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A model for nurse faculty research productivity

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A model for nurse faculty research productivity
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Kearney-Nunnery, Rose
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Educational research ( jstor )
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Nurses ( jstor )
Nursing ( jstor )
Productivity ( jstor )
Research facilities ( jstor )
Research methods ( jstor )
Research studies ( jstor )
Research universities ( jstor )
Universities ( jstor )

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University of Florida
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A MODEL FOR NURSE FACULTY RESEARCH PRODUCTIVITY














By

ROSE THERESA KEARNEY




























A DISSERTATIONPRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1987









































Copyright 1987

by

Rose Theresa Kearney



























To James and Helen Kearney,

with eternal gratitude, love, and respect.


















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Many people and influences have contributed to the culmination of this project. Members of my dissertation committee have demonstrated professionalism and concern in all of our interactions. A special word of thanks is extended to Linda E. Moody, Ph.D., advisor and committee chairperson, for her tireless assistance at all phases of the research process. To the other committee members, Sally A. Hutchinson, Ph.D., Lois J. Malasanos, Ph.D., M. Josephine Snider, Ed.D., and James L. Wattenbarger, Ed.D., I wish to express my gratitude for their encouragement, guidance, and generous contributions of time for advice, committee meetings, and review of materials. Dr. Linda M. Crocker, an earlier member of my dissertation committee, also provided invaluable assistance in the preparatory phase of the research proposal.

The deans at the leading academic institutions included in this study were particularly helpful. Without their assistance in identifying leading researchers and allowing field interviews at the institutions, this research could never have been done. I am extremely indebted to the established nurse researchers interviewed for sharing information and insights. These outstanding nurse researchers, who so freely gave of their time and experience, have contributed to a greater understanding of scholarly productivity in academia and the research process.



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This project has been made possible in part through funding from a variety of sources. These financial sources include Sigma Theta Tau, the International Honor Society of Nursing; Alpha Theta Chapter of Sigma Theta Tau at the University of Florida; and the Department of Health and Human Services Nurse Traineeship which provided initial tuition coverage for doctoral coursework. Data analysis for the project was aided with the provision of computer time and resources by Dr. Helen A. Dunn through the Dean's Research Award at the L.S.U. Medical Center School of Nursing. I would like to include a special note of appreciation to Dr. Raymond Calvert for his assistance and skill in preparation of the illustrations included in this work.

The support of friends and family was a major factor in this project's completion. Although too numerous to mention all, two friends deserve particular reference: Florence Taylor and Jeremie Sherman. Their friendship and encouragement know no bounds.

Finally, and most of all, the unswerving confidence and support of my parents, James and Helen Kearney, were immeasurable throughout my doctoral studies and research and were the mainstays for the completion of this project. Their lifelong influence and tolerance of late night telephone calls made me continue when I was otherwise inclined to stop. The intelligence, patience, prayers, and unconditional acceptance of my parents were the foundations for this work.










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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . viii

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . xi

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii

CHAPTERS

I STATEMENT OF tHE PROBLEM . . . . . . . . 1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . I
Research Problem . . . . . . . . . . 3
Research Questions . . . . . . . . . . 3
Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . 4
Assumptions and Delimitations . . . . . . . 6
Theoretical Framework . . . . . . . . . 7
Inquiry Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . 7
Substantive Paradigm . . . . . . . . . 9
Significance . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE . . . . . . . 29

Scholarly Productivity . . . . . . . . . 29
Institutional Productivity . . . . ... . . 29
Individual Productivity . . . . . . . . 30
Measures of Productivity . . . . . . . . 61
Eminence . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Institutional Eminence . . . . . . . . 67
Individual Eminence . . . . . . . . . 70
Cumulative Advantage . . . . . . . . . 72
Recommendations from the Literature . . . . . . 75
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

III METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Study Development . . . . . . . . . . 77
Environments . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Research Design . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Subjects . . . . . . . . . . . . 83







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Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Instrument Development . . . . . . . . 88
Pilot study . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Data Collection Protocol . . . . . . . . 94
Data Analysis Procedures . . . . . . . . 95
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

IV FINDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Individual Characteristics . . . . . . . . 103
Environmental Characteristics . . . . . . . 170
Examples of Successful Research . . . . . . . 189
Respondent' Reactions to Preliminary Report . . . . 210 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

V DISCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

A Model for Nurse Faculty Research Productivity . . . 212 Findings for Research Questions . . . . . . . 220
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

VI CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . 251

Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Recommendations and Implications . . . . . . 257
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267


APPENDIXES

A NOMINATION FORM FOR ESTABLISHED NURSE RESEARCHERS . . 270 B INFORMED CONSENT FORM . . . . . . . . . 271

C RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS . . . . . . . . . 274

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . . . . . 315















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LIST OF TABLES

Page

1. General Classification of Variables by General System Activity . . . . . . . . . . . 19

2. Preliminary Classification of System Variables . . . 20 3. Leading Schools of Nursing Listed by Literature Source . 82

4. Schools of Nursing Selected for Study Based on Previous Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

5. Selected Characteristics of the Study Sites . . . . 85

6. Research Questions with Associated Variable Categories and Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . 87

7. Organizational Scheme for Presentation of Findings, by Variables and Instruments . . . . . . . 102

S. Demographic Characteristics of Established Nurse Researcher Sample . . . . . . . . . . 104

9. Occupational and Educational Background of Parents of Established Nurse Researchers . . . . . . . 106

10. Sibling Influences for Established Nurse Researchers . . 107 11. Antecedents and Characteristics for the Successful Nurse
Researcher, Reported by Established Nurse Researchers . 110 12. Educational Preparation and Clinical Specialty Areas . . 117 13. Advantages of Postdoctoral Studies . . . . . . 121

14. Limitations to Postdoctoral Education in Nursing . . . 122 15. Positional Variables for Established Nurse Researchers . 123 16. Program Assignment and Primary Contractual Responsibilities,
Reported in Percentages . . . . . . . . . 124

17. Weekly Averages of Job-Related Activities Reported in Hours. 125 18. Measures of Productivity for Established Nurse Researcher
Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135




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19. Correlation Matrix for Productivity Measures . . . . 136 20. Additional Forms of Productivity Reported by Established
Nurse Researchers: off-Site Consultation, Editorial
Boards, and Awards and Honors Received . . . . . 137 21. Reported Authorship Preferences . . . . . . . 142

22. Network Variables of Professional Societies and
Professional Journals . . . . . . . . . 145

23. Communication with Colleagues . . . . . . . . 146

24. Network Activities Valuable for the Nurse Researcher . . 149 25. Research Preferences Reported by Established Nurse
Researchers . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

26. Activities Used by Established Nurse Researchers for
Further Development of Research Expertise . . . . 169 27. General Organizational Characteristics of the Study Sites. 172 28. Graduate Nursing Degree Offerings at Study Sites . . . 173 29. Characteristics of Academic Nursing Units . . . . . 173

30. Rankings of Institutional Missions as Perceived by
Established Nurse Researchers . . . . . . . 175

31. Established Nurse Researchers' Perceptions of Necessary
and Desirable Resources for Research Activities . . . 181 32. Financial Resources for Research at Study Sites . . . 186 33. Resources Available for Faculty Research at Study Sites . 188 34. Funding Awards for Selected Successful Research Projects 190 35. Dissemination of Results for Examples of Successful
Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . 191

36. Further Studies which have Evolved from the Successful
Research Project . . . . . . . . . . 200

37. Descriptive Analysis for Items on Part II of the PSR . . 201 38. Correlation Matrix for PSR Items with Little Relationship
to Examples of Successful Research . . . . . . 202



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39. PSR Items on Methodological Rigor. ..............205

40. PSR Items on Importance to the Discipline. ...........205

41. Correlation Matrix for PSR Items on Importance to the
Discipline .........................207

42. PSR Items on Personal Interest and Motivation. .. ......208 43. PSR Items on Real World Implications .............208

















































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LIST OF FIGURES

Page

1. Organizational model of knowledge development at a university
school/college of nursing . . . . . . . . 18

2. A model for nurse faculty research productivity . . . 213




















































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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


A MODEL FOR NURSE FACULTY RESEARCH PRODUCTIVITY By

Rose Theresa Kearney

May, 1987

Chairman: Linda E. Moody
Major Department: Nursing


Generation, dissemination, and utilization of research is central to advancing the knowledge base for the discipline of nursing. The purposes of this exploratory study were to discover how a sample of nationally known nurse researchers produce and reproduce knowledge for the discipline, identify individual and environmental variables related to successful research outcomes, and generate a theoretical model for research productivity.

An organizational systems model and a naturalistic inquiry paradigm guided the research design and the development of the theoretical model for faculty research productivity. Multiple data collection methods and sources were used. The primary source of data was through on-site, field interviews with established nurse researchers at seven universities that have been identified as leading academic institutions in the United States with graduate nursing programs. Pre-interview data were collected by questionnaires to obtain a profile of the nurse researchers and academic institutions. The field interviews were xii












conducted with a purposive sample of 21 nationally known nurse researchers who met the definitional criteria for established nurse researcher.

Interviews with established nurse researchers were taped,

transcribed, and submitted to ethnographic analysis for domains and themes. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze biographical and institutional data.

From the interviews, the following significant individual variables were identified for the model of research productivity: character traits (interest, commitment and motivation, perseverance, creativity, independence, ethics); knowledge (knowledge base, opportunities for learning, awareness of when consultation and collaboration was appropriate); and skills (mental abilities, interpersonal skills, organizational skills, articulation skills). The most significant environmental variables of the model were as follows: academic and disciplinary expectations for scholarly productivity; administrative support for nurse faculty's development and involvement in programs of research through workload allocations, provision of resources for research, and faculty development; tangible resources to structure and foster environments that capitalize on resources available in academic nursing programs; and collegial support.

Recommendations from this study addressed further application and testing of the model of research productivity within academic nursing programs and extension of the research to include clinical settings of nurse researchers.



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CHAPTER I
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM



Introduction

Research and scholarship are vital to the sciences and the

professions in accretion of knowledge. Bloch (1985) has stated that "the product of research is science or knowledge" (p. 127). Nursing has become increasingly concerned with scholarship and the extension of its knowledge base through research and theory development since the 1970s. Nurses are being prepared in increasing numbers at the graduate level and academic nursing programs are moving more in concert with other disciplines in academia for the scholarly expectations of faculty and students. Scientific inquiry is essential for providing a knowledge base for nursing practice. As proposed by the American Nurses Association Cabinet on Nursing Research (1985), "the future of nursing practice and, ultimately, health care in this country depend on nursing research designed to constantly generate an up-to-date organized body of nursing knowledge" (p. 1). Further, significant findings from nursing research must be disseminated for utilization and progress. Generation, dissemination, and utilization of knowledge are assumed to be affected by certain antecedents, intervening factors, and outcomes of the research process and the individual researchers. Identification of variables that influence research activities will



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help to promote scholarly behaviors and stimulate further development of nursing knowledge. As Batey (1981) has indicated, "amassing all of the potential indicators of research productivity can be considered as a goal to be achieved by any field of study concerned with advancing its knowledge base either for the sake of that knowledge or for the use to which that knowledge may be placed" (P. 54).

Development of environments that support nursing inquiry has been stressed as a goal by the American Nurses' Association Cabinet on Nursing Research (1985). Brimmer et al. (1983) have stated that "salient features of educational programs and work settings must be identified and their relationship to scholarly productivity explored" (p. 165). Fawcett (1984) has identified the elimination of obstacles to research as a future hallmark of success in nursing research. The scholarly influence of leading researchers and the socialization of neophytes are critical factors to eliminate such obstacles (Fawcett, 1984). According to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (Copp, 1981), even in a decade marked by competing needs and scarce resources, nursing research must be viewed and promoted as a priority (p. 2).

Established nurse researchers have those characteristics that have led to successful research endeavors. Identifying individual characteristics considered advantageous by established nurse researchers addresses the need for role models expressed by Brimmer et al. (1983). In a study of the environmental conditions for productive scientists in research and development departments, Pelz and Andrews








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(1976) reported that "effective" scientists, although similarly motivated, differed from their less effective colleagues in the styles and strategies with which they approached their work (p. 7). The testimony of established nurse researchers may reveal their individual styles, strategies, and environments which, ultimately, affects the quality and type of nursing care to health care consumers.

Research Problem

The primary purpose of this research has been to determine individual and environmental characteristics of leading nurse researchers that are related to the generation, dissemination, and utilization of successful research. For the purposes of this study, nurse researchers in academic nursing settings are considered established nurse researchers following nomination by their respective Dean based on their contributions to the discipline of nursing. The primary research question for this exploratory investigation was as follows:

What are the individual and environmental characteristics of

established nurse researchers that are identified as important to

scholarly productivity that demonstrate an influence on the

generation, dissemination, and utilization of successful research?

Research Questions

Specific questions for this exploratory study were as follows:

(1) What precursors (antecedents) and individual characteristics

do established nurse researchers identify as contributing to and influencing successful research outcomes and other

scholarly endeavors?








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(2) What environmental variables do established nurse

researchers identify as being essential to the support and

success of their research and the research process?

(3) How do established nurse researchers engage in linkage or

network activities (intramurally and extramurally) to

influence the dissemination and utilization of research

findings?

Definition of Terms

The following terms have been defined for the purposes of this study.

Established nurse researchers are leading researchers in academic nursing settings who have made recognizable contributions to the scholarly discipline of nursing. Criteria for the selection of established nurse researchers include all of the following: has been awarded an earned doctorate, has an existing program of funded research, has provided leadership to a research team, has recently published research findings in scholarly nursing journals, has had past .findings utilized in nursing settings or used in research replications, and is employed full-time at an identified leading academic institution. In addition, the researcher demonstrates several of the following characteristics: has presented research papers at the national or international level, has received a regional/national research award, and has current membership in the ANA Council of Nurse Researchers or other professional research societies.








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Career age is the number of years of full-time academic

appointments which have been held by the established nurse researcher in a college or university setting.

Domains are symbolic categories that share at least one feature of meaning in ethnographic data (Spradley, 1979, p. 100). For the purposes of this study, domains were developed as symbolic categories from the verbal and written comments provided by at least 40 percent of the respondents.

Environments are contextual settings that include the school or

college of nursing, the university, the nursing discipline, and society.

Individual characteristics are those individual traits demonstrated, exhibited, or identified by an established nurse researcher and include personal, professional, positional, productivity, network, and research orientation variables.

Leading academic institutions are top-ranked institutions

identifiable in two or more of the rating schemes (Blau & Margulies, 1974-75; Chamings, 1984; Hayter, 1984; Hayter & Rice, 1979; Margulies & Blau, 1973) that have appeared in the literature. Institutions selected as sites for investigation of established nurse researchers shall be considered as representative of leading academic institutions rather than associated with any definitive ranking of reputation or scholarly productivity.

Research includes all forms of research activities including basic, applied and practice research, whether qualitative or quantitative in nature, relevant to practice, professional, administrative, or educational issues in nursing.








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Scholarly productivity is defined as contributions to nursing

including research activities, publications, presentations, recognition through awards, positions on editorial boards, and consultations.

Successful research includes activities/outcomes completed that have received positive acceptance by reviewers and colleagues, perhaps been cited in work by others, generated positive feedback from readers, and been recognized as making a major contribution to the field.

Themes are developed in ethnographic analysis as categories derived from domains to exhibit broad principles from qualitative responses on a selected topic. Spradley (1979) has referred to themes as cognitive principles which are common assumptions about the nature of the experience of respondents (p. 186).

Assumptions and Delimitations

Assumptions

For the purposes of this study, the following assumptions were specified:

(1) The development of scientific knowledge and scholarly

productivity by nurses is affected by multiple individual

and environmental factors.

(2) Research and scholarly activity occur in certain established

institutions that can be identified through factors related to

institutional reputation.

(3) Generation and dissemination of knowledge occur within the

tradition of the tripartite mission of research, teaching,

and service of the modern American university.








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(4) A large proportion of established nurse researchers are employed

at leading academic institutions.

(5) Established nurse researchers are assumed to share similar

characteristics vital to successful research outcomes.

(6) Established nurse researchers are attracted to leading

academic institutions and, in turn, attract other resources

and researchers to these environments.

(7) Characteristics of established nurse researchers and their

environments synergistically affect the development of

scientific nursing knowledge.

Delimitations

The study is delimited to established nurse researchers at leading academic institutions which restricts the full range of research and scholarly behaviors exhibited by the general population of nurse scholars. Outstanding researchers may not be limited to the institutions selected for study but have been assumed to be present in greater numbers in these environments.

Theoretical Framework

Inquiry Paradigm

The research was based on a naturalistic inquiry paradigm. Lincoln (1985) has described the naturalistic paradigm with the focus on environmental context and environmental shapers to "exhibit patterns and webs of influence that in turn select and are selected by participants on the scene in mutually reinforcing ways" (p. 141). Guba (1985) has characterized this paradigm along seven dimensions,








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complexity, heterarchy, holography, interdeterminacy, mutual causality, morphogenesis, and perspective, with the following axioms:

(1) Multiple constructed realities should be studied holistically in

order to achieve a level of understanding;

(2) Interaction and influences occur between inquirer and

respondent;

(3) The aim of inquiry is to develop a model of knowledge using

working hypotheses with individual cases;

(4) Multiple interacting factors and processes provide the nature of

explanation; and

(5) Inquiry is value-bound, influenced by the inquirer, inquiry and

substantive paradigms, society, and the interaction of these

factors (pp. 85-86).

Axioms of naturalistic inquiry are relevant to the investigation with the assumption that the development of scientific knowledge and scholarly productivity by nurses is affected by multiple individual and environmental or organizational factors. Pranulis (1984) investigated the functional significance of selected aspects of the research environments at university schools of nursing. Further, Pranulis (1984) assumed there was "an interaction between the person and the environment that is influential in molding the person's identity and subsequent behavior" (p. 11). In an earlier study, Batey (1978) investigated research development in university schools of nursing through description of organizational structure and process.








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Substantive Paradigm

The substantive paradigm supports the dimensions and axioms of naturalistic inquiry and is an adaptation of two models (Havelock, 1971; Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979) based on the production of scientific knowledge and organizational theory. Each of these models will be described prior to the presentation of the theoretical framework adapted for this study.

Knowledge flow structure

Havelock (1971) has used a system and process model to depict an organization with subunits containing the major concepts of role and linkage. The organizational subunit contains a knowledge source and through linkages between roles and linkages among subunits and organizations the processes of dissemination and utilization flow to the knowledge user. At each linkage point in the knowledge flow system, a knowledge flow transfer process takes place for both a micro-perspective (within the individual) and a macro-perspective (among individuals and organizations) (Havelock, 1971, p. 1-13). Utilization is considered as a process within the individual using the concepts of personality factors, cognitive and attitudinal variables, and the various specific characteristics of people which have been found to be related to the receptivity of new knowledge (Havelock, 1971, p. 1-12). Then as a building process, the two-person transfer situation occurs with two persons, each with their own separate identity and set of motives, resistances, values and understanding; differences between receiver and sender constitute potential barriers








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to dissemination and utilization Of knowledge (Havelock, 1971, p. 1-14). The perspective is similarly broadened to an interorganizational perspective. Communication is a major process thread in this model.

The "knowledge flow structure" is described as the sequence of organizational roles and mechanisms through which knowledge is processed in an organization from input to output (Havelock, 1971, p. 2-28). To look at nursing research, one must consider the macro-perspective. Havelock (1971) has identified four principal points of the macro system:

First, the university is the primary source, storage
point, and cultural carrier of expert knowledge in all
fields, basic and applied. However, the university
does not take any active responsibility for diffusing this knowledge or ensuring that it gets used. Second,
this responsibility seems to reside in the three sectors
of the practice world, the professions, the product
organizations, and the service org animations. Third,
the consumer's power to influence his would-be "helpers"
in the practice-world and the research world is very
limited; this consumer powerlessness is to the detriment of the system as a whole. However, there are some signs
that the picture is changing for the better. Finally, there are some integrating forces, some organizations and individuals who are working for a greater coordination of the total process from the university laboratory to the classroom and the hospital bed. (pp. 3-2 3-3)

This description can be applied to scholarly nursing from the research orientation at the university level, to transmission of knowledge to students in the classroom and clinical practice arena, to dissemination efforts with practitioners, and the integrating forces of our leading nursing professional and scholarly organizations, professional meetings, and journal publications.













Organizational systems

Kast and Rosenzweig (1979) view organizations as open,

sociotechnical systems composed of five subsystems: goals and values,

technical, psychosocial, structural, and managerial. Inputs of energy,

information, and materials are received from the environment,

transformed, and returned to the environment. The organization is not

simply a technical or social system but the structuring and integrating

of humans around various activities (Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979, p. 108).

Kast and Rosenzweig (1979) have described the internal organization of

their model with five major subsystems as follows:

The organizational goals and values are one of the
more important of these subsystems. The organization
takes many of its values from the broader sociocultural environment. A basic premise is that the organization as a subsystem of the society must accomplish certain goals that are determined by the broader system. . .
The technical subsystem refers to the knowledge required
for the performance of tasks, including the techniques
used in the transformation of inputs into outputs. . .
Every organization has a psychosocial subsystem that is composed of individuals and groups in interaction. It consists of individual behavior and motivation, status and role relationships, group dynamics, and influence
systems. It is also affected by sentiments, values,
attitudes, expectations, and aspirations of the people in the organization. . Structure involves the ways
in which the tasks of the organization are divided
(differentiation) and coordinated (integration) . .
The managerial subsystem spans the entire organization
by relating the organization to its environment, setting
the goals, developing comprehensive, strategic, and
operational plans designing the structure, and establishing control processes. (pp. 109-110)

This theoretical structure is particularly applicable to a

university system with the goals of the generation and transmission of

knowledge. An underlying assumption of the Kast and Rosenzweig (1979)








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model is that there should be a congruence between the organization and its environment and among the various subsystems (p. 115). Use of the adaptive-organic organizational form is appropriate for research and scholarly productivity in a university setting with the following patterns of relationships:

1. The environment is relatively uncertain and turbulent
2. The goals are diverse and changing
3. The technology is complex and dynamic
4. There are many nonroutine activities in which creativity
and innovation are important
5. Heuristic decision-making processes are utilized and
coordination and control occur through reciprocal adjustments. The system is less hierarchical and more flexible.
(Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979, p. 116)

Further, these relationships are congruent with a naturalistic inquiry paradigm.

Use of the five subsystems is also applicable to the generation of nursing knowledge in a university environment. Research, creativity, and scholarly productivity are esteemed values and goals in both nursing and higher education. Kast and Rosenzweig (1979) have stated that the "social role of the university is the creation and dissemination of knowledge. . and the university has the special function of creating new knowledge through research" (pp. 519-520). This is further described with three predominant institutional goals:

1. The dissemination of knowledge to students. .
primarily done through the teaching function;
2. The creation and advancement of knowledge. .
accomplished through the research activities of the
faculty and specialized staffs; and
3. Service to society. . [which] establishes the norm
that knowledge creation and dissemination should be
useful. (Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979, p. 520)








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Two major concepts of the psychosocial subsystem are roles and

status. The concept of role "describes the behaviors the individual is expected to exhibit while occupying a given position in a societal or organizational system" (Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979, p. 261). Nurses as university faculty are expected to exhibit behaviors related to the roles of researcher, educator, and practitioner. These three roles relate to the generation, dissemination, and utilization of knowledge. To what measure these roles are congruent with the university mission for research, teaching, and service depend upon the mission and its application at the university, college, and departmental levels. In addition, as professionals, nurses are expected to engage in research activities appropriate to their educational preparation. A useful typology to maximize participation and individual role responsibilities was developed by the American Nurses' Association (1981) which relates educational preparation with expected research activities. Fawcett (1985) has indicated that this typology does not provide exclusive categories in that some individuals are competent at higher levels of research performance when compared with educational level. This typology suggests the elimination of inappropriate expectations yet stresses the involvement of all nurses in some form of research activity.

An important aspect of the model and the psychosocial subsystem is that Kast and Rosenzweig (1979) have denied the concept of role conflict for faculty and have supported the duality of teaching and research: "university professors have a dual role of teaching and








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research, and they cannot adequately fulfill their responsibilities without giving attention to both . . both activities are vital to the basic goals of the institution" (p. 530).

Status is the second major concept of the psychosocial subsystem. Status generally "refers to the ranking or stratification of people in a social system",yet in an organizational context, it refers to a specific hierarchical position Mast & Rosenzweig, 1979, pp. 260-261). In a university, status is evident with specific positions and academic rank. Two further forms of status are relevant to the study design: functional status and occupation prestige (Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979). Functional status has been used to the focus on established nurse researchers with successful research and scholarly endeavors as particular career functions. occupational prestige has also been used in the research design through the focus on established nurse researchers in leading schools of nursing. "Occupational prestige is important in the social system because it affects the power and influence of occupants of certain positions, as well as the amount of resources that society Places at their disposal" (Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979, p. 266). occupational prestige relates to the reward system of science and potential advantages that accrue through recognized contributions.

The technical subsystem has two basic components: physical

resources and accumulated knowledge. The accumulated knowledge is the means to accomplish tasks (Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979, p. 195). "Teaching and scholarly research are the primarily technical tasks of the system"







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(Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979, p. 521). Research and scholarly productivity are dynamic and increase the degree of complexity in the system while providing valuable outputs to the environment, in particular the discipline of nursing, and ultimately the consumers of health care.

The structural subsystem can be viewed through school and

departmental structure and patterns of authority. The concept of a community of scholars is appropriate here in terms of decision-making and allocation of resources. Resources, rewards, and integration of activities are provided through the functioning of the managerial subsystem. "The managerial system spans the entire organization by directing the technology, organizing people and other resources, and relating the organization to its environment . human and physical resources are combined to achieve certain objectives" (Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979, p. 111).

Both of the systems models presented are extensions of earlier models. Influences from Talcott Parsons and Robert Merton are apparent. Havelock's (1971) application of the influence from the professions and the prominence of roles in social system theory are credited to Parsons. The concepts of values and linkages have been influenced by the work of Merton. More apparent is the influence from Parsons in the model by Kast and Rosenzweig. Managerial systems concepts and concepts relating the structure and processes of the social system are credited to the work of Parsons. Merton's influence is apparent in the development of the psychosocial subsystem. Some similarities are to be expected due to the application of open systems








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in the different models. The model by Havelock adds a further dimension through the focus on dissemination and utilization of findings. And, the model by Kast and Rosenzweig has expanded sociological systems to sociotechnical. Study framework

Further adaptations are necessary for use of the models of

Havelock (1971) and Kast and Rosenzweig (1979) with the area of concern of individual and environmental characteristics of established nurse researchers. The total university will not be the major focus but will provide an environmental influence, as will the profession of nursing and its organizations, values, goals, and prominent nurse researchers. The framework represents an open, organizational system of knowledge development in interaction with four environments: (1) the immediate environment of a university college/school of nursing containing the five subsystems of goals and values, psychosocial, technical, structural, and managerial; (2) the general organizational environment of the university; (3) the nursing disciplinary environment; and (4) the broad social environment.

Inquiry for the study is organized by factors classified as personal, professional, positional, organizational, network, productivity, and research orientation. Preliminary classification of these variables was done following identification of pertinent variables related to scholarly productivity of college and university faculty appearing in the literature. For the most part, categorization of these factors was proposed based on main influence in the theoretical superstructure. As an open system, other system structures








17




are expected to be affected by these variables as well, but to a lesser degree than the structure identified with the variable. Variables for investigation have further been classified into input (antecedent), throughput (intervening), and output (consequence) variables. Table 1 illustrates this general classification of variables.

Figure 1 represents a combination of the models by Havelock (1971) and Kast and Rosenzweig (1979) for an open systems organizational framework for knowledge development and transmission. A continuous and cyclic process of knowledge flow from generation at the university college/school of nursing level proceeds to dissemination and utilization at the various environmental levels. The process proceeds from antecedents (inputs) to consequences (outputs) as knowledge builds, is processed, and revised with additional information or inputs. At the center of the process is the university college/school of nursing. The subsystems of interest occur at this level with particular unit characteristics to be investigated. Again, this is an open, interrelated structure and overlap of variables is to be expected in line with the naturalistic concepts of multiple reality, relationships, and causality. Further specification of system variables is assumed to occur following naturalistic inquiry. The preliminary classification of system variables is presented in Table 2.

The university environment represents the next immediate

environment to the college/school of nursing. Influences at this level occur from university administrative, policy, and operational influences which guide the college/school organization and operation.










18








S CE DISCIPLINARY ENVIRONMENT: Professional Organizations


Professional Literature Nursing Service

UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENT: Research Teaching
Service

UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF NURSING

















































Figure 1. Organizational model of knowledge development at a university
school/college of nursing.


Note. From 'Organization and Management (p. 109) by F. E. Kast and J. E. Rosenzweig, 1979, New York: McGraw-Hill. Copyright 1979 by McGraw-Hill. Adapted by permission.








19




Table 1

General Classification of Variables by General System Activity

Input Throughput Output
(Antecedents) (Intervening variables) (Consequences)

Personal
Chronological age
Marital status
Number of dependents
Race/ethnic origin
Gender
Family background
Place of birth

Professional
Educational preparation Work habits
Postdoctoral work
Clinical specialty
Career influences
Career age

Positional
Academic rank Position/title
Tenure status Program assignment
Years at current location Primary responsibility Mobility Job related activities
Student/faculty ratios organizational
Geographic location Characteristics of
environments Research requirements Network
Journal subscriptions Communication with
colleagues
Mentee relationships Mentor relationships
Professional societies Productivity
Early publications Publication habits Scholarly
Perceptions of success activities:
Research Orientation publications
Importance and preferences grants/funding Research habits awards
Influences on scholarship other projects
Contributions to nursing consultations








20





Table 2

Preliminary Classification of System Variables

System Structure Variables

Goals and Values Positional: academic rank, tenure status
Research Orientation: perceived importance preferences for research, contributions to nursing
Productivity: perceptions of research success

Psychosocial Personal: chronological age, marital status,
number of dependents, race/ethnic origin, gender, family background, place of birth Professional: educational preparation, career influences, clinical specialty, career age Positional: years at current location, mobility, position/title, program assignment, primary responsibility, job-related acts Productivity: early publications

Structural Organizational: school organization, program
characteristics
Research Orientation: scholarship influences

Technical Professional: postdoctoral work, work habits
Positional: student/faculty ratios Research Orientation: research habits Productivity: publication habits

Managerial Organizational: support for research,
research requirements

University Organizational: geographic location, instituEnvironment tion type and sponsorship, primary mission,
productive environmental characteristics, support services and resources

Disciplinary Network: Communication with colleagues,
Environment mentor-mentee relationships, professional
societies, journal subscriptions Productivity: type and rate of scholarly activities









21



This level is one of generation of knowledge through research and dissemination through teaching and service functions.

The next environmental division is the nursing disciplinary level which provides the professional orientation, specialization, and additional value structures of the university nursing faculty. Havelock (1971) has referred to this stratum as the practice world. The disciplinary environmental focus in this study will primarily be investigated through faculty interactions with professional organizations and societies, service organizations, and scholarly product organizations. Although this disciplinary environment is affected by generation at the interorganizational systems level, primary consideration will be given to dissemination and utilization of knowledge.

The broader social environment reflects societal needs and values through the needs and potential needs of consumers of health care. Utilization of knowledge and origination of problems and needs are the primary influences from this environmental level. Linkages among all system parts are assumed as necessary for effectiveness and continuity.

Generation of knowledge is to be investigated at the level of

individual nurse faculty researchers. The flow of this knowledge from generation to dissemination will be the focus to explore individual and environmental factors that influence knowledge for the discipline of nursing.








22



Significance

As professionals, nurses are expected to engage in research

activities; research ultimately contributing to the body of knowledge. The Cabinet on Nursing Research of the American Nurses' Association (1985) has identified goals and strategies for nursing research priorities which address the needs for an increased supply of nurse scientists, enhanced research productivity, development of environments to support inquiry, and generation, dissemination, and utilization of scientific knowledge to guide practice. In a two-year national study of nurses with doctoral degrees for the American Nurses' Association Cabinet on Nursing Research, Brimmer et al. (1983) indicated that there has been substantial growth in the number of nurses with doctoral degrees but a large number of these nurses were in the initial phase of socialization as scholars (Brimmer et al., 1983, p. 164). Brimmer et al. (1983) have therefore concluded

The context in which new doctoral graduates find
themselves during this formative stage is of critical
significance for those seeking to develop roles as
productive researchers. Since few nurses are
employed primarily for the conduct of research and,
in the aggregate, an average of only 12% of work
time is reportedly focused on research activities, this provides a limited number of role models and little or no time for exposure to ongoing research
activities in many work settings. (p. 164)

Yet, research and other forms of scholarly productivity must be more than isolated events or products. Scholarly productivity must be toward some end; that end being contributing to the body of scientific knowledge and subject to dissemination and utilization. Development of programs of research, whether longitudinal, cross-sectionall or








23



combination programs (Felton & Yeaworth, 1985), is one means for such a contribution. Felton and Yeaworth (1985) have defined such a program:

a focused, long-term commitment to increasing
research skills in a continuous manner, pursuing a truly significant problem further and further,
applying procedures for conducting the inquiry,
refining research methods, and modifying ways for
making critical measurements of a variety of
populations, conditions, or situations. (p. 187)

Such a program can be demonstrated by committed researchers, especially leading nurse researchers. The question may then be raised as to the characteristics of such researchers and their environments in order to strengthen the cadre of nurse researchers and promote those environments conducive to such inquiry.

Based on a review of the literature, an assumption of this study was that increased research and scholarly activity occur in certain established institutions that can be identified through factors related to institutional reputation. The university college/school of nursing has been selected as the organizational site for the study of established nurse researchers on the assumption that generation and dissemination of knowledge occur within the tradition of the tripartite mission of research,, teaching, and service of the American university. Clark (1984) has advanced the organizational perspective and has stated, "knowledge is the common substance involved in activities of the system: research creates it, scholarship preserves, refines and modifies it, teaching and service disseminate it" (p. 107). Murphy (1985) has stated, "a university setting can provide an intellectual community of scholars, physical resources, and the freedom of inquiry







24



necessary for creative scientific work" (p. 104). Further in the area of research, Havelock (1971) has proposed that the university-based professional school is the "key-bridging institution between research and practice" (p. 3-20). Gortner (1983) has observed that "the modern university is the mainstay of important scientific activity in many fields" but nursing's progress as an academic discipline in the next decade is dependent on the university to house and nurture the fledgling science of nursing (p. 7).

Attention to the academic environment has implications for human and physical resource utilization as well as further development of the body of knowledge in nursing. Through greater knowledge of the

individual and environmental characteristics of scholarly productivity, academic environments and individual faculty members can be developed for greater scholarly productivity. Academic nursing administrators will be provided with an increased understanding of how individual and environmental variables influence the research process and the success of nurse researchers, providing further implications for faculty evaluation and development. The influence of administrative functions and scholarly productivity is one consideration. In a study comparing the professional activities of nurse doctorates with other academic women, Lia-Hoagberg (1985) reported that nurse doctorates spend less time on research and scholarly writing, publish fewer journal articles, and present fewer papers at professional meetings (p. 158).

Another consideration for academic nursing administrators is the focus of research currently being conducted in relation to the funding








25



priorities for clinical research in the newly established Center for Nursing Research at the national level. Pranulis (1984) found few of the nurse educators included in her sample involved in research which could be classified as studies of clinical therapeutics (p. 190), whereas a study by Brown, Tanner, and Padrick (1983) indicated an increase in clinical research in the literature over the past three decades.

Intramural support and expectations for scholarly productivity of faculty are a further consideration for academic nursing administrators. Nieswiadomy (1984) surveyed nurse educators from a variety of program types concerning their involvement in research and found that nurse educators reported only minimal support provided for research activities in their institutions (p. 56). Baird et al. (1985) surveyed baccalaureate schools of nursing and found that scholarly activity was considered highly important in evaluation for promotion and tenure in over 50 percent of the schools with an increasing importance given to scholarly criteria for faculty evaluation yet with variable interpretations of importance given to individual activities. An increased demand for scholarly productivity by faculty exists as nurse educators are held to the same expectations as faculty in other disciplines in the university. Greater knowledge is needed for faculty recruitment, evaluation, and development related to scholarly productivity. In addition, the quality of the research and related scholarly activities must be such that it contributes to the body of knowledge rather than solely toward individual promotion and tenure








26



needs or valuable studies with limited dissemination. Further, the academic environment provides an arena for the transmission to students of skills and value systems associated with research for continuity and contribution to the body of nursing knowledge. The successful and innovative strategies of established nurse researchers provide a greater understanding of the individual and environmental factors that promote successful research outcomes and higher levels of scholarly productivity.

Through her research concerning productive research environments, Batey (1981) has concluded that there are university schools of nursing coming to be known as centers for research through opportunities offered for faculty investigators as well as the research reported by selected faculty, but there is no school of nursing which can be considered a productive research organization (p. 56). Yet, Batey (1981) has provided several criteria for successful and productive university nursing research environments based on the findings of her earlier research. Batey (1978) focused her research on variables related to the environmental context within 12 schools of nursing with significant extramural funding.

Pranulis (1984) further extended Batey's work through her retrospective correlational study to describe the functional significance of the environment on nurse faculty research productivity. Pranulis used a broadened perspective to include other forms of scholarly productivity in addition to research activities. In her investigation, female faculty members with doctorates at ten leading








27




schools responded to questionnaires on values orientation and environmental influences, while background information on the ten schools was obtained through telephone interviews with a resource person from each of the ten schools (Pranulis, 1984). "The nurse faculty member's identity as a nurse researcher was found to be the individual characteristic significantly associated with her research productivity" (Pranulis, 1984, p. 208). Pranulis (1984) presented findings to profile high versus low productive environments using four schools within her sampling of institutions based on mean productivity ratings of faculty, further supporting Batey's research. Further investigation is needed to explore how and why leading nurse researchers are successful and what environmental variables contribute to successful research outcomes.

Summary

This exploratory study employed a naturalistic inquiry paradigm

and an organizational systems substantive paradigm to analyze variables influencing the generation, dissemination, and utilization of successful research by established nurse researchers at leading academic institutions. This research has been aimed at yielding findings concerning (1) individual and contextual factors associated with scholarly productivity of leading nurse researchers; (2) optimal academic environments for research, thus extending the work of Batey (1978) and Pranulis (1984); and (3) strategies used by successful nurse researchers for effective dissemination and use of research findings, ultimately leading to knowledge accretion and improved nursing care.








28



An overview of the research has been presented in this chapter, including the research problem and questions, definition of terms, assumptions and delimitations, the theoretical framework, and the significance of the study. Chapter II provides a review of related literature. Research methodology is included in Chapter III with discussions of the study development, research design, environments and subjects, instruments, and data collection and analysis procedures. Research findings are presented in Chapter IV and discussed in Chapter V. Conclusions and recommendations are presented in Chapter VI.

















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


This chapter contains a review of literature relevant to scholarly productivity. Scholarly productivity is an issue of concern to many disciplines in academia and the professions, with some areas studied at greater frequency. Batey (1981) has stated, "research productivity is the form through which the conduct and the achievement of the science of a discipline becomes evident" (p. 54). Publication measures are often used to quantify research and other forms of scholarly activity. First, the literature will be reviewed broadly, by selected factors investigated, and by dependent measures used for assessment. Secondly, recommendations from literature specific to scholarship in academic nursing will be presented. Recommendations from previous studies in the literature will be included throughout the discussion.

Scholarly Productivity

Institutional Productivity

one avenue for investigation of scholarly productivity has focused on institutional productivity with publication productivity of the total faculty in a particular department or discipline as the predominant measure. Methodologies have included reviews of specified sets of journals for faculty publications in education (Eash, 1983; West, 1978), speech communications (McCallum, 1984), psychology (Cox & Catt, 1977), and nursing (Hayter & Rice, 1979; Hayter, 1984).

29







30



Additional criteria with publication counts have been used in several studies. Eash (1983), who assumed "faculty productivity emphasizes the strength of institutional research" (p. 5), based productivity on papers presented, extramural funding received, and articles in specified, leading journals over a seven year period of time. In several studies proportional credit was awarded in the case of multiple authorship and/or institutional affiliation (Cox & Catt, 1977; Eash, 1983; McCallum, 1984; West, 1978) while others considered credit to the institution only in the case of primary authorship (Hayter, 1984; Hayter & Rice, 1979). Silverman (1984) investigated publishing patterns in higher education journals but also considered institutional affiliation. In an attempt to qualify productivity, Glenn and Villemez (1970) developed a scale for faculty publications in sociology departments which weighted books (research/theory, textbook, edited) and specific disciplinary journals. Outcomes of these studies aimed at providing a rating for or awareness of productive sites in academia. Individual Productivity

Batey (1985) has observed that an organization acquires a

reputation for scholarship through the explicit achievements of its individual scientists (p. 489). Numerous authors have attempted to correlate factors with individual scholarly productivity. Creswell (1985) has proposed a profile of productive researchers which has emerged from this literature in the past 40 years.








31




A productive researcher is: (1) employed in a major
university that rewards research and assigns ample
time for faculty to conduct research; (2) holds
senior professorial rank, though performance may
peak 10 years after the doctorate and again later toward the end of the career; (3) spends at least
one-third of time on research activities; (4) began
publishing early in career and received positive
feedback from peers for research efforts . ; and
(5) maintains regular close contact . with
colleagues on and off campus who conduct research
on a similar topic. (Creswell, 1985, p. vi)

Finkelstein (1984) has reported similar characteristics for productive published writers: (1) holds a doctorate; (2) is oriented toward research; (3) demonstrates early publications and is recognized for scholarship; (4) maintains close contacts with colleagues and keeps abreast of the literature; and (5) demonstrates a greater time commitment to research than teaching (p. 98).

Research on publication productivity has been conducted in a number of academic disciplines including the natural and biological sciences, mathematics, liberal arts and humanities, behavioral and social sciences, engineering, business, medicine, and law. other research has focused on scientists in general, where faculty as a group have been found to be the most productive within the norms of academia. In nursing, studies of individual scholarly productivity have included those by Holt (1973), Lia-Hoagberg (1985), Marella (1974), Nieswiadomy (1984), Ostmoe (1982, 1986), Phillips (1973), and Pranulis (1984). In their classic study of research activities by faculty, Fulton and Trow (1974) included nursing faculty under the category, "new and semi-professional fields," indicating more of a practice focus of such disciplines, thus differing from others in academia. Nursing has







32



become increasingly concerned with scholarly productivity, but with variable definitions and applications of scholarly products (Baird et al., 1985).

Variables studied as correlates of individual scholarly

productivity have been numerous. Representative studies and findings are included in the following section describing common variables

investigated.

Academic rank

Academic rank has frequently been found to be a significant factor related to scholarly productivity (Finkelstein; 1984; Hall, 1975; Walton, 1982). Findings in the literature are inconclusive as to whether rank serves as an antecedent, a consequence, or an intervening variable despite this significant association. Fulton and Trow (1974) found an increasing tendency for research activity, the higher the academic rank with "the most crucial difference between the temporary rank of instructor and the career rank of assistant professor" (p. 50). These researchers hypothesized that instructors simply have no time for the research they wish to do when rank was considered with respect to research orientation (Fulton & Trow, 1974, p. 51). Behymer and Blackburn (1975) found that academic rank was the third most significant predictor of rate of article production but when a more powerful statistical test was used, Blackburn et al. (1978) indicated that rank was the most significant predictor of productivity. Other studies have focused on the three professorial ranks, with significant positive correlations reported with scholarly productivity. Gunne and








33



Stout (1980) found that assistant professors studied were found to be generally half as productive as the associate professors and professors combined or the department chairpersons (p. 143). In his investigation of productivity of undergraduate faculty, Hall (1975) stated that rank was a significant predictor but "more a title than a cause or consequence of publication productivity" (p. 60). Still, rank has been found to be significantly related to both cumulative publication productivity as well as rate of productivity which lends support to factors other than longevity in the academic setting (Finkelstein, 1984).

In nursing, academic rank has been further supported as a predictor of scholarly productivity. With respect to research, Nieswiadomy (1984) found a significant relationship between rank and four measures of productivity: degree studies, non-degree studies, published studies, and present studies. Pranulis (1984) reported the highest level of scholarly productivity for full professors in her study of nurse doctorates, while Lane et al. (1981) found that the greatest participation in research activities was by associate and full professors of nursing. Further support for the significance of academic rank as a correlate of publication productivity in academic nursing has been reported by Ostmoe (1982). Administrative activities

Faculty involvement in administrative activities in studies of scholarly productivity have been used in a more descriptive than inferential manner. Roe (1965) reported that the majority of the








34



eminent scientists she had studied more than a decade earlier had since undertaken some form of administrative responsibility, from department chairperson, to head of the institutional unit, to other types of positions. When re-interviewed these eminent scholars agreed that any administrative position takes time away from research, yet Roe (1965) determined that they continued to contribute significantly to the literature through publication. Fulton and Trow (1974) reported the principle, "the more, the more" in relation to productive researchers after discovering that the ones they identified also filled a good deal more administrative roles along with research and teaching than their less productive counterparts (p. 68). Gunne and Stout (1980), who studied publishing patterns of department chairpersons and faculty at three professorial ranks, reported that mean productivity for chairpersons was consistently higher for four measures of scholarly productivity than assistant professors despite the formers' administrative responsibilities.

Further investigation of this area is needed in academic nursing with consideration of possible differences specific to the discipline. Pranulis (1984) reported the following faculty perceptions on the influence of administrative responsibilities on research activities: 46.6 percent felt they were an inhibitor, 13.6 percent felt they were a facilitator, and 38.8 percent of faculty in the sample felt there was no effect (p. 118). When nurses with doctorates were compared with other academic women in research universities, Lia-Hoagberg (1985) reported that nurses with doctorates demonstrated greater








35



administrative functions in their positions while other academic women exhibited greater levels of scholarly productivity. Some of the differences between these findings may relate to either non-representative samples or the environments of the nurse doctorates and the other academic women studied. Fulton and Trow (1974) observed that the separation between research and other roles, like teaching and administration, was more apparent in institutions other than elite institutions where r6les were combined. Age

Investigators have sought to relate scholarly productivity to

chronological age, but the significance of the scholar's age alone has been negligible. Blackburn et al. (1978) eliminated age as a predictor of scholarly productivity when stronger statistical tests demonstrated that age was highly correlated with academic rank, a stronger predictor of productivity (p. 135). Fulton and Trow (1974) have supported this association between age and rank while other researchers report age as a nonsignificant variable (Pranulis, 1984; Walton, 1982). Although publication rates were found to decrease with age, over (1982) reported that previous productivity was a better predictor of future productivity than age.

