Miscellaneous papers

Material Information

Miscellaneous papers
Series Title:
Technical series / United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Entomology ;
Added title page title:
Orange thrips
Added title page title:
New genus of Aleyrodidae, with remarks on Aleyrodes Nubifera Berger and Aleyrodes Citri Riley and Howard
Sanders, J. G
Hine, James S ( James Stewart ), 1866-1930
Moulton, Dudley
Howard, L. O ( Leland Ossian ), 1857-1950
Quaintance, A. L ( Altus Lacy ), 1870-1958
Townsend, C. H. T
Davis, John J ( John June ), 1885-1965
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
x, 200 p., viii leaves of plates : ill. ; 22 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Coccidae ( lcsh )
Horseflies ( lcsh )
Thrips -- California ( lcsh )
Aphelinidae ( lcsh )
Aleyrodidae ( lcsh )
Tachinidae ( lcsh )
Citrus thrips ( lcsh )
Aphids -- Speciation ( lcsh )
Insect pests ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references and index.
General Note:
Papers published separately, 1906-1909 with continuous paging.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029624052 ( ALEPH )
28237603 ( OCLC )
agr15001506 ( LCCN )
632 ( ddc )

Full Text
TECHNICAL SERIES No. 12, PART IV. (Suppleflellt to Te I nio eies W No. 1.)
131IJ1 AV 0-- OY 14EN1*TFO -\ [OEloGY'.
L0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Biureau.





Bv L. 0. HOWARI). PH. D.

ISSiUED JULY 12, 1907.



17. S. DEPARTMEN-T OF ACIRICULTT-RE, BVREAUr OF lA,.NT0-_Nl()l,0GYl I V( A ;/I I I, D C -ty));l 9. 1,907. Sm: I have the honor to traiismit the mamv- Oript of a paper con('01,11mig import'llit jmnl.- ltes of "ede which, on account
of it teclillical (.11,11-acter, I rccommen(l for publication as Part IV of Technical "No. 12 of this Bureau.

owl Chic/ oj R111cwt. 11oll. Wmso-N.
0 (/j*.?,/

I f1tro d u cth)1I I - - - - - - - - -- - -- - ---rri 1. A pIheliInini -- - - - - -- - -- - - - T
Tabli~e of gei1l~ --------------------T1l-ibe T1. LPteroitriciiii -------------------- T
T~ibie of -enera -- - - -- -- -- -- - - -- -- T
Genus 'Marilattiella-----------------------------------------------------7T:

G;enuis AzIsitu -------------------------------------------------------- 74

rIadde of Species------------------------------------------------------ 7'
G( ellus I rospa ltai --- - - - - -- -- -- - - - - -

('enlus Cae-- - - ----------------- - - - --- - -- S
G e nlu s I(' ,C I - - - - - - - -- --e-- - - - -

Gemis Bardyli ---------------Ge IIu, Artas ------------ _Genus Perissopterus ---------------- ---------- st
Table of sp~e(!ee ------------------- ---------


Fic. 13. Mar,11a I tila priwa: Ant4iin v foewinIg" and middle leg of femazle- 731
14. If'Slit iiwriwana: 1'enudile. -------- ------- 7 4
15). A1 :t, oapcli-,x Fenle. anid mnteim of Iiiale --------- 75
1I(t;. P o p ta m w ulat1(I Fellule -- - - -- - - -- - S
17. (Coccoyl, quslwif si:tH F'eii le 8- - -- - - -- --.
I~ iocoiphflti-N :cifFi:eill'tle---------------------------------- 82
f9 ( Iac uuir.i .nna foI Ii Ig md 1)i d dlIe Iego o,1f feIImale-- 83
211. C( li iiwn.'ix: Fore wing anenna, and~ middle leg'_ okt foimale_ 84
21. fttird~ilix a m-NtrwIcu.ox- Aiiteit o1f felmle. a 111ntena hind lbg,
ndfore win1ge o il--------------------- ------------------5
22. 1 rtax Llil hci: Antennal, fore W il", iig. ad hinld egOf femle --------8*3

1 V

U. 8. D. A., B. E. Tech. Ser. 12., Pt. IV'. Issued July 12, 1907.


By L. (). I1owAp. I'h. I).

Technical Series, No. 1, published in June, 189.5, comprised a consideration of the Aphelinina of North America, together with some mention of the insects of this group) found in other parts of the world. In that publication the species of thirteen genera were considered, and twenty-six species were described. The economic importance of the group was pointed out and tables of host relations were printed. It was shown that economically these minute parasites are by far the most important of the parasites of the Diaspina, and in the twelve years that have elapsed since the publication of the bulletin their economic importance has become even more evident. It is claimed in California that the San Jose scale is held in subjection by these creatures, and in point of fact observations by Johnson and others in the East have shown that under certain conditions Apheli t us fuscipen 7nis How. may multiply to such an extent as to produce a very high percentage of parasitism of this scale sect. Whether these parasites in the eastern United States will ever become as effective as in California, however, seems doubtful, on account of the longer breeding season on the Pacific coast, and as a matter of fact the opportunity to test the question does not exist, so universal and so effective has become the use of the lime-sulphur sprays in the eastern States.
In the twelve years since the publication of Technical Series, No. 1, many different species of Aphelinina have been reared in one part of the world or another, and most of them have been referred to the writer for study. Very few, however, have been described; these are as follows:
Myioenemna (n. g.) pallida Ashmead. Canadian Entomologist. XXXII. No. 11.
Nov., 1900, p. 349. Reared by A. Craw from Sais.setia olerr Bernard
(Lecanium olc'), collected by Geo. Compere. Brisbane. Queensland.


