trapping.
At the conclusion of the seasons' trapping in Detroit, Mich., treatment of
118 acres was begun. The Works Progress Administration, State, and city,
furnished all items except supervision, which was furnished by this Bureau.
Between October 6 and November 6, 1936, lead arsenate was sprayed on 48
acres; the remaining 70 acres were treated between April 6 and May 21, 1937.
Soil insecticide application in Detroit extended to all infested sections in the
southeastern part of the city, to those blocks in which more than one beetle
was found, and to most of the single-beetle finds.
In St. Louis, Mo., 61 acres were treated; 26 of these were in the infestation
areas of 1934 and 1933. The dosage was reduced to 500 pounds per acre on
two adjoining blocks in the center of an area treated in 1934. In addition,
13 acres in scattered locations in the area sprayed in 1934 were re-treated at
normal dosage. As fast as beetles were trapped this year in unpoisoned
sections, lead arsenate was applied. The Federal Bureau, the State of
Missouri, the city of St. Louis, and the Works Progress Administration coop-
erated in this program. The Bureau furnished two high-pressure sprayers,
one operator, and a general supervisor. The State furnished a foreman to
assist in the work and sponsored the W. P. A. project through which the
lead arsenate and labor were secured. Incidental supplies were furnished by
the city.







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ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 15

road stations on the Maryland-Virginia State line. The extension of the
regulated area to parts of Ohio made it necessary to establish six new posts
on as many highways in that State. Between April 18 and 30, 14 posts were
established in Pennsylvania and West Virginia in addition to those in Ohio,
most of them with one inspector each, operating 8 hours per day. This con-
cluded the posting of the most important highways.
When the seasonal restrictions on fruits and vegetables became operative
on June 15, four additional stations were opened in Virginia. Inspection per-
sonnel was increased during June and full quotas of men were assigned to
the posts by June 30.
At the end of the fiscal year there were in operation 32 road stations, 2 of
which were on the Maryland-West Virginia State line, 6 in Ohio, 11 in Penn-
sylvania, 9 in Virginia, and 4 in West Virginia. A maximum of 60 inspectors
were engaged in road inspection during the spring season.
Trucks returning empty to southern points after driving through sections
in which beetles were swarming were again found to contain large numbers
of living beetles. A total of 1.402 beetles were taken from 250 trucks. Finds
ranging from 20 to 60 beetles were common. Seventy lots of infested plant
material were intercepted at the posts, from which were taken 120 adults and
56 grubs.
Counts of all motor vehicles stopped for inspection at the road stations dur-
ing the year totaled 3.919,286. Uncertified quarantined products were found
in 20,355 vehicles.
CERTIFICATION AND TREATMENT OF NURSERY STOCK
Continued beetle population build-up in the metropolitan area of New York
City was again responsible for additions to the number of nurseries and green-
houses found to be infested with the Japanese beetle. Few important com-
mercial establishments in this area maintaining classified statuvs undem r the quar-
antine regulations remained uninfested by the time the nursery and green-
house scouts were dismissed late in August. Observations by scouts engaged
in the survey of classified premises showed that unfavorable environmental
conditions during the winter of 1935-36 caused a heavy grub mortality in the
older infested area. This resulted in a decided decrease this summer in the
number of Japanese beetles present in the Philadelphia area. The water-front
district was practically free from flying beetles, and they were also scarce in
parks and public squares nearest the markets. This condition was noted in
Camden and Philadelphia suburban areas. In Delaware, sections of south-
western Pennsylvania, north-central New Jersey, and the metropolitan sec-
tions of New York City there were heavy concentrations of beetles. Windrows
of beetles that had flown to sea and were washed back by the tides were again
observed on the ocean beaches of northern New Jersey, Saten Islard, and
Long Island. There were definite increases in the beetle infestation through-
out the bean-growing section of Maryland and the Eastern Shore of Virginia.
Many new infestations were found during 1936 in nursery and greenhouse
premises in northern New Jersey and Virginia. A total of 23 nursery and
greenhouse establishments were infested in the New England sector. No
classified nurseries were found infested in West Virginia or the Eastern Shore
of Virginia. The last of the nursery and greenhouse scouts were dismissed
on September 19.
There were no new developments in the procedure for the sterilization and
fumigation of nursery stock, other than the formal approval of the paradi-
chlorobenzene treatment of certain varieties of azaleas. This type of treat-
ment was also tried with some measure of success on other varieties of plants
to determine the effect of the fumigant on survival of the plants.
Owing to the extremely dry weather there was little movement of nursery
stock in September. In general, however, shipments were heavier this year.
Throughout the regulated area there was an increase in the number of ship-
minnts of nursery stock dluring February over those in the same month for the
past several years. Extremely mild weather reported in umost sections as early
as January stimulated the nursery trade to much above average. Nurseries
were able to ship almost continuouly throughout the winter.
By March temporary inspectors were required at several points to meet the
demands of the increased nursery activities. At Trenton, where 1 nursery
reported 13 carload shipments for the month. 6 temporary inspectors wer,,
added. Spring shipments of nursery stock were not completed this year until









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ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 17


TABLE 6.-Materials fumnigaled or stcrilizd'c under Japanese beetle quarantine
Iregulations. fiscal year 1937


otti SrfaceSurface
Treatment Plants o Sand slfac soil with Berries Potatoes
plants

SCubic Cubic Square Square
mbr yards Cars yards fat ft (Crates Cars Bushets
Lead arsenate.---------. 103, 4S .---- ----.- .--...--I 136, 330 1,232, 116 -- .... .-.. .
Carbon disulphide gas
or emulsion ..-------- 7,314 2,850 76 1,224 31, 167 -...A-- 6, 032
Naphthalene------------ ---- 1 ------ ---- 53, 434 ....---- ------ .. --.
Steam .._.. ... ... .. 561 --. . ------. . .
Steam.----------------------- 561 ------------------ --------- ---------
Hydrocyanic acid---.-------- ------- -------.-------------- ---------- ------- 0 609
Paradichlorobenzene --- 50, 732 ....-....- . -- ---------- ----------...

matoes Pepers Onion Egg Empty Mixed ship-
plant cars nments

Cars Baskets Cats iBushls Cars Bushels Number Cars lBushels
IHydrocyanic acid ...---.. 4 3,441 3 3, 923 31 1,119 7, 452 32 298

Nursery and ornamental stock, sand. soil, earth, peat, compost, and manure
were certified for shipment from the regulated areas during the year in the
following quantities:
Plants----- _------------------- ------------_-number__ 47, 565. 188
Sand. earth, and clay -------------------------------------- carloalds- 7, 931
Peat .---------------do -.. 7
Manure and compost------ -------do----------------do 109
Fruits, vegetables, moss, and cut flowers certified during the seasonal quaran-
tine on these articles were as follows:
Fruits and vegetables-- --------------------------p-acks_ 6, 1, 01,010
Moss----------------- ---------------------b----------- es -_ f
Cut flowers----- ---------- ----------------------packages 49,01
A total of 1,810 apparent violations of the Japanese beetle regulations were
investigated by the Bureau. Convictions were secured for two violations: one a
trucker transporting string beans from Norfolk, Va., to Morristown, Tenn.: the
other a floral company which shipped palms and ivy plants from New York,
N. Y., to Miami, Fla.
COOPERATIVE ENTERPRISES
Funds partially or wholly covering the cost of labor and equipment for the
trapping programs within their respective States were contributed by Georgia,
Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio,
Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. The city of St. Louis, Mo., also contributed
funds for the trapping program. Labor for the program was provided in St.
Louis, Mo., and in Detroit, Mich., by the W. P. A. The National Youth Adminis-
tration provided the manpower for the trapping program at Erie, Pa. The total
contributions from Federal welfare, State, and city agencies for labor and mate-
rials used to set and remove traps were approximately $34,01)0. Cooperative
control or quarantine activities in the regulated areas again received State
funds from Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New
York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Virginia.
Bureau cooperation in the experiments to determine the effectiveness of the
nematode Ncoaplactana glaseri in eradicating established infestations of the Jap-
anese beetle is being continued at the State laboratory at White Horse under
the agreement reached last year with the New Jersey Department of Agriculture.

PHONY PEACH DISEASE CONTROL

Under the expanded program of inspection conducted cooperatively with the
plant-pest control officials of the States concerned, and augmented by allotments
from the emergency relief appropriations, intensive inspection for the phony peach
disease was made during the 1936 field season in the 11 known infected States,
and a survey was conducted in 9 other peach-producing States. Approximately
24695--37--2







J_ ANN I'L EI'OT()ICS (OF DE'PATMEINT ()F AGIII)CULTUIRE, 1937

15) Federal iandl 50 State inspectors were emiployed. This work, carried con in
Inore tlhan 5ri coulties, co~vere(1 thie regionl fromi Texas. O( klaholia. iid Missouri
east to t l Atliantic, south to the (;ulf, anld llorth to IPennsylvania ,and New Jer-
sey. TIhis activity has, it is beli eved, rather accurately delineated the infected
localities in tlie eastern part of the nllited Sta es. The disease was found for the
Iirst tillme il Ie'llnsylvaia lland Inlldiianl, ill ue: ci conty each. Nursery reas were
giveln irstt tltentioll, as 111eret1lfore; the nmnlier of nllurseries receiving environs
insripect ti was 11ore tI han twice tlat of any lprevilus year. O)f the 425 1l ur'series
insplct(ed in thle iinf(cted States, 1-4 were found exposed, and tlie diseased tr~ees
oun lieigihbo ring properties were prompltly removIed from the vicinity of all nur-
series except one. Matidatory orde:s ;have nivw iben issuied by severatl States re-
quirinli tlie pr(ompIit removal of any trees infected with tie ph1ony peach disease.
Ner;ly 13,iW)(NMN) peach rees ill (ncllllOllercill pIillant llgS llnd home Dorchardls T were
inspected(:(; 14I.4-t rees infected with the disease have ,been removed from
(.Iii3 pro)erti(es. To Iprtect ac41mllisihments to dat e. followd-up inslectrion IIl all
kn(owvn diseased propecrties is under way in the 1937 field season.
The emlergelcy relief projet begun in 193 was ('lti nued and (1as accom -1-
pli-led tlie rlemoval of over 6(4. 1) .(iO I) dliseasd. abandoned,l aind escoaped peach
trees frotl 11 infec(ted States. Tlie projec(It vwas red(lucl ( 1; percent at the close
( f the tiscal year, having nearly a(colmiplishied its purpose in five States.
Control work lhs Iprogressed to t1e point Vwhllere tlie di s( ase is cbing pushed
ba k from tlie outer rimi tow ard the center of infectionl atnd the intensity reduced
at the cent(,r. AffIctIed States aIre coperating by furiishing men or funds. or
both, and standardized State quarantines are in effect which provide for ship-
ping only stoc(k produced in disease-free environs.
Field headquarters for the proji et were mloved( in March 1937 from Atlanta.
(ia., to Little Rock, Ark.

CONTROL OF PEACH IMOSAIC DISEASE

Activities of the lDIepartmnent to( er:dicate tlie virus disease of peach rrees
knowln as peac i(h mnosaic have r(,sulted since tie proiect was started as a co-
(perative Fede(ral-State activity iln 13,.t, in lmate1rially reducing the intensity of
infection in many of the affected co(lmmlereial pea:Ich-growing areas. The results
of thle program in ('olorad( and ll are 1;rticll:irly signii nt. In ta:11
all khno(wn infected trees have been removed. In C;'lorado approxinmat iv 3,r N
infect. ed trees were found and destroyed durini tlie 19:17 spring isispction.
'This is less thanl (oe-third the number found last y(er, and approximately
one-ninth that of the previous year. This markiked reduction of the disease
in this area. which appears to be : appro(,hing commler(ci:al contrvol, hias restored
the conIfihdence of the peach growers of the State, as ilicaated by their carrying
on an extensive replanting program.
('Control work was also carried on during tlie year in Ariz ona. 'alifrnia. New
MIexico, and Texas. Extensive surveys were conducted in the six infected
St:ates,. as well as all States Ii rdering thlreou. with Tin, result that the disease
was found for the first time in O)kl:lhom. (e d(iseaed tree. which had been
shiipped fm from an infected are, wa f mund in I ndian:1 but no llcal spread was
reported.
Sinlce tIle c(iontrol programl was started ( ill 1)935, approximately t.t diesedl
tres lhaive l)((b remlloved 1and over 6!.7 .i( 0I trees have beenl illSIected. I)uFiig
tIe yea:r 27.4~-; inlfec(ted( trees were reml Wv(d aind lelrly :.t t,).lh)O trees were
ilispected for tlie d(is hi. is wrk has been carried on under allotments
from emergency relief iappropri:tion acts in close cooperation with pIlant-pest
co(nt rol official< o(f the :ffected States.
A public la ring to consi(dr the advisahility of estiablishing a Federal
quarantine, held August 19, 193f4. resulted in the deciisiion that, for the present
at least, State regulatory action wmold sullice to prevent the spread of peach
Io(sai('. lniif(nrm Stiate quaraintilles are ill effect.

CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION
I'li ('amlmig of eradi:aitolil of lie ciliis 1caIIker discase conducted through-
out 11(te itruiN grw,'ig aras of Texa's and l~uisi iaua, w-liid i was exil\ hnd edt and
'tin llat(ed in 19 alid 193(, by I:l! u lite s frolml the 'mlrll ,i'I cv relief al)lir(opria-
tions sppl)'lementiin ig reglar a pprlopria+ tins. :iit by Sta:1e funds, was coll-
tiumd IIon :1 similar illntensive cale i In the 2-year perimod since tile
reli*ef :1111tln tllt s : ben11 11: 4 :a:liy ee ade avail e l llllS o ntie :s n ltdl p rishlles ill these 2







ENTOMOIOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 19

States have been inspected, many of them repeatedly, and it is believed that all
infected areas have been located. Citrus canker was found in August 1936
on 3 properties in Texas not heretofore known to be infected, and 2 in
Louisiana in the fiscal year, as conmpared with 9 new cases in these States in
1936 and 45 in 1935. These recent findings were on old intfoction areas, with
the exception of one which was located on an uninhabited isld ill in a Louisiana
marsh. This island was inaccessibl)e by boat, and the canker would no doubt
have existed indefinitely except for the autogiro survey which was conducted
in the Louisiana-Texas area in the spring of 1936. Rec(urring infect ions found
in the Texas counties of Galveston, Brazoria, anld Harris in the winter of
1936-37 were promptly removed. These involved several hundred young see1-
lings on properties from which diseased trees were eradicated during the
past 2 years. No canker could be found on rel)eated inspections in the leanu-
mont, Tex., areas where an old infection center was located in the winler of
1935-36. No canker could be found in Texas south of the (alveston-Irazoria
area.
Owing to the existence of citrus canker in Alabama and Mississippi in
former years, ald because of a heavy growth of wild and albandoned Citrus
trifoliata trees in these States, a thorough survey was made in Mlississippi
during the year, and is under way in Alabama and that part of western
Florida adjacent to tie Alabamn border. No citrus canker has been found in
any of these States as a result of this survey.
The year's work has represented the inspection of 59,0)40 properties in 61
counties in 5 States.
Millions of escaped Citrus trifoliata growing in dense junglelike swamps
and woodlands, or in abandoned nurseries, have been destroyed in the non-
commercial areas of these five States, thus removing the medimn through which
citrus canker might eventually reach the commercial areas. Such eradication
has been accomplished on a very large proportion of all citrus-growing pro-
perties in the infected areas of Texas and Louisiana. Since the beginning of
the project in August 1935 nearly 21,00',0()00 such trees hav\e been de stroyed
by relief labor, representing approximately 45 man-years of emplo(ymlent.

INSECTS AFFECTING FOREST AND SHADE TREES
ADVICE AND COOPERATION IN THE CONTROL OF FOREST INSECTS
Federal and State agencies administering forest lands, and private timber
owners, look to the Bureau for information on the status of forest-insect
infestations and for advice regarding the need of control and the methods to
be used. As in past years, much time and effort of the Division, of Forest
Insect Investigations have been devoted to making surveys to locate and define
areas where infestations occur, and preparing recommenldations for control,
including plans for work and estimates of the cost. These activities are of a
service nature and are carried out in close cooperation with Federal organiza-
tions administering timbered lands, such as the Forest Service, National Park
Service, and Bureau of Indian Affairs, and through them with the C. ('. C.
Similar cooperation also extended to State agencies and in some cases to
private timber owners or associations. The land-managing units are respoorsible
for administering and carrying out the control operations, although in most
eases the technical direction and leadership of the work are suppllied by the
Bureau.
Most of this work has been concerned with various tree-killing bark beetles
and has been carried out in the forested areas of the 'West from the field labora-
tories at Fort Collins, Colo., Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, Port land. Oreg., andi Berkeley,
Calif. In these cooperative activities more than 6,0(X).(fW) acres of forest was
examined last year for bark beetle infestation. In addition to numerous recom-
mendations made verbally or by letter, 83 reports presenting data and recom-
mendations as to the status mnd need for control on forested areas were pre-
pared and submitted to land-managing units. Fifty-one, or about two-thirds,
of these reports were submitted to the Forest Service, 11 to tle LPark Service, 1
to the Indian Service, and 20 to private owners or organizations. These special
reports dealt with the status of insects and involved consideration of : wide
variety of conditions, and not all of them recommended that control work be
undertaken. Following recommendations included inl the reports, the land-
managing units carried out recommended control work on approximately 7150,000
acres.








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V ... {I ..L I. ,IHfV I,() A .X: II,. IUIVdI II AIO S JI II H "IVI .1 N'XV 0







ENT L( MOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINIE 21

have either not prevented infestation or have been destructive to, the seddlings
as well. Poisoning the foliage of nearby host plants in order to kill the adult
insects does not appreciably decrease the leaf chafer population. tiowever,
many tests indicate strongly that heavy populations of grubs may be ade-
quately controlled by proper applications of carbon disulphide to the infested
soil.
In the case of plantations, observations over several years have proved that
a heavy population of white grubs in the sod prevents the successfull establish-
ment of a plantation. This can best be determined by actual sampling of the
proposed plantation site. Losses in plantations can be reduced by avoiding
areas that are heavily infested or by using wide deep furrows in which to
plant in such areas. Indications are strong that grub abundance in a given
area is controlled by the presence of suitable host trees and shrubs for the
adult beetles. It is believed, therefore, that white grub populations in nurseries
can be reduced by avoiding the use of these more favored host plants as hedges
or ornamental plantings around such nurseries and by destroying as much as
possible of such material as occurs naturally in or near the nurseries.
INSECTS AND THE DUTCH ELM DISEASE
Work upon insect carriers of the Dutch elm disease was continued both at
Morristown, N. J., and at Oxford, England. The work at Morristown had
previously established beyond doubt that the smaller European elm bark
beetle is a frequent vector, but it is also now known that the native elm bark
beetle can and does perform the same function. In the former case the young
beetles' habit of feeding in the crotches of twVigs makes it an effective vector.
In the case of the native elm bark beetle the young adults emerging in the
fall often bore into the bark of living elm trees and there pass the winter.
Their burrows are often extended entirely through the bark to the xylem, and
if such beetles are contaminated with the fungus, the disease often develops
tnd kills the tree. In infected areas such as those in Cleveland, Ohio. and
Indianapolis, Ind.. where no European elm bark beetles are known to occur,
the native beetle is almost certainly the vector.
During the year more than 10,000 insects were collected from felled elm
trees put down at various points in the badly infected area of New Jersey.
These insects were carefully collected in individual capsules and later cul-
tured for the presence of the Dutch elm disease fungus. Many species of in-
sects were collected, but of these only six were contaminated with the disease.
These are Scolytis multistriatus Marsh., Hyllurgopin .i rufipcs Eiclhhi.. MJg-
dalis arnmicollis Say, Xylo.saindrus germanus Bldfd., X!lobiops bias-itare Say,
.and Conotrachelus unalgflypticus Say. Of these only the first two showed con-
tamination in any significant percentage of the nuiibers cultured.

PINE SCALE INSECTS
Both in the West and in several points in the East a blighted condition of
the twigs of several species of pines has been found associated with infesta-
tions of different species of Mtu r.Coccuis. In the Prescott National Forest and
at other localities in the Southwest the association of these scales with the
Prescott twig blight has been so close as to suggest that the scale insect may
ihe an important factor. An intensive study, both on the Prescott form a:nd on
an eastern species affecting pitch pine. has been begun and will be continued
on Emergency Conservation Work funds.

SPRAYING EXPERIMENTS
Considerable progress was made in developing concent rated mixt ures of many
of the well known insecticides used in insect control. These concentrated mix-
ttures adhere better, and a greater depIosit is obtained per unit area of leaf
surface than with the conventional spray mixtures. Only from 1 to 10 gallons
of the concentrated mixture is require(d per acre as (comlpared witlh -41 to 700
gallons of the ordinary mixture. This is such a great saving in weight tlhat it
can be used in spraying from the air and the costs still kept lower than with
ground spraying. In cooperation with other agencies, concentrated miixtures
of certain insecticides were aipplied fronm an utogiro in experiments tio control
heavy mixed infestations of the spring cankerworm and fall cankerwormt at
Morristown, N. J., and for the gypsy moth at Freetown, Mass. In thcse tests








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-A:61 'HHXI I'I AIno. )IV A( .I .11 VdI'1W I .I() Sf.LI I A II 'I I VIX I






ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 23

years. This seriously interrupted this type of work and resulted in a great
reduction in the acreage that normally would have been sprayed with the
equipment available.
GYPSY MOTH PROJECT
Owing to the finding of 12 small gypsy moth infestations in Washington
County, Maine, prior to the close of the last fiscal year a limited amount of
work was continued in that county during the summer and fall. Egg clusters
were found and treated in four towns, and the territory in alnd surrounding
each colony was thoroughly cleaned. Four small infestations were located on
residential property in the city of Calais and these were thoroughly treated.
This work concluded the plan for the gypsy moth W. IP. A. project in Maine.
While this work was being carried on, inspectors from the Entomological
Branch of the Department of Agriculture in Canadal examined territory on the
east side of the St. Croix River, Charlotte County, New Brunswick. The gypsy
moth has been found in small numbers on 15 properties ill that county. Eight
of these were in St. Stephen, the largest infestation being 12 egg clusters:
3 in Milltown, the largest infestation being S egg clusters; and 4 were small
infestations in adjoining territory.
In New Hampshire the special scouting work in 26 towns and grants in
Coos County was finished in July 1936. and no infestation was discovered. A
small amount of work was done along the Connecticut River from Lancaster
south to the Massachusetts line, and after this was finished the work in New
Hampshire was discontinued.
Practically all of the W. P. A. work in Massachusetts and Connecticut was
carried on west of the Connecticut River. In Vermont considerable infestation
was found from Barnet south to the Massachusetts line but this decreased
toward the barrier zone. No infestation was discovered north of Barnet or
within the barrier zone area, and the isolated infestations located in Essex,
Chittenden County, and Derby, Orleans County, during 1936 were examined
but no trace of the insect was found.
In the Massachusetts portion of the zone, conditions are more satisfactory
than for many years, but there is much infestation in certain localities between
the barrier zone and the Connecticut River that seriously threatens work in
the zone. This is particularly true in Deertield, Northampton, and Russell,
where sizeable areas were defoliated by the gypsy moth this summer.
The scarcity of relief labor available for this project in the Connecticut
barrier-zone area has limited the amount of work that could be done there,
particularly in Litchfield County and in the northern half of Fairfield County.
Conditions in the Connecticut zone area are therefore not so satisfactory as in
Vermont and Massachusetts. Except in the town of Granby, where heavy
feeding occurred this year, infestation between the barrier zone and the Con-
necticut River is not so heavy as in the other two States mentioned.
In New York intensive scouting was done by W. P. A. forces in Wash-
ington, Rensselaer, Dutchess, and Putnam (Counties within the zone area
and in Albany, Westchester, and Putnam (Counties to the west and south
of the zone. No infestation was discovered as a result of this work, but in
Putnam Valley, Putnam County, and in Shawangunk, Ulster County, sizeable
infestations were found. The infestation in Shawangunk was located by
employees of the New York Conservation Department after male moths had
been taken at one of the assembling cages put out in that locality. The
Putnam County infestation was discovered by men from the Civilian Con-
servation Corps scouting a section of that toAwn. I'. I. A. forces assisted
in the intensive follow-up work. including selective thinning of favored food
species and spraying at each of these infested sites, and in both localities
a material reductionl in infestation has bn eotied. Special survey work
started in the territory west of the Hudson River in 1('):. was completed
February 28, 1937. From July 1, 19316. to February 28, 1937, 4-SS towns and
boroughs located in :31 cotutie(s were overedl but no infestatioln was found.
State and C. (. C. camp forces supervised by the New York Conservation
Department located and treated several small isolated infestations in Columbia
and Dutchess Counties within the barrier zone alnd in WVestchester County,
the Borough of the Bronx, and Nassau (ounty to the south o(f the zone. Ex-
cept for the infestations in Shawangunk anid Putnam Valley above referred
to, conditions are better in the State of New York than for several years.







24 ANNI'AL I EPOIt11TS IOF DIEPAIRTMIENT 'OF AltlL CULTUEI: 1937

This is especially true in the Ironx and on Long Islnad, where intensive
extermiiat ive Imeasures have lliateria Ily rtediuced inlfest ation existing t here.
In t he secltiiI oIf Na:ssa1 I't illnty iullder State raegiilatli ln oIl aIccount of the
gypsy l ot 1. l, : l shillillits of Inursry S s \ok, I.I d products, etc., were
inisp(ect ,ed andl certifited as free from, this ilsect durrig tle yea r.
Th1e usall force of W. I'. workers enployed in New Jersefy Ierforned in-
tensive scoutring work in selected areas in Essex. Morris. IPssaic, Somerset,
and Union ('ountites. Much of this work was done in tlie township of Mend-
hamIn, M1orris ( oun 111. \vlhre male gypsy nfi ithil was tlakeit at a1 asIe lnling
cage during the sunmmer of 19)3(.. No ilnfesation has been folund here during
thlie year.
II I'eillnsylvIllia sc ii inig work lias Ii l done i lla Iek:awanna, Luzerne,
Carboni, Monrowe. Pike. Seqlueilhann:i. and \VWae I ont:ties. Wherever infesta-
t ions have beentl discovNered it ellsi v(1 foIllow-1u wo rk has been ldon e. The low-
hlands a illolg tie LackaWiWa illl1 aN Silseullalluell: Ilivers were souIllied dulrinll the
sumlllmr iand( fall when watcr in tIlise rivers was lo\. (f n account of the
serious fllood) conlditiolns in March l1::1; tl lowla nds bi rdering the Lacka-
wa nlllll iver frolm Scranton t41 its col)ljiiece wit I the Susqj eIhIia Ina River
near IPittsto ll 1 a1d the Sus11llehal 11111 I iver I frotm tl1h Il. aslll tow:n line to the
highway bridge at Nanticoke were examin ed. and this work was extended
as far sou th as Suiilury. Six ifstatios were found. They were all within
10 miles of PIitst Ion al(nd well within the area of kniwn infestation. Al-
though the river wa;s examinled for tlaboult lt II miles on hath sides, no evidence
was fllound that thie gypsy llloth hilad IIbee spread by the fl ood. Small isolated
illfestations loutsiIde of the State qual;ranlltilled ;lrea were f t lind in the t ,In-
ships of ('lintlo, I yberry, and Lake in Wayne (',iunty, C'liftonl in Lackawanna
omiunty, and C'hestnut Hill iln MolIr(oe ('o y. The townvIship of ('lifto-i in
I,ackawanmna (,'ounty was inclllued in tile State quarantinle effective July 1,
1937. but as the infestations discovered in the otlher towns vwre l not considlere
dillicult to eradicate or (da1ng.erous fromn the quarantine standpoint, tlie four
other tinils refterred to wXere Inot inielluded ill tie lice State quarilratinle. No
eg clusters were found ait sites of infestatiions discov eered in 11ti in tie
townships o(f South ('anaIan and Sterling in Wayne t'(oulity, Greene in Pike
('iunty, and Lehigh in ('arbon ('Couty, tandi it is Ibelieved Iliat the infesta~ionls
have Ibeen exterminated. A ftotal of .19 1 shipmeints were i ln ted and
certified before nlovemenit was permllitted wili o(r to poilns ltside of tlhe
State qalral ntield iarea. In miaking these inispectis I1 w eIg clusters and
;(i.5 l; rvae were lonted and destroyed. In spire of the iunuerous ditticulties
expIrienced since work in Pennsylvania was started, excellent progress has
been made and the situation looks more hopeful each year.

GYPSY flMOT 1 WORK BY CIVILIAN (ONSEIIVA IOb N ( C)OPS CAMPS

C. ( ('. camps have continued to work on gypsy nin th c(ntrol under the
supervision of tle IraIllnea. Their actlivities give Iproel iclin ito Ihe gypsy mloth
a:rrier Z(lone 1and reducell tlie d;aner of a \wst ward spread of this insect.
Throughout ihe year 2.,2.497 6i-hour mian-days were used en this gypsy n~oth
work. 'This is a redleti(on of approximately 15 percent of the mnan-daiys avail-
;ab1le, (huring th1e pre\vious yealr. .At the e(nd of tlhe car. ,'\hwever, tlhere \was
dhecrease in tie mi'e1 availlable of a:pprl il ximately .0 perce lit, which indicaltes a
ver'y Seriouls 'reltionll ill ile v ollle of work that ca-i be: done uringll llie
c(oilng year. At tlie beginnlinmi of tie fyar 1.4 ." j tnioIiis :illd 15 \lcterals were
:ssi-int(ed to tilis \work. hit at tlie endi o .Ilf e 1P:37 (only 72:3 juniors and 14
veera;ins Were ,av;mila:mle for it. \Witll this refdutction the sul'rvjiion was re-
due'(d frolll I11S for tinell a tile he.ginliing of the Ay :ir ti o)lly i. i at tlhe end
of tli( y:ear. Sm()I11 I1e' ere'I vailable at 1 le end of Ili yar froin 20
tliff(elrit cam:lis in New Elmigland, tl.le liullmlr ra:lltill froml1 to :is 1milh as
12t') m'nl ill thlre('e (. l) ill Masslaclulltlilts W h e tei c eltire project is gypsy
1i ii 1 woirk.
I )lring tlhe year yl:ypy nmoth N work by thlle I. ( was discontinued in New
]:inmpsir. si''Iecrea1se iin perolsiei available for this project and:1 regulittions
of t1 I rEmrll 'gelicy (' i serval iill W\ rk resu ltled i l tie work inl this State be-
o 1mig isoi td11 froln time rest of the ('. C'. '. gy psy iunotiI pr1oj 'ct. mlld its
cfl it i elia Nci wais nilt wl arrlant l as :i part of a ipogra:mi to pro :1tect te barrier1
zne 111. Il V',rlllm ( t l 11 alba t idonll lieniit of cInmlps lia: s res.ullc te ill leavilnlg ullnpro-
te ted s'i evr are:as w here seritlls infesation exists. The samlle sitllltionl






ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUAIANTINE 25

to a lesser extent exists in Massachusetts, and a severe redlctioll in tie I ninn-
ber of men allowed for gypsy moth work in CO(nnecticut is resulting in leaving
areas unprotected where work should be done. The 20 camps now enigaged in
these activities are distributed as follows: 5 in Vermont. i) in Massachusetts,
and 6 in Connecticut. All of these (mllps ar~ e under the jurisdiction of the
Forest Service of the United States I)epartment of Agritculture except one,
which is under the United States Department of the Intierior.
During the year work was done in 14S towns, and gypsy moth infestations
were discovered in 10)5 of them, involving a total of 1,1(i2 colonies. The
records in table 7 which refer to burlap applied and I:lrvae aanld lpupe de-
stroyed beneath them represent the sum1 total for the fiscal year. In1siiuch
as caterpillars and pupae are found underlneath tie buriap duringJ July it
does not represent the work for the entire season.
The Forest Service has cooperated in the C. C. C. gypsy moth work during
the year and furnished the services of ani Emnergenciy Conservation Work
forester to assist gypsy moth foremen in combining gypsy moth cutting work
with silvicu!tural :practices.
The work has resullted in giving added pr otectioll to the barrier zone,1 and
in reducing the danger of westward sprea(d. In mln:!y pl}a~('S f-avomrable for
gypsy moth increase and in locations where dangger f westwa rd spread is
great, conditions haxv: been greatly improved, and those areas v-here the work
has been done are ii a much better condition.
Table 7 summarizes the work performed by the W. P. A. and C. C. C.
personnel.








TABLE 7.--Gypsy moth control work, fiscal year 1937 .

