TECHNICAL SERIEs, No. 12, PART 111. STATE PLAW WA"
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
-13-UnIFA TT Olil
L. 0. HOWARDIEntornologist and Chief of Bweau.
A CONTRIBUTION 1"'0 OUR K-?'TOWljEt)(-;L
fit It IFORNIA.
"HYSAXOP""ERA OF CAL
BY DT'Dl* E-N' 'XIOU-ETCYN,
Engaged in Deciduous- I,'riiit Invot Inrcst;g(dimis.
ISSUM) APRIL 5,1907.
S 8 GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY,
if7smngton, D). ., February 5, 1907.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript of a paper by Mr. Dudley Moulton, special agent in this Bureau, entitled "A Contribution to our Knowledge of the Thysanoptera of California." This paper embodies the results of some work carriedon by Mr. Moulton while a student at the Leland Stanford Junior University, Palo Alto, Cal., and forms part of a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts in the Department of Entomology at that institution. It contains keys and descriptions for the identification of the various species of thrips found to occur in California. The group of insects treated is one of economic importance, containing, as it does, species which are injurious to various field crops, fruit trees, and ornamental plants. I recomlmend the publication of the paper as Technical Series. No. 12, Part III, of this Bureau.
Respectfully, L. 0. HoWARD,
Entonldogist and Clief of Bureau.
Hon. JAMES VILSON,
Sc retary of Agriculture.
Thd systematic treatment of the Thysanoptera of California, which is presented in this paper, is the direct outgrowth of an investigation of the pear thrips (E3r/ip.s )pyri Daniel) which was undertaken in the Santa Clara Valley of California during the period from January, 1905, to April, 1906. This insect has become a serious fruit-tree pest in the deciduous-fruit sections around the San Francisc(o Bay. An important phase of the investigation was to learn the insect's distribution and the number of its food plants, both wild and cultivated. In looking for Et//Prj jl/ on various plants, naturally many other species of thrips were found, and nimuch of interest learned regarding the life habits of several of them. It is the object of this paper to bring together these various observations and also the results of the more technical part of the work, leaving the economic treatment of the pear thrips for a separate paper.
The investigation of the pear-thrips problem in the Santa Clara Valley, as also the collecting of specimens described herein, was made possible by the very liberal attitude of the Santa Clara County board of supervisors, who granted everything necessary for a thorough and scientific study. The very careful and efficient work of the writer's two assistants, Mr. Earl L. Morris and Mr. C. T. Paine. must also be acknowledged. To Prof. Vernon L. Kellogg, professor of entomology in the Leland Stanford Junior University, the writer wishes to express his gratitude for encouragement, helpful suggestions, and friendly criticism.
Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013
C () NTE NTS.
Classification of California Thysanoptera .................................. 42
Key to the suborders and families-------------------------------------..................................... 42
Key to the genera.................................................... ---------------------------------------------------42
Key to the species.................................................... ---------------------------------------------------43
Family Eolothripide ................................................ -----------------------------------------------45
Genus Orothrips ................................................. 45
Genus ,Eolothrips..............................................----------------------------------------------- 47
Family Thripide ----------------------------------------------------..................................................... 49
Genus Sericothrips ............................................... 49
Genus Heliothrips................................................ ------------------------------51
Genus Euthrips.................................................-------------------------------------------------. 52
Genus Parthenothrips --------------------------------------------............................................ 57
Genus Thrips ...................................................----------------------------------------------- 57
Family Phheothripidae ............................................... 60
Genus Trichothrips..............................................---------------------------------------------- 60
Genus Acanthothrips---------------------------------------------............................................. 64
Genus Megalothrips ............................................. 5----------------------------------------------5
Genus Cryptothrips .............................................. 66
List of California Thysanoptera and their food plan ts------------------------ ....................... 67
I L LU STR ATI () X S.
PLATE I. Fig. 1.-Orothrips kelloggii: head and prothorax of female.......... ----------50
Fig. 2. -Orothrips kellog/ii: left antenna of female .................----------------- 50
Fig. 3.-Orothrips kelloggii: right fore wing of female .............. 50
Fig. 4.-Orothrips kelloggii: fore tarsus of female-------------------................... 50
Fig. 5.-Eolothrips kuwanaii: head and prothorax of female ....... 50 Fig. 6.-Eolothrips kuwanaii: right antenna of female ------------- 50
Fig. 7.- Eolothrips kuwanaii: right fore wing of female ------------- 50
Fig. 8.- .Eolothrips kuwanaii: fore tarsus of female ................ 50
Fig. 9. -Sericothrips reticulatus: head, prothorax, and mesothQrax
of female ............................................ 50
Fig. 10.-Sericothrips reticulatus: end of abdomen of female.......... ----------50
II. Fig. 11.-Sericothrips stafordii, female ............................ 52
Fig. 12.-Heliothripsfasciatus: head and prothorax of female --------- 52
Fig. 13.-Ileliothripsfasciatus: right antenna of female.............. --------------52
Fig. 14.-Heliothripsfasciatus: end of abdomen of female ........... 52
Fig. 15.-Euthrips orchidii: head and prothorax of female .......... 52
Fig. 16. -Euthrips orchidii: right antenna of female ................ 52
Fig. 17 -Euthrips orchidii: end of abdomen of female .............. 52
Fig. 18.-Euthrips orchidil: right fore wing of female............... .52
PLATE 111. Fig. 19. -LOlwij)s head and prothorax of finale ........... 54
Fig. pl;tvi: head aii(l prothorax of finale from side_ 54
pj/)*, : right aracnita of feniale ----------------- 54
L', h t- ips j) u end of abdomen of feniale fron-1 side 54 F 1 2:1.-L'o0wips pyri: fore tarstis of female --------------------- 54
24.-EWIr;p., plrl': right fore Xiii- of feniale --------------- 54
Fi,,,. 2.).-L'olhrlps Jwhormi: head and prothorax of feniale ...... 5 4 F i 26.-Eiltlwlp,, chr1mrio'l.- ri yht fore wing of finale ----------- 54
27.- L',1/h/,;ps Ilh*,-i,, call't'(wiiicos: liek-ulanil prothorax of feniale- 54 left antenna (if female ------- 56 016s "(difwiticas: right fore, xvin- (if female ---- 56 F 1,1Y. 30.- 11',, th,, ip.' 1 /Icl*', co/l f(we h", of feniale ........... 56
en(l of abdoincii of male ---- 56 Fi,,,. 32.-L"Ithl-1ps 1w J11110S.. lwad and prothorax of feniale ------- 56)
F I (,-. ri ,rht forc Nvin Lr of female ------------ 56
F 4. 7'/, 11(1101 nii(l pn)thorax of feinale -------- 56
:i Tb, s riglit antelilia of felliale -------------- 56
-ht foiv NN ii- of feniale ------------- 56
I I g. T. licad an,1 prothorax of feniale -------- 60
AS 1W(IjI10 ('11(l (if ahollmwll of icnille ------------ 60
Tj right folv will- of fcnlal( ------------- 60
lit-,ol mi l prothorax of female ------- 60 1(,ft atilemia of femak ---------------- 60
F 1,,,. 42. TI.I*( -h e it /I I. i /)x fli o,, .' I'Itfill f, we of fenjak ------------- 60
1 (r I ) pS klld of al),1(injen of feinah ------------ 60
43.- 7', -', -h,, I hr
ri-lit antenna (if feniale --------- 60 V 1. 41-).- 7',-I',-I,,,tl,,-I'J).,;.I'o mew tb*.,: lwa(l and prothorax of feniale 64
Fi,-,-. cud (if abdomen (if female ------- 64
.1 47.- Trie'ld i tlj 1'1*1 1.1 lwad and prothorax of feinalo, --------- 64
1cft antenna of f( njale --------------- 64
1,'jr 49.- T/ I'cho0wi'lis i)f ilght fi)re wing of fenjah ------- 64 J,- head and prothorax of niaie 64
'100111 1.": h4t antenilla of 111ale ------------- 64
elwiw,11': en(l of d)(bnien of inale ......... 64 i / o I b r i'ps b o sp t r 11 s., he.0 alidt prothorax of female ---- 64 J,- i besjwriis: -right antenna of feinale .......... 64