Descriptions of productive periods of scholars have been more

useful. Pelz and Andrews (1976) described scientists in universities, governmental agencies, and laboratories exhibiting a bimodal distribution of productivity, with-peaks at 35 to 44 and 50 to 54 years of age. This bimodal distribution was supported for medical school







36



faculty with productive peaks at 42 to 44 and 57 to 59 years (Pearse et al., 1976). Further support for a bimodal age distribution for publication productivity with college and university faculty may be found in the literature (Blackburn et al., 1978; Knorr, Mettermeir, Aichholzer, and Waller, 1979).

one influence which should be considered at this point is the development of a scientific orientation and socialization to a profession through career age. Career age has been defined in a variety of ways: length of time in higher education, length of time in present career, and length of time since the doctoral or terminal degree was earned. These definitions have the same basic intent, to show orientation to and alignment with basic professional goals and value structures in the professions and in academia. Several researchers have entered some form of control for career age in their studies, through sampling design (Crane, 1965), preliminary statistical manipulation of the data (Creswell and Bean, 1981), or through adjustment factors with calculations (Neumann, 1979) for scholarly productivity. In other studies, significant associations with career age and publication productivity have been reported (Bayer & Dutton, 1977; Hall, 1975; Wanner et al., 1980; Walton, 1982). Phillips (1973) found that career age was associated with both quality and quantity of publications of nurses with doctorates. Focusing on longitudinal data for career influences, Baldwin and Blackburn (1981) have reported a decline in scholarly and research interests during the academic career.

Disciplines have variable mean age entry points for their

scholars. If career age is based on age at the doctorate, it should








37



logically follow that if the mean entry point for scholars is significantly later with all other factors constant, then the bimodal distribution should be similarly shifted. This may be the case for nursing at present. Research has shown mean ages for completion of doctoral education for nurses of 41.5 (Brimmer et al., 1983) and 39.4 (Ostmoe, 1982) years. As Ostmoe (1982) illustrated, median ages at receipt of the doctorate are lower for individuals in disciplines other than nursing, with a range of 29.1 to 37.0 years as compared with the median of 40 years in nursing (pp. 95, 97). Some of the influence from the higher median age at which nurses complete doctoral studies may relate to the nature of the population with nursing as a predominantly female discipline. Humphreys (1984) reported a greater overall number of years before the doctorate for women than for men. Still, the question of additional influences should be considered based on Lia-Hoagberg's (1985) findings which revealed the later age at which nurses attain doctoral degrees when compared with other academic women.

For the purposes of exploring scholarly productivity with

established nurse researchers in this study, career age has been defined in terms of years of full-time academic appointments rather than age at doctorate. Number of years in nursing (Nieswiadomy, 1984) was not used due to possible additional interpretations which could have been introduced before obtaining the terminal degree, for example, time spent in clinical practice, graduate studies, non-academic teaching positions, unemployment,.etc.








38



Another explanation has been proposed related to career age,

accumulative advantage. Allison and Stewart (1974) have hypothesized, "because of feedback through recognition and resources, highly productive scientists maintain or increase their productivity, while scientists who produce little, produce even less later on" (p. 596). Accumulative advantage has been used further to describe the positive relationship between career age and increases among productivity, resources, and esteefn (p. 596). Although Fox (1983) has indicated that direct tests of accumulative advantage are lacking, this has implications when the significance of early productivity as a predictor for scholarly productivity and reputational influences are considered.

In general, when other variables are accounted for, chronological age alone has been held to be nonsignificant. Career age has been shown to be a better indicator for scholarly productivity. Communication with colleagues

In several studies it has been found that high producers

communicate frequently with scholars at other institutions (Behymer & Blackburn, 1975; Finkelstein, 1982; Hall, 1975). Communication with other scholars, especially those working in similar areas of research interests, include formal and informal methods, as with written correspondence, telephone communications, contacts at professional meetings, and collaboration on projects. Creswell (1985) has observed that interpersonal communication, especially visits and telephone contacts, with off-campus colleagues affects research performance (p. 38). Blackburn et al. (1978) have reported frequency of communication








39



with scholars at their institutions is a significant predictor for total article production, and rate of productivity is correlated with interest in research. Finkelstein (1982) described patterns of collegial interactions as more related to scholarly productivity with descriptions of localism (at the departmental level) and cosmopolitanism (at the discipline level). The most prolific publishers were found to be faculty with a combined local and cosmopolitan orientation.

Some differences have been found relative to the sex of the

academician and use of communication with colleagues. Astin (1984) observed that women are more restricted in their communication networks than their male cohorts. Yet, differences may occur among women in academia, especially nurse faculty. Frieze and Hanusa (1984) reported that academic women generally demonstrate less communication with colleagues than men but in some fields of science with sufficient.women and network systems, networks provide women with both emotional support and current information on developments (p. 158).

Subscriptions to professional journals are another form of

communication with colleagues; communication of scientific findings and scholarly information. Ostmoe (1982) has related this variable to "informal continuing education." other researchers refer to professional subscriptions similarly in attempts of scholars to keep current in their own or related fields (Bayer & Dutton, 1977). Generally, the number of subscriptions the scholar has to professional or scientific journals has been found to have a significant positive








40



association with scholarly productivity. Behymer and Blackburn (1975) have proposed that intrinsic variables such as interest in research, communication with colleagues, and the number of academic journals subscribed to are better predictors of productivity than extrinsic variables as with institutional pressure to publish for promotion (p. 12). Bayer and Dutton (1977) found the number of subscriptions to be statistically significant for all fields investigated but with a decline at mid-career in some fields and an increase at mid-career in others.

In studies with nurses, the number of subscriptions to

professional journals has also received support as a correlate of scholarly productivity. Ostmoe (1982) reported a median of three to four subscriptions received by her sample (p. 195). Holt (1973) also found that nurse faculty attitudes toward research and theory development were positively related to the number and type of professional journals read regularly. Early productivity

Publication prior to the doctorate, or early productivity, has been found to be a significant predictor for scholarly productivity. Walton (1982) reported that 54.2 percent of high producers studied had published prior to the doctorate in comparison with 32 percent of the low producers" (p. 311). Blackburn et al. (1978) have found early productivity to be a good predictor of future productivity and although productivity seems to decline over time, high producers continue with productive output and interest levels. In addition to early








41




productivity, current productivity is further related to past article productivity (Fulton & Trow, 1974; Hall, 1975) with the higher producers continuing at high levels. other studies supported this positive association between early productivity and subsequent productivity (Clemente, 1973; Manis, 1950; Phillips, 1973). Ostmoe (1982) reported that 52.7 percent of all nurse faculty with doctorates in her study had reported publications to their credit prior to earning the doctorate.

Educational background

Many studies on productivity have controlled for faculty with earned doctorates through either the requirement for the terminal degree in the academic setting (Holley, 1977; Jolly, 1983; Neumann, 1979; Pearse et al., 1976) or through their sampling design (Bayer & Dutton, 1977; Blackburn et al., 1978; Cameron & Blackburn, 1981; Clemente, 1973; Cole, 1981; Crane, 1965; Hall, 1975; Hargens et al., 1978; Jauch & Glueck, 1975; Long, 1978; Manis, 1950; Reskin, 1977, 1978). Since some studies of nursing faculty have not used such controls, educational background from the aspect of highest level of completion can be addressed. Holt (1973) and Nieswiadomy (1984) included faculty from diploma, associate degree, baccalaureate, and higher degree programs in their respective samples. Holt (1973) reported that neither the type of basic nursing education program attended nor the amount of education had an effect on attitudes toward research and theory development except through place of employment (p. 1608-B). Yet, Nieswiadomy (1984) found a significant positive








42



relationship between nurse educators' level of educational preparation and all four measures of research productivity. Ostmoe (1982) reported that faculty members with doctorates in her sample were more prolific publishers than master's prepared faculty and further identified differences with respect to type of doctoral degree. in Pranulis, (1984) study of faculty, both educational background and types of research by doctoral degree failed to demonstrate significance, but 98 percent of the respondents identified their educational background as a facilitator of research. Marella (1974) reported a difference between graduate nursing faculty with doctorates in the sciences and faculty with doctoral majors in nursing and education; the former group ranked research as more important, rated themselves more competent in certain methodologies, conducted more research, and had higher publication rates.

Crane (1965) proposed that scientists who receive doctoral degrees from major universities are more likely to be productive and receive recognition, but this may be due to either contacts with eminent scientists or to the creation of a "halo effect" from the prestige of the institution. Further, Crane (1965) did admit that this finding created an elitist view of scientific activity and the data permitted various interpretations (p. 714). Long (1978) called for a reconsideration of the reward system of science and indicated that the "academic department may recruit on the basis of prestige of the mentor and the doctoral department because they have insufficient evidence of the young scientist's productivity" (pp. 905-906). Reskin (1978)








43



reported that the caliber of the doctoral program is associated with productivity but ascription of better candidates into the better quality departments must also be considered relative to productivity. In consideration of environmental context, Long and McGinnis (1981) reported an association between the organization and scholarly productivity indicating that within three to six years of obtaining a position, the scientist's level of productivity conforms to the context independent of previous productivity, thus, new levels of productivity are determined by the context of the work rather than past productivity levels or environments (pp. 440-441). "Recent research findings suggest that the reputation of academicians are influenced by their affiliations; [yet,] it should be clear that individual reputations significantly influence the larger reputations of academic departments and universities" (Cole, 1981, p. 95). Facilitators

one facilitator of scholarly productivity is the habit of writing. Hall and Blackburn (1975) reported that the habit of professional writing was the single best predictor for publication productivity of faculty at four-year colleges when rank and other variables were held constant. In an investigation of writing habits and attitudes of faculty at doctoral granting universities, Boice and Johnson (1984) reported that productivity has a significant negative association with writing anxiety but a positive association with writing more than once a week. Writing habits will be discussed in a subsequent section.








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Environmental facilitators for scholarly productivity have been investigated in academic nursing contexts. Pranulis (1984) reported the most important influence on nurse faculty research productivity was the presence of extramural funding. The facilitators to research reported by at least 75 percent of the respondents in her study were educational background, personal values, research role responsibilities, other nurses' interest in the problem, administrative support for research, criteria for retention and promotion, and organizational mission, goals and objectives (Pranulis, 1984). Furthermore, environmental characteristics proposed which facilitate productivity included: "(1) organizational emphasis on research that is equal to or greater than its emphasis on teaching or service ..

(2) administrative support and role modeling for research; (3) half or more of the faculty engaged in research activities; (4) institutional mechanisms to support and facilitate seeking extramural funding; *and

(5) interorganizational and interdepartmental procedures to facilitate faculty access to information or subjects for research purposes" (Pranulis, 1984, p. 207).

Batey (1978) studied university schools of nursing that had been awarded major federal funding for research. Following this study, Batey (1981) proposed the following criteria for successful and productive environments:

1. There is an informed and collegial approach to
inquiry and to the social system of science ..
2. Inquiry, not just the conduct of studies, is








45




integrated into and synthesized with all dimensions of the faculty role;
3. Research is carried out as a natural activity as
contrasted to a self conscious behavior;
4. There are vigorous programs of research that
complement each of the major conceptual threads
of the academic programs of the school, and those
research programs at any one time involve a significant portion of the faculty; and
5. There is command of sufficient resources to
sustain the program. (pp. 56-57) Family influences

Few studies have yielded support to significant relationships between productivity and family influences, for example, number of dependents and marital status. Hamovitch and Morgenstern (1977) reported that the number of children (dependents) is nonsignificant related to publication productivity. Conversely, Hargens et al. (1978) used two-year publication and citation counts with research chemists in university and governmental settings to show that "having any children costs scientists of both sexes about one and one-half published papers over a two year period" (p. 159).

Marital status has also failed to be shown as a significant correlate of scholarly productivity (Hall, 1975; Ostmoe, 1982; Phillips, 1973). Hamovitch and Morgenstern (1977) found a negative correlation between single status and article productivity but this failed to be significant when other variables were controlled. Cole (1981) has reported results from longitudinal studies which indicate:

women scientists who are married turn out to be
significantly more prolific than those who are not; and women who are married with one or two








46



children are slightly more scientifically productive than unmarried women, and only slightly
less so than those who are married and without
any children. However . once a woman has
had three or more children there is a decline in research output, but not to a point significantly
lower than that found among the unmarried women.
Such results fly in the face of conventional wisdom,
and we should therefore approach them with caution. (p. 388)

Conversely, Astin (1984) found that academic women publish less than men and receive fewer citations, irrespective of marital status. Further, when demographic factors were compared using 1969 and 1980 data bases, the proportion of academic women had increased and they were more likely to be married and have children, though less than the male cohorts (Astin, 1984).

Parental and early childhood influences have been investigated more in early literature in efforts to identify biographical profiles and predictors of performance and creativity for the encouragement, development, and recruitment of youth into scientific careers (Taylor and Ellison, 1967). Recently, Humphreys (1984) reported that parents of women scientists and engineers had more education, especially the father, than the parents of male scientists. But, like marital status and the number of dependents, most studies have used parental education levels merely to describe the sample, if these are reported at all. Gender

Several investigators have reported that males are significantly more productive than females in terms of publications (Clemente, 1973; Cole, 1981; Cole & Zuckerman, 1984; Hamovitch & Morgenstern, 1977; Walton, 1982), while other investigators report differences as








47



nonsignificant (Reskin, 1978). Other studies have shown that women are underrepresented in research universities. Cameron and Blackburn (1981) found that when other variables were statistically controlled, there was no difference in publication productivity by gender. Cole and Zuckerman (1984) have reported that the number of productive women faculty has increased but disparities between gender and productivity have remained stable. In terms of writing habits, Boice and Johnson (1984) observed that gender was not significantly associated with output but differences were apparent with the use of seclusion when writing and the perception of the lack of time reported by women faculty.

Although differences in productivity for men and women are

frequently cited in the literature, generally studies have found gender to have poor or no predictive effect on productivity when other variables are controlled (Behymer & Blackburn, 1975; Blackburn et al., 1978; Clemente, 1973). As Cole and Zuckerman (1984) have observed, the variability in productivity is greater within each gender than between genders (p. 248).

Habits

Habits which have been found associated with scholarly

productivity include hours per week spent on research activities and writing habits. When productive researchers are compared with their less productive cohorts, hours spent on research have been found to be a significant factor. Walton (1982) reported that the majority of high producers in his study devoted five or more hours per week to research








48




while a significant majority of low producers spent four hours or less per week on similar activities (p. 310). Blackburn et al. (1978) have suggested that since recent rate of publication is a significant predictor of publication productivity, "the formation of a habit of writing matters most of all" (p. 139). Hall (1975) recommended that "efforts should be made to develop and sustain a 'habit of scholarship,' wherein both [the faculty member and institution] agree to a portion of the workload devoted to research, reading, and writing" (p. 132).

Pranulis (1984) found that faculty who devote time specifically to research activities by setting aside time and adjusting role responsibilities have significantly higher total and publication productivity scores (p. 169). In addition, she characterized productive researchers as devoting 16 or more hours to research a week (Pranulis, 1984, p. 182). Gortner (1985) and Ostmoe (1982) similarly report a significant effect on nurse faculty productivity through devotion of percentages of time to research. Institutional type and mission

Research has revealed differences in productivity of faculty by

type of institution: colleges, universities, and types of universities (Baird et al., 1985; Behymer & Blackburn, 1975; Blackburn et al., 1978; Cameron & Blackburn, 1981; Finkelstein, 1984; Fulton & Trow, 1974; Hall, 1975; Ladd, 1979; Pellino, et al., 1984; Walton, 1982). Some of these differences have been attributed to whether there was a primary institutional mission for research. Clark (1973) reported that faculty








49



at church-related colleges perceive less emphasis on research and publication while faculty at both church-related and small public colleges define a greater focus on teaching. Faculty values toward scholarly productivity have also been related to university policy. Blackburn et al. (1978) have observed, "although faculty who publish also most often agree that publishing is important in achieving tenure, these faculty also more often work at institutions where the role expectations and reward systems are consistent with their own career goals" (P. 134).

Andreoli and Musser (1984) have proposed an organizational

subsystem in a model for nursing faculty productivity and observe that the university's purposes and goals have a measurable effect on productivity with an agreement needed between the values of the university, the school of nursing, and expected faculty roles (p. 11). Although not tested in her study, Pranulis (1984) proposed "the greater the fit between the individual and the environment, the greater the probability that both the individual's and the organization's goals will be met" (p. 191). At the school level, investigations for similarities in goals and values have been done related to scholarly productivity of faculty. University schools of nursing have been moving in closer alignment with policies of the parent institutions in past years, but much depends on the environment. Over a decade ago, Marella (1974) found disparity between faculty and organizational values when graduate nursing faculty were asked to rank their preferences for seven activities as compared with their perceptions of








50



institutional policy emphasis. At that point in time, respondents placed teaching as the primary preference at both the individual and institutional levels while weighting of scholarly productivity was more variable. This was somewhat supported five years later when Fawcett (1979) reported prevailing values of teaching and service in schools of nursing as opposed to research in other disciplines. Recently, Pranulis (1984) reported that in the majority of the university schools of nursing she investigated, there was the same or greater emphasis at the school level as at the parent university level with the emphasis being given to teaching graduate students, conducting research, and communicating research. Undergraduate teaching was found to be ranked in fourth place at these same schools at both the school and university level (Pranulis, 1984). The conflicting results between the studies by Marella and Pranulis may be due to methodologies, with Marella sampling a more diverse and larger population while Pranulis obtained her organizational data from one resource person at each of the ten university schools of nursing. on the other hand, consideration must be given to institutional context along with the fact that nursing is moving more in line with academia with upgraded standards (M. I. Murphy, 1985; O'Shea, 1986), especially at the university levels. Mentorship

May, Meleis and Winstead-Fry (1982) have proposed that mentorship is "Uessential for the scholarly development of nurses and for the integration of the scholarly role in the self" (p. 22). Mentoring has been described as "the cultivation of young talent and the promotion of








51



career development through the lending of organizational, role, or interpersonal support and teaching" (Hagerty, 1986, p. 17).

Studies on faculty productivity have given greater attention to sponsorship. Sponsorship further enhances the young scientist's visibility in the scientific community (May et al., 1982, p. 24). Manis (1950) reported that scientists who have had prestigious sponsors are more likely to be productive themselves. This has been supported by Cameron and Blackburn (1981) who reported, "both financial support and early collaboration with senior faculty signal a social selection process that impacts significantly on outcome measures . of publication rate, grants received, collaborations, and professional network (p. 372). Yet, distinctions should be drawn between the sponsor's reputation and measures of productivity and visibility of the individual sponsored. Reskin (1978) reported that the sponsor's productivity affected only early recognition, not enduring productivity.

Further investigation of mentorship is needed with regard to

scholarly productivity, especially following doctoral education. Long and McGinnis (1981) report that the mentor's overall effects on the mentee's first job are quite small (p. 430). Yet, eminent scientists have been shown to be influenced early in their careers by other eminent scientists (Zuckerman, 1967). Greater information on the influences of mentorship on both the young and the senior scholars is needed, especially in nursing.








52




Mobility

Job mobility has been defined as the number of career moves. As such, mobility.has been found to have poor predictive effects for productivity when other factors are constant (Behymer & Blackburn, 1975; Blackburn et al., 1978). Long (1978) reported that mobility occurs later in the career and still the effects of prestige of the new department are weakly associated with the faculty member's productivity. one area that has received less attention in terms of mobility is the environmental character of the position change. Blackburn and Havighurst (1979), who investigated career stage data with older and retired male faculty members, found that very active and active scholarly productive faculty moved to research universities in job changes while moderately active and inactive faculty moved to colleges or non research universities (p. 561).

Pranulis (1984) controlled for current mobility in her sampling design and Ostmoe (1982) did not address mobility. Part of this diminished focus may be due to the fact that nurses are predominantly women. Cole (1979) has indicated that, "on the whole, women scientists are not as mobile as men, more often feeling tied to a particular geographic location because of the work requirements of their husbands" (p. 12). This limitation on mobility has been supported by Finkelstein (1984) who reported two main constraints on the career mobility of academic women, enforced mobility or immobility due to the spouse's employment. Yet, Sorensen, Van Ort, and Weinstein (1985) observed that doctoral preparation appears to add stability, reporting that only 20








53



percent of the 32 percent of tenure track nursing faculty who left positions in 30 research universities during 1979-1982 had doctoral degrees (p. 138). But when considering the effects of mobility on research, Brimmer et al. (1983) found that the mean percent of time spent in research activities for all nurses with doctorates studied stayed the same whether or not they had changed positions or held the same position following awarding of the doctorate (p. 162). Therefore, job mobility has had limited significance in studies of scholarly productivity, especially with nurses. Professional societies

Membership in professional societies implies access to a

professional information, value, and network system. In a study of scientists and social scientists in Naval laboratories, Friedlander (1971) found a significant positive correlation between membership in professional societies and scholarly productivity. Cameron and Blackburn (1981) have reported a gender difference, with male faculty members demonstrating a greater use of networks such as professional societies. Some differences are to be expected in nursing with its history as a predominantly female profession and less emphasis on scholarship than some of the other professions. Still, membership in professional societies and the use of networks may be more accessible in nursing than in some of the male dominated professions. Ostmoe (1982) reported the number of academic and professional memberships was positively correlated with publication quantity and quality and further demonstrated that fellows of the American Academy of Nursing and








54



members of the American Association of Critical Care Nurses are more prolific publishers than their non-member counterparts (p. 173). Although not specifically addressing professional nursing societies in her study, Pranulis (1984) was able to report a significant relationship between productivity and recognition from both nursing and non nursing groups.

Publication preferences

Differences among disciplines in terms of publication preferences have been cited by Astin (1984), Finkelstein (1984), Ladd, (1979), and others. Using a large national data base and a model to categorize academic disciplines along the six dimensions of hard-soft, pure-applied, and life-non life, Creswell and Bean (1981) discovered differences in publication and funding sources by disciplinary groups. Faculty in the "hard" areas published more journal articles while faculty in the "soft" areas published more books and monographs and faculty with a "pure" orientation attracted more federal research funding while faculty in "applied" areas attracted more funding from private industry (Creswell & Bean, 1981, pp. 83-84). Blackburn et al. (1978) used three dependent measures of publication productivity and found that although rate of article production over a two year period and total career article publication were highly correlated, the total career book publication was related to academic discipline rather than a measure across disciplines. Neumann (1979) has observed that

articles, a relatively short form of communication, are more important in the physical sciences with a high level of consensus about the specification of








55




the research problem, the methodology employed and the interpretation of the findings. Books, on the other hand, are a dominant forms of communication
in less developed fields and less important in more developed fields. Therefore, the relative salience
of books is greater in the social sciences than in
the physical sciences. (p. 94)

Influences of disciplinary preferences can be seen through use of measures for productivity, with some of the natural and biological sciences focusing on article and citation counts rather than longer forms of communication. The influence of and preferences in the nursing literature is an area for consideration, although definitive conclusions cannot be made at this point. Nursing Research, the first journal devoted to scholarship in nursing, was initially published in 1952. other professional journals devoted to scholarship have become available predominantly in the past decade and a half. Fagin (1982) has reported that nursing is currently involved in establishing its identity as an academic profession with research productivity intimately linked to success in this endeavor (pp. 67-68). Journal articles are a major form of the needed communication, but at this point, relative dominance over longer forms of communication cannot be specified. Baird et al. (1985) have reported relative means of importance for the different publication forms. While the differences appear negligible for the total sample of schools reporting importances of these publication forms, greater variability is apparent between the type of institution and the form of publication. Publication preferences are becoming more apparent in nursing, and will continue to do so in the near future.








56



Requirements for retention, promotion, and tenure

University policies and procedures affect faculty productivity directly (Andreoli & Musser, 1984, p. 11). In a study to define scholarly activity for the development of a faculty evaluation model, Baird et al. (1985) found that scholarly activity was considered highly important for promotion and tenure considerations in over 50 percent of the baccalaureate and baccalaureate and higher degree schools of nursing studied. This same study on defining scholarly activities further demonstrated variable interpretations of the importance of individual activities. Murphy (1985), in a study of tenure in baccalaureate and higher degree programs, reported an increased trend for tenure requirements for nurses to be the same as for other faculty in academia. In studies of scholarly productivity, institutional requirements for promotion and tenure have been found to be significantly associated with productivity, but as one of the weaker predictors (Behymer & Blackburn, 1975; Hall, 1975). Ostmoe (1982) reported that beliefs of what should be the relationship between publication and promotion and tenure was a significant predictor of productivity, with over 90 percent of nursing faculty indicating that publication was either very or moderately important in achieving tenure. Further, Pranulis observed that 75 percent of her respondents reported a positive influence on their research from the organizational emphasis (Pranulis & Gortner, 1985, p. 129).








57



Research preferences

At the individual level, an orientation to or preference for research has been shown to be related to productivity. Researchers have found an interest in research strongly predictive of productivity (Behymer & Blackburn, 1975; Hall & Blackburn, 1975). Walton (1982) reported researchpreferences to be significant and demonstrated that high producers preferred research over teaching while the opposite was true for low producers. Blackburn et al. (1978) reported that high producers express more of an interest in research and, although interest and productivity have been shown to decline with age, the decrease is only relative with the high producers still more productive and demonstrating interest in research over the low or moderate producers (pp. 134-135).

Similar findings have been reported in studies on scholarly productivity with nursing faculty. Ostmoe (1982) reported that research and publication interests were significant as were five measures of motivators to publication: for enjoyment, to advance knowledge, faculty obligation, professional obligation, and personal prestige. Of the personal variables related to research productivity investigated by Pranulis (1984), only the respondent's identity as a nurse researcher was found to be significantly related to productivity. Size

Institution and department size have been found to be without much predictive value; however, communication is facilitated with minimums of 11 to 15 faculty members and a maximum of 41 faculty members in the








58



department (Behymer and Blackburn, 1975; Blackburn et al., 1978). When investigating research productivity in academic and industrial settings in Austria, Knorr, Mettermeir, Aichholzer, and Waller (1979) reported a significant negative correlation with the size of the research group. In the organizational literature, Kimberly (1976) has proposed that size has been used too globally to permit its relation to organizational structure to be understood, whereas size conceptualized as a dimension of context is a more valuable measure. Neither Ostmoe (1982) nor Pranulis (1984) reported overall or clinical student to faculty ratios for their respective study participants. Both researchers observed a low number of weekly clinical hours reported by the faculty and speculated as to the cause. No indication was made as to faculty or program sizes. Still, faculty load was not significant while teaching responsibilities were negatively associated with scholarly productivity.

Specialty areas

Specialty areas of faculty have been addressed more frequently

among disciplines rather than within disciplines. Relative to within discipline specialities, nonsignificant differences have been reported on areas in chemistry (Reskin, 1977), counselor education (Walton, 1982), and nursing (Nieswiadomy, 1984). Jolly (1983), who studied physicians to determine research involvement, found that basic scientists demonstrated most effort in research. Lane et al. (1981) reported low levels of research participation among both master's prepared (25 percent) and doctorally prepared (59 percent) faculty but








59



respondents whose specialty was community health nursing participated most frequently (p. 113). Although the differences were not significant, Nieswiadomy (1984) observed a trend for faculty prepared in psychiatric-mental health nursing being involved in a greater number of research studies than faculty prepared in other specialties. Ostmoe (1982) reported significant relationships between both dependent measures of quantity and quality of publications and the independent variables of doctoral program discipline, doctoral program major, clinical focus of first master's degree, and functional focus of first master's degree.

Teaching responsibilities

Teaching and research are integral roles in academia. Fulton and Trow (1974) found that faculty who are most active in research also teach nearly as much as those faculty who are less productive (p. 68). Hall (1975) reported teaching load and class size as nonsignificant variables in his study of publication productivity of faculty at four-year colleges. Other studies have demonstrated significant differences by types of teaching responsibility. Blackburn et al. (1978) reported that faculty teaching graduate students are "approximately six times as likely to have produced five or more articles over a two year period than are those teaching undergraduates" (p. 136). Hamovitch and Morgenstern (1977) observed that the number of weekly hours teaching and teaching only undergraduates are negatively correlated with the number of articles published. When the highest level of nursing education offered by the employer was considered,








60




Nieswiadomy (1984) reported that the majority of current research was being conducted by nursing faculty in schools with graduate nursing programs.

Partially related to level of students or programs offered is the influence of clinical teaching for many nurse academicians. Ostmoe (1982, 1986) found significantly negative correlations between hours of clinical instruction and publication productivity, highest degree earned, time spent in research, and level of students taught (p. 202). Teaching responsibilities have been perceived as hindrances by graduate nursing faculty (Marella, 1974), with 71.8 percent in another study reporting teaching responsibilities as an inhibitor to research activities (Pranulis, 1984, p. 118). Tenure

Research on the relationship between tenure status and faculty productivity has resulted in conflicting findings. It has been observed that once the requirement for productivity for tenure approval has been removed, output declines (Holley, 1977). Neumann (1979) reported that tenured faculty had a significantly higher rate of productivity than non tenured faculty in the majority of graduate departments studied. other studies have found that tenure status has negligible or no predictive power for productivity when other factors are held constant (Behymer & Blackburn, 1975; Blackburn et al., 1978; Nieswiadomy, 1984; Walton, 1982). Blackburn et al. (1978) observed that tenure is not the cause of any decrease in faculty productivity (p. 139). In fact, Holley (1977) proposed that in high level research








61



institutions, the type of output after tenure changes from the pre-tenure patterns of articles published to favor long range projects (p. 187).

It may still be of value to investigate 'tenure status with nursing faculty. "Unlike traditional academic university programs where nearly two-thirds of faculty have tenure, fewer than one-third of nursing faculty at academic medical centers are tenured; several nursing schools in these settings do not even offer tenure" (Andreoli & Musser, 1984, p. 9). Pranulis (1984) reported tenure status as a demographic variable with 77.5 percent of her respondents having tenure (p. 65). Ostmoe (1982) considered age at acceptance of first tenure track appointment and, although this was not significant in the analysis, reported a mean faculty age of 34.5 years (p. 98). Measures of Scholarly Productivity

Three measures of scholarly productivity have commonly been used in the literature. Creswell (1985) has identified these methods as (1) publication counts used to measure quantity, including straight counts or weighted counts; (2) citation counts which measure quality and influence; and (3) ratings by peers or colleagues to measure reputation (pp. 7-8). Smith and Fieldler (1971) recommend the use of multiple criteria for estimating the scholar's importance including eminence, productivity, recognition, and journal quality (pp. 226-232).

Use of publications to quantify scholarly output requires the

specification of items to be counted and the time frame in which to do so. Jauch and Glueck (1975) have reported that these simple counts are








62



effective but researchers and university administrators fail to credit this effectiveness, necessitating the inclusion of a journal quality index (p. 74). Straight counts through self report have been used for cumulative journal articles (Hall, 1975; Hall & Blackburn, 1975), all publications (Roe, 1965), cumulative and two-year counts for books and articles (Blackburn et al., 1978), and five-year counts for specified items (Gunne & Stout, 1980). Over (1982) utilized a straight count for articles listed in abstract reference volumes. Clemente (1973) used a weighted scheme developed for the discipline (Glenn and Villemez, 1970) that allocated 30 points to research or theory books, 15 points to textbooks, 10 points to edited books, and a range of four to 10 points to articles specific to individual journals. Holley (1977) weighted articles by a mean quality index and then adjusted for the number of years in which productivity could have occurred. Neumann (1979) used a straight count for books and articles and then divided by the number of years since receipt of the highest degree to adjust for age of the scientist. Crane (1965) designated publications as major and minor .with a book or four articles on the same or a related topic assigned "major" status and four points. Honors received were also considered by Crane in her measures of productivity. Cameron and Blackburn (1981) used a weighted measure similar to Crane's and added self reports on grants received in the past three years, rates of collaboration since doctorate, and scores from questions on professional associations and publication network involvement. Fulton and Trow (1974) used a categorization scheme for a two-year period of professional writings:








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(1) inactive, not currently publishing or active; (2) no recent publications (3) few current publications, between one and four; and

(4) many current publications, five or greater. Creswell and Bean (1981) used cumulative and two-year publication counts for book and articles plus reports on research funding in the past year and cumulative research grants from five different sources.

other researchers have used a combination of approaches including citations and ratings. Manis (1950) used a weighted count with single authored books assigned 18 points, co-authored books equal to 18 points divided by the number of authors, and articles, bulletins, and edited books equal to one point each. A categorization for age was then used as a correction measure. Manis' (1950) second measure for productivity was adjudged quality of the contributions based on peer ratings. Walton (1982) used self reports on cumulative and two-year article counts, total books and monographs, involvement in sponsored research, and citation counts. Bayer and Dutton (1977) used cumulative book counts and cumulative and two-year article counts, plus reports on works cited, engagement in pure or basic research, average hours per week spent in research, number of journal subscriptions, and off-campus paid consulting. Article counts using printed abstracts or curriculum vitae plus counts of citations by others have also be used (Cole, 1979; Cole & Zuckerman, 1984; Hargens, McCann, & Reskin, 1978; Long, 1978; Long and McGinnis, 1981; Reskin, 1977, 1978) with data with variable time frames.








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An additional comment must be made at this point concerning the use of data bases. Several studies reviewed have been based on data from specific data bases including the 1969 American Council on Education Carnegie Commission data (Behymer & Blackburn, 1975; Blackburn et al., 1978; Fulton & Trow, 1974; Hall, 1975; Hall & Blackburn, 1975; Hamovitch & Morgenstern, 1977), the 1972-1973 American Council on Education data (Bayer & Dutton, 1977), the 1977 Ladd and Lipsett study (Creswell & Bean, 1982, Ladd, 1979; Wanner et al., 1980), and the 1980 Higher Education Research Institute (Austin, 1984). Although some of these studies have used secondary data analyses, subsamples of the data, or complementary studies, the research findings were based on a similar pool of data.

In nursing, a variety of dependent measures have also been used. Ostmoe (1982, 1986) considered both unweighted and weighted counts based single authorship, co-authorship, and multiple authorship for books, edited books, monographs, book chapters, and articles. Books were weighted as four points, all other items were weighted as one point, and then divided by the numbers of authors credited for the work. To consider further quality of publications, Ostmoe used 10 specified nursing journals and calculated publication productivity in the same weighted and unweighted manner, based on authorship. Due to high positive correlations found between weighted and unweighted quantity of publication scores, (Ostmoe 1986) has recommended the elimination of weighted counts based on authorship and a greater focus on quality of the publications (p. 211). Pranulis (1984) adapted the








65



work of Ostmoe and used a weighted count for publications, paper presentations, and other tangible products based on self reports from nurse doctorates. No distinction was made for single or multiple authorship with books assigned four points, papers in refereed journals or presented at national or international meetings assigned two points, papers in non refereed journals or presented at regional or interstate meetings, symposium proceedings, book chapters and other tangible products assigned one point, and papers presented at local meetings assigned one-half point each. Nieswiadomy (1984) used nurse educators, self reports of number of degree studies, number of non-degree studies, number of published studies, and number of present studies. Lia-Hoagberg (1985) used straight counts for types and numbers of publications along with time spent on specific scholarly activities by nurse doctorates. Phillips (1973) used a qualitative and quantitative index during a review of selected volumes of journals published. Baird et al. (1985) reported means of importance from respondent schools based on a five-point scale for 35 scholarly activities listed on a questionnaire.

Some bibliographic and publication credit indicators are less developed in nursing as compared with other disciplines. Use of citation counts as a measure of peer recognition or influence of a scholar's work has been used in chemistry, psychology, and other disciplines in which data bases and author indexing are more established to gauge webs of influence. In nursing, such sources are less conducive to effective measurement. For example, the Science








66




Citation Index has nursing journals listed with variable journal titles and volumes in each index. In addition, two of the top five journals rated highest in scholarship by deans (Fagin, 1982), Advances in Nursing Science and Western Journal of Nursing Research are not included in the current index. Similarly, credit based on contributions of multiple authorship is less established in nursing than in some other disciplines. In an assessment of the views of nurses in assigning publication credit, Werley, Murphy, Gosch, Gottesmann, and Newcomb (1981) concluded that nursing had not yet developed an ethical principle of assigning authorship to contributions (p. 262). Several years later, Waltz, Nelson, and Chambers (1985) reported that nurses are in clearer agreement on assignment of authorship credit than their colleagues in other health fields but that further discussion is needed in the area of collaboration on research.

overall, studies on scholarly productivity have used quantifiable measures to evaluate levels of accomplishments of scholars. Still, there is an indication of an elusive variability among scientists and scholars perhaps related to broader issues with the reward system and values of science.

Eminence

The issue of eminence of both institutions and scholars is germane to the discussion since this study has been based on the assumption that increased research and scholarly activities by established nurse researchers occurs at leading academic institutions. "Prestige in the scientific community is largely graded in terms of the extent to which








67




scientists are held to have contributed to the advancement of knowledge in their fields and is far less influenced by other kinds of role performances, such as teaching, involvement in the politics of science, or in organizing research" (Zuckerman, 1977, p. 9). Eminence, or prestige, of institutions and scholars has been studied with variable relationships reported. Whether the source for further status or reputation through productivity is the institutiont the university department (discipline), the scholar's doctoral program, or the scholar's productivity record, eminence has generally been shown to be a factor related to scholarly productivity. Institutional Eminence

Studies in higher education have considered the influence of

institutional reputation on scholarly productivity using a variety of measures and terminology. In a study of sociologists in academic settings, Manis (1950) reported the dependent measures of volume of publication and adjudged quality of publications were positively correlated with the eminence of the institution. Neumann (1979) used departmental quality levels (distinguished, strong, good, and adequate plus) as a sampling frame to study research productivity of tenured and nontenured graduate faculty in four academic disciplines. Cameron and Blackburn (1981) found a significant effect for sponsorship (departmental reputation) but were uncertain whether this variable was related to ascription or achievement of faculty in the three disciplines studied (p. 374). Long (1978) investigated the relationship between productivity and position in the careers of








68




biochemists in graduate programs for evidence of departmental effect versus selection effect. Longitudinal findings indicated that quantity of publications and citations are facilitated by departmental location (prestige) rather than selection (Long, 1978, p. 902). Fulton and Trow (1974), using three levels of quality to classify institutions based on characteristics and qualifications of faculty and students and on institutional resources, described the distribution of research activities and the trend for continuing research activity in leading and middle quality universities (p. 71). Crane (1965) reported a positive relationship for productivity and scientific recognition when compared with prestige of the institution. Blackburn, Behymer, and Hall (1978) investigated faculty publication productivity and found that faculty affiliated with high prestige colleges and universities exhibit greater productivity than faculty at lower prestige institutions. In an earlier study by Behymer and Blackburn (1975), a significant relationship was found between institutional prestige and publication productivity for faculty at four-year and graduate institutions. Still, in a study that same year confined to faculty at four-year colleges, Hall (1975) reported that institutional prestige was not a significant predictor of publication productivity. Wanner et al. (1980) used an interdisciplinary basis and have reported a significant relationship between scientific productivity and institutional quality yet stress the need to consider the context of individual disciplines. Long and McGinnis (1981) have reported, "organizational context emerges as a strong factor determining not only








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levels of productivity, but also, and more importantly, changes in rates of productivity occurring after a position is obtained" (p. 435). Zuckerman (1977) has described a multiplier effect that distinguished scientists have through attraction of other established scientists and needed resources which further enhances the standing of the organization (p. 250).

In a study prepared for the National League for Nursing, Wandelt, Duffy, and Pollock (1985) used a qualitative approach to describe components, interactions, and interrelationships in top-ranked schools of nursing. Purposeful samples of administrators, faculty, and students were interviewed in groups of six at six top-ranked schools of nursing randomly selected from a list of the 20 top-ranked schools identified in an earlier study by Chamings (1984). The investigators considered a variety of elements influencing reputational status of these schools. Although research and scholarly productivity of faculty were not directly addressed in the interview guide, Wandelt et al. (1985) concluded that perceptions about research were interwoven in descriptions by all groups as components of the schools of nursing, especially with reference to the dean, faculty, and curricula (p. 131). Wandelt et al. (1985) further reported the "value" faculty placed on publications was seen as an obligation for sharing findings, with research viewed as contributing to growth, learning, and the quality of teaching (p. 45).








70




Individual Eminence

Individual background factors have been considered in several classic studies of eminent male scientists. Roe (1952) used three forms of psychological tests and life histories to study eminent American scientists considered most likely to exemplify special qualities associated with success in research. Panels of experts in three disciplines identified the eminent researchers studied. Subsequent to this four-year study, Roe (1952) presented a profile of the "average eminent scientist" whom she characterized as first-born son of a middle class professional man, of high intelligence, satisfied with his chosen profession but with a driving absorption in work, and who developed a research interest following a college project (p. 22). In a follow-up study with 52 of the same 64 scientists, Roe (1965) concluded that there had been few changes in the work habits of these men over time, in that they continued to contribute at a high level, and they had received much recognition from their peers. Roe (1965) also reported on one frequent comment from the scientists: the need for long stretches of time for research (p. 317).

Cattell and Drevdahl (1955) used a 16-factor personality test to compare the personality profiles of eminent researchers with the general adult population and with a sample of eminent teachers and administrators with negligible research contributions. Natural and social science researchers studied were selected by committees based on eminence in their professional society. Researchers were found to be more self-sufficient, emotionally unstable, bohemianly unconcerned,








71




radical, dominant, paranoid, and intelligent (Cattell & Drevdahl, 1955, p. 259).

Simon (1974) investigated work habits and professional

accomplishments of eminent scientists to look at the relationships between work habits, scholarly productivity, and success. These eminent scientists. were selected, also by panels of experts, as the 20 most outstanding scholars living in the United States. Findings revealed a long-term dedication of time and effort to work. Typical working days ranged from four to 16 hours in length, 200 to 360 days per year (Simon, 1974, p. 329). Most of the scientists indicated that they did their writing at home, with approximately 70 percent indicating their best work was done in the morning hours. In addition, most of the scientists claimed that they made their most significant contributions while holding regular academic appointments involving teaching and administrative responsibilities (Simon, 1974, p. 335).

one of the most in-depth investigations of eminent scientists has been done by Zuckerman (1967, 1977) with nobel laureates and other leading men of science. Zuckerman (1977) used a variety of data with these groups of distinguished scientists to investigate the development of knowledge and the stratification system of science. Elite scientists were profiled as sons of upper and middle class professional men who attended a limited group of elite universities for both graduate and undergraduate studies. Zuckerman (1977) hypothesized that this background provided educational and social advantages early in the career of these scientists. She further observed that "future members








72



of the scientific elite have moved toward homogeneity among themselves and differentiation from other scientists" (P. 95). Laureates were characterized as having a strong sense of their own ability, a strong ego, internalized exacting standards of work, and demanding standards for judging scientific work (Zuckerman, 1977, pp. 122-126). The laureates-to-be were described as having acquired much through their professional socialization process with self-selected eminent sponsors in which norms and standards, values and attitudes, knowledge skills and behaviors, and a sense of significant areas for investigation were obtained (Zuckerman, 1977, pp. 123-127). Laureates-to-be were found to have a greater number of collaborative endeavors but not a significantly greater number of single publications, though they were still prolific. Some of the influences cited related to exacting standards for publication and emphasis on quality rather than quantity. In addition, following receipt of the Nobel prize, the laureates o ften took last authorship, or even deleted their name from the list of authors, regardless of contributions to the project. Zuckerman (1977) has stated, "as they move through the scientific career, we can observe the process by which prestige begets prestige, making them, relative to other scientists, increasingly 'rich' in resources, opportunities, and

esteem" (p. 207).

Cumulative advantage

Related to institutional and individual eminence is the issue of cumulative advantage. The stratification hierarchies of institutional and individual eminence are interconnected through exchanges of








73




prestige and through self-selection and selected recruitment (Zuckerman, 1977, p. 250). The interaction between reputational standing and scientific awards (Cole, 1979) provides the basis for cumulative advantage. Zuckerman (1977) has proposed two models of cumulative advantage: (1) additive, in which benefits accrue due to ascribed advantages irrespective of occupational role performance, and

(2) multiplicative, in which recipients achieve more based on functionally relevant criteria for role performance (p. 60). Cumulative advantage has been described using path analysis (Allison & Stewart, 1974) and causal relationships. Austin (1984) has described the causal chain of cumulative advantage for an individual: "publication, lecture appearances, and participation in informal gatherings lead to colleague recognition, which in turn leads to more visibility, which leads to more citations and honors, which in turn leads to greater colleague recognition and so on" (pp. 262-263).

The advantage for the individual scientist is what Merton referred to as the "Matthew Effect." Using some of Zuckerman's data, Merton (1968) described the "Matthew Effect" to address recognition of scientists through the reward and communication systems of science: "eminent scientists get disproportionately greater credit for their contributions to science while relatively unknown scientists tend to get disproportionately little credit for comparable contributions" (p. 57). Cole (1979) describes reputation affecting the reward structure of the scientist in two ways: (1) intrinsically with the accrual of awards through status and recognition among peers and (2) extrinsically








74




as a commodity exchangeable for future opportunities for scholarly productivity and positional recognition (p. 95). Zuckerman (1977) has proposed that cumulative advantage actually "helps to account for the growing disparities between the elite and other scientists in the extent and importance of their research contributions over the course of their careers" (p. xiii).

In nursing, reward structures have not been systematically

investigated, nor have eminent nurse scientists. Some studies, through sample selection, have included individuals or environments which could be considered as a more elite group. Batey (1978) focused on 12 university nursing environments which had received federal funding for development of research environments in order to promote the potential for receipt of biomedical research grants. Pranulis (1984) indicated that her sample of respondents was representative of the population of nurses with doctorates, yet the population of nurse doctorates has been estimated at 0.15 percent of the work force (Anderson, Roth, & Palmer, 1985). This group of nurse doctorates may then be considered as a select group with some form of demonstrated scholarly accomplishments, even without considering the selection criteria for the environments used. Lia-Hoagberg (1985) and Ostmoe (1982) similarly used selection criteria for inclusion of nurse doctorates in their respective studies. Although not evaluated with a sample of nurses, cumulative advantage has been shown to be related to scholarly productivity in the broader academic community. As such, established nurse researchers with recognized research accomplishments should similarly be identifiable in terms of scholarly productivity.








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Recommendations from the Literature

Three recommendations from recent studies on nurse faculty

productivity are particularly relevant to this investigation. Ostmoe (1986) indicated that "studies which utilize a population of prolific publishers may identify the more discerning, intrinsic or subtle factors associated with publication productivity" (p. 211). In addition, Pranulis (1984) reported that since the development of an identity as a nurse researcher was the only significant individual characteristic found to be associated with research productivity, studies are needed to identify influences on the development of this identity (p. 212). With particular attention to women doctorates, Lia-Hoagberg (1985) stressed the importance of investigation of professional socialization and the effects of institutional, departmental, personal, and professional support systems on research productivity (p. 159).