Aplielhiiis ,iiiiplex Zelintiler. Med. v. It. Proefst. Oost-Java, n. s,,., No. 1897,
111: 1, 18, 19. Reared by I,. ZeInitner. Java, froin Chimmspis zelintiler.
Eiw(lrsia plancliol1hp Howard. Proc. 1'. S. Nat. 'Mus, XVIII, No. 1092, 189(;,
pp. 635-6 36. Reared by E. Ertit-st (Ireeii, Punduloya, Ceylon, front _I.Ocrolcc(1011111 dclicatilin Green WhItichollia dclicat(r).
Eticarsia aonitliw 11mv.ird. Ibid.. 1). lZeared by 1'. Exnest Green, PunduCeylon. fn)III -loo I Wta cm-0 (wr (;reoii.
1-:11(-,1 1. la flavi0ava Hom'.111d. Jonrit. Unit. 'Ssoe- Lond.. XXV, IS!4, No. 97.
0,11(.(-ted on 'St. Vincent. 11. NV. L. by 11. 11. sillith.
_w-coplia.-m-, orieiit:ili.- Howard. Pnw. 1'. 8. Nat. 'Mus.. XVIII, No. 1092, 1896,
Retired 1)y F. Ernest Grccii. I'll I qIII loya, Ceylon. froill Ccroactinllo)wl", Cn,(,11. Cocclts 141*idis (LccajiM)n riridc), (ijsscfi(l Owisph(friflw TIi-,4ioiii T(,zz(1ti (Lcc(inhim colic(r Si "-noret), and loliffispillux 'I lf)zzotti (IMOyloplivs adolliditia).
V.Ivescen z Ifow;ird. Ibid.. 11. 1;*14. Ileired by E. E. Green, PunditCevhll, 1)'(011 ssCtia licmisphirrica Targioni rozzetti (icc(ioum

III, t -11" fletclwri llow;iril. Bid. 7. it. s., I)Iv. Ent., 1'. Ss. Dept. A-ric.,
Uc:"red by T. FIctchet. fl-41111 [1,117coallillm flctchcri Cockorell,

Pn sp;dl([ tri th, Z(,Ililtiler. Med. A% ]I. Profit. ()4)st-Java, it. s., No. 29, 189G,
11-12, Id.. !i-s. 17-21. Re.nvoi by L. Zelmnier front .11cilrodcs (in

lici-4-;ei Howard. Ent. News. XVII. No. -4. Oct., 190(), pp. 291-29: ,
Re'll-ed 11v A. Berlese. Flm-enco. lt.ily. from pcnktgomt Targioid
Ti zzettl. ;,(,( -( ived fn 111 1). C.. 1'. S. A.
lbm;ird- Jmirn- Linn. S41c. L(md.. XXVI, 1S96. 1). 157.
0 ;Iptliro(l h\ 1 11. 11. S1111th. Grelmdl. 11. W 1.
Ahl(,1-11- plilefil-k-eps z('1111tiler. I)e plantenlilizen vail het "111kerriet
011 J,1\-.I. VIll. Ix. Meli. v. 11. Pnwl' t. West-Java, No. 38, VY0. pp. W-11,
I'l. 11. fi-s. 15-17.) 11'1ciretl by L. Zeltutner on Akyrodcs ()It sugar Cane,
J, I N-4 1. I"ololigs to Azoh s Howard.
flavidwz zchntner. De plantenluizen \ liet smikerriot op Jqva.
Ofefl. v. It. Ir(wfst. 137, 1898. pp. 5-7, 1A., 11-16.)
!"!,;Irool by L. zeh111II(-,I-. Java, front Chionaspi., m(Whinctisis Zehiitijer.
Aiterji u- i n. g.) ceropht,,tw Howard. (".in. Litt- XXVI 1. No. 12. IS95. 1). :)51.
hY T. 1). A. Cockerell, 11. 11'. 1., front Ccroplftstcs sp. on
1)ifl h.111wrioifolia.
Azit tis i n. -.) inarehali HoNvard. Pro( EAnt. So(% Wash., IV, No. 2, pp.
Reared by Paul Marchal. -it Paris, France. froin E'pidi(lspis
111'Cit'01 i Del ("'iler6o (Diaxpi., o4rc(rf(irwis .4ignoret) and by W. M. Alztskell
1,pi(lioho hcdcrirv VzOlot (A.qfidiot c-ii Bo -hif (4idnev. -N. S. W.
in. g.) bicolor Hom-ard. Ibid.. pp. 137-138. M ;ired by I'atil Marchi-il. 11.iris. Frzinee. front Epidi(tspi., piricola Del Guercio (I)i(I.,;pis ()-,;h'CWf(willis Sigtioret).
Tlae present paper comprises a description of twenty new species ind five new genera. Nearly (III of these were received from other p,,irts of the, world, but some of them have no doubt already Nr been
established d in this country. In fact, in looking over the material that has accumulated since the publicatioii of Technical Series No. 1, it becomes obvious that the Aphelinine fauna-of the United States, par-


ticularly of the eastern Unitedl States, has been undergoing a Species that were abundant eight or twelve years ago have become scarce, and introduced species have tarken their places. It is indeed difficult. to decide whether aniy of our AplielinnT are natives of the United States. rib introduction of plants fromi albroail including verve manv differentt kinds of hothouse plants beariii~y scale isects, has resulted in the introduction not only of new\A scale insects, but of a numlfber of species of sca.le-insect parasites. These parasites have ulndoubltedly in somle instanices attacked native scale insects and~ have incrIeasedl inl number. It seenis very p)ossile thnaIt C( ,,obtyt fc(IU / F~itch anid Atpbclbitt, ~ / /d p L;S e Bairon are nVialive Sp~ecies. The sale, too, is prolbal v the cl(se wiA-th A ,uti,# cclraN (ori;U oft I a idemianl but it seems p~rolbable that of the remaining, species the great majority are (of foreign origin.
III order to facilitaite the, recogpiiit ion (if gYenera. the dlescripjt ions of
the newforms cntainedl in this paper are preface(b a- ath tabl
of genera This table applies only ofmls 1 ae fmn
general aire not known, aind as rulle females are rea-red in inlfinitel greater abulndance than males, aff'ordinmg aI strong suispicionl that alternation of generations (accompanied by parthenogenesis may hold with a number of the species. With the lpreselit paper tind wi-th leebmiceal Series No. 1, andl particularly where the observer has accese to von IDalla Torre s catalogrue, there shold lbe nlo very great Ii fficult v inl recog-yizilly d (escrilbed SIpecies and ill deciilo) whether ijeeies rearIe d have b~eenl described.

Subfamily APHELININM Howard.
Tars* .- jiIt& (I a -'1'ri1M' I. 1 p, liu ia i Asline"AId.