Scouting Tinningi Fencing Banding Siraying






i0- IE ,I- I
i a- .... ..... ......... ..... ... .. .....
Itate P r o j ct i






Acrts .ils Numher her N.mber Acres I Number .'cres ber Fct Fect Number NXu inr NuAmber .lcres !Ar iIumn m r
Iaie., W P *\ \ ,32, 1,445 129,29 8 06I 59, 425 S20 671 3 217 0 0 0 0 0 0
(, 31, 2;5 3211 6., fo 11 47,525 0 12t 0 0 0 9, 979 4.4 11 7.74 151ll, 22 1 0 0 0
New liampshinr ....( ..' (' 5. 110 65 1, 70 2, 372 M, 04.1 lg,338 209, 2.7 441 317 01 0 0 72, 110 335, 1-A 0? 0 0
.. 1' | ..3 .01. (1, Ii770, 222 77,:92 1, 3, 2 3 129 071 4 I 219 2,53 7t, 271, 1 1 2, 175 53, 2 211 0 9
ot. 1. U, 4H 9I .1 3, : 2 1 162 (l 2 10 290< 3'2 121. 21i( 1I, 1, 13: 01 0 4,, 162 51. 217 1. 16.07W, 71 W -
1 \ 713 201 1, 17 135 113, 1i1 1 3, 35 1, 724, 731 2,905 1441 23.421 90,23 126,3441 (i;,21; 23, 0t 1. 11 3
M ach1tt (' (' (' 1. 195 ,9' 10 140 .483 1f6 15 102, 505 199, :iN3,5, 501, Ol5 2 .3,6 1,90 0 0 sW 792, .s31, tHi 2,331.73O1 0 (0 0
.. .. !I': 69,23. 127, 1 0 .. ,
'e I \ i 1.l 17 ; I.W 4n 2, 695 235.H9 5(>, 2671, 1 31,, 1\ 51, i05 1. 01)1I) 0 55, 295 25 4101 19. OII 210, 1)1 (, l 4 2, 0l5j 1 i22
N c t .. .. ( ( II -,.1 1 1 2 .1 2; 1 2. 3, 376 110,560 ,19,,I 95; 50,2270 914 1,3H7 0 0 52l. 301t 23, t4 2043,4, 1 0 0
w York i W P \ 7, I77 55. 1 3i 292 152, (6i1 1 O s II.5 ,52i 26, 757 2'9 21.\ 0 0 15. 191 0 101, 55l 21 0 0 -
S, Y rk ( ( 241. 0),s 1, 179; 61. ; 32 0 921, 537 139, 152 76, 176 315 0 0 0 (1.032 0 21l, 5l 2. 61 0 19, 022 W
.w Jr v W 1'.' A\ I 279 i~0 21. :13 2, 1 9t 99j, 76 2s7 ( 5', (1 01 1 2, 1.5) 0W I 0 0 0
r 2."s96 S, 2 N '2 .. 7'. 71, 2. 1"),WW
1 Si4;i yln:.i (.. ,, ;, t 9i, 5.: 13, 53; 171, 1i67 1., 5 017 421, 753 3'7. 51 3, o(X)5 130, (Sb 177, 6i91 711. 530 16, 3"9 M 657 9. ( 1 5 5, 2 7, 9
P, I' \ 1, 49 1 2 0 1 2 1 2, 0 31 9 .9 ;1, 11 5, 109, 129 1, 316, 250 2, 217, 731 7, 5 1) (1, 27 556, 5 15 1 :, 43 1. (41, 29 1s 5,(15 (132. 73913, 215 5. 7'l-I 6 2,10
S( 99.11 ,3 19 1, 1719. 2211 1il, 1O 5,625, 255 s17, 230 5, 990, 971 4, 938 4, 1.31 0 0 2, 4, 2 1 2, 97, il5 11, 41,. :316, 2, O. 0 1 49,( 022
(,ra total ..i 2., 11. 4123 15, 570 1, 211, 1 53 .s2, i9 11 0.1, 3 41 2, 163, 10 20, 702 12,117 9. 05 N 1,(;S5 6ti 493 3, 10, ~13. 3. 667, 120 15, 132, 11 15, 3k1 5. 7ti l 11.2,2 22
2, i I 1-.5, .5 7 0 7( 12 111. '1.-.2
. ...... ....... ............ .. .



H

-1-

~






ENTOMOLO(GIY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 27

CONDITION OF GYPSY MOTH INFESTATION IN NEW ENGLAND
Defoliation caused by the gypsy moth in the summer of 1936 was less extensive
'for the infested area as a whole than it was the previous year. The total
reported area showing from slight to conmplete defoliation was 428.22 acres,
a reduction of 112,147 acres from the total of 1935. With the exception of Mas-
sachusetts all of the New England States showed less defoliation in 1936 than
the year before. This was particularly true with respect to New Hampshire,
where the decrease was very marked. In contrast to the ,other States there
was in Massachusetts a decided increase in areas of defoliation in a few of the
eastern counties. This was particularly true in Bristol and Norfolk. No
noticeable defoliation was recorded from either Vermont or Connecticut, and
in Rhode Island there was a marked decrease. In numerous portions of the
infested area, particularly in Massachusetts, it was indicated that the infesta-
tion was much more widespread than usual with the possibilities that unless
'there was heavy winter mortality of egg clusters there would be an increase
in defoliation in the summer of 19W37.
BROWN-TAIL MOTH PROJECT
The brown-tail moth project was conducted under a W. P. A. allotment of
funds in all of the New England States. As in the previous year, it was organized
in close cooperation with the States concerned. In Maine and New Hanpshire
,the work was under direct supervision of State officers and in Massachusetts
field officers of the State had direct supervision in their respective districts.
.Men engaged in the work were drawn from unemployed lists through the United
States Employment Service and from W. P. A. rolls and at least 95 percent were
.from relief rolls.
The plan under which the work was conducted called for the examination
of all towns within the infested area and a number of others immediately outside
for the purpose of determining possible spread and. in addition, the removal of
neglected favored food plants, including apple, wild cherry, and plum from
selected areas where infestations had persisted.
In the early part of the year the number of men employed was small, but
increases in personnel were made rapidly, the maximum number being on
the rolls in February, when 1,360 were employed.
During the fall, prior to the shedding of deciduous foliage, all crews were
,engaged in eliminating favored food plants, and this type of work was per-
formed again from the end of April until the year closed. During the progress
of the work 48,867 miles of roadside were examined, which involved the covering
of an estimated 4,4(00000 acres; 264,4(8 trees were cut and burned, a majority
of these being worthless apple trees; 24,539,091 trees were examined: and
3,046,530 winter webs of the brown-tail moth were rem\oved and destroyed. The
State-by-State tabulation of work acconmplished is shown in table 8.

'TABLE 8.-Sumirary of work accomnplishcd under Worlkr's Progrcx .dministration
brown-tail moth project, fiscal year 1937


Roadside Estimated Trees Brown-tail
staute Treescut scocouted ated examined webs cut


iNumber Miles Acres Nhimber Number
aine------------......................... 85, 017 15, 104 1, 359, 360 6, 340. 168 713. 601
New Hampshire------------.----.. --...... 88, 742 12, 903 1,161,270 6, 094, 643 1,523, 478
Vermont--.----------------............... 22, 431 5, 212 470,080 6, 4l6, 479 3
.Massachusetts------------................. 68, 278 12, 266 1, 103, 910 5, 006, 534 779, 404
Rhode Island--.--...... ---- --------........ 993 89,370 210, 225 44
Connecticut...-----.---.--. ..... ..- ....- 0 2.389 215, 980 401,042 0
Total.------.. --...- .......-...- ..... 264, 468 48,867 4, 400, 000 24,539,091 3,046,530

Observations made during the summer of 1030 showed practically no defolia-
tion by the brown-tail moth. In a few localities in the extreme eastern part
of Massachusetts there was some noticeable feeding. As a result of the work
of 2 years conducted under allotment of WV. P. A. funds, infestations have been
(decreased throughout the infested area.







28 .\NNI'A.I. EPOIl)ITS OF IIEPARTME.NT OF A ucItICULTIle:. 1937

The exalmination of town, lollng the wesatern border of the infested area
indicat s it hat I iinseit is not plreili westiward anl th: t the clean-up of
t\owi aIlol ti is )Irder Ihas (been effecttive ill redulcing the infested territory.
This lproject was closed June "!,)i 1937.

GYPSY MOTH AN)D BROWN-TAIL MOTH QUARANTINE ENFORCEMENT
CERTIFICATION OF QUARANTINED PIODUCTS

l'lrnforee~ttit of Ilhe ypsy mlloth qluaranlhtille reg:llatiolls (ma tinel d :is hereto-
fore. wvit I 21 district iilslector s assigned to as many distric s. There was a
co(llpl, e lhift ill Ilie lter'litolris assigned l ac t 'lli inspector, so lit1 tlie Illen
mllighi obdtalill x ri i esle',o s ill Ii sectios anlld ill a ai'riety of q i:':'i .tti c' a .tivity.
Ther were xv no i dlevelopienits requtirilig re'vuision of ex'4ist ingquara:nimnie r'egu1-
latinss. In a:1l adliinsr:lt ive ,nrder issued March 2, 1!);:. a fiew items fwere
alddeht lo th li st of articfh ls exms lpted from tihe regu iI o- s rriers of
111ot i i f st a io l.
Txw\ tlly-tllI .ri' ltllll, p rary inslpe.cttors w rie eli114),,yed in 1the illtspel( ionl of Chri t-
i trees ral( other evergr e ll lt, 1 1 i rial lused'l for ( 'hr'isi a:1s- dl(ecortill. I i'i-
ingm the n1 .: season oily one gpsy moth ee clstr \wr s lfounid otn hris-ttaas
I tees plre'cil(Id for inspect Ion aI iId centiifeattion. Til discvervy wa hae in a
ba lsam ll 'll ir ait a nl rse'y 1 s e ri i so ht. 11 A .5-(eent il'i'r'ase i'aiS
lnoled in tlie Illlllmbler of (l'bristlPi:s treePs illslpeted anild certiliied for shiiellllnt
from llt lightly infestled gypsy loth ara. In 1:tine appr oxi umaty 51 .0'S
more trees w ere il.-p(t( an Id 'ertilied t his year thanI iln 15. A11 ihut
pIercent were ba:lsanl lirs, the demniand for which has been increasing yearly. In
"ern ont, wlher'e approximately 7. i percen of all eve\r'freells are spruc's. tthe
demlnd foirhl ain '(fir xeeded thle supply. Inspetin of spruce boughs
exteciled from t le middle of ()ctolber to early in Iecenmber in Ma:sachusetts
and1 solrthlrn Vel'lllmlt.
New En.alind experiencled tlie heaviest fall demand for nursery stock in
several svea sonl. I)urinl( Octlober a lli part of November the asIsignellll tional inispect ors was requiried in practically all the infested States. Scouting
of Iurse-ri ls that shipped udller( joint Japan11ese beetle andl ypsy nmotl certiti-
cates was c('ill)leted ilI Novemllber. No gypsy m o1th eg r clusters were fo Wund in
or iI llie viclinity of any such nurseries.
Throughout the year inspectors destroyed 1.2"7 egg clusters. 2'35 :lrvaie, and
110 pupae, all taken from material destined to nonregulatId points. Inspection
of Ia 12-(-ar shipment of I umiler in November netted 127, eg clusters.
Tanl. 9 and i 10 give sunmmaries of the quantitiies of articles of the respec-
tive qaralntined products certified during the year.

VIOLATIONS

Apparent violations of the gypsy nioth and brown-tail moth qunarantine inves-
ligated during the year inumbered 6l. (One violation involving a host shipment
of uncertified forest products from Stonington, (onn., to Greenport. N. Y., was
succe1t.(ssful ly prosecuted.

TABLE 9.- Y i'u(rTif to(ckIs c('rt)ifi( d uTmb r j.yp y! moth qiuirlfitn. fi.',al !t ar 19137

( 'ertifi- C rtifl-
1 :it<'ri:; Qut anti t c rites + iterial QuiantitN c .tos
issm ll issued

------------- ------- ---- ^ If)._ ho, ,i_,-____ I,__,. --- ___
XuIniur .1 mb r .1um An r .1unbtfr
Shrihs .... ... .. ............-- 1.110, (0 ;i 5. 351 Potted irt~ 'nhoiuse pltints....... (42 310
Sj I(ciln' trees .... . .. 2 1,32 1 1 \1( W lile pine tr s .........-- ..... 452, W7 7T51
Y ol r tr .. .. ... ...... ... - -. --, --2 1,25 -- . ..
Sp ciiier pi vrvc? rcer n.i.. ... . '5., il 1. 570 Total ............ .... .......... 2. 0
Youn, ewrerpren, ...... 3 1,;. 73l U.739
pl intlr. he i k .e . .. .l.. .l. d 77 2r e o the l


*cn(ft rilI himL 4ii r also.







ENTO0MOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 29


TABLE 10.--Erergreen nroducts. forest products, stone and quarry products, and
steel rails ,certiled under gypsy moth quarantine, fiscal year 1937

Gypsy moths found
Certifi-
Material Quantity cates Larae
issued Egg Larnd
clusters
Ipupae

Evergreen products: Niumber Numbber Number
Boughs, balsam twigs. and mixed greens --boxes or bales.- 21, 646 3, 938 19 ......
Christmas trees---..------ ----------------- numbr 634, 365i 1, 361 ......
Laurel ------------------------------ boxes or bales._ 8, 740 2,346t 4 ..-.---
Miscellaneous .--- .--------------.----------....boxes__ 12, 559 10, 525 ..--------......
Total--........-------.---------------------------- ------------ 18,170 23
Forest products:
Barrel parts, crates, crating --..-------bundles, cases 80, 932 1,093 3 --------
Logs, piles, posts, poles, ship knees, and 5ties caes 163 3 -, --14 60)-- 2
Fuel wood-------------------------------cords 5, 30s 3S 2 -----
Pulpwood_ _--------------------- -------------- do 60, 671 2, 071 I-.
Lumber.. ..----------------...-------------- board feet_ 45, 807767 7 5492 961 311
Empty cable reels ---------- --------------number._ 20, 14 3, .... ..... 34
Shavings ..------.------------- --------------bales- 43. 291 202 .---.--- ..--
Shrub and vine cuttings ...... -----------------boxes_! 9, 635 1, 101 --- ----
Miscellaneous ----------------------bundles, boxes. 532, t 13
Do -----....----------.-------------------pieces- 91, 357 1,739 76 8
Do .--.------------------------------------.. tons- 1, 265
Total------------------------------------ ----------- 18.562 1,102 355
Stone and quarry products:
Crushed rock ..--------------------------------tons. 665 55 2
Curbing --------------------------------running feet-- 171, 122 383 --
Feldspar_ ----------------------------------tons-- 8,560 429----- -----
Granite ..------ .------------------------..---- pieces_- 124,552 5,816 10---------
Monumental stone --------------------------- do-.. 23,089 16,297 ---- -----
Grout .---.----------------.------------- tons 43,,966 547 1 --------
Marble--------------------------------- pieces__ 678 345 ------| ------
Paving blocks-----...----------------------number 2,193,751 403 ---------..
Miscellaneous_--- --- ------------------------ pieces.- 96,300 514----- __ ...
--- -------- -- ------ I--, ------ ---- ,---- ,---
Total-----.--- ---------------------------------------- 24,789 11 2
Steel rails 1 _------.----------------. .------..----carloads 12 26 64 .
j----------

1 From abandoned railway lines.

DUTCH ELM DISEASE ERADICATION
GENERAL STATUS

Results of the year's campaign encourage the belief that the Dutch elm
disease (Ceratostomella ulli) can be eradicated from the United States. A
nominal increase in extent of the infected zone may be attributed in great meas-
ure to increased scouting activities and more thorough coverage. The successful
cooperation of Federal and State agencies, the improvement of scouting, sani-
tation, and removal methods, and sufficient W. P. A. funds for skilled ;and
unskilled labor are the major factors which account for the greater smoothness,
continuity, and progress made this year. Larger and better trained forces of
scouts were in the field considerably earlier in tie foliar season than in 1)9:5.
Particular attention was paid to clear-cutting operations in swamp districts and
to railroad scoruing.
SYSTEMATIC SCOUTING

Up to the beginning of the year the established cases of Dutch elm disease
had totaled 15,485, including 160 cases in Connecticut, 10,109 in New Jersey,
5,156 in New York, and 60 in isolated infection centers.
Intensive systematic scouting for diseased trees began about July 1 and con-
tinued until the middle of September. A maximum of 3,110 W. P. A. scouts
were employed during the season. At the peak of the season 550 C. C. C. en-
rollees were assigned to systematic scouting in woodland areas. By August 2),
C83 crews were in the field.








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ENTOMOLOGY AND 1PLANT QUARANTINE 31

elm disease. An area of approximately 2,142 square miles was covered by two
autogiro crews in the New Jersey protective zone and in Orange County, N. Y.
Out of a total of 667 individual and 36 groups of wilted elms spotted, 8 trees
were confirmed as having the Dutch elm disease. The cost of scouting 50)
square miles by autogiro, including the initial outlay for the plane and aerial
maps, is about one-fourth that of scouting the same area on foot.
A first attempt at an elm census was made by scouting cre\ s in conjunction
with their regular duties. The total elm pomplation of the present work area
was estimated to be 11,500,000. New Jersey leads with 4,804in000, followed by
New York with 4,(0()0.)), Pennsylvania with 2,500,(0)), and Connecticut with
200,000.
Early-season wilting typical of the Dutch elm disease was first observed in
1937 on an elm in the town of Patterson, Putnami County, N. Y., on May 24.
General wilting of elm foliage was observed early in June.
By June 1, 1937, approximately 1.300 scouts were in scout training schools.
Systematic scouting began during the first week in June. By the end of the
fiscal year 3,159 scouts were in the field, the large majority of whom were paid
from work relief funds. Of those engaged in the work. 391 were from the
C. C. C.
On May 21 four two-man scouting crews, one supervisor, and an autogiro
with a pilot left for Montgomery, Ala., to begin systematic scouting of railroads
in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi.
Missouri, Oklahoma, Tennessee. Virginia, and West Virginia. The purpose of
the flight was to complete a survey of the ro~ads over which elm logs had been
shipped. Approximately 225 miles of railroad right-of-way were covered each
flight day. Aerial scouting over rough terrain in the New Jersey and New
York work areas was under way by the middle of June.
Six additional cases of diseased elms in Indianapolis were confirmed before
the end of the year. Total infected trees recorded to date in outlying areas
are as follows: Indianapolis. Ind., 39: Baltimore 2, Brunswick 3, and C(I umber-
land 1, in Maryland; Cleveland 33, and Cincinnati 1, in Ohio: and Norfolk,
Va., 5; or 84 in all.
Samples were collected during the year from 59,661 trees showing apparent
symptoms of the disease. Of these, 7,640, upon examination of the (cultures,
were confirmed as infected with the Dutch elm disease. Segregated by States,
109 were in Connecticut. 5,802 in New Jersey, 1.705 in New York, and 24 at
isolated infection points in Indiana, Maryland, Ohio, and Virginia. C(ompared
with the previous year there was a 10-percent increase in the number of con-
firmations. Last year the comparative increase was 17 percent.
On the basis of the 1936 foliar season, 7,327 cases were confirmed as com-
pared to 5,664 during the 1935 foliar scouting season. The increase may be
largely attributed to more efficient scouting over a longer period during the
1936 season. Results are definitely promising in view of the lack of slread
from previous years' heavily infected area, and the slight increase in disease
cases at the margin of the zone infected in 1935.
The grand total of known disease cases on record in the United States on
June 30, 1937, is 23.125, of which 269 occurred in Connecticut. 15,911 in New
Jersey, 6,861 in New York, and 84 at 7 isolated infection centers.
EXTENSIONS OF WORK AREA
Trees infected with the Dutch elm disease were found in or just outside the
10-mile protective zone at Branford and Guilford, Conn. at Hopewell in Mercer
County and Fairhaven, Holmdell, Little Silver, and Oceanport in Monmouth
County, N. J.; and at six points in Orange County, and Huntington in Suffolk
County, N. Y. The infected tree at Huntington was 6 miles from the nearest
previous infection. The major diseased area. enlarged to circumscribe the
newly discovered infections, included at the end of the year 276 square miles
in Connecticut, 2,943 in New Jersey, and 1,914 in New York. a total of 5.133
square miles. The increase for the year was 826 square miles. The 10-mile
protective zone included at the close of the year 727 square miles in ( onnecti-
cut, 895 in New Jersey, 708 in New York, and 720 in Pennsylvania-3,0~i0
square miles in all. The total work area of 8,183 square miles is approxi-
mately equal in extent to the entire State of Massachusetts.
There are a number of areas in the heavily infected zone in which known
infections of the disease have been reduced to a small percentage of previous
years' confirmations. Staten Island in New York, N. Y., is a good example of







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ENTOMO()I)(GY ANI PLANT QUA ANT INE 33


trunk sampling with the routine procedure of climnbing trees to lobtain samples.
The number of diseased trees found in the experimental wood lot was more than
doubled by the use of the trunk-sampling method. This lmethoid has been Iem-
ployed at the Guilford and Old Lynme infection centers and in the Tauarack
swamp area, Connecticut.
Clear-cutting operations, particularly in swamp areas, were facilitated by
power-saw units. Four such units were used in tie removal of trees in Morris,
Bergeln, Essex, and Ullion (ounties, N. J. Large trees ordinarily requiring 1/2
to 3 days for removal by hand crews have been cut by power saw in from 6
to 8 hours.
CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS COOPERATION
Contributions to Dutch elm disease eradication work by the ( C. C. were
materially redulced by the abandolnment during the year of three of the six
camps originally devoted to this work. ()ne of the two canps in New York
State was disbanded by April 10. The camp in (onnecticut was ordered closed
on May 24, and the canmp at West Milford, Passaic County, N. J., was closed
on June 30, leaving two camps in New Jersey and one in New York. C. C. C.
enrollees participated in all phases of the work, under the supervision of
experienced men trained and recommended by the Bureau.
SOURCES OF FUNDS
Funds allotted for Iutch elm disease eradication work included a regular
departmental appropriation of $261,156 and W. P. A. allotments amounmting to
$4,2S,875. The State appropriations for cooperative work alliunted to $100,0004
in New York, $39.100 in New Jersey, and less than half of a $25.000 biennial
appropriation in Connecticut. New York funds were avlilable for Ilie employ-
ment of a small part of the scout force, for eradication by State crews or private
contractors of all trees inl the State confirmed as to infection, and for )public-
relations work ntecessary to secure authority for removal of the trees. Federal
assistance was necessary to augment the limited contact work that could be
performed under available New Jersey and Connecticut funds.
The work was again greatly assisted this year by the mutually helpful cooper-
ation accorded the Bureau by oficiials of the three States.
INFORMATIONAL ACTIVITIES
On July 29 representatives of the Paramount News Corporation made sound
shots of power saws, scouts at work. an autogiro in operation, the Morristown,
N. J., laboratories, and malps showing the distribution of the disease in the
United States. A comprehensive exhibit was set up for the annual convention
of the American Association of Economic Entomologists in Atlantic (ity in
December. Several radio talks and newspaper and magazine articles were
prepared for release during the year.

WHITE PINE BLISTER RUST CONTROL
PROTECTIVE WORK CARRIED OUT ON 4,400,000 ACRES IN 1936
The use of relief labor made it possible to continue vigorously during the
year the programi of white-pine blister rust control. Through the employment
of some 14,000 men directly supervised by this Bureau during the summer of
1936 and approximately 6,000 assigned to the work from the C. C. C. alnps and
other sources, more extensive forest areas were protected from this fatal tree
disease than in any previous year.
Stands of the several economic species of white pine ae a plermanently pro-
tected from blister rust infection when the currant allnd gooseberry plants (com-
imonly called Ricbs) are removed from among the trees, and for a protective zone
of 900 feet on all sides of the stands, and when by occasional subsequent checking
the area is maintained free from such Iplants throughout the life of the pines.
During the field season of 19!6, 4.404,0()6 acres were so prottectd, of which
3,340,179 acres consisted of initial work, and 1,06(3,S7 consisted of areas covered
one or more times previously since 1918. This work involved the destruction of
203,217,239 Ribes and required 1,075,621 man-days of labor.
The details of these Riibes eradication operations are given in table 11.
24695-37-3







34 ANN 'AL ilT' TS IF 'ELARMNT I(F AGItI('ULTUtE. 1937


TlaBL 11. JHlI's f radiclttin o(( :tCions for th1e ale ndair year 19.3

Area covIered1

Rion .ey ork (of E.ff. Initial :.rea mvner- Total initial labor 1 stroyet
ed 1 or r
*work *wore tnies or
j re~ iouslyc


A4cr AcreS -r .11 an-day A' be
Northeastern Stte ... .......... ..... . 7 .73 1.7 .37 527. 57 55, 742 .673
S-outiern Ap achin States .... ......... 1, l 73 244. I 1.41i4.2 9 44, 717 i N4, 474
Lake States. .... (it ,2 21 56b, 4it i 1,2, 9, 7, 741,501
Western while Ine (Idaho, Montana.
W in ton. including 1 1olnt Rainier). 2',7. 7M 16. 043 313, S21 214. 55, 415, 237
Sugar pine ('alifornia and ()regon .. 17. lt 1 11. 159 11., 322 9, t :i 27,675, S5
00ocky Mi ulit in States ((Co radIo and
W yoming)..... ................ .. 17 .... ..7.. 17.3143 6.3t7 .7,489
Total............................... 3,30, 179 1, ., b7 4, 404.0 t 1, 075. 621 2 217, 2

1 Reported as effective S-hour man-days; the time actually worked ranged from 6 to 8 hours per day,

OVER 10,000,000 ACRES OF PINE NOW UNDER PROTECTION FROM BLISTER RUST

The control work is aimed at protecting f(orest artles c('(itailing a suffcielnt
stocking (f white pine to produce a good crop of tim!iber at mlat urity and
Imaking these areaons safe for the (Mninited production of white pine. Ac-
cordingly, in selectingl forest trac ts to Ibe inciluded iin he co)ntrol areas, pref-
relice is given to tlie better sites and more valuable stanid'i of young growth.
It will 1)e not ed from ta le 12 t1hat init ia l protect ion t hrouIghi Ilib c eradica-
tion has now been gi ven to 14, ,572,799 acres of control areas This has resulted
in the prot ectio11 of some 30.00(,00() acres of pine fiorest. Of the control area,
3.2010,721 acres have been reworked. Thi-s protection has been accomplished
during thli past 19 years through the destruction of 75,( ; I ;2.I0 Rib 1s.

TABLE 12.-Status of whitc pine blister rust con trol ON DIr. 1,, 19.0)


SWork accomplished 1915-36
Total pine Control
area of suf- r ----w r
Region tie to vu l- chiding Initially rewstb.
Se t A I'-r 1 border p)rotected res. n Effectiv e Ri bes
i n Mu zones l control lahwr l destroyed
area protection


IAcres IAcre Acres IAcres .1fan-days N1umber
N(rheatern Sttes-....---------....... 7, 7, 127 12. 172, "7 117, 221,205 2.7S ., W6 1,. 3. 217. 2:5, 7ts
Sout hern ApP il ch ian States...... 1, 275, 0I 3,t. 204 3 A, 3 74 47,745 739 2 10S, 7 n 12, t 21,012
LIakc States......................... 1,251, 4, 20, 757 A 1.79(. S31 I7, 1 73 5 455 7. 152. .1 410
Western w ite-pine area.........----- 2. 710 129 2,71, I i 1,.25, 712 1 7.097 1. 249, 39 1 ot. 6, 4v
S ugar-line ;:rea .. ................ 2, 20, 31ti 2, S0, )1, 1 5I. 2"a 41. 22 I 243, 719 71, 413. 579
Rocky Mountain States....-....... 394,548 34.t, 5S 2, 026 I........--.. 9-- 9 1, 071, 422
Total.............---........... 15.501.595 25. 99. ?33 1, 572,7We 3, 200, 721 4, Or), 50' 7;, 612, g)

SFieaures on pine and c(ontrol areas are repealed fromn the 1936 report and are lower than will be shown
after pre-eradirt tiniin surveys now in progress are comlipleted
Reported as ellective h-hour Illan-days; the time act ially worked ranged front 6 to S hours per day.

In table 12 the acreange of pine are a lld of onitrol area is relpeated from
the figures giv en in tile lastl aninumal repolrtl. SucA pine mapping as lhas hlI'n
(:a11ried oil during lthe past year indi laites thalt I ese total acreage figures are
oill'hIl itoo low. Tue rem iliting COIntrol area which Nhlould Ie covered is,
accordlinugly, nmsidMlerablly greiitetr than thle diffrene bIetweei theil alreages
of lhlie (illnrl a:ellS alll(, It(i' Il itiallly :protect'd .;li'ai. as sho Iwn in tlie tailde.
\twouild indica;te. It is ;inticipated tlihat during the fiscal ye:ar 19W the pine
aillid (, ot rll-i r Ia Jippilllng p)roIjet will hav11e 111:1de sufliciellt jrogress st thiat
the first Iltw tohnllillns of ltis ti l' can 1w1e b'rouight uip to (1ida ill the next
1llnul l 1 l'out.







ENTiO )(Y ANDI) PLANT QUAANTINE 35

EXTENSIVE AREAS OF PINE STANDS MAPPED
For several years considerable numnbers of relief la orers ulndr carefut l Supr-
vision have been assigned during the winter moniitlhs to the pr.pl'rationl of maps
showing the location land boundaries of white pine stalnds. The work is done
during a season of 1the year whoen RibR eraldicltion c;O:lut he carried out
fficiently. During 193C. 4.1 (.g28s acres were so 1nlppl(d. this acreag iinclud-
ing not only the pine stands contained therein but als( the area of the sur-
rounding control z lne. Such mapping has been carried! out during the lst
several years on 15.93s.3i69 acres of control area. most of the work having
been done since 1932. These maps are proving a great aid to Ribcs eradica-
tion during the summer.
CULTIVATED EUROPEAN BLACK CURRANT DESTROYED IN LARGE NUMBERS
Several of the so-called black currants are so highly susceptible to blister
rust and distribute blister rust spores in such tremendous numbers that they
constitute an exception to the general rule that a !9iU-foot border zone around
pine stands s s sufficient to provide protection. The Department accordingly
recommends that they be destroyed throughout white pine regions. Two such
susceptible species exist in the Pacific Northwest (Rib cs pctiolare and R.
bracteosum) The first of these grows in large numbers along sonic of the
creeks in the western white pine region of Idaho and is destroyed by the use
of chemical sprays. The other is not a problem in thle principal western
white pine areas but is of importance locally in parts of the Cascade Moun-
tains and Sierra Nevada.
Of the cultivated species, the European black currant (Rilo.'s nigru`in is
by far the most susceptible, and most of the nine-growing States have ac-
cordingly outlawed this species completely. It was originally planted in
considerable numbers in the Northeastern States, but was the subject of a
general eradication campaign throughout that area 5 to 10 years ago, so its
elimination has now been largely accomplished. A like campaign was carried
out about the same time in the Northwestern and Pacific Coast States where
nestern white pine and sugar pine are of commercial importance. Since
mnergency reief labor bee.nme available, the Lake.. States have been engaged
in a similar program. During 1036, 87,226 Ribes nigr-nii were eradicated,
nearly all of which occurred in the Lake States region.

APPROVAL OF MANY NURSERIES FOR PINE PRODUCTION
Reforestation has expanded on a tremendous scale since the organization
of the C. C. C., Soil Conservation Service, and other recently established
agencies. The nurseries producing the trees for the reforestation program
have included large numbers of white pines in their stock, and accordingly it
has become necessary to carry out extensive Ribcs-eradication programs
around these nurseries in order that the young pine trees produced therein
may be healthy at the time they are sent out. The nurseries that succeed
in maintaining freedom from Rib s in their environs are issued Federal per-
mits which enable them to ship their white pine stock interstate.
Such nursery sanitation work was carried our in 1936 in and around 93
nurseries, of which 32 were located in the Northeastern States. 18 in the
southern Appalachian region. 41 in the Lake States. and 2 in the western
white pine area. These nurseries were growing 134.175.374 white pines. In
protecting them, 1.058,518 Ribes were destroyed in 1936 on 49,781 acres.
BLISTER RUST CANKERS MAY BE CUT OUT ADVANTAGEOUSLY ON VALUABLE
PINES
In some cases a single blister rust canker is sufficient to girdle and kill a
pine tree, while in other instances many hundreds of cankers kill all the
individual branches and thereby destroy the tree. The cankers increase
in size so long as the trunk or branch on which they are growing continues
to live, and branch cankers, accordingly, frequently reach the trunk and
kill the tree, though in the case of large trees this may take from 5 to 20
Sears or longer.
During this period of growth the removal of the canker will often save
individual trees of high esthetic value, a method which has been employed
effectively in such places as parks and along roadsids. To a limited extent,
canker removal has been tried in the State forests of New York in colnnection
with pruning, thinning, and other work for improvement of stand.






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ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARIANTINE 37

doah, and Warren ountines, where it is probably present ibt has nlot Ieen
reported. No additional Virginia counties were reported infected in 193. al-
though several infected localities were reported for thie first time in Iligiland
and Rockingham Counties and in the George Wasinigtio Natinal Forest. In
West Virginia the rust was very scarce in 193(;. tlhe (nly iife(ction found being
on two cultivated bushes in one locality iln Pendletlon ('ounty. F'our AWest Vir-
ginia counties have been reporte ctenfected in past ye ars, tnaely. Pendieton,
Pocahontas, Randolph, and Tucker.
In the Lake States. counties in which pine infection was found for t1e first
time in 1936 include Keweennw. Muskegon. Saninaw, St. ('lair. and Schuolcraft
in Michigan ; Buffalo. Door. Eau Claire. Langlade. Onltaganie. Price. Sheb ngan,
Vilas, Waushara, and Wininuneag in Wisconsin and IIlibaird anid Todd in Alin-
nesota. During the same year it was found !o Riib s for the tirst l!me in
Buffalo. Fond di Lac. Manitowoc. Sauk, Sheboganll and Winnehago Co(llties,
Wis., and in Koochichinig ('Clity. Minni. During the period fromi January 1 to
June 30, 1937. further counties reported for thimefirst time with inlfectio(ls on
pine included MIanitowoc. Brown. La Crosse. lMolroe, anld Sank in Wisconsin.
The principal (,evelopl ent in the We infection in California. which. as reported last yeIar, was lirsl discovered on
June 26, 1936. The surveys including and immnediately following this dis-
covery showed the presence of blister rust in Del Norte Colunt y on one sugar
pine near Monunmeneal and on one Ribcs on Rowdy Creek: also in Siskiyou
County on several sugar pines :nd Rib.e on Indian Creek. and on two hibes
on Goff "Creek and the Applegate River. respectively. Surveys in )reloni car-
ried out at the same tine showed sugar pines infected in Coos, Curry. Jeffer-
son, and Lane Counties western white pine infected in Curry and Lane Coun-
ties; whitebark pines infected in Hood River and Clackamas Counties, and
Ribes infected at several points in Curry County and lonl Clear Creek in Jo-
sephine County. Blister rust occurs generally on Ribes in the northwestern
quarter of Oregon which was not included in this survey.
In the "Inland Empire" of Idaho, eastern Washington, and western Montana,
a pine-disease survey initiated in 1935 was continued in 1916 on a large scale,
using especially chosen security-wage workers for the purpose. Strips 1 rod
wide were run on each section line crossing all the in)portant roads through
the forest areas concerned. The results showed, as a general average, that 4.4
percent of the trees examined were infected in the St. Joe National Forest. 3.S
percent in the Clearwater National Forest, 1 percent in the Kaniksu National
Forest, 0.5 percent in the Kootenai National Forest. and 0.2 percent in the
Mount Spokane area. Special scouting strips were also run through portions
of these forests which were known to be infected. In the territory scouted on
these strips it was found that 6.8 percent of the pines examined were infected
on the St. Joe National Forest. 4.3 percent on The Coeur d'Alene Nationai For-
est, 6.4 percent in the Kaniksu National Forest, 8.5 percent in the Cabinet Na-
tional Forest, and 2.S percent in the Mount Spokane forest area. The number
of white pines examined on the regular strips wais 259.T65, while ol the scouted
strips 115.599 pines were checked. The infection reports relate only to trees
below 20 feet in height. The heaviest infection recorded (81 percelnt wasv iin
that part of one of the areas in the St. Joe National Forest located within U00
feet of a stream bed on which Ribes pcetiolare was present.