Further investigation is needed aimed at addressing these

recommendations and the current priority in nursing for the development of environments that support and encourage nursing inquiry (American Nurses' Association Cabinet on Nursing Research, 1985; Brimmer et al., 1983). Through investigation into the characteristics of our established and successful nurse researchers and their environments, a greater understanding of the factors associated with scholarly productivity is needed to extend the current body of knowledge on the development of nursing science. In addition, attention to contextual factors that promote identification of nurses as scientists








76



and researchers will help to stimulate effective generation, dissemination, and utilization of research in nursing.

Summary

This chapter has included a review of literature relevant to

scholarly productivity in science, academia, and nursing. Studies of institutional productivity have been aimed at providing an awareness of scholarly productive sites. Individual productivity has been studied more frequently to describe, explain, or predict the correlates of scholarly productivity. Significant influences on productivity have included academic rank, career age, communication with colleagues, early productivity, time devoted to research and writing, institutional type, mission and policies, membership in professional societies, publication preferences, and teaching responsibilities. Measures of scholarly productivity have most frequently focused on publication as a quantifiable measure of research outcomes. Simple counts of publications have been furthered with other measures to address the scholar's web of influence and participation in the reward system of science. Eminence of the institution and the scholar generally have been found to influence productivity significantly with the effects from the environment and accumulated advantages providing a greater awareness of and resources to certain scholars. Recommendations from past studies on scholarly productivity in nursing have been discussed as relevant to the current investigation in addressing characteristics of leading researchers for developing an understanding of the behaviors and influences associated with recognized scholarly accomplishments in nursing.

















CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY


In this chapter, the research methodology is presented. First, development of the study is described, including a description of environments. Secondly, the research design is described with a discussion of subjects and instruments, followed by a discussion of data collection and analysis procedures used to address the research questions.

Study Development

To address the research questions, several exploratory research methods have been used for triangulation of data. Fawcett (1984), Sweeney (1985), and other nurse scholars have advocated multiple modes of inquiry and have proposed that the nature of the research questions and the phenomena to be studied dictate the methods to be used for the research design and methodology. Illustrating the progress made in the design and analysis of qualitative research, miles and Huberman (1984) have stated: "the expansion of qualitative inquiry continues, advanced in no small way by the reformulations of methodologists who originally took 'hard nosed,' quantitatively oriented approaches to problems of generating valid knowledge; they have now shifted substantially toward the endorsement of content-embedded qualitative inquiry" (p. 15). Miles and Huberman (1984) further support multimethod approaches in qualitative inquiry.



77








78



The first step toward addressing the research questions was to develop criteria that would assist in defining the term "established nurse researcher." Numerous studies have been conducted that examine scholarly productivity within academic disciplines. These studies have been primarily descriptive and correlational in nature. Variables of interest have been diverse and few have been significant predictors of scholarly productivity across all studies. Established nurse researchers were assumed to share similar characteristics. Academic division (nursing), highest degree attained (earned doctorate), and graduate departmental offerings were considered control variables due to the criteria for the selection of the environments (leading academic institutions).

Environments

one of the initial steps in development of the research study was identification of the environmental context of nursing's most established researchers. The assumption for this step was that there is a greater proportion of established nurse researchers at the leading academic institutions. Research and scholarship are esteemed values in higher education. Universities generally subscribe to the tripartite missions of higher education, instruction, research, and service, yet one of these missions may have more demonstrated value and attention in a particular institution. In many universities, research has been given such status. Kasten (1984) states that emphasis on research enhances the reputation of the institution nationally and internationally. Attention to the research mission is evident in some








79



of the currently used classification schemes. The most widely cited classification system is the one developed by the Carnegie Council on Policy Studies In Higher Education (1976) which is currently planning a second revision. This classification system is based on institutional characteristics such as degree offerings, degrees awarded, federal support for research, student body size, and prestige of the institution. Two categories for doctoral granting institutions, Research University I and Research University II, specify the receipt of leading federal financial support for research activities. Specialized institutions may also receive sizable funding for research activities but the classification in this case is based on autonomy from the parent institution with the unit's major focus on a specialized rather than a liberal arts curriculum. Based on a review of the literature, an additional assumption of this study was that increased research and scholarly activity occurs in certain established institutions which can be identified through factors related to institutional reputation or prestige.

In order to consider institutional reputation, the literature was reviewed for rating schemes developed and reported for schools of nursing. Each rating scheme had inherent weaknesses. Margulies and Blau (1973) conducted an original study of professional schools and based a listing on the subjective ratings of the five top schools as provided by deans. This study was later replicated (Blau & Margulies, 1974-75) in the attempt to achieve a greater response rate and validate the original listing. Chamings (1984) used a similar methodology by








80



asking deans and nurse researchers to rank what they considered to be the top 10 schools. Chamings' study was an attempt to update the earlier studies by Margulies and Blau in relation to professional schools of nursing. As with the earlier studies, some bias must be questioned in relation to the low response rate for deans and the moderate response rate for members of the Council of Nurse Researchers. Hayter and Rice surveyed the literature in three nursing journals and developed a ranking -of the top schools in institutional productivity based on first authorship. Hayter (1984) later replicated this methodology with a broader base of 13 journals of nursing. Still, restriction of range to a limited sample of journals and the retrospective time frame used must be considered in relation to the one form of publication productivity measured. Results from the rankings in these five studies are illustrated in Table 3.

No one rating scheme seems adequate to determine objectively the top 10 schools. In evaluating any one rating scheme further consideration should include data relative to the respondents' available knowledge of history and current events in certain institutions, personal preferences for certain institutions, affiliated faculty or the associated curricular, and bases for decision making. In an effort to mediate some of the confounding influences, five different rankings were used in the current research to identify environments for study.

Using the rankings from these five studies, a list of 10 schools was developed for the purpose of this investigation. Three schools








81



were listed as the leading schools in all five studies and three additional schools were common to four of the five studies. No school was found to be listed in only three of the five studies. Eight schools were listed in two of the five rankings while three schools were present in only one of the five listings. The six schools with the two highest rates of appearance in these rankings were automatically included. Due to the nature of the ordinal data of the rankings of the next eight schools, four schools were selected for study using a table of random numbers. The final list of schools selected for investigation is displayed in Table 4. It may be noted that each of these institutions has a graduate division in the school of nursing. In addition, these institutions meet the 4.6 criteria from the Gourman Report (Gourman, 1980, 1983) used by Pranulis (1984) in selection of sites for investigation of nurse faculty research productivity. Further, although five rating schemes were utilized in the current research to develop a list of leading schools, all schools selected were included in the pool from which Wandelt et al. (1985) selected their six sites with 3 sites common to both studies. These institutions, selected as sites for investigation of established nurse researchers, shall be considered as representative of the group of leading schools rather than associated with any definitive ranking of reputational or scholarly productivity.








82




Table 3

leading Schools of Nursing Listed by Literature Source


Margulies & Blau & Hayter & Rice Hayter (1984) Chaiangs
Blau (1973) Margulies (1979) (1984)
(1974-75)

1. Case Western 1. Case Wstern 1. University of 1. University of 1. University of
Reserve Reserve Washhxtcn Washingtun Washington

2. University of 2. University of 2. University of 2. University of 2. Case Western
California at Washingtcn California Pennsylvania Reserve
San Francisco San Francisco
3. University of 3. University of 3. Univesity of
3. University of California at 3. University of California at California at
Washingtc San Frarisco California San Francisco San Francisoo
I Angeles
4. University of 4. New York 4. University of 4. New York
Colorado University 4. New York Michigan University
University
5. University of 5. University of 5. University of 5. University of
California at Colorado 5. Yale University Illinois Pennsylvania
LOS Anles
6. Wayne State 6. Case sternn 6. University of 6. University of
6. New York University Reserve Colorado Michigan
University
7. University of 7. Boston 7. University of 7. University of
California at Univerity Minnesota Illinois
I Angles
8. University of 8. University of 8. Wayne State 8. Boston Colorado Maryland University
University
9. Columbia 9. New York 9. Catholic
9. University of University University University
Maryland
10. Cornell 10. University 10. Colubia
10. Catholic University California at University
University LOS Angles








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Table 4

Schools of Nursing Selected for Study Based on Previous Studies

Frequency of Appearance School of Nursing
in the Studies

5 New York University
5 University of California, San Francisco
5 University of Washington

4 Case Western Reserve
4 University of California, Los Angeles
4 University of Colorado

2 Boston University
2 Catholic University
2 University of Maryland
2 University of Michigan








Research Design

The research design used was an exploratory method utilizing

naturalistic inquiry with a multimethod, multi-site approach.

Descriptive methods were used in the initial phase prior to the on-site interviews followed by combined descriptive and ethnographic methods at

the study sites. Selection of subjects and instruments utilized are

discussed in the following sections.

Subjects

Nursing deans from the 10 identified academic institutions were

provided with a set of criteria and asked to nominate three nursing

researchers at their institutions who met the criteria for established

nurse researchers. The deans were also asked to nominate two








84



alternates, should any one of the original three researchers be unavailable for the investigation. A sample of the nomination form has been included in Appendix A. Nominations were received from seven institutions, thus providing access. Access was denied in one institution and two institutions were categorized as non-respondents after follow-up attempts were made to solicit nominations. Selected characteristics of the participating study sites are included in Table 5. All four geographic regions in the United States were represented by the seven institutions as follows: North Atlantic (1), Midwest (1), Southern (1), and Western (4). Six of these institutions were organized as Schools of Nursing and one as a College of Nursing. Nurse researchers nominated for the study were then contacted by personal letter to explain the study and obtain informed consent. Follow-up personal phone calls were made to all participants to provide any additional information on the study, to explain materials sent to each researcher, and to arrange for on-site interviews.

Since the investigation focused on established nurse researchers in their environments, informed consent by the subjects was essential. A request for a expedited review was approved by the Institution Review Board at the University of Florida. A copy of the study consent form has been included in Appendix B. All research, however unobtrusive, may pose some degree of perceived threat of personal disclosure. Participants were assured that only aggregate information would be released and were given the opportunity to be involved in a review of the research findings prior to dissemination of the results. Separate








85



Table 5

Selected Characteristics of the Study Sites

Carnegie Highest Member
ClassiTication Degree 04
Institution Sponsorship (1976) offered AAU


Catholic University Private Research D Yes
University II

Univ. of California, Public Research M Yes
Los Angeles University I

Univ. of California, Public Specialized D No
San Francisco Institution

Univ. of Colorado, Public Specialized D Yes
Health Science Center Institution

Univ. of Maryland Public Research D Yes
University I

Univ. of Michigan Public Research D Yes
University I

Univ. of Washington Public Research D Yes
University I


M = master's D = Doctorate

Doctoral program approved and due to open Fall, 1987 + Carnegie Classification (1976):

Research University I = included as one of the leading 50
universities in receipt of federal financial support for
research and minimum number of doctorates awarded annually
Research University II = included as one of the leading 100
universities in receipt of federal financial support for
research and minimum number of doctorates awarded annually
Specialized Institution = Medical center autonomous from the
parent institution with classification as specialized in relation to the focus of the curriculum versus a liberal
arts curricular focus
++ American Association of Universities







86




express permission was requested from the study participants in order to audiotape interview sessions to facilitate accurate data collection.

Instruments

Waltz, Strickland, and Lenz (1984) have reported, "Because words and sentences are human artifacts, they provide rich and varied sources of data about the personalities, thoughts, attitudes, and preferences of the writers or speakers, as well as about the interpersonal, social, political, and cultural contexts in which they are or were involved" (p. 255). Data collection was accomplished using four instruments that represent a variety of qualitative and quantitative approaches. Use of multiple modes of inquiry have been supported by Fawcett (1984), Miles and Huberman (1984), Sweeney (1985), and others. The research questions with associated variable categories and study instruments is illustrated in Table 11. The Pre-Interview Profile along with the Perceptions of Successful Research instrument were sent to the established nurse researchers prior to on-site interviews. Responses from the participants were requested prior to the site visit. Along with original structured and semi-structured items, these initial responses received from the study participants were integrated in the On-Site Interview guide to offer opportunity for clarification, specification, and greater depth. Information for the organizational Environment form was collected during or following the site visits from a representative selected by the respective Deans. Instruments have been included in Appendix C. Each.instrument will be discussed individually in the following section.








87




Table 6

Research Questions with Associated Variable Categories and Instruments

Research Question Variable Category* Instrument +


What antecedents and Personal 1
individual characteristics Professional 1, 3
do established nurse Positional 1
researchers identify as Productivity 1, 3
contributing to and Research Orientation 2
influencing successful research outcomes and other scholarly endeavors?

What environmental Positional I
variable do established organizational 4
nurse researchers identify Research Orientation 2, 3
as being essential to the support and success of their research and the research process?

How do established nurse Network 1, 2, 3
researchers engage in link- Research Orientation 2, 3
age or network activities to influence the dissemination and utilization of research findings?



Refer to Table 1 for general classification of variables + 1 = Pre-Interview Profile

2 = PSR
3 = On-Site Interview
4 = Organizational Environment Form




Full Text
61
institutions, the type of output after tenure changes from the
pre-tenure patterns of articles published to favor long range projects
(p. 187).
It may still be of value to investigate tenure status with nursing
faculty. "Unlike traditional academic university programs where nearly
two-thirds of faculty have tenure, fewer than one-third of nursing
faculty at academic medical centers are tenured; several nursing
schools in these settings do not even offer tenure" (Andreoli & Musser,
1984, p. 9). Pranulis (1984) reported tenure status as a demographic
variable with 77.5 percent of her respondents having tenure (p. 65).
Ostmoe (1982) considered age at acceptance of first tenure track
appointment and, although this was not significant in the analysis,
reported a mean faculty age of 34.5 years (p. 98).
Measures of Scholarly Productivity
Three measures of scholarly productivity have commonly been used
in the literature. Creswell (1985) has identified these methods as (1)
publication counts used to measure quantity, including straight counts
or weighted counts; (2) citation counts which measure quality and
influence; and (3) ratings by peers or colleagues to measure reputation
(pp. 7-8). Smith and Fieldler (1971) recommend the use of multiple
criteria for estimating the scholar's importance including eminence,
productivity, recognition, and journal quality (pp. 226-232).
Use of publications to quantify scholarly output requires the
specification of items to be counted and the time frame in which to do
so. Jauch and Glueck (1975) have reported that these simple counts are


255
environments through network activities for generation, dissemination,
and utilization of successful research outcomes. Useful linkages for
the researcher included use of professional subscriptions, societies
and organizations, mentorship, and purposeful direct contacts with
colleagues.
Hallmarks of Successful Research Outcomes
Findings from this research have revealed that established nurse
researchers are involved in research activities that address the future
hallmarks of success in nursing research identified by Fawcett (1984):
(1) elimination of obstacles to nursing research, (2) acceptance of
multiple modes of inquiry, and (3) utilization of nursing research
findings in clinical practice (pp. 6-9). These hallmarks represent
disciplinary values and were exemplified by the established nurse
researchers.
Obstacles to nursing research are minimal in the case of
established nurse researchers in the leading academic environments
studied. Socialization for research activities occurred early in the
careers of established nurse researchers who indicated that they
currently influence mentees, colleagues, and the discipline of nursing
by their example and through their successful research outcomes.
Established nurse researchers clearly addressed the advanced academic
preparation essential for nursing research and demonstrated how they
have furthered their own development of expertise through self-selected
study strategies. Established nurse researchers were engaged in a
variety of research activities, with many involved in multiple
projects. In their recommendations for further development by


20
Table 2
Preliminary Classification of System Variables
System Structure
Variables
Goals and Values
Positional: academic rank, tenure status
Research Orientation: perceived importance,
preferences for research, contributions to
nursing
Productivity: perceptions of research success
Psychosocial
Personal: chronological age, marital status,
number of dependents, race/ethnic origin,
gender, family background, place of birth
Professional: educational preparation, career
influences, clinical specialty, career age
Positional: years at current location, mobil
ity, position/title, program assignment,
primary responsibility, job-related acts
Productivity: early publications
Structural
Organizational: school organization, program
characteristics
Research Orientation: scholarship influences
Technical
Professional: postdoctoral work, work habits
Positional: student/faculty ratios
Research Orientation: research habits
Productivity: publication habits
Managerial
Organizational: support for research,
research requirements
University
Environment
Organizational: geographic location, institu
tion type and sponsorship, primary mission,
productive environmental characteristics,
support services and resources
Disciplinary
Environment
Network: Communication with colleagues,
mentor-mentee relationships, professional
societies, journal subscriptions
Productivity: type and rate of scholarly
activities


87
Table 6
Research Questions with Associated Variable Categories and Instruments
Research Question

Variable Category
+
Instrument
What antecedents and
Personal
i
individual characteristics
Professional
i.
3
do established nurse
Positional
i
researchers identify as
Productivity
i#
3
contributing to and
influencing successful
research outcomes and
other scholarly endeavors?
Research Orientation
2
What environmental
Positional
1
variable do established
Organizational
4
nurse researchers identify
as being essential to the
support and success of their
research and the research
process?
Research Orientation
2,
3
How do established nurse
Network
1,
2, 3
researchers engage in link
age or network activities
to influence the dissemination
and utilization of research
findings?
Research Orientation
2,
3
*
Refer to Table 1 for general classification of variables
+1 = Pre-Interview Profile
2 = PSR
3 = On-Site Interview
4 = Organizational Environment Form


118
Three of the respondents (14.29%) had done formal, funded postdoctoral
work. In addition, 33.33 percent have done self-selected course work
and short programs while 52.38 percent of all reported no formalized
postdoctoral study. The respondents represent a variety of clinical
specialty areas. The mean number of hours worked per week for the
group was 59.65 hours (s=10.02) with a mean of 45.08 percent of time
(s=24.46) worked alone. Career age, reported by the participants as
the number of years bf full-time academic appointments in a college or
university setting, ranged from 6.5 to 22 years with a mean of 12.80
years (s=5.10) and a median of 11.50 years.
Postdoctoral study
During the On-Site Interview, respondents discussed postdoctoral
education for nursing and were asked to rank the value on a scale with
one being the lowest and 10 the highest. The mean value ranking was
8.62 (n=21, s=1.92) with a median of 9.00 and a range from 2 to 10.
Some of these value scores were qualified by the respondents based on
motivation and skill of the individual, individual career goals,
academic environment and resources without postdoctoral studies, and
the strength of doctoral preparation of the individual scholar.
The opportunity for formalized postdoctoral studies were generally
perceived as positive experiences by the respondents. One respondent
stated: "the postdoc is a time out for the scholar to gather herself
together and to move . into starting up her research program or
revitalizing one that has dwindled over the years." The main theme of
the comments was one of opportunity, an opportunity to broaden or


43
reported that the caliber of the doctoral program is associated with
productivity but ascription of better candidates into the better
quality departments must also be considered relative to productivity.
In consideration of environmental context, Long and McGinnis (1981)
reported an association between the organization and scholarly
productivity indicating that within three to six years of obtaining a
position, the scientist's level of productivity conforms to the context
independent of previous productivity, thus, new levels of productivity
are determined by the context of the work rather than past productivity
levels or environments (pp. 440-441). "Recent research findings
suggest that the reputation of academicians are influenced by their
affiliations; [yet,] it should be clear that individual reputations
significantly influence the larger reputations of academic departments
and universities" (Cole, 1981, p. 95).
Facilitators
One facilitator of scholarly productivity is the habit of writing.
Hall and Blackburn (1975) reported that the habit of professional
writing was the single best predictor for publication productivity of
faculty at four-year colleges when rank and other variables were held
constant. In an investigation of writing habits and attitudes of
faculty at doctoral granting universities, Boice and Johnson (1984)
reported that productivity has a significant negative association with
writing anxiety but a positive association with writing more than once
a week. Writing habits will be discussed in a subsequent section.


195
and a multidisciplinary perspective for the contribution are further
examples reflective of this discovery domain.
Theory. The theoretical domain, as the third level in the
typology, involved establishing relationships, testing of models, and
the "elucidation" of theory. In this theoretical domain, specific
theories were tested and further developed or new or more valid
relationships were developed. The general theme for all responses in
this theoretical domain was contributing to the knowledge base of
nursing with the provision of information not known or previously
supported with empirical data.
Organizational Contexts with Successful Research Projects
The three domains for research facilitation in academia from the
interviews (expectations for research, facilitation through funding and
resources, and a collegial atmosphere) were supported with the
respondents' descriptions of the successful research project. On the
PSR, respondents were requested to identify environmental influences
that facilitated or hindered the research, in particular, roles, the
organizational context, and the reward system.
Roles
Two domains emerged from the respondents' comments on facilitators
and hindrances related to roles with the successful research project,
faculty activities and colleagues.
Faculty role. Faculty activities were referred to as both
facilitative and hindering to the research. Facilitation occurred
through administrative support with encouragement and workload


145
Table 22
Network Variables of Professional Societies and Professional Journals
Variable
n
%
Mean
Membership in Professional Societies
(20)

American Academy of Nursing
11
55
ANA Council of Nurse Researchers
16
80
Sigma Theta Tau
Active
19
95
Inactive
1
5
Professional Journal Subscriptions
(19)
5.89
(s=4.11)
0-1
2
10.53
2-3
4
21.05
4-5
4
21.05
6-7
2
10.53
8-9
3
15.79
10 11
2
10.53
12 or more
2
10.53
Communication with colleagues
Communication with off-campus colleagues was of interest as a
network variable and described by respondents during the On-Site
Interview. As illustrated in Table 23, respondents reported
communication with colleagues on at least a monthly (90.48%) or weekly
(61.91%) basis and tend to prefer using telephone conversations
(85.71%) or written correspondence (42.86%). The nature of these
communications focused on research for the majority of the respondents
(71.19%) with discussion of information, activities, ideas, theory,


250
relevance to practice. Discovery concerned the extension of knowledge
where prior data were unavailable in the knowledge base. Major
contributions in the domain of theory focused on theory testing and
development and contributing this to the knowledge base. This value for
utilization was also apparent in the discussions of mentorship and the
sense of generativity inherent in the mentor role.
Summary
A discussion of-findings for the research problem on those
individual and environmental characteristics of established nurse
researchers for the generation, dissemination, and utilization of
successful research was presented in this chapter. First, a theoretical
model for scholarly productivity of established nurse researchers was
presented and related to the study findings. Following the discussion
of the model, each of the three research questions was addressed.
Individual characteristics of established nurse researchers in question
one were applicable to the psychosocial and technical subsystems of the
model while environmental characteristics described with question two
were applicable to the managerial and structural subsystems of the
model. Goals and values were transmitted from the environments to all
subsystems and, therefore, applicable to both individual and
environmental characteristics. Environments provided inputs of
expectations, resources, and colleagues. The overall output of the
model is successful research outcomes through the generation,
dissemination, and utilization of nursing research. Use of collegial
linkages was addressed in question number three. In the following
chapter, conclusions and recommendations for further study are presented.


276
PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES: Please indicate the professional societies
in which you currently hold membership.
[ ] American Academy of Nursing
[ ] ANA Council of Nurse Researchers
[ ] Sigma Theta Tau
[ ] Society for Research in Nursing Education
[ ] Others
B. POSITIONAL DATA
RANK
[
]
Assistant
Professor
[
]
Associate
Professor
[
]
Professor
[
]
Other
POSITION/TITLE: Do you hold an additional titled position other than
your indicated professorial rank?
] No
[ ] Yes, identify:
YEARS AT CURRENT LOCATION: Please indicate the number of years of
full-time service at your current place of employment.
years
TENURE STATUS
[ ] Tenured
[ ] Nontenured Tenure tract position? [ ] Yes
[ ] No
PROGRAM ASSIGNMENT: Please indicate your program assignment(s), by
percentages.
% Baccalaureate
% Masters
% Doctoral
% Other
CAREER AGE: Please indicate the number of years of full-time academic
appointments that you have held in a college or
university setting.
years


79
of the currently used classification schemes. The most widely cited
classification system is the one developed by the Carnegie Council on
Policy Studies In Higher Education (1976) which is currently planning a
second revision. This classification system is based on institutional
characteristics such as degree offerings, degrees awarded, federal
support for research, student body size, and prestige of the
institution. Two categories for doctoral granting institutions,
Research University I and Research University II, specify the receipt
of leading federal financial support for research activities.
Specialized institutions may also receive sizable funding for research
activities but the classification in this case is based on autonomy
from the parent institution with the unit's major focus on a
specialized rather than a liberal arts curriculum. Based on a review
of the literature, an additional assumption of this study was that
increased research and scholarly activity occurs in certain established
institutions which can be identified through factors related to
institutional reputation or prestige.
In order to consider institutional reputation, the literature was
reviewed for rating schemes developed and reported for schools of
nursing. Each rating scheme had inherent weaknesses. Margulies and
Blau (1973) conducted an original study of professional schools and
based a listing on the subjective ratings of the five top schools as
provided by deans. This study was later replicated (Blau & Margulies,
1974-75) in the attempt to achieve a greater response rate and validate
the original listing. Chamings (1984) used a similar methodology by


This project has been made possible in part through funding from a
variety of sources. These financial sources include Sigma Theta Tau,
the International Honor Society of Nursing; Alpha Theta Chapter of
Sigma Theta Tau at the University of Florida; and the Department of
Health and Human Services Nurse Traineeship which provided initial
tuition coverage for doctoral coursework. Data analysis for the
project was aided with the provision of computer time and resources by
Dr. Helen A. Dunn through the Dean's Research Award at the L.S.U.
Medical Center School of Nursing. I would like to include a special
note of appreciation to Dr. Raymond Calvert for his assistance and
skill in preparation of the illustrations included in this work.
The support of friends and family was a major factor in this
project's completion. Although too numerous to mention all, two
friends deserve particular reference: Florence Taylor and Jeremie
Sherman. Their friendship and encouragement know no bounds.
Finally, and most of all, the unswerving confidence and support of
my parents, James and Helen Kearney, were immeasurable throughout my
doctoral studies and research and were the mainstays for the completion
of this project. Their lifelong influence and tolerance of late night
telephone calls made me continue when I was otherwise inclined to stop.
The intelligence, patience, prayers, and unconditional acceptance of my
parents were the foundations for this work.
v


105
with 50 percent indicating no current dependents. Seventeen states,
the District of Columbia, and two foreign countries were represented
through the respondents' places of birth.
Family influences
Families of orientation. Family background variables are
displayed in Tables 9 and 10 for the participant's families of
orientation (origin). Parental occupations varied with 20 percent of
the fathers and 30 percent of the mothers having some formal college
education. Fifty-two percent of the respondents were only (14.29%) or
firstborn (38.10%) children with a mean of 1.95 siblings for the group.
The On-Site Interview allowed for further discussion of family
influences. Respondents described influences from their respective
families of procreation and/or orientation. Influences were reported
in 90.48 percent of cases for either nursing and/or academics and
research. Approximately one-third of the respondents described how
educational attainment was stressed by their parents. One factor to
take into account with parental educational levels was the context,
whether due to family crisis or the Depression, which was described as
affecting parental lives and interfering with life plans. Positive
childhood influences reported by the respondents included encouragement
of mental curiosity, creativity and asking questions, dinnertime family
discussions, and reading. Negative influences were rarely reported but
included parental concern for stable employment, a focus on marriage
and family life for some daughters, and lack of socialization to higher


125
Table 17
Weekly Averages of Job-Related
Activities
Reported
in Hours
Activity
n
Mean
Standard
Deviation
Median
Teaching
18
4.50
2.46
4.00
Classroom Preparation
18
5.81
3.85
5.25
Counseling Students
18
3.50
2.55
3.50
Clinical Supervision
19
0.82
1.82
0.00
Clinical Preparation
19
0.11
0.46
0.00
Grading Papers
18
2.36
2.16
2.00
Thesis Committees
Member
18
1.14
1.11
1.00
Chair t
18
2.08
2.51
1.50
Dissertation Committees
Member
14
1.82
1.90
1.00
Chair
14
1.82
1.81
2.00
Meetings
19
4.95
3.33
4.00
Clinical Practice
18
1.50
3.54
0.00
Research Activities
17
9.29
6.07
7.00
Research Consultation
18
2.00
2.35
1.50
Writing (grants/publications)
17
6.82
4.13
5.00
Community Service
19
2.26
2.47
2.00
Percentages based on the respondents from the six sites with
operational doctoral programs in the School of Nursing


268
facilitation for successful research outcomes was apparent in the
academic and disciplinary environments described by the established
nurse researchers. This chapter has included conclusions from the study
and recommendations for administrative roles, facilitatory environments,
funding priorities, education, and further research.


136
Table 19
Correlation Matrix for Productivity Measures
Weighted
Productivity
Measures
divided by Weighted Productivity Measures divided by Career Age*
Career Age*(A) ++(B)(C)(D)(E)(F)
Publication
Productivity
(A) 3 years 1.0000
(B) Total .7826** 1.0000
Paper
Productivity
(C) 3 years
.7282**
.5514**
1.0000
(D) Total
.5877**
.6759**
.8403**
1.0000
Funded
Productivity
(E) 3 years
.5733**
.5164**
.8286**
.5740**
1.0000
(F) Total
.5722**
.6647**
.1651
.2979
.6149** 1.0000
Weighted publications, papers presented and funded research projects
for the past 3 years and total career divided by career age
**
Indicates level of significance p<.05
++Letters at the top of Table 19 refer to categories illustrated in
column 1 of this table


APPENDIX B
INFORMED CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE IN NURSING RESEARCH PROJECT:
INDIVIDUAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
ESTABLISHED NURSE RESEARCHERS
Investigator: Rose T. Kearney
3614-B SW 29th Terrace
Gainesville, Florida 32608
Phone (904) 373-8966
You have been nominated to participate in a national research project.
This consent form is designed to provide you with information about this
nursing study and to answer any questions you may have.
The purpose of this research is to explore individual and environmental
characteristics of established nurse researchers and to analyze the epistemic
(knowledge-building) processes used in scholarly nursing endeavors. Specific
aims of the study are:
1. What precursors (antecedents) and personal characteristics do
established nurse researchers identify as contributing to and
influencing successful research outcomes and other scholarly endeavors?
2. What environmental variables do established nurse researchers identify
as being essential to the support and success of their research and the
research process?
3. How do established nurse researchers engage in linkage/network
activities (intramurally and extramurally) to influence dissemination,
diffusion, and utilization of research findings?
The research methods will be qualitative and quantitative. Data
collection methods will include on-site interviews with the study participants
and possibly additional interviews by telephone or mail if the need arises.
The researcher will use semi-structured interviews and other instruments to
collect data that will address the aims of the study.
Only aggregate information will be released when research findings are
disseminated. Study participants will be given the opportunity to be involved
in the review of the research findings prior to publication and dissemination
of the results. No actual risks have been identified or are anticipated.
Potential benefits of the study are numerous. The study should result in
benefits for the study participants, the nursing profession, and ultimately,
health care consumers by improving our understanding of the characteristics of
established nurse researchers and their environments which result in further
development of the body of nursing knowledge through scholarly productivity.
271


302
CODE NUMBER
REACTION TO AGGREGATE REPORT
INSTRUCTIONS: Please review the enclosed report and assess whether you have
been fairly represented in the report. You may make any notations on the
report, complete the following short answer questions, and/or any other method
you feel appropriate. Additional pages may be attached, as needed. A return
envelope has been provided for your use. Thank you for your time and
expertise.
1.As an Established Nurse Researcher, do you feel that you and your
perceptions of individual and environmental characteristics have been
accurately presented?
[ ] NO.
[ ] YES.
Please Describe:
2.What changes would you like to see made in the report? Please be
specific.
3.What additional information would you wish to add?


100
report were compiled and compared with the findings obtained in the
previous two stages of data analysis.
Summary
Development of the study and research methodology have been
presented in this chapter. A naturalistic inquiry paradigm and an
organizational systems substantive paradigm provided the basis for this
exploratory study which used a combination of qualitative and
quantitative research approaches. A broad range of variables
classified as personal, professional, positional, network,
organizational, productivity, and research orientation were examimed
and related to the three research questions.
Established nurse researchers and their environments were the
units of analysis. The means for selection of leading academic
environments and nomination of researchers from these institutions were
discussed. The study instruments were reviewed for development,
preliminary testing, use in data collection, and analysis procedures.
The following chapter will present the findings from the investigation.


237
of the university. Established nurse researchers reported that
scholarly subgroups in the discipline had shared values for research
and scholarly productivity, but this could not be generalized to all
members of the profession. Researchers are socialized to these
expectations for productivity in the environments through doctoral
education, mentoring relationships, and early academic positions held.
Communication of the shared values occurs through perceived and stated
expectations for research and scholarly productivity.
Reward systems. Expectations are further supported through the
reward systems in place in the environments. Intrinsic and extrinsic
reinforcement for successful research occurs in the environments of
school, university, discipline, and society related to career
development and/or actual awards. Intrinsic rewards accrue through
personal feelings of accomplishment based on reinforcement in the
environments, whether psychosocial or through seeing positive outcomes
following utilization of the research. Extrinsic rewards are provided
through promotion, tenure and retention in the system, merit pay
increases, awards of funds for research or travel, or resources
provided specific to the researcher's individual needs. These
environmental rewards support expected involvement in scholarly
endeavors and promote continuation of values of the system.
Valuing of research in the profession. As stated, shared values
for research, although not generally prevalent throughout the
profession, were present and congruent in the discipline's scholarly
subgroups. In the profession, there were two domains supportive of


83
Table 4
Schools of Nursing Selected
for Study Based on Previous Studies
Frequency of Appearance
in the Studies
School of Nursing
5
New York University
5
University of California,
San Francisco
5
University of Washington
4
Case Western Reserve
4
University of California,
Los Angeles
4
University of Colorado
2
Boston University
2
Catholic University
2
University of Maryland
2
University of Michigan
Research Design
The research design used was an exploratory method utilizing
naturalistic inquiry with a multimethod, multi-site approach.
Descriptive methods were used in the initial phase prior to the on-site
interviews followed by combined descriptive and ethnographic methods at
the study sites. Selection of subjects and instruments utilized are
discussed in the following sections.
Subjects
Nursing deans from the 10 identified academic institutions were
provided with a set of criteria and asked to nominate three nursing
researchers at their institutions who met the criteria for established
nurse researchers. The deans were also asked to nominate two


183
Administrative support
Administrative support for research was described by respondents
as facilitation and reinforcement for scholarly productivity. School
administrators provided this facilitation through provision of
resources for pilot work, information on funding sources, and
individual encouragement. Administrators were also described as
providing reinforcement for research efforts through monetary and
non-monetary rewards. Monetary rewards occurred with promotion, merit
pay increases, provision of travel funds for presentation of the
findings, and use of discretionary funds to assist with pilot studies.
Non-monetary rewards were provided in encouraging and congratulatory
comments in faculty meetings and on an individual basis. Several
respondents described how their administrators made special efforts to
congratulate them personally on accomplishments, whether for
publications, awards, or research grants.
Workload allocations. Administrative support for incorporating
research into faculty workloads was an area particularly facilitative
to productivity. This was described as providing opportunities for
teaching in research-related areas, consideration of credit loads, and
adjustment of responsibilities, especially committee work, or providing
resources at times when the researcher was heavily involved in a
project.
In Batey's (1978) study on the structure and process of productive
research environments at university schools of nursing, elimination of
use of the term "release time" was recommended. Respondents were asked


110
Table 11
Antecedents and Characteristics for the Successful Nurse Researcher,
Reported by Established Nurse Researchers
Theme Antecedents and Essential Characteristics
Character
Commitment and Motivation
Traits
Perseverance
Interest
Creativity
Independence
Ethics
Knowledge
Knowledge Base
Opportunities for Learning
"Humility" and Seeking Help
Skills
Mental Abilities
Collegiality
Organizational Skills
Articulation Skills
researcher or scholar, especially related to ongoing research. These
questions yielded similar character traits, knowledge, and skills as
illustrated in Table 11.
Antecedents. Character traits was the first theme of antecedents
for the nurse researcher. This theme commanded the heaviest emphasis
in the comments of the respondents and included the domains of
interest, commitment, perseverance, creativity, independence, and
ethics. First, there must be an interest in "asking questions", in
"finding answers and searching for truth", "in solving the need-to-know
kinds of problems", and in knowledge. The domain of interest included


75
Recommendations from the Literature
Three recommendations from recent studies on nurse faculty
productivity are particularly relevant to this investigation. Ostmoe
(1986) indicated that "studies which utilize a population of prolific
publishers may identify the more discerning, intrinsic or subtle
factors associated with publication productivity" (p. 211). In
addition, Pranulis (1984) reported that since the development of an
identity as a nurse researcher was the only significant individual
characteristic found to be associated with research productivity,
studies are needed to identify influences on the development of this
identity (p. 212). With particular attention to women doctorates,
Lia-Hoagberg (1985) stressed the importance of investigation of
professional socialization and the effects of institutional,
departmental, personal, and professional support systems on research
productivity (p. 159).
Further investigation is needed aimed at addressing these
recommendations and the current priority in nursing for the development
of environments that support and encourage nursing inquiry (American
Nurses' Association Cabinet on Nursing Research, 1985; Brimmer et al.,
1983). Through investigation into the characteristics of our
established and successful nurse researchers and their environments, a
greater understanding of the factors associated with scholarly
productivity is needed to extend the current body of knowledge on the
development of nursing science. In addition, attention to contextual
factors that promote identification of nurses as scientists


128
accompanied by additional "peripheral" research conducted concurrently
with studies related to the research program. Under this main theme of
programs of research, three domains emerged, inner motivation,
preferences, and productivity.
Inner motivation related to perceptions of enjoyment,
satisfaction, involvement, concern for quality, and making a
contribution. Motivation for the research was reinforced by internal
as well as external factors. For example, respondents reported
involvement in research to please oneself or to "feel productive." As
one respondent stated, "it's like doing your personal best and then
[doing a little more]." Several respondents focused on the quality of
the output rather than quantity. One respondent stated, "I'll try to
do good quality work and if it's rewarding, fine, if it's not, I'm not
going to sit and worry about it." The desire to make a contribution
was also included in this domain of inner motivation. One respondent
described the contribution related to theory development as "mak[ing] a
significant contribution to science by testing out and validating some
theory." Another respondent related the contribution to motivation
when she stated, "if I didn't think it was important, I would have
trouble doing it." Thus, intrinsic motivation is derived in part from
the desire to make a "meaningful contribution."
The second domain of personal expectations under the theme of
programs of research contained preferences for clinical relevance,
ongoing research activities, and involvement in multiple projects.
Several respondents described a goal for increased clinical relevance


305
Bayer, A. E., & Dutton, J. E. (1977). Career age and research-
professional activities of academic scientists. Journal of Higher
Education, 48, 259-282.
Behymer, C. E., & Blackburn, R. T. (1975). Environmental and personal
attributes related to faculty productivity. Ann Arbor, MI:
University of Michigan. (ERIC Document Reproductive Service No. ED
104 317)
Benner, P. (1985). Quality of life: A phenomenological perspective on
explanation, prediction, and understanding in nursing science.
Advances in Nursing Science, 8^(1), 1-14.
Blackburn, R. T., Behymer, C. E., & Hall, D. E. (1978). Research note:
Correlates of faculty publications. Sociology of Education, 51,
132-141.
Blackburn, R. T., & Havighurst, R. J. (1979). Career patterns of U.S.
male academic social scientists. Higher Education, 553-572.
Blau, P. M., & Margulies, R. Z. (1974-75). The reputation of American
professional schools. Change, 6^(10), 42-47.
Bloch, D. (1985). A conceptualization of nursing research and nursing
science. In J. C. McCloskey & H. K. Grace (Ed.), Current issues in
nursing (2nd ed., pp. 124-138). Boston: Blackwell Scientific
Publications.
Boice, R., & Johnson, K. (1984). Perception and practice of writing
for publication by faculty at a doctoral-granting university.
Research in Higher Education, 21, 33-43.
Brimmer, P. F., Skoner, M. M., Pender, N. J., Williams, C. A., Fleming,
J. W., & Werley, H. H. (1983). Nurses with doctoral degrees:
Education and employment characteristics. Research in Nursing and
Health, 6, 157-165.
Brown, J. S., Tanner, C. A., & Padrick, K. P. (1984). Nursing's search
for scientific knowledge. Nursing Research, 33, 26-32.
Cameron, S. VI., & Blackburn, R. T. (1981). Sponsorship and academic
career success. Journal of Higher Education, 52, 369-377.
Campbell, J. P., Daft, R. L., & Hulin, C. L. (1983). What to study:
Generating and developing research questions. Beverly Hills, CA:
Sage.


158
Table 25
Research Preferences Reported by Established
Nurse
Researchers
Preferences
n
%
*
Primary Research Preferences
(21)
(100)
Fundamental processes of biology
and behavior
16
*
76.19
Nursing practice (nursing process
and nursing intervention)
13
**
61.90
Nursing education (educational
2
9.52
process)
Nursing profession (focused on the
practitioner)
2
9.52
Areas of Preference Reported
(21)
(100)
1 area
8
38.10
2 areas
12
57.14
More than 2 areas
1
4.76
Categories developed by Bloch (1985, p. 133)
Percentages >100% due to multiple areas of preference reported
by 13 respondents reflecting work on multiple purpose projects
or on multiple projects.


311
Moody, L. E., Kearney, R. T., & Conlin, M. (1987). Use of Alpha,
theta, and bootstrap in reliability and validity testing of an
instrument to measure correlates of successful research. Manuscript
submitted for publication.
Murphy, M. I. (1985). A descriptive study of faculty tenure in
baccalaureate and graduate programs in nursing. Journal of
Professional Nursing, 1_, 14-22.
Murphy, S. 0. (1985). Contexts for scientific creativity:
Applications to nursing. Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship,
17, 103-107.
National Center for Nursing Research. (1985, October). The National
Center for Nursing Research, National Institutes of Health program
information. (Available from National Center for Nursing Research,
National Institutes of Health, Building 38A, Room 2E17, Bethesda, MD
20894)
Neumann, Y. (1979). Research productivity of tenured and nontenured
faculty in U.S. universities: A comparative study of four fields and
policy implications. The Journal of Educational Administration, 17,
92-101.
Nieswiadomy, R. M. (1984). Nurse educators' involvement in research.
Journal of Nursing Education, 23, 52-56.
O'Shea, H. S. (1986). Faculty workload: Myths and realities. Journal
of Nursing Education, 25, 20-25.
Ostmoe, P. M. (1982). Correlates of university nurse faculty
publication productivity. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43A,
2570A. (University Microfilms NO. 82-29,954)
Ostmoe, P. M. (1986). Correlates of university nurse faculty
publication productivity. Journal of Nursing Education, 25, 207-212.
Over, R. (1982). Does research productivity decline with age? Higher
Education, 11, 510-520.
Patton, M. Q. (1980). Qualitative evaluation methods. Beverly Hills,
CA: Sage.
Pearse, W. H., Peeples, E. H., Flora, R. E., & Freeman, R. (1976).
Medical school faculty productivity. Journal of Medical Education,
51, 201-202.
Pelz, D. C., & Andrews, F. M. (1976). Scientists in organizations:
Productive climates for research and development (rev. ed.). Ann
Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.


72
of the scientific elite have moved toward homogeneity among themselves
and differentiation from other scientists" (p. 95). Laureates were
characterized as having a strong sense of their own ability, a strong
ego, internalized exacting standards of work, and demanding standards
for judging scientific work (Zuckerman, 1977, pp. 122-126). The
laureates-to-be were described as having acquired much through their
professional socialization process with self-selected eminent sponsors
in which norms and standards, values and attitudes, knowledge skills
and behaviors, and a sense of significant areas for investigation were
obtained (Zuckerman, 1977, pp. 123-127). Laureates-to-be were found to
have a greater number of collaborative endeavors but not a
significantly greater number of single publications, though they were
still prolific. Some of the influences cited related to exacting
standards for publication and emphasis on quality rather than quantity.
In addition, following receipt of the Nobel prize, the laureates often
took last authorship, or even deleted their name from the list of
authors, regardless of contributions to the project. Zuckerman (1977)
has stated, "as they move through the scientific career, we can observe
the process by which prestige begets prestige, making them, relative to
other scientists, increasingly 'rich' in resources, opportunities, and
esteem" (p. 207).
Cumulative advantage
Related to institutional and individual eminence is the issue of
cumulative advantage. The stratification hierarchies of institutional
and individual eminence are interconnected through exchanges of


Table 39
PSR Items on Methodological Rigor
Item
n
Mean
Standard
Deviation
Median
1
19
1.3158
1.6348
1.0000
2
20
2.5500
1.5035
3.0000
3
20
2.4500
1.6376
3.0000
4
20
1.5000
1.4044
2.0000
11
20
3.0500
1.1910
3.0000
Table 40
PSR Items on Importance to the Discipline
Standard
Item
n
Mean
Deviation
Median
5
20
2.1000
1.4105
2.0000
6
20
2.5500
1.5035
3.0000
7
20
1.4500
1.4681
1.0000
10
20
1.9500
1.7006
1.5000
21
20
1.8000
1.3992
2.0000
22
20
1.5000
1.5044
1.0000
23
20
0.8000
0.9515
0.5000
24
20
1.1500
1.3089
0.5000
25
20
2.6500
1.4965
3.0000
26
19
1.8947
1.6632
2.0000
27
19
0.4211
1.0174
0.0000
28
19
2.0000
1.5986
2.0000
29
19
2.0000
1.5986
2.0000
30
20
3.2000
0.6959
3.0000


182
Scholarly expectations
Expectations for research and scholarly productivity were present
in the environment and were described related to the perceived mission,
"thrust," or "climate" for research in that context. Several
respondents described an earlier emphasis on teaching prevalent six to
10 years earlier in the setting but which had been replaced with
expectations and rewards for research. Neophyte faculty members were
described as currently being socialized into the researcher role.
Contributions to the knowledge base of nursing and the transmission of
this new knowledge were expected graduate faculty behaviors, especially
with research-based programs and student expectations for faculty
involvement in research. These expectations for scholarly productivity
were described as currently in place in the environments and were
supported with resources for attainment of the goal of productivity.
One respondent described this process:
. . there's clearly the expectation and the excite
ment that you will be doing research . And that is
supported . They give you the instruments, the peers
and the other kinds of resources so that you can do it.
On the Organizational Environment Form administrative respondents
from six sites reported research expectancies for faculty which were in
agreement with descriptions from the Established Nurse Researcher
respondents. Research was required for promotion and tenure at all
sites with some sites also requiring research for faculty appointment
(83.33%) and retention (66.66%).