F i hcspelws: end of al),lonlen of fellial --------- 64
Fig. 56. --lIt"pt lot h rip-, end of abdonien of inale ......... 64
U. S. D. A., B. E. Tech. Ser. 12, Pt. ITT. D. F. 1. I., April 5, 1907.
A CONTRIBUTION TO OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE THYSANOPTERA OF CALIFORNIA.
By DUDLEY MOULTON, Special Agent.
Upon undertaking a study of the life history of the pear thrips (EutArpsrpyrH), and incidentally of other thrips as they came to notice, the writer was impressed by the great deficiency in our knowledge of these insects. In- California it seemed, indeed, that new species could be collected on almost every side, and when trying to classify these specimens it was found that the individuals possessed most of the characteristics which would place them readily in any certain genus, 1)ut that there would often be found striking though minor differences. In several cases it has been necessary to extend the original generic descriptions to include California forms.
In a short published account of California thrips,' -Miss Daniel states that previous to that time (1904) four species of thrips were known to exist in California. To this number her paper would add five. The writer finds, however, that one of her species, ((a/ot/, ps woodworthi, is the already described I1 #otirlp). .fwc;at, of Pergande. Thus only eight were known previous to 1906. The writer has been able to gather abundant specimens of all of these thrips and now adds sixteen more new species and two varieties, making a total of twenty-six. It has been necessary to erect a new genus to inedude the species Orotris kelloggii. The genus Jf]egalothrip., represented by Jfegalot/trips Itesperus, has not before been recorded as found in America.
Economically considered, the thrips constitute an important group in California, because of the ravages of several species. Growers of deciduous and citrus fruits and of garden truck and nurserymen and florists have suffered at times very considerably, but not until aNew California Thysanoptera. By S. M. Daniel. Ent. News, Vol. XV, No. 9, pp. 293-297, November, 1904.
40 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.
the conditions in the Santa Clara Valley became so grave that something had to be done was any very serious study given to these insects.
Orange growers in southern California were made very apprehensive a few years ago by the appearance of small brown spots on their oranges, caused by the feeding of the grass thrips (Eu trips tritici Fitch). The injury was, however, superficial, as a spot only was produced on the orange peel, the quality of the fruit being in no way injured nor its qualities of keeping affected. Yet because of the spots many of the best oranges had to be passed out as culls. This same thrips has been reported injuring alfalfa by its feeding within the blossoms. The damage was hardly noticed when the alfalfa was cut for hay, but for seed purposes the crop was an almost absolute failure. The grass thrips is everywhere present in wild and cultivated flowers and in blossoms of most of the indigenous trees. The writer has often been able to collect hundreds of specimens of this thrips with a single sweep of the net from the blossoms of the California sage (Artein s ,m/ltornica), and from the manzanitas, especially l'ctosf/aylos towientow. This thrips is perhaps seen most conunonly in 01our garden flowers-roses, lilacs. etc.-and does little or no apparent injury. Often, however, one finds ill-shaped and partly dead outer petals of rose buds or even full-blown roses. This injury, when not caused by mildew, can be quite easily traced to the (rass thrips, which feeds in the tip of the )bud on the outer end of the petals, just before or while the petals are spreading. This injury is common, but as roses unfold rapidly, the larger, inner petals are not injured, and the outer, smaller, imperfect ones miay he picked off and the rose left apparently perfect. This species is perhaps the most widespread of all the thrips. Only at intervals does its injury render it a pest. Its appearance is very like that of the pear thrips (Ethp s p lrK), and to the casual observer either species could easily be mistaken for the other.
The feeding injuries of lHe/hot/# i ,eorr dad are limited largely to azaleas, cherry laurel, and laurestina, and to greenhouse and other ornamental shrubs. The writer has found in greenhouses azalea plants which have been completely killed by these insects. Affected laurestina plants produce contorted, ragged, and pale leaves.
The injury of pTrielwthr ;s, on the Christmas berry (Heteromeles arbatifoli is noticeable wherever that plant grows. This insect has been found only on the one plant, and it is interesting to note that the plant is indigenous only to limited areas in the Coast Range region near San Francisco Bay. The Christmas berry is one of the
showiest of California shrubs when, from November to January, it displays its fine clusters of crimson berries. When the plants are badly infested with thrips the leaves are deformed and ragged and the weakened blossoms produce small and imperfect berries. The
THE THYSANOPTERA OF CALIFORNIA. 41
berries have no special value commercially, but in their perfect state are used extensively for Christmas decorations.
The onion thrips (Trp's tabact Lind.) finds an almost ideal habitat in the extensive onion-seed farms in California, and its injury to this plant in some sections and during some years is almost prohibitive of onion growing.
Especially to be mentioned, however, is the injury caused by the pear thrips (Eut/hlps pyri Daniel). This is strictly a fruit-tree pest, attacking as it does nearly all varieties of deciduous fruits. No other thrips is recorded as having done so much damage as has this one, and the problem for its control is a difficult one to solve. The writer's experience has been that, outside of purely cultural methods, we have no effective artificial means for checking it. Its natural insect enemies are few, and from the very nature of the pest's life habits it can not be controlled effectively )by those beneficial forms which are already present. A parasitic fungus has for the time being proved a quite effective check, but the weather conditions, moist and warm for two years past (during 1905 and 1906), have been almost ideal for the growth of such fungoi, and it is extremely doubtful if this check would prove at all effective under other conditions. The pear thrips is limited in its distribution to the deciduous-fruit areas around San Francisco Bay.