IMPROVED METHODS DEVELOPED

In further studies to increase the efficiency and to reduce the cost of Ribes
eradication, it was found that the conmon species of prickly gooseberry (i1.
roezli) in California could be destroyed most effectively by cuttiig oil the top
of the plant and applying oil to the crown. One oiler with a kiampsack spray
tank accompanies a crew whose members pull the small Ribc. and cut off the
tops of the larger bushes. Diesel oil is then applied by the oiler. using a sIprin-
kling hose attachment to the tank. From 5 to 6 gallons of oil are used pI.r 100
treated plants.
Preliminary tests also indicate that dense ni.isses f Rlib, seedlings, which
often occur in recently burned or disturled areas, can be killed at reduced cost
by spraying with oil.
IPromising results of chenical-treatment testS are also being oCtainied in
Colorado and Wyoming in a search for imethods of Rib( eradicntion appilicable
to forest areas where the limber pine (Pin s fl.cili ), the whithebark pine (P. (l-
bicaulis), and the bristlecone pine (P. ari.satat) are of importance for water-
shed protection and other purposes.






NN \lAI. 1: I' K )IT F' )' I l):P'.lIFTMI:NT IIF ., ;I ll.TI'ulE. M193


ENFORCEM1ENT OF THE WHITE PINE BLISTER RUST QUARANTINE

'I he ret gilalioins of tlhe white pine Ilister rust quarantine retluire a Federal
pi io-s i ippiii g permit in tl.e int erstate il( mo nil f li\ -leaed C1 pines from the
infetedl States to any State otlher tliin New\' York or tlie New England States.
,SuII'] pIrilllits aIre issued only for i; avedl pilnes wilN'hI hat e Ia en gro.w under
PsIIeiieil s anitation col ditions. Appslica ti ons fi Jr lshipping such pines in tle fiscal
y'ea:r l1 li j ll\ e i Ie '( e I ve d flro() 57 nI rserie>s. The \ work of eradiCa:tin g cuIr-
ratll aid(l goosebtlrry italls, I lil' alternlIate lh)ist of the diseas}e, frolni the Ks:inita-

'o li;iic I Willi t li (li ralnti rtioi rgIilioi is wais coll:tiedi ini lie >priIng of
19137 Irior ito ti e tlill e w I t lie ri l t illn Ially aI I eI a rIs o Is > l 'i p lantsy. The
enl i lr of fi lllrserie\ s Of a pp livanlis w 're fiu t ll i ll i ill Ia alis fat ry C(o l-
ditioln i ncl ting 14 Fedt al :a iid Stlate liirries gritwing ii e-leaved pines for
soil Consera'\l 1u or reforestaltionlll pilurposes.
The States of Wistoisint. I io. iuniylvanIia. a id Marylahind recently estab-
lished whitll e ie Ilistl r ri lst comi ol r e a l'a r oN Ieh e 1arps* ,I pn aI'I i iiii'i a ;I
ista lid of 1 ivt-lea l' plil es. In s'lch arw'ias t hle pllit 1 illg ,i l n p ls(' ssio(l of currant
and o.ewlerry ipla nts iis prlhibtail under Ste athu ri' I h I'ede Iral quanm-
tine was aN( ordlingly revied, ieffiecive Ma rch 1. 10:7. to prao nvil- hat no currant
or gooseberry pla nts ay he shi ipped to hlse States v it hout a o tro l-a rea per-
mit, obltained fri oli the re(sponsl 'e (ilier ()of swih State. Folurten S-Il tattes linw
have leg ily establishled blister rust control areas.
1)1ill~'g the year 110 vio)nlaions f tlie tllu ratilille IF N'lre :ti ul t w Tr I int'rce'pted
by trallsit ilisIp(ctors, anld 94 were intercepted by riOad-sie inslp)ctorl of aOt er
projects.
CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECT INVESTIGATIONS
INSECTS ATTACKING CORN

Su1rvys of IEuropeall ciorn borer plopl)atihons inl 1,W; lhaw thati iln weosern
O)hio a'id i tle soutli leaern (o tunlit 's of Mi-ihigan, IwIher c io isTlur co id(litions
nlpiproaclsod tl it noirmial there were sigJificalit inreias (' in tlhe rate of infesta-
tim octve't those obs,' eil\ in 1935. In the drir arPat s, su(h as east r11 I'diaIa,
sulthwesteri n ()hi(, parts of Michigan, a1und thle lastern Slhre o f Maryland,
delinite decre ases in infesitation were iindi.ated. Signiti ant increases in the
rates of iL ftet aol were rcotrdt itl in p):rts o f Vermlnlit. M1as i :li -ctt i. (, flnnlc-
ticut, RIll i o Islanit. ad Nw ,Jmrsey. In spite of thl de('reae i, i infestai ot inl
s01m11 art'as s a1 result of drougtll coll t dlit ills,. li il(' s r-I'* lliti lg froll ))orer attlack
walls hlilgher in 193( tMhan inl any preo' iou ye;Ir', owill ill part to thet i1ncretasf
villue of Il 11Co I1'l rop. A -s'(elind e1era t ti oll of loiers :apl :l redl inl sigli t calt
Ili lliiu er-' i: tle i tl e t Lake's ile I P'i i(o)sly ( il si('itr d :i a- 1 all i rllrtl ial a1rea.
1ExpI illl tts wit th se i l l'orrs (Irl'iL.t li' i' i. il t i T i'n
il)(li i-ial!J 11:y bet( p1 h si' -iolo 'ai-a lly d i 'i l l t rol I' ti ll !' i n i t';ll s' 'ti i l n 1ut
) it lph sih. ically idliet i l It l e lte l- with il ltii i str A.!KOn W ii t. r the
tWvo- 2i'L 1 Itrail hialit ocu'lri'i in inll tli- aro a- il 1 will pl lsist is Inknowiln.



fron Cai:;ida whici was re11' t' I i i ra ii' i t' o ing
species : i 1 1 il I nct ria l i nl, [ f i / N ('' *:. fla-I
UI i'o, bit1/ : ( 11 ., JL"0del1 r0f i 11'.<1 It. I). a 11 1 ?/ ,'W s I .
W llf 'tor i l N Q L. / i'.s ,' ,.s m)|)ear t e I rli;.! l10y l- ive, ('. ,o .w't'
s Viows ]lii i lp o li'- in ll ii a' I e(' :are:. ,A me thod a lct a e 1 e I for
,r tis las-i 'lition edael eies o lliie Meidlitrr:I ea lii lm kt!I I 11 ply
IaulshIt for i l' (' d ni:sat io i. I i--li;iil.'. f itisi~d l .' t i e Ii i-sl l d i]-+ WA r Iln
s l, -''lic;1 s,; i o i ott t iyl s ar ( :'wryiwi ml: arkedl r' i .i 'lac 'WThe iosI im|m olrtll t
de i 't,!)i eiil in 1 ii 1 work ill 19''( is I e' aI ii e ia-i 1 iioi i I at aa o -nsi1 a b'nl dle' C
(of r i-i :ia' iy inl 'r )m t ill o00e of a li' Illo Ia;11 bli' crease a: l l is 1i 11Ot
e'x l **iai dl (lli l ly w r:i li I t;'.s 'l ao i\i-; tr:lill *a ll i :5a 'I"N to w hic'h
ost o' f ithe rei'is a'nce its thiis liine' hi l i re' vi is-.iy bc nascriibed. Not iily is
tliHI a :1 a' red( i l liola ill I I nllliuber of Iia'rers si'ri ivin, in it is s train v henI
inf(1 i'd I 'pre'vio s to I":s 'liN.' lut ll oa -<' lur r' s :i t Ik: I rviv e 'i 1 illt 'd ;a lt
laik Wii\li t il I \e wiain 'r (o dl(tiolsi- Ii a'll 'xt'le'i a'' lest! of ilredt lii' of
s t orn ei',rt: i liT's I(xliilital re-istance tliat is not :a.ssocm:iated with li te of
plhiilus i )r i it' ha 'lo til) of lite ias ,'. 1its Livlii a'1tm' oi,'ai aIiiJ 'inent for furthf er
work of tlis a iar:i') lr I )e1 ta a:liha l a I dies. liho\ev 'r', ilaxa' indi'atid tl Iat dal:e of






ENT()MOLOG() Y AND PLANT QUAItANTINE 39

planting is an important factor in determiniing amount of infestation and that
degree of resistance varies with the age of the plants.
Infestation by the corn earworin was relatively low in the summer of 193ti,
owing both to the severe drought and to the very severe weather conditions that
prevailed in the previous winter. The results of hibernation studies during the
winter indicate that this insect hibernated successfully considerably farther
north in the winter of 193t6-37 than in the previous winter, and as a conse-
quence it appeared much earlier and in greater abundance in 1937. In studies
conducted cooperatively by the Bureau of Plant Industry anid tle Illinois Agri-
cultural Experiment Station, a large series of double crosses, single crosses,
inbred lines, open-pollinated varieties, and top crosses were studied to determine
their relative susceptibility to corn earworm attack. Although lie data secured
are only preliminary, 34 double-cross hybrids, 11 single crosses. S inbred lines,
and 6 varieties showed possibilities of having resistance and are being given
additional more severe tests. A method of artificial infestation has been de-
veloped and is being utilized to secure a uniform infestation irrespective of
fluctuations in the normal field population. Investigations on insecticides for
the control of the corn earworm, conducted at New Haven, (Conn., in (copera-
tion with the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, and in Florida, have
not revealed any outstanding insecticide for field application. The use of a
fumigant (hexachloroethane) in paper caps for covering high-value sweet corn
for protection against the earworm has been highlv effective and may be feasible
under special conditions. The method, however, requires further development.

INSECTS ATTACKING SMALL GRAINS
The hessian fly was at a low ebb as a result of unfavorable climatic con-
ditions. It has been possible, however, to maintain fairly high infestations in
nursery plots, and the general low populations have not seriously interfered
with the work on hessian fly resistance in wheats that is being conducted in
cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry and the agricultural experiment
stations of California. Kansas, and Indiana. A number of additional varieties
of wheat have been discovered to have some resistance to the hessian fly.
Although these are confined primarily to spring wheat varieties, evidence has
been obtained that the resistance inherent in spring varieties may be trans-
ferred to fall-sown wheats by hybridization. In California a distinction has
been recognized between those wheats having two factors for resistance and
others having less stable or lower degree resistance represented by derived
one-factor lines. Previous results have indicated a marked difference in the
reaction of given varieties of wheat to California lies as compared with the
same varieties of wheat when exposed to Indiana flies under Indiana condi-
tions. Investigations during the year have indicated that this difference in the
reaction is in some degree due to biological strains of the flies rather than to
differences in vegetational growth due to differences in environmental conditions.
There is a marked difference betweten the ability of California a;d Indiana flies
to infest the same varieties of wheat under similar climatic and soil condi-
tions. Evidence has been accuniulated. however, which indicates that resistance
or susceptibility to fly attack may be materially influenced in some cases by
modifications of plant structures as a result of environment al differences.
Resistant types of wheat in the jointing stage have been sihown under some
conditions to be more susceptible to tle hessian fly than whenl in the fa!l, or
rosette, form. Infestation tests ,o wild grasses show that hessian ily la rvxe
may develop on numerous species of wild grasses. Striin s of these grasses
vary greatly in resistance. Susceptibility to infestation iappears to be correlated
with the character of the tissues of tile leaf sheathis. I 'silly. olhoulgh not
invariably. the grasses found to be most suscetibl hlv e st emls tha1t are so)ft
and yielding. Preliminary results indicate a previouwly recognized direct
correlation between the mortality in winter wheat and tlle extent of hessian
fly infestation. Ietailed studies of tlie relation (f Ihe developing larvae to
the tissues of the fly-resistant and suscepttible wheat pd:11ts shmow tiat the lirst-
instar larvae on certain resistanllt p):l1lts are appIartetly generally prevented
from molting by the pressure of the harsh tissiue of these plants. Th' few
larvae which molt and develop on these resistaint pilants are uInl ly dist orted
by pressure of the leaf shieatlhs, while larvae on su.ept lible plants survive the
first molt snccessfully and show no distortion ait any stage of their development.
Recordc s at Manhattan, Kans., indicate that some of thle Marquillo hybrids
most resistant to the hessian fly are also re.istant ) t tie whlet joilnt\worim. A
comparison of hessian fly and jointworl ilifestation records for 146 of these







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ENTOM()OI.GY AND PLANT QUAtRANTINE 41


are present. In 1936 the average increase in yield of field-cured peanuts from
treated plots as compared with untreated ranged from 30 to (;o pJercent. These
results confirm those obtained in previous seasons. Although this leafhopper
is responsible for considerable loss in the yield of peanuts in Virginia and
North Carolina, this increase in yield cannot be attributed solely to reduction
in the leafhopper population.

INSECTS ATTACKING SUGARCANE AND RICE

Experiments conducted during the year gave preliminary information in-
dicating that there is a much higher survival of the ;ugarcane borer in fields
in which the cane trash is not burned than in fields in which such trash is
destroyed by burning. This higher survival is apparently not compensated
for by any increase in parasitization.
It has been found that the green bug is a vector of mosaic disease of sugar-
cane in Louisiana.
The use of light traps has been found to be a method giving partial control
of the sugarcane beetle. Certain varieties of cane were found to be more
tolerant to attacks of this beetle than others. Repbllents have given excellent
results in protecting planted rice from attacks by this beetle.
The West Indian cane fulgorid ( Slcciaros.!yd, sa'ccharirora Westwood) was
discovered for the first time in the United States causing heavy injury to some
varieties of cane in Florida.
It has been found that infestations of some of the worst insect pests of stored
rice begin while the grain is still standing in the field. Rice grown near old
stacks of rice straw was found to be 53 percent infested while in the field. In
preliminary work borax has been found of value in the control of stored-rice
insects. When relatively small quantities are mixed with stored rough rice
the development of the insects is prevented, and borax apparently has value in
preventing the molding of rice having high moisture content when harvested.
Investigations are in progress to determine whether the commercial use of
borax in this way is feasible and safe, the size of the dose necessary, and the
limits of applicability of the method.

INSECTS ATTACKING STORED GRAIN PRODUCTS

In a study of the distribution of fumigants in vacuum tanks, utilized for
the control of insects attacking stored cereal products. it was found that when
a tank is filled with merchandise capable of absorbing a fumigant, an equal
distribution of the fumigant is not obtained, although theoretically a gaseous
mixture when introduced into a nearly perfect vacuum should distribute itself
uniformly throughout the tank. An excessive adsorption by the conmmodity
near the gas inlet and adjoining free space occurs, so that by the time the
fumigant has penetrated the product it is in a much more dilute form in
the places reached last, and an incomplete and uneven distribution of mor-
tality is obtained. It has been found that recirculation of the fumigant in
the vacuum vault, for the first 15 minutes of exposure. is sufficient to give
even distribution and to produce the maximum offect obtainable by circulating
the gas, and that a 25-percent reduction in the dosage is thle maximum ob-
tainable by recirculation. It was found ilmpractical to fumigate lour andul
feeds with ethylene oxide-carbn dioxide mixtureni un(der vacuum whei the
temperature of the material fell below 70' F. At S5 (as in midsummer i hese
materials can be fumigated with dosages, per 100 pounds of material, of 5
pounds of fumigant for 3 hours, 2 pounds for (i hors,u and I po1unls ,(verniiht.
At 70 a considerable increase in dosage is required. It was f ) unld that the
susceptibility of insects to fumiigants in vacuumn fuingiation increased as the
pressure decreased and that this variation is due to diferences in oxven
content of the tank rather than to pressure. The introduction of steam into
vacuum tanks when the preisure registered 0.15 inch raiise tlie t(illlperature
uniformly throughout bith the tank andl its contents. A tlempler;1ture f 122
maintained for 3 minutes under the e conditions killed several species of iiite ts
buried in wheat in a tank. including the resistant eggs of the confused !Hour
beetle.
Claims have 1een made that heavier-than-air fumigants, such as chloropicrin
and the carIln disullphide-carlon tetrachlloride mixitre, apllied ;t the stirflce
of grain bins in storage will penetrate effectively to the l ottom of lhe bin.
During the year it was shown by experiments, in which containers of insects
were buried at each 15-foot level of a 61t-foot bin, that these gases did not







4) .ANN ,IAL ICE' IiTS I I l I :IPAITME NT )1" A1 il('i.TLI 1'. 11J"7


I ,ll tra l I l 0'i ; fi )-f, t heve1 ndl tha1 t Ills mIIllh 11 f fumlii ati", i s A n o)t fe;-Aible
unl(der t e I( ( :li j, 1 rlinarily 'n ount(ere( .
The miniimiiiu lethal d4s I if hyIdro en ci yaniide, ethylene o xide. chhoropierin.
ethyli; -ne iitl riih, ;:i:Il tarbiin disll phiti-d feor ex osr ures of 1, 3. andi I 24 hours, at
7. t1o 7(i F., h.as (en deternliled for thli ricwe wevil., tl tlifor bitetler and the
Medl iI'rI: i all iur (lt ItllO i, :11ld fr the e(ggs of tllhe last tw)o SIls iet Ill the 1ase
of etlyl, e oxide, tl eggs of l( oth the Ill ur 1et aid tilt ll* fllur molthl are
i(ore ss ll cplibleI to he flulllignllt with a 24-Iur exp)s ure t lhali are their re-
sp ilie adultsi Withi 1- alil 3-hIr exp4 -n 'e t e egs of the flour letle
ar(e ilally 1tiles "iiKre uI s ep tible h ti tle ":is ilu;i e : t l( ti t atli "s: the Sg of
til' lur nlll t I a' l (' u;ally ,fut itilh, wilth tlhe aduill for a l-li tir expilrure
lhut oil y slgiiily Itiirc rll 'sislia t for a .-hiiiir (x'I)os'll, Iyd(l'v *y;iuiic aci(d
tis .,- iItil' to: \ 1i c the Il > ( .L (ie 1 1: 1f l l i i- !!' th:tl: t li d' ;ill i ; ll iex-
p ':ilir' w \lh( s li' I e(\('s is l til r' P ll ili ti(, (e' ;l id :I illt of ilhe' ibrl r
Ill, ll. 'lil 'l I irin, ('ar i; ii di li-l riil ;ali! ( yl'? ii di li ridh rt i el i i i rall
1'ss l xi* tI il i(';,. (f Ih ti l )lour li i l' I tl l rolr ii tli tlia:i t tili adult it all h
S"o"-'ires-. iTh e esults indiate the e w id : tifi i i ll su ept biliity to finll i-
gi t. nit nly oi f fIli erent sIX'iesh of in rect's tlii! of lthe di l eriit -t ci e, inl their
lif' e'y le.
IH'terlsiiu(ill io ':I Is midle of thi s-iz' and kinds ( of IIIIl" t)llhii clgitl Iit'CSo-
sairy to remolive (the ', of the l riiltipal i ,nsedts o i llfI 'll aioil ha4s alrM adty Ihe(i, a tid it(d y thlie tiLtrat alllnd slla ll lu it if ters for
redI(,nl i.- illtur a ilitI r e'llinig lthe ilisets hitve htein develt 1 Ped.

GRASSHOPPERS

The aI iial rlras hoipper .suirv' conidu1t edli in th fall )f 1; ,; in o1.p fratio
w itl he Staites ilicat'ed that ole of rthe most wis0 1reald r;s- it tl ilr infesta-
tioas ever ki:own was i pI roIspect alnd l hat S:j .(I .(I(I) f or lie pl)ur'Cliae aIh
ti :iit 'portation f llmtelrias. would )ie re1luiredt to o tl- l the i infesl ati(ol. i e
v(elpm)eiIts h'rii'i thle stprin anIdi early s.ulm r oIf 1;:7 fullyv jiustiied this ei-





701: 1 11' 1 !"'11 10 t j lS l K. l Ki 1 I on IN ;& 2 A w In I! rw I if lit. i ill .11 (- I ili (iIC i-
I- te11 alnd ilndlicta ted 1 hat t le sTurvey lad erred 11on the side of olis trtati ,(l. par-
ti lli fly ill Su lltti l):" ot lla (' lora itit. where eve i ll iri stel r infes l atinlls
(leve loed thanll hadil Iee estimiated. There was no detailed surve'y of Texas and
New w i I i. here sev ere infestat ions also develo I ped.
'n ress m ai:ide 1I .( I(N)Ill avnil'abe for 1 r:si 1 '1r c(nrol lale in April.
Siate set up the oi'anizationh required lfor enoperatii. ndl shippinlg of ilte-
rials for ira lhoI lter hlailt was b1e, tii in M:ayv. I)ty tlie end of I.Junt funds a ail-
able u l(der this a:lpropriation were practically xr l:au est alt hough i b:til require-
11cll1I fo0 r tit inf it ld i a lr:ls w t( r fail fromll 1 illand it waIs lo e :Xss/r to reduceI l
1:ll Illonils to S1ta1 toi a boll half 11 f the stilllate rl eq irt'elit i t. TIW'o f:ictors,
hll(weve', Itelided to ainhliorate tlhe shortlZaO of Fedt ratl bait inlctlrred1 by the lilni-


(urini tle i lp' I evit l y. a ;, whi Ih maide it possibl t o ii Wreai tihe sawidus ill
tilli mixlturI froImi tlie h i 'i l ertl eii plvr 'vio 'ily u1 (' d ii 7.5 p r(e'tIt ihr 1ou f tlie >ust
of bra:in coutaniliig hie hiorts : a I mih1llinis. The ,(iti ll ax n Ith itmuch grea:uter
('n hril ui i o1 f lat eril s iby Sat es oiilities. aI id id ivid un farm0ier than !:11 ill
aniy previoul~ 1Fe,.er':l capil ta a n. Somie St atets frnisiwhied all thlie IatCrial re-
(uiIreld ('xIt et ti e poisioi, aiid Imnliy f Iheim spp1 elied all iof tli s l\vdui needed

I' iltV l lent f an xtnsi lit of f lt e 11-winied I mig;r Iatory gri ss-
hlopple)r ill elsteN III 'olorado and northwes"tern New Mexi'o ret'led ianll elTer-
genty whi'h proplIllt)eI tl(I gio)vernliors oif tlioM 1 Siltates lt t all out tlhe N:tioinal
Guar d. In ilse .~s pa:rsely stthed a reas fa iller were unallble to sup1ply tlie labor
for Iliixilig staio nas atnd tlditriibtitin of hait anl til tranI')i)isportit ill of materi:Ils
l'etd('l it) Iipre've ti ('coilli ete1 Ioss of cropips and a sI)il 'tqiueItI IliraI':lt til 11of this
truly llgira t7ory stet ies h t ito llore pirodut'tiv ie arcas of the ald adj- iilig

hiy lhie A l of Ilie lijeal i'ar Init materials h:d I een hlilIp'd into Arizona,
\rkansis. alifornia. a <'olor: I a d Illin llilwia. I K:ins: t. Michigan. Minin sota,
Mi- uri. M(lita, Nska N irak, New Mexico. Nourth I)akota. iklhoinla, Souith
lDkota. Texas., Ilah, Wi'sconsin, a d Wyoming.
Thl full res.llits of thiis nllampailtl (anniot lie detelrminiil until the end oif the
sllum 4Ter. Wvlt'l :ill i eNimiate of ls(ses ai~dl snvings will ,e available. (;etilerllny
-ul,''-s.fii rts' ltls ha1 1: e 1 h r4 i'epi(irtil e where it lIa1 bet in ipossile tol sullpply sIfi-
'it'lnIt 1 ilst :d1 ti where goodt (ro(ll ) i'spectsi 1i hsae encolurlaged I h(e fairmers to coi-
sill on ( air l eI ,ffort.







ENTOM3OLO GY AND PLANT QUARAINTINE 43

MORMON CRI'KETS
The most general and severe infestation by the Mormon cricket in Listory
occurred during the year. It included parts of MoT:; an. Wyom inig. Col)oado,
Utah. Nevada. Idaho. Oregon. Washingion. am:d snial areas in North Dakoi a and
South Dakota. A c lperative eontro!l camlign was mnadu possible in M~intana.
Wyoming, C(olorado, Utah. Ore:on,. and XVasl ington by :an all antenti (fit funds
from the Works Progress Adminitration. Labor ;tnd list of the necessary
supervision were priovided under Federal funds. States and o hitis fur. ished
most of the materials, mix:ing facilities, and trans lortation for crews amnd mate-
rials. Control operations were codu.cte 1i Id: 1ho and Nev:da throulh inde-
pendent State Works Progress Administratiii prirojc;s. The Imost ex ensive
operations were carried o id n in na and Wvyo ini wlere i:eL infe-sti a i
was mIOSt intense and widespread and where it threate::ed ihe :iiit exte: sie
cultivated areas. Mixihg dry sodium arsenite with lime and alqlying it with
hand or power dus ers was the melhod most generally used for co trlol. This
dust was applied to cricket 1:and migiri'ti to the cultiva;t, used to clear giraintields of crickets which had hatched tlhere or which had
gained access to t h:en t rounh micration. Many miles of ;ialvan!ized-i:-ni' fenc-
ing. used effectively as barriers, direct d the mi:rating an:ds into pit., where
they were destroyed. Oiled irriation anals were us1d to advantae as ar-
riers to the migration where these were fa voral located. Thoiusands of bush-
els of crickets were destroyed in this way. Burners and poisoned "hir were
used to a limited degree hut withl indifferent results. In areas of mont intense
infestation all the facilities available were necessary merely to prote(t crops.
At the end of the fiscal year it was evident that to a large deree this object
had been aclomplished. Losses had beenJ limited to from 10 to 1. percent where
a fight was actively waged, whereas otherwise tle heavily infested small gr:ins
would have been almost entirely destroyed. In some areas the crickets have
been completely cleared out of the cultivated crops and the migrating bands
have been destroyed for some distance into the hills away from farms. Al-
though the campaign is not yet completed and. as stated, it has niecesarily been
maintained primarily on a crop-protection basis. there is general agreement that
it has resulted in a saving in crops valued at many times the cost of the canm-
paign.

EUROPEAN CORN BORER INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION
Inspection and certification service to conform with the requirements of the
State quarantines of Arizona. California. olorado. Georgia. Louisiana. Nevada,
Oregon. Texas, and Utah continued as previously organized. Following the sta-
tioning of Japanese-beetle inspectors in West Virginia and Olio. the only re-
maining men working exclusively on European corn borer certitication were the
inspectors in Detroit and Indianapolis. The bulk of the inspection work was
performed by men engaged in both Japanese beetle and Europe: n corn horer
inspection, and. in the New England area. in gypsy moth certification as well.
This year 19.TS78 certificates were issued to cover quarantined p!amt material,
principally dahlia tubers, valued at $209.0 50. This compares inversely with last
year's inspecrionl involving issuance of 22.133 certificates to covero moaterial
valued at 1G65.293.

BLACK STEM RUST QUARANTINE ENFORCEMENT
The Federal quarantine relating to black stem rust is designed to prevent the
shipping of rust-susceptible species of barberry and .i/ ,hain into Colorado.
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa. Michigan, Minnesota. Montana. Nebraska. North Inkota,
Ohio, South Dakota. Wisconsin, and Wyoinng, where the eradli ':i r i-n of rust-
spreading barberry busihes is carried on. Permits for shiqpin to tlhese pro-
tected States are issued for premises where, as determined ty iinsi(ection, only
rust-resistant s1lecies of tli ee plans are rown( During i1e ya1r such lperilits
were issuled ti 23' nilise!' reI !n l !lnd 1 del;a!rp. T aIiilrI i j llpei'to scl ilntercel pted, in
the year. 13 shipiments that had been consigned in apparent v ,iolation of the
quarantine.
BARBERRY ERADICATION
For thle past 25 years stell rust 1has caused aUiual losses in the Ulnited States
averaging more than $27,100 ),( 1 Iring certain seasons, sc11h as : 19, and
1935, when weather particularly favored the developient :and slpreaid of the
fungus, damage in a single year has exceeded 10tWU00,0I)J bushels of gra1in.










'Therer, a:re t\ iiijr tirant smourcs of st4l9i rllst illinehlllu in tlie Inort011ern part
of lthe I 'litil St:lat's. (1) lt remain ini g r1'st-t-us'epltible I r.I rry ius (les, and
(2) r1ste d grainhlielhs ill Texas anld Mexico, where the' su111mer stae of the
dis-:I se sl iV 'ives thFu hi ll 1 e yI er'. Tile retelive Tilli mol't .ce f lthe*S sOlurces
\1ari-es froml yelr to y:ar, delendinig ll p 111t)n1 \lthelir :111d otilher crolp eiiditions.
Tl'hel firs t frus fmid In gfrains ianld ra sset s in (lti spirin flg is i the illmediate
vici itv o 'f reina:ining I rh erry tlhshes. Inl fa'tt, if wNeaIher favors the spread
oIf r- st, tlhe fillilN mIlltiliiies raplidly nea r tI hese iiinuclum1 cnte s, and with
coitiinutedl warml. Imoist welatlher tl loc: l slprelds coles(e early ill th season,
c'aIusinlg widespread epidemics before the criops mature. Only occasi onally dur-
ing It te a,;t 2 yeat l I 11:1; s it'Il riist. sl're:ldillg frol l lie Si oilf l hI, ec i'e e1pidermic
ill thie slprinig whiat -gro\wing St ales ill t ille to do aIplrecia 1l et' (1:1 l ,lla e.
IRecoi ,nlliwt'ldtd mli1asure fior the contrldl of stem rust iiludili 1) 1 eradicatiing
rulst-sl c -11 lti ibllo 'larbelrry blIshes in imlliJpu'itanlt gI aill n grw i int S ate. 1(2 sI ect-
iig for seed It1 lle more r4st-resistalit varieties of ra in tllat are otherwise adai pted
to the area, and (3) planting spring grains early on well-prepared soil.

NINETY-ONE MILLION RUST-SUSCEPTIBLE BARBERRY BUSHES DESTROYED
DURING FISCAL YEAR

)llring tlhi year D1,710. S.G barberry bushes were destFrotyed ion 9,117 prolwrties
in tli' 17 States participatilng inll e arbl' r I-er:ldiu la till IiIprogrlla. I h t x-
lpalnded plrogrHl, made possile with allotilnts of emergelcy filitds, permitted
ia creill inspaetiol of all natlive and planted shrulbdery on (3l,2_T squiare miles
in 3:15 counies. In table 13: are shown, by States. data relating to tle progIress
made in control work during, tlie year. To avoid iisintIerpreting this informa-
tiio it should he kept in mind tlat Iigures in Virginia:. \\st Virginia, and
('olorado are hardly complrable with those in other States of the area, as
imucllh of tlhe work conmducted in these States duiringi tlie year haI bleenl in areaMs
whlere native spe(-ies of hari eri'y al'e p'eval'llit. Iln lit \Vir'inllias f trb'rif
eta11(i it Hsix. is being eradicated( iln th1 ilmportan1t gralill-growiniL co(tllllillities. and
in ('olorado mu11ch of the work was done in the southwesterl pairt of t lie State
where IN. fcufldlri is prevalint. Ill tlese St ates na lie species if Ibarblervry grow
in paltcles, often several rods in diameter, which accounts for tihe relatively
large ullmbers of bushes destroyed.

TABI E 1:3.-Pro/Ircs iln barbcrry cradication during fixsca prqCr 1937


Security-wage earners Proplr-
t ion of all
'Pr ier- Barberry Terri- _th_ person-
tiit btrslhis tory sur- nel taken
of ,ullies destroyed e \i- t IfrI
-111-1-11 -i relc 7
pIloyli clet rolls


,tiunar .num er i s X dr .i iin-hoers Percnt
('olor : o .......... ........ ....... 7 15 ; 2' ; 95.
llio ... .... .. .. 517 5 7. 1t 319 2 ''2 77
I-nlitll .... . -- .....- ..--- 25, :51 l. 7i ;l. 7 9
l i . -. .. .... . ....-------- .. "---- 1 2|i, 1 2 ; :* o *. ; 739
.M i liiiI. I. .-.-.-... ....---.- .... 55. 7 2 5. l, 22(l 4 t, ;:. ', Z%. 21 I
1 -111 i1i .. -. -. ....- - -"- - - T i, I11i.' 27 31
, h l :a I i .. .. .. .... ... ... .... ; I2 : (t

t i i l i ;t t i. |.. . ................-2W .

