LIBARY STATE PLANT SOARS
TECHNICAL SERIES, No. 12, PART V.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
131UnIA-AV Ov NOOO
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bu~reau
MISC ELLANEOUS PAPERS.
TmHE MORE IMPORTANT ALEYRODIJE
I N FEST ING ECON -0X0MIW PI- A-NTS.T
WITH DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES
INFESTINXG THEl ORANGE.
By33 A. I. (VINAC1
In (Jhrge of Decidutous Fruit Insect In uestirlations.
ISSUED) OCTOBiER 21, 1907. *
S( GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
J 3 1907.
C () X T E N T S.
I n tr o d u c t io n - --- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8 9
Economic plants and the mllore imIprtalit Aleyrodid"e infesting them ..... 89
Tobacco S9.... 8
Sugar cane ...90 Orange ------ ---------- --------------------- 90
Cotton ..92 Gu va .. .. .92
Cocoanut -------------- ----------- -- ---- --- ----------- 92
Custard apple (Atiowt sl-) -"---------------- 93
Strawberry ------- ------- -------------- -- -- -- 9);
Cabbage . . .... . ................ .. ... ........................ 93
Greenhouse plants .................... .......... ................. 93
Rubus spp ....................................................... 94
Currant ......... .... ... ................................................... 94
Prmnu., sIpp . .. .................................... .................... 94
CB anb o - -- --- --- - -- ------- ----- -------- 94
Prn uo --- -- -- -- - - - -- -- -- -- ---------- -94
F ig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .9 4
B a m b o o . . . . .. . ... .. .. . .. ... . ... . . .. . . . .9 4
Indigo---------------- --------- 94
Betel ----------------------------..- -- - ------------ 94
G r a p e . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ..... ..... ....... ... .... 9 4
LU STRATIX S.
P LATE VII1. I-xonomtic AMeyrodidt,. Fig. I,.-. io I 1ydcs, h i ra rdIi. o n o)ran-ge.
Fg. 2. 11cilFodicio U(uifI. Fig. 3.--ilcurodcs~(' capormiiJiFil. ..i ....U1~ 92
TEAT FIt;1 URKS.
F142. 23. .1 Ic roldc, h ()i i l i. sl ,o\w Jig copIious st crt 4tio IIIfroi pupal, onl Io~ver snr~w& oforaige1c~f --- -- ---24. Alchprodc, htw,Ifrl': I'upul case and (1vt~iiIs -----------2-I v
V. S. ). A., B. E. Tech. Ser. 12, PI. V. Issued October 21, 1907.
THE MORE IMPORTANT ALEYRODIDAE INFESTING' ECONOMIC
PLANTS, WITH DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES INFESTING
By A. L. QUAINTANCE.
In Charge of Deciduous Fruiit l usect In reNtiqations.
Systematically the Aleyrodide occupy a position between the Coccide and Aphidida,, two families of insects containing many serious pests of agricultural and horticultural crops. Species of Aleyrodida are, however, with a few exceptions, not at present of especial economic importance, though many of them occur in some numbers on useful plants. Also, with few exceptions. so far as known the injurious species of this family are not yet generally distributed over the world, as are so many scale insects and aphides. possibly from the fact that the Alevrodide feed exclusively on the leaves of their host plants and are thus not so likely to be distributed in shipments of trees and plants as if occurring on the twigs and branches. When once established in a locality an introduced species, as compared wNith scale insects, would disseminate more rapidly. ince the adults of both sexes are winged, though they are not strong fliers.
The Aleyrodida' are most abundant in tropical or semitropical regions, though species of .lleyroldes in the United States are fairly abundant in the Transition zone. Species of A tl,'odic.s. however. are almost exclusively tropical. and with one exception are known thus far only from the Wes tern IlHei-phere. whence it is not improbable that this species Vwas distributed.
The family contains only two genera-.tyrodes and .lltijodi(c,,-and 143 species have been described to d(late. The literature dealing with these insects is so widely catteredl that it has seemed desirab)le to comment briefly on the species known to infest economic plants, so that their introduction or dissemination may be better guarded against.
ECONOMIC PLANTS AND THE MORE IMPORTANT ALEYRODIDIE INFESTING THEM.