It is interesting to note the relations of some of the California thrips to their food plants. (rotlirips, kellogy;i is found only in blossoms of mianzanita and nadrofia -both trees peculiarly Californian-whose cup-shaped blossoms afford an ideal home for this striking thrips. LEdotr/ps) r/iwana// is common only in the, wild California lilac. Trlchot/ips /l/, is peculiar to the Christmas berry, and has thus far been collected from no other plant. alt/lr. pys i is limited in its feeding to cultivated fruits. Oryptot/ips ca1j it'~micus is most often found under the old shells of the brown apricot scale (Lec(aiael armeniacum) and the black scale ( ,ass' olw e e). It has been taken from these places mostly during the winter, and it may be that it is under the old shells only for protection, but the writer suspects that it may be a scavenger.
In preparing this paper the writer has introduced descriptions of genera only when it has been necessary to extend the characters to include California species. For other generic descriptions the reader is referred to linds's monograph of the North American forms.a
The already recognized characters of ovipositor, wings, antenna, and mouth appendages are the principal ones here used in the keys for classifying the species. In describing new thrips the writer has made 'a Contribution to a Monograph of the Insects of the Order Thysanoptera Inhabiting North America. By Warren Elhner Hinds. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXVI, No. 1310, pp. 79-242, Pls. I-XI, December 20, 1902.
42 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.
the customary measurements, and, in addition, has reduced the lengths of antennal segments to microns. In most other respects the plan adopted by Hinds has been followed. The writer has redescribed the three species of Miss Daniel ((ryptothrlirps californicus, Euthripspyri, and Srcathrips apteri) to make their descriptions conform with the others.
CLASSIFICATION OF CALIFORNIA THYSANOPTERA.
KEY TO THE SUBORDERS AND FAMILIES.
I. Female with a saw-like ovipositor. Terminal abdominal segment of female conical, of male usually broadly rounded. Wings usually present; fore pair strongest, with more or less well-developed veins; double fringed behind.
Membrane of wings with microscopic hairs ....... Suborder TEREBRANTIA.
A. Antenom with nine segments. Fore wings broad and rounded,
with prominent ring vein and cross veins. Ovipositor upcurved-----------------------............................(A) Family EOLOTHRIPID.E.
B. Antennc with six to eight (nine?) segments. Wings present or
absent; when present usually narrow and pointed at tips. Ovipositor downcurved..................... ------------------(B) Family THRIPID.
II. Female without ovipositor. Terminal abdominal segment tubular in both sexes.
Wings usually present, both pairs similar; front pair with only a rudimentary, median, longitud(linal vein; wings with simple fringe on both margins except fore wing, which is double fringed on posterior edge near tip )y a few hairs; membrane of wings without microscopic hairs.
Antennwa eight-segnmented....................... --------------------Suborder TUBULIFERA.
(C) Family PHL(EOTHRIPIDE.
KEY TO THE GENERA.
(A) Family ,EoLoHRIP i D.
1. All segments of antenna freely movable and diminishing in size gradually at tip. Maxillary palpi seven-segmented, labial palpi foursegmented ................................... (1) Orothrips, new genus.
2. Last four segments of antennw closely united and together shorter than the
fifth. Maxillary palpi three-segmented, labial palpi four-segmented.
(2) Eoblothrips Hlaliday.
3. Cdiothrips l)aniel.a
(B) Family TH inP)mn.
1. Antenme with eight segments (nine?).
a. Wings wanting; prothorax almost as large as pterthorax; body with or
without reticulated structure-------.........(3) Genus Sericothrips Haliday.
at. Wings fully developed.
b. Body with markedly reticulate surface; last segment of antenna
drawn out and very much longer than the seventh.
(4) Genus Heliothrips Haliday.
bl. Body without reticulate structure; eighth antennal segment only a little longer than the seventh.
(5) Genus Euthrips Targione-Tozzetti.
a Caliothrips woodworthi, new genus and species, was described in Entomological News for November, 1904 (Vol. XV, No. 9, pp. 296-297). The writer of the present paper has been unable to see the type specimen, but from the description believes that it will prove to be none other than the male of Heliothrips fasciatus Pergande, or a closely related species.
THE THYSANOPTERA OF CALIFORNIA. 43
(B) Family THRIPID.E-Continued.
2. Antenname with seven segments.
a. Fore wings broad, reticulated and without front fringe.
(6) Genus Parthenothrips Uzel.
at. Fore wings narrowed near tip; fringe present on anterior margin.
(7) Genus Thrips Linnaus.
(C) Family PHLEOTHRIPIDE.
1. Head about as long as broad ................--------------(8) Genus Trichothlrips UTzel.
2. Head markedly longer than broad.
a. Fore femora armed with tooth at tip ---.... (9) Genus Acanthlothrips Uzel.
a'. Fore femora without such tooth.
b. Head more than twice as long as wide; males with prominent
clasping organs projecting from the side of sixth segment; very large thrips--------------------...................... (10) Genus Megalothrips Uzel.
b'. Head about one and one-half times as long as wide; males without
such clasping organs-------------..............(11) Genus Cryptothrips Uzel.
KEY TO THE SPECIES.
1. Genus Orothrips, new genus.
Represented by one species---------------------.......................(1) 0. kelloggii, new species.
2. Genus .'olothrips Hialiday.
Represented by one species and a variety --------(2) A. karanaii, new species.
(3) A. kuwanaii robustus, new variety.
3. Genus Sericothrips Haliday.
a. Body very dark brown, nearly black; pterthorax yellow; legs brown.
(4) S. apteris Daniel.
b. Body uniform brown; surface of body strongly reticulated; legs yellow.
(5) S. reticulatus, new species.
c. Body and legs uniform brown; four stout spines on the dorsal side of segment 9 ......................... (6) 8. staffordii, new species.
4. Genus Ileliothrips Haliday.
a. All legs yellow; antennae tw ice as long as head; wings slender, with one distinct longitudinal vein in center; small darkened area near base. Food plants are azaleas, laurestinas, dahlias, etc.
(7) I. ht -torrhwodalis Bouche.
b. Legs brown, with tips of femora, )both ends of tibiae, and tarsi light-brown to yellow; antennae one and one-half times as long as head; wings gray-brown with two) transparent-white cross-bands, (on)e at base and one at three-fourths the wings' length; two longitudinal veins, the second branching from the first near the broadened base of the wing, the first uniting with the costa to form the fore part of a strong ring vein.
(8) IL fihsciutus Pergande.
5. Genus Euthrips Targioni-Tozzetti. (8) fasciatus Pergande.
a. Without prominent spines on fore angles of prothorax; longitudinal veins not regularly set with spines.
b. Head noticeably wider than long; sense cones on segments of antennae very long and slender; general color of body light lemon-yellow.