F(' /U (lck;.
1. Fore wving-S witli an o(ili(Inudy transverset- hairless lii bI elo)w -tlii g -i-- 2 Foi'- wings Wvithoiit iich an811 lle 1iaiihess IilO(-----------------------2. Antenn~v 4-jointe d------------------------------------------------------
Antenn-te (i-joiiite:l ---------------------------------------------- -4
Antennme 7-jointed------------------------------------------------------ 7
:3). S8,aiM' long, slender ; pldicel ,;wollen ; fuink-id joint ve~ry miinte; duhb long) and broad -----------------------------Imao(It ,elt. i(nw genus,.
4. Ovipositor exsertC(1 to from (11W-fifth to o)ne-third length (if nbdomnen ------ -5 Ovipositor not at all or but slightly exs-ertedI------------------------- 1
u in thle flid(1le tarsi of Enocai'sw( lutcola and E. quajt(itanccj the- 2 fterinina I segmnents ot the in iddle tarsi have eoalesced, iiiaking theini ap pear 4-jo)inte-d.


5. Notal scleri tes normall. wings hyaline C----------------entrodora Foerster.
Mesopostscutellui acutely triangular, fore wings with an irregular pattern
of dark liies or spots -------------------------- Perissopterus Howard.
6. Wings hyaline,. or with a slight fuscous patch, eyes naked-A phelinus Dalman 7. Antennal club -jointed, the 2 funicle joints longer than broad and subequal
inll length Mid------------------------------------------ Hia Foerster.
8. Antennam 6-jointed 9--------------------------------------------------- 9
Antenna 7-jointed -------------------------------------------------- 10
Antenne N-jointed --------------------------------------------------13
9. Antenna with a cape. pedieel. 3 ring jonts ( funitle), and a moderately long club Th-----------------------------------ysan ius Hlaliday.
( Paistocharis Foerster.)
10. (lub 1-jointed ; oviptithr extruded to one-half length of abdomen 11
Club 2-jointed: ovilpositor scarcely extruded-------------------------- 12
11. Stigmnal vein squarely trunceate at tip-------------------- Ablerus Howard.
Stigmal veinll with a swollen and rounded tip -------------Azotus Howard.
12. First funicle joint shorter thau second and third -------- Physet Howard. 13. Antenmal club 2-Jointed ---------------------------------------------14
Antennal club 3-jointed ---------------------------------------------15
14. Hind tibiw armed with very stiff black bristles -------Myiocnema Ashmead.
Ilind tibiae not so armed-------------- Enearsia Foerster.
15. Stigmal vein lackin-g: wings with a very long fringe.
A spidiotiphagus Howard.
Stignmuil vein present: marginal cilia comparatively short --------------16
16. Marginal vein shorter than submarginal --------------- Prospalta Howard.
Marginal vein as long as or longer than submarginal -------------------17
17. Antennal sc ae short. flagellum strongly flattened; hind tibia flattened and
with a row of short bristles above .------------------Aneristus Howard.
Antennal scape not especially short. flagellum subeylindrical ; hind tibie
normal ---------------------------------------Coccophagus Westwood.



1. Antenna, 5-jointed ----------------------------------------------------2
Antenm with more than jOints --------------------------------------3
2. Funicle joints 1 and 2 ring joints------------------. Eretmoceru.x Haldeman.
Funicle joint 1 very short: joint 2 slender, four times as long as joint 1.
('ale. new genus.
3. Antennme 7-jointed ---------------------------------------------------- 4
Antennme 6-jointed ---------------------------------------------------- 5
Antenna 8-jointed 6----------------------------------------------------(
4. Tarsal joints of middle leg short and subequal in length; middle tibial spur
as long as first two tarsal joints together a-------------- .ca. new genus.
First tarsal joint of middle leg as long as joints 2 and 3 together; middle
tiblial spur not quite as long as first tarsal joint ------ Bardylis, new genus.
5. Club of antenna 3-jointed, joints subequal in length; only one funicle joint.
Artas, new genus.
Club of antenna 2-jointed; wings spotted ------------ Marietta Motschulsky.
6. Club 3-jointed; funicle joints 1 and 2 very short, 3 longer than 1 and 2
together and much wider than either ---------------Pteroptrix Westwood.
Club apparently 2-jointed; funicle joints 1 and 2 very short,' 3 and 4 each
longer than 1 and 2 together -----------------------Archenomus Howard.


Genus MARLATTIELLA, new genus.

Fernale.-Tarsi 5-] ointed. Wings with a ii olique hairless streak extending from stio'ma b~ackward1 to near base of wini.g: the disc otherwise uniformly and1 rather (lenselv eiliate; marginal vein much longer than submarginal ; stiginal evidlent anid plainly furnished with a rounded knob at, tip; fore wNfig obtusely rounded at tip. .Antennve 4-jointed ; scape inserted near mouth border, long, slender, reaching to to1) of head ; pedicel considerably swollen, longer than~ broad ; the single funicle, joint very small, almost like a ring joint 11nd ra ther oblique ; club long andl broad. rather lnt ait, apex, longer than scape, pedicel, and funicle together. andl with sparse longitudinal triations. Axillae of inesoscutuin verve narrowv. Middle tarsi with firt jintnealy as long as second and thirdl together, Iddeiba
spurF al)ollt as long as corresponding) fird tarsal joint. Hind tars]. longer tbian middle tar's].
Ovipositor somewhat extrudled. Eyes hairy.
iiype. -ThFle following

Marlattiella prima, niew .
species. (F1'ig. 13.)
]K';,wle. Length 0.84
mii. :exp~anse 1.54 mmn.
OTtnCrtt widlth of fore -wing, 0.24 mmn. (riueral/ /
color (1ul11 orano'e-yellow ;
eyes redd~ish b~r()wi; ocelli
ctiriniie: closed mandlibles dusky : all leo's uniformnly
light yellow\. Winshaline, veins faintly dusky.
Jf1ale.-Unki 1oViTi. FIG.. i3.-.araIfii UG >rimuw: A ntenna, for e wing, and Middle
T?/p.-~. 109 I s.leg of female. Greatly enlarged (original).
National -Museumn. IDescribed from 10 female specimens bred from Leola.spi,? JUfton ra, Cockerell, collected by C. L. Ma latt, October 1 1, 1901, at Tientsin, China, on a bush with variegratedl foliage," possiblv a Croton.
Genus MESIDIA Foerster.
AIrsidia Foerster. I Iymim~)terol()gische Stldien., heft II, 1851(). 1. 20.