O ~ i .. .-. .,. --. --- ---- 0 (*' :t .2 > 7 1, IQW .1{ >'l.; .1
W i fiii n ,'*Il I)5. 5, t :a1. i 1: -, 7:a 7 V. 73
*W x i it l2........ ... ............. "2 1, 17;3 U 02., '11 5a fl ) 002


M i--iiri 11t .2., 527 a 2*.<, is2. -la, 7 t l 9S. 34
rii t ; ......... ..... ., 1 12 52. N7: 5tI 1* 7 l ,ra 552. 0y2 lta 95 17
W V i' \ i a . .... ... ...... ....... ,,2 5, 71. : :7. v.; 1.2, 2.., 25 .97. .
T -.1 1I. 1, 2' 9.751 12 '. 'W 1 2 I I 5,). 7a -
( ;rtmi i lti;i .. .. .. 117 y l, 7, 1(9 il,. 2i;7 3. W6 3. 74..i W ',5 94 50Y







ENTOM(OLOGY AND PLANT QUAIRANTINIE 45

Since the beginning of the barberry-eradication program in 1918, nnearly
24,082,567 bushes (mostly Bcrbcris vullyaris) have been destroyed ill the 13
States that comprise the original control area, tand 1an aidditional 124,102,230
bushes have been destroyed in Missouri, Pennsylvania, a,Virginia, ad West
Virginia since 1935, when similar work was und(ertakenl in these States.
During the year control work was conducted largely with lmen obtained
through local reemployment offices. After a brief training period they were
assigned to field work uinder the direction of experienced supervisors. Each
eradication unit was composed of 5 to 10 men and each supervisor was re-
sponsible for 3 to 5 crews.
The field procedure varied with the type of territory in which work was
done. In certain counties having a high percentage of the land under cul-
tivation the fence rows, wood lots, and all planted shrubbery were carefully
inspected. In wooded areas, including bluffs along rivers and other streams,
a single foreman directed as many as 10 to 12 men in a single crew. Under
such conditions eradication work was usually begun in known areas of infes-
tation to permit the men to become acquainted with the distinguishing charac-
teristics of the bush, and the strip-scolting method of survey was continued
until all territory within 2 miles of the last bush found had been carefully
inspected.
As in the past, salt was the principal chemical used for eradication pur-
poses. Chlorates were employed to some extent, particularly for treating
native barborries in 'Colorado, Virginia, and West Virginia. Fuel oils and
salt brine were tried experimentally, but a further check of results is neces-
sary before a detinite statement (an be made as to the relative effectiveness
of these materials. Bushes were dug or grubbed only when the application
of a chemical might be illjurious to nearby shrubs or trees. During the year
5,694 tons of salt and 15,984 pounds of a proprietary weed killer containing
sodium chlorate and other ingredients were used.
STEM RUST CAUSED VERY LITTLE DAMAGE IN 1936
In 1936 stem rust caused relatively little damage. There were two prin-
cipal reasons for this. (1) The uredial stage of the rust was not very abun-
d(at in the spring in- Texas and Oklahoma, and (2) although barberries re-
maining in the barberry-eradication area rusted heavily, the abnormally dry
weather caused premature ripening of the crops, thus preventing develo)pment
of the fungus on grains.
Surveys in the fall and winter of 1935 had confirmed previous tentative
conclusions that the uredial stage of rust usually becomes established and
overwinters more abundantly in the earlier sown fields in Texas and northern
Mexico, and occasionally in Oklahoma and Arkansas. Because of dry weather
in southern Texas in the fall of 1935, wheat was sown late and did rot become
generally infected with rust. In northern Texas rust that overwintered in
certain early sown fields developed rapidly in the spring of 1936, causing consider-
able damage in limited areas. While the rainfall in May was above average
at certain points in northern Texas, there was not a repetition of the 1935
epidemic, primarily because there was no general distribution of inoculum
early in the season. That spores were blown northward late in May is indi-
cated by the presence of early infection in Oklahonma and Kansas. Exce(pt in
low pla( s and late fields, however, there was no appreciable loss. In north-
eastern Kansas there was damage in late fields, but the dev(elolpment of the
disease in the western part of the State and in most of Nebraska was greatly
retarded by the drought.
In general far fewer spores were carried northward by the wind than in
1935, as shown by examination of spore traps exposed at various points
throughout the batrberry-era(dication area.
While there was a tremendous amount of rust on remaininig barberries, the
attack sometimes being so heavy as prractically to defoliate the bushes, local
oepidetmics of rust on grain were restricted largely to States east of the Missis-
sippli River, where moisture was more aunmdant. Drought andi high tempera-
tures in the uppelr Mississippi River Valley prevented the development of
widespread epidemincs. Had thie weather been normal it is probable that heavy
rust would have occurred in many local areas.
The dangerous role of harberries in the prolduction and perpletuation of
parasitic races of stem rust (I'nicchiia gramiiin is tritfii) is apparent fronm the
following information obtained in 1936: From 151 collections of aecial material








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ENTOMOIAOGY AND PLANT QUIARANTINE 47


work accurate identific(ation of all barberries encountered by Federal qua rantine
inspectors, State nursery inspectors, and cratdication slupervisors is extremely
important. The tlaxlonomic work is carried on at the Arlnolld Arboretu 1t .. :1 iio iia
Plain, Mass., where the best facilities are available. As previously indicated,
the genus Bcrbtris contaihs a great many species, varietieis, and ybrids, and,
further to complicate field work, many of the species and variety names in com-
mon use are synolnyns.
During 1936 more than 200 Berberis and Mafnhonia specimens were submitted
to the Bureau for identification by field inspectors and property owners. In
addition, some 200 questionable bushes were identified in lie field. I)uring the
year the key used in classifying barberry specimens was enlarged to include
more than 230 species, varieties, and hybrids.
Records show that during 19,6 22 inurseries applied for permits to ship) imninine
barberries into and between States protected by the Federal quarantine. Prior
to granting this authority. 4.740 acres of nursery stock t were ,inspected vwith 1he
result that 137 rust-susceptible barberries were destroyed. Twenty-one nuir.sry-
men were authorized to ship immlunle species of barberry intersatte and one
nurseryman was given a dealer's permit for the same purpose. In aldition to
the bushes destroyed in nurseries, the Federal nursery inspector, iin edoperation
with State nursery inspectors and State leaders of barberry eradication, removed
950 susceptible barberries from parks, arboretums, and private grounds within
the barberry-eradication area.

BARBERRY ERADICATION AIDED BY INFORMATIONAL ACTIVITIES

During 1936 the steadily increasing demands for information relating to the
control of stem rust of cereals were met by (1) releasing approved magazine
articles, (2) giving illustrated talks before school and adult groups. (3) placing
demonstrations at seed shows and local fairs. (4) distributing brief circu!ars in
advance of field operations, and (5) carrying on a cooperative educationil pro-
gram with public schools. The twofold purpose of the educational work is to
stimulate property owners to keep their farms free of rust-susceptible barberry
bushes once the initial eradication work has been completed, and to encourage
the reporting of badly rusted grainfields or areas known to be infested with
birberry bushes as a guide to communities in which survey work is urgently
needed.
Table 14 summarizes results of informational work conducted during the period
1928 to 1937. Many elementary and high schools throughout the north-central
part of the United States are now including the study of stem rust as a part of
the regular course work in agriculture or general science.

TABLE 14.-Summary of results of informiational work, by States. July 1, 1928,
to June 30, 1937

Demonstrations given
Counties I Total Total Total
State corn- Schools atten- properties bushes
pleted Grade All and other dance reported reported
schools schools organiza-
tions

Number Number umber umber umber Number mbe i mr Ner u r umber
Colorado -------- ------------ 22 852 1,013 1,018 31. 83 35 307
Illinois -.....----------..---20 2,318 2,485 2,540 57, 562 355 464
Indiana----------------------- 33 1,021 1, 099 1,764 131, 211 159 795
Iowa ------ ---------------- 35 4,011 4,761 4,879 477,989 I 86 82,040
Michigan ---------. -----------25 2, 945 3, 322 3, 383 893. 401 799 7, 197
Minnesota .--..-------------I 35 3,911 4, 232 4,747 183. 16 570 3,450
Missouri --------------..0- 0 0 5 955 0 0
Montana- ..--....------------- 27 1,971 2, 067 2.075 51,314 37 115
Nebraska --------------- -- 24 2, 116 2, 275 2,321 31, 425 102 1,439
North Dakota _------ ...------. 22 3,425 3, 727 3, 749 89,077 27 222
Ohio ..------_.--- ------------- 8 419 530 552 23, 184 123 2,813
South Dakota----------------- 18 1,701 1,885 1,965 82, 392 12 115
Wisconsin .....----------------- 2 286 300 318 7.,527 109 279
Wyoming ...-----..------------- 9 446 494 505 11, 48 10 49
Total ----------------.-. 280 25, 482 28, 790 29, 821 2,099, 191 i 3, 25 99, 285






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ENTOMOLOGY ANI) PLANT QUA A.\NT INE 49

Charleston, S. C., The wirewormn populations were not reduced significantly
in these tests, nor was there any significant difference in the number and
weight of tubers showing wireworm injury which were produced in the treated
plots and of those from the untreated plots.
BEAN AND PEA INSECTS

Field experiments with insecticides in Ohio and Virginia on beans grown for
the green-bean market or for canning have shown definitely that the Mexican
bean beetle can be controlled best at a minimium cost with sprays or dusts of
cube or derris. Results with cryolite sprays or dusts have continued to indicate
that the control value of this material is questionable, although it gave a fair
degree of control under some conditions. In the East the perforlmance of
cryolite apparently varies to a certain extent from year to year in accordance
with variations in weather conditions and possibly in the composition of the
insecticide. In Colorado the results from tests on irrigated beans grown for
the dry-bean market demonstrated that, based on increased yields and calculated
financial returns, cryolite spray gave the most efficient control and was sig-
nificantly better than zinc arsenite spreay, a nmaterial comonuuly employed in
that territory. Sprays and dusts containing rotenone were also effective against
the bean beetle in the West, but they cost more than the cryolite spray. Since
wide publicity had been given to an article which indicated that magnesium
sulphate (Epsom salt) used as a spray in the proper concentration constituted
an effective control of the Mexican bean beetle, experiments with this material
were resumed in the spring of 1937, even though tests conducted in Ohio during
1928 had demonstrated that this material was not toxic to the Mexican bean
beetle. Laboratory tests with Mexican bean beetle larvae, using dosages of
Epsom salt 100 times as great as the lethal dosage of calcium arsenate. showed
that the test larvae fed on the treated bean foliage, that they consumed as much
leaf area as the larvae placed on jintreated foliage, that they nmolted success-
fully, and that there was no resulting mortality which could be attributed to
Epsom salt. Since laboratory studies during 1936 disclosed that the active
ingredients of derris were translocated in treated plants in such a nmanner as to
prevent extensive feeding of the Mexican bean beetle on foliage that developed
on the plants after the insecticide had been applied, it was decided to ascertain
the residual effect of derris on bean foliage in various widely separated localities
in the United States where wide variations in temperature, humidity, and
intensity of sunlight occurred. Bean plantings were made for this purpose at
New Haven. Conn.. Norfolk, Va.. Columbus. Ohio. Baton Rouge. La., Madison,
Wis., Manhattan. Kans.. Grand Junction. Colo.. Twin Falls, Idaho, Ventura,
Calif., Corvallis. Oreg.. Puyallup. Wash.. and Phoenix. Ariz. These plantings
were treated with a derris spray. and samples of leaves were taken at given
intervals and sent to Columbus. Ohio. for analysis. In every case. rotenone
was recovered in sufficient quantities at the expiration of 2 weeks after treat-
ment to be indicated by the colorimetric method and goldfish test. At Madison,
Wis., Grand Junction, Colo., Twin Falls. Idaho. Corvallis, Wash.. and Columbus,
Ohio. derris showed a slower loss of toxicity than at the other laboratories.
Neither the intensity of sunlight nor high humidity alone appeared to affect
significantly the decomposition rate. At Phoenix, Ariz.. where daily temlpera-
tures averaged 100' F. during the period of the test. rotenone was recovered
after 10 days. At Ventura, Calif.. where no rain fell during the test, all of
the toxicity had disappeared at the end of 4 weeks. In general, These tests
demonstrated that the residual properties of derris were such that in any part
of the United States where cultivatnl plants are commonly grown this insecti-
cide could be used effectively against the species of insects which it is known
to affect.
Dust mixtures containing rotenone gave excellent control of the pea weevil
in large-scale field tests performed in Idalo, Washington, and Oregon. In
Oregon 60 fields, involving approximiately '100 acres of pea.s grown for calmning.
were included in the tests. The greater part of this acreage was treated with
a dust mixture containing 0.75 percent of rotemlone with talc as tlie diluent.
This combination appeared to be mlore effective than11 (lust mixtullrs (ontainling
0.25,. 0.5.0. and 0.75 percent of rotenone, respectively, with diatomllaceos earth
as the diluent. Two applications of these dust mixtures were made to all of
the fields with specially constructed power dusters. Based upon an examination
of the peas at the viner, the control achieved in the treated fields avelraed
approximately 97.7 percent. In thle Washinigton (aintuing-pea section mmany tons
of rotenone dust mixtures were appilied to tile weevil-infested sections (f pea
24695-37----4






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ENTOMOLOG Y AND PLANT QFARIANTINE 51


treated plants that had been run through the commercia.l process of vining and
canning. The result of the analysis of this product indicated litht whenI lina
beans are treated as described above and run th!rough thle ordinary washing
process, th e canned product is free from harmilful fluorine residues. Silce lima
beans are shclled before being conlsunied, it appears that cryolite may be applied
safely for the control of the corn earworm on this crop.
TOMATO INSECTS

Although the tomato pilxworm l: s continuled to cause se ious losses in southern
Californi:a good progress has been made on biological atn cointrol studies. Re-
sults of field-plot tests have indicated that a cuplrous cyanide dust mixture with
talc as the diluent (1 to .), cuprous cynide ued a a spray it tfl' rai( of 3
pounds to 100 gallons of water, and natural cryolite diluted with tale aInd dia-
tomaceous earth reduce infestations of this pest froim (7 to l() p(ercen t. aised
upon the percentage of Inoiinfesed fruit Iprod led oil it(h T rl~l as (onlip)ar(d
to the untrcated plots. Negative or poor result were oI 1ai;ledi with sprays
contaillinig an organic thliocyanate. cryol ite, calcilum ariseni (. niictinte sul4liate
and a light oil-pyrethrum extract combination, and pienothiazine, as well as
with dust mixtures containing lpyrethrunm calcium arsenate. and phenothiazine.
Observations on the habits of the insect show that the iomuato pinworml adult
favors the lower surface of the tomato leaf for ,'gg laying. These stnudies indi-
cated that 57.4 percent of the eggs were deposited on the lower surface of the
leaf. 40.8 percent on the upper surface, and the remainder on tihe petioles. Field
records show that approximately 91 percent of the pinworm-infested leaves were
folded on the upper surface. which indicates the, necessity of applying insecti-
cides. if any are found satisfactory. so as to eover thforwiugly the under sur-
faces of the leaves. Examinations in filds hNeavily infeset l by the tomato
pinworm have indicated that approximately 0S percent of the larvae pupate in
the top half-inch layer of soil and that approximately 9 percent of them
pupate in the first inch of soil. It is apparent that the tendency of the tomato
pinworm larv:ae to ipuate very close to the soil surface may render it possible
to develop some measure of control of these pests throughl the nmedium of cul-
tural practices designed to disturb or destroy the pupal cells during critical
periods. The ability of the tomato pinworm to survive under adverse condi-
tions was demonstrated dtring the winter of 1936-37 when a very high per-
centage of survival occurred in southern California even though the long',st cold
spell on record prevailed in this area during January 1937, including a minimum
of 22 F. and a total of 17 nights during which the temperatures at Alhambra,
Calif.. fell below freezing.
During the year the work on tomato fruitworm (Hcliothis obsoleta F.) was
expanded. and particular attention was given to the habits of the pest as well
as to control tests. Dust mixtures contaiing calciuin arsenate, cryolite, or
cuprous cyanide have given best results in experimental plots. although none
of these gave an entirely satisfactory measure of control. Darris, pyrethrum,
and phenothiazine have given poor results. The importance of combating the
tomato fruitworm in its early stages was substantiated by the results of labora-
tory experiments in California wherein it was shown that each larva of the
fruitworm is capable of injuring or destroying six tomato fruits, on an average,
during its larval period. Tlhe number of tomato fruits destroyed by each larva
under observation ranged from 4 to 10. These studies also ldelmolstrated con-
elusively that the young larvae are migratory in their habits and! travel com-
monly froml fruit to fruit during their period of larval activity. Cage studies
in Utah indicated that the tomato fruitworm was unable to survive the winter
of 193,-37 in that locality even though the individuals kept under observation
were placed in cages under very favorable conditions during the fall of 1936
and supplied with sufficient food to enable them to reach maturity before
entering the soil.
MISCELLANEOUS VEGETABLE INSECTS
Additional experimental work has shown that paradichlorobenzene is effective
against larvae, pupae, and adults of the sweetpotato weevil whei used to fumi-
gate seed sweetpotatoes in banks an d harrels. Preliminary experilmellts have
indicated that the eggs of the sweetpottato weevil may he killed also during the
process of paradiclilorobenzene fumigation in barrels. The grade of material
used and the temperatures during the fumigation Ieriod are im-portant factors
in successful fumigation. It was shown that fumiigation with this material did
not injure the seed or reduce plalmt Iroduction. Biological investigations dem-
onstrated that the adults of the sweetpotato weevil are able to tly for a distance
of at least 400 yards.






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ENTOMOLA)GY 1ANI PLANT QUA Il\NTIN 53

indicated that such applications were applfied to best advanltage economically
during the period between tlie heading of thlie cabbge and harvest, or during
the harvest period when harvest was prolonged and conditions were suitable
for insect development.
In field studies to determine the economic status of the more common species
of cabbageworlns attacking cabbage iIn Louisiana and South ('an rlimn it
was found that, on ian average, 41 percent of the calbage plants failed to mtake
marketable heads (U. S. Grade No. 1) owing to cabblagew ori injury, that an
aditional 23 percent failed to mature owing to causes other than worln
injury, and that the remaining 30 percent produced marketable cabbage. In
about half of the fields under observation the growers had applied derris
dust mixtures, or paris green or lead arsenate, as well as poisoned bait for
cutworms. In those fields where control measures had been practiiced 30
percent of the potentially marketa ble c age plants were rendered un-
marketable by worms, as compared to 74 percent in the fields where no
control measures were used, thus indicating the possibilities of improved
yields by insecticide apl)plications. In this same series of studies it was shown
that, under the conditions existing when these observations were iade, the
cabbage looper and the imported cabbageworin caused applroximately aln equal
degree of damage, per worm. and thIat either species will (cause about four
times as much damage as an equal nunlber of the larvae of the diamondlalt ck
moth. If this relative importance of the three more important species of
cabbageworms is found to persist from year to year, the implortance of em-
phasizing the control of the two first--lined species is evident.
When the physical characters of individual cabbage planuts that may affect
the degree of cabbangeworm infestation and injury were being studied, it was
indicated that such characters as undulation, bloom, and color are appar-
ently not important lbut tlht the type of plant within varieties may exert
a decided effect in attracting the moths for deposition of eggs and in the
subsequent growth and survival of the resulting larvae.
Investigations of the cabbage webworm in North ('arolina demonstrated
that the most serious injury by this insect occurred during the seedling and
transplanting stages of the host plant. Applications of undiluted calcium
arsenate or of dust mixtures containing 0.5 percent of rotenone during this
period of growth gave lpromising indica tions of control. The cabbage web-
worm failed to survive the winter of 193;--37 in North Carolina, even in the
presence of unusually mild conditions.
BERRY INSECTS
Results of insecticide tests against the raspberry fruitworm in the Puyallup
Valley, Wash., showed that dust mixtures containing 0.5 percent of roteonne
and sprays containing 0.)01 percent of rotenlone were effective as a control and
did not leave a harmful residue on the marketed berries: that while pheno-
thiazine gave the best degree of fruitwormi control, it injured the plants to
such an extent that the yield was decreased greatly; that tihe use of arsenical
sprays or dusts after any of the blossoms have opened may leave a poisonous
residue above the toleran'ice limit on harvested fruit; anldl tlht late aIpplica-
tions of insecti(cides lgave the best control.
Continued experiments in the control of the red berry mite (Friop 'l('.
cssigi Hassan) in the Puyallup Valley demonstrated that lie application of
lime-sulphur sprays during the( dormant period of tie plant, followed by
sprays containing wettable sulphuri or 11emulsions of refined petroleum or coal-
tar oil during the growth of the plants anid up to tlie time wheii tlie fruit
begins to ripen, results in an adequate control of this mite.

BEET LEAFHOPPER
Investigations of tle beet leaflioppler in the illtermll)ount:1ill re'io(n of Colo-
rado, Utah. Idaho, :nid Arizola result ed in tlihe ddtlitiol o(f ilmiport ant inlfor-
mation respecting ti (e critical breeding 0ara's of t his iict-(I. lMigration o(f this
pest was Iraced definitely frolt) soutllhelrn Arizonnla bre4edinlg aroeas to thle vwestern
Colorado beet fields. In field experimlielts. conducted ill cmp(' ration witlh beet-
seed pro(ducers, pyret hruit-oil sprays direct ed against the ( beet lea fh pper on
sugar beets grown for seed in Arizonii iidica ted tiat heneti'icIal results were
obtained from this treatnent as judged by an inicreased yield of seed per acre.
Extensive field observations indicated tlhat th1e delayeld planlting of beans in
southern Idaho decrearsed the severity (of curly top dise:ise, which is tranls-
mitted by the beet leafhopper. In a study of factors gov'erning curly top in-






54 A'NI'Al. I"tEl'in t'l S l) I i'\l fMENT F"1 A IFltt 'ULTUltE, 19: 7


feet ilon, imae in soiml entra'i l 1 Idulaho duaring the 7T-year Inroi 1 13:03 1:, it wua
(con'litded l I;l erly Iritn movementi s of 1i heI 1t le afh.il p'r w\ere f4llnwed
hb rapil all widiesr ad(l I.uly 1opi infectionj resltini in lw yieldIs of sugar
ee vts. w he 1eas l:i ( D I "piug. lmovem( enli('I> V't'{t is wer iol d by seaisonsll HI whiiehi sugar
heelts 'e;a'le serious ( l'ly toip il'eCtiol aidl prodili'cedl good erage yiel>ls. A
comp1000ais o in ;tii -ea of suga. e ls a pla e.(I, lhinnlemd, abatil ,dned. illand
Iharvested, and it res lt; 4li yi, lds I( r e I l', dI riln ;g a ea- lt I; i- ll igh ,rlyV tupl
infe1 in I.h a ho of llo i:f III I 10 l I sI I aha l r' i ab ndonmet1 1 of
slL)ga -l' t aI'l e ae~I' eItlt'1'ed Aln'ing ti s' y ;irs I'' wli A1111 tle I' I l' p -iN 5 1 ;t-a -
pe 'iPdl en iy i ihe i'n- ;,i d v:re l al;id t p'idy, : l tl at low oVii;r, e I ,- 1o el S
rcslIpl, ;w e'reas v1ery lia :1. )t < I: 1ie a a oll'rr ed ill 3.1,irts \% A ll i ,l' top
ii.;feei(ul ba. lit' ;id slo w W i ; iIid ii i0 ;1ti tli 1 g.(nt a ;.1 10 ie weI tre
lT; lied ti id he t e eit .,s 1 '. iiriii' W liil reIsisluiil .(rm 1is 10 lee s1,11 11r ( O "! i le' w it "Mih
tyiceis olti:ined in Ie :'O a id 14 1.'. 1iir;iiW' wliie'li s sm hiiell :i ruis we 1re
l n ,it ww iif II \1: 'c >i8)'t l Ia.1 lidi eliv l pt n ionet 'd i red i''eei l ie avet'a:t jield
Iof st- I epli1 heei l 'I i t 1 Mi. i tA : poinit 'i)iuw lle t i,;Iri in of Ir< I!I. 1and ii it
low .irly toq iii' iwi' n ailo ed ll e prohlueai iil of a hihily sall-.fett:I,'y aver-
a:e, yi i in tl e smie strains of sliga leests inl 1 19:12 als. 4a t istantt
slrai: s 4of su11a1' b'eis Ir'odU(l;teIl a 1 .o average i eild1 id 11S.'a. dlt', site a high
1fec1 ltiol ei'arly i ll ie se'as)ln.
As a rtsili lf a sit i ey m:iade' iin Tt'xas,. aplproxillatly '1).O sq tare iile of
territory Ve'e ;i lit t(l I 111i kiowll hrreedini. ar:ieas of lit' I 't'I h h fl.,ip 'r.
Io ,t fi )a" 's froim tfis aria 1 : a e se i plriiarily i't s l si)l ht' for thie rly 1t)p
diseie epidehnics which LAWe neen pievalent ill the spinach ieldis (f Texas.
1ie k )now\ 1 lir('ilin arei s of I& WiAee l k(al WIhoppr in tis s(ctini linw ,oc lp!y.
:lpproximatet'y 10.711(0 siuare mies otlih of the Ilio (v mI i5 ii. New M17,xio, :aiol
e1 xas il adhlit jail in 1totlhe 1 nl owll e'x,.te t of adjlte:'i4 :i, ar':i-s i ln ieico.
Fiei d obse (rvations in F'aiiforiia indliated t(at ,te c rly lp dis(,iase, of
whieli the ),eet leafiipper is t11e venr, is 11Imore prevalent ii ii t ia:toi s jlanted.
in -a(ly soils ith: in those plaited' in soils of h11 hI:avie'r 11 pns, and that
fields of tI ,m1:io t'4s p1li(eId e'fol'e 1 Ie. sprinl' ulligrl'a tio oK f lle hea ihoppiIef'Ks were
inf'Cte('d by c rlll'y t to a gr, lea' ltel' it 11 I(. li ,' 1il) ip t'led a1fter 1 t'l prill-
cipal le ;ifhoppeil)i r miigratiiol. iiolkIUial ilnv s, ign Ia t.ins disclt s l tliat tli heIet
leafh(l)r (n exisl for tlong peritods late il the fall (1on \arious sp et's of
(deidt(uoulS ir'ces gr'uo\vw iiin r adtie 1ti 1() tohe Si 1 .laiQ: i Va';ley, ill atlitilin
ti tlie prevAmi;sly known host p1ams of this ilnsectl. High .poplatiil-s of the
heat laflopl)Ipr whili occ.urred (d riing lihe flll of I1T:SIt on hlssiat n-thistle grow-
ilg C i ,' -I t o tI I I 10 1winlter A'e1ledillg. q '1P lit 1s 0.' tl e i slle'P'1 lN" it eca'ssi:laed 111l
sp ray i.n of la rge a:reIas of t his we'd to destroy 1hie le afhoip rs c' rn I'egatd
thereto( .
TOBACCO INSECTS
Eitensivet fiehl-plot tests gainlst tb;co flea l eetlt's (.p /nrir pfi't.ula F.
'1Id1 V. Pri Hilc Nt s larr.) in Fl, ridha. Tennessee. North ('Iril ina. 1o:1ill 'aro-
lina, and "ill('onne(tic t indicated tiat Athes< eIs ts e0(' l be ('ntrloll'ed in the
p)lalti beh l, s w ll s ly ss 4)ll11 e V set !11 liti llthd ill the gro. l ilg t'o' (),) by I iniely
aIIppli(oatio sll ) of dust ituillres (m)l o tililg i l''lt'llOn it terivedIi from derris oP t'UIbe,
with steriliz'dl tolatl o d(1st as lie (tih il it Ill 1lie, \NWr I)leI'-toha tico districts
of ('"inet IiclI am1nd Floriati| e I Awro wVers II:aeV ado(pe1nd dustin \ witlh eIlne or
derriis mixtures for Ihla bt! le conltro)l, but in 111(i 111a(u a(,m,,l :11A Oltheih r .su -
groi wn1 t 1 ll) c'l)o aIlreas I i(' illst'('icit'il( a It'e lot :'-s t'I 'e''olIilli'litl'd i f r g 'll-
e(ral i s-a. Fro (ll (I 1; dat: ot:ii (ed to da11e. diisi mixturN i ii'es entaili;tgili ro' t n o ellIO
gave a higher initial degre'e of c(ntlrol tlih it ise'ticie4s It (ntaihnin aret deal or
lu1irilie o' mp)Io)n ds. In a series of .xp1l)rin leis dhsign.ed to) shvo w tl4e rep i ive
toxicity i1 (c111e 4' (111t I ixtiil''s ('ntilIai i g 0.5., 1.0, :atl 1.;) Iper'eel t of 1of1 t't()O,
re'spe)('ftive ly, against tlie tol)ac('() ile' beehtlle onil .sliade-gro, wn tob:at',o in Ilorid:.
it oas slhowni 1 lat Ihe dufst Ilixtl res o.1 t llint iing' 1.0 11I a 1.. pet'trt int of r1'Ini lol) ,
re'sl)'l i ely. were I II'li I re ol i 111i ga' e a ig 'r dtgr' of coi o'l of
tli l'le le'e s lth:1a tlhe dus1t liiXtll'(s' which onlitaileld p1el''e!! of I'omt'llnolle.
-These onltstiols wer\ e rn'oeac e'd N as I I es t l :(f ;I t'l:liild s t y of It h:r
veslt'd pl)rod(t'1', in w lli ift was slown i lial IhIt' p ret'll:ages of ilijurte'd le('a e.
tloge-'(elor w it i l' tl 'te(Ie Itage's of 1lie o'iellIllamr'i:l gr:illi *gs. S'i'V' s : a s;i is-
facl ''y IlK'it 1d, for obIt ialing 1 e' 'la: ij' e col)mIa 1'ris ol of lliet' eif('t of I he flif-
ferett dilul tions used. IncidIenta:illy. thsso studiet (ltioiistrated that a ties
)'I'itle' illif',sl1 ion (f onlly I I lodera ftle illtII'lsily V 11:1y oV ilse :1 l ss. based o)il aIll1
I 'rlle't' 'ropll l r let ll ill li iglr-r'll)P'er 1ibacco, whilch rtalchies $-7. pe1r 1:n're.
1111taor11't y tutes tt'r lliller e thle coniafIraf livt t1oxicity of certnin alrsenicals
1llit ihall:lIrsenilI l 'omp(I (I) dII l]s io the Ilrv;Iae of ,tobaccio hiorllInworl s ( ro/to )arce






ENTt)MOALO(;Y ANI) PLANT QUAIANTINlE


spp.) showed that none of the arsenicals now available were more toxic ttan
the paris green-hydrated lime dust mixture which is now advocated for com-
bating these insects. A satisfactory substitute for paris green and other
arsenicals has not been found amlong the organic compounds tested.
Experinents in tobacco warehouses of the closed type in Virginia showed
that dusting with pyrethrum was a very effective method of combating the
adults of the tobacco moth. A reduction of approximately 97.5 percent in the
population of this insect was obtained in warehouses where tiiis l method of
control was utilized.
GREENHOUSE AND BULB INSECTS
During 1936 it was found that gladiolus corms infested by the gladiolus
thrips lost weight during the storage period faster lithan non1infested corns,
and that, after planting, the infested co(,rs were retarded and made all uneven
growth ; also, that the blooming of such corms was delayed and subsequen, t corm
production reduced greatly as conipared with noninfested corms. Althiough
many dilfferent spray combinailtions were tested against tihe gladious llthrips,
the arsenical-brown sugar collbinations gave the best degree of control,. With
the possible exception of lead arsenate, however, such combinations burned
the foliage rather severely.
Observations at Charleston, S. C., on the insect vectors of the azalea Ilower
spot disease revealed that insects did not bring thie organism causing this
disease into gardens or nurseries to cause infection on tite flowers appearing
early in the season. The appearance of tie earliest infections on flowers
close to the ground indicated that the soil or nmulch may )be the hold-over
source between flowering seasons. It was found ihat with the increase in the
number of insects that visited azalea flowers, notably several species of bees
(Bonmbui sIpp.), a decided increase occurred in the local spread of the disease
on all parts of tie azalea plants. The plercentage of infective insects increased
in the daily collections as the disese becname more prevalent. Evidence was
obtained that insects could carry azalea flower spot infection for a distance
ranging from 1 to 5 miles.
A high percentage of the common red spiders were killed on greenhouse-
grown lima beans and sweetelover by spraying with an organic thiocyanate
applied under 300 pounds of pressure. Similar results were obtained by dipping
strawberry plants infested by the red spider in an organic thiocyanate spray
mixture or in a water suspension of derris.
MUSHROOM INSECTS AND MITES
Tests made against various species of mushroom flies (Sciara spp.) and
other pests in the mushroom houses at Beltsville. Md.. demonstrated that free
nicotine (40 percent) in water at dilutions of 1 to 100 and 1 to 200 (contain-
ing 0.4 and 0.2 percent of free nicotine, respectively), applied as a drench to
the mushroom beds at the rate of 100 cc per square foot, gave a promising
degree of control of the flies and other pests and caused a marked increase in
the production on the beds receiving this treatment. Beds treated at 4-day
intervals with a total of five or six treatments yielded approximately one-third
more mushrooms than those treated at S-day intervals and gave aIppro'imantely
twice the yield of the untreated beds. Analysis of the mushrooms treated with
the free nicotine solutions showed that the highest nicotine content of any
sample was 29 parts per million by weight, a quantity not believed to be
harmful to the consumer. Paradichlorobenzene, when used as a fumigant at
the rate of 1 pound per 1,000 cubic feet of air space for an exposure period of 4S
hours, gave good control of sowbugs but did not control mites (TyIroglyphus
spp.) or springtails (Lepidocyrtus spp. and Alllorutcs sppl.). Taxonomic studies
indicated that the most coninon species of mushroom mite in the United
States may be a different species than was formerly recorded.
COTTON INSECT INVESTIGATIONS
In February 11:'7 the station at Tiahualilo. )urango, Mexico, was discon-
tinued. This station was established before there was opportunity to conduct
pink bollworm investigations inl the United States, but since these investiga-
tions may now be conducted in the vicinity of Presidio, Tex., where this Bureau
has a station, the special need for a station in Mexico no longer exists.
During the spring of 193 7 investigatilos were begun at five new seasonal
field stations. Investigations of boll weevil control on sea-island cotlton were
started in Alachua County, Fla., in cooperation with the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station, in McIntosh County, Ga., in cooperation with the State