(9) E. orchidii, new species. b'. Head about as wide as long; general color of body brown.
e Basal segment of antenna concolorous with head and with segment 2; postocular spines wanting; two spines on posterior part of thorax dividing the hind margin into equal portions; about sixteen spines on hind vein of fore wing; general color brown to dark brown ..........................------------------------(10) E. pyri Daniel.
-44 MTSCELLAN11OUS PAPERS.
5. Genus T?tfbr,*ps Tai,,,ioiii-Tozz( tti-Continu( (l.
e'. First se(mient of aiiteiina ofa, li-Itter c()1orthan headamilighterthan segnient 2: p)-stocular spires premit :aii(l of ine(fitun length; three sinall spines borderiiw, hin(l iiiargin of prothorax on eitlier si(le; posterior N-ein ()f with ahmit twelve spines.
ehrhor)lii, new species.
G/. Witli spines on fore angles of prothorax; loiigitudiiial veins ,-:et regularly witIl spine i.
b. Foretil)iaai-iiie(lateii(l-,,%7itl itf)oth.-(12)E. iilicl-4 c(dil oroicas, new species.
V. Foie tibia without such tooth. 0
c. General c()I()r )f 1)()d y Imm-ii to (Iai-k I)i-mvii; Indivi(luals sinall, total lelm"th lk ss thaii I mm., with several (juite longspine. but with 110 -11()rt olles ahm- posterior 111ar"ill (if prothol-ax.
cl. Gciieral cidor (4 1)()d%- vc1low to brown; with a circlet of ,(,\-eral Iar,'e "Hid several -inall pine bordering posterior margin of proZM
d. Fifth antenna t-iiwnt al)mit fi\-( -sixtlis Imi- a,-4 4.
W. Fifth :u;tennal segment about hvu-thirds as long as 4.
a(15) E. trdici Fitch.
6. Gvuus Vzel.
1) v ''lic specit's -------------------------- (16) P. drm,.c) .e fleeger.
a. llca(l lwticeahl v 01,111
(lark- I)ro\\ ii, thi)rax aii(l otlier parts often oraugc tinte(l, inner li _,ht brown with
lighter codmvil arca ne-ar 1)()(IN, Icji(,tII almlit 1 .25 111111.
(17) 7'. m(t(tromi'l IICNV SPICWS. bl. Body, color 11'(dit vollow to light bro-wn, inner crvsceiits of ocelli light hi-mvii, \\iii-s liniform ligl4c(dofvd: lm(lv lell-th aj)otit 1 111111.
IS 7'. bibrci Lindeiiiati.
a/. Head as long or lim;,er thau Nvide; body loii,, and ,deii(ler; (-()I()r almost trausparcilt, soinctinies shaded Ii-I)t brown.
(If)) 1. )rcmnrr*i, new species.. 6enus 7'r;(-hoth,-ips Izel.
(I. Postocular spiiw.-z waiitiii-: all prt)mineiit spines, oil thorax aji(l abdomen witil h1unt tips-, aiitemi; alwut tN\-,) aDJ MIC-half tillle i as long as head; each fore tan us arnwil with a large tooth.
(20) 7' ders, new species.
al. Postoetilar spines prominent; body spines nornial; antennae not o\-er twice as long- as head; each fore tarstis earned with a small tooth. b. Sides of head ahnos-t straight; fon femora of males great1N, enlarged; fore tibiw aii(l tarsi and se(piients 3 to 6 of antenate yellow.
(21) T femor(dis, new species. bl. Sides of head slightly arched; fore femora of males not niore tlian twice as broad as tibiw; all ta si and segment 3 of antenna yellow.
(22) T. i1ex, new species.
b1l. All tarsi gray-brown and only base of segment 3 of antemiu.yellow.
(23) T. i1c), dmaosa, new variety.
("Manv smeimens of these two species have been examined and the variations in size, color, and relative leu,;th i of anteunal segments are so great that no sharp dividing.. line between the two species can be drawn.
THE THYSANOPTERA OF CALIFORNIA. 45
9. Genus Jeacnthothrips Reuter.
Represented by a single species ............-----------------.... (24) .1. o cii, ne\v species.
10. Genus Meg(dothrips Uzel.
Represented by a single specie .... ....----------------- (25) .IL hesperis, new species.
11. Genus ('yptothrips Uzel.
Represented by a single species ..........------------.-----.......--(26) (C. cl(difor nicus I)aniel.
The antenna' are nine-segmented. Ocelli are present in both sexes. The maxillary palpi are three to seven segmented; labial palpi are four or five segmented sometimess two segmented in European forms). The wings are large, )road. and rounded at the outer ends. Each fore wing has a heavy ring vein and two longitudinal veins extending from base to near tip: each fore wing has from three to five cross-veins: the fore wings are without a fringe on the front margin. Both sexes hear a peculiar thumb and fore-finger-like hook on the outer side of the second segment of each fore tarsus. The ovipositor of the female is upturned. M.lales have the tirst abdominal segnient much longer than the second. The members of this family have very long legs.
1. Genus OROTHRIPS, new genus.
Head wider than lonmg. Ocelli present in both sexes. Antenna nine-segmented, all sutures freely movable; third and fourth about equal in length. Mlaxillary palpi geniculate, seven-seigmented: labial palpi five-segmented. Prothorax about one-third wider than long, its hind margin )ordered with several quite strong sp ines on either side. Legs long and slender: fore femora thickened in both sexes: all ih)ia, armed. Second fore tarsal segment in 1)both sexes with hook-like appendage. Wings present in )both sexes, b)r(o)ader in distal third, narrower near base. Anterior part of riiig vein and two longitudinal veins thickly set with stout spines. Fore wing with two broad. darkened cross-bands near center and tip respectively, also darkened area near base.
(1) Orothrips kelloggii, new species. (P1. I, figs. 1-4.)
Ltasucnaent..: Head, length 0.16 mm., width 0.22 mm.; prothorax, length 0.16 rmm., width 0.28 mm.; mesothorax, width 0.43 mm.; abdomen, width 0.41 to 0.50 mm.; total body, length 1.80 mm. Antenna,: 1, 36p; 2, 54p; 3, 114p; 4, 108p; 5, 60po; 6, 45p; 7, 42p; 8, 24u; 9, 33p; total, 0.51 nmm. General color dark brown, sometimes light brown, prothorax and abdomen shaded with o()range.
HeCad about one-fifth wider than long and about as long as and retracted into prothorax: cheeks strongly arched: back of head transversely triated and clothed with small spines, a single pair posterior to ocelli, largest. Eyqe, large, black, with light posterior margin, a It has been necessary to extend the characters of the family .A'olothripidae as given by 1oth Uzel and Hinds in order to include California forms.