TonBAco.-Tobacco is attacked by two species of .1 leyrode.-namely. A. icotlana Alaskell. from Mexico. and A.1. tablaci Gennadius. from Greece. The former is apparently not of much economic importance. as shown by the condition of infested leaves from Mexico. A. toa(" is, however, more injurious, according to Targioni-Tozzetti. who 89
90 .11fSCELTANFOUS PAPERS.
trives a verv f till account of the species in his Animali ed Ensetti del Tobacco."' The insect was first noticed in 1889 on leaves froin Ai-aucania, where it was said to be spreadiiig more and more. In flie Nvork just cited it is remarked that, save possibly for a decrease in dimensions, the leave!z do not show sign,, of alterations, but frolic tile quantity of insect- which remain oii the di-y letives, the tobacco is lT1Ider(:d unfit fol- it-,( -No method of tre. nent is suggested.
SUGAR CA_.\-E.-No aleyrodi& li,ive a,-, yet been recorded from sugar calle III tlli but abnmd certain 1111(i pe:4ts of iniport ance. f lcyro(/(', )ci q;; ;ignoret AN-as de,,4cribed in t86 T f rom the Isle of Al"lliritilts. wl1er(, it NA-1is fou7id oii uo--ir Tit JaAa this saine,
Is -tit -I seriolt- lw -t of (.:IIW. and theiv it lias been careflifl\- studied bv DI.. L. zelliallei- tm(l i-eported oil in tliQ Ai chief Java uii (Irilldll-,trio foi* P 9G. Two other zpeeies iiifest sugar cane in Ja \-,-t-iia itiely. 1, lcyrm7cs lmi.y;co) *o;., zel I I I t I le I. I ild 1. Zellittiler,
]I(, f0i'llier beill (), (lil i te dest i-tirt I N-e. TI ie.,- (, pec I es I iavc I I so been f I d I v treAted bv Zelintner Ili the -Arcliicl f0v The ro-, iiiedifll measUIIT_ pi-acticed cow-i-4 iii cuttiiify (01' zmd buriiiilo- the illfe:4ed leave". III)d spi-ayillg NvitIl 11111k 4 lime. NN-lik-li i.- -aid to (1(-4roy tile iiiiiii-atuiv
but Ilot tll(, de\-eloped 1),Inl Itc withill flat pup"I e"Ic"e-Ab1crus
,I!-() 'Itt'Icked h\- Ole fullrils (yrodix Wehhei-, or a N-ery
simil.,11. pecie -. X\ ry. .1 7(,Y-Ilicli nit;wks 11cqo)(bs c'/r' ill this count MI -kell on ("Ille in Fi I 7)modrii.4.,
Nvl- 1-ccolved 1) v froll) fl(Il-od-,I. 111dia, witll tile advicee
t1lia t1le ill-cct wel,(,- nalwi- dain-tcriii(y to stirai- cii)c in tlio- c j)arts.
0 R A G E.-Of tile SOV'Cl"(11 'deyrodids ,itfiicl Mo- the ormgp, Alcye;h.; Ril(ty and Howm-d I.-, t1le lll(),-t illipol-t'llit. In
Florida especi-tIlly t1iis sl)ccie ;It tile pl-(' -cllt tillie is dollbtle s the illost import ant of all of the iii-- ect pests of tlii--, Crop, and it is also the siil.)j(,(-t of fiv(picia cmitpliiiit from soutlici-il Lollisiana and to a less extelit from solltllezl -tern Tcx;ts. The liteniture of this species is con-siderable. and it 4 life hi.,- torv ha beeii carefully worked out. Soine impoi-taiit lvpei-s are: The Oi-tuige Aleyi-ode,- ,"" by Riley and Howard (,Tii,. Life. Vol. 17, 1). 219) ; Sooty Afold of the Orange lilld its Treatmetit." by 11. J. Webber (Bull. 13, Div. Veg. Phys. and PItll()].. U. S. Del)t. Auric.) Tile- White FIV." bv 11. A. Gossard (Bull. 67, Fl(i. A,(ri-ic. Exp. Sta.), and White Fly Collditions ill 1906, etc.." by E. W. Bvi-ger (Bill]. 88, Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta.).