50 \NNI \I, ItI'i lt''S (I I'r:I\U1TM1ENT (FI .l ;Itl'll, .T IE. 1937

enttotuolol ist of (I Iorri:i. a:nd itI Ec1ols i 'm1inty. ;a. in cooperation wvit the
Ieorgia (' asa i I'lai1 Explerimi ent St:atIio Iit A rizo):l ill '" e ipol ra titn with
t ila Arizo ,l AgMgriviltIrail Ex lprinll it Station,l st 1Nliis wver bean li at Mesa and
Yn111111 t1 4* ilitr i l f Iilllp triF ot)l illnsets. For the work :it Yu a head-
iquarters 'were eli tabi)lisled at thel Iu lreau' i N f Plant Indlstry field station at Bard,
Cali f.
BOLL WEEVIL
The yea r 13t was iotalle )beca use of t he compalrat i ely small dat lage eaIIused
by tle i ll w eelvil, the losses by this insect iteing le'-s than Idurini any year
since .u .. This uIlusal condlitiol was caulsed iy the lo4w 1) oll wI \eeil p)lpula-
Pion enterinl hilerination in lie fall of 1913., by tlte hlw iminlperatures- that
causedl ighl mi)ortality lalong tIg hilieriatilfg weev il dueilig the i tinler, l and lby
tlie hi ih tl lemiperatutres alld drolugilt (eoldlitiotns dilrilng tlite lI ;,1 growing season
in tle iStatIes east (of Texas. The wee\il caused its greatest damage in Texas.
In easteril iiad s.t111hierni Texas thire, \als a higher survival of weevils ill tle
springi ,f 193i: we"Iat her ((onitions were favirable for tlieir deveopmet
throgllolluil t te i 'Sella ll. alnd for til lis f t illle ill n11 y A years filte wteeils caused
a greater re(luletioll ill yield per a1're in Texas thani ill ailly ohliet State. Tile
low winliter Ieliilerailres Pcalse(l ile loest survival in 193(; ever retcorded in
lie hilberiatilln 1cages at Floren(e. S. C., and n1o survival ill tle cages at
Eufaula, Okla. The survival of weevils was much 4 lower than nolrmnual at
Tall nlah, La., but at (oll ege Statiion,, Tex., it was several ti elll higher in 193ti
than usual. The generally low survival over most of thie ('otton Belt was
follow\ed by a very dry spring, withl extremely high temperatures in May and
J1une. wljhich further r(edleed ( le number of weevils, except in eastern Texas.
The dlrought was more prolonged in Oklahoma, vwhere only 2.11 inches of rain
fell in the 9 (ays fromt Jlune 8 to Septnember 14. 1943, and thle weevil infesta-
tion was practically wipe out. At Tl;luilah, La., alpp)lrxinmately 9( pl)ercent
of thle grunhs in the infested siquares were killed by clinmatic co.ndition during
the latter part of June. As a result of the low survival and climatic control,
the infestation did not build up until Inate in the seson1. and in many sections
i)o coltr(l lieasuillres eroe necessary. This low weevil popIulation over mlost
of the ( 'otton Belt was followed hy an early and wi(despread infestation of
leaf wornms, which defoliated tie cott4on early and further reduced the weevil
popu)lation that entered hibernation in the fall of 19I3t.
The, winter of 193 '37x was mild, and in the boll weevil hibiernation experi-
ments at Florence. S. C.. the survival was much higher than during any spring
since 11.13: at Tallulah, La., it was higher than ill any spring since 11932. and
at Colleee Station, Tex.. the survival of weevils was highest of any year since
tile (Xlperillin(ts were started 6 years ago. Althllollgl ill nimst areas tlie weevil
mlortality was low (durilg the winter of 1931i-7. tlle number of weevils Ipresent
in tlie cotton fields inl the spring of 1937 depended chietly upon tlhir abun-
dan ce during lie fall of 1930". At Florence the weevils were more abundant
early in 1,37 tihan during any year since I2. In Fhlorida. southern Georgia,
and MlissisippIi tlie weevil po)'iulation wa s low. At TallIulah it was lower than
(dlrin 1g tany receit yeaIr exce(plt 1 !). ( Cage experilie(ins 1an1d lievld obs ervations
illdica:ttt'd 1 hat i ially wt,(evils ellerged I:nter frolml hlibern:iton 1ih1an u al.
Durini.g tlie early se:Iso11 of 1987 coTnditionls were M not part icularly fivorable for
tie weex il, aild at Illi(hmmlllI' her tie' prohsp'le'ts w'1vere t1:hat 1987 would be another
liligt i ,ll weevil year ex'cept ill the South Atla;ntic and east'Ierln Texs a:Ire:as.
Mixtlu'es )of licaliiullll rs:ellate( and sulll]hur used for boll weevil fcontrol hallve
ill smil" eXpI'rilleIltl< giveil greaitr galill ill he yield 0of s4eetl ('ottill pe'r :acr,
tiai1 u itlilut'(d (ialciim arseliattle. The illecre:ias-eid yitld -. probah ly result fromll
a:t( it iotnal Iconitr ol o(f tlhe cotton lhe:i hopper :tand oli r hie1 iptiet'ro, u inerts iy
tll' siliIphilur. Tl'hese 'Xperillitllts ildlicat'ie progr'ss ill devei' lop)inlg atl eco( no(illiial
in-s elicide tlmat will iive practical (onitrol aga:i t t lholl we\ il. flea Ihiiper,
:111 ot er inlis ec :It lthe sa:1 tillie.
Alixtillrl' of c:le il lIll arse-Ulllt a:ind lielll la:lv ill llany inll lta c1 w Li\e'll e llnre
iprofit:lil4' ic're:as4,e l I 1 ie1 tl i:Ili nll liluted (:llI11111 :1'si eiiatl IThl e itixtl res('
11 e e,1 14' lU aIt: e of reu (ilg lie dalut geTs of soI il ijury :1d 4f hIU'ila y a: hi
iifest.ationl. :and at 11l' saine, tim'( re'd1ucing tihe ('ost of wve,, il cointro. Although
i1 (, ts- l itn wvhih 1 it' :i ii a 11 :la iu i ars-i)att ll nixtl urill( s Iha e givell better re's l lts
t:l i ii ltldii lj Ith 'a h c(l iu l I 1rs'I aliite haive l'ee'I ill tie pIl 's(ill e'e of I() 11a(L rativ(: tL
lih bo wee it x vil iinfest i :Il Iin 1 his l ias n the linorm l col ndit ion in the boll
we,'vil :i d:i Ihirilng re-e'lit y a Nrs.
III ('a e t1,.s a1 t Tallla:Iha Ia.. wI it h 20 di fferelit brani(s of 11ali luml a rsInate
raniiglng frN ln 11.2 14 i .'2 p ,er'eni ill w:lter-soUlhile ,rsenllic p14'ioxide. :as de ter-
nli eId Iv i1' Ne'w York i'llhod, i t h 1 hll weevil i riti lity ir:iIiulzd from Al to






ENTOMOLOG(Y ANI) PLANT QUARANTINE 57

92 percent. There was apparently no correlation between boll weevil mortality
and percentage of water-soluble arsenic pentoxide, or betweein tlie mortllalily
and any of the chemical and physical characteristics of the cahl ciu arsenates,
such as free lime, molecular ratio, and particle size. Just wliat differences
in method of manufacture or what physical or chemical qualities of (the calchiu
arsenate cause this difference in toxicity has not been discovered.
SOIL INJURY FROM CALCIUM ARSENATE
The injurious effect to certain crops following the use of cal(citum arsemnatle
in boll weevil control was first observed in eastern South (arolinma lmore than
10 years ago. In general the soils where injury was noticeable were light, sandy
soils of low fertility, and the most striking cases of injury were iln fields where
more than normal amlounts of (calcitiumi airseiite had been iused. Thle crops mo(Ist
seriously affected were the lellgues, Slicli as cowpeal s a ld soyba lls, Ioats, tld(1 to
a less degree cotton. Althouglh no cases of soil injitry have ever been reported
or observed in the D)elta sections of Louisiaiia nid Mississippi, where calcium
arsenlle dust has been used for boll weevil control more extensively aimid for
a longer period than anywhere else, an experiment was started at Tallilal
in 1931 by applying calcium arsenate to one plot of soil at the rate of 4(0
pounds per acre and comparing the crops planted on it witll the crops on the
adjacent plot that had not received any calciunl arseiiate. The applications of
calcium arsenate were continued annually for 5 years or unlil a total of 2,(0r)
pounds per acre had been applied, an amount in excess of what would be
applied in 100 years for boll weevil control under ordinary farm lpractices. The
average yield for the 6-year period since the experiment was started was
1,827 pounds of seed cotton per acre for the treated plot and 1,S26 pounds for
the untreated plot. So far as cotton production on this Delta soil is concerned
there seems to be no danger from the continued use of calciunl arsenate. How-
ever, soybeans and cowpeas are seriously affected by large quantities of calcium
arsenate on this soil, as most of the plaints soon died on the treated plot.
In Miississippi the study of the effect of calcium arsenate on seven major
soil types and crops grown on them has been continued. Plots of each soil
type received calcium arse ate at the rate of 50, 100. 2(}0, 400. 80. and 1.(000
pounds per acre in April 1935, and no arsenic has been ;added since that date.
The gernination and survival records for corn. cotton, aid soybeansi in tlhe
spring of 1937 show less injury than in the 2 preced ing years. Tle same
is true for the winter crops, Austrian Winter peas, hairy vetch, and oats.
The yield of cotton and corn has not been materially reduced on any of the
seven soils except where applications of 1.600 pounds of calcium arsenate per
acre were made. The yields of Austrian Winter peas. oats, vetch. and soy-
beans have been reduced where 800 and 1.000 pounds of calcium arsenate per
acre were applied. The effect of excessive quantities of calcium arseiate varied
considerably with the different soil types. The Houston soil. black clay from
the prairie section, is the most resistant to arsenical injury: and the Norfolk
and Cahaba. light-colored, sandy soils are the least resistant. The yields and
plant survival records indicate that the soils are recoverin- from the arsenical
injury. Cliemical analyses of the different soils treated with varying dosa of calcium arsenate showed that the range in decrease of water-soluble arsenic
from 193." to 19".'. was from 23 percent to 80 percent. Thle maiximnln quatiity
of arsenic (As:0;O found in corn, cotton, and soybean plant grown in the
arsenic-treated soils was 5.<. 10.0, and 8.0 parts per million, respectively.
COTTON FLEA HOPPER
Better control of the cotton flea hopper was again secured at Port Lavaca,
Tex., by dusting with mixtures of arsenicals and sulphur than with suulihur
alone. Mixtures of 10 percent of pIris green and 90 percelnt of sulphur 1and of
20 percent of calcium arsenate and 8') percent of sullllr \\vere aboult equally
effective, and both mixtures gave much better cntrol tha sulphur alone.
Excessive rains during the latter part of Junie iand Juiily in 1930, csedi the
cotton to (shed the greater part of the holls anod considerally redluced the yield,
but even with adver(se conditions profitable gains were made by controlling
the flea hopper. As thie nixtures of arsellicals and sulphur are als, of value
against the boll weevil, leaf worm, and other cottton insects, it is expected that
their use will reduce the cost of control where several insects occur togethller.
Further experiments are needed t o determine the best propor tions of arsenic and
sulphur to muse under different conditions.i Since tlie findi :g last year of the
two cotton flea hopper egg parasites Ainaphcs an(oml eru.i Gir. and 1Er11 ft1mi Ilu.v
n. sp.. studies have been continued of their distrilbution, abundance, and life







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IENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUArANTINE 59


in the fall of 1-30, which partially accounts for tle light boll weevil infesta-
tions in many areas at the beginning of the 1937 season.
In Oktibbeha County, Miss., the leaf wvormls appelred late in July: alnd al lut
August 20, when the second generation of worms began to strip the plants, two
tests were conducted to determine the amount of damage caused to thle crop
by the leaf worms. In these tests the average gain from dusting was 2-"
pounds of seed cotton per acre, the cost of treatment was $2.18, and tle profit
was $10.39 per acre. The increased production was due in part to the develop-
ment of heavier bolls on the plants that had not been defoliated.
THRIPS
Thrips were reported from practically all cotton-growing States as especially
injurious to seedling cotton durinig 19!. The extremely dry season was iav'(r-
able for the increase of thrips. The most extensive damage to cotton occurred
in the Southeastern States.
In Cullman County, Ala., during June a large proportion of the cotton plants
on several thousand acres were defoliated by thrips. A series of tests with
cube, nicotine, and pyrethruni as dllsts and pa:ris gireen and nicotine as sprays
was conducted, but no noticeable control was obtained with any of them.
With few boll weevils present and favorable seasonal conditions for cotton
following the serious thrips outbreak in this reIion, a good yield of cotton was
produced even though it was delayed 15 to 20 days by the heavy thrips infesta-
tion during June. In Washington County, Miss.. a study of thrips injury to
40 commercial varieties of cotton revealed no difference in varietal infestation,
but it was found that early chopping and allowing a greater number of stalks
to remain in the hill decreased the percentage of terminal buds damaged.
Destruction of the terminal buds caused a loss in seed-cotton production in 84
out of 40 varieties and a loss in staple length on damaged plants of 7 varieties.
Several species of thrips were involved in injury to cotton.
HEMIPTEROUS INSECTS
Further studies on the complex problem of damage to cotton in Arizona by
hemipterous insects confirmed previous results that the most injurious species
are three stinkbugs of the family Pentatomidae, viz, Euschistf.s? irpicfrtiretri.g
Stal, Chlorochroa sayi Stal. and Thyanta cestator F. All of these feed on the
bolls and cause shedding, but the most noticeable injury is the lowering of
grades caused by staining of the lint by pathogenic organisms which follow
the puncturing of the bolls. The damage was greatest in Yuma County and
lightest in Pima County, the average of bolls punctured in Arizona being 24
percent in 1936 as compared with 27 percent in 1935 and 23 percent in 1934.
Experiments in control with insecticides made on a field )a-is with power
dusting machines gave promising results but were not conclusive as to the
most effective insecticide combinations and methods of application. Popula-
tion counts of hemipterous cotton insects weore made throughout the season on
crops and weeds to secure information concerning the host-plant relationships
of the different insect species in connection with their migrations to the cotton
fields.
THURBERIA WEEVIL
Studies over a 10-year period on the life history anld habits of the T rirberia
weevil when removed from its native host. Tl:,'rb ria. and bred exclusively on
cotton indicate that this weevil will not maintain itself on cultivated cotton
under the usual cultural practices followed in soul thea ten irizona. Experi-
ments and observations show that where the stalks are destroyed i tlhe fall
and the usual irrigation practices applied it can b, extermin. ed in: yea r where
reinfestation from Thi rbcria plants does not occur. In the vicinity of natural
infestation, where the weevil readily tranfers from T lurl ,'ia to cotten, tlie
infestation was greatly reduced b-y (destruchtion of tlie Th uri'ria pla nt s for a
distance of 1 mile from the cultivateid area. It appers that the greatest
danger from the Thurberia weevil would be its introdiction to sections with
more favorable climatic conditions where the holl weevil c'crs, as it inter-
breeds with the latter and miniht produce a biiologi cal race more resistant !than
the boll weevil to hot, dry weather and low temperatuares.
BOLLWORM
In experiments for controlling the holl worm by insecticides, sIpec il attention
was given to determining if the dusting schedule could be simplified by l1:making
a definite number of applications at fixed intervals. With the heavy lol'worm
infestations that prevailed in eastern Texas last season the best average in-







aQ ANN1 A I1 I' TS r- i dE'A 11MNT 11 A1 1 U LFrL 1 a37

(crnlses ill yilI \\ ere scur 4 illi ifou ilr a ippliatioin of rc tal imn arsenate ait
5-(l;y inlierva t.illing .i rtily aftr the e f ir r egg detl sitioIn aln o ltio.l.
( al-ciuit ;l rsatll llul UIl Ivll ore *f'ectlive c( lntrtl l f hll h a Illix x rt re f ) iPertcncit of
stillpllr i lir l) I) r('pcnIt (of pyre'Ithrllul, h ilte i he tI(lt s lnl iIri lsig hite al ;urs i-
c'Il coitllett l (o;ft* iliilll ;iI s'll;ii( ly atdtiiin a or 1i p! rcetnt of Iatris grree'rI ali d
o11 t'cras'l ili g Ii'e arstIr ticj ly mixinlig with liml e or sI lIphilur were iIl(.n)Iil(, siv.
Ill hibeirnation alt il ges I it' Illln iter tof i ot n II s e 'rgi ig frolli ver' il tering
pulae' wa sV. gre'atler iin wIll-I rainied lu1fkin lut'ine s>;aidy loalim and Noarfolk tiie
sanl thanl in Iinckla l or riazos Itiver Itlt on asils; j 1 1e dh iitr'' s in '-irvival
V-Ie I l s ~r*;tt. hl\owevt''. WIl' e'e the soil we e mo'il'e hoiit i.

PINK IBOLL'O(ItM CONTROL
Thle aare iipoat delil elllioets iin lilt. pink lollworn sitation during
It'he '.il; crop son w 1vere I l f iindig of a ew infestaion in the liwer
Iti( (;rande Vally ill ih ITexas and -Mexico:; he finlding ,l r&einfas ation; in
seveu ral addIitiioail ac o itil ls ill til i Tiea' s Pn ill';i nll itl'I fter a l s o tf severalii
a 'rs; aI lld li 1 rectur 'll t e of ilifel t 1ati 01 inll l rther lii Fl'iritia I r I Il.e s c id
c n'a eI tll i'e i'cr() s -a alin.
Tlit' ill1' ta tilon inl hlth f of It ll alove areas i very light. In hi' lowr r i
4(; Fa1;ih \ H alhty of iexas faio r (,ntllit is iarll ilvlvu 'ied. a0i Ikey W 'liere pl;it''l lulidter
regulatio(n onll Al ig st I T. 1, U.I;. In "1e TI xans P 1anhandl e livl e I(, Ill ies aret iln-
volved ; a pIoio of ta w of tla oillities, liote 1 Te'r. wVi"s :!I 'k1ly ill ithe re' l-
late(d a' eat s. Tills i v it'ritly wTasIo pl t t'ti iitlr el'wl H iI fill tive ) 'ci l-
ber 1. 1V9.(. Int holth of ll a i Vt' i a ce illWlim'( e i wars i'ee s rIy \\ li tlllet one
or illort e c(ontis inll hi-hl1 noi infi'st- atitl0i was (o 1 lil. IT lis \i. title to ItheP
f'a t that' s'eed co(Itill is miolivedl t rl'gh sl i ch i 'l yco ties' fo(r bh 'gi nili wilhoilt
ri ard to ao ia1u!1tiy litles. I le FI loTrit la area wis rele'as fr'il re "llati lons
effctive ()ctober 14, I!;IAI.
NEW INFESTATION IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY
Thel harvesting of thie cotton cropi inll e lower 1lio) randia, Va ll'y laikes
Fal'l tllmwi l earlier thatn inll illy otil'p sectitalln of t 1e ('at Ioan t 'I!. ( )nI A, g sl
(;. 19.',;. gin-trash inspection was begun at 3Itatamioros. Mexio.t just opIIosite
Broviwnsville, Tex. III t i first sample of irIsh insl'pctd specimens of the pink
lollwlormi were f(nltl(t. Tierea fther \woV(its were( ftound aIlmost da ily inl tr
fronl all gilis i lhie Mata Inor as sectAI Iion lnt il Ag1sP g t 15. at w it'h ti ime AiIsIe4'-
tioillS wer (. discnlltinlluId. A to)tal of _'.lt pink Ihtlltworns were sul litted ftor
ideIl ti ficatitan, in addlition to some 20) o)r 25 W oirms which i Were lurnled over to
M.exicn igriclturall inlslpctors at i heir requeist. At Ileynon. Mexih, about
.50 mile.s up the river from Ma!amnorts. eighlt sl'(ilime'ns of tlie pink lhollworm
weV(re folll i tl. 1 tirst o A ugust 1'. Ihs are ilie al ily twa l-nations on lilt
Melxiclai sitle of til river at wlihich ins were ol'iraittdl. Inl tIil meantiime.
foJlloawing tlhe iirst liling at Ma :tlm orltos. aladitional gin-trash machines had
beeit'ln senlt to lithe \alley to wNork (,n hli Texas side. iThese nallinel be
()operating oni August i. 10.9l. a:Ill on till followinig day the tirst spe'itei of
t1ie pilik Ib llworill was fo1111i at I Iro vville. l I lturilg l e inext few days
tlire ;addliti al;l I l stpecilli'lls w(ev f ueil at that Il ac('. nill All'I-st 12 (lie first
SSl(ecill('ll S wa is f lllld t S;lal I t'nllifo, aidi w l'en illsplec ioll I l1lad bt')ll cinpl4eted
19 spa'ciellolls hiatd lae'en fliound at t1hat litcatlin, bihut latr ill the seCuaso sever:i1
aldditioiial slti'(i s \r f'all d y regulatory inspectors. ]tanth o f ile above
plalcs lare il (4'amllit l 4 ( ny. Thli, o ly iier lindlill- iln til 1 valhly was at
tio (ramid'e 'itvy, Star ar ty (o't y, (1 pink hoialwornt itei fondul1 on Au0ust 15.
()n Auiust 17, I:3. t, li, pin)k blollwor n qulllrauntilne was allmended to add the
(lcounties (of (Caimeront. Hidalgoa, Starr. :ind Willacy to tle lightly infaesed areas.
While no sl)pecimllns were faunI d in 1li algt and Willa:ly t.'o unlties. it w"as neces-
Sbar tV int i ildlet lih'Ill. aIs eed o(' tt (I l in l loved I tlrtl lg out t lit' f r 'cotillll-'s foAr
gillnithgll ~ iliotll rtgar'(l io 'tthlty lin's. AIpprtoximahie(ly 20.(5.li a:cres were
JI:Ilantel ( t(o (otttnl il tile fouir comntiies.
'hell e 1t aa w\\as )brolLghllt ti reg'iulaltlioIn i hae lulk of Ilt' cott'nii crIop
liad1 lready tdeii hi:II'e(ted, TheI't, was otlany o e oil mllll iil ite arI'e'I. i'nlIse-
(j1i0eI tllv a I ('aIsi i' l lale vtlllm e' otf st'td' was mllovilL:ng tat ot lietr mills ill soalt lelri1
'T'x; a Iiiedintely afer 'ie fli' st spe i'ill'll' was foull!t1d ll ( seed w\as allh we'd
tI lt:eave t la l 1 va vllemy lil tim il ills whih'it (tesir('d ( to c-tr' liniullt r'('c iving
s'eed' i sl;I ll edI st rilizers, a I 'ft r w liel Illi s' '(I ais :1 !ltowe tIi ) I 11 )\'1 to it hiest'
mills. I ai imIIedHiateIly ulpon aorrival \Iws i lieat d toa a-1 IF. 1Th lilt was
c(',tilfrel'ssl1( a ltie I w( Ihlants iln lie aretn r alltowed to i ovo()( t) (d sinatled
Itlalits :a! C')rlms (4 ri sl i f(r Itrattlilc lIt. It slIhould It b stited Iihat 1all ierstons
aIIt fi tIrlls ilnv lvt'd c pat ed t'l'olt'tl \\litllit'lIrttied I'ly ill 'l lrryillg o11I th lie' above i, tr t-
111(11. (\v 1 thllt I lia re gIilatik lls \(''wer ill rlfec 't W\\hl ll thei y w\tere irslt be'lt'il.







ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUAIhANTIN. (61


Plans for enforcing the regulations during the colninig season are somewhat
different from those followed in thle past. Iilstead of installing sterilizer'l at
each gin, large central plants have been built at variious points in the area.
All seed for millin g purposes will be treated at thlese plants, and after it has
been heated to 155" F. it will be allowed to move to any point. Seed for
planting will be stored in suitable places and. after Ile ginning season is
completed, will be sterilized by the State. All seed, either for milling or
planting, must be sterilized by October 1. A simple permit system is used
whereby we have knowledge at all times of the lamount of unsterilized seed
remaining in the district and the person who h1as the seed. The harvesting of
the 1937 crop got under way about the middle of June. and a nhumbter of the
large central sterilization plants have been operating very satisfactiorily.
The cotton crop is planied time latter part of January aind iin FIwruary.
Picking and giinning beins the latter part of June and is largely iomp(' leted
by the end of August. Because of the mild climate cotton plants are seldom
killed by frost, but remain alive throughout tlie fall an ld winter. Thus under
usual conditions there would be plenty of fruit to maitatin t lie pink bolllwormi
throughout the year. The State has issued regul:tionss that cotton stalks
are to be destroyed after the harvestin-g seas(o all d not later tlhan c()tober 1.
There will thus be no material on wvhich the insect (an i proIp)ate itself during
a period of some 6 or 7 months. Another point in favor of this plan is that it
will undoubtedly be of considerable adv(amtage in reducing boll weevil carry-
over. Farmers, ginners, and other influential citizens are greatly interested in
the plan. and indications are that it will be carried out satisfactorily.
SITUATION IN OLDER REGULATED AREAS
The status of infestation is determined by laboratory inspection of green
bolls if possible; otherwise by gin-trash inspection. If infestation can be estab-
lished by laboratory inspection, gin-trash machines can thus be relased for
work in other areas. In some of the very lightly infested areas this cannot be
done and it is necessary to do gin-trash inspection each season. In the regu-
lated area of northern Florida intensive gin-trash inspections were carried on
and practically all trash produced was inspected. By the middle of October
ginning was largely completed : and in view of the thorough inspections carried
on with negative results, and the negative results the previous season, the
area was released from (quarantine restrictions on October 14. 19(6. In the
Texas Panhandle results had been negative the previous season, and intensive
gin-trash inspections were made this year. At three different points a total of
nine pink bollworm specimens were found, indicating that an extremely light
infestation still existed. In the remaining areas it was found that the status
of the infestation was about the same as the previous year.
A summary of the amount and results of the various kinds of inspection is
given in table 15.

TABLE 15.-Summnary of inspections for the pink bollirorm in regulated areas,
crop scas(on of 1936

Gin trash Field Laboratory
District I Pink Ma Pink Pink
Bushels boll- dan- holl- boll-
worm worms Il wormse
Wi~OHInS H~OT)S iWrnM
Northern Florida 1---------------------- ------- ,370 0 0 0 0
Lower Rio Grande Valley, Tex. --------------3,922 29 34 0 171 1
Texas Panhandle 3 --------------------------- 10. 6 9 1 0 1 0
Pecos Valley, N. Mex------. ---------------- 431 20 0 .( 132 0
Pecos Valley, Tex ---...----- ---------.. ... 10 o 22 0 0 62 0
Big Bend, Tex. ---.--_ ......-----..---..-....------ 0 0 0 0 20 |8,485
Hudspeth County, Tex. (southeastern part) ..----- 0 0 0 0 28 912
El Paso Valley, Tex ----.... _---__---------------- 5 0 0 289 138
Mesilla Valley, N. Mex --..--- ------------.------ 53 15 0 0 330 5
Tularosa, N. Mex-....--..- --....----..... ........ 0 0 0 0 0
Demins, N. Mex -----------------..-.--....-. 0 0 0 0 0
Duncan Valley, Ariz. and N. Mex ...-------------. 2 0 0 3 2
Safford Valley, Ariz.--.---.---.--- ............ ---... 394 37 0 0 51 0
Tucson, Ariz. .....-------------.. .. ...........- ..... 1,368 (O) 0 0 0
T otal ^. ...... ...... ........ ................... 20. 571 t.*j 1 40 0 2W ^ 9 573
Total - - - - m -- 1271, 0 1. 2- 9,573

I Released from regulations Oct. 14, 1936.
2 Placed under regulation Aug. 17, 1936; part of gin-trash inspections made before that date.
3 Previously listed as Western Extension.
4 Results negative for pink bollworm, but 25 Thurberia weevils found.










INSPECTION O1 TSIDE REGULATED AREAS

III planlising the inslct iol irogram fle li o st atteltio i-. of co lrs.. givelln t
allt:s ot i lik ly d o I c 0 1 ml(lll( in fesi e1. Therefore itieis ive gil-int ralish illspetioil
were :a!rried o il in soul lit-hn Alabam;lai: iii(I { 4' l.'i adacentll to h Le regulat ed
lare'al of Flvhorid:" allso ill t erritory padjaoe till to tI.l 1 e h vly iluie ted ,ira ill the
lo Ier li,, (;ratle Valley of Texa'i; i;adl iiin the teritory adjaceiet to the Texas
I'Pu :lindle regulatetd a:rea. Ii thle lhtt(er case three sptcimens of the pink
o)llwv, rI W're folldil, lwo ill lowaIrd ( ountly ;ildl o1e ill Iaw II (ouii\. This
is lte first iding; in IIowanrd ('untly sinte the 12T erol. TIse two coun,:ties,
Toqlelt('1 will thlree adjoillng ones, were addlled to ile grlllat reit (11 o ) "I(1ei-
r 1, 109;. A (o'nsid(lerile litiiounlt of gi:-tr'ash ilisi clti n w: -s ilso (loi in
tlhe S'l Riiver Vally., Ariz., wl(ere ai iinfest al; ion w\is er:adiaonted several years
aILg. (Aill-trash or lf ho)lillWl'ry insi(c1itiii ;iI ae ca.lrried ll o l as ofteln as plos-siule ill
ill 1of the col(01 ll SlatelS.
A Sullln:ry of I( various killds of ilnspection alli a moUtI of nate rial,
tIogetlher witlh tlie r sults, is sliOW in talble it.

TABLE 1 .-Naummrf/I of ?flxpccti(.ns for the pin, It ollicoHrm outaid r,' /ulatl( d
lc'a. t(s, crop sciaxon of 1936


Gin trash Field Laboratory

State
tt-Pink Mn Pink Pink
SBuisel s bolfl- M bll- bo1-
Vu'frls days Iules
S wrsorms worISms


Alataman ........-.. ................ -- 10, O01 0 i 0 0 0
Arizona ...- ......- .. ...................-- ..... 4.37 0 0 0 U
ArkaliriS .........- ...---- .-- .- ... .. ...... .. 3(H 0I 0 0
Ciaiforni.-----------.---------------.----------- ,7 --- O 0 0 ) 0
(;eor ia ....---------..- ..-- .. ........-... ...---- ... 1 0 ( 0 0

II>ai--------------------------------------------- -A4 I U
Florida ...... .. ... ......... .... ........... 2795 0 0 : 0 0 0
Loisiana.--..- ..-------.. 4 ------------- 4 ( o i;
issi ppi i ....-----.---------..-.------ ------..------. 21 0 5 O
1isso uri. _------.-. -.. .- . . . . 4 0 o ( i) 0
New .Mexic ............ .. 0 0 0 0U ,
Oklahoma .. ---.----.--------.----------......--- 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
Tennesrsee--......--- -----------....--------... 3 0 0
Texas ..---------------------.....---------. 2,2- 3 11l 0 1.7 0
Total.... ---... ---------...--...--... ......... ,22 3 11 0 2. 1I
M\exico:
Baja California -...-- .............. ......... -1.021 0 '
( 'hihiuahua --............_...-- .................. 5 0 0 0
Nuevo Ieon- .....................-....... ..... 1 i 0 3 0 0
Sinralo ...-------------.......-... ........... - 0 0 0o
Sonora .--------------.-------.--------------------_ 0 0 0
1 amaulilps- ..................................... 33 23 0 0 0 0)
Total......- ---................................. 04 218 3 0 0 o0
Grand total..............--.. --................... i 251 14' 1 0 2. MS 0


CONTROL PROGRAM IN THE BIG BEND AREA OF TEXAS

By tlie 19112 crop season a very heavy pink holwormi iifestiation hlad d'e-
veloped illn the ig e .d area of Texas. This 'consituted a very great dancer.
in that. infestation mighit spreadl t to the C('otIon Iel. Therefore, in order to
r'( Ie the itfestation auIdt eliminute tle dangeI r of pr'ead. 1 special control
ir4o4a1r w\s lii into tffect. This, briefly. Col sistedl in lthoIm'V( i lean -u
of otton (iel ds iIn Il(he full: the delayed planltini of the cottonll crop the fol-
lol\in g spriIng. so, t11le ,ea:k of imioth ei 'lll(ergel(ne wuld pass before cotton b egain
fruit ing: I nl the luse of si t ll plots of cot ton to tr ap tle later lemerging
IotlidIs. The pro gra ll Iwas c arried ol teach yeI 'r a dl 1 ery gNood resulls wtere
I'i; O~ btd ill ed. As It ie la rge worll pop itulai II w\ : as reduced tlie fIarillers
'ega ll ll IvkillIg a better top 'cop. They l iti urally : wnteld to Ihlr est thi.'-, 111and a
Ia 'uilt 1ie lhs were not ready for cleaning bIfore WOrNI began going into
.l I grIlllnul inll t i fall t hieI rna' There was so lie diss:ltisfation vewr the
I.lay;IlId lIla .It ig da1: e of April 1.. Ill tlie fall of 1111 f:larmers a:s a rile l :ialde'







ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 63

no( etfort to get their fields ready lor cleaning, and indicated that tlhey were
going to plant cotton in the spring of 1)37 befor, April 15. l'or this reason
the control program ihas been abandoned, at least for the present.
The first cotton of the 1937 season was planted on MIarch 17, and plat iings
were continued after that, with the last cotton being planted on lay (26.
Owing to the mild winter, considerable stub or volunteer cotton ca me up,
and in one instance a 2-acre field of stiub cotton is beinig clltiIvated. ly the
middle of May specimens of the pink bollworm could be found in small squares
in this stub cotton. This is the sitnation in Presidio ('ounty. In Irewster
County there is a very snall cotton acreage and it is all c lt rolled 1b one
man, who is cooperating fully in continuing the program. A thorough field
cleaning was mnade on this small icrea ge last fall, and no cotton was planted
this spring until after April 15. 1The sitluationl in the two coiunties should
thus provide an excellent opportunity for a thor(ough test of the control pro-
gram, and especially the value of early or late plantings.
WILD COTTON ERADICATION IN SOUTHERN FLORIDA

The eradication of wild cotton in southern Florida was b1eglu in 1932 to
eliminate a rather heavy pink bollworm infestation, and thlereby r emo vet this
menace from the main Cotton Belt. The work has been continued each year
since, but because of climatic conditions the most eflectlive work ca-n be done
only during the fall, winter, and early spring. This season five small crews
began work on the west coast in lAugust 19:. The object was to remove
seedling plants which would have fruited before regular eradication work
got under way in the fall. Larger crews began work about the first of
November, and as weather conditions were favorable excellent progress has
been made. The work was carried on largely with W. P. A. funds; some
Bureau funds, however, were used at the beginning of the season. A first
clean-up was made on some 130 acres, on which 4,014 mature and 12.633
seedling plants were removed. During the recleanings 2,20; mature, 1,629,975
seedling, and 21,249 sprout piants were removed. At each reel eaning there
has been a notable decrease in the number of plants destroyed, indicating
that progress is being made toward final eradication. For example, there was
a decrease of 94 percent in the number of nmature plants relmoved this
season, 42 percent for seedlings anid 63 percent for sprout plants, as compared
with last season. This is especially true along the west coast and is of most
importance because this area is nearest to cultivated cotton. Since the work
has been under way approximately 10% million wild cotton plants have been
destroyed.
During previous seasons wild cotton bolls have been inspected as plants were
destroyed, so as to obtain information regarding the status of infestation. As
the work progresses fewer bolls are encountered, and this season, instead
of inspecting the bolls in the field, they were preserved and sent to Miami
to be inspected after eradication work was discontinued. Inspection of this
material had just gotten under way at the end of June and a few specimens
of the pink bollworm had been found. These were from bolls collected on
keys off the coast of Monroe County, and are farthest removed from domestic
cotton.
An important phase of wild cotton work was a survey made with an
a)utogiro during March and April 1937. The autogiro was loaned to this
project by the Dutch elm disease project. An area of some 1.900 square miles
was covered during the survey, and as a result 24 new locations capable of
sustaining wild cotton were located. These locations were charted on a map,
and it will be a fairly simple matter for clean-ip crews to reach them and
destroy any cotton that might be present. Of equal importance is the fact
that many hundred square miles of swamp and everglades have been found
to be unsuitable for wild cotton growth, andl can now be elimlinated from
further consideration in the eradication program.