46 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.
pilose, with large prominent facets. Ocelli orange colored, granulated, separated, and margined inwardly with dark orange-brown crescents; posterior ocelli approximate to but not bordering inner margin of eyes. 3i1tt-conee short, reaching about halfway across the prothorax, maxillary palpi geniculate, seven-segmented, first segment very large and almost as long as the other six; labial palpi fivesegmented. Antenna nine-segmented, uniform dark brown except tip of segment 2, which is light brown, and base of 3, which is yellow; all segments quite uniformly clothed with short dark hairs; segments 3 and 4 each with two elongated, light-colored, membranous sense areas on outer side, one dorsal and one ventral; segments 5 and 6 each with a simple sense cone on under side near tip.
PI'othora1 about one-third wider than long, constricted in the center of sides, very faintly cross-striated, uniformly covered with numerous spines: circle of twelve quite stout spines on posterior margin. JIleaonotumt striate-reticulate; with several stout spines, two on each side, two near center, and two on posterior margin. MAlesothorax largest. quite smoothly and evenly rounded at union with metathorax; sides converge gradually toward the posterior. Legs unicolorous with body, except trochanters. tips of fore tibia, and fore tarsi, which shade to yellow; fore coxa and femniora thickened, other legs long and slender, legs thickly covered with short spines; fore tarsi each with thumb and forefinger-like hook; all tibia armed with spines near tip, hind tibia, with several and a double row on inner side. Fore wings broadest near tip, narrower near base; anterior margin broadly rounded at tip, posterior margin nearly straight outward from scale; fore wings with a ring vein, two longitudinal and five cross veins; longitudinal veins and anterior part of ringo vein thickly and regularly set with short spines. These spines are dark except on inner light area, where they are white. Fore winqs without anterior fringe and with hairs on the posterior margin which do not average as long as the width of the wing; wings clear white with three darkened areas, one at base, one at tip, and a large irregular area near center. All cross veins are included in or margin on this central darkened area. Scales at base long and slender, each bears seven spines. Hind wings clear white and without veins; margined in front with short and behind with long simple fringe.
Abdomen ovate, or strongly spindle-shaped when distended; fourth and fifth segments largest, tapering gradually from fifth to the tip; segments 1 to 7 with a few short inconspicuous hairs on prominent angles; segment 8 with a single pair of stout spines; segment 9 with three long and several short pairs.
Males are similar, but with long, slender bodies.
Describedfro7n nine females and six males.
Foodplants: Manzanita and madrofia blossoms.
Habitat: Santa Clara Valley, California.
THE THYSANOPTERA OF CALIFORNIA. 47
2. Genus EOLOTHRIPS Haliday. a
Head about as broad as long. Ocelli present in both sexes. Antenna nine-segmented, the last four segments closely joined and together shorter than the one preceding; the third segment longest. Maxillary palpi three-segmented and geniculate. Prothorax about as long or a little longer than the head, without large bristles. Legs very long and slender; fore femora somewhat thickened in both sexes; fore tibi. usually unarmed, although sometimes armed; second fore tarsal segment in both sexes with hooklike appendage. Wings usually present in both sexes; fore wing somewhat narrowed before the middle; fore part of ring vein furnished with very short hairs, which hardly overreach the edge of the wing and which increase in length toward the tip. Fore wings white, with dark cross or longitudinal bands. First abdominal segment in the males is much longer than the second, and the ninth is drawn out at the hind angles into short clasping organs or hooks.
(2) .Eolothrips kuwanaii, new species. (P1. I, figs. 5-8.)
ifeasurements: Head, length 0.13 im. (varying to 0.16 mam.), width 0.17 mm. (to 0.18 mi.); prothorax, length 0.16 m1m., width 0.20 mm.; mesothorax, width 0.30 mm.; total body, length 1.66 m1m. Antenn: 1, 36yi; 2, 51p; 3, 84yi; 4, 81pj; 5, 69p; 6, 7, 8, and 9, 51y; total, 0.37 mm. Color of insect brown-sometimes dark brown-with conspicuous red pigment blotches, this red showing especially vivid through the membranous parts between the segments.
tead about as wide or only a little wider than long, rounded in front and only slightly elevated between basal segments of antenna; cheeks arched; back of head faintly cross-striate with one especially prominent line near posterior margin; with several not prominent spines. Eyes prominent, black; with large facets, pilose. Ocelli present, placed well forward on anterior part of head, posterior ocelli contiguous with inner margin of eyes, orange-yellow and margined inwardly with deep orange crescents. Jouth-cone long, reaching to posterior margin of prothorax, pointed bluntly; maxillary palpi three-segmented, basal segment large, terminal one very small. Antenn~e nine-segmented, two and one-half times as long as head; brown, unicolorous with body except segment 3, which is lemon-yellow shaded light-brown at tip; all segments except basal one thickly and uniformly clothed with short spines, those on tip of 2 are stoutest, spines on segments 1, 2, 4, and 5 are brown, those on 3 and style are white; sense area on 3 long and slender, on 4 a similar larger area; a simple sense cone on lower side of segment 6 near tip.
aGenus modified to include California forms. Joblothrips kuwanaii liferss only in minor details from the Eolothrips of other writers, so that it seems best to extend this genus rather than to create a new one.
48 MIISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.
Prothorax a little wider than long, and only slightly larger than head, with an. emargination and thickening of the wall near center of each side; clothed with numerous small spines. JMesothorax largest; metathorax with sides almost straight and parallel except near posterior edge, where they turn abruptly inward. Legs dark brown, fore femora thickened, fore and second tibiae armed at tip with two strong spines, last tibihe with several spines at tip, and with two rows of smaller ones on inner side; each fore tarsus armed with a stout hook and tooth; all legs thickly set with small spines. Fore wings broadly rounded at tips, with two longitudinal veins which unite with ring vein near tip; with three cross veins and the vestige of a fourth; second longitudinal vein set with about twenty-six short, dark spines; spines also present on first longitudinal vein, but white and not conspicuous. Anterior margin of wing without fringe; hind margin with long, double fringe. Wings clear white, with dark brown longitudinal band covering posterior half from near base to near tip. Microscopic hairs on light-colored area white, those on darkened area brown. Hind pair of wings clear white, excepting a small, light brown longitudinal area near base; without veins: margined in front with short and on hind edge with long simple fringe.
Abdomen elongate-ovate, about one-third as wide as long. All segments uniform brown, with light brown intersegmental membrane, splashed conspicuously with red pignment: segments 2 to 7, inclusive, each with a dark cross line near anterior margin. Segments 1 to 8 without conspicuous hairs or spines; segment 9 bears eight long and several smaller spines along posterior margin. The three last segments form the sheath for the large upturned ovipositor.
Ables are much smaller, with antenna almost uniform brown and abdomen furnished with large clasping organs at tip.
DcscribdfNf'om, nine females and three males.
-iood plant: California lilac (Canots t/ t s).