At the pie -eiit time the iii -ect is the subject of (,i special investigation by the Biii-ean of Entomology. Aleyrodc., oi,?Wensis Quaintance,
inore. common oil guava in Florida, also'oectins oil the orange, but on this latter plant it bas not yet proved to be of special economic importance. In Arizona Prof. T. D. A. Cockerel] has found on orange a form of Aleyrodes mo?4 Quaintance which he has given the
THE MORE IMPORTANT ALEYROT)IDI'E. 91I
v-arietal name arizonensi8. Aleyiode8 atowtdtu Aaskell wvas des-cribed from specimens on orange fromn the north-west Hin-alayas, the leaves received by Maskell being thickly covered with the putpa cases. Aleyrodes maria tti Quaintance occurs oni orange iii Japan., and A. spinifer Quaintance on Odfrits sp. anid rose iin Jav-a.
For the past three 'or four years the Bureau of iitomiologv) has received from Cuba orange leaves ifested -with an undescribed s pecies of Ale erodes, the description of -wich is given herewith:
Aleyrodes howardi ui. sp.
(Plate I; text figs. 23, 24.)
Egg.-Uniforii brownish inl color, without reticuint 1005, curved : size ilho~ut
0.18 XO.09 mil. Stalk short, egs ying(1 lrostrate oil leaf, arrangedd more or less inl circles or curves.
Lwau.-Color and structure essentially asI, ill puIpa case.
Piipu a N.S~ about 0.9 X0.55 mmi., subell iptical ill shanpe. Ma1ny speis with more or- less~ evident indentures oil cepha lo-lateral margini ofV Case, wvithi cephlici end (obtusely pointed. Color oil leaf under hand l'(iis with secretioni remov ed, yellowvish brown varyinog to blackish ; under trnsnnultted light yellowish to brownish yellow. There is a (listinlct matrginal rim all around, with waxtubes distincet, the incisionls aculte :tiid tubes r'ound~ed distally. Froin margin of case ali arllnd A
-irises aI short rimi of wvlx. composed of individIual 0 wax threads, serrated on margin as seen under a high power of mlicroscope. CISe" usull1y quite covered by a very copious secretionl of gralyish. Fl(;. 23.-Alc !' ,1rdfs heovadi1i,11\curling wvax rods, wvhichi is very coilsi icu( )115 oil mng copious, scertioI1 fromf pua, badly infested leaves,, quite hiding thle insects be- M1 lower surfae (,f oranige leaf. nieath (P1 VIIl, fig. I1; text fig(,. 2.3). D enuded of (Originlal.) secretion, pupa c"Ise is seenl to be at first almlost 11t )i I e icmi a e collXveX as the insect develops, within segilen ts distinct.
JDorsumn withi pa ir of strong seta' Onl first abdoill1 segmIlent, a pair. at vasiformn orifice, and at pair at cauidal margin extending- some distance beyond margin of case. Vasiforml orifice relatively small.11 snbco rdaIte. the ill ilhrk brown, from 6 to 8 strong seta, or spines; ari4ing fromn caudal margin; operuluml largely filling orifice, thle distal inargili within 2 fa it notchies, liiiul not dlist!ingu ishable (see fig. 24).
Ad(ilt fenit'ic.-V-sual -,body yellow, wing-s immilaculate ; leng-th of body about 0.84 11n11. ; hind tibiw. 0.85 mmn. ;fore wig I mum. Ion- b~y 0.16 mnin. wide. Hind tarsus, 0.16 11111-.
Food plant.-Orange. Collected at Artaniisa, Cuba,Feray5
1905, by C. IL. Marlatt, anid at Hlabana, Cuba, Feb~ruary 19, 1903, by E. A.- Schwarz. Recei\-e from Dr. MAel. T. Cook, Jun11e 6., 1905, froml Santiago do las Vegas, Cuba.
Judging from the abunidanice of this insect onl orangce leaves received fromi the above-mienitionied sources, this is a very serious pest
92 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.
of the orange, perhaps rivaling the so-called white fly of Florida (Aleyrodes eitri Riley and Howard).
Described from numerous infested leaves, pupa cases in balsa mounts, and two females.
Type.-No. 10821, U. S. National Museum. Named for Dr. L. 0. Howard.