This g-elnis, hitherto known only through lFoerster's brief characterization, is intermediate between ztphews ~ and 'occophlwr,/a.s, hay30388-No. 12, p)t. 4--4)7-2


ing the oblique hairless line on the fore wing, extending from stigma to near base of wing, of .tphelinus and having the three joints before the club of the antenna of equal length, as with Coecophagus. Other female generic characters may be derived from the new species described below. The ovipositor is strong and well extruded. The femora are slightly swollen. The antennal club is ovate and flattened; funicle joints 1, 2, and 3 subequal in width and each somewhat shorter than the basal joint of the club; pedicel triangular, rather broader and longer than first funicle joint; club with sparse longitudinal strike, as in (occuphas. Eyes densely hairy, but with very

/ 7,

Fi;. 14. t i d io ia : Feinaile. Greatly enlarged (original).
short hairs. Marginal vein of fore wings as long as submarginal; stigmal obscure anid almost lacking.
Type.-The following species:
Mesidia mexicana, new species. (Fig. 14.)
Fernale. Length 0.GS6 min.; expanse 1.4 mm.; greatest width of fore wing 0.24 mun. (neral color dark brown, nearly all of mesoscutelluim except anterior orderde r yellowish:; all coxw, femora, and antenna, brownish: tib)iw andl tarsi whitish; wing veins dusky. All of mniesonotum, except light portion of scutellum, finely and closely aciculate, as is also the messcutun.
Type.-No. 10298, U. S. National Museum. Described from 9
female specimen- reared from an .Aleyrode. collected on Palo de Gusano 1) C. II. T. Townsend at S. Francisco del Peal, Tabasco, Mexico, July 1, 188t7.
Genus AZOTUS Howard.
Azotw.s, Howard. Proc. EuLt. Soc. Wash., Vol. IV, No. 2, 1898, pp. 138-139.
This interesting genus was described in the male sex only in the Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washingtoni, Vol. IV,


No. 2 (1898), pp. 138-139, the type species being A-1. marshal IIoward reared by Dr. Paul MAlarchal at Paris front EApida i piricola Del Guercio (Diaspis ou)trea(fornmis Signoret) and subsequently by WV. M. Maskell from Aspidiotis hedermt Vallot (.1.pidiot, Jeriwi ouch~) received from Sydney, N. S. W.
Of the species described below a good series of females is before the writer and the following generic characterization of the female is therefore presented:
Femele.-Ovipositor apparently normally extruded to from onethird to one-half the length of abdomen. Antennaw 7-jointed, there being no suture dividing the club into the two segments of which it is evidently homologically composed. (In the original description of the male antenna it was called 8-jointe(d. althoiigh no true suture

FIG. 15.-Azotus caponsi.s: Female, and antenna of male. ,rpaly enlarged originall)

occurs with the club in that sex.) Club nearly as long as last, 3 funicle joints together: funicle joints 1, 2 and 4 nearly equal in length, 1 rather the shorter of the three; funicle joint 3 much shorter, although not so disproportionately short as in the male. All tarsi 5-jointed; joint 1 nearly as long as the others together; middle tibial spur about half as long as first tarsal joint. Marginal vein of fore wings not as long as submarginal; marginal cilia not especially long.
Azotus capensis, new species. (Fig. 15.)
Female.-Length 0.9 mm.; expanse 1.8 mm.; greatest width of fore wing 0.24 nm. General color black, with greenish metallic reflections on notum; antenna brown, with base and tip of scape, tip of pedicel, and all of funicle joints 2 and 4 nearly white; all coxe and femora brown femora light at tips: trochanters white:; front tibim


brown. light at tips; middle and hind tibiw nearly white, with two brown bands:* front tarsi light brown, terminal joint dark brown; middle and hind tarsi nearly white, the last joint brown. Eyes crimson. Marginal vein of fore wings brown; wings hyaline, with a transverse brown patch )elow marginal vein and another one nearer tip of wing: an oblique shade at point where submarginal vein turns lIpward to costa.
Male.-Length 0.6 mm.: expanse 1.8 nm.; greatest width of fore wing 0.24 nm. Antenn uniformly light brown. Legs as in female,
except that middle and hind tibiw are uniformly brown. light at extremities. and that all tarsi are brownish. In the fore wings the brown shade below twhe marginal vein is present, but the outer brown shade is much fainter.
Type.-No. 10-20 I [. S. National Museum. Described from 12
inale and 17 female specimens bred from an .kteroleoanium on
lurO7ps te,,,ds; s.~ Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, by C. P. Lounsbury. October, 1.S9.
NoTE.- AI b u~ p Hbleh,s Zehntner (De Plantenluizen van het suikerriet op Java, VIII. IX. pp. 10, 11, Plaat ii, figs. 15, 16. 17), reared from .l/(le'yrodex ,aiornis Zehntner in Java, belongs to this genus and greatly resembles this species. judging from Zehntner's
well-drawn figures.

Genus ENCARSIA Foerster.

Eincarsia Forertr. Kleine 1hogralhien. 1878. pp. 5i-6;. (Type. Encarsia tricolo0r Foerster.)


1. Tarsi of middle legs 4-jointed: joints 4 and 5 apparently coalesced-.- 2
Middle tarsi plainy 5-jointed------------------------------------- 3
2. Pedicel and first funicle joint subequal in length lu----------Iteola Howard.
First funicle joint shorter than pedicel and than second funicle joint.
quaintancei, new species.
3. Club flattened ------------------------------------flaviclava Howard.
Not flattened ------------------------------------------------------- 4
4. First funicle joint swollen ----------------------------- angelica Howard.
Not swollen 5--------------------------------------------------------5
5. Pedicel and first ftunicle joint subequal in length 6-------------------Pedicel shorter tmhan first funicle joint -------------------------------8
Pedicel longer than first funicle joint, which is distinctly shorter than
second -----------------------------------------------------------10
6. Funicle joints 1 and 2 subequal in length; flagellar striations barely discernible 7-----------------------------------------------------Funicle joint 2 considerably longer than 1; striations close and distinct.
planchonia Howard.
7. Fore wings with disc closely and completely (iliate portoricensis. new species.
Fore wings with a round bare space below stigma -pergandiella, new species.