Habitat: Saratoga. Santa Clara County, Cal.
(3) 1Eolothrips kuwanaii, variety robustus.
feasurements: Head, length 0.16 m, width 0.20 mm; prothorax, length 0.20 mm, width 0.23 mm; width of'mesothorax 0.38 mm; total body length 2.4 mm. Antenne: 1, 36y; 2, 60p; 3, 114y; 4, 69p; 5, 69y; 6, 7, 8, and 9, 51y; total 0.38 mm. Color quite uniform dark brown, with conspicuous red pigment blotches; the third antennal segment is light brown, with a touch of purple pigment at its base.
A single specimen of this insect, which is about one-third larger than A. kuwanaii, has been taken from an apricot tree near Cupertino, Cal.
THE THYSANOPTERA OF (CALIFORNIA. 49
(3) Genus SERICOTHRIPS Haliday.
Body broad and having a silky luster, due to the presence of numerous minute spines on the abdominal segments. Head fully one and one-half times as wide as long. Eyes large and protruding; ocelli present in both sexes. Antennme eight-segmented. Maxillary palpi threesegmented. Prothorax much longer than the head. without long spines at hind angles. Legs, especially hind pair. quite slender. Wings either reduced or fully developed; when present the fore wing is broad at basal fourth, the remainder being very narrow: only one longitudinal vein developed: fore fringe longp; spines on veins numerous and moderately developed: abdomen in some species strongly arched and its segments broad and short; tip of abdomen conical in both sexes; abdomen of male much more slender throughout. (After Hinds.)
To include California forms this o-enus must be extended as follows: Head may be almost as long as wide: ocelli wanting; maxillary palpi two or three segmented; head may he as long as prothorax; legs medium stout. The three California forms now recognized are wingless.
(4) Sericothrips apteris I)aniel.
Jf wrements: Head, length 0.13 mm., width 0.16 mm.: prothorax, length 0.13 mm., width 0).2 mm.; length of pterthorax 0.08 1n.1 width 0.26 imm.: width of abdomen ()0.40 mm.: total body length 0.65 to 1.0 mm. Antenna: 1, 18y: 2. 39P: 3, 45p: 4, 39 ;: 5, 36/: 6, 54jA: 7, 15p; 8, 18y; total, 0.2 5 mm. General color0, very dark brown, pterthorax lighter, abdomen almost black.
ITad rounded in front, elevated between bases of antennme; back of head cross-striate, with a spine on each side just inward from each eye and several posterior to eyes; cheeks arched, sides roughened. Eyes prominent, not pilose: together they occupy about one-half the width of the head. Ocelli wanting. Jf/ath cone long,. extending to mesothorax, tipped with black: maxillary palpi three-segmented. Antenaw eight-segmented, basal joints widely .separated: first two segments broadest; suture near tip of segment 6. which often makes the antenna appear nine-segmented; spines prominent: color quite uniform brown.
Protholwraxr of even length with head, sides evenly arched, with a few not prominent spines; pronotum faintly reticulate-striate: color dark brown. Pierth orax not nearly so long as head. narrow in front. diverging posteriorly; color orange-yellow to light brown; surface marked with transverse reticulating wrinkles: wings wanting. Leq. mo(derately stout: hind femnora with spines at tip: color brown, tibia and tarsi shading yellow.
50 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.
Abdomen broadly oval; segments 2 to 7, with an irregular row of about twelve spines along posterior margin; spines on last two segments short )but quite strong; color very dark brown to almost black.
Redescribed fjoom numerous specimens including several cotypes kindly furnished by Miss Daniel.
Food plant: Grass.
lab tat -Counties about San Francisco Bay, California.
This species is described in Entomological News for November, 1904, page 295. I have taken specimens from grass on the campus of the University of California, at Berkeley, Cal., where it was first found, and from the same food p)lanit in the Niles Canyon, Alameda County, and on the campus of the Leland Stanford, Jr.. University, Palo Alto, Cal. It is easily distinguished from the other species of the genus in that the pterthorax is decidedly lighter colored than the rest of the body. which is very dark brown to brown-black.
(5) Sericothrips reticulatus, new species. (P1. 1, figs. 9, 10.)
3asureaeents: Head, length 40.16 nmn.. width 0.20 nnm.; prothorax, length 0.18 nm.. width .2; nunm.; abdomen, width 0.48 mm.; total body length 1.41 nmn. Anteno tw: 1. 21;: 2, 4Sp:; 3, 54; 4, 54u; 5, 51p, 6, 69,p:T7, 12y: S, 21 p: total. n.336 1u. olor brown, head and thorax lighter, and abdomen shading to dark broiiwn at tip; legs yellow. Body increasing in size gradually from head to sixth abdominal segment, from where it tapers abruptly to the small ninth and conical tenth.
Ilad small as compared with other segments of body; cheeks arched. edges roughened: frons with two l)rominent darkened angles directly above basal segments of antenna and with an intermediate angular depression. Head surface strongly reticulate. with no conspicuous spines and with but few very small hairs. EUyw large, prominent, with coarse facets, not pilose, with light-colored outer borders, pigment very dark purple. Ocel; absent. 11A)th cone broad, pointed bhlntly at tip; maxillary palpi two-segmented. Antnnwe eight-segmented, slightly more than twice as long as head, segments almost uniform brown, sense hairs light colored and inconspicuous.
Prothora. r but slightly longer than head. It bears a few very small hairs, but no spines. lex.othoraxr smallest segment of body excepting the last two of the abdomen, with indat/oratx only a little larger, and together they are wider, although not so large, as the prothorax. They bear no conspicuous hairs or spines. YNo wings or wing-pads are present. All legs are medium stout, unarmed, and with only a few inconspicuous hairs; color yellow, tarsi tipped with brown.
Abdomen brown, shading darker toward the tip; broadly oval; segments 1 to 4 increasing in size gradually; segments 4, 5, and 6 about equal, segment 7 tapering, 8 abruptly tapering to meet the very.small ninth and conical tenth. Entire upper surface of abdomen reticulate.
Tech. Series 12, Part IlI, Bureau of Entomrology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE 1.
2H S N P E A O A I O NI .-i ,l f n e n
Fi.l- rohiselogiledailrtorx ffnil.Fg 2- rtrp6kelg
of fe ae i.3,rtfp c'ogirgtfr hgo eile i.4- rtrjsklog for tasso e ae i.5 .Eltrp wvniha n rtoa ffml.Fg .
0 ltrp uvrai ih nen ffm lFg.7-, ,ltrjsb viai ih o(wi o
female. ~ ~ Fi.$\Eltrp u mai fr asl ffm l.Fg 9 1ciohisri11h,
hed rthrx ndmstorxo eml.Fg 1., riohi. rtclaued fbo e
THE THYSANOPTERA OF CALIFORNIA. 51
Segments 1 to 8 have each several very small hairs, segments 9 and 10 each with six or eight quite long, conspicuous spines.