COTTO.-Aleyrodes gossypli Fitch, described in Fitch'.s Third Report, is known only from the single type specimen on ossyp i um religion from Ningpo, China. The second species is Aleyrodes abutilonca IHaldeman. of which A. ftchi Quaintance appears to be a synonym. This species has been found on cotton at Harrisville Miss.; Selmna. Ala.. and Columbus. Tex. At the place first mentioned the insects were very abundant, the lower surface of the
leaves being covered with the
pupa cases. The insect was
also taken by Riley on cotton
growing in his garden at
Washington, D. C., and in
Delaware, Maryland, and Vir"ginia it occurs very abunldantly on Abuttion abutilon,
probably its native food plant,
S which it greatly injures, and
ac is thus beneficial, since this
plant is a troublesome weed.
FI;. 20.-Ahyrod s howardi: Pupa ease and details. GUAVk.-In Florida AleyGreatly enlarged (original). rod forns Quain s
rodes florulensis Quaintance is
(11quite colmion on the (guava, the under surface of leaves sometimes being quitee covered with the pupa cases. In Brazil Aleyrodes horridu Hempel and A. oyaba- G5ildi occur on this plant, the latter often )by hundreds, constituting. a serious pest. Aleuriodicu s cocois Curtis infests guava in Trinidad. Venezuela, and Brazil. Guava is also infested by A. cocke/rcll; in Brazil, and by A. honlmesii Maskell ii Fiji. which Cockerell thinks has there been introduced from America along with its food plant.
COco'.NUT.-In Demerara and Barbados the cocoanut palm for many years has been seriously injured by Aleurodicus cocos Curtis which, in company with a scale insect, was held responsible for a widespread disease of the trees on the latter island. This species was the subject of an article by Riley and Howard in Insect Life, Volume V, page 314 (1893). At the time this article was written, the introduction of this species into southern Florida on cocoanut, and guava, which it also infests, was considered only a mat r of time, if not already accomplished. Thus far, however, nothing has been recorded of its occurrence in that State.
Tech. Series 12. Part V, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE VII.
ECONoMic ALEYRODIDAEF. Fig. 1.-Alcyrodes howardi, on ()range. Fig. 2.-Alc!/iodr., minwa. Fig. 3.-A leyrodcs rapomaiirwi11.
THE MORE IMPORTA NT ALEYRODIDE. 93
CUSTARD APPLE (.tAnonat s)pp).).-In Demerara Aioat o, riwf(/ a ml A. squamosa, and in Trinidad .1. retc ~'lt. are often seriously infested with Aleu rodic (s (inona,) Morgan, and this same species has been reported on Anona from IPernanbuco, Brazil. This species is remarkable from the large amount of cottony substance secreted. the under surface of badly infested leaves being thickly covered with it (see P1. VII, fig. 2). A.mirab di Cockerell occurs on Inona sp. in Mexico, and Aleyrode lacerda* Signoret is recorded from Anona sylatica, the locality not being stated.
STRAWBERRY.-A- ey Ode s packa )di Morrill is troublesolle to straw berries, according to Morrill, and occurs in Ohio, Kentuckyv, southeastern New York, and Connecticut. Until the investigations of Doctor Morrill this species had been referred to A. aporai'io~am Westwood, which it resembles. This and the greenhouse Aleyrodes (A. caporariorUin) are the subject of a valuable paper by Morrill published as Technical Bulletin No. 1 of the Massachusetts Hatch Experiment Station. A. ferwialdi Morrill is also recorded from strawberry, though more abundant on Spirea. In Europe A. frarlmri'i Walker occurs on strawberry, according to Walker, in myriads during July, but in France, as stated by Signoret, it is less numerous.
CABBAGE.-In Europe Aleyrodes bassica' Walker has long been known as more or less injurious to cabbage, kale, and other members of this family. According to C. WV. I)ale, and reported by J. W. Douglas, it is common on the indigenous wild cabbage which grows on the coast of the Isle of Purbeck, and the species is not to b)e regarded as imported and naturalized on cabbl)l)age cultivated iI gardens. In Brazil, State of Sao Paulo, Aleyrodes younygi Hempel infests cabbage, the injury being considerable, as the infested leaves become yellow. wilted, and covered with a white powder, and are thus rendered unfit for use.