8. All funicle joints subequal and coneolorous 9
Funicle joint 1 nearly as long as 2 and :8 together ti latter subequal and
white; joint 1 and the club black _----------------- lispidi. new species.
9. Terminal joint of club shorter than basal jt int ..u ntidiar Howard.
Club joints equal in length --------------------------. .oquillettii Howard.
10. First funicle joint distinctly shorter than second t,,wnsendui. new species. Encarsia diaspidis, new species.
Female.-Length 1.6 mm.: expanse 3. mim.: greatest width of fore wing 0.5 mm. Eyes markedly hairy. Anitennal scape robust: pedicel somewhat longer than broad;: 1st funicle joint twice as long as pedicel: joints 2 and 3 much shorter and sub)equal in length and width: club rather slender and pointed. longer than funicle joints 2 and 3 together: all joints, including scape. plainly hairy. General color orange-yellow: antenna black. joints 2 and 3 of funicle white: eyes reddish; dorsum of abdomen and metanotum infuscated. except for tip of abdomen. which is yellow; : all legs uniform honey-yellow, wing veins yellowish.
Male.-The male En ,carsia has not been described: but I have a slide from Lounsbury containing male specimens reared from the same host, in the same locality, and at the same time as the female described above, and these are probably the males of E. dia.,jpidi.. They are described as follows, generic characters included: Length 1.08 mm.: expanse 2.4 mm.: greatest width of fore wing 0.44 inmm.
Antennae 8-jointed; scape not long, slightly swollen in middle: pedicel short, only as long as broad: 1st funicle joint long. G times as long as broad; funicle joints 2 and 3 sui)equal in length and width and each about one-half as long as joint 1 club 3-jointed, the segments as distinct as those of funicle: club joints 1 and 2 about equal in length to funicle joints 2 and 3: terminal joints shorter and rather obtusely pointed at tip; all flagellar joints strongly longitudinally striate. First joint of middle tarsus longest: middle tibial spur about as long as first tarsal joint. General color very dark brown. nearly black: antenna uniformly dark brown: femora brown, hind femora darker than front and middle femora: trochanters light yellow: all tibiaw dusky, lighter at tips: tarsi yellowish, with their terminal joints brown.
Tiype.-No. 10300, U. S. National Museum. Described from 6
female and 6 male specimens, reared July. 1897. from a Diaspi ; on Acacia horrida at Bathurst. Cape Colony. South Africa. by C. P. Lounsbury.
This species is probably not a true E'n arna. Encarsia portoricensis, new species.
Femnale.-Length 1 mm.: expanse 1.84 mm.: greatest width of fore wings 0.28 mm. Antenna' rather stout. with flagellum uniformly hairy. longitudinal striation only faintly discernible; scape uni-


formly slender: pedicel very slightly longer than broad; .1st funicle joint about as long as pedicel; joint 2 very slightly longer than 1 and about equal to joints 3 and 4 and each of the two club joints. Submarginal and marginal veins about equal in length, stigmral very short and entering the wing at a small angle. Middle tarsi and tibial spur as with the preceding species. General color lemonyellow: ocelli dark crimson, eyes very dark crimson; antenne and legs dusky: abdomen with a brownish dorsal central patch. The specimen fromln Porto Rico has the abdomen entirely brown above and the pronotum and anterior portion of mesoscutum brownish.
Male.- Unknown.
Type.-No. 10301. U. S. National Museum. Described from 3 female specimens reared January. 1899. by Mr. A. Busck from .lrcy.odex slp. on a climbing vine. Bayamon, Porto Rico (Bur. Entom. No. -8423 ) and 1 female specimen received March, 1907, from Mr. E. K. Carnes of the California Board of Horticultural Commissioners. labeled on I .1yrodes sp. Mexico." Encarsia pergandiella, new species.
F inale.-Length 0.58 mm.;: expanse 1.46 mm.; greatest width of fore wing 0.14 nun. Antenna long, slender, and faintly hairy; pedicel and first funicle joint subequal in length: remaining funicle joints increasing gradually in length: basal joint of club slightly longer than terminal joint and the preceding funicle joint. Ovipositor slightly extruded. First tarsal joint of middle legs long and slender. nearly as long as the remaining 4 joints together; middle tibial spur about one-half length of 1st tarsal joint. Front wings rather narrow. with a consid(lerably longer fringe than usual; discal cilia rather sparse. and a round perfectly hairless spur below stigma. General color uniform honey-yellow: eyes and ocelli red.
Jal.- nknown.
Type.-No. 10302, U. S. National Museum. Described from 7 female specimens reared by Mr. Theo. Pergande from an Aleyrodes on Ixmtitin .~.t / (ritan Washington. I). C., September 25, 1900 (Bur. Entom. No. 9321C). Also reared by Mr. Pergande at Washington. D). C.. November 20. 1894, from an Aleyrodes on blackberry (Bur. Ent.. No. 6452).
Encarsia townsendi, new species.
Fenale.-Length 0.66 mmn.; expanse 1.56 mm.; greatest width of fore wing 0.22 nmm. AntennT with numerous hairs, but with very faint striation: scape not especially long; pedicel longer than wide; first funicle joint about as long as wide, shorter than pedicel and only one-half as long as second funicle joint; second and remaining funicle joints subequal in length and width, as is also basal joint of club (terminal joint of club missing on all specimens).


Middle tarsi with joint 1 as longr as-- 2 and 3 together : miiddle tibial
Spras long as joint 1. Ovipoir cosieablv extended. Face
and vertex orange-yellow : ocelli carmine : eves dark red : inesosctitellin-m dull lemnon-yellow; remainder of not urn and dorsiim of abdomen lih rw:tip of ab~domfen yellowish : anitennia' dulsky : leogs and
antennal. veins dusiky fore wving's with a faint duskv s-hade below marginal vein.
Type.-"No. i10303, U. S. -N ational AMivsetin. Described from 5 female specimens reared -June 19, 1897,~ from an I l/ro+'.s onl a coarse grass taken at Sangrillo (lel Chico. Tabasco, Alex. (Btir. Ent., No. 741), by C. 1-f. T. rmvseld
Encarsia quaintancei, new species.
i'ciiail.-Length 0.66; imm. expanse 1.4 mm11.;: greatest width of fore wing 0.18 11111. lid dle t arsi 4-j ointed as with Itieolat. the f fourth. and fifth segmen itsapplarenitly coa(les.ced,. Pedicel of antennia' twice as longr as broad;: joint I of f milcle somewhat longer than broad, shorter than pedicel and shorter tbaii, second funicle joint : second, third. adfourth ftinicle joints increasing" gr(dlfalv InI length:
clii joints siibeo-iiiil1 in lencythi. Fore wigs with at snmall rounded hairless space below andl beyond stigma. not extendlnig to one-half the wino, breadth. Eves hairy. Mlesosctitii olelicatelv liex-a1onallv reticulated,- a(xilla'v delicately ret iciilate. ( jeieral color brown; mies-ostitell 11i wh\vlll lenulon-vellxv; tips)5 of al11lonieiii aiiol flaio-elllill of antenna'v yellowish : a(ll legrs falitly yellowvish : wing-s hvaline(.
Jf1ahe. uniknownl.
7'qpu.--\o. 10304. V. S. Na o al Museum. Described'~ from I
female specimen reared ,kim'is 29,) 19)00. by) Theo. Pergan4& Icroiut