Described from one female.
Food plant: Grass.
Habitat: Campus of the Leland Stanford Junior University, California.
This species has many characters in common with the Prosopothrips vejdovskyi described by zel."
(6) Sericothrips stanfordii, new species. (P1. II. fig. 11.)
Jfeasurenents. Head, length 0.12 mum.. width 0.16 mm.; prothorax, length 0.13 mm.. width 0.21 mm.: width of abdomen 0.36 mm; total body, length 1.25 mm. Antennae: 1; 21,: 2. 36p: 3, 36; 4, 39;: 5, 33p; 6, 48p; 7, 9p; 8. 15y; total, 0.24 mm. Co/r brown, tips of tibhi yellow, tarsi yellow. with brown tips.
Ifead rounded in front, cheeks almost straight, roughened; surface of head cross-striate almost to a reticulation: a spine just inward from and two or three posterior to each eye: none. however, are prominent. Eyes medium, with light-colored inner and outer ,)orders: slightly pilose, not protruding. Oce//l/ alb)sent. lb ,t/-,o1 )road at base, blunt and dark-brown at tip: maxillary palpi three-segmented. Aut eight-segmented: twice as long as head: brown, segment 3 light brown.
Prot/horwxr )ears no l)rominent spines and but few short inconspicuous hairs; sides slightly arched: surface faintly cross-striate. if-Aothorax and inetat/wr'ai,, resemble abdominal segments: the mnesothorax is the smaller; they hear no conspicuous spines or hairs: cross-striate on upper surface. Color uniform brown with rest of body. _> AinyxP are present. Leqgs medium stout, third pair armed with spines: tips of tibiae yellow, tarsi yellow, each with a conspicuous brown spot at tip.
Abdonm- dark brown, with light-colored bands on posterior edges of all segments excepting last two; these bands have small longitudinal, wavy thickenings; intersegmental membrane light brown or yellow. Body elongate-ovate; third. fourth, and fifth segments largest, tapering gradually to tip (segments cross-striate, especially on their anterior parts). Segments I to 7 each with several regularly placed small hairs; on last three segments, and especially on the last two, these hairs become quite strong, prominent spines.
Described J'on four females.
Food plant: Grass.
habitat: Campus of the Leland Stanford Junior University, California.
4. Genus HELIOTHRIPS Haliday.
(7) Heliothrips humorrhoidalis Bouch( and (8) H. fasciatus Pergande.
For descriptions of these two species see Hinds's Monograph of the. Thysanoptera of North America, pages 168 and 174, respectively.
aMonographie der ()rd nune, Thysanoutera, page 166.
52 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.
leliotrzps Awinorrioidalis is one of the commonest thrips i greenhouses, where it feeds on azaleas, ferns, and dahlias; out of doors it feeds and becomes very destructive on laurestinas.
Ielothrips fasciatus (PL. II, figs. 12-14) has been taken from oranges in Colusa County by Mr. E. K. Carnes, from pea vines in Santa Rosa by Mr. O. E. Bremner, and the writer has taken it from wild vetch sweepings in the Santa Cruz Mountains, Santa Clara County, Cal.
5. Genus EUTHRIPS Targione-Tozzetti.
Ocelli usually present, but sometimes more or less rudimentary. Antenne eight-segmented. Maxillary palpi three-segmented. Prothorax as long or somewhat longer than head, with two long spines on each hind angle and one similar spine on each anterior angle in many species, but this is wanting in others. Legs usually unarmed, but in a few species with a stout tooth on the under side of fore tibia at end. Wings usually fully developed, but sometimes reduced; when present they are moderately broad, and in those species which have a spine at the fore angle of the pronotumi both longitudinal veins are closely and regularly set with spines for their entire length. Spines on the abdomen are moderately stout, anal spines are long and slender. These species are usually active and most of them have the power of sl)rngig.
(9) Euthrips orchidii, new species. (Pl. II, figs. 15-18.)*
MaueO s n : Head, length 0.10 mm., width 0.15 mm.; prothorax, length 0.14) nun., width 0.1 n nm. ; mesothorax, width 0.22 mm.; abdomen, width 0.25 nmn.; total body. length 0.S mm. Antenn: 1, 18y; 2, 30p; 3, 48p; 4, 48p; 5, 48/; 6(, 54/u; 7,r 1,;y 8, 21y; total, 0.28 mm. tlo, yellow, head and all legs light lemon-yellow, wings light brown.
Iad one-third wider than long, retracted into prothorax, angular in front, with concave depressions receiving basal joints of antenna; spines inconsp)icuous: cheeks ahlnost straight; head broadest across eyes. lecs relatively large, occupying about one-half the length of the head, prominent; pigment granular and from deep red to purple; facets of eye as large as ocelli, eyes pilose. Ocelli subapp1roxinmte, margined inwardly with orange-red crescents. fouth-con short, reaching hardly beyond posterior margin of head, pointed and with a brown spot at tip; maxillary palpi three-segmented. Antenna eight-segmented, light lemon-yellow, with tips of segments 4, 5, and Shading to light brown; segments 3, 4, and 5 of about the same length, segment 6 longest; forked sense cones on segments 3 and 4 long and slender, a short and a long simple sense cone near tip of segment 5, a similar pair on 6; on this latter segment the inner long cone is very long and reaches almost to tip of antenna. All spines and sense cones are pale and inconspicuous.
Tech. Series 12, Part 111, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE I
THYSANOPTERA OF CALIFORNIA.
Fig. l1.-Scricoth rips loanfordii, female. Fig. l-J(ithrp uilshead and prothorax of female. Fig. 13.-J1e'lioth rips fasciatus, right an tenn a of femnalIe. Fig. 14.-Tlioth rip fatseia tits, end of abdomen of female. Fig. 15.-Eithlrips orchidil, head and' prothorax of female. Fig. 16.Euthrips orchidii, right antenna of female. 'Fig. 17.-Euthrips orclidii, end of abdomen of female. Fig. 18.-Euth rips orchidii, right fore wing of female.
THE THYSANOPTERA OF CALIFORNIA. 53
Prothorax almost twice as wide as long, all angles broadly and evenly rounded; a prominent line across the posterior part which might easily be mistaken for the hind margin; with two short and quite stout spines on each posterior angle; all spines light colored and not readily seen. Jfesothorax largest, sides of metatlora almost parallel and very slightly arched. Legs uniform light yellow; all tibie with a spine at tip, hind tibie with a row of regularly placed spines on upper inner side; all tarsi with a brown spot at tip. fings present and fully developed; fore wings light brown, with two white areas, one near base and one at tip. A single rudimentary vein at base of each fore wing; spines of wing few and scattered, except two groups of three each near base and five on scale: wing broadest at base, anterior margin bowed, posterior margin straight from base to near tip, where it curves forward to form a scythe-like tip: both anterior and posterior fringes long and sparse.