GREENHOIUSE PLANTS.-Several species of aleyrodids are known to infest plants in greenhouses, notably Ilyoe caJH0,,po'arlo'Im Westwood, which in some sections of the North, as Massachusetts and Coiinecticut, constitutes a serious drawback to the growing under glass of such vegetables as tomatoes, cucumbers, and melons, and to such flowering plants as A1Ujrutan. Lanta(ia. and heliotrope. This species is a very general feeder, attacking plants representing several botanical families (see P1. VII, fig. 3). An undetermineii species having banded wings infests tomatoes and other vegetables under glass, and to some extent out of doors, in Florida. Aleyrodes nephrolepidis Quaintance occurs on a fern, Yephrolepis, thus far reported only from the conservatory of the Pennsylvania State College, where it evidently has been introduced. According to Professor Butz the adults were very abundant, flying around in the conservatory. Other aleyrodids occurring on ferns are Aleyrodes ilicium G6kli, on Aplev n cuneauim.
94 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.
and other Brazilian ferns; in the botanic gardens at Rio de Janeiro; 0 land the same species has been reported on Oleaitder articulatal and
IPteris qpicicrwlata in the Fern House, Kew Gardens, in England.
Aleyrodes (.Sleiii Maskell occurs on Asplciibon lucidwuM and other ferns in ewZealand, though whether in conservatories or not is not indicated. AI eyrodc.,r dtrhi Rxiley and Howard is fairly common onl citrus plants in greenhouse *s, though rarely. troublesome. In Florida A. 1,0f4ii Quaintance infests geranium lin injurious numbers out of doors, anid might become a pest to this plant in greenhouses if there
111111S spp.-Alcyrodc., / ubwwmil Cockerell serious ly infests a cultiN-ated Rubujts, It. tlla/N inFlorida, and occurs scatteringly onl a wild b~lackberrv, m It'. /ON in France, Signoret found a species occurring inl numbers oni R. frtc~Nv hich hie described as A. ruiNW, and lin Englrand A ,'ui(col has- bwen des-cribed by Douglas, infest4iig
alt Iu UNgoig naselee ituationi.
Cuiix~ix- I -qrd&.ribbunDouglas occurs onl red and black curranlts InI Engoland(. Th1is isposil these species which infests
lcCi11,I(1 111l/p(/uo~oNUI n (er Inan IV.
Pit-,t 5ll).-Pewh(li4 an1d plumus are at times infested with Alcyfe'b'N~H'pfI ( Q'7 nai ut ance. the only ailevyrod id( recorded from these
pla~t>.It also occurs oni Crata'~cus and wild crab-apple, though it
is I(nver1 inijuriious So far as Vet r-lporte(1.
I4mi;.-No alevrod ids- aire recorded from t lie, cult iva ted fig, Fictts uarabut Inl IndialcJos (IlcookU Peal occur-, ve(ry abundantly,
especially after the ra-l in v seSOib, onl young.( lDants of [was8 idic-a and 1F. 11w/ N. hee plants, fromll the fact that they take root onl
oldI biiildinlis and1( simila1,r sittuiation-s. b~ecomle a nluisance, and the insccts are therefore reTrdedl as lheneflcial by, Mr. Peal, who expresses regret, that the pup-a' arc so bazdly paras1 itized by a small yellow chialciditl flNy.
B.x.mo.-Various species of bamboo in the vicinity of Calcutt
'(11 infested wvith Il/odNbainbu swt P~eal. As, a rule, according to Mr. eal olyv a few leaves in a lbanilbo() clumlp are attacked, but the
insect somuetimies occurs ilrg numbers. killing the leaves.
IN~l~i.-~1 c~/~dC lc~iPeall occurs on ludigfofc~ erliwtetorut and
I. arct.Beharl, Ind(ia.t beiivr mo1re Common101 Onl the latter plant.
Need for its control is cons-idered likely with the increased cultivation of these laint, for commercial purposes.
BETEl .-PipcrT betic, au pepper, the leaves of which are chewed by
natives- of Eas-terni countries with the betel nut, is attacked in Bakari"alj nj ia by Aleyrode, iubilans, of Buckton, by whom it is reported as doing considerable injury.
(ixRAPE.-A11n undetermlined Aleyrode8 has recently been received on
vinifera grape from Fred. W. Maskewi, Marysvi lle, Cal.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 09229 6283