ihe species is namedl for Prof. A. L. Qulalint -(I ice in recoo-nu t loil of his excellent work onl the Aklevrodida'.

Genus PROSPALTA Howard.

luProu (ltti lloxvard. I1';e(-t Life. Vol. N-11. 1894. p). G;. ( Type. J'iospoltai (iIrai/itii 11o)Ward. )

Prospalta maculata, niew species. (Fig. 16i.)
f(/ad(.-Leno'tl 1 mml.;: expanse 2.24 mmn.; greatest -widlth of fore Wmntgr 0.31 nun11. Comes rather close(' to P. urI~ti; low\A., but the antenna' aire not so strongly clubbed. The color is as follows: Anteninal club brown, whitest at tip : scape and fuinicle joint-, 2 and 3 whitish: general color of body and legs light yellow : middle and hind tibia' each with two brown bands : first tasljoint of middle and hind legs brown: first. fourth. fifth., an1id s ixth abdomninz 1 se-


ments with a complete brown cross-band; second and third with a brown cross'-bami initerrutpted in the middle. Mesoscutumi with two longitudinal brownie bands: axiliw- brown; niies oscutellumi with two large br-own !spots Wings hyaline.

uwe.-No. 1005 '. S. N-ationial Muiseui. 1)escib rm
female Sp~ecimlenl Iircd by A-r. E. EK. armiess fromi Lep~losapios beckii Newiman 01qta~+ c'Ixt', rbvlah (iove-). s ent to California from China b)N Mr. George ( '11i11(1.

Genus COCCOPHAGUS Westwood.
Coccpliiyus WetoW1'I)Aosisph. i1g.Vol. 111, i1.(Type, (En tcdon)

Coccophagus subocliraceus, n ew species.
tcnl(/(,. L_.ength 1.1 itni. : expanise 12.6 niim. ; greatest width of fore wing 0.48 mmn. IDiffer from C. oclu'ace18s in having the entire body, including the niesopleuira and the terminal segments of the abdomen,
J~alc.-Differs from ( oclraccms in having the axillve and the entire dorsal surface of the abdomen black and the metanotum- dulsky.
Type.-No. 10306, U. S. National Museum. Described from 5 female and 25 male specimens bred from a Lec-aiurn on Leucosj'i'f 1 attelleiitfe1rn, at Zuurberg, Cape Colony, South Africa, by C. P. Ljounsbuiry, 18917.
Coccophagus longifasciatus, new species. (Fig. 17.)
Female.-Length 0.78 mm.; expanse 1.56~ mmi.; greatest width of fore wing 0 .26 mnm. Antenna. stout, moderately clavate, with plain


longitudinal strima. Surface of body smooth. impunctate. General color of body light lemnon-yellow ; eyes and ocelli bright carmine: all legs pallid; antenna and wing veins slightly dusky; a broad lateral brown band extending down either side of the body from the pronotum to the tip of the abdomen.
Male.-In the male the brown band is not so perfect. but the pronotum, the anterior border of the mesoscutuni, the axillw. all of the metanotum, and the sides and tip of the abdomen are brown.
Type.-No. 10307 F. National Muliseum. Described from 4

FIG. 17.-Coecophag1u8 longifa. Iatux: Female. Greatly elatgd I original).

male and 4 female specimens bred from Saisseti npgra Nietner (Lecanim nigqram), at Manaar. Ceylon. by E. Ernest Green. 1897. Coccophagus zebratus, new species. (Fig. 18.)
Female.-Length 1.34 mm.; expanse 2.4 mm.: greatest width of fore wing 0.32 mm. Body smooth, flat. impunctate: antenname with only very slight indications of longitudinal strike: hind femora and coxw considerably swollen. Club of antenna dark brown; scape. pedicel, and funicle joints 1 and 2 of a rather lighter b1)rown; funicle joint 3 white. Vertex, occiput. pronotum. and mesonotum lemonyellow. metascutum brown: face and remainder of thorax whitish: all femora and coxw whitish and front tibia as well: middle and hind tibiw slightly brownish at base: first joint of middle and hind tarsi brown. Abdomen whitish, with a broad brown transverse band on each segment. Wing veins dusky.
Type.-'No. 10308. U. S. National Museum. Two female specimens bred from ,t-lerda distorta Green. MS., Punduiloya. Ceylon, by E. Ernest Green.


Genus CALES, new genus.
Fern ale.-tTarA;: 4-jointed: first and last joints of middle tarsus, nitichi longer than second and third ; middle tibial spuir not as long asfirst tarsal joint : joints of hind tarsuis -;ibequal in, lenoth. AnVitenna. 5-jointedl bulla very long andl sleiider, scape, somewhat sivollen ; pedicel not greatly swollen, nearly three times as long .as broad; funlicle joint 1 sbIort and slender, about as long- -s br-oad (this joint mlay\ psibl e fomnd to be doublee onl examination of additional sJpeciiinfl) Seco(ndl fiinicle joint sleiider, more, than four times as
loi~r -Joinlt 1 : clitb o vzte, tindivi(ld andl longeri than.u ftnicle and lpe(lie-el tog,(e thIIer. EYes naiked. Fore wings narrowv, with subparallel. fore ,IIId hind I )ordel$- nlliurrinal cilia lonp- fiscall cili~i very sparse ali(I placed,( in1 t\\) 1long horizontal rows andl part o)f a third ; argial

vein siowhat lonpe(r than subma1,1rinal ; no differentiated stigm aL1 O viplositor .l iglit lY ext rudedl.