44
Environmental facilitators for scholarly productivity have been
investigated in academic nursing contexts. Pranulis (1984) reported
the most important influence on nurse faculty research productivity was
the presence of extramural funding. The facilitators to research
reported by at least 75 percent of the respondents in her study were
educational background, personal values, research role
responsibilities, other nurses' interest in the problem, administrative
support for research, criteria for retention and promotion, and
organizational mission, goals and objectives (Pranulis, 1984).
Furthermore, environmental characteristics proposed which facilitate
productivity included: "(1) organizational emphasis on research that
is equal to or greater than its emphasis on teaching or service . .;
(2) administrative support and role modeling for research; (3) half or
more of the faculty engaged in research activities; (4) institutional
mechanisms to support and facilitate seeking extramural funding; and
(5) interorganizational and interdepartmental procedures to facilitate
faculty access to information or subjects for research purposes"
(Pranulis, 1984, p. 207).
Batey (1978) studied university schools of nursing that had been
awarded major federal funding for research. Following this study,
Batey (1981) proposed the following criteria for successful and
productive environments:
1. There is an informed and collegial approach to
inquiry and to the social system of science . .;
2. Inquiry, not just the conduct of studies, is


169
Table 26
Activities Used by Established Nurse Researchers for Continuing
Development of Research Expertise
Activity
n*
%
Reading
14
73.68
*
Formal or Informal Coursework
11
57.89
Attending Conferences, Meetings, or
Workshops
10
52.63
Consultation
Seeking consultation
Providing consultation
9
10
47.37
52.63
"Keeping in touch" with colleagues
(networking)
in area
3
15.79
Ongoing nature of the research
(continuing research work)
3
15.79
Writing for publication
1
5.26
*
Percentages are based on the number of respondents who were asked to
describe methods used to further develop research expertise, N=19.
*
Includes courses taken for credit, courses audited, short courses,
and seminars.
Learning opportunities were also described by respondents when
seeking and/or providing consultation on research. Seeking
consultation from experts in a specific area provided for continued
development of expertise based on needs with a current project or in
specific area identified. Providing consultation also served as a
vehicle for further development with review of research proposals,


297
D. Support for Research
For each of the following groups, please describe kinds of
support you perceive with your research activities.
1. The University, institution in general.
2. College/School/Dept, of Nursing (Administration).
3. Campus colleagues, other than nurses.
4. Nursing colleagues, on campus.
5. Nursing colleagues, off-campus.
IX. Techniques to further develop research output and expertise
A. Further Development
What methods or activities do you use to further develop
research expertise for successful research outcomes?
B. Recommendations
What would be your primary recommendation for development of
research skills by:
1. Colleagues in academia
2. Practitioners in service agencies
3. Students
X. Additional Comments and Closure


309
Havelock, R. G. (1971). Planning for innovation through dissemination
and utilization of knowledge. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social
Research, University of Michigan.
Hayter, J. (1984). Institutional sources of articles published in 13
journals, 1978-1982. Nursing Research, 33, 357-362.
Hayter, J., & Rice, P. (1979). Institutional sources of articles
published in the American Journal of Nursing, Nursing Outlook, and
Nursing Research. Nursing Research, 28, 205-209.
Holley, J. W. (1977). Tenure and research productivity. Research in
Higher Education, 181-192.
Holt, F. M. (1973). A study of the relationship of selected variables
to attitudes of nursing faculty toward research and theory
development. Dissertation Abstracts International, 34B, 1608-B.
(University Microfilms International No. 73-23,574)
Humphreys, L. G. (1984). Women with doctorates in science and
engineering. Advances in Motivation and Achievement, 2_, 197-216.
Jauch, L. R., & Glueck, W. F. (1975). Evaluation of university
professors' research performance. Management Science, 22, 66-75.
Jolly, P. (1983). Datagram: Physician faculty involvement in
research. Journal of Medical Education, 58, 73-76.
Kast, F. E., & Rosenzweig, J. E. (1979). Organization and management:
A systems and contingency approach (3rd ed.). New York:
McGraw-Hill.
Kasten, K. L. (1984). Tenure and merit pay as rewards for research,
teaching, and service at a research university. Journal of Higher
Education, 55, 500-514.
Kimberly, J. R. (1976). Organizational size and the structuralist
perspective: A review, critique, and proposal. Administrative
Science Quarterly, 21, 571-595.
Kirk, J., & Miller, M. L. (1985). Reliability and validity in
qualitative research. Sage University Paper series on Qualitative
Research Methods, Vol 1. Beverely Hills, CA: Sage.
Knorr, K. D., Mittermeir, R., Aichholzer, G., & Waller, G. (1979).
Individual publication productivity as a social position effect in
academic and industrial research units. In F. M. Andrews (Ed.),
Scientific productivity (pp. 55-94). Cambridge, England: Cambridge
University Press.


50
institutional policy emphasis. At that point in time, respondents
placed teaching as the primary preference at both the individual and
institutional levels while weighting of scholarly productivity was more
variable. This was somewhat supported five years later when Fawcett
(1979) reported prevailing values of teaching and service in schools of
nursing as opposed to research in other disciplines. Recently,
Pranulis (1984) reported that in the majority of the university schools
of nursing she investigated, there was the same or greater emphasis at
the school level as at the parent university level with the emphasis
being given to teaching graduate students, conducting research, and
communicating research. Undergraduate teaching was found to be ranked
in fourth place at these same schools at both the school and university
level (Pranulis, 1984). The conflicting results between the studies by
Marella and Pranulis may be due to methodologies, with Marella sampling
a more diverse and larger population while Pranulis obtained her
organizational data from one resource person at each of the ten
university schools of nursing. On the other hand, consideration must
be given to institutional context along with the fact that nursing is
moving more in line with academia with upgraded standards (M. I.
Murphy, 1985; O'Shea, 1986), especially at the university levels.
Mentorship
May, Meleis and Winstead-Fry (1982) have proposed that mentorship
is "essential for the scholarly development of nurses and for the
integration of the scholarly role in the self" (p. 22). Mentoring has
been described as "the cultivation of young talent and the promotion of


170
service on dissertation committees, and work with graduate students or
faculty peers. One respondent described this opportunity for
development through consultation as "taking on challenges."
Consultation activities provided respondents with the intellectual
stimulation from other people's ideas and research designs along with
learning about different methodologies.
Other opportunities for development of expertise occurred through
attending professional meetings and conferences, "keeping in touch"
with colleagues in the area, and continuing research activity
throughout the year necessitating learning as specific needs arise. In
addition, writing for publication was described as providing additional
learning needs and opportunities during manuscript preparation.
Environmental Characteristics
Organizational influences are apparent in respondents'
descriptions related to individual characteristics in the previous
section as individuals operate in a context, whether it is family,
academia, the profession, or society. Organizational variables of
interest specified on study instruments included geographic location,
institutional type and sponsorship, organization of the nursing
division, program offerings, age and size, institutional mission(s),
support for research, research requirements, and characteristics of
environments.
Data on environmental characteristics facilitative for research at
sites recognized for productivity of nurse academicians were obtained
using two study instruments. The Organizational Environment Form was
designed to complement information provided by the Established Nurse


12
model is that there should be a congruence between the organization and
its environment and among the various subsystems (p. 115). Use of the
adaptive-organic organizational form is appropriate for research and
scholarly productivity in a university setting with the following
patterns of relationships:
1. The environment is relatively uncertain and turbulent
2. The goals are diverse and changing
3. The technology is complex and dynamic
4. There are many nonroutine activities in which creativity
and innovation are important
5. Heuristic decision-making processes are utilized and
coordination and control occur through reciprocal adjust
ments. The system is less hierarchical and more flexible.
(Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979, p. 116)
Further, these relationships are congruent with a naturalistic inquiry
paradigm.
Use of the five subsystems is also applicable to the generation of
nursing knowledge in a university environment. Research, creativity,
and scholarly productivity are esteemed values and goals in both
nursing and higher education. Kast and Rosenzweig (1979) have stated
that the "social role of the university is the creation and
dissemination of knowledge. . and the university has the special
function of creating new knowledge through research" (pp. 519-520).
This is further described with three predominant institutional goals:
1. The dissemination of knowledge to students. .
primarily done through the teaching function;
2. The creation and advancement of knowledge. .
accomplished through the research activities of the
faculty and specialized staffs? and
3. Service to society. . [which] establishes the norm
that knowledge creation and dissemination should be
useful. (Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979, p. 520)


149
Table 24
Network Activities Valuable for the Nurse Researcher
Domain Activities Content
Initial Research Meetings
Contact
Organizations
(non-specific
to research)
Collaborators/researchers identified
Information on work in research area
Keeping current in the field
Broad exposure and opportunity to
raise questions and get ideas
Forum for evaluation of paper or
research presented
Discussion and stimulation
Non- Informal
specific "Get-togethers"
Contact or Social Meetings
Support
Friendly exchange
Respect communicated for each other's
work
Discussion and stimulation
Direct
Contact
Direct
Communication:
telephone
correspondence
face-to-face
Discussion of ideas and obtaining
feedback, guidance, validation
Consultation
Sharing of information, materials,
resources
Letters of recommendation
Referrals
Special Interest
Resources:
Computer networks
Interest groups
Task forces
Workshops
Fostering of communication in specific
groups or subgroups focused on
a need, program, or task but
specific to the interest of the
participant


204
were concerned with the theme of methodological rigor for successful
nursing research. Respondents rated the extent to which the example
study tested previously established relationships and used new and
quantifiable variables and/or improved methodology. Descriptive
statistics for these five items are illustrated in Table 39. Three
items yielded means beyond 2.40 and medians of 3.00. A theme of
methodological rigor through improved methodology and use of
quantifiable or new variable combinations continued to be present with
successful research. Testing previously established relationships
through replications was not a characteristic of methodological rigor
and was reported less frequently with successful research (mean =
1.3158, median = 1.0000). Adoption of a method developed in another
field was also reported less frequently with these examples of
successful research (mean = 1.50, median 2.00).
Importance to the discipline. Contributions to the knowledge base
through research on relevant, controversial, or theoretical problems
was the basis for the theme of importance to the discipline with
significant research (Campbell et al., 1983). Fourteen items on the
PSR were based on the theme of importance to the discipline as
illustrated in Table 40. This theme of importance continued to be
present with the examples of successful research, especially for
investigating a controversial topic or discovering the component parts
of a phenomenon. Of moderate concern with successful research were
identification of new variables and relationships and the combination
of ideas from two or more fields.


307
Creswell, J. W. (1985). Faculty research performance: Lessons from
the sciences and the social sciences (ASHE-ERIC Report No. 4).
Washington, DC: Association for the Study of Higher Education.
Creswell, J. W., & Bean, J. P. (1981). Research output, socialization,
and the Biglan model. Research in Higher Education, 15, 69-91.
Duffy, M. E. (1986). Characteristics of a top-ranked school survey:
An evaluation instrument for schools of nursing (Pub. No. 41-1984) .
New York: National League for Nursing.
Eash, M. (1983). Educational research productivity of institutions of
higher education. American Educational Research Journal, 20, 5-12.
Fagin, C. M. (1982). The quality of nursing journals as rated by deans
of nursing schools. Heart & Lung: The Journal of Critical Care, 11,
65-68.
Fawcett, J. (1979). Integrating research into the faculty workload.
Nursing Outlook, 27, 259-262.
Fawcett, J. (1984). Hallmarks of success in nursing research.
Advances in Nursing Science, 2(1), 1-11.
Fawcett, J. (1985). Theory: Basis for the study and practice of
nursing education. Journal of Nursing Education, 24, 226-229.
Felton, G., & Yeaworth, R. (1985). Focused programs of research.
Journal of Professional Nursing, 2 187.
Finkelstein, M. (1982, March). Faculty colleagueship patterns and
research productivity. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the
American Educational Research Association, New York. (ERIC Document
Reproductive Service No. ED 216 633)
Finkelstein, M. J. (1984). The American academic profession.
Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press.
Fox, M. F. (1983). Publication productivity among scientists: A
critical review. Social Studies of Science, 13, 285-305.
Friedlander, F. (1971). Performance and orientation structures of
research scientists. Organizational Behavioral and Human
Performance, 6_, 169-183.
Frieze, I. H., & Hanusa, B. H. (1984). Women scientists: Overcoming
barriers. Advances in Motivation and Achievement, 2, 139-163.


202
Table 38
Correlation Matrix for PSR Items with Little Relationship to Examples
of Successful Research
Items
1
7
22
23
24
27
1
1.0000
7
.2138
1.0000
11
.3000
.4588*
1.0000
23
.0928
.6012**
.6789**
1.0000
24
-.1676
.0811
.4787*
.5331*
1.0000
27
.1525
.5379*
.3790
.5637*
.2839
1.0000
A Spearman correlations significant at p < .01.
Little relationship to the successful research projects
Means and medians were compared for individual items on the PSR.
The means and medians for six items were less than or equal to 1.50
with the group indicating little relationship to the examples of
successful research. These six items referred to replication studies
or testing to negate prior relationships or competing theoretical
models. Spearman correlations were done on the six items since they
were ranked from zero (no extent) to 4 points (great extent). As
illustrated in Table 38, significant correlations (p<.05) were
demonstrated between item 7 (testing of competing theories or models


222
sustaining the interest in research despite the time and effort needed
for the work. As an essential characteristic, commitment and
motivation were directed toward the program of research for maintaining
the ongoing interest in logically extending knowledge and contributing
useful information for utilization by practitioners, consumers of
health care, and other researchers.
Commitment and motivation were sustained through perseverance as
both an antecedent and an essential characteristic of the researcher.
Perseverance was described as the endurance, persistence, patience, and
tenacity, especially when problems arise. The individual must be able
to persist with complex tasks and not become easily discouraged or
defeated. This was described as an essential characteristic for the
nurse researcher, especially related to the research project. The
researcher must be able to anticipate problems during the research
process and be able to deal with them. Perseverance was also described
as a sense that, in the long run, the study will provide valuable
information along with problems that arise during the research process.
Creativity was the fourth domain of character traits. As an
antecedent, creativity was needed to envision the research problem
along with the broader context. As an essential characteristic,
creativity provided direction to the research program for further
extensions in order that contributions be made to nursing science.
Part of creativity involved the use of analytic skills necessary for
the generation of research.


231
topic. Attraction to the project in the three themes of pioneering,
opportunity, and testing also reflected the analytic skills applied to
research for contributing knowledge to nursing science.
Collaborative efforts on research ideas or projects were discussed
by established nurse researchers. Interpersonal skills were described
in the provision of leadership to the research team and in
collaborative and network activities. A discussion of interpersonal
linkages used by the respondents for successful research outcomes are
addressed in the discussion for research question number three, later
in this chapter. Collegiality was also reflected in the publication
preferences of established nurse researchers. Co-authorship and
multiple authorship emerged with involvement in larger, collaborative
projects. These collaborative projects resulted in increased
opportunities for publications through commitments to dissemination of
the work. Although authorship for these projects was a collaborative
effort, limiting the number of writers to one or a small group was
recommended and required interpersonal skills with the group.
The actual development of organizational skills was rarely
described although some respondents described early family experiences
in problem solving which potentially assisted in this area of skills
development. Mentors were described by several respondents as
assisting in research design during doctoral education. In initial
academic positions, established nurse researchers may also have been
influenced by the organizational skills of those colleagues they
described as socializing them to the expectations for scholarly
productivity.


121
Table 13
Advantages of Postdoctoral Studies
Selected Comments
"A way of putting together your skills and interests with those of a mentor."
"To move self into a school setting where your primary purpose is research."
"It's very difficult getting grants with no track record."
"Critical to success in an academic setting where first of all promotion is
based primarily on research programs and secondly . there are not mentors."
"Allows you to broaden your research skills and to practice them."
"To continue your dissertation research or to work with someone in that area
because a lot of programs don't have someone that is in your area."
"Other fields with which nursing interacts are seeing the postdoc as
essential."
"A great opportunity to expand and extend as well as pick up the clinical
skills."
"A chance of getting your feet firmly and solidly planted in your chosen field
or research and you get a head start."
"Clarify, reconfirm, and expand . knowledge base . and align yourself
with a department that is very productive and scholarly."
"Helps to really solidify socialization that the doctoral preparation starts."
"It gives you more time to test ideas . and enables you to learn additional
techniques, skills, ways of thinking."
"To find out what you want to research and what there is to research."
"Provides more in-depth experience in research."
"Beginning investigators need to refine their skills, work under the supervision
of more experienced investigators, and learn to manage their careers wisely."
"A chance ... of getting some research beyond the dissertation and probably
most important is getting some resources to help you go further."
"To help you look at whatever you're interested in from different perspectives."


256
colleagues and students, they illustrated that nurses should be
involved in all forms of research activities, with all research
activities viewed as valuable. Collaborative research ventures with
more established researchers were recommended to complement knowledge
bases. Environmental facilitation for research was apparent in the
environments of the established nurse researchers, especially through
administrative support in workload allocation for the commitment of
time within their faculty roles for research. This awareness of the
need for time to conduct research within the academic position was
apparent but it should also be noted that established nurse researchers
reported that they work approximately 60 hours per week.
Established nurse researchers exemplified use of multiple modes of
inquiry in that several were involved in both predominantly
quantitative and qualitative methods. In addition, several researchers
described plans for further study and development in a new area of
design or analysis. Established nurse researchers were knowledgeable
in the variety of modes of inquiry available to the researcher and
identified colleagues who were skilled in these areas and available for
consultation, often in their own environments.
Utilization of research findings was demonstrated in that 80
percent of the studies identified by the established nurse researchers
as examples of successful research had already been used in either
practice or further research through replications and spinoff studies.
In addition, respondents described research preferences for
practice-relevant research, especially as programs of research evolved.
Methods described to promote utilization of successful research studies


Table 33
Resources Available for Faculty Research
at Study Sites
(N=6)*
n
%
Computer Resources
Microcomputers for research
6
100.00
Mainframe computer, faculty accounts
6
100.00
Consultation Services
Design
6
100.00
Statistical analysis
6
100.00
Financial Support for Research
6
100.00
Library facilities and support services
6
100.00
Physical Space, Office Space
6
100.00
Sabbaticals
6
100.00
Secretarial Services
6
100.00
Research Assistants
5
83.33
Continuing Education Programs/Workshops
4
66.67
Supplies for Research Activities
4
66.67
Research Coordinator for Faculty
2
33.33
*
Resources available for faculty use with research activities
as reported by a representative of the administrative unit of
the school of nursing from six of the study sites.


178
Expectations. In the academic environment reward structures
related to promotion, retention, and tenure and the status given to
research by colleagues, students and society provided expectations for
research. Respondents reported that unique to academia is the
reflective time and the freedom to pursue research which is not readily
available in nursing service settings. One respondent described this
reflective time as "the merit of academia [in that] you can control
your time far more so than in practice." Service agencies, unlike
academia, were described as imposing limitations on research through
economic demands for cost effectiveness and a focus on immediate
applicability of the findings.
Facilitation through funding and resources. Monetary and tangible
resources in the academic environment were described by respondents as
a second domain of support for research. Respondents described the
availability of funds for research in the academic setting. Intramural
funds were described as facilitating research but were also precursors
to extramural funding. Financial facilitation from the school or
university was used for pilot studies prior to the grant application
process or for projects with limitations in scope. Respondents
described the novice researcher as needing to seek and use intramural
funds in the development of a research program and a "track record" to
demonstrate ability in order to obtain extramural funding. At three of
the seven sites, respondents reported the availability of intramural
grants or special research positions for summer semester faculty
salaries. Faculty in these three settings were on nine month contracts


260
Scholarly subgroups and funding organizations support the research
scholar through validation of efforts and provision of psychosocial and
tangible support. Support must be further extended into the profession
as a whole. This extension has begun with the evolving role for the
research scholar in practice settings. Additional academic and
practice settings should become facilitative to the researcher for the
generation, dissemination, and utilization of successful research
outcomes.
Tangible resources include those monetary and non-monetary
resources and services available in the environment for use in research
activities. Established nurse researchers are employed in environments
which provide essential services and resources or opportunities for
access to these tangible resources. Environments facilitate access to
these basic resources, including secretarial services, computer
resources, access to subjects, financial support for small projects,
libraries, assistance with data collection, physical space, and media
services.
Research Support Units can be used to coordinate availability of
services and facilitate access to resources. These specialized units
are also valuable in that the focus is on scholarly productivity with
the researcher taking an active role in seeking needed resources
particular to the research project. This facilitation can save the
researcher time in discovering availability of resources and in seeking
the requisite services. The units can also provide an equal access to
all researchers, based on the merits of individual proposals or
projects. Established nurse researchers described Research Support


218
university-wide office for sponsored research and/or the research team
with resources, rewards, and coordination of activities external to
school structure. Established nurse researchers also described the
importance of motivation when managerial resources were insufficient.
Given a motivated and committed researcher, research and scholarly
productivity are made more difficult but are not totally inhibited with
a dysfunctional managerial system for research activities. In the
absence of managerial subsystem support, established nurse researchers
focused on the psychosocial and technical subsystems for resources for
research.
Support for research is seen through the "valuing" of nursing
research. In academia, this research support can be seen in the
domains of research expectations, facilitation through funding and
resources, and in the provision of a collegial atmosphere. University
and school environments provide inputs to the managerial subsystem in
these domains. The discipline of nursing provides inputs with
opportunities for stimulation, sharing, and critique through
professional societies and organizations and with reinforcement by
validation of efforts through peer review, funding and resources,
extension of the research, and dissemination opportunities.
Expectations or requirements influence the support needed for research
and scholarly productivity. These inputs provide the basis for the
resources, rewards, and integration of activities directed through this
subsystem.


126
Weekly hour averages of job-related activities are reported in
Table 17. Research activities, including writing for publications and
grants and consultation on research, accounted for a mean weekly
average of 19.50 hours (n=18, s=9.38) and a median of 16 hours. When
mean hours worked per week (59.65) for the group are considered,
research activities account for approximately one third of their time.
This does not take into account activities peripheral to research, like
service on dissertation or thesis committees, advising students,
teaching activities where research may be the focus, or dissemination
activities external to the job-related activities reported. In
addition, 19.50 hours weekly average is also above the mean of 26.33
percent as reported above in the faculty contract for primary
responsibility in research.
Although few of the respondents are involved in undergraduate or
clinical teaching, teaching activities do comprise a major portion of
their faculty role. Traditional teaching activities including
classroom preparation and presentation, clinical preparation and
supervision, grading papers, and service on dissertation and thesis
committees accounted for a mean weekly average for the group of 23.44
hours (n=18, s=9.03) and a median of 26.5 hours. When a 40 hour work
week is considered, although this is well below the mean hours worked
per week for the group, teaching accounts for greater than half of the
contract time with the mean contract responsibility for teaching for
the group of 46.25 percent (n=16, s=25.53). This indicates a major
role of the group in teaching activities. As one respondent stated
during the interview:


261
Units as particularly valuable for the novice researcher through
consultation services and available learning opportunities.
Funding has been described as a major facilitator for research
activities, especially when the scope and complexity of the project
increases. Intramural funding was available in some amount in all
institutions studied. Budgetary allowances for such monetary resources
are in place in organizational environments, for example, at the school
and/or university level(s).
Network opportunities were utilized by established nurse
researchers for intellectual stimulation, discussion, and substantive
sharing. The value of network activities related to (1) initial
contacts to expand the network, (2) non-specific contacts at meetings
to maintain the network, and (3) direct goal-oriented contacts to focus
on the generation, dissemination, and utilization of research. The
profession must continue to communicate the value of research to the
discipline and provide opportunities focused on research and specific
audiences for effective dissemination and utilization of the present
and evolving body of nursing knowledge. Individual researchers must
then utilize these opportunities to focus on research and expanding
their own network in the area of research preference.
Recommendation Three: Funding Priorities for Nursing Research
Allocate funded support research in two important areas:
(1) for clinically relevant studies which contribute to the
advancement of nursing science and (2) for development of
expertise in research through adequately supported postdoctoral
fellowships in nursing.


CHAPTER I
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Introduction
Research and scholarship are vital to the sciences and the
professions in accretion of knowledge. Bloch (1985) has stated that
"the product of research is science or knowledge" (p. 127). Nursing
has become increasingly concerned with scholarship and the extension of
its knowledge base through research and theory development since the
1970s. Nurses are being prepared in increasing numbers at the graduate
level and academic nursing programs are moving more in concert with
other disciplines in academia for the scholarly expectations of faculty
and students. Scientific inquiry is essential for providing a
knowledge base for nursing practice. As proposed by the American
Nurses Association Cabinet on Nursing Research (1985), "the future of
nursing practice and, ultimately, health care in this country depend on
nursing research designed to constantly generate an up-to-date
organized body of nursing knowledge" (p. 1). Further, significant
findings from nursing research must be disseminated for utilization and
progress. Generation, dissemination, and utilization of knowledge are
assumed to be affected by certain antecedents, intervening factors, and
outcomes of the research process and the individual researchers.
Identification of variables that influence research activities will
1


21
This level is one of generation of knowledge through research and
dissemination through teaching and service functions.
The next environmental division is the nursing disciplinary level
which provides the professional orientation, specialization, and
additional value structures of the university nursing faculty.
Havelock (1971) has referred to this stratum as the practice world.
The disciplinary environmental focus in this study will primarily be
investigated through faculty interactions with professional
organizations and societies, service organizations, and scholarly
product organizations. Although this disciplinary environment is
affected by generation at the interorganizational systems level,
primary consideration will be given to dissemination and utilization of
knowledge.
The broader social environment reflects societal needs and values
through the needs and potential needs of consumers of health care.
Utilization of knowledge and origination of problems and needs are the
primary influences from this environmental level. Linkages among all
system parts are assumed as necessary for effectiveness and continuity.
Generation of knowledge is to be investigated at the level of
individual nurse faculty researchers. The flow of this knowledge from
generation to dissemination will be the focus to explore individual and
environmental factors that influence knowledge for the discipline of
nursing.


39. PSR Items on Methodological Rigor 205
40. PSR Items on Importance to the Discipline 205
41. Correlation Matrix for PSR Items on Importance to the
Discipline 207
42. PSR Items on Personal Interest and Motivation 208
43. PSR Items on Real World Implications 208
x


90
(1) efforts and results from the generation, dissemination, and
utilization of the research (research orientation and characteristics
of environments); (2) use of professional linkages (network); and (3)
contribution of the research findings toward theory development and use
in the discipline (research orientation). Part I of the PSR included
structured and semi-structured items on the background and origin of
the research project selected. Part II contained 30 questions in four
series, on a five-point scale concerning the same one successful
research project selected. Initial testing of Part II of the PSR was
done in two separate administrations of the instrument. Forty-eight
researchers, predominantly from the southern region, who were nurse
faculty at research universities comprised the sample for the first
test administration of 50 items. Items were eliminated and the
instrument was reduced to 30 items based upon (1) respondents' comments
indicating ambiguity, (2) high rates of non-response, and (3) low to
zero correlations with other items with which they should have
logically correlated. The second administration involved 57 nurse
researcher respondents who were Fellows of the American Academy of
Nursing from all geographic areas and not employed at sites selected
for this study. Revisions to the instrument were based on analyses
from both test administrations, considering individual and combined
testing. A significant positive correlation was found between
successful projects that were funded and when statistical significance
was used as an an indicator of valuable results. The highest mean
scores for the items were found with questions addressing


53
percent of the 32 percent of tenure track nursing faculty who left
positions in 30 research universities during 1979-1982 had doctoral
degrees (p. 138). But when considering the effects of mobility on
research, Brimmer et al. (1983) found that the mean percent of time
spent in research activities for all nurses with doctorates studied
stayed the same whether or not they had changed positions or held the
same position following awarding of the doctorate (p. 162). Therefore,
job mobility has had limited significance in studies of scholarly
productivity, especially with nurses.
Professional societies
Membership in professional societies implies access to a
professional information, value, and network system. In a study of
scientists and social scientists in Naval laboratories, Friedlander
(1971) found a significant positive correlation between membership in
professional societies and scholarly productivity. Cameron and
Blackburn (1981) have reported a gender difference, with male faculty
members demonstrating a greater use of networks such as professional
societies. Some differences are to be expected in nursing with its
history as a predominantly female profession and less emphasis on
scholarship than some of the other professions. Still, membership in
professional societies and the use of networks may be more accessible
in nursing than in some of the male dominated professions. Ostmoe
(1982) reported the number of academic and professional memberships was
positively correlated with publication quantity and quality and further
demonstrated that fellows of the American Academy of Nursing and


290
CODE NUMBER _
ON-SITE INTERVIEW WITH ESTABLISHED NURSE RESEARCHER
I. Introduction and Purpose
A. Introduction
B. Purpose: To meet with ENR in order to explore factors related to
successful research and scholarly endeavors, particularly
individual and environmental factors.
II. Clarification of Responses on Pre-interview Instruments
A. General
Is there anything in particular that you would like to
discuss from the earlier materials which you completed?
B. Family Background
On the pre-interview profile, you indicated
parents educational level: Father
Mother
occupation : Father
Mother
In addition, you indicated you had siblings and that
your ordinal position was .
Do you feel that these family factors had an influence on
your career development? No
Yes
Please describe:
[ 1
[ 1
C.Post-Doctoral Work
On the profile you indicated
[ ] no post-doctoral work
[ ] months post-doc.
[ ] other:
What influence does post doctoral work have on subsequent
research and scholarly endeavors?
On a scale of 1 to 10, how valuable is the opportunity
for post-doctoral studies?
Please describe:


287
B. Epistemological Issues
Please use the same five-point scale to respond to the way the research
process was conducted.
TO WHAT EXTENT . .
Rating Scale
No Great
Extent Extent
8. ... was the research based on methods that were
convenient for you to execute (familiarity,
expense, facilities, etc.) 0
9. ... was the research exploratory and open-ended
(asking questions rather than testing hypotheses) 0
10. ... were the variables of interest quantifiable
(e.g., size easily quantifiable as counting number
of patients? power is illusive and intangible) ... 0
11. ... did you have firm expectations about the
outcomes 0
12. ... was statistical significance the indicator of
valuable results 0
13. ... would you have abandoned dissemination of this
research if the findings were statistically
significant, but in your opinion, these findings
were of questionable value 0
14. ... are the results applicable to nursing practice,
education, or administration 0
15. ... are results significant in some way other than
that defined by research procedure 0
4 NA
4 NA
4 NA
4 NA
4 NA
2 3 4 NA
2 3 4 NA
2 3 4 NA


238
research: (1) opportunities through professional organizations and (2)
validation of efforts. Professional societies and organizations
provided opportunities for both psychosocial and substantive support in
the activities of intellectual stimulation, sharing, and critique of
work. Validation of efforts was a type of reward for the merit of the
scholar's work. This validation was provided through peer review,
funding and provision of resources, extension of the work, and
increased opportunities for dissemination.
Administrative support for research
One impetus for research was provided through administrative
support promoting research as integral to the academician's position.
Lack of support limited, rather than inhibited, involvement in
scholarly endeavors. In several established nurse researchers'
descriptions of prior situations where administrative support was
limited, research was still done. It may be noted that either the
researchers were no longer in those prior, non-supportive positions or
the environment was described as currently more facilitative.
Currently, administrative support was present in the environments
through general characteristics, workload allocations, and psychosocial
support.
General characteristics of immediate environments. Most
established nurse researchers were involved in graduate education in
environments which supported large, established graduate nursing
programs. The mean number of faculty in the environments was 107.83
(n=6 schools) with a mean full time equivalent total student enrollment


30
Additional criteria with publication counts have been used in several
studies. Eash (1983), who assumed "faculty productivity emphasizes the
strength of institutional research" (p. 5), based productivity on
papers presented, extramural funding received, and articles in
specified, leading journals over a seven year period of time. In
several studies proportional credit was awarded in the case of multiple
authorship and/or institutional affiliation (Cox & Catt, 1977; Eash,
1983; McCallum, 1984; West, 1978) while others considered credit to the
institution only in the case of primary authorship (Hayter, 1984;
Hayter & Rice, 1979). Silverman (1984) investigated publishing
patterns in higher education journals but also considered institutional
affiliation. In an attempt to qualify productivity, Glenn and Villemez
(1970) developed a scale for faculty publications in sociology
departments which weighted books (research/theory, textbook, edited)
and specific disciplinary journals. Outcomes of these studies aimed at
providing a rating for or awareness of productive sites in academia.
Individual Productivity
Batey (1985) has observed that an organization acquires a
reputation for scholarship through the explicit achievements of its
individual scientists (p. 489). Numerous authors have attempted to
correlate factors with individual scholarly productivity. Creswell
(1985) has proposed a profile of productive researchers which has
emerged from this literature in the past 40 years.


175
Table 30
Rankings of Institutional Missions as Perceived by Established
Nurse Researchers
Ranking*
Institutional
Preference
Individual
Preference
n
%
n
%
Research
_
1
Teaching
=
2
16
76.19
12
57.14
Service
3
Teaching
=
1
Research
=
2
3
14.29
1
4.76
Service
=
3
Teaching
=
Research = 1
Service
=
3
1
4.76
4
19.05
Research
s
1
Service
=
2
1
4.76
0
0.00
Teaching
=
3
Research
=
Teaching = Service = 1
0
0.00
3
14.29
Service
=
1
Teaching
=
2
0
0.00
1
4.76
Research
=
3

*
Rankings in order of perceived preferences for the tripartite missions
of the American university
Respondents believed it was important that institutional and
individual preferences be congruent. This need for congruence was
described in relation to retention and satisfaction in the system,
especially in terms of the reward or reinforcement structure in place.
Several respondents described this need for congruence in terms of a
shared value system between the institution and the individual.


223
Independence was described as a fifth character trait. As an
antecedent, independence was necessary for the generation of ideas, for
decision making during the research process, and for accountability for
the project and its outcomes. Independence, as an essential
characteristic for the nurse researcher, required risk taking and
courage. The dimension of peer review required this courage as the
research and the researcher are opened to scrutiny of merit with either
the grant application or dissemination of the results.
Ethics, or a sense of honor for maintaining the scientific
integrity and quality of the project, was described as a sixth
character trait for the researcher. The basis for this sense of honor
was described as an antecedent attribute needed by the nurse
researcher. This sense of honor is retained as an essential
characteristic in order to maintain the integrity of the data as well
as the entire project for successful research outcomes and for ultimate
utilization.
Attributes of established nurse researchers. Evidence of these
character traits was considered with respondents' descriptions of
career influences mainly through interpersonal and family experiences.
Family, relatives, teachers, mentors, colleagues, and deans were
reported to have provided influences on the early development of
approximately 81 percent of the established nurse researchers.
Respondents reported influences from their families of orientation
and procreation. Creativity and discussion were encouraged in the
family circle. Parents of one-third of the respondents stressed


161
developmental and final stages of the research project especially
related to writing of the proposal or findings. As one respondent
stated, "a quiet environment is definitely important to concentration."
Distractions from telephone calls, unscheduled visits by people, and
socializing in the hallways were cited as problems to working in the
office. Two respondents described the habit of getting to the office a
few hours early and working on their research before the usual
activities could interrupt them. The major way respondents freed
themselves from such distractions was to have an alternate site for
work at home, in another office, or in a library. An office at home
was most frequently described as the preference for writing where
materials such as copies of articles and the data set and where word
processors, typewriters, or blank paper and pencils were provided. The
home environment also allowed the opportunity for moving around without
breaking one's concentration. In addition, several respondents
described family members as respecting their need for uninterrupted
concentration.
Other sites used by the respondents for developing a problem or
for writing were additional offices on campus or libraries. One
respondent described the use of quieter off-campus libraries where she
could concentrate on the task without interruptions from students,
colleagues, or telephone messages. An important environmental
influence on this preference for working out of the office was the
support from school administration for doing this and not requiring a
certain number of hours per day or week on site. Respondents reported


142
liable 21
Reported Authorship Preferences
n % Selected Contents
Single 5 23.81 "I've preferred single because I could get then dene fast and
Author get them in."
"Having a publication that is single authored may be looked
upen more positively by the university."
"I find I can ocntrol ny time better and work better and
I don't have the aggravation of worrying about the other
person doing their piece on time."
"Usually when you see a single author you wonder who did the
rest of it."
"I think it is very difficult for more than one person to write
a totally logically consistent paper if this person writes this
piece and that person writes that piece."
"Single authorship is difficult. There are only certain kinds
of studies, chapters, review articles, small little things
you do usually."
Co-Author 4 19.05 "When you're on a project it ends up with cne person writing and
the other people editing. I don't consider that co-authorship
although that's the way it goes a lot of time.
"I see advantages in mil tiple [authorship] because you bring more
dimensions to the paper."
"If I can work with colleagues that are stimulating, that helps
to get the work dene."
"I've also done collaborative things which I find to be very
stimulating and it facilitates writing."
"I think most nursing research is collaborative."
"The bigger the project is, the more staff you have on board
and the more people needing credit."
"I think when you get beyond three, you have to question
the amount of work done by the contributors."
No 9 42.86 "Who cares who is the first author and who is the second author.
Preference The mere fact is that it was published period and leave it
at that."
Co-Author 3 14.29
or
Multiple
Author


65
work of Ostmoe and used a weighted count for publications, paper
presentations, and other tangible products based on self reports from
nurse doctorates. No distinction was made for single or multiple
authorship with books assigned four points, papers in refereed journals
or presented at national or international meetings assigned two points,
papers in non refereed journals or presented at regional or interstate
meetings, symposium proceedings, book chapters and other tangible
products assigned one point, and papers presented at local meetings
assigned one-half point each. Nieswiadomy (1984) used nurse educators'
self reports of number of degree studies, number of non-degree studies,
number of published studies, and number of present studies.
Lia-Hoagberg (1985) used straight counts for types and numbers of
publications along with time spent on specific scholarly activities by
nurse doctorates. Phillips (1973) used a qualitative and quantitative
index during a review of selected volumes of journals published. Baird
et al. (1985) reported means of importance from respondent schools
based on a five-point scale for 35 scholarly activities listed on a
questionnaire.
Some bibliographic and publication credit indicators are less
developed in nursing as compared with other disciplines. Use of
citation counts as a measure of peer recognition or influence of a
scholar's work has been used in chemistry, psychology, and other
disciplines in which data bases and author indexing are more
established to gauge webs of influence. In nursing, such sources are
less conducive to effective measurement. For example, the Science


240
for teaching functions for the group. Hindrances were described by
respondents when competing role responsibilities were present.
Generally through the administrative support in the environments,
research was valued and supported with consistent and desired teaching
assignments and encouragement of autonomy in research activities.
Psychosocial support. Administrators provided psychosocial
encouragement and support as well as the more tangible support in the
reward systems in the" institution. Interpersonal contacts and special
congratulatory efforts were reported by established nurse researchers
for their accomplishments. Respondents described specific efforts made
by their deans or immediate superiors which were encouraging to them in
continuation of their programs of research or gratifying following
specific scholarly accomplishments.
Tangible resources in the environment
Tangible resources included those services or resources in the
environments other than psychosocial forms of support. The
organizations supported research through the provision of services and
resources. In their descriptions of essential resources, respondents
listed the following ones as necessary for their research: secretarial
services, computer services, access to subjects, financial support,
libraries, assistance with data collection, physical space for work and
storage of data, and illustrative/media services. All schools provided
the following resources for faculty research activities: computer
services, consultation on design and analysis, financial support,
library services, physical office space, and secretarial services.


11
Organizational systems
Kast and Rosenzweig (1979) view organizations as open,
sociotechnical systems composed of five subsystems: goals and values,
technical, psychosocial, structural, and managerial. Inputs of energy,
information, and materials are received from the environment,
transformed, and returned to the environment. The organization is not
simply a technical or social system but the structuring and integrating
of humans around various activities (Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979, p. 108).
Kast and Rosenzweig (1979) have described the internal organization of
their model with five major subsystems as follows:
The organizational goals and values are one of the
more important of these subsystems. The organization
takes many of its values from the broader sociocultural
environment. A basic premise is that the organization
as a subsystem of the society must accomplish certain
goals that are determined by the broader system. . .
The technical subsystem refers to the knowledge required
for the performance of tasks, including the techniques
used in the transformation of inputs into outputs. . .
Every organization has a psychosocial subsystem that is
composed of individuals and groups in interaction. It
consists of individual behavior and motivation, status
and role relationships, group dynamics, and influence
systems. It is also affected by sentiments, values,
attitudes, expectations, and aspirations of the people
in the organization. . Structure involves the ways
in which the tasks of the organization are divided
(differentiation) and coordinated (integration). .
The managerial subsystem spans the entire organization
by relating the organization to its environment, setting
the goals, developing comprehensive, strategic, and
operational plans designing the structure, and estab
lishing control processes. (pp. 109-110)
This theoretical structure is particularly applicable to a
university system with the goals of the generation and transmission of
knowledge. An underlying assumption of the Kast and Rosenzweig (1979)


310
Ladd, E. C. (1979). The work experience of American college
professors: Some data and an argument. Current Issues in Higher
Education, 1979, 2_, 2-12.
Lane, E. B., Lagodna, G. E., Brooks, B. R., Long, N. J., Parsons, M.
A., Fox, M. R., & Strickland, O. L. (1981). Faculty development
activities. Nursing Outlook, 29, 112-118.
Lia-Hoagberg, B. (1985). Comparison of professional activities of
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155-159.
Lincoln, Y. S. (1985). The substance of the emergent paradigm:
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scientific productivity. American Sociological Review, 46, 422-442.
Manis, J. D. (1950). Some academic influences upon publication
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scholarliness: Opportunities and dilemmas. Nursing Outlook, 30,
22-28.
McCallum, K. (1984). Research/publication productivity of U.S. speech
communication departments. The Southern Speech Communication
Journal, 49, 135-142.
McMillan, J. H., St Schumacher, S. (1984). Research in education: A
conceptual approach. Boston: Little, Brown.
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120
and are illustrated in Table 14. The economics of the current
situation with a limited number of well funded postdoctorates available
was one commonly described limitation. The view of nursing as a young
"independent academic discipline" was cited by several of the
respondents compared with the norm for formalized postdoctoral studies
in other fields or disciplines. Several respondents did indicate that
nursing would be moving in this direction in the future.
Career influences
On the Pre-Interview Profile, Established Nurse Researchers were
asked who or what has influenced their professional nursing career and
their success in research. Career influences reported fell into four
areas, family, educational, work, and personal, with some respondents
citing multiple influences. Family influences were reported by 25
percent of the respondents and included parental influences, childhood
experiences, and spousal influences. Educational influences with role
models, mentors, and faculty were reported by 35 percent of the
respondents. Work influences related to peers, colleagues, the
environment, and the work of others as cited by 40 percent of the
respondents. In addition, some respondents (20%) cited personal
influences such as a work ethic, commitment, desire to teach or do
research, enjoyment of learning, and a personal quest for knowledge.
The On-Site Interview allowed for further elaboration of career
influences. Career influences reported on the Pre-Interview Profile
were supported by respondents in comments during the interviews.