THURBERIA WEEVIL CONTROL

In the area regulated because of the Thurberia weevil in southern Arizona
approximately 6,000 acres were planted to cotton this season. Of this amount
some 5,000 acres are of the short-staple variety and 1,000 acres of the Pima
or long-staple variety. The inspection of gin trash indicated a light infestation
of the Thurberia weevil in the cultivated cotton, 25 specimens being found.
cut\tdcotn )
-, Ieln ns b igfjl







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ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 65

of sugar sirup. To facilitate the prepaIration of this solution, a method hlas
been devised for preparing in powdered form measurabloe (quantities of approxi-
mately known numbers of spores of BIrillcs larrac. Cult ural st udies of various
strains of the organism have shown wide variation iln length of thle incubation
period and in the greatest dilution that will give grtowth in culture.
Losses of queens shipped under present standards are too high. particularly
during hot weather. Provision for a continuous water supply has given promise
of reducing such losses, while for queens caged for long periodls, pollen added
to the queen-cage candy in addition to a water supplly has been shownt to be
beneficial in preliminary tests.
It has been found that relative humidity has a more marked effect on tile
longevity of caged bees than any other environmental factor. lRelative humidi-
ties of about 20 to 25 percent, together with 5(0-percent sucrose solutions ill
water and with additional water available, provide satisfactory coinditions for
caged bee studies. The most suitable temperature conditions have not bien
determined, but the length of life at temperatures of 84 to 93: is sltti-
ciently long for most comparative testing.
Studies on the lethal effect on bees of arsenicals used as insecticides show
that a dose containingii only 0.05 to 0.10 microgran of elemental penitava lent
arsenic is sufticient to cause a significant shortening of life. The work also
indicates that calcium arsenate (Ca::(As0,)2 is somewhat more toxic to bees
thian acid lead arsenate (PbtHAsO).
Preliminary crosses and backcrosses of the Italian and Carniolan races by
the Watson method of artificial insemiination gave no indication of the com-
plete dominance of either yellow or black as far as coloration of al)domIlens
and scutella of the worker progeny is concerned.
What has been tentatively desiglnated as a haplo-diploid mosaic drone was
discovered in the experinmental apiary at Beltsville. AIi. It h;eairs dark hairs
on one side of its thorax nd11( yellow hairs on the other, and shows some)
difference of coloraition in tile two sides of thle anterior abdominaltl tergites.
Studies )ln two different colmmercial strains of the Italian bee reared ill Ihis
country showed one to be a:pproxilately twice as good as tile other in honeyv-
storing ability, and also to bIe definitely superior in alimount of Ibrood reared a nd
in drawing out foumndation.
Spores of r!~'illuNi larra failed to grow ill culture aifter they were Ioiled
in water for 6 hours and also after they were auto(claved at 15 1po1nds' pressure
for 30 minutes. With all shorter periods of heaiting. growth was obltained in
some of the cultures. Three hours of exposure to flowing stea failedl to
destroy all the spores. Inl concentrations rangilng from 1 pound in 5 g!allons to
1 pound in 30 gallons of water, both potassium hydroxide a nd stodium hydroxide
failed to destroy spores of H. larrae within 3 days.
European foulbrood did not recur in colonies of Caucasian or ('Carn4iolan ,bees
I bt did recur in all experimental colonies of ciommon black bees.

INVESTIGATIONS OF INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS

SCREWWORMS AND OTHER BLOWFLIES

Further research oi the biology ; and habits of sc(reiwworms '1 and (loter bI1low-
flies has developed promising methods of determiniing the influen(e of climiatlo-
logical and other ecological factors whic(h favor tile developmelnt ofi alndl are
responsible for, local outbreaks and the natura l (isseminlationl of thes-e p)(sts.
In the overwintering reintern Texas. during 1937. foci iln vwhiich factmrs
alppeared favorable for the rapid building lup of scroewom n lly abunldainc(e
were located at certain points along the Rio Grande and ii tlie lower Rio (rnaidc
Valley. By following the natural migratioln of thle tly froll tlhe overwinlterilng
area and studying the rate at whic.h th: flies i ncreal'ed :Ifter rteac hing given
localities, it was determined tiat all f Texas. parts of Vwestern Louis-
iana. and the lower desert secti(on of Arizona were reinfested early inl July.
In 1937 the rate of migrati)on was abl)11t thle se 11ort hwa rd as in 1 ):8i ht was
m1ore rapid toward the east. After spreading over the Gulf C('oisal Plain in
Texas the screwworm popiulat.tion realchied its peak o; rly inll M11ay.. Alomng tle
escarpment of the Edvwards Plateau t ie ibuil1d-1p of the f1y1 popl ul:ioin was at a
more rapid rate and did not reach its pe;ak Iuntil (early ill Junie. ()n till Eldw;vrd
IPlateau the flies were continuin1g to in'crease at the (ienld f .1uly. With the
24695-37- 5









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L26I1 '5H1IrLID1I1{v dAO 1,LICJ.II\d\" :4" do SJIOd4tI1- avnfc'xv 99







ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 67

Studies on the life history and habits of the Gulf coast tick, one of the most
serious predisposing causes of screwworm attack in the Southeast, have
indicated practical methods of controlling this species of tick.
To study the screwworm problem and develop practical control measures
under range conditions the Bureau has established a ranch experiment station
at Menard, Tex., comprising some 1,200 acres and using approximately 900
sheep, goats, and cattle as experimental animals.
CATTLE GRUBS
Experiments with solutions of rotenone have yielded a simple and etiiient
method for reducing the abundance of cattle grubs. A solution composed of
50 cc of benzol, 5 cc of cresol, 45 cc of liquid petrolatum, and 1 g of rotenone
was found to be as efficient when applied to the surface of the skin and
rubbed with the fingers as when the solution was injected into the opening
of the lesions individually. The survival of grubs from such general applica-
tions ranged from 1.25 to 7.69 percent. When this method is used, from three
to five times as many cattle can be treated by one operator as when the
solution is injected into the lesions individually. The method is particularly
suited to the treatment of dairy cattle and provides a cheap, quick remedy
against the losses to the dairy industry occasioned by these pests.
A histological study of the migrations of the larvae in the host have cor-
roborated earlier findings resulting from gross examination. The investiga-
tions also showed that the esophagi invaded by the cattle grub exhibited an
extensive inflammatory edema, which was confined mainly to the outer layers
and was composed principally of a hematogenous exudate, with eosinophils,
plasmocytes, and lymphocytes predominating. Infiltrating fluids caused dis-
tortion and injury resulting in an apparent weakening of the walls of the
esophagus.
CATTLE AND HORSE LICE
In experiments on the control of lice on cattle and horses where the use of a
dipping vat is not feasible, as is often the case during the winter months,
the powdered roots of derris and devil's shoestring have been found efficient
and economical because of their effectiveness even when greatly diluted.
Derris root containing 3 percent of rotenone was effective for both biting and
sucking lice when diluted to 0.125 percent rotenone by mixture with diatoma-
ceous earth in the ratio of 1 part to 23 parts of the diluent by weight. Powdered
devil's shoestring diluted to the same concentration of rotenone was equally
effective.
It was found also that a solution of 0.5 g of rotenone in 100 cc of carbon
tetrachloride, when sprayed lightly into the coat of an animal with an ordinary
hand sprayer, is a very prompt and effective treatment. The carbon tetra-
chloride evaporates almost instantly, leaving the fine particles of rotenone in the
hair. While this preparation is more easily and more rapidly applied than
the powders, the materials are more costly, since about 4 fluid ounces of the
solution was required to treat a full-grown animal.
GOAT LICE
Following the experimental work of the Bureau which demonstrated the
effectiveness of 325-mesh wettable sulphur for the control of lice of sheep and
goats, many ranchmen in certain parts of the Southwest are enthusiastically
employing this material for ridding their flocks of these parasites. The
treatment is reported to increase the mohair production approximately one-
fourth pound per animal. In order to make the sulphur usable as a dip with
all kinds of water, over 400 tests have been made to determine the best
wetting agent to be used in connection with the sulphur in alkaline waters.
These tests have determined that at least six combinations of neutral sodium
oleate with sulphonated-alkylated diphenyl. a sulphonic acid of an aromatic
hydrocarbon. and a sodium salt of alkyl ester of sulphosuccinic acid are suit-
able as wetting agents in water rendered alkaline by the presence of sodium
or magnesium salts.
FLY SPRAYS AND REPELLENTS
In investigations in the development of more efficient fly sprays and repel-
lents, especially for use on livestock and in barns, a biological method of assay-
ing the insecticidal value of fly sprays has been perfected in which use is
made of an accurately regulated mechanism governing the air stream, dosage.














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ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 69

formerly used, but there is no indication that a; moth-protofing age1n lias yet
been developed which imlparts a perilmaelit insect-resistant quality lo t1lie
fabrics.
()bservations on the larder beetle idicaIte that tle iiinscl has iiy ly ovne
gelieration a year in north wheri Veriont, wlereas at Washinigton, 1). .. several
generations may be pr oduced. The effectiveness of hydrocyanic acd 2g: il
destroying this pest in large warehouses and in carload shipients of liver
meal and other iiiiinal products to be used as fertilizers was demonlistraited.
MOSQUITOES

Recent experiments have shown that paris green, when milxed with wa ter
and applied as a spray, is very effective for destroying the subsurface-feeding
larvae of culicine mosquitoes. In a number of field tests with this arsenical,
carried out under various conditions, high percentages of larval control have
been obtained with several important ecionomic species, including tle salt-
marsh mOS(quito tAc dcs tactliorh y.ch liru Wied., the fresh-water species PI'oroph oai-
coltribfbic D. and K.. and the southern house im osIquito. Treatmenlts werel
effective when the arsenical was applied with a sprinkling can or knapsack
sprayer at rates as low as 1 pound per acre. Two preliminary tests were imade
with an autogiro as a means of applying the spray. and the results indicated
that this type of airplane. with its comparatively low speed, c(uld probably
be adapted for treating large breeding areas that are not otherwise a:cessible.
Samples of calcium arvsenite having a comparatively high percentage of
water-soluble arsenic were found to be nearly as toxic for mosquito larvae as
paris green. This product may therefore prove to be a satisfactory substitute
for use in both anopheli and ine d cici mosquito control. While this form of
arsenical is apparently not yet available conunercially, it seems probable that
such a product can be produced at a cost appreciably lowver than that of
paris green.
An acetone solution of phenothiazine was known to be 11much more toxic for
mosquito larvae than the undissolved material. Recently it has been found
that the addition of a sulphonated petroleum oil reduces greatly the amnount
of acetone solvent required, while providing a combination that is readily
miscible with water. In preliminary laboraorry experiments this solu tion
gave 100-percent mortality in tests with larvae of Culcx quinqucfascia tof at
a phenothiazine dilution as high as 1 to 2,000.000.
A study was nade of the distribution of the important tropical malaria mos-
quito Anoplieles albiiai taini Wied.. with special reference to the possibility of
its introduction into the Southeastern States. At present this species occurs
in the United States only in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, and, judg-
ing by the apparent temperature limitations there, it seems unlikely that it
could survive in other portions of the Gulf Coast States except in swthlern
Florida, where climatic conditions would appear to be favorable for its propa-
gation if once introduced and allowed to become established.
Studies on the biology and habits of the two floodwater mosquitoes At des
aldrichi D. and K. and A. vexans Meig. in the Pacific Northwest, particularly
along the lower Columbia River, have shown that both species and both
sexes were dispersed in all directions, both with and against general wind
currents, for a distance of from 2 to ; minles from the breeding ground, and
that there was a gradual dispersal up the tributaries of the Columblia River
for distances of 8 and 10 miles. The extreme longevity of these species was
112 days for females and 94 days for males. In years of low floods of the
Columbia River-that is, about 10.5 feet-73.4 percent of the mosquito popu-
lation is Acd.e rcax.rus and 26.6 percent A. allrichi. In years of average high
floods-about 19.7 feet-only 13.8 percent of the population is A. I'.rcv n and
86.2 percent A. aldriclii. Studies of the factors inltuencing the hatching of
eggs of these two species show that in the dormant stage they quickly lose
their viability upon exposiure to relatively long periods of inundatioln: t hit
under normal conditions they inmay remain viable for at leasi 3 years in inaiure
and that overwintering eggs will not hatch1 wlhen moistened with river or tap
water but will respond quickly when treated with various infusions' plhos-
phates, asparagine, and a number of other amino acids. These data have an
important bearing on the type of mosquito-control imethods to be used iand
should be taken into consideration in connection with 111v control r wo'rk ill
areas where Ardcsx rc.raxxn and anlirich i are serinos pests.










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z.861x .DiilIr,)I1t9\y AO ,L.nCI1U ,1IVd'1






ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARIANTINE 71

SCREWWORM CONTROL

The cooperative campaign for control of screwworms was similar to that of
last year, except that some of the educational phases were of a more advanced
itature, demonstrations on fundamental livestock practices for prevention of
screwworm attacks were carried on by cooperating stockmen. and most of the
supervisors were assigned to larger territories. By employing 155 field men
for varying periods the program was effectively extended to practically all
infested areas of the Southern States.
The work for the year again made use of the State and Federal agencies
interested in livestock. The State screwworm control committee in each State
cooperated and assisted in effective work with county agricultural agents.
veterinarians, teachers of vocational agriculture, and individual stockmen and
farmers. The procedures were directed from fiold headquarters at San Antonio,
Tex., and supervisors were supplied with posters, circulars, handbills, timely
articles for the press, radio talks, exhibits, and supplies. In each State the
supervisors received special instructions on the life cycle, methods of detecting
and preventing cases, proper methods of treating cases with benzol and pine-
tar oil, and the principal variations in the causes of screwworm abundance in
different areas. At these conferences the good preventive measures endorsed
by State agencies usually included (1) controlled breeding to reduce cases in
navels and in mothers of young; (2) dehorning of young animals during cool
weather and horn tipping of older animals to reduce infestations caused by horn
hooks; (3) use of bloodless emasculators on cattle, sheep, and goats in order
to avoid cases which usually follow the use of the knife; (4) control of the
Gulf coast and spinose ear ticks; (5) elimination of the use of catch dogs;
(6) avoiding rough handling of livestock so as to reduce snags and scratches;
and (7) the use of dehydrated pine-tar oil on all open wounds to aid healing
and to prevent flies from laying eggs on wounds.
During the year 7,608 demonstrations of recommended practices of handling
and managing livestock for prevention or treatment of injuries of animals were
made by good stockmen. These demonstrations were conducted by owners of
farms and ranches as examples for different communities, and limited quantities
of treating materials were furnished them. Small quantities of materials for
treating carry-over infestations of the winter were also furnished to stock
owners who cooperated in combating screwworms when the incidence of cases
was at a low point. Altogether, 5.398 gallons of benzol and 7,262 gallons of pine-
tar oil were used for such purposes.
CONTROL WORK IN THE SOUTHEASTERN STATES
Activity of screwworms during the winter is restricted to areas in which
the mean winter temperature is above 55 F. This natural control does not
become effective early enough in the fall to aid in preventing destructive out-
breaks when animals are marked, castrated, and fattened in the fields of the
Southeastern States. The high control of the pest obtained during the fall of
1936 was due to good cooperation by stock owners throughout the year. Such
continuous work resulted in confining the pest principally to the southern
counties of Georgia and to the peninsular portion of Florida, where there was
some activity during the winter months. The additional work carried on in
these areas during the winter (1) reduced the stock of parent flies in the spring;
(2) served in keeping screwworms in check so that a big population did not
breed Iup in navels of young animals; (3) greatly reduced the infestations from
surgical operations; and (4) retarded spread of the pest.
The following are the average rates of infestation among 100,000 animals in
Florida: In 1935, July 3,447, August 3,613, September 2,802, October 2,049,
Novoember 2,148. December 1,105; in 1936, January 374, February 257, March
236, April 687, May 863, June 797, July 581, August 489, September 653, October
8,3, November 454. December 9:; and in 19,37, January 240, February 284,
March 214. April 345. May 694. June 940. and July 867.
The retardation of spread by control work was strikingly illustrated by the
first occurrence of cases of screwworms at Iiinesville, Ga., during the last
2 years. In 1936 the first cases occurred on May 1. and in 1937 the first case
did not occur until May 23. This difference in the (arly occurrence of cases is
attributed only to control work which delayed spread of the pest and enabled
southern Georgia to escape a generation of screwworms. The delay of spread







72 .\NNA FA. I rEI' lTS OF I IEPA.\lzrTIMENlT ( A.C tll( 'IITtE. 1937


was aomiiplisJed ill spilt of the fact that :high I tei NerI1llrs. iNbJiihiig il
F lrida as early as tlh I:st week of I)eeeihe r. greatly favored an early build-
1ll > cf sc're NwvorilS f"r il' ( ear.
ll Soi thi ('arlim; reportl wre rc t*iled If Mt Is ;c-, :111nl illn inlsttances. repr<-
SIfiii i- ."N vnties1I. pIriIary I reWWOrIs were <1 -ti k1 (l eIiitiledk. III each
ilztalle'e lte ple(sl Wa'- prolliptily s "tapied i iil Ivby hle (eff ortt of local s1 t nklllell
Il ( i -( fl'i;i I l' lIh sl \ v.IIs prel .'v l fri' l sl :r1;I J illr fl; llt lt(e (qo eI -ratltlg area Ii
1- falnillin. s(,etion :iid wa1 not ia1d i (llitthl to ilfvladl a;ilalIt ilitht Wer fat-
tn it l il l h ; ti 11(1 i(':I 11 it li'ih ill t i' fall. I A-; iit ; !I1 s1rw worills w (er
idilliitieY I l'i' ilif sil;ltils were lr(li'hily stnlpll)(il 0111 biy lilic'lj t <-ff(,lvts of stock owners. Ii
litlisii;-llit (;i's ('c('e l'r ; st c'ky.nl( s ;I i i l iors '-rt l r dii ('citelrs late in tlhe
f1ill or early ill tll( wilnt r. I'ro' l t tiret ii'ent of -illti (c'"st's by iillilty(. e i of
1 lie Vyards H:il irFtiltly st ;IllH('d (011 t I hl e ilii 'or(c iiif c- t ii s.
'ThI'- 'nlllitltive re1sIlts of s'I Worill (c work ill I lt Souhlleas1 t are
14tlh't((dl ill the 'repo( rted ol lillJ t i1 : ;I illi ild I le (de(1:i i r;nilt diiring the
1 tvl fow y'our. Inl 111':; t1ier w'ero pproxilltiii1ly 75, 0(NIt eas(es of s rewwornils
ill (reorgi:. anlld i atIilli ls in Aloiit 2U e1 uillilies in1 ihirt lern Floridla i He'alis ill-
festedt. By t10 end of 1!934 it was estimated that 1.(00o.k(1) casesa had ocnurred
ill tlle Sontillitst iern' States, aind a;n edu tiaIlol a ld (1 I lldllenistrat inal pro~ram
waHs consideredil 1 ia ssitiy. I 1. Iw 91., Wlhetll co rl work wals carried o',n. only
22s.ha) cases were reP1rted by local sUIlervisors. and illn i1:h there was a flr-
!her re(-dulctin to 4A-.727 r(eporpled eases. A sui1ilmmary of lie ediuati' nl 1caim-
paign of tie year 1:7 i given in table 17. During 1934 it was es imated tliat
approxiliately 12 perce1t of the infested anli mals in the S =oultheast died of
sl'eW oirIll i ifestlaltiol. In 1 Ati8 therti were _2.24) de(aths :anlOlng 11(~LHM I infested
animals. In 194:t only 3222 deaths were reported among 45.S2"! infeltations in
Florida, or at the rate of 7(02 (ldatlis anmoIg 1It).4 ) infested animails. The
Tceort tedl cas inll till Solll'll S taltes alle su tlllmmrizied by \weeks fotr thle year
1987 in taihle 18.

T \I.E 17. --, mc la'lI of du ceitionail rotI'l on .sre'< 4rt ru'n m 'oItol fisrxal yA arl J1.'!

Attend- Circu-
Meet- Stock- Posters pra
ane ant Iars
inns at men n and New's- ticez
and meet- isited Attend- hand- p r Radio demn-
state demon- on ie at ins ills artic les talks stIrate
ra- faims exhibitslns di-- pub- given by
lions (tlol and tribi- lihed i:
stra- rnhe triu-
hell ts rancli tei ted owners


.YNu Id ir N'u mbr nu inbr NIVn mb r Nu nber NSlnltar n imr Ir N.n rmbr N. Ifr Numbr l
Al im A -------. 114 14.2 2t 5.48 1 9 12, 42 4, 31i 171 *3 0 i
rizon .. ..... 119 1. 4ti ;7( 19 322,2 5 1.491 1 !' 0 15
( 'lifornia . 2s 7, Sl 5, 678 33 110. 51 9. 9 169 52 0 73
Floridla ...... 2, S5 21, 137 81. :32t ; 2)5, 391 27. 13 51. ri2.'2 5 4,
(err;i .. 1 .7 11 2,531 43, :.11 19 15, -170t 37, S10 1.332 404 w 2
Lmuisi::an .. 7 96 1.31 I54 .53 1.254 2, 330 22 0 .23
Missi'sippi .... 33 1,35 2, S5 7 2 ,500 5.921 Q 5l 20 0 3A
New Mexico.... 239 7. 11 7.50( 28 127, 5 S. 1.37 32. 39 3 ;43
Ok lahoma .. 23 12 153 17. 04 7 .40t 3;1 25 8 I
g,)lth ('2,rolina 1 9,1 2, *8 1 1: 1) 2, 1 T 72
South Ii ralhi. 94 2. .1 2,. 1 8 33.010 2.937 797 34 i 12
Texus ...... 1. 39.380 59.439 845 49'. (,25 *. 02 3.31 912 5 1. 90
Total.. 7, 572 130, 194 218.31 1. 1'3 1. 34: 194 173,( 02 1 12 2, 15 27 7,00







ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARlANTINEI 73


TABLE 18.- 'Reportf d cases of scr'rtfforms' an)d mIlI/yots il ih NoIuf(i/ n SNtal .s,
fiscal yf ar 19417. bi/ ircck's



Week ended- | -

10----- -- -

Na um- um- n- Nuin- Num- Numn- Nun- Num- Num- NAum- Num- Na in-
1936 ber bhr ber br br ther bbr br br ber ber ber
July 3 ........-------------- 33 ------ 10 1,107 13 3 2 ... 4, 656 1 5, 825
July 10 .--..---------.......----. 24 -----..... 0 82 21 1 3 1 9 4,490 5 5,382
July 17 ----------------....... 9 8 0 839 15 16 4 1 17 7,105 7 -, 021
July 24...-------------........... 29 9 0 34 18 6 4 396 23 14, 650 3 15, 972
July 31..........---------------... 20 49 0 772 4 9 0 169 71 7, 647 15 9, 056
Aug. 7--------------........... 18 34 2 725 21 12 2 5,367 21 6,740 9 12,951
Aug. 14 --------------.... 6 44 1 S34 24 3 3 8194 15 ,443 1 10, 26
Aug. 21.---.---.-----............ --- 71 21 916 22 8 2 1,279 134 6,273 5 8, 739
Aug. 28-------------............. 4 69 28 885 44 3 5 1. 505 109 6,041 3 8, 696
Sept. 4 ---------------....9 170 24 1,204 37 15 0 691 74 3,785 2 6,011
Sept. 11---------------.. 10 81 0 776 42 25 1 1,241 107 3,559 1 5,843
Sept. 1 ..--------------- 3 66 64 1,195 46 9 1 3,293 85 3,205 5 7,972
Sept. 25--------------- 0 48 64 1,303 47 9 0 1102 4 4. 980 7, 564
Oct. 2 ----------------. 0 82 12 1, 643 101 0 1 217 52 4, 904 0 7,012
Oct. 9----------------- 0 39 21 1,308 168 3 0 1,527 41 3, 533 8 6,648
Oct. 16----------------. 0 118 101 1.306 182 2 1 940 26 3,903 1 i6, 58
Oct. 23---------------- 0 113 24 1.249 354 0 1 1,664 47 3,118 0 6,570
Oct. 30-------------- 0 2 164 845 333 5 108 408 15 1,512 0 3,392
Nov. 6 -------- ---.. 8 78 32 481 330 7 0 208 18 1. 11 0 2, 973
Nov. 13 ........-----.----------.. 0 69 20 1,157 164 3 14 66 73 1,272 0 2,838
Nov. 20 ...-------------. 0 11 1,426 51 0 12 0 75 459 0 2,34
Nov. 27-.......----.---------- 0 8 446 753 6 0 16 0 0 367 0 1, 596
Dec. 4..--------------.. 0 8 17 661 1 0 0 0 2 534 0 1,223
Dec. 11_ -------------- 0 56 124 419 0 0 6 0 7 347 0 959
Dec. 18.--------------- 1 20 219 0 0 78 ---- 318
......... ---- ------
Dec. 25 ......------.---.. ----24 0 170 0 0 0 0 34 228
Dec. 31 ----------2 0 194 0 0 ------ 128 ------ 324
1937
Jan. 8 ----------------0 0 427 0 0 411 ---- 838
Jan. 15 ---------------- ------ 0 0 790 0 0 0 0 120 ..--- 910
Jan. 22---------------- 0 979 1 0------ 0 0 116 ------ 1,096
Jan. 29 ---------------- 0 1,017 1 0 ------- 0 0o 2 .....--- 1,046
Feb. 5 ---------------------.. 0 0 1,052 2 0 ------ 14 ----- 1,0 0S
Feb. 12 ----.....------------ 0 0 900 0 00 0 -34 ..------ 934
Feb. 19-------------- ...--- 0 0 851 0 0 ------ 0 0 45 ..... 896
Feb. 26 -------------------- 0 1 770 1 0 ------ 0 0 205 ------ 977
Mar. 5 --------.... --. 0 0 722 o 0 ------ 0 0 326 ------... 1,04
Mar. 12 ------- O 0 644 0 0 0 370 ------- 1,014
Mar. 19 ---...--------- 2 0 627 0 0 0 0 395 ..... 1, 021
Mar. 2.--------- ---.. -------- 0 0 937 0 ...------.----- 0 0 469 1,406
Apr. 2.....------------ -- 27 0 870 0 ....------ ------ 0 0 252 .----. 1,149
Apr. 9------------- ---- 8 0 1,155 0 .... ------------ 0 0 417 ----- 1,580
Apr. 16 ----------------- 84 11 986 0 ------ ------ 0 0 40 ------ 1,561
Apr. 23 ------------------- 5 1,299 0 0 0 790 .--.. 2,094
Apr. 30 ---------------. ...-- 9 ---- 0 1,076 0 0 0 1.726 ..-2,811
May 7-.-----------... ------ 32 0 267 0 0 0 2,005 2,304
May 14 --------------------- 4 -----. 496 5 ------------- 0 1 0 1,913 ------- 2,418
May 21------- ------- ------ 30 .. 736 55 --13 --- 1,70 -- 2,614
May 28..---------------- 19 ------ 1,156 53 ----------- 45 ------ 2, 133 ....-- 3, 40;
June 4 ----------- .. 47 .. 970 25 ---------- 123 1,950 )----- 3, 115
June 11.. 3 _----- 1,014 41 ------ 542 -.- 2,282 -- ,2
June 18. -----------. ----- ------ 13 --..---- 1,079 15 ------.------ 299 .. 1,707 --- 3, 113
June 25 --..... 33 ---- 960 86---------- 415 _----- 1,592 3,08
Total July 3,
1936, to June
25, 1937 .------- 11 1,560 1, 223 45, 829 2,329 139 ; 186 22. 706J 1, 025 125, 134 73 200. 385


CONTROL WORK IN THE SOUTHWESTERN STATES

The program was extended to the Southwestern States during .1June 19836 after
the spring shearing of sheep alnd goats Was complleted. At I hat time screw-
worms were distributed over the western lalf of Texas and in the southeri
portions of other Southwestern States. In Texas the control work froml Jiune
to December, inclusive, served gradulally to reduce the rate of occurr(ence of
infestations, which are shown as follows for the differenlt months as avera,,es
among 100,000 animals: June 1,256, July 1,316. August 872, September 6189.
October 687, November 401, and December 195. This gradual reduction was in
strong contrast to the outbreak of 1935, when an estimated 3,245.297 cases eaused
i -.,-)i (is s e /l~







74 ANN UAL IP TS 41)F '.\l DPAI TMENT OF AGRIICULTURtE, 1937


a loss of about $lo,0(Nr.4NO ill Texas. It is belie\ed that normally the annual
infestation in Texas is aboutt 1,$)I00,0X)0 case, 11and that tli weather during 193G
was sollewhat more favorarble for screwwrmsi tlaln durilng a normal year.
Thlre Ft were no exlensive drougllts 11and tlIre cll ,ed to be sufficient rainfall t
keep wolllds soft aditl attl ractive for NcrewworIllI lies, h1ut lot aough to result
in( drowning of iimature stages in llie soil. The clses in 1!93 c(6 rcurred at the
av t'rage rate of \27 1amonlg IIt',b()O aInilnals, Van1dt were estimated at 573,3~ii on
'lie basis of 12.1:,1 reported infestations. It seenis ciser\ til e to attribute
the lifference bet ween this estimiate atid tlhat of a niormal infestation to results
of screwworIlm conlt rol work. In addition to a reduction in tle inumber of cf8ls,
there, Was Ilso) a redilltitll illn tlie mortality aunOliga infested animals. During
1935 tle (ieal ratle was .esIl ima:ted at: 14,732 lamongl 100,(1)0 a niimals, and ill 193ti
tlhe Ilortalities were at aill average rate of 9,410 a:lllong 1)0m,0() infested ai ilmal1.
They are still high enough to emplihsie the need for adopting better method s
of treatin1g animals m:nd eslpecially is this true for cases occurring ill sh-p
and goats.
In oilier Southwestern States colitrol work stiarted during .J1une allnd stll
elucatliouall phases were contlinuled I l'llgh tilie wiilter molntlhs. From Jullne to
I)ec(mrllr. inclusive, t l following were tlie al erag rates of infsrations amongl
100,(0 animals : Arizona 2ti2, ( alifornia 75, New Mexico 161, and Oklahoma 212.
The infestations in all of these States were at the rate of only a fraction of
1 plrecent of the animal populaltion. There was a wide variation in the mnor-
tality rates becaullse in areas having a low incidence of cases there is a mren
fixed tendency of stocklien to use lndiluted stock dips or other irritating mate-
rials for killing screwworml in wounds. The average rates of animals dyine
among 100,000 infested animals were as follows: Arizona 2,722, (California 1,076,
New,\ Mexico 3,107. land Oklahoma none.
I )iiring the period whenl there was a good( degree of control of scretwwormN
in Texas and ot(lier Soluthwesternl States, the piest was a:ble to ;spreatd alnd causet
at least 1,025 cases iln Oklah nna. about 50 in Kansias, 25 in Missouri, about 10
in Illinois. and approximately 1 .(0) in southwestern Te s nes These figures
I'represent cases occurring during a dry year. iln many of tlese areas, and a re-
dllUction from lreplorts of tlie previous yelar. welin tIhere were abllout 30.C 0) case-
in KaInsas, 1,0i0 in Iowa, anid 6,010 in Illinois. During 1013i workers in stock-
yarld at different places examined animals alnd sent iln spcilmers for identifica-
Sion. The following collections of primalry screw\wor'ins were made: At Kansas
City. Mo., 10: at East St. Louis, Ill., 3 t: at Kaplan and Church Point, La., 3:
at New Orlhans, La., 10 (of .)9 cases ) : and at Nashville. Tenn., 1. These records
show t hat here is an a nual d:anger of ilt roducing scre\vwwormi into nliIfested
States.
PREVENTION AND SHEARING

Ill tle sheep- a 1nd1 ~at-l'breeding area f a soutllwestelrn Texais screwlworlill are
norimally p1resent when tlie spring shealring begins, and lhey are :1ble to spread
rapidly across the area during the periol required for shearing operations. In
the spring of 1937 supervisors were assigned to several counties so that they
could work among owlners of sheep, advising them of the imlirtance oif treat-
inlg shear cuts. Thl1e )\oners ere visited in :dvance of shearing, and screw-
worm control workers urged that all shear cuts be treated with pine-tar oil
to prevent infestation, all tlhat a:nimnals having severe injuries be kept in hold-
ing lpstures and treated until healed. This procedure did not prevent spread
of tlie screw1worlns across the slheep- and goat-lbreeding area but it was mno1 t
helplfl iln maiinitaing a low screw\\I\orll n p)olatlion. From June 20 to DecmIn-
her 31. 19311, tile averag infestation in the sleep- 1and goat-breedin area was
at the rate of SR2 cases among 100.0IX) animals. Following special work in this
arIIa the average ilfestation il Texas for .June 1937 was only 341 c:ase among
1(0.000 inial Is. Injuries of slheep. such as sore mouth, pinkeye. boils, prickly
poa r injries, and those caused by rains' fighting, are not easily avoided, hot
lmali animalls escaped infest atioll bl'calluse screww\orlls were at a low level.
Til tI heo lt Ilo'hstern coulllil of Nxicii tratmnt of sNew ic t lit if heaf r cuts rediluc
sc(reXwwor i Infesltins, ht ll Qil uay (Coulllty, where no si]lwIal work wals done.
an ilnfestatitn of a:out 2 percent of tlhe :nilmll population developed in the latter
i:1 rt of .Jun1 '.
SUMMARY
Th!e screwwvtorm control work of the year resulted in (1) reducing infestations
:imi dlea:th losses along livestock in Texas and other Southwestern States nnd
furtlher Ireduling cnses nil mortalities in the Smuthe1astern States: (2) effe-
tively prexentling the bIuillding up of large numbers of serewworms In different






ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 75

southern areas; (3) detecting the presence of screwworms in advance of the
gradual spread of the pest in the Southeastern States; (4) enlisting the efforts
of stockmen in stamping out localized infestations in advance of the regular
spread of the pest in the Southeastern States and in stockyards; (5) effectively
reducing cases in the overwintering areas so as to reduce the number of parent
flies in the spring and to retard development of large populations of screw-
worms; and (6) preventing a build-up of screwworms in shear cuts inl the
sheep- and goat-breeding area of Texas and in southeastern New Mexico.