T,1 1 .-lhe f )l lowingc species
Cales noacki, nw11 -pecies. (Fig. 1.9.)
Fc~na.-Legth 02:expanse 1.44 mm.; greatest width of fore Wing" 0.12 m1m1. GeneIjral color lemon-yellow; eyes reddish brown;i antenna uniformly yellow ; legs4 slightly duisky. Legs long and slen-, decr; body rather slender and -graceful; abdomen rather short and triangular. Wings hyaline. veins dutsky.
Type.-No. 10301. U. S. National Mluseum. Described from one fe'mle s.peciiei r~eared by Fritz 'Noack. Campinas, Brazil, from an undetermlined spec-ies of Ort14ezia. (Bureau of Entomology No. 818301.)


Genus CASCA, new genus.
Female.-Comes rather close to Bardyl is from which, however, it may be easily separated by tarsal, antennal and wing characters. All tarsi 4-jointed, the tarsal joints of middle leg all short and subequal-in length: apical spur of middle tibia as long as first two tarsal joints together: hind tarsi longer than middle tarsi. but the joints are subequal in length as with the middle. Marginal vein of fore wing rather shorter than subniarginal: stignual evident:; disk uniformly ciliate, but more sparsely than with Bar(tdyl; hind border of wing slightly excavate bevond anal angle, tip regn-larly rounded: marginal cilia long, longest at lower w but slightly swollen, ta-
pering to a point and with
t h e joints subequal in length ; second f i c 1 e joint shorter than first. but of same width and only slightly longer than wide, much shorter and narrower than first cltb joint ; first funicle joint FI. I.-a nowki: Antin, fr wing, and middle kg, t ~female. Greatll enlarged original .
about twice as long. as wide, as long as-, but liarrower than pedicel. Flagelltmni hairy and club with longitudinal stria,. Eves hairy. Male.-Ulnknown.
Type.-The following species:
Casca chinensis, new species. (Fig-. 20.) Female.-Length 0.86 mm.; expanse 1.34 mm.: greatest width of fore wing 0.1 ; mm. Head and face orange-yellow. occi)put d msky: ocelli and eves carmine, the eves darker than the ocelli; antennl~. light dusky yellow; all legs pallid: pronotum,. abdomen, and metascutum brown; mnesoscutumin also brownish at anterior border:; remainder of mesoscutumn yellowish and remainder of mesonotuin and mesopleura pallid. Fore wing with a pronounced dusky cloud below marginal vein,
Type.-No. 10310. U. S. National Museum. Described from 2
female .specimens reared in California by Mr. E. K. Carnes from


Lepidosap/ .e bcckii Newman (MytilaspqN c(iticola Glover) collected in China by Mr. George Compere.

Genus BARDYLIS, new genus.

Female.-All tarsi 4-jointed; first tarsal joint of middle leg nearly as long as second and third joints together; middle tibial spur not quite as long as first tarsal joint. Marginal vein of fore wing a trifle shorter than submarginal; stigmal short but evident; wing disc very closely and evenly ciliate: margin with long cilia from stigma to anal angle, gradually lengthening from stigma to lower distal point and thence rapidly decreasing in length to anal angle; margin of wing evenly c u r v e d f r o m anal angle to S- c o s t a. Antenna 7---jointed, pronouncedly
c 1 a v a t e; club ovate, with its joints of subequal length; the two f ii n i c e joints about equal in I e n g t h and w i d t I, each slightly shorter than p e d i c e 1 and first club joint; the whole surface of the fl a g e 1 Iui in furnished with minute hairs. Fil;. 20.-Casc chimrusis: Fore wing, antenna. and middle leg Eves hairy.
of female. Greatly enlarged originall.
Ma le.-Antenne more elongate. 8-jointed, all scape joints subequal in length and width, except terminal joint of club, which comes to a rounded point. The tarsi are longer than in the female and the first funicle joint is not as long as the second and third together.
Type.-The following species:
Bardylis australiensis, new species. (Fig. 21.)
Female.-Length 0.5 mm.; expanse 1.34 mm.; greatest width of fore wing 0.18 mm. Color: Head, pronotutim, mesoscutum, tegule, and abdomen brown; mesoscutellum, metascutum, mesopleura, and metapleura dull orange-yellow; antenna, coxw, and femora light brown: wing veins dusky; fore wings with a dusky cloud below marginal vein; eyes dark red. Occiput closely and finely aciculate; mesoscutum faintly aciculate.


Male.-Differs from female only as pointed out in generic diaognosis, except that the clouded portion of the fore wing is lighter than in the female.
Type.-No. 10311, U. S. National Museum. Described from many male and female specimens reared by Mr. Geo. Compere, evidently from scale insects, at Swan River and Perth, West Australia. (Compere's numbers 774. 855. 871. 873, 923. 92,5. 944, and 102;.)
Also from a number of specimens reared by A. Koel)ele. Sepl)tenmber 29, 1899, from an Asp~idI;otus on Hakea sp.. at Svydney, New South Wales. (Koebele's No. 1998.)

Genus ARTAS, new genus.

Female.-Tarsi 4-joint- c
ed; antenna, (-jointed; scape and pedicel normal. the single funicle joint /
about as long as the first club joint and slightly more slender; club joints subequal in length, the terminal joint tapering to a point. Fore wings very obtusely rounded and almost bare, having very "-few discal cilia; fou" long hairs arising from marginal vein. and a Fit;. 21.-Bardylis australiensis: Antenna of female, and anseries of very long margi- tenna, hind leg, and fore wing of male. Greatly enlarged (original.
nal hairs beginning at the tip of the marginal vein and extending around to the middle of the lower margin, slightly longer at lower tip: marginal vein equal in length to submarginal; stigmal lacking as in .1spidiotplagus. Tarsal joints of middle tarsi subequal in length, tibial spur longer than the first two tarsal joints together.
Type.-The following species:
Artas koebelei, new species. (Fig. 22.)
Female.-Length 0.38 mm.; expanse 1 mm.: greatest width of fore wing 0.13 mm. General color dull yellow; mesoscutellum light


lemon-yellow: eyes and ocelli dark red; wing veins duisky; pronotum. front, of mnesoscutum, axillie, and sides of ietanotumn dark brown; dorsumi of abdomen dusky.
Jla le .-Unknown .