246
these relationships had dissolved or changed to a collegial
relationship. For those respondents who reported the change to a
collegial relationship, the linkage was used as a form of communication
with a respected colleague for idea validation and/or development and
for consultation in the area.
Contact with off-campus colleagues was maintained and frequent for
established nurse researchers. Respondents reported communication with
off-campus colleagues on a monthly (90.48%) or weekly (61.91%) basis,
usually by telephone (85.71%) or through written communication
(42.86%). The bulk of this communication focused on research interests
or activities (71.19%). This communication provided a linkage for
direct contacts specific to research for substantive sharing and
psychosocial support for both the generation and dissemination of
research.
Intramural linkages. Communication with intramural colleagues
focused on dialog and research activities for the generation of ideas
and collaboration on projects. Dialog with campus-based colleagues
provided validation of ideas, intellectual stimulation, and
consultation for further development of the research project. This
opportunity for discussion with colleagues and the psychosocial support
from peers assisted with the generation or further extension of the
research. Use of intramural links for substantive sharing was
dependent on whether the environment supported colleagues in the same
or related area of research interest. For established nurse
researchers with programs of research substantially different from
those of their intramural colleagues, extramural contacts were


254
experiences with faculty with demonstrated credibility in research
activities. Through mentoring or working with these established nurse
researchers, socialization experiences occur for the further
development of research scholars. This was apparent in the
respondents' perceptions of "gratification" on the accomplishments
achieved by their present or former mentees.
Environments of established nurse researchers
Socialization of research scholars alone is not sufficient to
yield the successful research exemplified by established nurse
researchers. Established nurse researchers described their
environments as facilitatory to research. Environmental facilitation
was characterized through environmental expectations, administrative
support, tangible resources, and collegial support.
Expectations in the environments of these researchers were
supportive for research with shared values provided through
institutional missions, requirements for scholarly productivity, reward
systems, and the value of research in the discipline transmitted by
scholarly subgroups. Expectations were further promoted through
administrative support and provision of tangible resources.
Administrative support was demonstrated in workload allocations and
provision of psychosocial encouragement and rewards. School and
university environments offered access to tangible resources and
services perceived as essential for research and for obtaining further
extramural funds for research. The discipline provided support for
research through its scholarly subgroups and funding organizations.
Collegial influences included intramural and extramural linkages in the


CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS
In this chapter, the research findings are presented. First,
findings related to individual and environmental characteristics are
presented by the variables previously specified in Table 6. Following
this, textual data that exemplify successful research outcomes by
Established Nurse Researchers will be illustrated. Finally, validation
of the study findings will be discussed.
The ethnographic method for qualitative data analysis was used for
identification of domains and themes. Findings are presented following
descriptive and ethnographic analysis. Domains were developed as
categories apparent in the verbal and written comments provided by a
majority of the respondents. When domains could be further unified
under a broader principle, themes emerged from the data. Spradley
(1979) has described such themes as "larger units of thought" (p. 186).
Themes were developed based on recurrent ideas apparent in domains to
exhibit broader principles related to the respondents' descriptions on
a selected topic. Presentation of the findings has been organized by
variables of interest as illustrated in Table 7. Data from the
Pre-Interview Profile, On-site Interview, and Organizational
Environment Form have been presented to triangulate the data from the
Established Nurse Researchers under individual and environmental
characteristics. The Perceptions of Successful Research instrument
101


78
The first step toward addressing the research questions was to
develop criteria that would assist in defining the term "established
nurse researcher." Numerous studies have been conducted that examine
scholarly productivity within academic disciplines. These studies have
been primarily descriptive and correlational in nature. Variables of
interest have been diverse and few have been significant predictors of
scholarly productivity across all studies. Established nurse
researchers were assumed to share similar characteristics. Academic
division (nursing) highest degree attained (earned doctorate), and
graduate departmental offerings were considered control variables due
to the criteria for the selection of the environments (leading academic
institutions).
Environments
One of the initial steps in development of the research study was
identification of the environmental context of nursing's most
established researchers. The assumption for this step was that there
is a greater proportion of established nurse researchers at the leading
academic institutions. Research and scholarship are esteemed values in
higher education. Universities generally subscribe to the tripartite
missions of higher education, instruction, research, and service, yet
one of these missions may have more demonstrated value and attention in
a particular institution. In many universities, research has been
given such status. Kasten (1984) states that emphasis on research
enhances the reputation of the institution nationally and
internationally. Attention to the research mission is evident in some


102
Table 7
Organizational Scheme for Presentation of Findings, by Variables and Instruments
Instruiente
Pre-interview On-site Organizational
Variables Profile Interview Envircment PSR
Personal
Demographic
characteristics
Family influences
Family influences
Antecedents and
characteristics
Professional
Education
Postdoctoral work
Clinical specialty
Career age
Work habits
Career influences
Postdoctoral work
Career influences
Positional
Rank and tenure Expectations for
Mobility scholarly
Positicn/titles productivity
Job responsibility
Job-related activities
Student-faculty ratio
Productivity
Weighted measures
of productivity
Early publications
Publication habits
Perceptions of
research success
Network
Journal
subscriptions
Professional
societies
Camunicaticn
with colleagues
Mentorship
Canrunication
with colleagues
Research
Orientation
Influences on
scholarship
Influences on
scholarship
Research habits
Research preferences
Methods for continued
development
Research habits
Contributions
to nursing
Organiza
tional
Primary mission
Institutional
missions
Support for
research
Environmental
characteristics
Geographic
location
Institutional
type/sponsorship
Primary mission
Environxental
Environmental
characteristics
characteristics
Research requirements
Support for research


242
Sponsored research. Funding for research was a resource needed in
accordance with the depth and scope of the project. Monetary support
for the research varied. Small projects could be managed through
school support services for postage, secretarial services, and
microcomputers for data analysis. Intramural grants as "seed money"
were available for pilot studies or studies on a small to moderate
scale with additional computer and secretarial services, research
assistants or equipment for data collection, and library support
accessible in the school and university environments. Projects with
complex methodologies, equipment requirements, and sampling frames
required larger amounts of support, preferably through extramural
funding, to provide for staff salaries and purchase of additional
equipment and services.
School administrative representatives reported on the amount of
sponsored research obtained by the nursing faculty as a whole for
fiscal year 1985-1986. Broad ranges were apparent in the reports.
Intramural grants at the school or university level yielded a median
amount of $43,053.00 for the year with a range from $10,575 to $1.5
million. Biomedical Research Support Grants in the environment were
similarly variable with a median of $3,866.20 for one year and a range
from no funding received to $40,000.00. Extramural funding received in
that same year by the faculty as a whole yielded a median amount of
$269,658.00 with a range from $218,583.00 to $1.2 million.
Established nurse researchers were productive in their acquisition
of intramural and extramural funding for research projects. To
demonstrate minimal productivity of the group, 100 percent had been


28
An overview of the research has been presented in this chapter,
including the research problem and questions, definition of terms,
assumptions and delimitations, the theoretical framework, and the
significance of the study. Chapter II provides a review of related
literature. Research methodology is included in Chapter III with
discussions of the study development, research design, environments and
subjects, instruments, and data collection and analysis procedures.
Research findings are presented in Chapter IV and discussed in Chapter
V. Conclusions and recommendations are presented in Chapter VI.


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
The author was born on July 8, 1951, in New York. She received a
Bachelor of Science degree from Keuka College in 1973 and a Master of
Nursing degree from the University of Florida in 1976. The author has
held a variety of academic and clinical nursing positions in Florida
and Louisiana. Currently, she is an Assistant Professor at the
Louisiana State University Medical Center School of Nursing in New
Orleans, Louisiana.
315


215
Positional variables also influence the research role in the
psychosocial subsystem. Integration of role responsibilities was
described by established nurse researchers related to teaching,
research, and service or administrative activities. The negative
aspect of positional variables influencing roles is competing role
responsibilities which established nurse researchers have described as
hindrances to successful research. One of the themes of successful
research by established nurse researchers was their interest in and
motivation for research which related to both research roles and the
status assigned to research activities.
Status gained through research is promoted through personal,
professional, productivity, and research orientation variables. The
individual researcher has been affected by interpersonal, educational,
and environmental influences on career and scholarly development that
have taken place prior to entry into the system. Integration of
teaching and research roles are necessary for the demonstration of
professional credibility of the faculty in their positions through the
status assigned to them that is derived from nursing research
activities. Through career age, the individual has adopted values for
scholarly productivity and continues to operate within the role
expectations and resultant status received through the reward system of
the university. Further status is obtained through contributions of
successful research outcomes to the discipline of nursing.
Structural Subsystem
Formalized channels of communication, interaction, and job
responsibilities are provided through the structural integrity of the


199
researchers (70%). Spinoff studies based on the successful research
project were also reported as dpne by both the respondents (68.42%) and
other researchers (65%). Only four of the studies (20%) used as
examples of successful research have not resulted in replication or
spinoff studies but one spinoff study was in the planning phase and
another was being considered by the researcher. Another respondent
reported that the example study used had already been a spinoff from an
earlier study with the current example project for successful research
in progress. The fourth respondent who reported no replication or
spinoff studies from the example project stated that other studies had
been done but that they were "less exhaustive."
Productivity with Successful Research
Perceptions of research success were assessed through responses on
Part II of the PSR. Respondents rated the successful research study on
a 30 item, five-point likert scale. Total mean score on the PSR was
72.760 (n=20, s=12.275) with a median of 71.923. The reliability
measure for the 30 scaled items yielded an alpha of .633. Three items
on the PSR were treated as reversals. Descriptive statistics on
individual items and the total instrument are displayed in Table 37.
In the following section, responses to individual items will be
described related to the respondents' perceptions of successful
research along with application of the group responses based on the
four themes proposed by Campbell et al. (1983).


85
Table 5
Selected Characteristics of the Study Sites
Institution
Sponsorship
Carnegie
Classification
(1976)
Highest
Degree A
Offered
Member
+
AAU
Catholic University
Private
Research
University II
D
Yes
Univ. of California,
Los Angeles
Public
Research
University I
*
M
Yes
Univ. of California,
San Francisco
Public
Specialized
Institution
D
No
Univ. of Colorado,
Health Science Center
Public
Specialized
Institution
D
Yes
Univ. of Maryland
Public
Research
University I
D
Yes
Univ. of Michigan
Public
Research
University I
D
Yes
Univ. of Washington
Public
Research
University I
D
Yes

M = Master's D =
Doctorate
**
Doctoral program approved and due to open Fall, 1987
+Carnegie Classification (1976):
Research University I = included as one of the leading 50
universities in receipt of federal financial support for
research and minimum number of doctorates awarded annually
Research University II = included as one of the leading 100
universities in receipt of federal financial support for
research and minimum number of doctorates awarded annually
Specialized Institution = Medical center autonomous from the
parent institution with classification as specialized in
relation to the focus of the curriculum versus a liberal
arts curricular focus
++ ,
American Association of Universities


To James and Helen Kearney,
with eternal gratitude, love, and respect.


106
Table 9
Occupational and Educational Background of Parents of Established
Nurse Researchers
Father Mother
n
%
n
%
Occupations
(20)
(100)
(20)
(100)
Nurse
0
0
2
10
Physician
0
0
1
5
Busine s sman/Busine s swoman
6
30
2
10
Lawyer
1
5
0
0
Teacher/School Administrator
1
5
3
15
Homemaker (as sole occupation)
0
0
9
45
Worker, skilled
8
40
3
15
Worker, semi-skilled
4
20
0
0
Highest Educational Level
(20)
(100)
(20)
(100)
Grammar School or Less
6
30
3
15
Some High School
5
25
5
25
High School Diploma
4
20
3
15
Vocational-Technical Training
1
5
3
15
Some College
2
10
2
10
Undergraduate Degree
0
0
2
10
Some Graduate School
0
0
1
5
Master's Degree
0
0
0
0
Doctoral Degree
2
10
1
5


57
Research preferences
At the individual level, an orientation to or preference for
research has been shown to be related to productivity. Researchers
have found an interest in research strongly predictive of productivity
(Behymer & Blackburn, 1975; Hall & Blackburn, 1975). Walton (1982)
reported research preferences to be significant and demonstrated that
high producers preferred research over teaching while the opposite was
true for low producers. Blackburn et al. (1978) reported that high
producers express more of an interest in research and, although
interest and productivity have been shown to decline with age, the
decrease is only relative with the high producers still more productive
and demonstrating interest in research over the low or moderate
producers (pp. 134-135).
Similar findings have been reported in studies on scholarly
productivity with nursing faculty. Ostmoe (1982) reported that
research and publication interests were significant as were five
measures of motivators to publication: for enjoyment, to advance
knowledge, faculty obligation, professional obligation, and personal
prestige. Of the personal variables related to research productivity
investigated by Pranulis (1984), only the respondent's identity as a
nurse researcher was found to be significantly related to productivity.
Size
Institution and department size have been found to be without much
predictive value; however, communication is facilitated with minimums
of 11 to 15 faculty members and a maximum of 41 faculty members in the


235
Research Question Two
Environmental characteristics of and influences on the established
nurse researchers was the focus of the second research question which
was stated as follows:
What environmental variables do established nurse researchers
identify as being essential to the support and success of
their research and the research process?
Respondents discussed environmental characteristics supportive of
research within a general theme of environmental facilitation. Four
domains were present in this theme as essential to the support and
success of research endeavors, expectations, administrative support,
tangible resources, and collegial support.
Expectations in the environment
The first domain of environment facilitation concerned the
presence of expectations. These expectations were supportive of the
goals and values for the research. Shared values were present among
researchers and work environments through institutional missions,
requirements (expectations) for scholarly productivity, the operation
of reward systems, and the value for research perceived in the
profession.
Institutional missions. Research was a value at the institutional
level and communicated to schools and faculty in the system. Five of
the institutions visited were classified (Carnegie, 1976) as research
institutions (71.43%) and two as specialized health center
units(28.57%). Of the three missions of teaching, research and
service, research had a primary focus as perceived by both established


234
Further evidence of the skills domain was provided by established
nurse researchers through current rank and tenure status and
demonstration of productivity in programs of research. Eighty percent
of the respondents were at the rank of associate professor or professor
with 75 percent tenured at their respective institutions. This
provided evidence of earlier productivity of the respondents to meet
the criteria for rank and tenure. An ongoing commitment to
dissemination of research results was apparent in the weighted measures
of productivity. The group of established nurse researchers
demonstrated articulation skills through publications, presentation of
papers, and receipt of grants for their research projects. The mean
weighted total productivity score for the group was 44.675 for the past
three years and 94.6429 for total careers, demonstrating continued
productivity and use of articulation skills in publications,
presentations, and grant proposals. Writing skills through
publications were significantly correlated with articulation skills
used with paper presentations and grant proposals for both the past
three years and total careers. In addition, 81.21 percent of the
respondent have done off-site consultation with a mean of 3.76
consultations during the past three years and 9.13 in total careers.
Established nurse researchers were also appointed to editorial boards
to assess the articulation skills of others. The mean numbers of
editorial boards the respondents served on were 2.05 for the past three
years and 2.00 for total careers.


206
Infrequently successful research was reported to provide different
explanations for accepted relationships or phenomenon.
As illustrated in Table 41, several significant correlations
(p<.05) were apparent in this subset of questions for importance to the
discipline. As discussed previously, the item on testing competing
theories or models was positively correlated with items relating to
discovery of different explanations or relationships for phenomenon.
In addition, unification of phenomena was related to the discovery of
different relationships. Resolving a controversial issue in nursing
was negatively correlated with with the combination of ideas from
different fields (r = -.5148, p=.0241, n=19) perhaps with the
successful research studies focusing on the discipline itself.
Personal interest and motivation. Campbell et al. (1983) reported
that significant research was based on personal interest and motivation
for the project rather than on a potential for publications or on
research of topics acceptable to the discipline. A theme of personal
interest and motivation was considered with six items on the PSR.
Descriptive statistics on this subgroup are displayed in Table 42.
Interest and motivation for the project were reported by respondents
with successful research. Involvement in research based on the
potential for publications was scored as a reversal with respondents
demonstrating less applicability for this with successful research.
Campbell et al. (1983) reported that expedience or convenience was a
characteristic of "not-so-significant research." Unlike significant
organizational research, convenience with successful research studies


124
Table 16
in Percentages
n
Range
Mean
Standard
Deviation
Median

Program Assignment
%
%
%
Baccalaureate
19
(0- 60)
5.42
15.33
0
Master's
19
(0-100)
44.05
38.10
40
Doctoral
19
(0-100)
30.26
35.53
20
Other
19
(0-100)
35.45
35.45
0
Primary Responsibilities
Teaching
16
(0-100)
46.25
25.53
45
Administration
17
(0-100)
23.83
26.90
10
Research
15
(0- 55)
26.33
16.95
25
Practice
17
(0- 20)
2.65
5.34
0

Assignments to specific programs in the School of Nursing reported
as percentages

Official contract responsibilities reported as percentages
professor (40%). Program assignment was reported as a percentage with
35 percent of the respondents involved in teaching in one program in
the school, 35 percent in two programs, and 30 percent involved in
three programs. The majority of the respondents (75%) were involved
solely in graduate nursing education at the master's (75%) or doctoral
(65%) levels. Primary responsibility in research as reflected in the
faculty contract ranged from zero to 55 percent with a mean percentage
of 26.33 (s=16.95) as indicated in Table 16.


247
preferred to focus on the substantive area. When campus-based
colleagues with similar research interests were available, a
combination of intramural and extramural linkages were utilized for
consultation and collaboration.
Serving as a mentor to others was generally an intramural linkage
which could lead to extramural linkages as either a mentor or
colleague. Established nurse researchers reported a mean of 17.26
individuals (median = 8.00) they had mentored or were currently
mentoring. The value of the experience to the mentor fell into three
themes, gratification, learning, and generativity. The learning theme
provided opportunities for intellectual stimulation, interaction, and
reflection which assisted in the generation of research.
Collegial linkages with dissemination of research findings
Linkages for dissemination of research were a further extension of
those used for generation. Networking activities for substantive
sharing and discussion of scholarly work were utilized by established
nurse researchers. Respondents reported that the most important
activities for dissemination of the research was getting the results to
colleagues and seeking out opportunities for dialog. Presentation of
papers and publication of findings were the major vehicles used for
dissemination of scholarly work. In addition, presentation of papers
was described as an antecedent step to publication so that feedback
obtained following discussion with knowledgeable and interested
colleagues could be considered in further dissemination efforts.
The commitment for dissemination of research findings was an
evident value expressed by established nurse researchers. Discussion


34
eminent scientists she had studied more than a decade earlier had since
undertaken some form of administrative responsibility, from department
chairperson, to head of the institutional unit, to other types of
positions. When re-interviewed these eminent scholars agreed that any
administrative position takes time away from research, yet Roe (1965)
determined that they continued to contribute significantly to the
literature through publication. Fulton and Trow (1974) reported the
principle, "the more, the more" in relation to productive researchers
after discovering that the ones they identified also filled a good deal
more administrative roles along with research and teaching than their
less productive counterparts (p. 68). Gunne and Stout (1980), who
studied publishing patterns of department chairpersons and faculty at
three professorial ranks, reported that mean productivity for
chairpersons was consistently higher for four measures of scholarly
productivity than assistant professors despite the formers'
administrative responsibilities.
Further investigation of this area is needed in academic nursing
with consideration of possible differences specific to the discipline.
Pranulis (1984) reported the following faculty perceptions on the
influence of administrative responsibilities on research activities:
46.6 percent felt they were an inhibitor, 13.6 percent felt they were a
facilitator, and 38.8 percent of faculty in the sample felt there was
no effect (p. 118). When nurses with doctorates were compared with
other academic women in research universities, Lia-Hoagberg (1985)
reported that nurses with doctorates demonstrated greater


42
relationship between nurse educators' level of educational preparation
and all four measures of research productivity. Ostmoe (1982) reported
that faculty members with doctorates in her sample were more prolific
publishers than master's prepared faculty and further identified
differences with respect to type of doctoral degree. In Pranulis'
(1984) study of faculty, both educational background and types of
research by doctoral degree failed to demonstrate significance, but 98
percent of the respondents identified their educational background as a
facilitator of research. Marella (1974) reported a difference between
graduate nursing faculty with doctorates in the sciences and faculty
with doctoral majors in nursing and education; the former group ranked
research as more important, rated themselves more competent in certain
methodologies, conducted more research, and had higher publication
rates.
Crane (1965) proposed that scientists who receive doctoral degrees
from major universities are more likely to be productive and receive
recognition, but this may be due to either contacts with eminent
scientists or to the creation of a "halo effect" from the prestige of
the institution. Further, Crane (1965) did admit that this finding
created an elitist view of scientific activity and the data permitted
various interpretations (p. 714). Long (1978) called for a
reconsideration of the reward system of science and indicated that the
"academic department may recruit on the basis of prestige of the mentor
and the doctoral department because they have insufficient evidence of
the young scientist's productivity" (pp. 905-906). Reskin (1978)


88
Instrument Development
Pre-Interview Profile
The Pre-Interview Profile was designed as a preliminary step to an
individual interview with study participants in order to obtain
background data on personal, positional, professional, productivity,
and research orientation variables on the three research questions.
The relationship of these variable categories has been illustrated in
Table 6. Data were requested on the personal variables of:
chronological age, marital status, number of dependents, gender, race
or ethnic origin, number of siblings and birth order, and place of
birth. Information on professional variables was obtained through
items on educational preparation, postdoctoral work completed, clinical
specialty, career influences, career age, and work habits. Positional
data were obtained through items on academic rank, tenure status, years
at current location, mobility, position or title, primary job
responsibility, job related activities and student to faculty ratios.
Limited information was included on the organization with only the
perception of the primary institutional mission requested. The number
of journal subscriptions was requested as network data and influences
on scholarship as research orientation data. A portion of this
instrument contained a request for quantitative data on number of
publications, papers, grants, awards, editorial boards, and off-site
consultations in specified categories based on both a career total and
the previous three years


35
administrative functions in their positions while other academic women
exhibited greater levels of scholarly productivity. Some of the
differences between these findings may relate to either
non-representative samples or the environments of the nurse doctorates
and the other academic women studied. Fulton and Trow (1974) observed
that the separation between research and other roles, like teaching and
administration, was more apparent in institutions other than elite
institutions where roles were combined.
Age
Investigators have sought to relate scholarly productivity to
chronological age, but the significance of the scholar's age alone has
been negligible. Blackburn et al. (1978) eliminated age as a predictor
of scholarly productivity when stronger statistical tests demonstrated
that age was highly correlated with academic rank, a stronger predictor
of productivity (p. 135). Fulton and Trow (1974) have supported this
association between age and rank while other researchers report age as
a nonsignificant variable (Pranulis, 1984; Walton, 1982). Although
publication rates were found to decrease with age, Over (1982) reported
that previous productivity was a better predictor of future
productivity than age.
Descriptions of productive periods of scholars have been more
useful. Pelz and Andrews (1976) described scientists in universities,
governmental agencies, and laboratories exhibiting a bimodal
distribution of productivity, with peaks at 35 to 44 and 50 to 54 years
of age. This bimodal distribution was supported for medical school


314
West, C. K. (1978). Productivity ratings of institutions based on
publications in the journals of the American Educational Research
Association: 1970-1976. Educational Researcher, ]_(2), 13-14.
Wigfield, A., & Braskamp, L. A. (1985). Age and personal investment in
work. Advances in Motivation and Achievement, _4, 297-331.
Zuckerman, H. (1967). Nobel laureates in science: Patterns of
productivity, collaboration, and authorship. American Sociological
Review, 32, 391-403.
Zuckerman, H. (1977). Scientific elite. New York: Free Press.


198
Efforts toward dissemination of the findings
The respondents reported dissemination mainly through publication
and presentations at local, regional, national and international
conferences and meetings. Other methods for dissemination of
successful research included consultation, classroom teaching, radio
and television media coverage, and the provision of testimony before
legislative bodies.
Efforts toward utilizing the findings
Respondents reported utilization efforts mainly through providing
the empirical data for further replication, validation, or extension.
Providing this empirical data to others was done through consultation,
publication, teaching students, and discussion of findings and their
implications with colleagues and clinicians in practice settings.
Several respondents described the actual use of the findings in their
own clinical or educational practice. Methods of persuasion used to
interest others in using or extending the findings occurred through the
efforts for dissemination. Discussion with colleagues was the main
method used for persuasion. One respondent reported, "my efforts tend
to focus on interpreting my work to interested parties rather than
making them 'buy' my idea."
Utilization of the findings from successful research projects was
demonstrated with replication and spinoff studies. Further research
has resulted from the projects reported by the respondents as examples
of successful research as illustrated in Table 36. Replications of the
studies have been done by both respondents (35%) and by other


CHAPTER V
DISCUSSION
The primary purpose of this research has been to determine
individual and environmental characteristics of established nurse
researchers related to research. In this chapter, the theoretical
model will be discussed in terms of the study findings. Following
this, findings for each research question will be presented to profile
the individual and environmental characteristics of established nurse
researchers.
A Model for Nurse Faculty Research Productivity
Established nurse researchers are influenced by the four
environments of college/school, university, discipline, and society
which in turn affect successful research outcomes and lead to
increments in knowledge for the discipline of nursing. In the
following section, antecedent and outcome variables identified for the
study findings are discussed in terms of their fit in the theoretical
model (Figure 2). For further description of the model, refer to
Chapter I.
Goals and Values Subsystem
The goals and values subsystem influences research and scholarly
productivity through positional, research orientation, and productivity
variables. Positional variables of rank and tenure are placed
primarily in this subsystem as part of the expectations in school
212


71
radical, dominant, paraniod, and intelligent (Cattell & Drevdahl,
1955, p. 259).
Simon (1974) investigated work habits and professional
accomplishments of eminent scientists to look at the relationships
between work habits, scholarly productivity, and success. These
eminent scientists were selected, also by panels of experts, as the 20
most outstanding scholars living in the United States. Findings
revealed a long-term dedication of time and effort to work. Typical
working days ranged from four to 16 hours in length, 200 to 360 days
per year (Simon, 1974, p. 329). Most of the scientists indicated that
they did their writing at home, with approximately 70 percent
indicating their best work was done in the morning hours. In addition,
most of the scientists claimed that they made their most significant
contributions while holding regular academic appointments involving
teaching and administrative responsibilities (Simon, 1974, p. 335).
One of the most in-depth investigations of eminent scientists has
been done by Zuckerman (1967, 1977) with nobel laureates and other
leading men of science. Zuckerman (1977) used a variety of data with
these groups of distinguished scientists to investigate the development
of knowledge and the stratification system of science. Elite
scientists were profiled as sons of upper and middle class professional
men who attended a limited group of elite universities for both
graduate and undergraduate studies. Zuckerman (1977) hypothesized that
this background provided educational and social advantages early in the
career of these scientists. She further observed that "future members


277
PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY: Please indicate your official contract
responsibilities, by percentages.
% Teaching/Instruction:
Student/Faculty Ratio :1
% Administration
% Research
% Practice
% Other
JOB-RELATED ACTIVITIES: Please indicate weekly averages, in hours.
Teaching/instruction (in classroom)
Classroom preparation
Counseling/advising students
Clinical supervision
Clinical preparation
Grading papers
Membership on thesis committees
Chairing thesis committees
Membership on dissertation committees
Chairing dissertation committees
School, college, and campus meetings
Clinical practice
Research activities
Research consultation
Writing, including grants and publications
Community service
Other:
WORK HABITS
On the average, how many hours per week do you work (including work
at home)?
hours
On the average, what percentage of your working time is spent alone?
percentage
C. INSTITUTIONAL DATA
PRIMARY INSTITUTIONAL MISSION: Please indicate what you perceive to
be the primary institutional mission at your institution.
[ ] Teaching/instruction
[ ] Research
[ ] Service
[ ] Other


40
association with scholarly productivity. Behymer and Blackburn (1975)
have proposed that intrinsic variables such as interest in research,
communication with colleagues, and the number of academic journals
subscribed to are better predictors of productivity than extrinsic
variables as with institutional pressure to publish for promotion (p.
12). Bayer and Dutton (1977) found the number of subscriptions to be
statistically significant for all fields investigated but with a
decline at mid-career in some fields and an increase at mid-career in
others.
In studies with nurses, the number of subscriptions to
professional journals has also received support as a correlate of
scholarly productivity. Ostmoe (1982) reported a median of three to
four subscriptions received by her sample (p. 195). Holt (1973) also
found that nurse faculty attitudes toward research and theory
development were positively related to the number and type of
professional journals read regularly.
Early productivity
Publication prior to the doctorate, or early productivity, has
been found to be a significant predictor for scholarly productivity.
Walton (1982) reported that 54.2 percent of high producers studied had
published prior to the doctorate in comparison with 32 percent of the
low producers" (p. 311). Blackburn et al. (1978) have found early
productivity to be a good predictor of future productivity and although
productivity seems to decline over time, high producers continue with
productive output and interest levels. In addition to early


A MODEL FOR NURSE FACULTY RESEARCH PRODUCTIVITY
By
ROSE THERESA KEARNEY
A DISSERTATION.PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1987


187
faculty with research projects at six (85.71%) of the sites. These
specialized research support units within the schools of nursing have
been available in the environment from one to 16 years with a mean and
median age for the units of 8 years (n=5). All six support units have
staff and faculty available to assist school of nursing faculty members
with development and follow through on research projects.
Collegial support
Scholarly peers were an important part of the environment in
providing an intellectual atmosphere. Collegial support was both
psychosocial and substantive in nature. Psychosocial support was often
provided by a particular group of colleagues, not necessarily those
peers with the same research interests. Substantive support came from
colleagues who usually had similar or related research interests and
was provided through discussion, consultation, collaboration, and
especially critique of manuscripts and grant proposals. Off-campus
nursing colleagues provided both psychosocial and substantive support
but these peers usually had a research focus similar to that of the
respondents.
Non-nursing campus colleagues were described by respondents as
interested and allowing opportunities for discussion. Utilization of
opportunities with these campus colleagues was dependent on the nature
of the research and the physical arrangement of the campus with some
colleagues being more accessible than others. Respondents viewed
nursing as commanding the same respect as other academic disciplines,
especially other practice disciplines and the behavioral sciences.


27
schools responded to questionnaires on values orientation and
environmental influences, while background information on the ten
schools was obtained through telephone interviews with a resource
person from each of the ten schools (Pranulis, 1984). "The nurse
faculty member's identity as a nurse researcher was found to be the
individual characteristic significantly associated with her research
productivity" (Pranulis, 1984, p. 208). Pranulis (1984) presented
findings to profile high versus low productive environments using four
schools within her sampling of institutions based on mean productivity
ratings of faculty, further supporting Batey's research. Further
investigation is needed to explore how and why leading nurse
researchers are successful and what environmental variables contribute
to successful research outcomes.
Summary
This exploratory study employed a naturalistic inquiry paradigm
and an organizational systems substantive paradigm to analyze variables
influencing the generation, dissemination, and utilization of
successful research by established nurse researchers at leading
academic institutions. This research has been aimed at yielding
findings concerning (1) individual and contextual factors associated
with scholarly productivity of leading nurse researchers; (2) optimal
academic environments for research, thus extending the work of Batey
(1978) and Pranulis (1984); and (3) strategies used by successful nurse
researchers for effective dissemination and use of research findings,
ultimately leading to knowledge accretion and improved nursing care.


184
how they felt about this recommendation. It was generally reported
that release time was not available at their respective institutions.
Respondents proposed that workload allocations for research involvement
were more effective than release time, especially in settings
facilitative to research. Release time, given for a certain period of
time, was generally viewed as providing a dichotomy for research and
teaching. As one respondent described, "[release time] implies that
you're released from your other duties so that you can do research with
the implication that research isn't part of your job." Respondents
stated that it was more valuable to have "more continual time" but that
release time may be needed in institutions where research is not the
primary mission and where the facilities and workload allocations for
research are not available. In the respondents' academic environments,
administrative support and resources were present with workload
allocations for research and the "freedom" to manage one's time and
pursue research and scholarly endeavors.
Tangible resources
Environments were generally described by the Established Nurse
Researcher respondents during the On-Site Interview as facilitatory
with the resources available or the means to obtain these resources
present in the environments. These resources included support staff
and services, assistance with grantsmanship, consultation, physical
space, continuing educational opportunities or travel money, equipment,
and intramural funding. Environments were characterized from "rich" to
"spartan" but the researchers could obtain resources at the school or
university level, especially for small or pilot projects. Centralized


95
on-site selected by the respondents. Prior to the visit and while at
the site, the Dean or her representative was contacted as a part of
protocol and to gain access to the resource person who would be
responsible for completion of the Organizational Environment form.
Quantitative data were obtained with the Organizational Environment
form for contextual information on the sites.
Stage Three
Stage three consisted of qualitative data collection and was less
formalized for the respondents. Established nurse researchers were
given the opportunity to respond to aggregate findings from the prior
two stages of data collection. Participants were mailed a summary of
the results obtained from the Pre-Interview Profile and the On-site
Interview and asked for a written response by making any notations on
the report, completing short answer questions on a reaction form, or
using any other method they felt was appropriate.
Data Analysis Procedures
Several strategies were used for triangulation of the data. Data
analysis procedures were organized into three major stages to dovetail
with the stages of data collection.
Stage One
Analysis of data in the first stage focused on the two initial
study instruments, the Pre-Interview Profile and the PSR. The
Pre-Interview Profile was used to develop a descriptive profile of
established nurse researchers prior to the On-Site Interview, when
available. Personal, professional, positional, and network variables


81
were listed as the leading schools in all five studies and three
additional schools were common to four of the five studies. No school
was found to be listed in only three of the five studies. Eight
schools were listed in two of the five rankings while three schools
were present in only one of the five listings. The six schools with
the two highest rates of appearance in these rankings were
automatically included. Due to the nature of the ordinal data of the
rankings of the next eight schools, four schools were selected for
study using a table of random numbers. The final list of schools
selected for investigation is displayed in Table 4. It may be noted
that each of these institutions has a graduate division in the school
of nursing. In addition, these institutions meet the 4.6 criteria from
the Gourman Report (Gourman, 1980, 1983) used by Pranulis (1984) in
selection of sites for investigation of nurse faculty research
productivity. Further, although five rating schemes were utilized in
the current research to develop a list of leading schools, all schools
selected were included in the pool from which Wandelt et al. (1985)
selected their six sites with 3 sites common to both studies. These
institutions, selected as sites for investigation of established nurse
researchers, shall be considered as representative of the group of
leading schools rather than associated with any definitive ranking of
reputational or scholarly productivity.


143
authorship. Nine of the respondents (42.86%) had stated that more
than 50 percent of their publications were single authored but three of
these authors reported a recent change in the direction to work of co-
or multiple authorship due to increasing involvement in collaborative
projects. Generally, the preference was based on the nature of the
study with a trend toward larger, more collaborative projects. Ethical
considerations as to assigning credit to members of the research team
or those being mentored was also addressed with collaborative ventures.
Goals for publication. Publication goals, whether by type,
interest area, or quantity was the next area described by the
respondents. One frequent theme was that publications were research or
data-based and directed at refereed journals or, in the case of a large
study or when presenting a large quantity of data, books. In fact, 70
percent described goals and preferences for research publications with
further domains of preferences for clinical specialty,
multidisciplinary, nursing research, or a representation across several
types of journals. The group of respondents was divided in terms of
goals for quantity of publications. Forty percent of the respondents
denied having goals for publication output. Reflective of this
subgroup, one respondent stated,
The number or the quantity or this many or that many
per year doesn't bother me at all. It isn't a worry. .
Perhaps before Associate Professor and tenure, but now
I've got all these projects happening and you'd be hard
put not to publish. So that's a worry I left behind.
This subgroup focused on publications when they had "something relevant
to say." Quality was also a focus in this group. One respondent


10
to dissemination and utilization of knowledge (Havelock, 1971, p.
1-14). The perspective is similarly broadened to an
interorganizational perspective. Communication is a major process
thread in this model.
The "knowledge flow structure" is described as the sequence of
organizational roles and mechanisms through which knowledge is
processed in an organization from input to output (Havelock, 1971, p.
2-28). To look at nursing research, one must consider the
macro-perspective. Havelock (1971) has identified four principal
points of the macro system:
First, the university is the primary source, storage
point, and cultural carrier of expert knowledge in all
fields, basic and applied. However, the university
does not take any active responsibility for diffusing
this knowledge or ensuring that it gets used. Second,
this responsibility seems to reside in the three sectors
of the practice world, the professions, the product
organizations, and the service organizations. Third,
the consumer's power to influence his would-be "helpers"
in the practice-world and the research world is very
limited; this consumer powerlessness is to the detriment
of the system as a whole. However, there are some signs
that the picture is changing for the better. Finally,
there are some integrating forces, some organizations
and individuals who are working for a greater coordi
nation of the total process from the university labo
ratory to the classroom and the hospital bed. (pp. 3-2 3-3)
This description can be applied to scholarly nursing from the research
orientation at the university level, to transmission of knowledge to
students in the classroom and clinical practice arena, to dissemination
efforts with practitioners, and the integrating forces of our leading
nursing professional and scholarly organizations, professional
meetings, and journal publications.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
This chapter contains a review of literature relevant to scholarly
productivity. Scholarly productivity is an issue of concern to many
disciplines in academia and the professions, with some areas studied at
greater frequency. Batey (1981) has stated, "research productivity is
the form through which the conduct and the achievement of the science
of a discipline becomes evident" (p. 54). Publication measures are
often used to quantify research and other forms of scholarly activity.
First, the literature will be reviewed broadly, by selected factors
investigated, and by dependent measures used for assessment. Secondly,
recommendations from literature specific to scholarship in academic
nursing will be presented. Recommendations from previous studies in
the literature will be included throughout the discussion.
Scholarly Productivity
Institutional Productivity
One avenue for investigation of scholarly productivity has focused
on institutional productivity with publication productivity of the
total faculty in a particular department or discipline as the
predominant measure. Methodologies have included reviews of specified
sets of journals for faculty publications in education (Eash, 1983;
West, 1978), speech communications (McCallum, 1984), psychology (Cox &
Catt, 1977), and nursing (Hayter & Rice, 1979; Hayter, 1984).
29


2
help to promote scholarly behaviors and stimulate further development
of nursing knowledge. As Batey (1981) has indicated, "amassing all of
the potential indicators of research productivity can be considered as
a goal to be achieved by any field of study concerned with advancing
its knowledge base either for the sake of that knowledge or for the use
to which that knowledge may be placed" (p. 54).
Development of environments that support nursing inquiry has been
stressed as a goal by the American Nurses' Association Cabinet on
Nursing Research (1985). Brimmer et al. (1983) have stated that
"salient features of educational programs and work settings must be
identified and their relationship to scholarly productivity explored"
(p. 165). Fawcett (1984) has identified the elimination of obstacles
to research as a future hallmark of success in nursing research. The
scholarly influence of leading researchers and the socialization of
neophytes are critical factors to eliminate such obstacles (Fawcett,
1984). According to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
(Copp, 1981), even in a decade marked by competing needs and scarce
resources, nursing research must be viewed and promoted as a priority
(p. 2).
Established nurse researchers have those characteristics that have
led to successful research endeavors. Identifying individual
characteristics considered advantageous by established nurse
researchers addresses the need for role models expressed by Brimmer et
al. (1983). In a study of the environmental conditions for productive
scientists in research and development departments, Pelz and Andrews


114
importance of the topic. One respondent described this importance as
individuals "research[ing] things they really value, not just to
research things that they think are researchable" in order to maintain
the interest throughout the career. Again, this leads to commitment;
commitment of the researcher to a research program.
Perseverance was described but with reference to the research
problem. One respondent described this as researchers who "just won't
rest until [they] find out something." These researchers face
"difficult problems" as part of the research but this perseverance
allows them to "deal with them." One respondent illustrated this
perseverance as the ability to engage in something to the point that
you forget what time it is and can't remember if you had lunch or not."
In the case of essential characteristics, perseverance is the "ability
to stick to long range goals." The "work ethic" was described with
reference to long range goals in the research career of the individual
researcher. Part of perseverance is a "sense of hope." One respondent
described what she called the need for "positive skepticism" as an
essential characteristic of the successful researcher. This positive
skepticism was described as "a certain amount of hope for your study to
pay off." So, part of the commitment becomes a belief in the research
as an essential characteristic. This belief or commitment helps the
individual to feel that there is "no problem that can't be solved" and
of "[not letting] things defeat you."
Creativity was described as an essential characteristic with a
curiosity and "envision[ing] what the consequences are to nursing
science." Creativity continues to be goal oriented for the research


166
of the research purposes. One respondent described this as, "I'm super
organized so that I'll invest an incredible amount of time in setting
something up and then it almost runs itself." Another respondent
described this up front effort similarly and stated, "later I'll follow
my own directions. ., I just act like a kind of robot." Respondents
also described their carefulness and desire for accuracy. As one
respondent reported, "it really helps to keep on top, to be organized,
anticipative, and also handle a large amount of detail." Use of
deadlines and time frames were illustrated by several of the
respondents.
The fifth domain of research habits contained the respondents'
preference for involvement in multiple projects. As reported
previously under personal expectations, the more established nurse
researchers tend to be involved in multiple projects. One respondent
reported, "unless I've got five or six projects going on, I'm just not
happy." Another respondent described how, during the period of one
day, she "may have dimensions of a couple of studies going on."
Although this seems to be a preference, another respondent described
the utility for involvement in multiple projects:
It became quickly apparent to me that if I was going to
do well here, that I couldn't have just one study
happening ... If I've got two or three studies going
that need my attention and my expertise ... it is not
nearly as stressful to me than having one little darling
study that isn't doing or accruing patients as it should
or whatever. I do the best when I have more than one . .
Another respondent described her recent change to working on multiple
projects after having completed a certain number of studies in serial


286
PART II
A. Motivation for the Research
The following is a series of questions to complete about your motivation
for doing the research. Please respond on the basis of a five-point
scale that represents the extent to which each statement applies to the
project. A "0" indicates to no extent and a "4" indicates to a great
extent. Mark "NA" for not applicable. Please keep in mind the same
successful research project used in Part I.
Rating Scale
TO WHAT EXTENT WOULD YOU SAY THAT THE PRIMARY No Great
REASON FOR YOUR RESEARCH . Extent Extent
1. ... was to test previously established
relationships on a new sample of participants
0 1 2 3 4 NA
2. ... was to add a new variable or new
combination of variables to the study of an
established phenomenon 0 1 2 3 4 NA
3. ... was use an improved, more rigorous method
than was previously used to study an established
phenomenon (greater internal validity) 0 1 2 3 4 NA
4. ... was to adopt and use a method originally
developed for use in another field of research.... 0 1 2 3 4 NA
5. ... was to bring together ideas from two or
more fields or subfields of study
0 1 2 3 4 NA
6. ... was to investigate a topic because it was
controversial or in dispute
0 1 2 3 4 NA
7. ... was to test directly competing theories or
models about a phenomenon
0 1 2 3 4 NA
8. ... reflected your personal interest and curiosity
more than acceptability and interest to the
discipline 0 1 2 3 4 NA


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
AvI-l
Linda E. Moody, Chai]
Moody, Chairman
Professor of Nursing
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
Lois J. Malasanos
Professor of Nursing
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
'-U
Associate Professor of Nursing
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
L. Wattenbarger
Professor of Educational
Leadership


6
Scholarly productivity is defined as contributions to nursing
including research activities, publications, presentations, recognition
through awards, positions on editorial boards, and consultations.
Successful research includes activities/outcomes completed that
have received positive acceptance by reviewers and colleagues, perhaps
been cited in work by others, generated positive feedback from readers,
and been recognized as making a major contribution to the field.
Themes are developed in ethnographic analysis as categories
derived from domains to exhibit broad principles from qualitative
responses on a selcted topic. Spradley (1979) has referred to themes
as cognitive principles which are common assumptions about the nature
of the experience of respondents (p. 186).
Assumptions and Delimitations
Assumptions
For the purposes of this study, the following assumptions were
specified:
(1) The development of scientific knowledge and scholarly
productivity by nurses is affected by multiple individual
and environmental factors.
(2) Research and scholarly activity occur in certain established
institutions that can be identified through factors related to
institutional reputation.
(3) Generation and dissemination of knowledge occur within the
tradition of the tripartite mission of research, teaching,
and service of the modern American university.


23
combination programs (Felton & Yeaworth, 1985), is one means for such a
contribution. Felton and Yeaworth (1985) have defined such a program:
a focused, long-term commitment to increasing
research skills in a continuous manner, pursuing
a truly significant problem further and further,
applying procedures for conducting the inquiry,
refining research methods, and modifying ways for
making critical measurements of a variety of
populations, conditions, or situations. (p. 187)
Such a program can be demonstrated by committed researchers, especially
leading nurse researchers. The question may then be raised as to the
characteristics of such researchers and their environments in order to
strengthen the cadre of nurse researchers and promote those
environments conducive to such inquiry.
Based on a review of the literature, an assumption of this study
was that increased research and scholarly activity occur in certain
established institutions that can be identified through factors related
to institutional reputation. The university college/school of nursing
has been selected as the organizational site for the study of
established nurse researchers on the assumption that generation and
dissemination of knowledge occur within the tradition of the tripartite
mission of research, teaching, and service of the American university.
Clark (1984) has advanced the organizational perspective and has
stated, "knowledge is the common substance involved in activities of
the system: research creates it, scholarship preserves, refines and
modifies it, teaching and service disseminate it" (p. 107). Murphy
(1985) has stated, "a university setting can provide an intellectual
community of scholars, physical resources, and the freedom of inquiry


62
effective but researchers and university administrators fail to credit
this effectiveness, necessitating the inclusion of a journal quality
index (p. 74). Straight counts through self report have been used for
cumulative journal articles (Hall, 1975; Hall & Blackburn, 1975), all
publications (Roe, 1965), cumulative and two-year counts for books and
articles (Blackburn et al., 1978), and five-year counts for specified
items (Gunne & Stout, 1980). Over (1982) utilized a straight count for
articles listed in abstract reference volumes. Clemente (1973) used a
weighted scheme developed for the discipline (Glenn and Villemez, 1970)
that allocated 30 points to research or theory books, 15 points to
textbooks, 10 points to edited books, and a range of four to 10 points
to articles specific to individual journals. Holley (1977) weighted
articles by a mean quality index and then adjusted for the number of
years in which productivity could have occurred. Neumann (1979) used a
straight count for books and articles and then divided by the number of
years since receipt of the highest degree to adjust for age of the
scientist. Crane (1965) designated publications as major and minor
with a book or four articles on the same or a related topic assigned
"major" status and four points. Honors received were also considered
by Crane in her measures of productivity. Cameron and Blackburn (1981)
used a weighted measure similar to Crane's and added self reports on
grants received in the past three years, rates of collaboration since
doctorate, and scores from questions on professional associations and
publication network involvement. Fulton and Trow (1974) used a
categorization scheme for a two-year period of professional writings;


138
Consultation. Respondents were asked to indicate the number of
all types of consultation done during the past three years and during
their total career. As illustrated in Table 20, more than 80 percent
of the respondents have done consultation work. The mean number of
consultations was 3.76 (n=19, s=3.34, median = 3.00) for the past three
years and 9.13 (n=15, s=12.34, median = 4.00) for total careers.
Editorial boards. Appointment and service to editorial boards was
reported by respondents for the past three years and for total career
as illustrated in Table 20. Eighty percent of the respondents
currently serve on at least one editorial board. The mean number of
editorial boards that the respondents were appointed to was 2.05 (n=20,
s=1.57, median = 2) for the past three years and 2.00 (n=16, s=1.71,
median = 2.00) for total careers.
Awards and honors. Research awards and honors received by the
respondents are illustrated in Table 20. Fifty percent of the
respondents reported the receipt of at least one such award during
their careers. The mean number of awards received by the respondents
was 0.60 (n=20, s=0.82, median = 0) for the past three years and 1.00
(n=18, s=1.68, median = 0.50) for total careers. It may be noted that
this category was limited to awards and honors for research and not for
other forms of scholarly productivity such as Book-of-the-year awards
or honors received for teaching excellence.
Early publications
During the individual interviews respondents were questioned about
publication productivity prior to awarding of their doctorate and


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08554 7536


APPENDIXES


239
of 561.40 (n=5 schools) and total graduate student enrollment of 260.80
(n=5). For the seven schools with master's programs the mean age was
36.57 years. The mean age of the doctoral programs was 12.50 years
when the six operational doctoral programs were considered but, if all
seven schools are considered, the mean age would be 10.33 years.
Established nurse researchers' reports of student faculty ratios
yielded a mean of 9.29 students. Respondents from school
administration reported ratios with variable bases of comparison but
generally supported the reports of the established nurse researchers
with no ratios greater than 1:10 or smaller than 1:4 faculty to
students.
Workload allocations. Administrative support through time for
research activities was a resource needed for successful research
outcomes. Release time for research activities was not present in the
environments. Rather, established nurse researchers reported that
research was supported through workload allocations using some
combination of the following strategies: (1) consideration of a match
between teaching and research content areas, (2) stable teaching
assignments, (3) freedom to work on scholarly endeavors off-site since
ultimate productivity was the issue rather than office time, (4) relief
from some committee tasks or committee attendance during peak periods
in the research process, and (5) limitations on the number of
administrative committee meetings. Workload allocations were apparent
in official job contract percentages for teaching, research and service
functions with means of 26.33 percent for research and 46.25 percent


211
Summary
Findings from the study instruments have been presented in this
chapter. Individual and environmental characteristics of the
respondents and their academic contexts have been illustrated under
personal, professional, positional, productivity, network, and research
orientation variables. Domains and themes were drawn from the
qualitative data and illustrated. Qualitative and quantitative
findings from the PSR were used to illustrate characteristics of
successful research examples described by the respondents. Established
nurse researcher respondents' reactions to an aggregate report of the
data from the Pre-Interview Profile and the On-Site Interview were
described and used as a validity check for the qualitative findings.
In the following chapter, the findings for each of the research
questions will be described in relation to the study model.