INSECT IDENTIFICATION

During the year 48,999 different lots of material were received for identific:a-
tion, and the number of determinations made totaled 77,856, an increase of more
than 20,000 over the number reported for 1936. Sixty-eight percent of the
identifications were for interceptions by the Division of Foreign Plant Quaran-
tines, 16 percent related to material submitted by the remaining divisions of the
Bureau and other Federal agencies, and the balance applied to specimens re-
ceived from State experiment stations, agricultural colleges, and other institu-
tions in the United States and its territorial possessions and from numerous
individuals, both in this country and abroad. At the end of the year 6,277 lots
remained unfinished, this number being slightly higher than the corresponding
figure for 1936. Assistance has also been given to numerous taxonomic spe-
cialists, both American and foreign, attached to educational institutions, mu-
seums, and experiment stations, in connection with the solution of problems in
insect classification.
During the brief periods not required for identification work, investigations
were conducted on a variety of taxonomic problems with the object of improving
the classification of difficult economic groups that have been in a state of
confusion. Forty-three manuscripts were completed and submitted for publi-
cation, 24 of which were published. Most of these papers are very short, but
a few that are comprehensive treatments of larger groups present the results
of studies that have been under way for several years and include, for example,
a revision of the horseflies of the subfamily Tabaninae and one covering the
mites belonging to the subfamily Tarsoneminae.
Studies, unavoidably intermittent because of the demands for identification s..
have been begun on the classification of various economic groups. Following are
some of the larger of these undertakings: Classification of the white grubs:
revision of the wood-boring beetles of the genus Chrysobothris; revision of the
blowflies: revision of the fruitflies of the genus Anastrepha; revision of the
moths of the family Gelechiidae; monograph of the moths of the family Tor-
tricidae; revision of the moths of the family Oecophoridae; classification of the
New World moths belonging to the Phycitinae; generic classification of the fleas;
revision of the bee genus Osmia; studies on the classification of chiggers: revi-
sion of the parasitic wasps of the genus Ophion; generic classification of the
leafhoppers of the family Cicadellidae; revision of the aphids belonging to the
genus Myzus; studies on scale insects of the genus Asterolecanium; and a
morphological study of the male genitalia of the Hymenoptera.

FOREIGN PARASITE INTRODUCTION

Particular attention was given to the collection and importation of natural
enemies of the oriental fruit moth, the pine shoot moth (Rhyacionia buoliana
Schiff.), the larch casebearer, the hessian fly, the European corn borer, the pea
weevil, the vetch bruchid, and the lima bean pod borer. The importations of
fruitfly parasites into Hawaii and of parasites to be used against a variety of
pests in Puerto Rico, both under special funds, have been completed.
PARASITES OF FRUIT INSECTS
Shipments of cocoons and adults of oriental fruit moth parasites from Japan
and Chosen during the fall of 1936 totaled 19,335, representing 16 species. These
are the same as have been imported in preceding years. During the spring of
1937 a total of 102,166 infested peach twigs were collected in Japan and 121.085
in Chosen, and the parasites contained in them, numbering 41,439, were for-
warded during June.







7(H ANNI'Al. IlliKI' T'S )I I-I'AlIT.M I'INT I F A; tl I.T'lTUE. 1917

PARASITES OF FOREST INSE( TS

The field l f iinvestigation of pine shooit moth parasites was shifted from
Engl: lid il tie (I Ne llerlauds fohr tile collet ion of IIlaterial during May aid J unil
1 l,7. A Itota of 8,.410 ,tuls, is comprisilng or llore :li'ies, were forw\ardted.
;Illil ailso 6..-(0 !f<'lni4;c1.llat m I )al.
A tIotal of 7.10t paralsites of S s1'iei~s lemer 'g fri thl e 111 1tin. larch caII-
I I I I "l l .) t'lme Ii tle
hearer larvae shlippled from IEngland in 1936. The c'llecdtions in 1987 were made
in the Ncthlierl:ilnds and 53.5(00 host cases were shipped during May.

PARASITES OF CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS

At lli iion ias been given to securing two Elurolpan piari ; te1 s of th1lw Ilosian fly
for colonizatiol i tlie United States. These, however, have not prved to be
alunlldani ill ainy (,(sectio. Large qulltllities of inlfeted wleailt straw were set
aside for para.site emergence, and 1.00i PlatuIast r pl(uron Walk. and 855
Trichasisi rcmulu.s Walk. were reared out and shilpped.
Investigations of parasites of the Eurolipea corn Iorer were limited to Italy.
where collections for ('hl/onus alnnlipcx Wesml. were made. A total of 8I.,(00
host larvae were shipped late in 1936, and tli ese were estinated to( clntaill
,.)00 Ch (lonums and probably a larger number of otiier paurnsites.

PARASITES OF TRUCK CROP AND GARDEN INSECTS

Extlensive shilipments of pea weevil parasies were mllad dilrinfg fthe sulllmmer
of 193(; from France and Austria. A total of 5,i6O1 Triitpix thoracieu, (C'urt.
were obtained from 400 pounds of infested horsebeanls shiplied from France alnd
rIred out 1under quarantine conditions. In addition 10l,(X)0 adults of the same
species were shipped from Austria. The nllumber that reached the P 'ific North-
west alive and were colonized totaled 26.510). The spring shipments of 1937
containetd aipproximately 6 5,(00 parasites of the same slecies. A portion of these
are to ie utilized against the vetch bruchid in the Eastern States.
Preliminary studies were madee upont the parasites of the lima bean pod hor'er
in France aind Austria, and it was detterminled that several promising parasites
(occur in those countries. Small test shipments of JMicrobhreac picer Wesm. and
Phnllncrtoinl( planiifronr Nees were made during tlhe summer of 19: i.

IMPORTATION OF FRUITFLY PARASITES INTO HAWAII

The exploratory work under this special project was completed late in the
sulmmer of 1936. During thle ti-month period covering actuail importations 2,.751
adult parasites of 14 species and GS predicious beetles of 2 s ecies reached
HIawaii alive. These originated in West Africa, Brazil, Puerto Rico, Mexico.
Malaya, amd India. No recoveries of these natural enemies lhave yet beel madll
ill HIawaii.
PARASITE IMPORTATIONS INTO PUERTO RICO

The work in Puerto Itico under special funds was completed in Septlemller
1936, since which time furlther activities in this lille lhave been on a cooerative
ibasis Nwith thle )Ofice of Experiment Stt ions. The principal shipments of the
year are, listed in table 19.

TAtlL 19. --S7 ipm,,nt ut of ipar.Niti/ into Pu< ri o Rc l Ricr t i t fp. cutl t 't Ir L'T .


tI st 1' r ie h


Li tib tbi I ,0 t f i horcr ...... ... A r lfr trv T l/lql/:i f'r:i. Is ohl .. 5, "ii
['ill i ti l Tl t +il i l..L .. . .... .. . .I tl l'j rtUs '*ro fliC r I. .. 10 302

l)(i .. .. . .ili 's h W .t .l
l r'ill ti,, m fr lll ......... !+++frlc . or I .lnlc i"I c ilf b .. . . .....oc... .i1. ....... .

I r: n :t p /f .. liii f W l ro T' ;o Hi ] ii.







ENTO )M(LOGI Y AND PLANT QUAlRANTINE 77


Field recoveries of two additional species have been made during the year.
The coccinellid beetles imported from Trinidad ill January 1937 have appar-
ently brought about complete control of the coconut scale in the sections where
they have been colonized.

COOPERATION WITH FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS

In cooperation with the Entomonlogical BrIanch of the Canadian Department
of Agriculture, and with funds provided by ti:at department. the Bureau station
at Yokohama, Japan, collected and forwarded 213 .40 field-collected cocoons of
Diprion Itipponica Roll. the parasites from which will be ultilized against the
spruce sawfly. Arrangements were made for sending a colony of Ephialtes
Sxam)tiatltor F. to (Canada for use agailnt the pine shoot moth and of lfterro-
spilus cephi Roh, for use against the wheat stem sawfly. The parasites and
predators received from the Canadian Department of Agriculture during the
year are listed in table 20.

TABLE 20.-ParasileSf and p edator,'s f rcired from ('Caada durin'g h i. fiscal
year 1937

Number
Host Parasites recei
received

European corn borer --------------------------------... Chonus annulipes Wesm.....-.--....-------- 7, 665
Fir bark louse (Adelges piceae Ratz.)- ------_------L. Leucopis obscurus Hal .--......-- ...-- 569
Spruce sawfly .....-----------------_----------------. Erenterus ab-uptorius Thunb---------- 2, 890
Do --..----------- ---------------------- icroplectron fuscipennis Zett ------..- 500, 000
Black grain-stem sawfly. _--.-------.-------_----.-.. ('olria calcitrator Grav.. -----------_ 5, 100


Through the cooperation of the different divisions of the Iureau, shipments
of parasites and predators have been forwarded during rte year to the countries
listed in table 21.

TABLE 21.-h-Sipm its of para.nites and predators to forcifn coiultries during
thw fiscal yc ar 1937

Country Host Parasite

Argentina, Australia, Oriental fruit moth. ----------------- 3Macrocentrus ancylirorus Roh.
Uruguay.
Do ..------------------ ----l-o _.------- Glypta r rfiscu!a-ris C'ress.
Argentina, Uruguay- -----. -do _..- ----- --------. ---------._---- B assus di 'tru us 1Mues.
)Do-_ ----------. ._.. ---do... .----------------------- t- ltco ,tr quadritr :ata \esm.
Costa Rica------------ ooI apple aphid------------------- phelinis mali HIadi.
E-ypt -----_---------- Pink hollworm------------------- Chr(onu b!ackbhrni Cam.
Do-----..-----..--- Cotton worm (Prodenia iitera F.)------- B ro marinus L.
Mauritius .------------. C nie grubs i Ihytalis spp. .------------ Pyrop ors lu" i rosus Ill.
Mexico .--------. -- . Woolly apple alphid ------------. ------- l ph.lins imai Ilad.
Peru -..-..--------- ---- Codii-n moth . .... . sco(ant(r qU(adrtidt tata We i.
IDo..-----.------- Mealybues (Ptseadcocoes sp i..--------- Cr'ptoleimui u montraozieri Miuis.
Do .---- --- -- ('ane beeiles (Scarabaeidae) -----------J..' o :marinjs I.
iarito omo .Doig ..--- Coconut saile t(.sprioiotus d tructor -i iPtiia cztQita a Mills.
Sign.)
Do. _-- .---------- _.... ---------do--......_---------..-.- CryptoaJ:gtha uodcetps IM.arall.


CONTROL INVESTIGATIONS

TESTS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND PLANT PRODUCTS AS INSECTICIDES

In tile testing of iorgan;ic compoulds as insecticides. 7,t were 1found thall
showed promise against some of the 7 leaf-eating species used for test
purposes. It is exlected that a number of these .5; compounds will bee of value
for comnnercial u gse gainst insect ,pests of crop plants. Many of thei have
shown no injurious effects when a pplied to crop plants in a preliminary way.
Three hunlldr(ed cIlomplounds or preparations were te'ted in t hi woirk. ilcl dini
those used in preliminary te-Is on nosnquito larvae.
In cooperation with the 1)iisvion of Drug an1d Related lPlants of tile BIureau
of Plant Industry, aq),pprximnately 0(t) prepa ratio ns of plaulnts from I'Perto Rico.
supposedly fish poisons, were tested for inlri(cticidal value 1 Except in a few










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ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINIE 79

REFRIGERATOR CARS AS FUMIGATION CHAMBERS

The ordinary refrigerator car has been shown to be a very effective fumiga-
tion chamber, and fumigations of vetch seed against the vetch bruchid, applied
in the car under commercial conditions, have given a complete kill. As a
matter of fact, the cars were found to be more satisfactory than many fumni-
gation chambers, though good results are obtained in tight vaults.
METHYL BROMIDE AS A FUMIGANT

In cooperation with other divisions of this Bureau, methyl bromide, which
has only recently been suggested as a fumigant, has been tested against various
insects and with various types of plant products, especially fresh fruits and
vegetables and greenhouse plants. It has been used with lima beans, egg-
plants, cucumbers, green string beans, sweetpotatoes, cantaloups, peppers,
tomatoes, and potatoes, in concentrations sufficient to kill the Japanese beetle
in the packages, without injury to the product.
Methyl bromide has been tested on loads of 25 bushels or more of green
string beans packed in hampers and was found to be effective in killing the
Japanese beetle at the center of the package at concentrations of 1% to 2
pounds of methyl bromide per 1,000 cubic feet of space without injury to the
beans. In experimental treatments a dosage of 3 pounds has frequently been
used without injury.
Eight different varieties of strawberry plants with soil on roots, packed in
crates ready for shipment to market and infested with larvae of the Japanese
beetle, were fumigated with methyl bromide. In all cases complete mortality
of the larvae was obtained, and the plants grown in the field with appropriate
checks showed no evidence of injury. This treatment will materially reduce
the cost of disinfesting millions of strawberry plants. which was formerly
done by inspecting plants one by one and removing the beetles by hand.
In preliminary experiments with methyl bromide in the fumigation of peach
trees for controlling the oriental fruit moth there was complete mortality of
the insect with no apparent injury to the nursery stock. Thirty-one green-
house plants were fumigated with a dosage of 3 pounds of methyl bromide per
1.000 cubic feet without injury, with practically a complete kill of three vari-
eties of aphids, the common red spider, one species of thrips, two species of
mealybugs, and immature stages of the southern armyworm. Methyl bromide
gives promise of being a good greenhouse fumigant at a temperature of 65 F.
Special apparatus has been devised for introducing methyl bromide and other
fumigants into refrigerator cars for the fumigation of carloads of produce
without loss of the gas and with a good mixing of the gas in the car.
LOW-TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF GRAPES FOR MEDITERRANEAN FRUITFLY

During the year it was shown that the low-temperature treatment for the
Mediterranean fruitfly could be applied by cooling the fruit in a pre-cooling
plant on shore and holding it at a temperature of 340 F. or slightly below
that temperature for the required 12 days in the hold of a ship in transit.
In this work the fruit (grapes) was cooled at Capetown, South Africa, and
loaded on a ship, and the remainder of the treatment was applied en route
to Southampton, England. Temperature-measuring instruments in the hold
of the ship made possible an accurate determination of the temperature of the
fruit by an observer who accompanied the shipment. By this method the im-
portation of grapes from countries in which the Mediterranean fruitfly is
found can be safely made to the United States, provided the conditions are
such that treatment is properly applied.

INSECTICIDE INVESTIGATIONS

The only change in set-up of the investigations on insecticides since the last
annual report was the closing of the laboratory at Wooster, Ohio. The study
of the characteristics and effectiveness of oil emulsions which was under way
there was discontinued, and the chemist concerned was transferred to Belts-
ville, Md., where he is developing stickers for use with phenothiazine. nicotine-
peat, and other organic insecticides which have been found insufficiently ad-
hesive of themselves.












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ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 33

Paradichlorobenzene is used as a soil fumigant in combating Japanese beetle
grubs in nursery stock, and for its effective use the concentration in the
treated soil must be watched. No method for its estimation was available, but
one was worked out which appears quite satisfactory for use with soils col-
taining water, peat, leafmold, or cow manure.
CHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON OILS AND OIL EMULSIONS

The principal objective of this project was the comparison of the insecticidal
value of certain vegetable oils, namnely, peanut, corn, cottonseed, pine, and
orange oils, with a commonly used petroleum oil. In tests against mealybugs
it was found that the first three were about as good as petroleum oil, and under
some conditions might be better, as for instance when used at large dosages.
In tests of the same oils against overwintering eggs of the scurfy scale, it was
found that the drying property of each oil was an important index of the
toxicity, quick drying resulting in lesser efficacy. In the study of the effect
of adding toxicants to the oils, it was found that nicotine and nicotine-beta-
naphthol improved notably the action of petroleum oil, but did not similarly
aid corn oil. Pine oil and or tnge oil were found to be poor because they
volatilized too rapidly to be effective insecticides and were quite active in
injuring the plants. Of all the additional toxicants tried, the nicotine and
betanaphthol combination seemed particularly worthy of further study.
This project was discontinued near the end of the year, and the personnel
transferred to Beltsville for work on the development of stickers.
CHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON ACCESSORY MATERIALS FOR USE WITH
INSECTICIDES

An extensive investigation of the wetting and spreading properties of mix-
tures of various fatty acids with sodium hydroxide and with sodium carbonate
was carried on, in order to better understand the action of soaps, which are
so often used as emulsifiers in oil emulsions and as wetters and spreaders for
other spray materials. It was demonstrated that the surface activity increases
fairly regularly with increase in molecular weight of the fatty acid, thus
following the properties of foaming and detergency. The spreading power of
solutions made with sodium hydroxide was found to be quite sensitive to
changes in the acid,:/ase ratio. whereas solutions prepared from sodium car-
bonate were not, indicating the possibility of stabilizing the action of soaps
by the use of the carbonate.
A special study was made of triethanolamine oleate. because of its recent
popularity in published spray recommendations. It was found to be a generally
effective wetting agent. A somewhat similar study was made of solutions of
trimethyl benzylanmmonium oleate, which has recently become commnercially
available, and it was found to resemble closely sodium olente.
A study was made of wetters and adhesives for use with phenothiazine,
nicotine-peat, and derris.
TESTS TO DETERMINE TOXICITY OF NEW INSECTICIDAL COMPOUNDS, USING
GOLDFISH

The principal work of this project was directed toward the finding of possible
relationships between toxicity and chemical constitution, as an aid to the
project of developing synthetic organic insecticides. To this end the thr(ee
isomeric tolyl mercaptans or thibcresols were thoroughly studied. When com-
pared at the points of minimum product of time and concentration, the ort ho
isomer was found to be 1.19 and the para isomer 2.19 times as toxic as the
meta compound, these relationships being practically the same as found pr'-
viously for the corresponding cresols. The mercaptaus are from four to eight
times as toxic as phenol, but only one-fortieth to one eighty-fifth as toxic is
rotenone. The replacement of the oxygen atom of the cresol molecule with
sulphur therefore results in a fourfold increase in toxicity, as compared with
a sevenfold increase in changing from phenol to thioplhenol.
A study similar to the above was begun with tlie nitro phenols. Preliminary
results show the para isomer to be decidedly more toxic than the ortho coim-
pound, as was the case with both the cresols and the thiocresols.








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ENT. Olo()LOGY ANI PLANT QUARANTINE g5


Knowledge of routing and distribution of shipmentls, not ),ly in the vicinity
of the terminal worked but also at the transfer points over the main -tconnec tinl
lines, is required of transit inspectors. Such wide familiarity with tran sporta-
tion details on the part of the Cincinnati inspector proved invaluable to thel
puble welfare in the 1937 flood disasters, when his services we(r requested hb
the local relief agencies, and he was assigned to direct the routting of energenlcy
food shipments into the city and to assist the health authorities in (determining
the contents of some I00 railway cars ca:ught in the yards, and to assemiblle the
135 cars of perishables for inspection and disposition.
Table 22 gives data pertaining to shipments intercepted at transit inslpectiIo
points.

TABLE 22.-Shiipienits of nurxsry stock and other articlrx infelrcept(d in riola-
tion of Fedetral plant quarantines at transit insjpc ion points, fiscal year
1937

Shipments intercepted in apparent violation of quarantines
relating to-


Staiion Gypsy
moth White- Mexi- eltc oa
Black moth Japan- Pink Thur- Dutch
stem nd ese boll- beria pie cn e Total
brown- blister fruit-
rust br beetle worm weevil rus disease
tail rust worm i
moth

Atlanta ...------ --------- 5 --2 -------
Boston --.-- ..-------------------------- 2 ----2.. --. 1 ...-----. 153
Chicago --------.-----------. 6 100 400 3 2 26 94 ----- 631
Cincinnatti --------------------------- 2 1 .------- ------ 3 9 .-----. 32
Detroit -.---------------. ------- ------- 23 13 .---------.------- 1---------- 37
Indianapolis ---------------- -------- 3 7 4--------------------- ------- 14
Jacksonville --..-----------------_ --------2 --- -------- 2 i77 -. -. --------.. 79
Kansas City ------------------ ---- 3 52 1 8 29 --..- 93
New York ---..------------- ------ 292 352 1 ------------- 13 3 1 661
Omaha and Council Bluffs--- 2. 11 131 ------- 4 155
Philadelphia --------------------- 28 220 2 .. 4 19 ------- 273
Pittsburgh ---------------------. 5 3 1 82 ------------- 31 15 ------ 236
St. Louis --------- ----------- --- 1 26 ---57 --.. 84
St. Paul and Minneapolis ------- -------- 3 22 1 -----_ i 16 29 -------- 71
Springfield. Mass---------------.------- 138 13 !------- -- ---------------- ----- 151
Washington_ ---------------------. 1 ----- ----.------------------ 1
"--- ~ -~-~-: -- --- --- ---- --------~-~ ---------------~
Total...-..----..-.----.-- 13 678 1 1,600 7 2 110 267 1 12, 678

i The total number of violations represents 2,611 shipments, of which 57 were in violation of 2 quarantines
and 5 were in violation of 3 quarantines.

TERMINAL INSPECTION OF MAIL SHIPMENTS

The States of California, Montana. and Mississippi availed themselves,
during the year, of the provisions of Act No. 643, of .Jne 4. 1936. amending
the law relating to the terminal inspection of pIarcel-post shipments of plants
and plant products. These States have established the )proced'ure, thIrough
Federal channels, of turning back parcel-post shipments found to be in viola-
tion of certain State plant quarantines.
The terminal inspection procedure which has been in elTect for several
years, and whichI provides for turning back or disinfecting infested shipments,
continues to be maintained in Arizona, ('alifornia. t!he I)istrict of Columbia.
Florida. Hawaii. Idaho, Louisiana. Mississippi, Montana. Oklahomia, (regon.,
Puerto Rico, Utah, and \Washington.

CONVICTIONS AND PENALTIES IMPOSED FOR VIOLATIONS OF THE
PLANT QUARANTINE ACT

The following convictions and penalties imlposed for violationis if ilie Plant
Quarantine Act were reported to the Iureau during the year:
(lypsy moth and brown-tail moth quarantine: One conviction, with fine of $25'.
Japanese ,beetle quaralntine: Two c(cnvictionsl. wiiti tfi es a-gregaltig 7.- .






Q(j ANN I .\. UlE'IUTS ()F- I EP.IAi T.MENT I)F A.;1 'UIL'UEI'l1. 1937

Quar:llnines : ffectieng Mexican plains ing $4i52.s5 weN re illmposed hy 1 11cst-omis olliciails oin ilthe Mexican tIrder against
4:(; ppersons cauglht a tmpI inig to smuggle in froim Mexico prohibited plants
:andIi pl:it products.

FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES

Th(e Ilivision ( (i '1 quaralntines and re('gulaltory orders of the I)e(partmenlt prohibiting or restrict-
ig l ie (lli ry of variolls plants ;ild plant produncts into the it. itced States and,
in :Ndlliti on. tlh(e ellnfor('lleient of siinel d(oiilest ic quaralrntinels ;as a ftTet the move-
n 't (otf plalit matelrial btwe(eni the Territories of HIwaii and I'urto Ri
alnd co(ntinlental I'nited Stante. During the year 20 foreign plant quarantine
:11nd regullatirty orders. S (llesti lpilllt qua ralntines,. and 4 mliscelllianeou regu-
latory ll('astres were ellnforce(d.
PIlallt-qularaillinll inspect(ilo'rs anl( collaloraitors ar statiitod :it th l more
implortant ports of entry and at points disributing foreigln mail and wolrk in
close coIperation withil emlployees of tlie Treasury and (Post ()li( DI)epartlnents.
I e1tailed informllat ion l i I t1 variotl plaSt i q ularani ies d a i inist -ered by the
Ihureau is available in oilier puldications. (if particular interest in connectioli
Nwith foreign plant quarantines are tle following chanige:
Quarantine No. 5.. the Mexican fruittly quarantine. whih prlhilited the
eolry into the 'nitled States fron Mexico of certain kl nown ht fruits of the
Mexican fruitfly. was lifted, effective l)ecemniler 11. I:. alid tlte e tlrol of
entr'y of the fruits in lqustion thereby became subject to ilh pIrovisions of
Quarantine No. W. thlie fruit and vegetable lquaraltine. T'le only effect of
iI:is a(ction is 1a1t (certainl fruits frolll Mexico f ormerly prolhibitcid entry lmay
11 I 'e nllltered frozl'tl (,o ill a processd state llilundelr the provisiions of Quailltrn-
tinle No. 5f6.
EfLective Septellericr 1. 1903, Quaranltinoes Nos. 7 and 2(0. which had prohibited
the entry of five--nieedl( piles. (curran1llts. lan1 goioseberries fli Eullrope. Asia.
at'nada. and Newfoundland, and other pines from Europe. wvre, lifted. The
entiry of the material fo(rinerly covered by these quarantilines au tlolat ii'ally be-
'ame subject to tlie restrict ionis of the Nursery Stock, Plant. and Seed Quaran-
tile. No. 7. A limiited a111mo1ut of such material was illpritIed iunder liatl qaur-
:Itiiie, under conditions thatotwould not contribute to till fuirtlhr spread of the
blisier rust in this country.
No ti c was given on July 20, 1936. lhat. effective August 1. 1!:19. the entry of
scel'ds o (f ithri.il an1d 1'icia would be subject to the rlcstricition aifecting tlhe
entry ifi other seeds covered by regulation ", of tihe Nursery Stick. Plant', and
Seed Quarantine. No. 37. ruder the provisions of this notice :.T171.7WTl poundsr
of Vetc i seeds were ilipIorted from 6 collutries :and 13,802 pnlllis of svwect lWa
se(edlls fromlll ; cOlllltrieNs.
n o Deeomber 1l, 1931. the entry of narcissus bublbs lee at sjlecit toi lie
rest rit'lios of regulatlion 3) of qualralntille No. 17. wh('reals thley Iind 1bet1 in-
liporta since .January 1. 1 920. under the provisions of regulation, 1 of:f the salntm
(IIquarlatille. The principal effect of this chlamne is to reimove tll qu:ltity and
ultilizatilon limnits which ppllied to the illportaltiol of these hl1lbs under thei
pro,,visions of regulation 14. This modification be:cai eflective after ihle close
otf thIe l oi llileriall illipul'irtig seasotl alid most1 of itle lit: rcissl1 billbs, elsewletre
given as importied, entered (under regulation 14.
(Quairatll illne No. f51 was a iended to provide for tilie inry of fruits alnd vegi'-
taibles wvlich have been treated, or arc to be treatied, luder lthe iupeo visio 'n of
a plailt-qua ranticine ilnsplector of the IDepartillenlt ill :1a marillell dlellic d tldeq 1iate
to eliminiate any pest risk. This provision applies especially to frozen fruits
al(ld \,e'taIbles a lld to fruits and vegetables subject to lb w-leniperatre
sterilizatioll.
Effect itve 1)ecelllber 1, 1 ., 1 le regulat ions goveriing t lie imllportat ion of pot a-
toes into the United Statles were llimelded to provide for the elltry of Ipotatoes
froill t 'll el iroe 1oll'thllrl territory of Baja ICaliflrnilit. Mexile,. tirolilh both
'alexico an:d San Ysidro. and to elilitiate ithe pral ision fIr the liurstricted
ilnllportation of foreign poitato'es into the TIerritolry of IlHawaii for local 11-us.
Pr~ vioslv, enltry of potatoes from lPnan California 1had been limited to lthose
fwn in and shinvppedl ti'tIt e 1111ii rial Valley oIf tin' Ioill4'iernt territiory of






ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUAIA.NTINE g87

Baja California through Calexico only: and the entry of foreign potato- had
been allowed into Hawaii without restriction when imiported for local lus,.
Effective March 6. 1937, importation of potatoes from Latvia was authrizied
in accordance with the potato regulations.
MARITIME-PORT INSPECTION

SHIP INSPECT I ON
Ships from foreign countries and also those from Hawaii and Pluert)o Rio
are inspected promptly upon arrival for the presence of prohibited nald re-
stricted plant material in ships' stores, passengers' and crews' baggage. quar-
ters, and in cargo.
The inspection at ports in California, Florida, Hawaii, and at certain ports
in Puerto Rico has been performed by State and Territorial officials serving as
collaborators of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
A record by ports of the ship inspection appears in table 23. Following the
policy adopted last year, the number of ships carrying restricted plant material
is not shown. In previous reports both prohibited and restricted plant material
had been reported as contraband. The pest risk involved with most restricted
plant material is apparently very small, and for that reason such material has
not been considered in this table.







1'TAIm.1 23. \ iminbnr of shlips inspccted, fiscail 1w/air 1i'.17


Fromu fur4'e n ii )r I

p I 1)irect 1\i; I nited Slit es 1orts Via II: iii V i t r N I' r l ii /

VWith pro- Wilth pro- With pn- With pr-
ALrrived Inlspctm d hihited Arrived In ispectelo hibited I Arrivel Inspected ( hi t el I .\ ied InAted e Ib te
inalterinl ninaterid Inile;rii iii ir:l ii-

itil r ...... 72. 72 307 7h 7 1 379 1 1 .
H i,. a ii a 3(1 30 10
t 1. 421 1, 423 529 40 7 12 2

Ili 3 2
t) u... 7 7 3 1 1 ..
( i: rl :-thi 2o 20) 113i 152 1511 l9 1 I
Shi .. ; i 3 11 I1.
I)tri .t 26i 2li 23 -
a .. ... 2 2 0 4 1 .
I i v .. ..... 27 271 12S 4fi4 1#is 23s 2 -
StU fI rt ... ......... .. .. .. 21 20 Is 105 3I7 25.
1m. in. .. 210 2101 1019 2 2 0 .
l ii tlr .. ...... . ..... 1 27 12(1 335 37 133 i (1
i k k -. ll ... .. 251 251 23 13 133 I . ... I I
Me t 17.37 172 72 13 31) 1
1, 3 1 1, 3 ( 4 19 3)1 3(0 II


Nx >rt \ < ... ..... 2 12 Is 119 117 20 1 1 -
N 'w Y rk .... ;. 1 ) 3 )9 2, 11 1,113 tt I 1I I |I -
N rf k .. .. 23 23 153 I1I i 372 . I
1 9 41) (1i 1S!1 GI! I
I'lil vivt llhiti . .... h4t5 121 i 1)719 1.071 ( ) 1 1 I 1 1
;'2 r \rilhur .32; 325 257 321 321 121 7 7 1
P'rllt i l, 1( . . .... (,9 i( 270 2 '7 16;. 1 1 1
I'* rlt o:! IU iL .(i ( II I I I .
V't. I ic 'ill i;M rt 1, 13 1, 00!7 V,, 3 ... ..
iu l)ie .. 13 1, 137 2 21 21 0 2 2
i Fr ni u: .. 36 3( i 171i ti .fifi 21 2 5 3 ; sI
Sl: v ro ,ir 1. 411 ,1 1lit Hil 3(';3 ; 1 90 72 72 t 1 13
a h 115 115 1I 22' ) )227.
e c .. i7ti1 137 iIWI It10) 91 i 1 .....
1 I. 270 270 315 :315 95 ... .
V c nt u r ...... .. .. I . .. .. . ..... .. .. .. . . . . -
\e l nP m d lvMh I1. .15 145 j5 3 3 0
-.
Toutd I 1, 913 17, 711 7, 7211 9, 33 9, 1012 4, 252 163 1113 11t1 1 iss 127







TABLE 23.-Number of ships inspected, fiscal year 1937-Continued

From Hawaii From Puerto Rico From United States
ports

Direct Via United States ports Direct Via United States ports Via Panama Canal
Port -
With With With With With
Arrived I"spect- prohib- Arrived Insiect- prohib- ,riv Inspect- prohib- Arrived Ins)ect- lrohib- Arrived Inspect- prohi-
ed ited mnv- ted ited Ima- ed ited rna- Arv ed ited ma- ed ited ma-
terial terial terial terial terial

Baltimore.----. ..-- --------......... 2 2 0 49 49 1 19 19 1 27 27 0 173 172 (i
Bellingham---------- . --. .... ..- ................. 2 2 1
-Iosto lL--- -- -- ----- 6 6 20 20 0 16 16 4 il 11
CharlestonL .- .--- --------------- 0 19 19 0 40 -4. 0 I- 0
E ureka 2 ... ------- _-- -- -- -- -- -- 5 5 0 ...... ------- ---. --
(ialveston- -...... -.... ... ...... .... 2 2 0 2 2 1 11 11 2 8 8 0 25 25 0 0
(G ulfport 3...... . .. . . . ... - - - 1 i
fon olulu -- .. ...... 100 1

Jacksonville 2 ..... 0 30 0 5 5 0 1(5 16 1
hMiamini 2 2 2 (I --
Mobile ----.------------- 1 1 4 4 0 29 29 5 53 53 1 451 45 0
New Orleans ...-..-. --.. ....-...-.-. 12 12 9 10 10 0 22 22 i 76 76( 1 51 51 1
Newport News --...------ -- --------- . 2 2 0 4 4 0
New York .. ........ 30 28 2 38 33 114 113 12 1 10 1 27i 221
Norfolk..--- ...---. ------.-.....- .......- ........ 3 46 5 1 95 95 0
Pensacola 2-- ..- ---.. .- ----- --. .- -...... 2 2 0 4-4 1 0. ..
Philadelphia ...- .. .- ... ...- 2 2 0 32 32 1 5 50 )00 14 0 2 0 259 25 5
NPort Arthur ... .. ...... 8 2- 7( 01 13 15- 1 0,
'ortland, Oreg -... -.... 7 7 1 - -
Port San Iuis .. 15 1--1 15 ,
Puerto Rico (all portls) ... . 5 1
San 1)iego 2 -...-- . -91 .91 1.0 1 1 0 . I -- .. 21 121 1 5 .
San Francisco . Ill 1 I 33 22 22 .. .9 .. ... . .
- 77 15 aa 33 7 3. -- - .
San Pedro 2 .... 7. 77 l 33 33. 8 ..16 16 l i171 0-
Savannah .. .. ........ 4 8 8 1 16 1 0 17 15
Seattle 2 2 0 1 1 0 -. 2 2
-Tapa------...- ----- ----- -------- 29 29 2 1 o0
Ventura ..... 9 1 .