Fi(;. 22.-A rtwx kot b It i: Antenna. fore wig and hind le',' of female. (Greatly enlarged I() rhinal 1111.

Typc.--No. 10312 1 S'. 'National Mlus-eum. Described from 11
111l1lo slecilllefls reared~ from (/ibowisq eitiN G"reen, Hlongkong, Ch1ina, 1by A. Koebele.

I~rU0ptI'lN 1lowrd.Tch. 8cr,1. 1, D iv. IEnt., 1'. S. I )ept. Ai..18951, pp1.
20i-21. (Type. /1. piih-ehllmv hwar.)

Jfalc.-Ii the original dlescrip)tion of this genus a the male is not (les-cribed, the (lescriJption of the male 1'. ptd,-blc7iwls having been -made f rom a dIry' mount with shrIiveled anteniiv. The important fact has' ice been (liscoi-ere(1 that with the male of Perissopters the antenna~e UV l~ 11v jone Viiz, scape, pedlice, -2 ring joints, and club; the club lheillgT longr, oval. and more or less flattenedl. WYith P. pidcl(-blS the miale in other respects re.sembles the female.

1. Eyes hair-----------------------------------------------------------Eyes naked -------------------------------------------------------3
2. Antennal club black---------------------------- notumewnisi ., new species,.
Anteniml (clubi pallidl- ---------------------------- capillatus, new species.

aTech. 'Ser., No. 1, IDiv. Ent., V. S. D~ept. Agric., pp. 21-22.


3. First four tarsal joints of middle leg white. including til ial coronet of
spines ---------------------------------------------- )oki new species.
Not white, tibial coronet black ----------------------------------------- 4
4. First and fifth tarsal joints black, rest white _-------- iar(ncix. new species.
First and fifth and at least part of the second tarsal joint b)lac(,k__ ----------5 5. General color white, tinged in spots with dark reddish orange, plottedd with
black_ ---------------------------------------------IIclicllIx Howard.
General color light orange-yellow, with black dots (no red or white).
c."ricauox lL. ward.
Perissopterus capillatus, new species.
Female.-Length 1 mm.: expanse 2.16 mm.: greatest width of fore wing 0.36. Eyes closely and plainly hairy. Eyes well separated;: ocelli at angles of obtuse-angled triangle. Vertex and occiput faintly reticulate. thorax smooth. The fore wings appear spotted with patches of dark cilia, the spots not connected in a reticulate pattern as with P. ,lch(lls and P. nexic ,an u. Head uniform crangeyellow, eyes red: mesonotum lemon-yellow. metanotum darker: abdomen inarked with alternating trainsverse bands of light yellow and honey-yellow: antema light yellowish: legs very light in color. femora dusky at tip: middle and hind tibia' dusky at tips and with two other dusky spots on bands: first and fifth tarsal joints dusky.
Type.-No. 10313. U. S. National Museun. Described from 11
female specimens reared by Mr. Koeb ele from Lphx.!os/, plleis Maskell (Jlytilaspi ullens) on Xa(tn thorrho ai. Sydney. New South WVales. December 20. 18'90).
Perissopterus noumeensis, new species.
Female.-Length 0.86 mm.: exl)anse 1.9 mm.: greatest width of fore wing 0.3 minm. Eyes with numerous fine black hairs. General color dingy yellowish white: antennal club dark nbrowii, nearly black: scape. pedicel. and fmunicle lighter: lower face orange: sides of mesoscutuin with a thin line of brown: al)domen with alternated dark brown and whitish bands: femora slightly 1b)rownish above. tibia, brownish at tips: middle tarsi entirely brownish yellow: hind tarsi with first joint pallid, rest yellowish.
TyIpe.-No. 10314. t. N. ational Museum. Described from one female specimen. bred O()ctober. 1899. from .~1p.;;ot. p. on cocoa palm. Noumea. New Caledonia. by A. Koebele. Perissopterus busckii, niiew species.
JIale.-Length 0.76 mm. : expanse 1.7 mm. : greatest width of fore wing 0.3 immn. Eves naked. Markings of fore wings- reticulate. not
arranged in spots. General color uniform orange-yellow: antennal club brownish. lighter at tip: scape whitish. pedicel dark above, light below: metascutellum darker at sides: legs pallid: all femora with two dark spots below: tibia, with four equidistant brown s)otl-


on bands; term~nil tarsal joints (Ilisky; basal ta1rsal1 joint of hifid leg also (llskAx
Type .-No. V.15 {T* S. National Mluseumii. IDesCribed from one male reared from ;1'doolcauca~ tem Boisduval, collected at San
Juan, Porto Rico. Febriiary 21, 1899, by A. Bulsek. Perissopterus j avensis, new specieCs.
I~eiualc.-.1n7t ) inim.; expanse 2.2 mm. ; greatest width of fore wing 0.2S iiiiii. Eyesc.- nazkedl. Patterni of fore wingcs of the reticulate type. ()vipo'itor- well extriidedl. Mesoscutumi and n esoscu tell um del ica tely v hexagon~ally- retiClhte-p)inictate. General color orange, sides of thioraix aiid :1b(lomnlf mfarkedl with witish' abdomen with more or le per-fect cro-ba nils of brownish. Legys pallid ; femora w\Aith two- narrow tlland of brown i; tibiaw with three broad brown bands, broader oni miiddle than on hind tibia, and with a narrow brown tip: 111r-t an1d fifth tars al joints browni-sh, others pallid. .Antennlw with -Ilib browni 'yellowvish at tip; third funicle joint brown. wh-1ite at uip; tirst and~ second funicle joints (ring joints.) brown ; pedlicel bow at base,' white ait tip.
J~ac.Snillr.C'4olr about as, with female, but, with small white thorax. 1,1tire .lb brown except soinewhlat lighter at tip; pedicel whitish at tip.
Th11.-No. lo:'iQ6 U. S. 'National Mluseumii. Described from T' male anml S feiiiahc -pecimnens- reared F~ebruary, 1900, from a species of 7>1cwwda( '11 all ernamenital JAlant at Sing()apore, S traits Settlenie(_nts, bv A. KoeiN -~I oeeesNo. 200;5).

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