APPENDIX A
NOMINATION FORM FOR ESTABLISHED NURSE RESEARCHERS
INSTITUTION:
NURSE RESEARCHER:
ADDRESS: TELEPHONE: ( )
CRITERIA DEMONSTRATED BY THE NOMINEE: (Please indicate all that apply)
Category A (Must meet all)
Category B (Must meet 2 of 4)
[ ] Has an existing program of
funded research.
[ ] Has provided leadership to
a research team.
[ ] Has published research findings
in the past four years in one
or more of these journals:
[ ] Has presented research
findings at one or more
national/international
meetings.
[ ] Has received one or more
regional/national research
awards:
[ ] Holds current membership in
the ANA Council of Nurse
Researchers.
[ ] Holds current membership in
other professional research
societies:
[ ] been utilized in nursing practice,
academic, or administrative settings
or
[ ] lead to external replications of the
research methodology.
[ ] Holds a doctoral degree.
[ ] Nursing Research
[ ] Research in Nursing & Health
[ ] Journal of Advanced Nursing
[ ] Advances in Nursing Science
[ ] Western Journal of Nursing Research
[ ] International Journal of Nursing
Studies
[ ] Findings from past research studies have:
[ ] Is employed full-time at an academic
institution with an advanced graduate
nursing program.
Dean (signature)
(date)
270



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81,9(56,7< 2) )/25,'$


139
immediately three years following the doctorate as indicators of early
productivity. The mean number of publications prior to the doctorate
was 6.50 (n=20, s=8.179) with a range from zero to 30 and a median of
3.00. During the three years following receipt of the doctorate, the
mean number of publications was 9.50 (n=19, s=10.392) with a range of 1
to 40 publications and a median of 5.5.
Since studies in the literature have supported a positive
relationship between early productivity and total career productivity,
respondents were questioned about the effect of early publications as
an influence on career productivity. Ninety-five percent of these
respondents reported a positive influence. There were three
predominant domains related to early publications: practice, building
on a theme and credibility. The practice domain was clearly
illustrated by one respondent who stated that "publishing is a learned
process where if you have accomplished a few, it takes away the
mysticism of publishing and so you are much more willing to do it."
Another respondent simply described the learning process and stated,
"it detoxifies the mystique about publishing." This practice domain
was furthered through reinforcement and encouragement with the
development of greater confidence in the skills needed for publication
and in their own ability. The second domain of early publications was
that of "building on a theme." This was illustrated by one respondent
who stated, "I had begun charting a course for myself on which I could
build." The third domain was credibility, as demonstrated productivity
and ability for the acquisition of positions, promotions, tenure, and


66
Citation Index has nursing journals listed with variable journal titles
and volumes in each index. In addition, two of the top five journals
rated highest in scholarship by deans (Fagin, 1982), Advances in
Nursing Science and Western Journal of Nursing Research are not
included in the current index. Similarly, credit based on
contributions of multiple authorship is less established in nursing
than in some other disciplines. In an assessment of the views of
nurses in assigning publication credit, Werley, Murphy, Gosch,
Gottesmann, and Newcomb (1981) concluded that nursing had not yet
developed an ethical principle of assigning authorship to contributions
(p. 262). Several years later, Waltz, Nelson, and Chambers (1985)
reported that nurses are in clearer agreement on assignment of
authorship credit than their colleagues in other health fields but that
further discussion is needed in the area of collaboration on research.
Overall, studies on scholarly productivity have used quantifiable
measures to evaluate levels of accomplishments of scholars. Still,
there is an indication of an elusive variability among scientists and
scholars perhaps related to broader issues with the reward system and
values of science.
Eminence
The issue of eminence of both institutions and scholars is germane
to the discussion since this study has been based on the assumption
that increased research and scholarly activities by established nurse
researchers occurs at leading academic institutions. "Prestige in the
scientific community is largely graded in terms of the extent to which


197
Reward system
The reward system for successful research projects was described
as both intrinsic and extrinsic with reinforcement for research.
Intrinsic rewards of personal achievement, "interpersonal rewards with
[the] co-researcher," and making a contribution to nursing were
described related to their nursing careers. Extrinsic rewards in the
immediate university and school environments provided reinforcement for
research activities through promotion, merit salary increases,
intramural funding, and encouragement. Ninety-five percent of the
respondents reported no hindrances from the reward system. The one
hindrance identified was described as occasionally getting "mixed
messages" in terms of what was rewarded in the university environment.
Networking for Successful Research Projects
Communication with colleagues was of interest as a network
variable. Respondents were asked to describe linkages/networks used to
interest others in using or extending the research findings. The major
network opportunity utilized was presentation of findings at meetings
or conferences. Other opportunities used by the respondents included
consultation, dissemination through publication in journals and
organizational newsletters, and public media. Network utilization
reported by the respondents focused on getting the results to
colleagues and seeking opportunities for dialog concerning the
implications of the findings. Membership in clinical specialty and
research subgroups of organizations were identified as useful by the
respondents.


303
4. Would you like to have a minority report included?
[ 1 NO.
[ ] YES. (If so, please indicate below or attach separate page.)
ADDITIONAL COMMENTS: Please include any additional comments.
***
Rose T. Kearney *** 3709-C Simone Gardens *** Metairie, LA 70002 ***


278
D. PERSONAL INFORMATION
AGE years
SEX [ ] female [ ] male
RACE OR ETHNIC ORIGIN
[ ] American Indian
[ ] Asian or Pacific Islander
[ ] Black
[ ] Hispanic
[ ] White
[ ] Other
PLACE OF BIRTH
City State/Province Country
PARENTS
FATHER: Please check one in each column which best describes your
father's occupational and educational background.
Occupation
[ ] Nurse
[ ] Physician
[ ] Other health professional
[ ] Businessman
[ ] Lawyer or engineer
[ ] Member of the clergy
[ ] Military officer
[ ] Teacher or school administrator
[ ] Other professional occupation
[ ] Homemaker
[ ] Worker, skilled
[ ] Worker, semi-skilled
[ ] Worker, unskilled
Highest Educational Level/Degree
[ ] Grammar school or less
[ ] Some high school
[ ] High school diploma
[ ] Vocational-technical training
[ ] Some college
[ ] Undergraduate degree
[ ] Some graduate school
[ ] Master's degree
[ ] Master's degrees (more than 1)
[ ] Doctoral degree (Ph.D., Ed.D.,
M.D., J.D., D.D.S., etc.)
MOTHER: Please check one in each column which best describes your
mother's occupational and educational background.
Occupation
[ ] Nurse
[ ] Physician
( ] Other health professional
[ ] Businesswoman
[ ] Lawyer or engineer
[ ] Member of the clergy
[ ] Military officer
[ ] Teacher or school administrator
[ ] Other professional occupation
[ ] Homemaker
[ ] Worker, skilled
[ ] Worker, semi-skilled
[ ] Worker, unskilled
Highest Educational Level/Degree
( ] Grammar school or less
( ] Some high school
t ] High school diploma
[ ] Vocational-technical training
[ ] Some college
[ ] Undergraduate degree
t ] Some graduate school
[ ] Master's degree
( ] Master's degrees (more than 1)
[ ] Doctoral degree (Ph.D., Ed.D.,
M.D., J.D., D.D.S., etc.)


33
Stout (1980) found that assistant professors studied were found to be
generally half as productive as the associate professors and professors
combined or the department chairpersons (p. 143). In his investigation
of productivity of undergraduate faculty, Hall (1975) stated that rank
was a significant predictor but "more a title than a cause or
consequence of publication productivity" (p. 60). Still, rank has been
found to be significantly related to both cumulative publication
productivity as well as rate of productivity which lends support to
factors other than longevity in the academic setting (Finkelstein,
1984).
In nursing, academic rank has been further supported as a
predictor of scholarly productivity. With respect to research,
Nieswiadomy (1984) found a significant relationship between rank and
four measures of productivity: degree studies, non-degree studies,
published studies, and present studies. Pranulis (1984) reported the
highest level of scholarly productivity for full professors in her
study of nurse doctorates, while Lane et al. (1981) found that the
greatest participation in research activities was by associate and full
professors of nursing. Further support for the significance of
academic rank as a correlate of publication productivity in academic
nursing has been reported by Ostmoe (1982).
Administrative activities
Faculty involvement in administrative activities in studies of
scholarly productivity have been used in a more descriptive than
inferential manner. Roe (1965) reported that the majority of the


172
Table 27
General Organizational Characteristics of the Study Sites
n %
Geographic region
North Atlantic
Midwest
Southern
Western
(7) (100)
1 14.29
1 14.29
1 14.29
4 57.14
Sponsorship
Public
Private
(7) (100)
6 85.71
1 14.29
Carnegie (1976) Classification
Research University I
Research University II
Specialized Unit
(7) (100)
4 57.14
1 14.29
2 28.57
Academic Nursing Unit Organization
School of Nursing
College of Nursing
(7) (100)
6 85.71
1 14.29
When representatives from the dean's office at six study sites
reported on the primary mission as stated at their institution,
responses were similar to those by the Established Nurse Researcher
respondents. Research was again supported as the primary mission alone
in first place (50%), as the primary mission but equally with teaching
(16.67), or in combination with teaching and service (16.67%). Only at
one institution (16.67%) was teaching reported to be the primary
mission.


59
respondents whose specialty was community health nursing participated
most frequently (p. 113). Although the differences were not
significant, Nieswiadomy (1984) observed a trend for faculty prepared
in psychiatric-mental health nursing being involved in a greater number
of research studies than faculty prepared in other specialties. Ostmoe
(1982) reported significant relationships between both dependent
measures of quantity and quality of publications and the independent
variables of doctoral program discipline, doctoral program major,
clinical focus of first master's degree, and functional focus of first
master's degree.
Teaching responsibilities
Teaching and research are integral roles in academia. Fulton and
Trow (1974) found that faculty who are most active in research also
teach nearly as much as those faculty who are less productive (p. 68).
Hall (1975) reported teaching load and class size as nonsignificant
variables in his study of publication productivity of faculty at
four-year colleges. Other studies have demonstrated significant
differences by types of teaching responsibility. Blackburn et al.
(1978) reported that faculty teaching graduate students are
"approximately six times as likely to have produced five or more
articles over a two year period than are those teaching undergraduates"
(p. 136) Hamovitch and Morgenstern (1977) observed that the number of
weekly hours teaching and teaching only undergraduates are negatively
correlated with the number of articles published. When the highest
level of nursing education offered by the employer was considered,


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.

Sally A. Hutchinson
Associate Professor of Nursing
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College
of Nursing and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
May, 1987
Dean, College of Nursing
Dean, Graduate School


55
the research problem, the methodology employed and
the interpretation of the findings. Books, on the
other hand, are a dominant forms of communication
in less developed fields and less important in more
developed fields. Therefore, the relative salience
of books is greater in the social sciences than in
the physical sciences. (p. 94)
Influences of disciplinary preferences can be seen through use of
measures for productivity, with some of the natural and biological
sciences focusing on article and citation counts rather than longer
forms of communication. The influence of and preferences in the
nursing literature is an area for consideration, although definitive
conclusions cannot be made at this point. Nursing Research, the first
journal devoted to scholarship in nursing, was initially published in
1952. Other professional journals devoted to scholarship have become
available predominantly in the past decade and a half. Fagin (1982)
has reported that nursing is currently involved in establishing its
identity as an academic profession with research productivity
intimately linked to success in this endeavor (pp. 67-68). Journal
articles are a major form of the needed communication, but at this
point, relative dominance over longer forms of communication cannot be
specified. Baird et al. (1985) have reported relative means of
importance for the different publication forms. While the differences
appear negligible for the total sample of schools reporting importances
of these publication forms, greater variability is apparent between the
type of institution and the form of publication. Publication
preferences are becoming more apparent in nursing, and will continue to
do so in the near future.


227
continued learning focused on the appreciation for acquiring new
information and skills to build on the knowledge base. As an essential
characteristic for the researcher, opportunities for continued learning
were directed at informational needs and problem solving related to
involvement in current and planned research projects.
Humility, or the ability to recognize when there was a need for
seeking help or consultation, was the third domain of knowledge as
antecedents and essential characteristics for the researcher. The
antecedent sense of humility was directed at recognition of weaknesses
and seeking resources to augment the knowledge base. As an essential
characteristic, there was a need for the knowledge or awareness of when
seeking consultation and collaboration on the research project was
appropriate. Actively seeking peer review for merit of research
activities or findings was a component of this knowledge domain.
Knowledge accumulation by established nurse researchers.
Established nurse researcher respondents contributed a broad background
to the group through their doctoral preparation in a variety of
disciplines. One-third of the group had earned doctorates in nursing.
Respondents generally reported their perceptions of a strong
educational background. Postdoctoral work was accorded a positive
value with the opportunity to broaden or practice skills, solidify
research interests, be relieved of workload responsibilities, gain
experience in research, and/or to work with a mentor. The value of
postdoctoral education was further supported by the fact that 47.62
percent of respondents had done either formalized postdoctoral programs


281
F. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS: Please include any additional comments you feel
are pertinent.
Thank you for your cooperation. Please return the completed questionnaire
in the stamped self-addressed envelope.
** Rose Kearney *** 3614-B SW 29th Terrace *** Gainesville, Florida 32608 **


93
completed by a designated person during or immediately following the
site visit.
Pilot study
In March, 1986, a pilot study was completed at a southeastern
research university as a "rehearsal" for site visits and final critique
of the study instruments. The pilot site was similar to the study
sites as follows: (1) public sponsorship, (2) Carnegie Classification
as Research University I, (3) Doctorate in Nursing as the highest
degree program, and (4) Membership in American Association of
Universities. Refer to Table 5 for comparison with the study sites. A
purposeful sample of three nurse researchers who met the criteria for
established nurse researchers was used to test data collection
protocols with three instruments: (1) Pre-Interview Profile, (2) PSR,
and (3) On-Site Interview Guide. Evaluation of data collection
protocols and instruments occurred in a follow-up group interview with
the three researchers, the dissertation committee chairperson, and the
investigator. Several editorial revisions on the Pre-Interview Profile
and the PSR were discussed. Suggestions for elimination of several
items on the interview guide were followed. The Organizational
Environment form was reviewed by an associate dean and an
administrative assistant from the Office of the Dean for clarity and
completion ability. The main concern raised on data collection was the
length of time for the interview process. Data obtained were deemed
appropriate to the intent of the instruments. Preliminary descriptive
analysis revealed identifiable domains in the data.


64
An additional comment must be made at this point concerning the
use of data bases. Several studies reviewed have been based on data
from specific data bases including the 1969 American Council on
Education Carnegie Commission data (Behymer & Blackburn, 1975;
Blackburn et al., 1978; Fulton & Trow, 1974; Hall, 1975; Hall &
Blackburn, 1975; Hamovitch & Morgenstern, 1977), the 1972-1973 American
Council on Education data (Bayer & Dutton, 1977), the 1977 Ladd and
Lipsett study (Creswell & Bean, 1982, Ladd, 1979; Wanner et al., 1980),
and the 1980 Higher Education Research Institute (Austin, 1984).
Although some of these studies have used secondary data analyses,
subsamples of the data, or complementary studies, the research findings
were based on a similar pool of data.
In nursing, a variety of dependent measures have also been used.
Ostmoe (1982, 1986) considered both unweighted and weighted counts
based single authorship, co-authorship, and multiple authorship for
books, edited books, monographs, book chapters, and articles. Books
were weighted as four points, all other items were weighted as one
point, and then divided by the numbers of authors credited for the
work. To consider further quality of publications, Ostmoe used 10
specified nursing journals and calculated publication productivity in
the same weighted and unweighted manner, based on authorship. Due to
high positive correlations found between weighted and unweighted
quantity of publication scores, (Ostmoe 1986) has recommended the
elimination of weighted counts based on authorship and a greater focus
on quality of the publications (p. 211). Pranulis (1984) adapted the


69
levels of productivity, but also, and more importantly, changes in
rates of productivity occurring after a position is obtained" (p. 435).
Zuckerman (1977) has described a multiplier effect that distinguished
scientists have through attraction of other established scientists and
needed resources which further enhances the standing of the
organization (p. 250).
In a study prepared for the National League for Nursing, Wandelt,
Duffy, and Pollock (1985) used a qualitative approach to describe
components, interactions, and interrelationships in top-ranked schools
of nursing. Purposeful samples of administrators, faculty, and
students were interviewed in groups of six at six top-ranked schools of
nursing randomly selected from a list of the 20 top-ranked schools
identified in an earlier study by Chamings (1984). The investigators
considered a variety of elements influencing reputational status of
these schools. Although research and scholarly productivity of faculty
were not directly addressed in the interview guide, Wandelt et al.
(1985) concluded that perceptions about research were interwoven in
descriptions by all groups as components of the schools of nursing,
especially with reference to the dean, faculty, and curricula (p. 131).
Wandelt et al. (1985) further reported the "value" faculty placed on
publications was seen as an obligation for sharing findings, with
research viewed as contributing to growth, learning, and the quality of
teaching (p. 45).


181
Table 31
Established Nurse Researchers' Perceptions of Necessary and Desirable
Resources for Research Activities
Necessary
Desirable
n
%
n
%

Secretarial Services
13
61.90
6
28.57
Administrative Support
10
47.62
2
9.52
Computer Services
10
47.62
1
4.76

Financial Support or Funding
9
42.86
6
28.57
Access to Research Subjects
9
42.86
1
4.76
Collegial Support
(9)
(42.86)
(10)
47.62
Consultation & collaboration
8
31.10
0
0.00
Mentorship
1
4.76
2
9.52
Libraries
8
38.10
0
0.00
Assistance with Data Collection
(8)
(38.10)
(12)
57.14
Research/teaching assistants
4
19.05
11
52.38
Equipment
4
19.05
1
4.76
Physical Plant *
Offices and laboratories
6
28.57
6
28.57
Time Allocations for Research
6
28.57
3
14.29
Illustrative Media Services
0
0.00
5
23.81

Some respondents reporting resources
for
research
in both necessary
and desirable categories but differentiated by depth or amount of
service.


60
Nieswiadomy (1984) reported that the majority of current research was
being conducted by nursing faculty in schools with graduate nursing
programs.
Partially related to level of students or programs offered is the
influence of clinical teaching for many nurse academicians. Ostmoe
(1982, 1986) found significantly negative correlations between hours of
clinical instruction and publication productivity, highest degree
earned, time spent in research, and level of students taught (p. 202).
Teaching responsibilities have been perceived as hindrances by graduate
nursing faculty (Marella, 1974), with 71.8 percent in another study
reporting teaching responsibilities as an inhibitor to research
activities (Pranulis, 1984, p. 118).
Tenure
Research on the relationship between tenure status and faculty
productivity has resulted in conflicting findings. It has been
observed that once the requirement for productivity for tenure approval
has been removed, output declines (Holley, 1977). Neumann (1979)
reported that tenured faculty had a significantly higher rate of
productivity than non tenured faculty in the majority of graduate
departments studied. Other studies have found that tenure status has
negligible or no predictive power for productivity when other factors
are held constant (Behymer & Blackburn, 1975; Blackburn et al., 1978;
Nieswiadomy, 1984; Walton, 1982). Blackburn et al. (1978) observed
that tenure is not the cause of any decrease in faculty productivity
(p. 139). In fact, Holley (1977) proposed that in high level research


177
described the support as psychosocial and substantive as provided
through intellectual stimulation, the opportunity for thoughtful
critique, and the sharing of ideas and information with a community of
scholars. Professional nursing organizations and specialty nursing
groups were described as vehicles for this support. In addition,
organizations particularly promoting research were identified by the
respondents and included the Council of Nurse Researchers, Sigma Theta
Tau, and the Center for Nursing Research at the National Institutes of
Health.
Validation of efforts. Support through validation of one's work
was described as reinforcement for research efforts and occurred
through peer review, funding and the provision of resources, and with
the extension of theoretical work by others. Dissemination
opportunities also provided for this validation of efforts in research
through the increased number of nursing research journals and
research-focused conferences. This sense of validation of one's
research efforts was perceived as particularly supportive when it
resulted through thoughtful peer review or by peers in their area of
research interest.
Academia
The academic environment provided support for research, mainly
through the expectations for research and the pursuit of knowledge as
part of the academician's role. This expectation was further supported
by the resources available in the setting. Three domains were apparent
for support in academia, expectations, facilitation through funding and
resources, and the collegial atmosphere.


162
their perceptions of trust from administration but also described the
inherent accountability in that evidence of productivity was expected
from administration, colleagues, and themselves.
Time management. Strategies for time management used by
respondents included using blocks of time and creating the time for
research activities. Concentration and devotion to the project were
also provided for by using blocks of time. One respondent described
this as, "I prefer to work intensively for periods of time so I don't
lose my thinking because otherwise it takes me so long to catch up."
Another respondent reported, "every chance I get, I take the block of
time to immerse myself." These blocks of time were usually a minimum
of one day in length and were devoted to the idea generation and the
writing phases of the research process. Working on the project for
only short periods was reported by one respondent but the pervasive
attitude was that of commitment to an ongoing effort.
Respondents used several strategies for making time for research
including adding the time rather than eliminating other professional
activities, placing limits on selected professional activities, setting
and respecting priorities, and using time efficiently. In the area of
adding time, respondents described working on weekends, in evenings, on
vacations, and during sabbaticals. One respondent stated, "I basically
consider that I'm working a six-day week and that may mean I work at
home one of those days." Another respondent reported, "If I'm wanting
to meet a deadline, I will work through until I meet my deadline
regardless of how many hours it takes me to do that." And still


130
dissemination were mainly of focus. One respondent described her
personal expectation for dissemination "not as notches on your CV or
notches on your gun belt" but rather as by-products of the research and
"going as far as you can with [the research]." Another respondent
described such continual research activity as providing no time for
personal expectations but rather just a part of the entire process.
Publication was described as the major forum for dissemination followed
by presentations to professional groups. The personal commitment to
the research program continued to be evident in the respondents'
comments. Funding related to generation of the research, however,
productivity was described more in relation to the application for
grants rather than restricted to the receipt of funds. Dissemination
of results following completion of funded research was described as an
obligation for the sharing of knowledge.
Environmental expectations. Respondents further discussed
expectations at their institutions, of their academic colleagues, and
the profession in general. Expectations of the institution were
similar to those of the established nurse researchers with respondents
describing the main expectation for research related to receipt of
funding and dissemination of the findings. Several respondents
described junior faculty positions that they had held previously where
they were involved in research and publication while being socialized
into the faculty role, in accordance with the expectations of the
institution. Funding was viewed as an institutional value related to
"paying your own way", giving visibility to the university, and


291
D. Career Influences
You reported career influences of:
Would you please elaborate further on these?
You reported research success influences of:
Please elaborate further.
E. Other; Opportunity for clarification of specific items
1. Pre-Interview Profile
2. Perceptions of Successful Research
III. Perceptions of Scholarly and Research Orientation
A. Perceived Importance of Research, Teaching, and Service
Consider the 3 general university missions
(instruction/teaching, research, and service).
How would you rank these activities (1-2-3) in terms of
expectations at your institution?
Instruction/Teaching
Research
Service
B. Preference for Research, Teaching, and Service
Now, rank your own preference for these 3 activities.
Instruction/Teaching
Research
Service
C. Congruence of Expectations
What importance do these two rankings have for the nurse
researcher?


179
and could apply for this funding as a supplemental salary while
conducting research or doing consultation work for the school. In
another setting where the faculty was on 12 month appointments, the
summer semester had little or light teaching responsibilities and was
an opportunity for faculty to devote additional time to research
efforts.
Tangible resources included staff and support services, research
support units in the'school of nursing, and additional environmental
resources. As one respondent described the need for such resources in
academia, it was reported that "the difference between the university
where [resources] are available and [the university] where they are not
. . show up in the data." Resources for research will be discussed
later in this section.
Collegial atmosphere. The third domain of support for research in
academia identified in the respondents comments concerned the
collegial atmosphere. Academic colleagues provided intellectual
stimulation, learning experiences, and opportunities for collaboration
and consultation. This was described by one respondent as "an openness
to exchanging ideas and sharing information." Another respondent
stated that "most important [in academia] is the cohort of other people
that are doing [research]."
Resources for research
Respondents were asked to list support services and other
resources necessary or desirable for research activities. Major
resources reported were secretarial services, administrative support,


300
SUPPORT SERVICES: Please indicate which support services are available for
faculty use in research (non-instructional) activities.
(Check all that apply)
[ ] Computer services
[ ] Microcomputers available for research
[ ] Faculty accounts for research
[ ] Student accounts for research
[ ] Consultation (design)
[ ] Consultation (statistical services)
[ ] Continuing education (workshops)
[ ] Financial support
[ ] Library support (computer searches, inter-library loan policy)
[ ] Physical/office space
[ ] Release time from meetings
[ ] Release time from instructional activities, describe:
[ ] Research assistants
I ] Research coordinator
[ ] Sabbatical leaves
( ] Secretarial services
[ ] Supplies
[ ] Other:
SPONSORED RESEARCH: Please indicate aggregate amounts of sponsored research
dollars received by faculty during Fiscal Year 1985-86.
$ .xx Intramural funds $ .xx Extramural funds
BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT: Has your school or college been awarded
eligibility for Biomedical Research Support Grant funds in the
past five years?
[ ] Yes. If so, how much has been awarded during this period?
$ .xx (Years: )
[ ] No
RESEARCH SUPPORT UNIT: Does your institution have a Center or Office for
Nursing Research?
[ ] Yes. If yes, please identify the structure below and complete
Part B with information pertaining to your unit.
[ ] Office of Nursing Research
[ ] Center for Nursing Research
[ ] Other:
l ] No.
Please proceed to PART C.


248
occurred through informal discussion or research presentations in the
researcher's immediate school or university environments. In addition,
intramural colleagues were frequently consulted for initial critique on
papers and manuscripts. Extramural dissemination to colleagues and
clinicians focused on the more formalized presentations, publications,
or specific contacts with colleagues to discuss research. Further
opportunities for dissemination through invited presentations, seminars,
or consultations were seen with successful research following initial
dissemination where positive feedback was received from colleagues or
reviewers. "Name reception" was described related to dissemination as
the researcher became known in the field. This extramural recognition
of research accomplishments resulted in further dissemination
opportunities or work on related efforts in organizations, for
consultations, or in peer review for publications or funding. When
applicable, dissemination was directed to health care consumers in
society through television or radio media or in personal or group
discussions.
Utilization
As described by Fawcett (1984), there are two dimensions of
research utilization. First, implementation of the findings in
practice. This was a goal for the research as expressed by established
nurse researchers. Secondly, utilization of research occurs with
further research through replications and extensions of the work.
Extension of the work was the basis for programs of research especially
in the direction of clinically-relevant research and/or research
providing further specificity to the knowledge base for practice and


24
necessary for creative scientific work" (p. 104). Further in the area
of research, Havelock (1971) has proposed that the university-based
professional school is the "key-bridging institution between research
and practice" (p. 3-20). Gortner (1983) has observed that "the modern
university is the mainstay of important scientific activity in many
fields" but nursing's progress as an academic discipline in the next
decade is dependent on the university to house and nurture the
fledgling science of nursing (p. 7).
Attention to the academic environment has implications for human
and physical resource utilization as well as further development of the
body of knowledge in nursing. Through greater knowledge of the
individual and environmental characteristics of scholarly productivity,
academic environments and individual faculty members can be developed
for greater scholarly productivity. Academic nursing administrators
will be provided with an increased understanding of how individual and
environmental variables influence the research process and the success
of nurse researchers, providing further implications for faculty
evaluation and development. The influence of administrative functions
and scholarly productivity is one consideration. In a study comparing
the professional activities of nurse doctorates with other academic
women, Lia-Hoagberg (1985) reported that nurse doctorates spend less
time on research and scholarly writing, publish fewer journal articles,
and present fewer papers at professional meetings (p. 158).
Another consideration for academic nursing administrators is the
focus of research currently being conducted in relation to the funding


292
IV. Perceptions of Individual Characteristics Related to Success as a
Nurse Researcher
A. Characteristics
1. What are the most valuable attributes (antecedents) for
research and scholarship?
2. What characteristics do you feel are most essential for
a nurse researcher or scholar?
B. Perceived Expectations
What are your own personal expectations for scholarly
productivity?
V. Perceptions of Environmental Characteristics which Promote Nursing
Research and Other Forms of Scholarly Productivity
A. Environmental Characteristics
1. What environmental characteristics most effectively promote
nursing research activities?
(a) Generally, in the profession
(b) In academia
(c) In service agencies
2. How would you describe the environment in which you work?
B. In Batey's (1978) study on the structure and process of
productive research environments at university schools of
nursing, she recommended elimination of use of the term "release
time."
1. How do you feel about this recommendation?
2. Could the term "release time" affect faculty perceptions of
investigative activities as inherent to the faculty role?
3. Lack of time is frequently cited as a barrier to research,
yet, productive nursing researchers arrange their priorities
to include scholarly activities. How do you make time for
research as part of you faculty role?


257
were reported primarily through dissemination of findings in
publications, paper presentations, dialog with colleagues and
practitioners, and research consultation and collaboration.
Established nurse researchers exemplified these hallmarks for
success in research and communicated these values to others. Their
influence on other nurses will continue to provide further extension of
these hallmarks through the transmission of goals and values for
research and the socialization of research scholars.
Recommendations and Implications
Recommendations for enhancing future successful research outcomes
in nursing are presented in these areas: administrative roles,
facilitatory environments, funding priorities, education, and further
research. These recommendations are similar to those proposed by
others in the discipline (American Nurses' Association Cabinet on
Nursing Research, 1985; Batey, 1978; Brimmer et al., 1983;
Lia-Hoagberg, 1985; National Center For Nursing Research, 1986;
Pranulis & Gortner, 1985; Stevenson & Woods, 1986).
Recommendation One: Administrative roles
Academic deans and other administrators facilitate faculty
members' development of and involvement in programs of
research through workload allocations, provision of resources
targeted for research, and support for continued development.
Administrative roles must be directed at the support of research
and scholarly productivity through general managerial characteristics,
workload allocations, and support for successful research outcomes.


164
Organization of
the respect for time
"avoid the trivial",
meetings efficient."
activities and efficient use of time were part of
and the priorities set. Some respondents stated,
"don't sit around wasting time", and "keep
Another strategy used by the respondents is the
integration of teaching, research, and service as part of their faculty
roles. This was described by one respondent in the following manner:
The secret to my still being alive is integration
and what I try to do is to integrate many elements
of my faculty role to the extent I can. . And I
really try to use what I study as a vehicle for
what I teach and what I teach as a vehicle for
furthering what I study. . So a block of time
is multi-purpose time.
The domain of ongoing activity or effort involved a sustained
engagement in the research and the mental work over time. One
respondent described her activity:
I try to do something every day that's pushing [the
research] forward. . so that I feel like I'm always
doing something even if it's [pushing] the trivial
parts of it forward. That serves the purpose also
of keeping my mind on the project so that when I get
those blocks of time, I can get into it because to
me it's not purely time, it's time as interpreted by
available energy level when you've got that time.
Another respondent reported, "the research is so intertwined that I
probably do something for the research every day but chunks of it are
visible and chunks of it are totally in the data."
This ongoing nature related to the mental processes as well as
other supportive activities like collecting articles, reading,
maintaining an "idea file" for other projects, and writing. Although
the research was always ongoing, respondents' styles differed in how
they implemented this continued activity. One example of this related


134
productivity for the group was 44.675 (n=20, s=28.946) for the past
three years and 94.643 (n=14, s=52.744) for total career. When the
productivity measures were divided by career age to adjust for
differing lengths of academic careers, the mean total productivity for
the group was 4.267 (n=20, s=3.939) for the past three years and 8.424
(n=14, s=5.736) for the total career. Following application of Pearson
correlations on weighted productivity measures divided by career age,
13 of the 15 measures had significant positive correlations with p <
.05 as indicated in Table 19. For the past three years and for total
career, publication productivity yielded significant correlations with
both paper presentation and funded productivity. Three-year funded
productivity was significantly correlated with three-year measures for
publications and papers presented (r=.5733, p=.0082, n=20 and r=.8286,
p=.0001, n=20, respectively) but total funded productivity correlated
with career total weighted publications (r=.6647, p=.0036, n=17), not
papers presented. The range of total weighted productivity for the
group was 2 to 113 for the past three years and 18 to 187 for total
career.
Other productivity: Consultation, editorial boards, awards and honors
Other forms of productivity reported on the Pre-Interview Profile
were used to further illustrate the respondents' scholarly output.
Productivity in the forms of official off-site consultations,
appointment and service on editorial boards, and research awards and
honors received are illustrated in Table 20.


32
become increasingly concerned with scholarly productivity, but with
variable definitions and applications of scholarly products (Baird et
al., 1985).
Variables studied as correlates of individual scholarly
productivity have been numerous. Representative studies and findings
are included in the following section describing common variables
investigated.
Academic rank
Academic rank has frequently been found to be a significant factor
related to scholarly productivity (Finkelstein; 1984; Hall, 1975;
Walton, 1982). Findings in the literature are inconclusive as to
whether rank serves as an antecedent, a consequence, or an intervening
variable despite this significant association. Fulton and Trow (1974)
found an increasing tendency for research activity, the higher the
academic rank with "the most crucial difference between the temporary
rank of instructor and the career rank of assistant professor" (p. 50).
These researchers hypothesized that instructors simply have no time for
the research they wish to do when rank was considered with respect to
research orientation (Fulton & Trow, 1974, p. 51). Behymer and
Blackburn (1975) found that academic rank was the third most
significant predictor of rate of article production but when a more
powerful statistical test was used, Blackburn et al. (1978) indicated
that rank was the most significant predictor of productivity. Other
studies have focused on the three professorial ranks, with significant
positive correlations reported with scholarly productivity. Gunne and


Table 41
Correlation Matrix for PSR Items cn Inportanoe to the Discipline
Item
5
6
7
10
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
5
1.0000

6
-.2765
1.0000
7
.2172
.3088
1.0000
10
-.2623
.1324
.1084
1.0000
21
.2905
.2698
.6108**
-.0922
1.0000
22
.2134
.0580
.4588*
-.0919
.2659
1.0000
23
.2145
.3080
.6012**
-.0720
.2279
.6789**
1.0000
24
.2557
.0534
.0811
-.3453
.1170
.4787*
.5331*
1.0000
25
.0138
-.1061
.1271
.1874
.0140
.4140
.3340
.0677
1.0000
26
.1120
-.0893
.4712*
-.1684
.4400
.2258
.1026
-.0824
-.0623
1.0000
27
.3567
.0325
.5379*
.2779
.1855
.3790
.5637*
.2839
.0013
.2116
1.0000
28
.4137
-.3563
.2494
-.2661
.2752
.0477
-.0537
-.0510
-.0140
.2126
.0315
1.0000
29
.5148*
.5517*
.1374
.0912
.0847
.0150
.2870
.3661
-.1165
.1035
.2696
-.3529
1.0000
30
-.1425
.4167
.0636
.2459
.1199
-.2424
.0719
.0058
-.2429
.0055
.0842
.0387
.4459

Speanran correlations significant at p < .05.
**
Speaman correlations significant at p < .01.
207


9
Substantive Paradigm
The substantive paradigm supports the dimensions and axioms of
naturalistic inquiry and is an adaptation of two models (Havelock,
1971; Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979) based on the production of scientific
knowledge and organizational theory. Each of these models will be
described prior to the presentation of the theoretical framework
adapted for this study.
Knowledge flow structure
Havelock (1971) has used a system and process model to depict an
organization with subunits containing the major concepts of role and
linkage. The organizational subunit contains a knowledge source and
through linkages between roles and linkages among subunits and
organizations the processes of dissemination and utilization flow to
the knowledge user. At each linkage point in the knowledge flow
system, a knowledge flow transfer process takes place for both a
micro-perspective (within the individual) and a macro-perspective
(among individuals and organizations) (Havelock, 1971, p. 1-13).
Utilization is considered as a process within the individual using the
concepts of personality factors, cognitive and attitudinal variables,
and the various specific characteristics of people which have been
found to be related to the receptivity of new knowledge (Havelock,
1971, p. 1-12). Then as a building process, the two-person transfer
situation occurs with two persons, each with their own separate
identity and set of motives, resistances, values and understanding;
differences between receiver and sender constitute potential barriers


LIST OF FIGURES
Page
1. Organizational model of knowledge development at a university
school/college of nursing 18
2. A model for nurse faculty research productivity 213


8
complexity, heterarchy, holography, interdeterminacy, mutual causality,
morphogenesis, and perspective, with the following axioms:
(1) Multiple constructed realities should be studied holistically in
order to achieve a level of understanding;
(2) Interaction and influences occur between inquirer and
respondent;
(3) The aim of inquiry is to develop a model of knowledge using
working hypotheses with individual cases;
(4) Multiple interacting factors and processes provide the nature of
explanation; and
(5) Inquiry is value-bound, influenced by the inquirer, inquiry and
substantive paradigms, society, and the interaction of these
factors (pp. 85-86)
Axioms of naturalistic inquiry are relevant to the investigation with
the assumption that the development of scientific knowledge and
scholarly productivity by nurses is affected by multiple individual and
environmental or organizational factors. Pranulis (1984) investigated
the functional significance of selected aspects of the research
environments at university schools of nursing. Further, Pranulis
(1984) assumed there was "an interaction between the person and the
environment that is influential in molding the person's identity and
subsequent behavior" (p. 11). In an earlier study, Batey (1978)
investigated research development in university schools of nursing
through description of organizational structure and process.


135
Table 18
Measures of Productivity for Established Nurse Researcher Sample
Weighted Measures
Weighted Measures
Divided by
Career Age
n
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
* a
Publications
Past 3 years
20
19.3500
12.7580
1.6952
1.4125
Total (Career)
18
53.1111
32.8864
4.1395
2.2462
b
Paper Presentations
Past 3 years
20
17.4250
16.5237
1.8416
2.1766
Total (Career)
15
34.6333
27.6918
3.4114
3.5893
c
Funded Grants
Past 3 years
20
7.9000
5.9196
0.7299
0.7238
Total (Career)
17
12.4118
9.2942
0.9746
0.4963
d
Total Productivity
Past 3 years
20
44.6750
28.9456
4.2668
3.9392
Total (Career)
14
94.6429
52.7437
8.4235
5.7356
a .
Partial Publication
Productivity = (#
books X 4)
+ (# book chapters
or monographs) + (#
refereed journals
X 2) + (# non refereed
journals)
b
Paper Presentation
Productivity = (# international papers X 2) +
(# national papers
X 2) +
(# regional papers) + (# all other
papers)
0
Funded grant productivity = (# federal grants X 3) + (# national
grants X 2) + (# local extramural grants) + (# intramural grants)
d
Total Productivity = a + b + c


245
subscriptions as a means of remaining "current" in their substantive
area and for idea generation and development. The mean number of
journals subscribed to by the group was 5.84. Reading was a method of
continued development for keeping up with the substantive area and for
the development of ideas. In addition, research-based refereed
journals were the publication vehicle preferred by established nurse
researchers for the communication of their own research findings.
Membership in professional societies provided a link to scholars
and colleagues in the discipline. All respondents were members of
Sigma Theta Tau, the International Honor Society of Nursing. Eighty
percent of respondents were members of the American Nurses' Association
Council of Nurse Researchers which provided a link with other
researchers in the discipline and demonstrated a preference for a peer
group focused on research. The scholarly contributions of the
respondents provided a basis for the fact that 55 percent were Fellows
of the American Academy of Nursing. Respondents described shared
expectations and evident preferences for research with these scholarly
subgroups in the discipline. Along with these three scholarly
subgroups, respondents used membership in other professional
organizations and specialty groups for intellectual stimulation,
discussion, and substantive sharing. In their descriptions of valuable
network activities for the nurse researcher, organizations in the
discipline were frequently used for initial contacts to expand and
maintain a network of peers.
Most respondents described past experiences when they had been
mentored (mean = 3.30), often during educational programs. Most of


156
Contextual influences on research success. Two-thirds of the
respondents described contextual influences for research success
including educational preparation, research opportunities,
environmental factors, and reward systems. Educational influences
occurred at both the undergraduate and graduate levels with the end
result of a strong preparation and appreciation for research. Research
opportunities for the respondents occurred in practice or as a result
of a special programor conference attended which led to the
development of further interest. Environmental influences fell into
the areas of normative expectations for research instilled early in the
academic career and the reward system in place for reinforcement. As
one respondent stated, "Let's face it. I think a major motivating
factor is the reward system, the expectation system .... So external
sanctions were in place here. Rewards and sanctions."
Personality influences on research success. Personality factors
related to research success were described by 47.62 percent of
respondents and included feelings of boredom and stagnation, inner
motivation, enjoyment of and desire to do research, disillusionment
with role models, the "joy of achievement", pride, and the need for
credibility. Other personality traits included intelligence, thinking
analytically, and "giving primacy to career development." Basically,
during the interviews, respondents supported earlier written responses
on influences but demonstrated more interpersonal and family influences
related to career influences and educational and environmental factors
as influencing their research success.


180
computer services, financial support, subjects, collegial support,
libraries, assistance with data collection, physical space, time, and
illustrative media services as illustrated in Table 31. Additional
essential and desirable resources listed by a few of the respondents
included human subjects committees, travel funds, reward structures,
good ideas, and electronic mail systems. Resources listed were related
to the respondents' preferences for particular research types and
methodologies, for example, research assistants versus physical
measurement equipment for data collection and mainframe computers
versus personal computers for data analysis. The scope of the research
was described related to other resources needed like extramural
funding, office space for research assistants and team members, and
secretarial services. Several respondents described how the research
may start as a pilot or small study with intramural funds but
extramural funding becomes necessary with larger samples, extensive
designs, and extension studies. These differences in degree of
resources were particularly apparent with secretarial services,
funding, and physical space. Resources described as most useful by the
respondents were those perceived as essential.
Environmental Characteristics for Research at Study Sites
Respondents were asked to describe their respective academic
environments during the interview. Environments were positively
portrayed in the respondents' descriptions with a theme of
environmental facilitation and the domains of scholarly expectations,
administrative support, tangible resources, and collegial support.


173
Table 28
Graduate Nursing Degree Offerings at Study Sites
Degrees%%
Master's degrees in Nursing (7)
Master of Nursing (M.N.) 1
Master of Science (M.S.) 3
Master of Science in Nursing (M.S.N.) 2
Both M.N. and M.S. 1
(100)
14.29
42.86
28.57
14.29
Doctoral degrees in Nursing
Doctor of Nursing Science (D.N.Sc.)
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
Both D.N.Sc. and Ph.D.
(6)
1 16.67
4 66.67
1 16.67
Table 29
Characteristics of Academic Nursing Units
Standard
n
Mean
Deviation
Median
Program ages, in years
Baccalaureate
7
57.43
11.36
60.00
Master's*
7
36.57
10.08
27.00
Doctoral
6
12.50
6.53
9.50
Program sizes
Faculty head coug{
6
107.83
50.85
113.00
Students, F.T.E.
Undergraduate
5
295.60
214.27
258.00
Graduate
5
260.80
149.27
226.00
Postgraduate
1



Descriptive statistics based on six study sites with doctoral
programs in operation.
**
Respondents were requested to report full time equivalent enrollment


203
about a phenomenon) and three items to negate previously accepted
relationships. Therefore, the successful research projects rarely were
based on research to further test previously established relationships.
Items identified as related to successful research
Respondents reported a relationship to successful research
projects on 10 items with means of greater than or equal to 2.45 and
medians of 3.00 or greater, excluding reversals. These 10 items were
concerned with the development of new knowledge through new variables
or variable combinations, improvements in methodology, personal
interest, significance of research findings, discovery of the subgroups
of a particular construct, and clarification and applicability of a
problem to nursing practice, education or administration. Although
these 10 items referred to the development of new knowledge, no
significant correlations were revealed between items.
Themes for successful research
Campbell et al. (1983) proposed four themes of significant
organizational research, (1) methodological rigor, (2) importance to
the discipline, (3) personal interest and motivation, and (4) real
world implications. Respondents' perceptions of successful research
were assessed related to these themes.
Methodological rigor. Campbell et al. (1983) proposed a theme of
methodological rigor for significant research through systematic
argument, sound and complex methods, and use of variables that were
quantifiable as opposed to expedience which characterized the
"not-so-significant research" (pp. 105-106) Five items on the PSR


265
generation, dissemination, and utilization of nursing research. This
is a time of development of effective research habits focused on
environments for optimum productivity, time management, ongoing
research activity, and being methodical. Mentors can assist the
neophyte researcher in establishing priorities for research and methods
for time management. Involvement in collaborative projects can also
assist in the development of knowledge and skills by the neophyte
researcher and in the division of labor in research activities.
This critical period in the development of the research scholar is
the time for establishing the program of research and obtaining the
resources to support it, as with intramural and extramural funding and
collegial networks. Support for projects is sought through new
investigator grants and intramural grants. Acquisition of small
research grants and work with mentors in the area will allow the
neophyte researcher to develop the initial "track record" of the
research scholar. Development of both intramural and extramural
psychosocial and substantive linkages extend the supportive network of
the research scholar for generation, dissemination, and utilization of
nursing research. In the work environment, expectations for research
accomplishments are demanded and, at the same time, facilitated through
psychosocial encouragement and support, realistic workloads, and stable
teaching assignments in the area of research preference.
Research scholars. The term "research scholar" is used here to
connote the individual's ongoing activity in a program of research for
the generation, dissemination, and utilization of research outcomes.
Nurses with programs of research must also be encouraged in continued


3
(1976) reported that "effective" scientists, although similarly
motivated, differed from their less effective colleagues in the styles
and strategies with which they approached their work (p. 7). The
testimony of established nurse researchers may reveal their individual
styles, strategies, and environments which, ultimately, affects the
quality and type of nursing care to health care consumers.
Research Problem
The primary purpose of this research has been to determine
individual and environmental characteristics of leading nurse
researchers that are related to the generation, dissemination, and
utilization of successful research. For the purposes of this study,
nurse researchers in academic nursing settings are considered
established nurse researchers following nomination by their respective
Dean based on their contributions to the discipline of nursing. The
primary research question for this exploratory investigation was as
follows:
What are the individual and environmental characteristics of
established nurse researchers that are identified as important to
scholarly productivity that demonstrate an influence on the
generation, dissemination, and utilization of successful research?
Research Questions
Specific questions for this exploratory study were as follows:
(1) What precursors (antecedents) and individual characteristics
do established nurse researchers identify as contributing
to and influencing successful research outcomes and other
scholarly endeavors?


CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
In this chapter, the research methodology is presented. First,
development of the study is described, including a description of
environments. Secondly, the research design is described with a
discussion of subjects and instruments, followed by a discussion of
data collection and analysis procedures used to address the research
questions.
Study Development
To address the research questions, several exploratory research
methods have been used for triangulation of data. Fawcett (1984),
Sweeney (1985), and other nurse scholars have advocated multiple modes
of inquiry and have proposed that the nature of the research questions
and the phenomena to be studied dictate the methods to be used for the
research design and methodology. Illustrating the progress made in the
design and analysis of qualitative research, Miles and Huberman (1984)
have stated: "the expansion of qualitative inquiry continues, advanced
in no small way by the reformulations of methodologists who originally
took 'hard nosed,' quantitatively oriented approaches to problems of
generating valid knowledge; they have now shifted substantially toward
the endorsement of content-embedded qualitative inquiry" (p. 15).
Miles and Huberman (1984) further support multimethod approaches in
qualitative inquiry.
77


144
reported her perception that "setting goals like that compromises
quality." The focus on research providing opportunities to publish was
apparent. One respondent stated,
the important thing is doing the work and then exactly
how much comes out of that research depends on the
intellectual nature of the material and whether it
breaks down into a couple of different discrete pieces
or one single article.
Sixty percent of the respondents did report some goal but these
were frequently ranges or a minimum number. The smallest goal reported
relative to quantity was one article every other year and the highest
was one article per month. In addition, one respondent stated a goal
for 100 publications by a specific chronological age. The focus was on
actual publications in print. As with the previous subgroup where
respondents denied specific goals, the respondents who did state
publication goals in this subgroup also indicated the opportunities to
publish based on the research.
Network Variables
Only two network variables were of interest with the Pre-Interview
Profile, professional societies and journal subscriptions, as included
with Table 22. The majority of the respondents were members of the
American Nurses' Association Council of Nurse Researchers (80%) and all
had been inducted into Sigma Theta Tau (100%). In addition, 55 percent
of the group were Fellows of the American Academy of Nursing. The mean
number of professional journals subscribed to annually by the group was
5.84 (n=19, s=4.11).


196
allocations, teaching in the research area, resources like research
assistants, and access to research subjects. At the same time,
respondents described hindrances related to the faculty role with
specific activities creating "role strain," like committee work and
meetings, teaching responsibilities, and "multiple competing
responsibilities." One respondent reported, "many role expectations
can slow you down."
Colleagues. Collegial influences were mainly described as
hindrances when colleagues were not similarly engaged in and committed
to research. Another collegial hindrance in the environment was
reported in the case of a faculty member who was overly competitive.
With shared values for research with colleagues, facilitation occurred
through collaboration and consultation for the division of labor and
the provision of "complementary knowledge and experience."
Organizational context
Institutional and administrative support and encouragement for
research along with resources for faculty in the environment were
described by 70 percent of the respondents as facilitators for the
successful research projects. Although 55 percent of the respondents
reported no environmental hindrances, another 45 percent described
inadequate time allocation for research (25%) or lack of specific
environmental resources (20%). Environmental facilitation was also
reported with access to subjects and opportunities for dialog with
colleagues.


131
providing the dimension of peer review in terms of the importance and
acceptance for the research as demonstrated by one's discipline.
Rank-related expectations were also described at the institutional
level with similar expectations but differences in scope of influence
for funding and dissemination as the individual moves up the academic
ranks. As with the personal expectations of the respondents, quality
was also reported as a consideration at the university level. Quality
concerned the research, the sources for dissemination of the findings,
and the importance to the discipline. One respondent described tenure
considerations where "there isn't a strong or firm criteria in terms of
quantity but everyone asks, 'Is this advancing science?', 'Is this good
research?', 'Is it well done, thoughtfully done?', 'Is it really
extending current knowledge?'." Respondents from three of the seven
institutions reported unclear or undefined university criteria with
respect to quality and quantity of publications and the fact that these
may vary for academic disciplines in the university setting.
There were no major areas of dissonance between the expectations
of the respondents and their respective institutions. Most respondents
described the expectations as "consistent", "similar", or "very
similar." One respondent stated, "what I expect of myself always has
to be primary, more than what the institution expects of me. If I meet
my own expectations, then the institution has got to be satisfied."
Differences described were in terms of proportion, emphasis, or
inclusion of specific activities. Some respondents wanted teaching,
clinical practice, or service to have added emphasis at the


103
(PSR) provided both qualitative and quantitative data related to
organizational, network, productivity, and research orientation
variables and has been presented under a separate section of this
chapter.
Response rates for the four study instruments were as follows:
Pre-Interview Profile, 95.24 percent (n=20) with supplemental
information on the missing response obtained during the on-site
interview and through biographical data; PSR, 95.25 percent (n=20);
Organizational Environment Form, 85.71 percent (n=6 schools of nursing);
and On-Site Interviews on the 21 Established Nurse Researcher
respondents.
Individual Characteristics
Personal Variables
Personal variables of interest included chronological age, gender,
marital status, current number of dependents, race or ethnic origin,
place of birth, and family background with data obtained through the use
of the Pre-Interview Profile. In addition, family influences and
individual antecedents for the researcher were obtained during the
On-Site Interview.
Demographic variables
Demographic data from the sample of established nurse researchers
were obtained through study instruments used to address the personal
variables identified in the study design, as illustrated in Table 8.
The study participants' chronological ages ranged from 34 to 56 years,
with a mean age of 44.67 years. The respondents consisted of 20 females
and one male. The majority of the respondents were married (61.90%)


108
Those respondents who were not firstborn or only children
described interesting perceptions of sibling influences. One
respondent reported that she had been influenced by educational
attainments of her three older brothers. Others described role
reversals with one second-born taking on the role and duties of the
elder sister and two other second-born respondents described how their
elder brothers compared accomplishments to those of their respective
younger sisters. Another second-born respondent described how she had
been "challenged" to achieve and stated, "[not having] the perfect
start, it frees you up in a lot of ways."
Families of procreation. Families of procreation were also
perceived as supportive to. research and nursing careers. Spousal
support was described by all non-single respondents for current or past
marriages in three domains, educational accomplishments, home
responsibilities, and research activities. In the domain of
educational accomplishments, respondents' descriptions included actual
encouragement by the spouse for advanced education and support during
that past process. Home responsibilities ranged from helping with
household tasks or child rearing, to support for a two-income family,
to taking a major role in this area when the respondent was heavily
involved in a project. The domain of research activities included
activities of the spouse which promoted research whether through
encouragement and understanding of the time demands for projects,
demonstrating the norms of research and scholarly productivity or
assisting with priority setting, developing equipment for the


282
CODE NUMBER _
*
PERCEPTIONS OF SUCCESSFUL RESEARCH
General Information: Please think back over nursing research projects you
have been involved in and identify one you would consider quite successful,
that is, one that has made or will make a significant contribution to nursing
The notion of a successful research project includes all kinds of research
(qualitative or quantitative). The research should have been completed,
written and reported in the literature or at professional meetings. Please
keep in mind the same successful research project in answering all questions.
The successful research would be one that received positive acceptance by
reviewers and colleagues,_ perhaps been cited, generated positive feedback
from readers, and recognized as making a major contribution to the field.
Procedure; Part I includes questions that are structured and semi-structured
Please complete these items and include brief reactions to concerning the
successful research study you have selected. Questions included in Part II
ask you to rate the research on a five-point scale.
PART I
A. BACKGROUND AND ORIGIN OF A SUCCESSFUL RESEARCH PROJECT
1. Please explain the purpose of the research.
2. How did the research originate?
Where did the idea come from?
How was the idea further developed?
How were research questions generated?
Adapted by L. Moody, R. Kearney, and R. D'Amico from instruments developed
by Campbell, Daft, and Hulin (1983), with permission.


154
Respondents described the value of constructive critique and comments,
trying always to "accentuate the positives" and to leave the mentee
with "something of an accomplishment." One respondent described her
style as "instill[ing] enthusiasm and fosterling] growth without
destroying what they come with." This domain was individualized to the
mentee's personality and ability and illustrated by another respondent
who described providing feedback at the individual's highest level of
integration:
The quality of the feedback, feedback so as it matches
with what they can aspire to .... I think that's
an important thing to give to the person so that they
can be stimulated to do their best.
The fourth domain included activities for facilitation of the mentee's
career development. These activities related to counseling about
career decisions, development of a research program, and providing
opportunities for dissemination of research through publications and
presentations.
Research Orientation
Variables of interest related to research orientation included
research success influences, preferences, habits, and methods for
continuing development.
Research success influences
Similar to career influences discussed earlier with professional
variables, research success influences indicated by the respondents
fell into three major domains: colleagues and the work environment,
educational preparation, and personal characteristics. Collegial and
work environment influences were reported by 40 percent of the


129
of studies as their program of research continued. Clinical relevance
was a function of the developmental stage of the research and, when
relationships were supported, a change in research focus to
intervention studies. This process of moving from theory to clinical
relevance was described as follows:
I'm seeing at this point in my own research development
that it's really important to take on the challenge of
research that is more clinically relevant .... I
don't think we need a lot of more studies that simply
darken the arrows in the model.
The ongoing activity required of the researcher with a program of
research was described by several respondents. One respondent stated:
I think the other thing [research] requires is . .
that it's active enough in your mind and your
activities so that you don't ever put it aside.
That it's sort of central and occupies your time,
your mind, and your spirit . .
Further, research activity was such that respondents described other
projects occurring concurrently with research program studies. These
were described as minor projects, hobbies, and peripheral projects. As
described by the respondents, these additional projects became more
prevalent as the individual became more established in their research
career. Involvement in multiple projects will be further illustrated
under research orientation and research habits of the respondents.
The third domain of personal expectations concerned productivity
discussed by the respondents. Productivity was described in terms of
publications, presentations, and application for and receipt of grants.
All respondents were committed to the dissemination of research
findings as a personal expectation. Differences relative to


224
educational accomplishments. Approximately 52 percent of the
respondents were firstborn children with another 14.29 percent
reporting role reversals with the older sibling. The majority (61.90%)
of the respondents were currently married with spouses described as
supportive to their commitment and interest in research. Although only
50 percent of the respondents indicated current dependents other than
spouses, no negative influences on research careers were described
related to children. Perhaps some of this can be attributed to
descriptions of spousal assistance with home responsibilities (64.29%).
Issues reported from education, practice, and society influenced
the career development of one-third of the respondents. From career
development to a focus on research, influences were mainly from
interactions with colleagues, mentors, teachers, faculty, and deans as
reported by approximately 58 percent of the established nurse
researchers. Influences in the areas of educational and environmental
factors related to the perceived strength of their educational
preparation, opportunities for research, expectations in the
environment, and the reward system were described by one-third of the
respondents.
Personality influences related to career development were reported
by 38.10 percent of the respondents and included perceptions of early
job satisfaction or career choices made and the desire for
independence, control, and responsibility. Further influences on
development of their research careers related to early job
satisfaction, the interest and desire to do research, and the need to


17
are expected to be affected by these variables as well, but to a lesser
degree than the structure identified with the variable. Variables for
investigation have further been classified into input (antecedent),
throughput (intervening), and output (consequence) variables. Table 1
illustrates this general classification of variables.
Figure 1 represents a combination of the models by Havelock (1971)
and Kast and Rosenzweig (1979) for an open systems organizational
framework for knowledge development and transmission. A continuous and
cyclic process of knowledge flow from generation at the university
college/school of nursing level proceeds to dissemination and
utilization at the various environmental levels. The process proceeds
from antecedents (inputs) to consequences (outputs) as knowledge
builds, is processed, and revised with additional information or
inputs. At the center of the process is the university college/school
of nursing. The subsystems of interest occur at this level with
particular unit characteristics to be investigated.
Again, this is an open, interrelated structure and overlap of variables
is to be expected in line with the naturalistic concepts of multiple
reality, relationships, and causality. Further specification of system
variables is assumed to occur following naturalistic inquiry. The
preliminary classification of system variables is presented in Table 2.
The university environment represents the next immediate
environment to the college/school of nursing. Influences at this level
occur from university administrative, policy, and operational
influences which guide the college/school organization and operation.


266
development of the essential character traits, knowledge, and skills
for research expertise and ongoing productivity. Collegiality with
peers in academia and practice should be promoted, whether on
collaborative research projects or in consultation with intramural and
extramural colleagues. The research scholar's influence in the
discipline should be expanding through broadening extramural linkages
for dissemination and utilization of research outcomes. The four
themes of successful research (personal interest and motivation,
methodological rigor, importance to the discipline, and real world
implications) should be apparent with their research programs and
individual projects. This is a time of increased work in research
leading to involvement in multiple projects and acquisition of
intramural and extramural funding for these projects. These
individuals should assume the responsibility for socializing students
and neophyte researchers, particularly through collaborative and
mentoring activities.
Recommendation Five: Future Research in the Area
Based on the findings in this study, several issues emerge which
warrant further investigation. Replication of the study with nurse
researchers in practice settings is recommended to further explore the
individual and environmental characteristics which lead to successful
research outcomes. Study of the practice environment will provide an
opportunity to discover if the individual character traits, knowledge,
and skills of researchers must continue to be present and what
differences may occur or what environmental linkages and resources must
be present to interact efficiently with the individual characteristics.


192
the background and origination of the successful project. Following
this, respondents described the projects' contributions to nursing
knowledge.
Research habits
Purpose. Respondents were asked to state the purpose of the
research example. The purpose was patient/client focused in 10 cases
(50%) centering on patient/client behaviors, perceptions, and
interventions. A nursing practice focus on clinical behaviors of
nurses was evident in 4 cases (20%). The nursing profession in a broad
range of environments was the focus in two cases (10%). Four
additional studies were considered basic research (20%).
Development of the idea. Origination of the idea for the research
project was described by respondents as following previous work in the
area, whether in clinical practice or on the program of research.
Several respondents described the use of analytic skills for reflection
on a problem area after reviewing journal articles or attending
conferences. Further development of ideas and research questions for
the successful research projects followed reviews of the literature and
discussion with colleagues or occurred during research on another
project. One respondent described the development of research
questions based on "reading, thought, and identification of
conceptually sound variables which could be measured."
Attraction to the study. Established Nurse Researcher respondents
were asked to describe what attracted them to the example study.
Following analysis, three major themes were apparent: pioneering,


98
items were sorted into themes identified by Campbell et al. (1983).
Themes and number of associated items were as follows: methodological
rigor, five items (questions 1, 2, 3, 4, and 11); importance to the
discipline, 14 items (questions 5, 6, 7, 10, and 21 through 30);
personal interest and motivation, six items (questions 8, 9, 12, 13,
14, and 19); and real world implications, five items (questions 15, 16,
17, 18, and 20). Thematic analysis was then used to characterize
responses to these items.
Review of responses on the Pre-Interview Profile and PSR were also
used to individualize On-site Interview Guides and obtain
clarification, if needed, during the second stage of data collection.
Stage Two
The On-site Interview Guide and Organizational Environment form
contained the data for analysis in this stage. The interview process
provided a volume of qualitative data for analysis at this stage.
Verbatim responses from the interviews were transcribed and verified by
the researcher in an effort to preserve the semantic coherence (Weber,
1985) for analysis. These responses were initially coded into domains
in accordance with the topical areas covered prior to examination for
processes and patterns in the data. Word processing equipment was used
for transcription to assist with editing and organizing data. The
ethnographic method of descriptive analysis was used with the data.
Spradley (1979) has stated "the essential core of ethnography is the
concern with meaning of actions and events to the people we seek to
understand" (p. 5).


163
another respondent described, "if you don't have [the time], you carve
it out between 11:00 and 12 midnight." Several other respondents
stated they just worked hard with one respondent adding, "there's only
one speed, 'full ahead'."
Yet, several respondents described having to place limitations on
certain activities. These limitations required setting priorities and
respecting those decisions. Limitations placed on other activities
were in the areas of travel, paper presentations, consultation,
clinical practice, committee work, and socializing with others. One
respondent reported, "I am more discriminating in what I say I will do
as far as presentations. I don't talk about 1500 topics any more. ."
Another respondent described similar limitations and stated, "you have
to say 'no' to some committees, . .to some speaking engagements so
you learn what you can say 'no' to and what you say 'yes' to." This
was further described by another respondent as "making choices." Part
of these limitations was, as one respondent stated, "knowing what your
personal limit is." Although time was added to professional activities
and limitations were placed on others, respondents still described the
need for a "balanced life" and working toward some reward as a goal
once the work is finished. Making difficult decisions as to priorities
included these self-selected limitations. Further, once priorities for
research were set, it was vital that they be respected, whether it was
the number of speaking engagements accepted, the number of abstracts
submitted, or maintaining the blocks of time for research and writing
each week.


214
and university environments for continuation in the system. Research
and scholarly productivity are part of the means by which individuals
attain this value or goal. Research orientation is apparent with
influences from perceived importance and preferences for research and
contributions to nursing. Goals and values from society, discipline,
university, and school provide the foundation for shared values with
individual researchers. Within this subsystem, two predominant themes
that related to productivity were the importance of research to the
discipline and research that addresses real world implications.
Psychosocial Subsystem
The psychosocial subsystem interrelates with the other four
subsystems through people. Personal factors are one component of the
researcher role including those background influences, antecedents
and essential characteristics needed for research. Individuals
enter the system with internalized values, motivation, attitudes,
and preferences. External to the organizational environment,
families provide individuals with psychosocial and tangible
support for their involvement in research. Educational preparation
and personal support external to the organization or discipline
can occur through these personal variables and affect role
performance in research. Role attributes needed by researchers
reflect the themes of character traits, knowledge, and skills
for generation, dissemination, and utilization of research.
Utilization of research in the context of the psychosocial subsystem
occurs mainly through replication and extension of the research.


274
CODE NUMBER
PRE-INTERVIEW PROFILE
General Information; Based on your expertise as an established nurse
researcher, you have been selected to participate in a national study to
focus on how established nurse researchers formulate significant research
questions and what characteristics they attribute to success in research
activities. This profile has been designed as a preliminary step to
individual and group interviews. The questionnaire has been designed to
assist in addressing the following study aims:
*What precursors (antecedents) and personal characteristics
do established nurse researchers identify as contributing
to and influencing successful research outcomes and other
scholarly endeavors?
*What environmental variables do established nurse researchers
identify as being essential to the support and success of
their research and the research process?
*How do established nurse researchers engage in linkage/network
activities (intramurally and extramurally) to influence the
dissemination, diffusion, and utilization of research findings?
Please complete Parts A through E as completely as possible. Section F is
for additional comments for you to include any further information which you
feel is pertinent.


140
grants. The overriding theme apparent in the respondents' comments was
that of developing scholarly skills and the establishment of a program
of research.
Publication preferences
Next, respondents were asked about preferences for certain types
of publications. The overwhelming preference was for research-based
publications in refereed journals. Books or monographs were viewed as
viable options for the research when the amount of data required
greater space and depth than was available through refereed article
space. Preferences were also related to the data, as with
multidisciplinary or specialty practice journals. A readership theme,
or the audience the writer wished to address, was evident when the
respondents described their perceptions of the most important factor in
determining a source for dissemination of their scholarly work. As one
respondent stated, "I want to reach the population that would be
interested in what I found out." There were two components to
readership: the focus and the distribution. The focus was apparent as
the "appropriateness of the journal for the idea." The second
component of readership was distribution, with respondents describing
circulation and reputation of a journal. Appropriate journals with a
larger circulation were preferred by several respondents. The
reputation of a journal was described as "status", prestige, and
"scientific standing." Several respondents cited which scientific
journals they prefer and the limitations of others.


225
demonstrate credibility following doctoral education were reported by
approximately 48 of the established nurse researchers.
The respondents were well established in their academic careers.
The mean career age for the group was 12.80 years. Career age was
indicative of their work experience in academia with group means of
2.05 career moves and 8.55 years at their current locations. In
addition, 42.86 percent of the established nurse researcher respondents
held a variety of administrative positions in the school of nursing.
Commitment to career and research efforts and independence were evident
in the work habits of respondents. The mean number of hours worked per
week for the group was 59.65 with 19.50 hours spent in research
activities, including writing for publications and grants and providing
consultation on research. Established nurse researchers also spent a a
mean of approximately 45 percent of their time working alone.
Interest, commitment and motivation, perseverance, creativity,
independence, and an ethical sense of honor were further demonstrated
by respondents in their research preferences, authorship preferences,
and devotion to their individual programs of research. Development and
continuation of programs of research were described according to three
themes, inner motivation, preferences, and productivity. The theme of
inner motivation provided evidence of established nurse researchers'
possession of the character traits with their descriptions of
enjoyment, satisfaction, involvement, and concern for quality and
making a contribution through their respective programs of research.
Interest, educational background, and clinical practice background were


Ill
the curiosity, the wonder, and the "sense of fun" for research. This
interest led to the second domain, commitment.
Commitment included motivation, "drive", or the willingness to put
the time into research and accept delayed gratification of personal
desires. Respondents described this antecedent as the "tolerance for a
lot of hard work" to the point that the individual "can't imagine life
without research." This commitment sustains the interest in research
and leads to the third domain, perseverance.
Approximately 62 percent of the respondents described a sense of
perseverance needed by the researcher which included endurance, stress
management, persistence, patience, tenacity, and the ability of not
becoming discouraged by problems that arise or failures during any
stage of the research process. Respondents described this as a
"tirelessness in the idea" and the sense of priority so that "[the
research] gets done in spite of what else gets done or in addition to
what else gets done." But, needed for perseverance, commitment, and a
sustained interest is the antecedent of creativity as described by the
respondents. Creativity included the inherent value of the research as
well as being imaginative and being a "visionary" to "project beyond in
time." One respondent described this as the "ability to rise above the
morass of details and have a larger vision."
The last two domains of the character traits theme were
independence and ethics. The fifth domain was one of independence with
reference to development of the idea, functioning during the research
process, and being able to make decisions and taking responsibility for


67
scientists are held to have contributed to the advancement of knowledge
in their fields and is far less influenced by other kinds of role
performances, such as teaching, involvement in the politics of science,
or in organizing research" (Zuckerman, 1977, p. 9). Eminence, or
prestige, of institutions and scholars has been studied with variable
relationships reported. Whether the source for further status or
reputation through productivity is the institution, the university
department (discipline), the scholar's doctoral program, or the
scholar's productivity record, eminence has generally been shown to be
a factor related to scholarly productivity.
Institutional Eminence
Studies in higher education have considered the influence of
institutional reputation on scholarly productivity using a variety of
measures and terminology. In a study of sociologists in academic
settings, Manis (1950) reported the dependent measures of volume of
publication and adjudged quality of publications were positively
correlated with the eminence of the institution. Neumann (1979) used
departmental quality levels (distinguished, strong, good, and adequate
plus) as a sampling frame to study research productivity of tenured and
nontenured graduate faculty in four academic disciplines. Cameron and
Blackburn (1981) found a significant effect for sponsorship
(departmental reputation) but were uncertain whether this variable was
related to ascription or achievement of faculty in the three
disciplines studied (p. 374). Long (1978) investigated the
relationship between productivity and position in the careers of


189
Examples of Successful Research
The PSR was utilized to collect data for all three research
questions relative to research orientation, organizational, network,
and productivity variables as illustrated in Table 7. Eighteen of the
20 studies reported had been awarded funding ranging from $500 to $1
million. Characteristics of the funded projects are illustrated in
Table 34. Dissemination of the results of these studies was performed
through publication (90%) and presentation of papers at professional
meetings (95%). Specific dissemination characteristics of the example
projects reported are indicated in Table 35.
The predominant methodology reported by the Established Nurse
Researcher respondents was quantitative in 11 cases (55%), qualitative
in two cases (10%), and a combined quantitative and qualitative
approach in seven cases (35%). To assess if the predominant research
methodology used with the successful project reported influenced how
the respondents completed the PSR instrument Wilcoxin and median tests
were done. There was no significant difference in the respondents
responses to the 30-item scale of the PSR when qualitative versus
quantitative methodologies were compared. In addition, no significant
differences were apparent when qualitative and both qualitative and
quantitative were combined and compared with those respondents
reporting the predominant method used as quantitative.
Research Orientation with the Successful Project
Research habits were considered through Established Nurse
Researcher respondents' descriptions on Part I of the PSR related to


26
needs or valuable studies with limited dissemination. Further, the
academic environment provides an arena for the transmission to students
of skills and value systems associated with research for continuity and
contribution to the body of nursing knowledge. The successful and
innovative strategies of established nurse researchers provide a
greater understanding of the individual and environmental factors that
promote successful research outcomes and higher levels of scholarly
productivity.
Through her research concerning productive research environments,
Batey (1981) has concluded that there are university schools of nursing
coming to be known as centers for research through opportunities
offered for faculty investigators as well as the research reported by
selected faculty, but there is no school of nursing which can be
considered a productive research organization (p. 56). Yet, Batey
(1981) has provided several criteria for successful and productive
university nursing research environments based on the findings of her
earlier research. Batey (1978) focused her research on variables
related to the environmental context within 12 schools of nursing with
significant extramural funding.
Pranulis (1984) further extended Batey's work through her
retrospective correlational study to describe the functional
significance of the environment on nurse faculty research productivity.
Pranulis used a broadened perspective to include other forms of
scholarly productivity in addition to research activities. In her
investigation, female faculty members with doctorates at ten leading


186
Table 32
Financial Resources for Research at Study Sites
Standard
n
Mean
Deviation
Median
*
Intramural awards
(4)
$402,710.00
741,325.00
$43,053.00
$10,000 30,000
2
$30,001 60,000
0
$60,001 90,000
1
Greater than $1 million
1

Extramural awards
(5)
$509,738.00
417,910.87
$269,658.00
$200,000 300,000
3
$600,000 700,000
1
Greater than $1 million
1
Biomedical Reseajjh
Support Grants
(6)
$ 8047.78
13,806.30
$ 3,866.20
No support grants
2
$3,000 6,000
3
Greater than $35,000
1
*
Aggregate amounts of sponsored research dollars received by faculty
for Fiscal Year 1985-1986, reported to the nearest dollar.
**
Biomedical Research Support Grant Funds divided by the period of
years received for comparison purposes.


116
theoretical and the empirical. Interpersonal skills with colleagues
were not only for collaborative relationships, but also for support,
reinforcement, consultation, and coordination of resources with the
assumption of a leadership role on the research project. A greater
number of respondents also reported articulation skills as essential
for conducting successful research. These communication skills were
for dissemination of results as well as to "convince others to believe"
in the project in order to obtain resources and grants. Organizational
skills were also needed for successful research for the creation of
efficient and effective research habits. As an example of
organizational skills, one respondent described the ability "to
organize a flow or pattern of work that will work for you, [the
researcher]." A part of organizational skills similar to the
antecedents, is time management in order to "keep certain blocks of
time that don't get encroached on by other things."
Professional Variables
Professional variables included educational preparation, post
doctoral work, clinical specialty, number of hours worked per week,
percentage of time worked alone, career age, and career influences.
Educational preparation and clinical specialty areas are illustrated in
Table 12. The mean ages of the respondents' degrees were as follows:
Baccalaureate 20.70 years, Master's Degree 15.68 years, and Doctorate
9.90 years, with standard deviations of 4.81, 4.10, and 5.22
respectively. Degrees held in nursing included 95.24 percent
Baccalaureate, 90.48 percent Master's, and 33.33 percent Doctoral.


82
Table 3
leading Schools of Nursing Listed by Literature Source
Margulies &
Blau (1973)
1. Case Western
Reserve
2. University of
California at
San Francisco
3. University of
Washington
4. University of
Colorado
5. University of
California at
Los Angeles
6. New York
University
Blau &
Margulies
(1974-75)
1. Case Western
Reserve
2. University of
Washington
3. University of
California at
San Francisco
4. New York
University
5. University of
Colorado
6. Wayne State
University
7. University of
California at
Los Angeles
8. Boston
University
9. University of
Maryland
10.Catholic
University
Hayter & Rice
(1979)
1. University of
Washington
2. University of
California
San Francisco
3. University of
California
Los Angeles
4. New York
University
5. Yale University
6. Case Western
Reserve
7. Boston
Univerity
8. University of
Colorado
9. Cblunfcia
University
10.Cornell
University
Hayter (1984)
1. University of
Washington
2. University of
Pennsylvania
3. University of
California at
San Francisco
4. University of
Michigan
5. University of
Illinois
6. university of
Colorado
7. University of
Minnesota
8. University of
Maryland
9. New York
University
10.University
California at
Los Angeles
Chainings
(1984)
1. University of
Washington
2. Case Western
Reserve
3. University of
California at
San Francisco
4. New York
University
5. University of
Pennsylvania
6. Uiiversity of
Michigan
7. University of
Illinois
8. Wayne State
University
9. Catholic
University
10.Columbia
University


308
Fulton, O., & Trow, M. (1974). Research activity in American higher
education. Sociology of Education, 47, 29-73.
Glenn, N. D., & Villemez, W. (1970). The productivity of sociologists
at 45 American universities. American Sociologist, j>, 244-252.
Gortner, S. R. (1983). The history and philosophy of nursing science
and research. Advances in Nursing Science, j[(2), 1-8.
Gortner, S. R. (1985). The University of California at San Francisco
research environment. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 1_,
387-389.
Gourman, J. (1980). .The Gourman report: A rating of graduate and
professional programs in American and international universities.
Los Angeles: National Educational Standards.
Gourman, J. (1983) The Gourman report: A rating of graduate and
professional programs in American and international universities (2nd
ed.). Los Angeles: National Educational Standards.
Guba, E. G. (1985). The context of emergent paradigm research. In Y.
S. Lincoln (Ed.), Organizational theory and inquiry (pp. 79-104).
Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Gunne, G. M., & Stout, W. D. (1980). Productivity and publication
patterns in departments of educational administration. Journal of
Educational Administration, 18, 140-147.
Hagerty, B. (1986). A second look at mentors. Nursing Outlook, 34,
16-19, 24.
Hall, D. E. (1975). Determinants of faculty publication productivity
at four-year colleges. Dissertation Abstracts International, 36A,
4290A. (University Microfilms No. 75-29,234)
Hall, D. E ., & Blackburn, R. T. (1975). Determinants of faculty
publication productivity at four-year colleges. Paper presented at
the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association,
New York. (ERIC Document Reproductive Service No. ED 117 994)
Hamovitch, W., & Morgenstern, R. D. (1977). Children and productivity
of academic women. Journal of Higher Education, 48, 633-645.
Hargens, L. L., McCann, J. C., & Reskin, B. F. (1978). Productivity
and reproductivity: Fertility and professional achievement among
research scientists. Social Forces, 57, 154-163.


150
contacts directed at the area of research interest. Discussion and
feedback related to theory and research activities were common.
Mentorship
Mentorship experiences, as a mentor and/or as a mentee, were
considered under network variables and discussed during the interview.
Generally, mentorship was perceived by the respondents as an ongoing
relationship related to the career development of the individual being
mentored. Perceptions of the degree or depth of this relationship
between the mentor and the mentee varied among the respondents. In
addition, several respondents described the issue of acknowledgment of
the relationship by both parties. This issue of mutual acknowledgment
created some difficulty, as expressed by some respondents, in
quantifying the number of individuals mentored. The respondents were
able to identify the number of mentors they had had more readily than
those they had mentored. In fact, several respondents reported
individuals who claimed to have been their mentees but, at the time,
they had not perceived this to be a mentorship relationship. The
respondents' perceptions provided two time dimensions to mentorship.
First, there was the ongoing nature of the relationship. Secondly,
changes in the relationship or types of mentor relationships occurred
over time in accordance with the mentee's needs.
Mentors. The mean number of mentors reported by 20 of the
respondents was 3.30 (s=2.96) with a median of 3 mentors. All of the
respondents who had had mentors reported this as a valuable experience,
though not always positive. Several respondents reported mentorship


123
Table 15
Positional Variables for Established Nurse Researchers
n
%
Academic Rank
Professor
Associate Professor
Assistant Professor
(20)
8
8
4
(100)
40.00
40.00
20.00
Tenure Status
Tenured
Non-tenured, in Tenure Track
Non-tenured, not in Track
(20)
15
3
2
(100)
75.00
15.00
10.00
Additional Job Titles (21)
None 5
Administrative Positions 9
Joint Appointments
Clinical 3
Research 2
Instruction and Research 2
Principal Investigator on Program Grant 1
(100)
23.81
42.86
14.29
9.52
9.52
4.76
Reflects an additional adjunct position in addition to the
administrative position held by one respondent.
Positional Variables
Positional variables of interest included academic rank, tenure
status, position (title), program assignment, primary responsibilities,
job-related activities, student-faculty ratios, years at current
location, and expectations for scholarly productivity. Positional
variables of academic rank, tenure status, and additional job titles
are reported in Table 15 with 75 percent of the respondents holding
tenured faculty positions at the ranks of professor (40%) or associate


296
B. Publication Habits
Consider your individual publication habits.
1. Do you have a preference for certain types of publications?
[ 1 No
[ ] Yes [ ] books
[ ] monographs
[ ] refereed journals
[ ] non-refereed journals
[ ] other
2. Do you prefer to author an article/book alone or to
colaborate?
[ ] Single authorship
t ] Co-authorship
[ ] Multiple authorship
3. What percentage of your publications are:
% Single authored
% Co-authored
% Multiple authored
4. What is the most important factor in determining a preference
for a publication or other dissemination source for scholarly
productivity?
Describe:
5.Do you have any personal goal for publications
Per year?
[
] No
[
] Yes
By type?
[
] No
[
] Yes
Relative to interest?
[
] No
[
] Yes
Describe:
C. Research Habits
How would you describe your research habits?


37
logically follow that if the mean entry point for scholars is
significantly later with all other factors constant, then the bimodal
distribution should be similarly shifted. This may be the case for
nursing at present. Research has shown mean ages for completion of
doctoral education for nurses of 41.5 (Brimmer et al., 1983) and 39.4
(Ostmoe, 1982) years. As Ostmoe (1982) illustrated, median ages at
receipt of the doctorate are lower for individuals in disciplines other
than nursing, with a range of 29.1 to 37.0 years as compared with the
median of 40 years in nursing (pp. 95, 97). Some of the influence from
the higher median age at which nurses complete doctoral studies may
relate to the nature of the population with nursing as a predominantly
female discipline. Humphreys (1984) reported a greater overall number
of years before the doctorate for women than for men. Still, the
question of additional influences should be considered based on
Lia-Hoagberg's (1985) findings which revealed the later age at which
nurses attain doctoral degrees when compared with other academic women.
For the purposes of exploring scholarly productivity with
established nurse researchers in this study, career age has been
defined in terms of years of full-time academic appointments rather
than age at doctorate. Number of years in nursing (Nieswiadomy, 1984)
was not used due to possible additional interpretations which could
have been introduced before obtaining the terminal degree, for example,
time spent in clinical practice, graduate studies, non-academic
teaching positions, unemployment, etc.


185
school of nursing research support units were available and useful with
these projects and with the preparation of grant applications.
Tangible resources for research were reported on the
Organizational Environment Form for six of the study sites. Financial
resources available at the sites are illustrated in Table 32.
Financial support through intramural and extramural sponsored research
for School of Nursing faculty was reported as aggregate whole dollar
amounts for the 1985 1986 Fiscal Year. Intramural monies awarded at
four sites ranged from $10,575 to in excess of $1.5 million for the
year with a median award of $43,053 for the study sites. Extramural
awards reported at five of the sites ranged from $218,583 to $1.2
million for the year with a median award of $269,658. In addition, one
school representative reported sponsored research as percentages with
30 percent from intramural funds and 70 percent from extramural funding
sources. Four of the six sites reporting received Biomedical Research
Support Grant funds in the past 5 year period. Aggregate amounts of
Biomedical Research Support Grants were reported to the nearest whole
dollar amount with the number of years of support specified. When
amounts reported were divided by the number of years the support was
received, the mean award for the six sites was $8,048 (n=6, s=13,806)
with a median of $3,866.20 and a range from no support to close to
$40,000 per year.
Support staff and resources provided through administration for
faculty research activities at the study sites are illustrated in Table
33. In addition, Research Support Units were available to assist


283
3.What was there about the project that excited or attracted you at
the time?
4.Was the research funded?
[ ] No
[ ] Yes Amount of funds: $
Source of funds:
What was your role?
[ ] PI [ ] Co-PI
f ] Investigator/Research Team
[ ] Other
5.Has the research been published?
[ ] No
[ ] Yes Publication Source [ ] Book or book chapter
[ ] Monograph
[ ] Refereed journal
[ ] Non-refereed journal
[ ] Other
6.What is the best single reference for your research in the
literature?
7.Describe your perceptions of the research success in terms of:
(a)Acceptance and feedback from reviewers?
(b)General acceptance by the field?
(c)Reprint requests and citations?


146
Table 23
Communication with Colleagues*
n
%
Frequency of Communications
(21)
(100)
Daily
3
14.29
Several times per week
5
23.81
Weekly
5
23.81
Every couple of weeks
1
4.76
Monthly
5
23.81
Every few months to twice yearly
1
4.76
At meetings or when the need arises
1
4.76
**
Form of Communications
(21)
Telephone
18
85.71
Correspondence
9
42.86
Face-to-face, personal contacts
4
19.05
While at meetings
4
19.05
This includes communication with colleagues in nursing and with those
colleagues in other disciplines but with a related research interest.
The nature of these communications related primarily to research
activities, as reported by 71.19% of the respondents.
Multiple forms of communications were reported by some respondents.
methodology, resources, and suggestions for dissemination. Several
respondents described these communications as "keeping up." Relative
to "keeping up" in the field was the opportunity for "state of the art"
knowledge and learning things in advance of published forms of
information dissemination. One respondent illustrated this by stating:
It puts you in the mainstream of what's going on
and so you learn things two to three years ahead
of time before they [are published]. You try


86
express permission was requested from the study participants in order
to audiotape interview sessions to facilitate accurate data collection.
Instruments
Waltz, Strickland, and Lenz (1984) have reported, "Because words
and sentences are human artifacts, they provide rich and varied sources
of data about the personalities, thoughts, attitudes, and preferences
of the writers or speakers, as well as about the interpersonal, social,
political, and cultural contexts in which they are or were involved"
(p. 255). Data collection was accomplished using four instruments that
represent a variety of qualitative and quantitative approaches. Use of
multiple modes of inquiry have been supported by Fawcett (1984), Miles
and Huberman (1984), Sweeney (1985), and others. The research
questions with associated variable categories and study instruments is
illustrated in Table 11. The Pre-Interview Profile along with the
Perceptions of Successful Research instrument were sent to the
established nurse researchers prior to on-site interviews. Responses
from the participants were requested prior to the site visit. Along
with original structured and semi-structured items, these initial
responses received from the study participants were integrated in the
On-Site Interview guide to offer opportunity for clarification,
specification, and greater depth. Information for the Organizational
Environment form was collected during or following the site visits from
a representative selected by the respective Deans. Instruments have
been included in Appendix C. Each instrument will be discussed
individually in the following section.


279
SIBLINGS
Number of brothers
Number of sisters
Your ordinal position in family
MARITAL STATUS
[
1
single
[
1
married
[
]
separated
[
1
divorced
[
1
widowed
NUMBER i
OF
DEPENDENTS
(
]
none
[
]
1
[
1
2
[
1
3
[
]
4
[
1
more than
CAREER INFLUENCES
Who or what has been the greatest influence on your professional
nursing career and why? (Please describe the relationship).
Who or what has had the greatest influence on your research
success and why? (Please describe the relationship).
MOBILITY: Please indicate the number of major career moves from one
institution to another during your professional career.
Career moves


232
Evidence of organizational skills possessed by the established
nurse researchers was provided through their descriptions of research
habits. These research habits contained the theme of concentration and
devotion to the research project(s). The domains of research habits
included the following: (1) creating an environment for research
productivity, (2) time management, (3) the ongoing nature of the work,
(4) being methodical, (5) being involved in multiple projects, and (6)
being involved in collaborative work.
Organizational skills were apparent in the strategies used by
established nurse researchers in creating an environment for
productivity, in time management, and in being methodical and involved
in multiple projects. Recognition and use of environments most
suitable to individual research styles whether at home, in libraries,
or other campus offices were described by the respondents.
Concentration was needed to focus energy and mental abilities on the
research during either the developmental or writing stages of the
project. A sense of organization was provided through this control
over the environment with the elimination of distractions, having
preferred equipment, supplies and data available, and devotion of
blocks of time to the activity. Creating time for research by adding
to existing schedules, placing limits on selected professional
activities, setting and respecting research priorities, and using time
efficiently all reflected the organizational skills of the established
nurse researchers. The most evident: organizational skills in their
research habits were described by the respondents related to the need


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
A MODEL FOR NURSE FACULTY RESEARCH PRODUCTIVITY
By
Rose Theresa Kearney
May, 1987
Chairman: Linda E. Moody
Major Department: Nursing
Generation, dissemination, and utilization of research is central
to advancing the knowledge base for the discipline of nursing. The
purposes of this exploratory study were to discover how a sample of
nationally known nurse researchers produce and reproduce knowledge for
the discipline, identify individual and environmental variables related
to successful research outcomes, and generate a theoretical model for
research productivity.
An organizational systems model and a naturalistic inquiry paradigm
guided the research design and the development of the theoretical model
for faculty research productivity. Multiple data collection methods and
sources were used. The primary source of data was through on-site,
field interviews with established nurse researchers at seven
universities that have been identified as leading academic institutions
in the United States with graduate nursing programs. Pre-interview data
were collected by questionnaires to obtain a profile of the nurse
researchers and academic institutions. The field interviews were
xii


7
(4) A large proportion of established nurse researchers are employed
at leading academic institutions.
(5) Established nurse researchers are assumed to share similar
characteristics vital to successful research outcomes.
(6) Established nurse researchers are attracted to leading
academic institutions and, in turn, attract other resources
and researchers to these environments.
(7) Characteristics of established nurse researchers and their
environments synergistically affect the development of
scientific nursing knowledge.
Delimitations
The study is delimited to established nurse researchers at leading
academic institutions which restricts the full range of research and
scholarly behaviors exhibited by the general population of nurse
scholars. Outstanding researchers may not be limited to the
institutions selected for study but have been assumed to be present in
greater numbers in these environments.
Theoretical Framework
Inquiry Paradigm
The research was based on a naturalistic inquiry paradigm. Lincoln
(1985) has described the naturalistic paradigm with the focus on
environmental context and environmental shapers to "exhibit patterns
and webs of influence that in turn select and are selected by
participants on the scene in mutually reinforcing ways" (p. 141). Guba
(1985) has characterized this paradigm along seven dimensions,


Outputs
Figure 2. A model for nurse faculty research productivity.
Note. From Organization and Management (p. 109) by F. E. Kast and J. E. Fosenzweig, 1979, New York:
McGraw-Hill. Copyright 1979 by McGraw-Hill. Adapted by permission.
213


48
while a significant majority of low producers spent four hours or less
per week on similar activities (p. 310). Blackburn et al. (1978) have
suggested that since recent rate of publication is a significant
predictor of publication productivity, "the formation of a habit of
writing matters most of all" (p. 139). Hall (1975) recommended that
"efforts should be made to develop and sustain a 'habit of
scholarship,' wherein both [the faculty member and institution] agree
to a portion of the workload devoted to research, reading, and writing"
(p. 132).
Pranulis (1984) found that faculty who devote time specifically to
research activities by setting aside time and adjusting role
responsibilities have significantly higher total and publication
productivity scores (p. 169). In addition, she characterized
productive researchers as devoting 16 or more hours to research a week
(Pranulis, 1984, p. 182). Gortner (1985) and Ostmoe (1982) similarly
report a significant effect on nurse faculty productivity through
devotion of percentages of time to research.
Institutional type and mission
Research has revealed differences in productivity of faculty by
type of institution: colleges, universities, and types of universities
(Baird et al., 1985; Behymer & Blackburn, 1975; Blackburn et al., 1978;
Cameron & Blackburn, 1981; Finkelstein, 1984; Fulton & Trow, 1974;
Hall, 1975; Ladd, 1979; Pellino et al., 1984; Walton, 1982). Some of
these differences have been attributed to whether there was a primary
institutional mission for research. Clark (1973) reported that faculty


96
were used for descriptive analysis. Data were categorized and coded to
fit descriptive analysis procedures.
Productivity variables were analyzed for type and rate of
scholarly activities of established nurse researchers using a method
adapted from the work of Pranulis (1984). As described previously,
four weighted measures of productivity were developed by Pranulis based
on self-reports for a three year period: (1) publication productivity;
(2) presentation productivity; (3) tangible products score; and (4)
total productivity as the summation of the three other weighted scores.
For this investigation, some adaptations were made to further consider
the background of the established nurse researchers. Weighted scores
were calculated with no distinction for single authored versus
co-authored or multiple authored works in accordance with Ostmoe's
(1982, 1986) recommendation. The following formulas were used to
calculate productivity rates for two time periods, the past three years
and total career.
(1) Partial Publication Productivity = total weighted score for
the following items:
Books
4
X
n
Book chapters and monographs
1
X
n
Refereed journals
2
X
n
Non refereed journals
1
X
n
Paper Presentation Productivity
= total weighted
following items:
International
2
X
n
National
2
X
n
Regional
1
X
n
All others
0.5
X
n


14
research, and they cannot adequately fulfill their responsibilities
without giving attention to both .... both activities are vital to
the basic goals of the institution" (p. 530).
Status is the second major concept of the psychosocial subsystem.
Status generally "refers to the ranking or stratification of people in
a social system", yet in an organizational context, it refers to a
specific hierarchical position (Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979, pp. 260-261).
In a university, status is evident with specific positions and academic
rank. Two further forms of status are relevant to the study design:
functional status and occupation prestige (Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979).
Functional status has been used to the focus on established nurse
researchers with successful research and scholarly endeavors as
particular career functions. Occupational prestige has also been used
in the research design through the focus on established nurse
researchers in leading schools of nursing. "Occupational prestige is
important in the social system because it affects the power and
influence of occupants of certain positions, as well as the amount of
resources that society places at their disposal" (Kast & Rosenzweig,
1979, p. 266). Occupational prestige relates to the reward system of
science and potential advantages that accrue through recognized
contributions.
The technical subsystem has two basic components: physical
resources and accumulated knowledge. The accumulated knowledge is the
means to accomplish tasks (Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979, p. 195). "Teaching
and scholarly research are the primarily technical tasks of the system"


127
It's not that I don't do as much in terms of teaching.
In fact, in terms of this last June graduation, I had
the most doctoral students graduating and the most
master's students graduating plus I do a lot of
research. So I don't know whether it's just my view
that you can accomplish whatever it is you're inter
ested in accomplishing and that where those other
people might look upon the same kind of amount of
work that I do as a lot . Because I want to do
everything!
Student-faculty ratios reported by the respondents yielded a mean of
9.29 (n=12, s=2.72) and a median of 8 students per faculty member. At
the institutional level, variable but congruent student-faculty ratios
were reported by representatives of the administrative offices of the
schools of nursing.
Length of time at the respective institutions and career mobility
were also of interest as positional variables. These respondents have
been located at their respective institutions for a mean of 8.55 years
(n=20, s=4.99) and a median of 8 years. Related to mobility,
respondents reported the a number of career moves with a range of none
to 6, mean of 2.05 and a median 2.00. Two of the respondents reported
their career moves as related to changes in their husbands' place of
work.
Expectations for scholarly productivity
Personal expectations. As part of their academic position,
research was an expectation. Respondents were asked to describe their
personal expectations for research and scholarly productivity. The
overriding theme of these descriptions related to the development and
continuation of programs of research. Research activities were
described as focused in their area of interest and, in some cases,


230
Articulation skills were described as antecedents by some
respondents but more so later as essential characteristics of the
individual nurse researcher. Communication skills in both speaking and
writing are essential for the generation, dissemination, and
utilization of research. In the generation phase, articulation skills
are needed to obtain monetary, physical, and interpersonal resources
for the project. Communication skills for presentations, publications,
and informal discussions are requisites for dissemination of the
findings to promote utilization. Therefore, articulation skills are
essential to communication of the results as well as to convince others
of the merit of the research.
Skills of established nurse researchers. Respondents described
early childhood and educational experiences as fostering the
development of mental abilities. Inclusion in family discussions and
encouragement of mental curiosity and reading were described by
respondents. Later, early professional experiences in baccalaureate
and master's degree programs offered specific opportunities for the
respondents in development of skills and abilities. Respondents
described work in special programs or projects or early experiences
with mentors which were intellectually stimulating and which lead them
to further education and a sustained interest in research.
Use of mental abilities was apparent in established nurse
researchers' descriptions of the origin and background of studies used
as examples of successful research. Development of research ideas was
described following review of the literature or reflection on the


68
biochemists in graduate programs for evidence of departmental effect
versus selection effect. Longitudinal findings indicated that quantity
of publications and citations are facilitated by departmental location
(prestige) rather than selection (Long, 1978, p. 902). Fulton and Trow
(1974), using three levels of quality to classify institutions based on
characteristics and qualifications of faculty and students and on
institutional resources, described the distribution of research
activities and the trend for continuing research activity in leading
and middle quality universities (p. 71). Crane (1965) reported a
positive relationship for productivity and scientific recognition when
compared with prestige of the institution. Blackburn, Behymer, and
Hall (1978) investigated faculty publication productivity and found
that faculty affiliated with high prestige colleges and universities
exhibit greater productivity than faculty at lower prestige
institutions. In an earlier study by Behymer and Blackburn (1975), a
significant relationship was found between institutional prestige and
publication productivity for faculty at four-year and graduate
institutions. Still, in a study that same year confined to faculty at
four-year colleges, Hall (1975) reported that institutional prestige
was not a significant predictor of publication productivity. Wanner et
al. (1980) used an interdisciplinary basis and have reported a
significant relationship between scientific productivity and
institutional quality yet stress the need to consider the context of
individual disciplines. Long and McGinnis (1981) have reported,
"organizational context emerges as a strong factor determining not only


264
academic background and association with established scholars is the
basis for the development of the identity needed as a nurse researcher.
As exemplified by established nurse researchers, this identity must be
internalized as a career commitment and not restricted to functions
within a 40-hour week.
Neophyte researchers. The period following completion of graduate
programs is a critical period for communicating research expectations
to the neophyte researcher and encouraging the development of the
essential characteristics of the nurse scholar. Formal or informal
postdoctoral studies and/or work with a mentor can greatly assist
neophyte researchers during this critical period. Postdoctoral studies
were described as providing the researcher with the opportunity to
solidify research interests, gain experience, be relieved of workload
responsibilities, broaden or practice skills, and work with a mentor.
This opportunity allows for development of the essential
characteristics by capitalizing on character traits, knowledge, and
skills of the research scholar.
A goal of this period is the development of a viable program of
research. Opportunities for mentorship should be available and
utilized for implementation of the support and learning themes
described by established nurse researchers. Support through mentorship
is provided through encouragement and guidance related to career
development and the building of a program of research. Learning is
enhanced through mentors who serve as role models, advisers,
supporters, and facilitators. Character traits, knowledge, and skills
are communicated in the values, standards, and activities needed for


306
Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education. (1976). A
classification of institutions of higher education (rev. ed.).
Berkeley, CA: Carnegie Foundation.
Cattell, R. B., & Drevdahl, J. E. (1955). A comparison of the
personality profile (16 P.F.) of eminent researchers with that of
eminent teachers and administrators, and of the general population.
British Journal of Psychology, 46, 248-261.
Chamings, P. A. (1984). Ranking the nursing schools. Nursing Outlook,
_32, 238-239.
Clark, B. R. (1984). The organizational conception. In B.R. Clark
(Ed.), Perspectives on higher education (pp. 106-131). Berkeley,
CA: Jossey-Bass.
Clark, S. A. (1973). Research and publication in the small college: A
comparative study of faculty members' perceptions and attitudes. The
Journal of Educational Research, 66, 328-333.
Clemente, F. (1973). Early career determinants of research
productivity. American Journal of Sociology, 79, 409-419.
Cole, J. R. (1979). Fair science: Women in the scientific community.
New York: Free Press.
Cole, J. R. (1981). Women in science. American Scientist, 69,
385-391.
Cole, J. R., & Zuckerman, H. (1984). The productivity puzzle:
Persistence and change in patterns of publication of men and women
scientists. Advances in Motivation and Achievement, 217-258.
Cole, S., & Cole, J. R. (1967). Scientific output and recognition: A
study on the operation of the reward system in science. American
Sociological Review, 32, 377-390.
Copp, L. (1981). Nursing research: Position statement (Report No.
AACN-Pub-81-4). Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges of
Nursing. (ERIC Document Reproductive Service No. ED 219 986)
Cox, W. M., & Catt, V. (1977). Productivity ratings of graduate
programs in psychology based on publication in the journals of the
American Psychological Association. American Psychologist, 32,
793-813.
Crane, D. (1965). Scientists at major and minor universities: A study
of productivity and recognition. American Sociological Review, 30,
699-714.