Total .. ...... --- 363 360 75 233 228 14 360 359 152 306 29,2 4 2, 575 2,517 1201

SWork handled by inspector stationed at Savannah, (a. 2 Collaborators stationed at these ports. 3 Work handled by inspeclors stationed at Mobile. A la.
NOTE.- The foreign ship arrivals do not in all cases agiree with customls figures. Foreign ships may put in for bunkers and be insplected by\ insplectors of the Bureau of l :ito-
Itology and Plant Quarantine but not entered by customs. On t he other hand, ships entered at certain small subports are inclluded in (customs records buit )not ill this report.

oo;
U3







90 N 'A 1 HEPH S I OF l PA T' M :NT F .\ R I: i :. 17

CA 1:G0 INS PE TI10N

All iIin porlta ios of plants and p lant prodiucts subject to plant-quarantine
Sstri(ti nls are inspected at tihe port of entry or t1le pi1rt of 1irst arrival. A
Secord of the ni ilber of such importationls, by p)orts, Iappears in table '14.

T.u:IE 21. -In lciIm of shipm ntsi of pylant Iit nd plant product offered for
entry, fitscal yi' ar 19.37

i i- | Shi p-
-rt I It l t* s w ts leni 1 i



ro rit | | ei r i permit
I !I W j

.\ n r .h 2 er ( . .'u .r N .. .try
P..: or ..... 2' a i lon lu .... .7 Port Ar' ur -.. O
BTh.llio hunm :... 2 1) ( Ho0nsron .. .. .- l 3 Port uron *... 75I 0
Blaie......... 3t0 0 Jiek B t . ..- 2,( 27 1 Key Wet 210 0 Pr jiio .... 13 0
P rown ile.... 1-.72 I .ardo ......... 22 I'ueruo Rio o
B ll:;1 ....... 1, 120 1 5 M ere *us...... 17 I) all rt ) .... 26 t 0
(<' ietl o. ....... 51,) 0 M i xiii ....... 1, 12(1 4 I loroni .......... 1 0
('i irh. -ltu ..... 19 1 1M obile........ 207 1 I San 1)ieeo .. 5 1
Oii L........ 123 4 Naco .......... 8 0 San Fran.c sco Sl4 17
DIl lHi ....... 3 0 New Orleans... 2, 5A3 2 San Pedro u.... y4 0
ro ....... 503 12 Ne port News. 2 0 San Y idro..... 7 0
oun s.......... 79 0 New York.... 14,389 71 Savannah...... 30 0
Se-ile -.... 52 0 Nowales...--... 4, N9 4 Seattle ....... 705
l P .. ..-..- .... 4,31,5 ( Norfolk........ 2403 1 Tampa ...... 1,008 0
alv' E r(..M.... 20 I Pensacola ..... 3 0 ---
ulIfr rt ..... 7 0 Philadelphia... 67S 0 Total ..... 44, 34i 130
Hida go ........ I 408 0

SIncludes entrie- maxde at Sumas.
SIncludes entries maide at Niar a Fa1lls.
- W Lrk handhed by insi ectors 'st at xioned at Mobile.
S laorators stationed at these ports.

In addition the importations credited to the Mexican-border ports, there
were -,veral thousand importations of permitted fruits and vegetables which
were so small that no duty was assessed by customs and no record of them
kept. All of these small importation., however, were carefully inspected before
being released.
At certailln orts considerable time was devoted to the inspection of miscel-
laneous carges to determine their true status. Many inspections were also
made lof paking iaterial lused with various commodities, to determine coln-
pliance with nquarantine No. 69. Some time was also devoted to the supervision
of the cleaning of shipments conitainated with objectionable material such
as soil.
Tlie illspectiiios recordihd in Iable 24 cover plants and plant products impllorted
1110der 1lie 1prisiolis of plant qullararntiles lland regulitions as follows:
Ieculation 3: of quarantine l No. 37: l,'S( Sl,159 bulbs, cor 1s. and rootstocks,
including Con ra'llari. ( 'ro.cur. HfliacinthuI and L ili n: 11.,_27 fruit and unt
.lttings. scions, ani1d )udsticks: (;.:174.790 rose stocks: i...St0 pounds and 2.142
small mail packages of Itree and shruib seeds': 3,,1.7) plill(Is of vetch seed;
(367.22S pounds of onion sets: ( test ubles of (rchid seedlinis; a 'd 3-17 pwunds
of mis'ellan 110011us plrl ipgating matIeria1 l.
Iteculation 11 of quarantine No. :.7: ( .11 4 i-1 ulbs and corins, iinludin
1.SSI.( ;s: f('tadidlu -. : 1, lris, anid t;l .iI>2 Varri ,; 1.1417 ipla n s, bud
sticks., en tigs oif a ligneouS nature illistly woody ortnament als), includ-
In If I. I'. ra -es: 1 :,.1 d1:1 lia roots; 4)<,9 I. t orlhrid plan :ts :,1;.)7.i cactus pilants
;iuid ('iltlti s: ; :|II( ,I1 17 misiellaiei l a s c s llittiS, l li tillg eIc.. not otlherwise

ti -ul tion 1,' of ita rantline No. 37: 15.,177 bulbs a d corns. inlu ding
.s i:> (;fiia-lnl ,; 4-83.,N8 trees and shrulis, including 17,978 roses; ). 486 dahlia
-riti : ,~I siare y1ardas o f sod: nd 144.1I1S pl:ants, cuttings, etc., ino t otherwise
'I It. TlI uah I i coolira lion of I lie lust I lls officers stationtled t jorts of
Iiry i 'I (lit (' I a iadlian ol i Irdr and of Ih e ivision of Foreign i Pess S lippres-
IN 1p ) l Jrtinint of Arii'1lture of the 1),ominli n of Canada1. entry f mIllaterial







ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARA1NTINE 91

under this regulation was made with adequate safeguards at 27 border ports
at which plant-quarantine inspectors are not stationed, as well as at 10 ports
where there are inspectors.
Cotton regulations: Cotton, including linrers, 300,104 running bales; cotton
waste, 210,701 running bales; bagging (second-hand) including cotton-contam-
inated rags, 205,965 running bales.
Cottonseed products regulations: Cottonseed cake, 18,355,095 pounds: cotton-
seed meal, 27,639,228 pounds; cottonseed-imeal fertilizer, 16,805,532 pounds;
mixed feed, including cottonseed cake. 29,919 pounds: cottonseed oil, 43 gallons.
Quarantine No. 8: Cottonseed hulls, 17,196.780 pounds; bolly hulls, 5,127,500
pounds.
Quarantines Nos. 15 and 16: Bagasse, 11,805 pounds.
Quarantine No. 24: Corn, shelled, 5,359,227 pounds.
Quarantine No. 28: Oranges (mandarin), 1,595,724 pounds.
Quarantine No. 41: Corn, shelled, 4,502,799,855 pounds; mixed feed containing
shelled corn, 22.220 pounds: corn fodder. 34,000 pounds; corn on the cob, 332,159
pounds; sorghum seed, 4,266 pounds: jobs-tears, 22 pounds; broomcorn, 10,031
bales and bundles; brooms made of broomcorn, 27,257.
Quarantine No. 55: Paddy rice, 93,168 pounds; rice straw, 1,656 bales.
Quarantine No. 56: Bananas 61,940,762 bunches: plantains, 16,192,48( pounds;
pineapples, 1,453,670 crates: avocadoes, 10,520,484 pounds; eggplants, 6,342,510
pounds; garlic 7,447,837 pounds; grapes, fresh (not hothouse), 12,966,553
pounds: grapefruit, 8,697,801 pounds; limes, sour, 12,863.643 pounds; peppers,
8,688,265 pounds: tomatoes, 99,346,550 pounds: all other, 93,256,566 pounds.
Potato regulations: Potatoes, 1,971,128 pounds.
PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS ENTERED FOR IMMEDIATE EXPORTATION OR FOR
TRANSPORTATION AND EXPORTATION
In addition to plants and plant products affected by the plant quarantines
and regulatory orders of the Department which are offered for consumption
entry, many products are offered for transportation in bond through the United
States and are exported through other ports. Among these are large shipments
of Mexican fruits and vegetables entered through Mexican-border ports and
exported through ports along the Canadian border. Other shipments arrive at
United States ports of entry and are immediately exported therefrom when
transportation to their foreign destination is available. Among the products
offered for transportation and exportation or for inmmediate exportation during
the year were 117 shipments of nursery stock; 196,424 bales of cotton lint,
linters, and waste; 687 bales of bagging; 17,389,947 pounds of cottonseed cake
and meal; 25.600 pounds of wheat; 3,313,464 pounds of corn; and 58,145,231
pounds of fruits and vegetables.
With respect to the importation of fruits and vegetables, it should be stated
that many shipments which are offered for transportation and exportation in
bond are later diverted to points in the United States where consumption entry
is made. For that reason shipments of this character require the same care
in inspection as shipments offered for consumption entry.
DISINFECTION
Disinfection is required of certain commodities as a condition of entry and
of other commodities when inspection reveals the presence of injurious insects
or plant diseases. During the year the following plant material was treated
under supervision of inspectors of this Bureau: Cotton, 235,408 bales; cotton
waste, 117,898 bales; cotton linters, 68,284 bales: parcels of cotton, cotton waste.
and bagging, 3,269; bagging, 554 bales; rags contaminated with cottonseed,
1,055 bales: broomcorn, 10,336 bales; rice liber. 2,116 bales; chestnuts, 1.704
cases; cipollini, 108 cases; corn, 1.000 sacks: vetch seed, 5,877 sacks; other seeds,
88 containers; miscellaneous plants, 598 lots; narcissus bulbs, 371,939; and
bulbous iris, 567,351.
In addition to the above, various shipments of plant material and cotton
samples were treated at the inspection house in Washington, D. C.. as shown
in table 27.











suo siAo.id .lA .Tl Iu A.l|i o.> l s|hIIs pill. s, !d .i. Iio pI : ".,o I I .I
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E.NTOMOGY AND PLAN\T QU L'AKNTINE 93


of quarantine No. 37. Although the relatively large proportion of tihe illporta-
tions from C1anada and 1M exico consist of baggaget and cargo shiplments, for
which the mail-entry procedure is unsuitable (thus tending to keep the perlentt-
age of total mail shipments at a relatively low tigurle), 53 p1ercent of all impor-
tations under quarantine No. 37 cambe by mail. Only 12 percent of the bulb
shipments, under regulation 3 of quarantine No. 37, arrived by mail, but 90
percent of all other importations under that regulation were imported by that
means. Of the importations entered u1nder regulationsd 4 and 15 of tle same
quarantine, 59 percent and 12 pelrcent, respectively, entered tihrmough lpstal
cha1nniels.
MEXICAN-BORDER SERVICE

With the improvement ill economic conditions land the completion of im-
portant highways in Mexico, there has been a decided increase in the amount
of travel between Mexico and the United States. This increase in traffic is
reflected in the increase in the vehicular and baggage inspection at certain
ports during the year and also in the number of interceptions of prohibited
anid restricted plant material. The number of freight cars entering from
Mexico increased from 27.259 in the fiscal year 1936 to 32.0.50 in 1937: likewise.
there was an increase in the number of cars contaminated with cottonseed from
1.479 the previous year to 2,034 this fiscal year. The number of railway cars
fumigated increased from 8.181 in the fiscal year 1986 to 8.226 in 1937. All
railway cars found to be contaminated with cottonseed were required to be
cleaned before entry was permitted. The usual fee of $4 was charged for each
car fumnigated and all fees collected were covered into the Treasury as miscella-
11neI(0s reeipts.
A summary of the railway-car inspection and fumigation is shown in table
26. In addition to the freight cars listed in this table. 4.123 PIullman and
passenger coaches entered and were inspected at the following ports: Eagle
Pass. 8: El Paso. 1.610: Laredo, 2,487: Nogales, 465; and Presidio, 3.

TABnLE 26.-nl.sp(lction (am filmligltiool of rflilwi'l ciar.s c ros.sin th border from
Alc.rico, fisc. l year 1937


Port (;Cars in- Cars with Cars en- Cars fu- Fees col-
cspe cted tered migated I leted
seed

i N mbr r N'rumbher Nu mber mr r Dollars
Brownsville.. ------------------------------------- 1. 21 2 1, 25 3 53 212
Douglas .... -------------..---------- --------- 1, t 3 1,6 ; (0 240
Eagle Pass .-.-- ---------.. .. --- --- -2 2.76 177 2, 209 90s 3, 700
El Paso-...- ------------ -- ..-- ..---.--.- .. --- 7, 760 142 7, 333 1 1. 177 1,520
Laredo -------..----------- ----------------- 12, 07oh 1, 520 11. 11 4,606 1S, 924
Naco_------------- - -._. .--.. .. 716 21 716 2 7 :3 12
Noe ales --. .--. .----- -------..- -- --.. 7, 7277 1 7, 451 1,36 5, 400
Presidio------------ ----.--------- .. .... 30;6 22 301 53 212
Total------------------------ .-------. 33, 790 2. 034 :32, 050 226 -' 33. 220

I Includes 29 cars not front Mlexico.
2 The apparent discrepancy in fees collected and the number of cars fumrigated may Ihe explained by the
fact that it is customary for tIlit railroads to purchase fulligat in coupol a ns in advalnce.

Plant-quarantine inspectors at Mexican-border ports take ln active part.
in cooperation with tlhe customs service, in the inspectioll of vehicl(es, iaggage.
personal effects, amd express packages from Mexico. A tot1al of 31 5,736 pieces
of baggage and 3,795.609 vehicles were inspected. This inspectionti resulted in
the interception of large qulantities of prohibited and restricted plat material.
a record of which may be found ill table 29.

INSPECTION IN PUERTO RICO AND HAWAII

The inspectors stationed in 'uerto Rico ellnforce the pro'isitonsi f ,uIlluraineil
No. 58, governing thle mlovelmen t of freshr frulitls and vegetablle tr, tithe imailallnid
in addition to the enforetenlt of foreign jtlnt a:ra tilnes a;iid i'eglulations







94 .ANN\.\ ItEI'"(tTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGIHLCULTURE, 1937

as they aflect the entry of foreign plants ad plat products into the island.
I sula r inspectors serving as collabora tors render valuable assistance, especially
in that portion of the work pertaining to the enforcement of the foreign plant
q c lrant ines.
Inspections are made in the fields, in packing houses, and on the docks
of sulchl fruits and vg etablleS as are Iermittel to move to the mainla11 under
T he provisions of iquara;tinl No. 58. During the y(, r 2,817 shipments, conl
sisting of 85 hutiche of s of bananaas, 519,631 crates of pineapples, and 17,1;6,621)
pounds of other approved fruits and vegetables were certified for such
ImoveIellt.
InsIlect ion is also made of parcel-)post packages originating on the island and
stiniied for points in continental United States. Through cooe'ration with
post-office officials, arraigements Iwere made to carry on thi< insIpection at
the four main post offices on tlie island. This arrangement las increased eon-
siderably the elliciency (f this plhase of the work and has :als greatly reduced
the nlumler of Puer(to Rican mail packages requiring ins)pectin upon arrival
at New York. A total of 5,)03 p)ackages were examined in the San Juan office.
and :37 were found to contain prohibited plant material and were returned to
the sender. Inspection figures for the post oflices in Ma3aguez, Ponce, and
Arecibo are not available.
In Iawaii the enforcement of foreign plant quarantines i< handled wholly
by insular inspectors serving as collaborators. The inspectors of this Bureau
stationed in the IHawaiian Islainds are engaged in the enforc ment of quaran-
tine No. 13, which governs the movement of fresh fruits and vegetables to
the mainland. Inspections are made in the fields, packing hiouses, and on the
docks of such fruits and vegetables s as are permitted to move to the mainland
under the provisions of quarantine No. 13. During the year. 1.72, shipments.
representing 71,1IS-' bounches of bananas. 39,443 crates of pineapplles, and 3.712,002
pounds of other approved fruits and vegetalles, were inspected and certified.
It is necessary to devote considerablle time to the inspection of parcel-post
packages originating in Hawaii and destined for mainland points. I ring
the year 102,5-4 such packages were opened and examined and the plant
quarantine status of 16,,.8-14 packaes ws w( determineid biy oher mea;s: 54;
packages were found to contain prohibited plant material.
Inspection and sealing of baggage of travelers between Hanwaii aind the maii-
:land were continued. A total of 3,485 pieces of ,bagage were ,safeguarded i
this manner.
On November 1, 1936, the inspection and clearint of airplanes bound for
mainland ports was inaugurated at the Pearl City airport and on April 10.
1937, inspection of shipments of plant material from Hawaii to the mainland
by air express was commenced. This inspection not only avoids delay upon
the arrival of the airplanes at the mainland, but also is a decided advantage
from the standpoint of pest risk.

INSPECTION OF SPECIAL-PERMIT AND DEPARTMENTAL PLANT MATERIAL

Importations of propa(gating plant material are inslpected at special port0s of
entry designated for that purpose. Most of these specia:l-permnit importations
;are inspected and treated at the inspection house at Waslhington, I). C. In
;aldition to special-perinit ilmportatio)ns, deIpart mental importations and plant
lpropag ting material distriluted by the Department are likewise insplected at
the Washington, I). C., inspection house. The inslpection-house staff at Wash-
ingtonli also inspects and certifies for intersiate shipment commerian shipments
of nursery stock, in order that such shipments mayl meet the certification
requiremencts of the various States. Table 27 gives a summary of inslpetionv
:;nd treaulents of nursery stock at tlh Washington. I). C., inspection house
during tghe year.







ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 95


TABLE 27.-Summary of plants and plant products offered for inspection in the
District of Columbia, fiscal year 1937

Ifefed cted
Other- Infested Infected
For- Domes- Fumi- Oeith
Material inspected or- Domes- F wise with di
eign tic gated treated insects dis
eases

Lots of seeds (departmental)-........---------- ------ 8, 137 9,776 6, 944 1, 150 656 172
Plants, cuttings, bulbs, roots, rhizomes, etc. (depart-
mental) _.---_ --------------------------------- 11,121 150,495 3,158 3,051 1 250 1 183
Miscellaneous unclassified material, other than plants
and seeds (departmental)--.-----..-----------.----- 300 365 88 11 7 7
Shipments of plants under regulation 14, quarantine
No. 37 (commercial)---------.--------------- ------ 2, 409 -------. 405 152 571 485
Shipments of plants and plant products under regula-
tions 3 and 15, quarantine No. 37 (commercial)- ... 1,260 -------- 214 111 148 26
Containers of domestic plants other than departmental
(mail, express, freight, and truck) .---......---------..-----. 11, 707 1 6 13 4
Shipments of plants by private individuals -------- --------5,351 15 28 55 14
Interceptions of plants and plant products at Wash-
ington, D. C ------------------------------- 1,497 3 35 72 96 ........
Interceptions of plants and plant products referred to
Washington, D. C_ -------- _-------------. 1,495 1 112 996 111 4
Parcels of cotton samples referred to Washington, D. C_ 25,319 -------. 25, 319 ---...-..-- .-..-...

1Lots.

INSPECTION OF PLANT-INTRODUCTION AND PROPAGATING GARDENS

The Bureau is charged with the responsibility of inspecting plant material
at the plant-introduction gardens maintained by the Bureau of Plant Industry
where plant introductions are observed and are propagated for distribution.
Plant material distributed from the plant-introduction garden at Coconut Grove,
Fla., was inspected by State officials cooperating with this Bureau. Plant
material shipped from the Chico, Calif., gardens was inspected jointly by an
inspector of the Bureau and an entomologist from the California State De-
partment of Agriculture. Material distributed from the District of Columbia
and Savannah, Ga., was inspected by inspectors of the Bureau. A summary
of the inspections of these plant distributions appears in table 28.

TABLE 28.-Plants, budsticks, cuttings, tubers, roots, and shipments of seeds
examined for distribution from plant introduction and propagating gardens,
fiscal year 1937

Bud- Bud-
sticks, Ship- sticks, Ship-
Station Plants cuttings, ments Station Plants cuttings, ments
tubers, of seeds tubers, of seeds
and roots and roots

Bell, Md----------- 29, 840 1,025 3 Savannah, Ga-- ---- 1,554 677 4
Chico, Calif ..------. 8,337 721 66 Washington, D. C 8,037 10, 185 23, 939
Coconut Grove, Fla_- 5, 633 1, 271 28
Mandan, N. Dak.L. 0 0 0 Total.-----.--. 53,401 13,879 24,040

I Owing to drought no shipments were made.

INTERCEPTIONS OF PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS

The inspection of ships, vehicles, cargo, baggage, ships' stores, and quarters,
and foreign mail at the maritime and Mexican-border ports resulted in the
interception of large quantities of prohibited and restricted plant material.
Many of these interceptions were found to harbor insect pests and plant dis-
eases; many others, while showing no infestation or infection, must be con-
sidered potentially dangerous, since they are known hosts of pests in the
country of origin. In classifying the interceptions, those made at bridges,
ferries, and crossings at the Mexican and Canadian border ports have all been
considered as having been taken from baggage.








(i .NN;'AI. Ilkil'tIT'S O 1 II'i'A1\ITMlINT It' A(tl ''I.TI'Ul:, 1!:7


A 1- 4 1r Ii 1w1" 111111 lni .r 40f ilit .r -'4 iiuf ) f if Iredi il i -4 :Il (I Ir I trl e(t IlhtrtI
fIl;l I l t ; I I ll'i ;I1 Il1 q s I O .

T rc.Ir: I ihe I lllf of 21 l 'I pif Ii ol ptohi bi/0 d P I rd Irri i t p1 r site nd plant
prod;(leti,( fiscanil n artl 1!.l7


In tbi el' n rel In ro li Illiil In qw arters In storeI Total


Pro- IHe- Pro- le Pr- P e- Pro- Re- Pro- Re-
hibit- strir hi hit- stridt hilit- iTr l i- ilhit t-r t- hihil- slrit- hibit- Ilriet-
'I el 'l ed I e(-d el el el t1'd e'i el esd


lli ... .r. .. 11 1' 4; (r 1; i5 5 I 1 4 0 3*I 27
llinI i i .t h. . . . 4 2 M 1
l1iic .ne . 9 7 1. i 09 631
iston ... 7 112 41 1 25 12 9 t 1 H I; 122 192
Irown. ilt le 7. I27 1.3i 13 21 .;t 1 1 3
IlllTal :- .2 :jl 0 1 i l; 11 374
< 'le io. 1.l l1 12. .. 1. M 12
("Ch rlteslonI.. 13 2 1 ii 41 i ;30 0 i 5 2
( i('ii . II 173 1 14 L 9
(Iel i. .. I
I truoit i. .,, 1 :i. 3 12 1 2 .. .-... 226 436
I ,)o Ulrl: i . ;. i2 1 "" 2 .. . .. .. 2 ; 49;95
I )ille tss. ... ., .. .. ..... .. 499 23

Il Pi .., .. 97.20 .12 13 21 7. 251 ti
(;:iliustdonl ...... . 12 ; 1 0 1 212 11 '21 2 2.W) 5
; ilfli(f rt . 2 2 11 I i 1 20 1 3
l.,u 2,212 271 2. 242 271
li07lu i"i ,S, 25o 112 1I 127 31 1 1.171 274
tHo)u.- i . 5 3: 0 ; 1 ;. *; >7 ) 5S
J. -ksiiv ille ,. .l ) 17 4 32 S 9
Ke- \\Wet 1 .... ; 1 9 2 9 1M4
l.irelto 15.21 1,317 It 11 .. 15,29 1,358
L. Ales 1 I 1 7 79 t 2 4 t .- 7 32
l erwies t 21 42 . 251 42
i.tiu .. 1. 7.)> 14.1 4i 1 1 27 1) I. 01(i 212 S>, 11 2.930 194
ile .. 9 .3 7 127 3 >7 4 221 1
S .. 1 1 .. . .. 124 4
\c\w (rleanrh .. Il 21 l 1 1 9 7 ',3 2': 112 7 1. ;i '* 2: "
\ew\po rt \ew~ _s. 1- i, "i 2 ll i.
New uork 1. I5 1.353 514 1 t i 3S 7. 23;i' 4 13'1 I 1I 3. i)7 1,j42
i!' 2. :502 13 ... 3 i; ... .
No)rf(lk .,3 : ( 141 7o li 2 192 75
P(>.} toi;t 3 I o 0 K' U Ii ,
Ph lit lehii:it 2(0 7 11 1 i; 22 : l:1 1[7 23 333 96
Port \rith I 21 li I 0i . .. 2 Ui (I t 4 2
Port I Il o ,r . I 1. ... 1 13
Prt l; ll*! . ) 2 0 i 21
Presi'li 2, Il .~ . 2_'"y 4>
Puierto Iri' ,:i1l por-si 12! 1l 2 i0 1 U 124 ti
im 173 21. 171; 24
Fr.( 1-:ml 21 I'r 24 i
;: ll I)if- i 3t 0l pI 13 2 46 25 701 12
' nt l Fr iceir 217 l.' 21 1.il 5i 229 22 1'2 1'2 11 t* V
l';: t' l' ir -.7 34 i i 4 5 7:4 17
ti \ -ilr 1.2 *, .' 42 1
til ii t h 2 I 12 2 i
>tite lt I sl7 I 11 21 2 1 2 l U2' :
S' |;i 10 0 l 7 1 i 1 lt
%V\\e P l4tiei 2 2 0 1 3

To . I 07 7514 235 1. 1.S I 2 4172 i 13 107 ,", .i i 24


l < i Thei r i ir Il
S\\ork hriinllei| i i ilsIH'vniirc I ltuit Cne It : Mt1 ftile.


PESTS INTERII: ( PTEIl



I'o)r it i j l i s l )l; ii) cl sIt ialnlis I lir i ll.'lr l l ., '". r t. 1 1 1i,.1 i Inn''
h lr o t n it) r* (lit,;- i l t( ill )n 1,.'.' T n lir l :Il f1lliili (' ftilli i ;liii l;n'!ir ii f -

I )ll'i i /i ll i'p1i Illd I zilo'( I ; I ri Iel :ii If l l i I lf ll i:1 ( IIIlli f
f I I I I 1 011 f Ilt i l h 0o .1 1 1 f 1 l i i td he v I1 1
) ('()c il;. I I *r"< i .-1 vI 11Iltv llt(,"v : I it t il tl(r"( l itlI 6)1 ll(" isi(' (\ll ,( 1 ', Illli i 1 1-1

,.) l- 1 il Hl l f v1 i t II ,







S-:NT( 'M Y AN 1 PLANT QUAA-NTI NE 97


A tb t:il "f' 80,70:1 t 'i ..- iI' iIn v ..rd ;K if iiil sl ;i-(-;s W *. d r 'n
the te r. A 4 .1.i ; '


'jj'.xn : [ it( (1 I( I'l /,''.''








B al .i:nore .1. 7 3 3 70 2, 7 1. 2
Bellig a 2 1 0 u 0 0 ; C, 0 12 10
BlaineT> . . . ( u U U 0 12 11
Boston...-------- 5' ------ 95 36 21 4 2 J 5 113
B o - - - -
Brownsville ..------- 30 400 U 2 1
BuRa1lo .... 3 4- O 3 2
Caleic ----------.--- 2 2
C barIeston - 0 1 0 u 510 28
Chicago-..-------------. .. u 4 12
Del Rio ----------. i 37 G 2
Detroit------------ U 2





Houstoni .. ...... -. ..5 ( z o 4 ^ 5-5
-Dougla .16 3 U 13 19

Grealeston------- 1. 19 215 1 i U 1 0 2,93 222
Tid ago -- -----..-- 0 1632 46 u 0 312 4 1
Honolulu _-------..... 12 12 273 14( 4 1
IHou:toU n_ 31 Uo 4 70 i994
Ja -kson ll -----e .....19 7 l 91 u S 1
Keywe \ t r: ....... 1 l 0 1 1
Lared eos............ 4--, 017 2, 44 63 U i 0 0. 5 ;5 114
s nles ------------ 0 0 1 3u
Mercedes- -------1 1 51 0 92 51
M iami :-...... ----- -z 1_ -5 1 12 412 40 lo9 9 16 7 901 100
MP:Aobile..------------- 723 C 392 5 0 0 UO 41
Naco- .-.----------- ----3 4 0 7 0 0 40 -U
TNew Oia.-.--------- 4, 3 44 149 20 19 3 5, 061 4
Newprt News.---. 13 u 26 i4 0 1 0 39 12
aNew York.------ --a--.. -5. 3u V9 93 1, 75 r71 767 789 121 I.,72 1602 13.97552 97
SNorf i r..k---..----- 3 2 24 0 600 1. 21

Ph alE --e ------------.. o 305 1. 2 1 14 93 2 115 71 .
PortpAruhur 0 .173 4- 1 0 95 0 u 2-3 47

Portland..... 0 0 2 2




a ngrl b : t- y a '1 < u 4 .O _" o I _
PresTiio --U-49------ 0 u 0- U 74 U











R I1nc 0int
ERoma ....12r.... 0i 0 fie :a -0us: o 2t
San Diego .... 2 2 U 3 8








i lSan tr11cs -_ .. .. 0 -,< 12 ** ,u 2ri .. '' ((,, Hiti;0 2f .. 22-
p-l ti -Pe -dro- ( 147 4 0 U i I
(antYsidro . ....(.. 2 i uf U 42 U U oU O U
Sav nnc 3--2 s ------------- 02 U i
Seat24Oe-----,------ 25 7 25
0 1U
W aai. i. ('____ ,:_" 4 5_ _ll b 0 L 77"
T ---------- :r : (_'- 7.2't 2:. I2. .557 2. 17( 347 4,156 $65 b4. ,<1 21, 4,

I Collab K rs s :tdouedU a these ] <>ris.
2 Includes interceptions ;1- a1!ufpvr. M>i2:.
NoTE --Ins pectors stat2rieii :ef in* .- er2
diseases i., i li,, .r.eir fie ,i --:. : .... o-off-ruitsafe ,i ....... I-
land,
YK TIFICATION FO1l EX 1)01KF

D) t, lt2l'-ilr ct 7.4( t.-- '"',, iil 'l' r;




cerl ification.

Exporr (erli (:ule> ;,vtil ;i& t .: 't(' ;.i 2 1)r/l (I o -\ ii= |t] cliff It .:t i (,n1 ,.I t ijij- ii
lnotlit"-, .iit''j I r(d tf f), l>ii 1'(v,
1.112,19X4 !oxe- 2. 7 z1 Td 13982 ta'k-et" ,(: V. 1(121 ,llil)lji27l- t. cO;1-
214G9 1 7 --7










-i.stini 4 f (?.;tl.B lox-s; it at(*'", ,)12' s-hipmlent,', -on1i.-'tiing o 12,142 r:it :~nd 9,472 barriel; or:nlige. 705 -hii)men1 t, cu-o isting of 328132
boxe's.
:Malny hipml)ll(ents f ;applles and )pea:s ~\ rv c(crtifiCd under ; coopeTrati\ ar-
Irangl enl r witllh the 1l11ureau of Agricultiral Ec ( wzonmis of the D'eparitmnt.
vhi ireby lie icsedel inspec)tor. of that lBire4au il 'tld at s-hiipiping Ip)ints make
inl peetions and issue rleports whi(h : i(''ep(ed by 'h( plant quarantine in-
spector a;t tlie p)oIrt of (exprt ras a hbais for issuing the "rtquired export cern if-a 1 e.
A brief nminll ry if Iit export (e ('ifi(':iti)ln work aplp)ear il t:h 81.

TA\LE 31.--Certification for (xwiport ti, by ports, fl~al year 193

C7 _




Au-2, umr- ua- ,U um. a


bet Number betr er betr Number b er be
Bo-ton ...... 1 1 1 I Newport News 47 1 1
Birowns ile ----.... 18 8,533 3 1 New York 7 836,751 42 49
Buflalo...........-------------- 2 470 1 1 Noales --........-----.... 87 4S9 7 1
Calexico.t ........... 26 30,847 5 1 Philadelphila ....... 4 4 1
Chicag --------- ....... 2 2 1 2 Port Arthur---------......... 2 17,418 1 1
Detrit -------- ...... 37 455 4 Portland ------------ 1149 15
le ----------- 1 30 1 1 San Diego ----------- 1 2 1 1
Ei- IaNu--m- N----- i I Nu1m- u1-. Nu2 1






El Pistiore .........i 11,40 9 1 San Francisco...... 22 05413 12 12
Galveston .......... 6 1 1 San Juant .--..------ 12 61 1 8
uidalo .....---- --- 25 270 6 1 San Pedro----........ 282,034 4 6
Houston-----....-..- 2 247 2 2 Savannah -.....--... 1 60 1 1

Jacksonville---------- 5 8,443 3 1 Seattle ------------1, 1,040,440 12 12
Laredo -...........- 23 12,349 3 i Tam paot r ..-------- 2 1 1
Los Ange- --.-------73 3,674 8 Portlashindton, D. C 8 12 11
Miami .--..--...- 3 1,000 1 1 San Di
M obile --.... 2 6 1 2 Total ........ 7. 0 2,780.5 ......------ ......




































l'.,: -' y r- Supirlintendlcnt of l)ocuments, Washington, D.C - - Price 15 cent







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 II III ll l llll11 11 111
3 1262 09236 6326



























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