167
order but that a progression and a building of the work is essential
for moving toward something significant. In their descriptions of the
multiple projects, most respondents indicated that these projects were
at different points, some at the proposal stage, some awaiting funding,
some in data collection, some in analysis, and some at the point of
writing the final results.
Collaborative efforts with colleagues, especially campus
colleagues in nursing and in other disciplines, was described by 43
percent of the respondents. The important aspect of this transmitted
by the respondents was discussion with colleagues whether on a solo
project or a team project. On a solo project, collaboration was used
as a form of peer review for feasibility and merit of the project.
This was described by one respondent who stated, "I usually check [my
idea] out with a couple of colleagues and if they think it has merit,
[I] move right along." Although not on the same project, a mutual
helping relationship was described by several respondents for efforts
of this nature along with consultation on specific areas when needed.
Collaborative relationships on team projects were described in
developing, conducting, and completing the project with opportunities
for "debate," problem solving, division of labor, and refinement of
final manuscripts. Respondents described one research team member as
taking the lead on the development or dissemination of the project but
that this rotated between or among stable members of the team. Still,
some time alone was reported as necessary on collaborative team
projects. One respondent described this in the following manner:


112
the research project. Independence further included courageousness and
bravery for one's own convictions and taking risks as needed and as
appropriate during the process. This was described as being a "self
generator" or a "self starter." The final domain as an antecedent for
the researcher related to ethics. This ethical domain was described as
a "sense of honor" with the need for maintaining scientific integrity
and the quality of a research project.
The second theme of antecedents for the researcher focused on
knowledge. The knowledge base of the individual was the major domain
of this theme. This knowledge base included a solid background in both
methodological and substantive areas for conduct of the research. One
respondent described this antecedent as a grounding in the knowledge
base and continued updating of knowledge. This domain of knowledge
logically leads to the next domain, opportunities for learning.
Learning new ways of doing things and continued development of
knowledge and skills, or perhaps the appreciation for these, was viewed
as an antecedent thus leading to the need of a "sense of humility."
This sense of humility included the ability to recognize and admit
weaknesses and problems and to seek counsel and help from others who
can augment the knowledge base of the individual.
Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills was the third theme
of antecedents for the researcher. Vital for the researcher are the
mental abilities, especially related to logical and analytical thought
so necessary for research activities. One respondent described the
antecedent as having the "intellectual, conceptual, and analytic


99
Data from the Organizational Environment form completed at the
study sites were used to characterize environments of established nurse
researchers through description of resources and support for research
and scholarly activities. Data were coded into domains to describe
variables of the context, in this case the school of nursing
environment. Selected variables have been used earlier in this chapter
to describe the environment, as noted in Table 5. This also permitted
triangulation of the data with the opportunity for comparisons with the
responses of the established nurse researchers related to environmental
facilitators and resources.
Stage Three
Qualitative data were again the focus for analysis in the third
stage. Sandelowski (1986) has discussed the need for quality checks on
data with reference to the "credibility" of qualitative inquiry. In
this stage, a quality check on the data was obtained through the
subjective analysis of the established nurse researcher respondents to
a preliminary aggregate report of findings. Kirk and Miller (1984)
have described validity in quality research "as the degree to which the
finding is interpreted in a correct way" (p. 20). Reactions of the
respondents was used to assess the accuracy of interpretation of
perceptions of established nurse researchers and fairness of
representation in the various themes and domains which emerged from the
data. Respondents were offered the opportunity to provide additional
information, suggest changes in the report, and/or provide a "minority
report." Established nurse researchers' reactions to the aggregate


41
productivity, current productivity is further related to past article
productivity (Fulton & Trow, 1974; Hall, 1975) with the higher
producers continuing at high levels. Other studies supported this
positive association between early productivity and subsequent
productivity (Clemente, 1973; Manis, 1950; Phillips, 1973). Ostmoe
(1982) reported that 52.7 percent of all nurse faculty with doctorates
in her study had reported publications to their credit prior to earning
the doctorate.
Educational background
Many studies on productivity have controlled for faculty with
earned doctorates through either the requirement for the terminal
degree in the academic setting (Holley, 1977; Jolly, 1983; Neumann,
1979; Pearse et al., 1976) or through their sampling design (Bayer &
Dutton, 1977; Blackburn et al., 1978; Cameron & Blackburn, 1981;
Clemente, 1973; Cole, 1981; Crane, 1965; Hall, 1975; Hargens et al.,
1978; Jauch & Glueck, 1975; Long, 1978; Manis, 1950; Reskin, 1977,
1978). Since some studies of nursing faculty have not used such
controls, educational background from the aspect of highest level of
completion can be addressed. Holt (1973) and Nieswiadomy (1984)
included faculty from diploma, associate degree, baccalaureate, and
higher degree programs in their respective samples. Holt (1973)
reported that neither the type of basic nursing education program
attended nor the amount of education had an effect on attitudes toward
research and theory development except through place of employment (p.
1608-B). Yet, Nieswiadomy (1984) found a significant positive


152
Value of mentorship. There were three themes related to the value
of being a mentor, gratification, learning, and generativity. Personal
gratification was the theme most often described by the respondents and
it included the rewards, pride, and satisfaction which accompanied the
development and the further success of the individual they had
mentored. Learning occurred as the second theme of the mentor role
through stimulation, interaction, and reflection. One respondent
described one of the benefits of the relationship as, "having somebody
look at something with a very fresh approach, challenge your dearest
assumptions, reject everything that you think is important, and help
you evaluate what you've got. Another respondent mirrored this
sentiment by stating, "learning occurs both ways because I think that
the mentee you get to know her very individually and with that you
get to see her perspective and the kinds of linkages she's able to
make, just because of the person." Other respondents considered
mentorship as "another way of learning" and as "a way of keeping you
tuned up." Generativity with the transmission of values and training
of the next generation of researchers was a third theme of mentorship,
occurring at a higher level than gratification and learning. One
respondent described this as:
I think any time you are involved in helping another
person grow and develop there is a certain kind of
beneficial influence that when you bring them that
experience, there's a satisfaction, a certain amount
that's reinforced that they're carrying on your
values. . It's like children with a kind of
regeneration and extension.
Another respondent described the transmission of a value system as
adding a philosophic dimension to nursing practice. Still another


107
Table 10
Sibling Influences for Established Nurse Researchers
N %
Total Number of Siblings
none
1
2
3
4
5
Placement in Birth Order
Only Child
Oldest Child, not only
Second Child
Third Child
Fourth Child
(21)
(100)
3
14.29
10
46.12
0
0.00
2
9.52
5
23.81
1
4.76
(21)
(100)
3
14.29
8
38.10
8
38.10
1
4.76
1
4.76
Oldest child includes all respondents who have siblings and were
firstborn. In the case of twins, both twins have been counted
as first born despite time of delivery.
education. Interestingly, three of the respondents (14.29%) reported
that the idea of a college or university education was taken for
granted while an equal number reported that such education was not
viewed as an option in their family of orientation's context.
Nonparental family of orientation influences related to childhood
education, extended family members, and attitudes in the community
where the individual was reared.


132
institutional level but without any decrease in research expectations.
Other respondents described specific values which they thought should
have greater emphasis, for example, demonstration of accountability
after tenure, decreased focus on the profoundness or uniqueness of
contributions, service on national committees, and the extended time
frame required for clinical research.
Respondents perceived the expectations of their academic
colleagues as similar to those used in the institution for promotion
and tenure. Generally, to remain in the setting, shared values for
research, funding, and dissemination of findings were present and were
sometimes referred to as "survival skills." In addition, expectations
for collaboration on projects with faculty peers and students, in-house
consultation, and continuance of teaching responsibilities were
perceived to be collegial expectations. One respondent described this
as "continu[ing] to be productive and pull[ing] your own weight."
In terms of expectations of the nursing profession, there was less
agreement among the respondents. Generally, the respondents perceived
that there were lower expectations held in the profession in general
than those held in academe with the exception of scholarly subgroups
like the American Nurses' Association Council of Nurse Researchers, the
American Academy of Nursing, and Sigma Theta Tau. Some respondents
reported no expectations held by the profession in general and that the
profession does not encourage nurses' involvement in research. Another
respondent stated that "the majority of nurses do not understand the
need for research."
Some descriptions from respondents related to the


113
skills." As other respondents described, this included clarity in
thinking with the ability to identify relationships, "the intellectual
ability to use the tools", "work[ing] with higher order abstractions",
and thinking about both divergent and convergent situations. The
second skills domain related to interpersonal skills in collaborative
relationships and the ability to get along with and work with other
people. Organizational skills were proposed as an antecedent by some
of the respondents and included concern for detail and process and
discipline for devotion of time to the research. The fourth skills
domain related to communication. Articulation skills, both speaking
and writing, were viewed by a minority of the respondents as an
antecedent with some proposing these as more of an essential
characteristic rather than as an antecedent for the individual.
Essential characteristics. Similarly, essential characteristics
for successful research also fell into the three themes of character
traits, knowledge, and skills and the domains illustrated in Table 11.
The main differences between antecedents and characteristics apparent
in the respondents' comments were that of degree or depth.
In the domain of character traits, interest was necessary but
became an enthusiastic devotion to nursing research. As one respondent
stated, it is "the curiosity, desire, motivation to learn new methods
or to extend the knowledge base." This depth of enthusiasm was further
illustrated by a respondent who described research as "a passion for
the substance of what you're studying" and a "real love for what you
are doing." This value for research continued to be apparent in other
respondents comments with an added dimension of the realization of the


293
C. Perceived Environmental Expectations
1. What do you perceive to be the expectations for scholarly
productivity on the part of the:
(a) institution
(b) your academic colleagues
(c) the nursing profession
2. Consider your personal expectations for scholarly
productivity and those of the institution.
(a) Commonalities?
(b) Differences?
D. Environmental Facilitators
1. What support services for research and scholarly endeavors
in the environment should be considered:
(a) essential,
(b) desirable, not essential
(c) not necessary
2. What environmental provisions would you find
(a) most useful
(b) least useful
VI. Research Preferences
A. Areas of Study/Focus
1. What areas of research do you prefer?
[ ] Fundamental Processes (e.g., biology and behavior)
[ ] Nursing Practice (e.g., nursing process, intervention)
[ ] Nursing Profession (focus on practitioner/nursing society)
( ] Delivery of Nursing Services (provision of services)
[ ] Nursing Education (process of education)
(Bloch, 1985, p. 133)
2. Have most of your research and publications been in this
area?
3. What factors contributed to this preference?
4. Would you say that you have a "research program?" ( ] No
[ ] Yes
If yes, please describe your research program.


76
and researchers will help to stimulate effective generation,
dissemination, and utilization of research in nursing.
Summary
This chapter has included a review of literature relevant to
scholarly productivity in science, academia, and nursing. Studies of
institutional productivity have been aimed at providing an awareness of
scholarly productive sites. Individual productivity has been studied
more frequently to describe, explain, or predict the correlates of
scholarly productivity. Significant influences on productivity have
included academic rank, career age, communication with colleagues,
early productivity, time devoted to research and writing, institutional
type, mission and policies, membership in professional societies,
publication preferences, and teaching responsibilities. Measures of
scholarly productivity have most frequently focused on publication as a
quantifiable measure of research outcomes. Simple counts of
publications have been furthered with other measures to address the
scholar's web of influence and participation in the reward system of
science. Eminence of the institution and the scholar generally have
been found to influence productivity significantly with the effects
from the environment and accumulated advantages providing a greater
awareness of and resources to certain scholars. Recommendations from
past studies on scholarly productivity in nursing have been discussed
as relevant to the current investigation in addressing characteristics
of leading researchers for developing an understanding of the behaviors
and influences associated with recognized scholarly accomplishments in
nursing.


228
(14.29%) or self selected studies (33.33%). In addition, 29 percent of
the established nurse researchers reported the desire to do a formal
postdoctoral program in the future.
Respondents demonstrated substantive knowledge through their
research programs and methods for continued development of research
expertise. A variety of specialty areas was represented in the
clinical practice backgrounds of the respondents, with these
specialties often reflected in their programs of research. Self-
selected study was used by established nurse researchers for continued
development of research expertise based on perceived personal needs
related to a current research project or interests in a particular
topic. The methods used for development included reading (73.68%),
taking or auditing courses (57.89%), attending conferences, meetings or
seminars (52.63%), seeking (47.37%) or providing (52.63%) consultation,
networking with colleagues (15.79%), continuing ongoing research in the
area (15.79%), and writing for publication (5.26%).
Collegial linkages or networking activities provided the
opportunities for consultation when help was needed on a topic or
project. Respondents reported current and projected linkages with
colleagues for consultation and collaboration on a certain area of
interest. One example of this was reflected in established nurse
researchers' descriptions of different methodologies which they wanted
to implement on a specific project or to develop more skill in and the
colleagues they planned to contact for consultation or direction.


18
SOCIETY
Figure 1. Organizational model of knowledge development at a university
school/college of nursing.
Note. From Organization and Management (p. 109) by F. E. Kast and
J. E. Rosenzweig, 1979, New York: McGraw-Hill. Copyright 1979 by
McGraw-Hill. Adapted by permission.


272
Informed Consent Form page 2
Analysis of structure and process used by established nurse researchers and
the nature of their organizational environments that nurture nursing
scholarship will increase the quality and quantity of nursing research.
You have been nominated by your Dean because you meet the criteria for
an "established nurse researcher," are well grounded in the research
process, and have demonstrated commitment to advancing the discipline of
nursing. If you are willing to participate in the study, please read the
agreement, sign the consent form, and return page 2 in the addressed,
stamped envelope by April 30, 1986.
CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE
I would like to participate in this project and agree to the researcher
visiting my institution to conduct a personal interview (2 hours) with me.
I understand that the interview will be audiotaped for the purpose of
accurate data collection. The date and time for the interview will be
arranged at my convenience. I also agree to provide additional information
needed by telephone or by mail at no personal cost or at no cost to my
institution. I also understand that I will not receive an honorarium for my
participation in the study. I am free to withdraw from the study and
discontinue participation in this research project at any time.
Signature:
Date:
I further extend my permission to the interviewer to audiotape at interview
for the purpose of accurate data collection.
Signature:
Date:
(Please Sign and Return this Page)


216
subsystem. Policy, availability of resources, and channels of command
for obtaining resources for research must be considered with the
structural subsystem. The structural subsystem influences research and
scholarly productivity through organizational and research orientation
variables. The organization of the school and characteristics of
programs are one part of this structural subsystem that affect the
resources available for successful research outcomes. The leading
academic environments studied were characterized by large, established
graduate programs in nursing. Faculty and student body sizes related
to teaching and service functions are considerations with this
structural unit. Intramural resources in the formalized structure of
this subsystem occur through the expectation system, research support
opportunities, and the collegial atmosphere. At times, the structural
subsystem may be bypassed when the individual researcher views the use
of more informal channels in the environment as more efficient or
useful for certain research activities. One hindrance to successful
research which can occur relates to a potential situation where an
excessive amount of administrative controls are in place. These were
rarely described in the environments studied but occasionally were
referred to as "hoops to jump through" or the excessive paperwork and
channels to negotiate when attempting to access resources.
Technical Subsystem
Accumulated knowledge refers to the knowledge base of the
researcher as well as the substantive support through consultation and
collaboration necessary for accomplishment of successful research


243
awarded at least one federal grant and 80 percent at least one
intramural grant for their research projects. The mean numbers of
extramural grants for the group was 2.05 and 3.82 for the past 3 years
and total career respectively. Similarly, the mean numbers of
intramural grants was 2.55 and 3.29 for the past 3 year and total
career respectively. These numbers of grants demonstrate the
availability of funds in the environments of the respondents, both
extramurally (discipline and society) and intramurally (school and
university) and support the respondents' reports of financial support
in their respective environments.
Collegial support for research
Psychosocial and substantive support from colleagues intramurally
and/or extramurally was perceived as a facilitator of successful
research outcomes. Respondents described this collegial support in
cases where colleagues were interested and open to substantive sharing
and collaboration. Highly competitive researchers in the environment
were described as one inhibitor to successful research. This hindrance
of competition was described related to psychosocial interactions and
substantive sharing among researchers, not competition within the
individual to achieve a higher level of performance nor in competition
for securing grant monies. The shared values for research and use of
intramural and extramural collaboration and consultation opportunities
for substantive and psychosocial support were evident in this domain of
collegial support.


5
Career age is the number of years of full-time academic
appointments which have been held by the established nurse researcher
in a college or university setting.
Domains are symbolic categories that share at least one feature of
meaning in ethnographic data (Spradley, 1979, p. 100). For the
purposes of this study, domains were developed as symbolic categories
from the verbal and written comments provided by at least 40 percent of
the respondents.
Environments are contextual settings that include the school or
college of nursing, the university, the nursing discipline, and society.
Individual characteristics are those individual traits demonstrated,
exhibited, or identified by an established nurse researcher and include
personal, professional, positional, productivity, network, and research
orientation variables.
Leading academic institutions are top-ranked institutions
identifiable in two or more of the rating schemes (Blau & Margulies,
1974-75; Chamings, 1984; Hayter, 1984; Hayter & Rice, 1979; Margulies &
Blau, 1973) that have appeared in the literature. Institutions
selected as sites for investigation of established nurse researchers
shall be considered as representative of leading academic institutions
rather than associated with any definitive ranking of reputation or
scholarly productivity.
Research includes all forms of research activities including
basic, applied and practice research, whether qualitative or
quantitative in nature, relevant to practice, professional,
administrative, or educational issues in nursing.


174
Ranking of tripartite missions
During the On-Site Interview respondents further discussed
institutional missions of research, teaching, and service. Respondents
ranked each mission for emphasis at the institutional level and for
individual preference. Results of these rankings are displayed in Table
30.
In the ranking of perceived institutional preference, research was
ranked first (80.95%T or tied with teaching in first place (4.76%) by
85.71 percent of the respondents. Further, each of the three respondents
from 5 of the 7 sites ranked the institutional missions in the same order
for their respective institutions. Respondents described this preference
at the institutional or the school level related to the reward structure
of promotion, retention, and tenure. Although a preference for research
at the institutional level was evident at all sites, respondents
described differences in the size of the intervals between the three
missions with research sometimes well above the other two missions or
with service as a very low third in the ranking.
Respondents were then asked to rank their individual preferences for
the three missions of research, teaching, and service. Again, research
was ranked first (57.14%) or tied for first place (33.33%) by a majority
(90.48%) of the respondents. Respondents supported their preferences for
research and described how this was operationalized in teaching, service,
and scholarly productivity. Several respondents described their
functions within the three missions with teaching and service integrated
in their research, therefore, preferences were not mutually exclusive.


157
Research preferences
Established nurse researcher respondents were asked about their
research preferences during the On-Site Interview. Utilizing
categories developed by Bloch (1985), these preferences were reported
predominantly in two areas, (1) fundamental processes of biology and
behavior and (2) nursing practice as illustrated in Table 25. The
majority (80.95%) of the respondents' preferences related to client
issues, with 95.25 percent of these respondents reporting the majority
of their research and publications in this area as well. The one
respondent who reported that most research and publications were not in
the area of research preference described a diversity of areas related
to the "eclectic" approach of her research program. Factors which
influenced preferences for fundamental processes or practice areas fell
into three themes, interest, educational background, and clinical
practice background. Respondents reported their interest and
commitment to the area of preference as influencing the focus of their
research efforts. One respondent described this interest as follows:
"it's the state of the art where we are and what we need to know
and to really try to come up with implications for practice."
Educational background and preparation in graduate programs,
particularly doctoral education, and past experiences as clinicians
were described as a major influence on their chosen area of research
preference. Respondents with preferences in the areas of fundamental
processes and nursing practice often reported preferences and research
studies in both areas, especially when involved in multiple projects or
when engaged in large multiple purpose projects.


94
Data Collection Protocol
Data collection for this exploratory study was organized into
three stages. Data collection in stage one occurred between March and
August, 1986. Visits to the seven sites were done between May 20, 1986
and July 15, 1986, for the second stage of data collection. Following
lengthy analysis procedures for the data obtained in the first two
stages, Stage Three of data collection occurred during January, 1987.
Stage One
The initial stage of data collection began with the nomination of
and contact with established nurse researchers. Leading researchers
were mailed a packet of materials containing (1) a personal letter to
explain the study and request participation; (2) an informed consent
form (Appendix B); (3) a schedule form requesting tentative times for
the on-site interviews; (4) the Pre-Interview Profile; and (5) the PSR.
This mailing was followed and/or preceded by telephone calls to the
researchers to discuss the materials. If the researcher was willing to
participate in the study, he/she was requested to return the signed
consent and schedule forms and the two data collection instruments.
Stage one consisted of both qualitative and quantitative data
collection.
Stage Two
This stage consisted primarily of qualitative data collection
during the site visits to the leading academic institutions. The
On-site Interview Guide was used for individual interviews with the
established nurse researchers. Interviews were conducted at a location


51
career development through the lending of organizational, role, or
interpersonal support and teaching" (Hagerty, 1986, p. 17).
Studies on faculty productivity have given greater attention to
sponsorship. Sponsorship further enhances the young scientist's
visibility in the scientific community (May et al., 1982, p. 24).
Manis (1950) reported that scientists who have had prestigious sponsors
are more likely to be productive themselves. This has been supported
by Cameron and Blackburn (1981) who reported, "both financial support
and early collaboration with senior faculty signal a social selection
process that impacts significantly on outcome measures . ."of
publication rate, grants received, collaborations, and professional
network (p. 372). Yet, distinctions should be drawn between the
sponsor's reputation and measures of productivity and visibility of the
individual sponsored. Reskin (1978) reported that the sponsor's
productivity affected only early recognition, not enduring
productivity.
Further investigation of mentorship is needed with regard to
scholarly productivity, especially following doctoral education. Long
and McGinnis (1981) report that the mentor's overall effects on the
mentee's first job are quite small (p. 430). Yet, eminent scientists
have been shown to be influenced early in their careers by other
eminent scientists (Zuckerman, 1967). Greater information on the
influences of mentorship on both the young and the senior scholars is
needed, especially in nursing.


91
methodological rigor. On the total sample of 105 respondents, the
reliability indexes were as follows: alpha = .723 and theta = .745
(p < .01). Minor revisions were made following further statistical
analysis.
Since it was determined that the instrument measured more than one
single underlying factor and items were correlated, individual items of
the PSR were used to characterize the subjects' responses, rather than
providing total or subscale instrument scores. Themes with significant
research identified in the original research by Campbell et al. (1983),
methodological rigor, importance to the discipline, personal interest
and motivation, and real world implications, were utilized in the
analysis.
On-Site Interview Guide
The On-Site Interview Guide was developed as a qualitative data
collection method using structured and semi-structured items and
addressed all three research questions. The advantages of an interview
guide include that it (1) provides for efficient time utilization, (2)
is systematic and comprehensive by delimiting the issues, and (3)
focuses the interview (Patton, 1980). The combination of both
structured and semi-structured items is intended to allow for a degree
of objectivity and uniformity, yet still allowing for probing and
clarification (McMillan & Schumacher, 1984). Further specificity was
added to the guides for on-site interviews with established nurse
researchers based on initial data received on the Pre-Interview Profile
and PSR instruments. Interview times ranges from one and three-quarter


193
opportunity, and testing. The pioneer theme was apparent in
descriptions of "investigations of an untapped source of information."
One researcher described the example used as a "pioneering effort."
Descriptions to further theory development and resultant changes in
practice as the attraction were also categorized under this pioneer
theme. Another major theme for attraction to the example was
opportunity. Respondents consistently used the term, "opportunity,"
and conveyed an impression of personal interest in the problem with
collaboration, design, or research extension opportunities in place.
Testing, as a third major theme, was apparent in descriptions of the
attraction to the project. Testing was used to study common nursing
interventions, to redesign a flawed study, in evaluating a model, or in
situations where variables were quantifiable and available for study.
Contributions to nursing
Part of the criteria for selection of successful research studies
by the respondents was based on perceived contribution to nursing
knowledge. To further describe the contribution, respondents were
asked about acceptance and feedback from reviewers, the discipline, and
from colleagues. Respondents reported acceptance and "positive"
feedback from reviewers on the findings of the projects. Interest was
reported from the field with opportunities for dissemination.
Respondents further reported frequent citations of their work by
others. Several respondents also reported numerous requests for
reprints while another respondent stated, "nursing hasn't caught onto
[requests for reprints] as [in] other fields."


155
respondents and were attributed to specific role models, mentors,
co-investigators, collegial support, and promotion of research in the
environmental context. Educational preparation as an influence on
their research success was cited by 40 percent of the respondents based
on perceived strength of their preparation, experiences and
requirements during various educational programs, and mentors, role
models and advisers. Personal characteristics influencing research
success were also reported by 40 percent of the respondents. These
personal characteristics included the following: "the tendency to
persist with complex tasks", "self motivation and perseverance",
"curiosity and internal motivation", "hard work and dedication",
"energy and commitment", "hard work and creativeness", and creativity,
desire, stubbornness and persistence. One respondent described her own
intellectual functioning as the "ability to do more work per hour than
average so [she] can stand overload created by research." To a lesser
extent than with career influences, the fourth domain included
influences of spouses and friends other than nursing colleagues
providing encouragement, support and guidance, as reported by 15
percent of the respondents.
Human influences on research success. In terms of influences on
research success described during the On-Site Interview, human factors
were described from mentors, colleagues, teachers, faculty, and deans
by 57.14 percent of the respondents. Although one respondent
identified the influence of negative role models in nursing, no
individuals external to nursing, doctoral education, or research
programs were identified as influencing research success.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Many people and influences have contributed to the culmination of
this project. Members of my dissertation committee have demonstrated
professionalism and concern in all of our interactions. A special word
of thanks is extended to Linda E. Moody, Ph.D., advisor and committee
chairperson, for her tireless assistance at all phases of the research
process. To the other committee members, Sally A. Hutchinson, Ph.D.,
Lois J. Malasanos, Ph.D., M. Josephine Snider, Ed.D., and James L.
Wattenbarger, Ed.D., I wish to express my gratitude for their
encouragement, guidance, and generous contributions of time for advice,
committee meetings, and review of materials. Dr. Linda M. Crocker, an
earlier member of my dissertation committee, also provided invaluable
assistance in the preparatory phase of the research proposal.
The deans at the leading academic institutions included in this
study were particularly helpful. Without their assistance in
identifying leading researchers and allowing field interviews at the
institutions, this research could never have been done. I am extremely
indebted to the established nurse researchers interviewed for sharing
information and insights. These outstanding nurse researchers, who so
freely gave of their time and experience, have contributed to a greater
understanding of scholarly productivity in academia and the research
process.
iv


141
Authorship preferences. Respondents also discussed authorship
preferences, single authorship, co-authorship, or multiple authorship.
Preferences and selected comments are illustrated in Table 21. One
respondent viewed this as an ethical issue, based on the number of
contributors to the project. Preferences were generally based on the
nature of the research project. Some comments related to the amount of
work done by individual contributors when there was a long listing of
authors. Others viewed single authorship as limited, as one becomes
involved in collaborative ventures. One issue emerged from the
interview data: the difference between authorship and writing of the
article. Multiple authorship frequently occurred but respondents felt
it was desirable to limit the writing to a single person or to a small
group, with two to three authors.
Respondents were then asked to estimate their involvement in the
three different types of authorship. The majority of the respondents
(71.43%) had done some amount of all three types, or at least two of
the three types (90.48%). Two respondents (9.52%) preferred and had
done only single authored publications, while two additional
respondents (9.52%) had done no single authorship preferring
co-authorship or multiple authorship. Productivity for these four
individuals was equally high whether single or co- and multiple
authorship was preferred. For example, of books, chapters and
monographs, and journal articles, raw totals for the past three years
were 9 and 12 for the two respondents preferring only single authorship
and 6 and 12 for the two respondents preferring only co- or multiple


148
doing." Respondents were asked to rank the importance of network
activities on a ten-point scale with 10 as the most valuable or
important. The mean importance reported by the group was 8.44 (n=20,
s=l.79) with a median of 9.50. Although all forms of networking were
described, the main theme of the respondents' comments was that of
"substantive sharing" with the social aspects described infrequently or
less positively. The respondents described a variety of specific
methods they use with their network which may be selected colleagues in
their area of research or a subgroup of a larger organization.
Networking with these sources had a serious, goal-oriented nature
and/or a group purpose. The term "networking" did not always have a
positive interpretation when it is used as a label for free time blocks
at meetings. One respondent described how nursing was trying too hard
to make networking "happen", but that the concept itself was generally
perceived as positive.
Value. To clarify the value of networking, respondents were asked
which activities were most valuable for the nurse researcher. Three
domains of these networking activities were apparent, initial contacts,
non-specific contacts, and direct contacts as illustrated in Table 24.
Initial contacts occurred through research meetings and organizational
activities, where learning opportunities were available for both
substantive content and for initial contacts to expand the network.
Non-specific contacts occurred through informal contacts at social
gatherings and meetings and were designed for maintaining contact with
groups of similarly minded people, not necessarily in the same area of
research. Both of these contacts led to more specific, goal-oriented


52
Mobility
Job mobility has been defined as the number of career moves. As
such, mobility has been found to have poor predictive effects for
productivity when other factors are constant (Behymer & Blackburn,
1975; Blackburn et al., 1978). Long (1978) reported that mobility
occurs later in the career and still the effects of prestige of the new
department are weakly associated with the faculty member's
productivity. One area that has received less attention in terms of
mobility is the environmental character of the position change.
Blackburn and Havighurst (1979), who investigated career stage data
with older and retired male faculty members, found that very active and
active scholarly productive faculty moved to research universities in
job changes while moderately active and inactive faculty moved to
colleges or non research universities (p. 561) .
Pranulis (1984) controlled for current mobility in her sampling
design and Ostmoe (1982) did not address mobility. Part of this
diminished focus may be due to the fact that nurses are predominantly
women. Cole (1979) has indicated that, "on the whole, women scientists
are not as mobile as men, more often feeling tied to a particular
geographic location because of the work requirements of their husbands"
(p. 12). This limitation on mobility has been supported by Finkelstein
(1984) who reported two main constraints on the career mobility of
academic women, enforced mobility or immobility due to the spouse's
employment. Yet, Sorensen, Van Ort, and Weinstein (1985) observed that
doctoral preparation appears to add stability, reporting that only 20


249
nursing interventions. Eighty percent of the examples of successful
research described had been utilized by the respondents or other
researchers in replication or spinoff studies, with a potential for this
percentage to increase in the future.
Vehicles to promote utilization of research findings were reported
through presentations, publications, and consultations. Presentation of
papers focused on being available to the applicable user groups, whether
practitioners, clinicians, other researchers, patients and families, or
the public in general. The goal for utilization was also apparent with
publication preferences of established nurse researchers. In selecting
a source for publication dissemination, respondents focused on
readership or the intended audience. A wide distribution was valued for
dissemination to those who would be most interested in the data and be
able to utilize the results. One respondent who described her program
of research as "highly pragmatic", further reported her efforts to warn
clinicians to be cautious in implementation in practice settings if the
results of the research were initial findings where alternate
explanations had not yet been ruled out.
Along with dissemination, utilization was an evident value of
established nurse researchers. Nursing research was intended to have
some measure of application for the discipline, as a contribution to the
knowledge base and to assist in improvement of health care needs of
consumers. Real world implications was a theme of successful research
with respondents describing the contribution of the example of
successful research in the domains of pragmatics, discovery, or theory.
Pragmatics focused on nursing interventions, improvements in care, and


280
E. SCHOLARLY ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Please indicate a count for your scholarly
accomplishments in the past 3 years and for your career to date.
1983-1986
Publications
Books
Book chapters/monographs
Refereed journals
Non-refereed journals
Published book reviews
Other
Career Activities (total)
Papers Presented at
International meetings
National meetings
Regional meetings
Other
1983-1986
Research Projects & Grants
Non-funded
Grants obtained
DHHS Div. of Nursing
PI
Other Federal sources
PI
A.N.A.
PI
A.N.F.
PI
Sigma Theta Tau, Inc.
PI
Other National sources
PI
Sigma Theta Tau, local
PI
University sponsored
PI
College sponsored
PI
Other:
PI
Consultations (include all types of
off-site consultations)
Career Activities (total)
Co-PI
PI
Co-PI
Co-PI
PI
Co-PI
Co-PI
PI
Co-PI
Co-PI
PI
Co-PI
Co-PI
PI
Co-PI
Co-PI
PI
Co-PI
Co-PI
PI
Co-PI
Co-PI
PI
Co-PI
Co-PI
PI
Co-PI
Co-PI
PI
Co-PI
official,
Editorial Boards
Research Awards and Honors
(name)
(name)
(name)
(Attach additional pages or curriculum vitae, if desired.)


217
outcomes. Resources are provided from the environments, controlled
through the structural subsystem, and coordinated by the managerial
subsystem. Knowledge of these environmental resources and methods for
obtaining access is needed by the researcher. Professional,
positional, research orientation, and productivity variables are the
components of this subsystem. Accumulated knowledge is demonstrated
through advanced preparation, research, publication and work habits,
and methods for continued development of individual scholars.
Resources are identified and utilized by the researcher as appropriate
to a particular scholarly endeavor. This subsystem focuses on the use
of these resources rather than availability without application.
Resources include not only the physical ones but also intangible
resources with consultation and collaboration opportunities to further
add to the accumulated knowledge of the individual researcher.
Managerial Subsystem
Administrative support and the provision of tangible resources for
potential use and the reinforcement for successful research outcomes
comprise this managerial subsystem. Managerial support is demonstrated
through the expectation and reward structures of the environments, the
funding opportunities, tangible resources provided, and workload
allocations for research as part of the faculty role. Managerial
support is also provided through Research Support Units located in the
school environments. Managerial support from the school environment
occurs with some research projects. In the case of larger,
extramurally funded projects, the managerial focus may change to the


160
Research habits
A sense of commitment to research continued to be apparent in the
respondents' descriptions of their research habits during the On-Site
Interview. Several respondents characterized their habits as
"sporadic" with this sporadic nature descriptive of their visible
productivity and not inclusive of the reflective time for idea
generation and reading literature in their area of interest. This was
described by one respondent who stated, "there are probably equal
periods of taking in, reflection and not 'outputting' anything and
periods of equal productivity." Another respondent illustrated her
research habits in this manner:
I'm what I call a "marathon worker." I don't do a
constant output from day to day, week to week but I'll
do an incredible output in one block of time and then
nothing. It's not "nothing." It's like subterranean
work that's going on before that big output.
The general themes of research habits for the respondents were
concentration and devotion to the project(s). There were five major
domains under these themes: creating an environment for productivity,
time management, the ongoing nature of the work, being methodical, and
being involved in multiple projects. Another domain reported by
approximately 43 percent of the respondents was related to
collaborative work.
Creating an environment for productivity. The first domain of
research habits apparent in the respondents' comments was the creation
of an environment for productivity. Freedom from distractions and
providing the opportunity for concentration were essential in the


CHAPTER VI
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The purpose of this exploratory study has been to determine
individual and environmental characteristics of established nurse
researchers that are related to the generation, dissemination, and
utilization of successful research. A naturalistic inquiry paradigm
and an organizational systems substantive paradigm were used to guide
this research for individual and contextual factors associated with
scholarly productivity of these leading nurse researchers. Multiple
methods of data collection were utilized with a sample of 21
established nurse researchers from seven leading academic institutions
with graduate nursing programs to determine variables related to
scholarly productivity. The research has extended the work of Batey
(1978) and Pranulis (1984). In this chapter, conclusions and
recommendations from the study are presented.
Conclusions
A Model for Nurse Faculty Research Productivity
An organizational systems model was used to illustrate the
interrelationship of individual and environmental characteristics of
the established nurse researchers. Main inputs into the model were
expectations, resources, and colleagues through the four environments
of society, discipline, university, and school of nursing. The
subsystems provided the immediate influences on the researchers with
251


194
Respondents were asked to indicate what they perceived to be the
major contribution of their example study. There were three domains
which emerged from their comments which can be further placed into a
typology: pragmatics, discovery, and theory.
Pragmatics. The pragmatic domain was apparent through comments
referring to nursing interventions, improvements in care, and relevance
to practice. For example, one respondent reported that the research
"contributed to nurs'ing assessment" and helped identify those at risk
for functional problems. Another respondent stated the contribution of
"upgrading nursing care by sensitizing staff to [the] importance..." A
third respondent reported the establishment of a means for a nursing
activity in a specific population.
Discovery. The discovery domain occurred at a higher conceptual
level and focused on extension of knowledge or the data base when such
information had not previously been available. Discovery occurred
through identification and description of factors to provide for a
better understanding of a problem area. This discovery domain provided
the foundation for interventions, broader than the pragmatic domain
with the latter addressing specific problematic areas. An example of a
response in this domain was the report of "extending knowledge base" in
a specific area "for patients, families, and care-givers." Another
respondent indicated the contribution of "identification of an area of
concern for many patients that is appropriate for nursing interventions
via alteration in the environment or enhancement of patient coping."
The provision of "a data base which is comprehensive for one setting"


210
respondents noted on the instrument that there were no ethical concerns
associated with the successful research project.
Reactions of Respondents to Initial Findings
A 49-page aggregate report of findings from the Pre-Interview
Profile and the On-Site Interview was mailed to the 21 established
nurse researchers as a validity check to assess for adequate
representation in the data. Twelve established nurse researchers
(57.14%) from six academic environments completed the two-page short
answer reaction form. All twelve respondents reported that their
perceptions had been accurately presented in the data. No substantive
changes in the report were recommended. Two of the respondents
suggested summary statements on established nurse researchers and one
respondent suggested the identification of a "single, most influencing
factor on career, as perceived by respondents." Respondents declined
the opportunity to provide further information or include a minority
report. Several respondents commented on the similarities among
established nurse researchers which could be used as a guide to
stimulate others in research goals.
Through this validity check on the analysis of the pre-interview
and interview data, respondents supported the domains and themes
presented in the data reported earlier in this chapter. Generally from
the responses received in this final stage of data collection,
established nurse researchers supported the analysis of the data
provided by the group on their individual and environmental
characteristics.


147
using and learn[ing] from other people's experiences
and instruments before they're modified [so] you
can avoid blind alleys and mistakes.
This opportunity was described by the respondents as available through
formal presentations, informal discussion, and receipt of
pre-publication manuscripts from colleagues. Discussion was also used
for research related consultation on specific needs of either party
and/or following referrals with someone also working in the area.
In addition, other topics of their communications included professional
organization activities, for speaking engagements, plans for meeting at
some session, or relative to a specific organizational activity.
Networking activities
Influences. Most of the respondents perceived networking as
influencing the dissemination of their work. As one respondent stated,
"it expands the base and [the number of] people who are aware of what
you're doing and your contributions and [who] might contact you."
Other respondents described how networking facilitated the peer review
process, both formally and informally. Another positive influence of
networking described by several respondents related to "name reception"
so that the individual as well as the work is known. This awareness of
the person was further described by other respondents as leading to
more collaborations, paper presentations, and recognition in the field.
Importance. Network activities were identified as important by
the respondents and revolved around the themes of intellectual
stimulation, discussion, and sharing. Two respondents described these
activities as an "enhancer of motivation" and "solidifying what you're


Table 42
PSR Items on Personal Interest and Motivation
Standard
Item
n
Mean
Deviation
Median
8
20
2.6000
1.4290
3.0000
9
20
2.3500
1.0894
2.0000
12
20
2.1000
1.0208
2.0000
13
20
2.7000
1.4546
3.0000
14*
19
1.6842
1.4927
1.0000
19
19
5.3158
1.4927
5.0000

Scored as
a reversal
in the scale.
Table 43
PSR Items
on Real World Implications
Standard
Deviation
Median
Item
n
Mean
15
20
3.7000
0.5712
4.0000
16
19
3.0526
1.3529
4.0000
17*
17
1.5294
1.6627
1.0000
18*
16
5.0625
1.8428
4.5000
20
19
6.7368
0.6534
7.0000

Scored as reversals in the scale.


13
Two major concepts of the psychosocial subsystem are roles and
status. The concept of role "describes the behaviors the individual is
expected to exhibit while occupying a given position in a societal or
organizational system" (Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979, p. 261). Nurses as
university faculty are expected to exhibit behaviors related to the
roles of researcher, educator, and practitioner. These three roles
relate to the generation, dissemination, and utilization of knowledge.
To what measure these roles are congruent with the university mission
for research, teaching, and service depend upon the mission and its
application at the university, college, and departmental levels. In
addition, as professionals, nurses are expected to engage in re