Abdomen ovoid, tip conical, segments 9 and 10 drawn out. and spines on these last two are long and prominent.
De.cri bed flrom four females.
Specimens collected from orchids in greenhouse. Fruitvale, Alameda County, Cal., by Mr. O. E. Bremner.
(10) Euthrips pyri Daniel. (Pl. III. figs. 19-24.)
Jleasuremnte.: Head, length 0).13 mumn., width 0.15 imm.: prothorax, length 0.13 unn., width 0.2 nn. : mesothorax. width 0.28 mam.: abdomen, width 0.31 mm.; total length 1.,26 in. Antenmo: 1. 33p: 2, 45p; 3, 63p; 4, 54y: 5, 33; 6. 66p: 7. 9 8, 12p: total. 0.31 mm. (Color dark brown, tarsi light brown to yellow.
]lead slightly wider than long, cheeks arched. anterior margin angular, back of head transversely striate and bearing a few minute spines and a pair of very long prominent spines between posterior ocelli. 1y#a prominent, oval in outline. 'black with light borders. coarsely faceted and pilose. Ocelli are approximate, yellow, margined inwardly with orange-brown crescents, posterior ones approximate to but not contiguous with light inner borders of eyes. 3[/out/,h-co pointed, tipped with black; maxillary palpi three-segmented; labial palpi two-segmented, basal segment very short. Antennw eight-segmnented, about two and one-half times as long as head. uniform brown except segment 3, which is light bro-wn: spines pale: a forked sense cone on dorsal side of segment 3, with a similar one on ventral side of segment 4.
Prothorax about as long but wider than head; a weak spine at each anterior and two large, strong ones on each posterior angle: other spines are not conspicuous. Jlksoth/orax with sides evenly convex, angles rounded; minetanotal plate with four spines near front edge, inner pair largest. The mesonotal and metanotal plates are faintly striate.
54 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.
Legs moderately long, uniform brown except tibim and tarsi, which are yellow. Spines on tip of fore and middle tibim weak; several strong spines on hind tibiw. lWings present, extending beyond tip of abdomen, abbut twelve times as long as wide, pointed at tips; costa of fore wings thickly set with from twenty-nine to thirty-three quite long spines; fore vein with twelve or fifteen arranged in two groups of, three and six respectively on basal half of wing and a few scattering ones on distal part; hind vein with fifteen or sixteen regularly placed spines: costal fringe on fore wing about twice as long as costal spines.
Abdlomen subovate, tapering abruptly toward the tip from the eighth segment: longest spines on segments 9 and 10; abdomen uniform brown, connective tissue yellow.
Iedeeribed from many specimens, including several cotypes from Miss Daniel.
Ma i e unknown.
F ood plts: Apricots. apples, almonds, cherries, figs, grapes, pears, prunes, plums, walnuts. The insect is found mostly on deciduous fruits.
Habitat: San Francisco Bay region, (alifornia.
(11) Euthrips ehrhornii, new species. (Pl. III, figs. 25, 26.)
jIMasuYreMjnt,: Head. length ). 11 mn., width 0.13 mm.; prothorax, length 0.14 nun., width 0.18, mm.; mesothorax, width 0.23 mm.; abdomen, width 0.29 nnm.; total body length 1.2 mn. Antenna: 1, 24p; 2, 39p: 3, 48,p; 4, 45p; 5, 3ip: 6, 54p; 7 6p-; 8, p; total, 0.26 mm. General colr brown, head light brown, thorax a little darker, abdomen brown to dark brown.
IeJad slih tly longer than wide; front of head angular, and with (oncave depressions to receive basal segments of antennae; cheeks roughene(d;: posterior part o()f head faintly cross striate. Spines between ocelli prominent: postocular spines present but small. Fyes large, oval, slightly protruding. with an emargination on the side of the head between cheek and eye; pigment purple. Ocelli separated, margined inwardly with orange-red crescents. lMouth cone long and pointed; maxillarypalpi three-segmented. .ntenna subapproximate; uniform brown except segment 1, basal half of 3, and tip of 4, which are gray-brown.
Pft/;orav widest across posterior part; all angles rounded. Two large spines on each posterior angle with several smaller ones along posterior margin; of these latter the inner ones are the larger; large spines on posterior angles are dark brown; no conspicuous spines on anterior angles. Sides, of both mesothorax and metathorax slightly arched: pterthorax may be of a darker shade of brown than prothoraKx. Legs uniform brown,.except all trochanters, which are white, and tibiw,
Tech. Series 12, Part 111, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agricultue. PLATE I
ZZ I elh/
Fig.~~~~~~~ /'7Eth-i~ pyi edadpobrxo eae.Fg 0 /uhisIy edadpo
thra o finlefrm id.Fi. 1.Euhrpspyirih ate iaoffe al. ig 27
.E011-is 1)' il-i.end of a dom n o /eal /ro sie Fi.2. E,(/ I)Y ,fr asso
ivnae F-.'4.E thip yr .,rih frewngo fe ae Fi./2./ J,'ifh4 / -ror i hea
and prtlira o fe al. 6.- otiris hrorni.riht or Avug(4ft~na( Fi.1'
1,'ihrip iih aiovct.ednd rtirxo e ae
I ~ < N
THE THYSANOPTERA- OF CALIFORNIA. 55
which are light brown; each hind tibia armed at tip with a spine; all tarsi with a brown spot at tip. lWings fully developed, uniform light gray-brown, all veins weak. Fore margin and hind vein set regularly with conspicuous dark brown spines, about twenty-six on fore margin and thirteen on hind vein; fore vein with twelve spines arranged in two groups of three and four on basal half of wing and five scattered spines on distal half.
Abdomven elongate-ovate, pointed at tip. Spines at sides increasing in prominence toward tip, those on 9 and 1( largest and most conspicuous of any on body. Hairs in comb-like structure on posterior margin of segment 8 closely placed.
Describedfromn two females.
Habitat:. Alum Rock Canyon. Santa Clara County, Cal.
This species is very close to t bripspyr .
(12) Euthrips ulicis californicus. new variety. (P1. III, fig. 27; P1. IV,
3ia.w renient. : Head. length 0.13 mm.. width 0.17 mm.: prothorax, length 0.21 mn.. width 0.25 mm.: mnesothorax. width 0.36 mm.: abdomen, width 0.40 mum. ; total body. length 1.33 nin. Antenmne: 1. 30p; 2, 45p; 3, 75p; 4. 066p: 5. 48p: 6. 6;6/: 7. 15: S. Sup; total. 0.3) mim. Color' dark-brown, except tarsi alnd fore tibia. which are light brown or yellow.
Head slightly wider than long, deeply set in prothorax; cheeks straight, parallel: front of head broad and quite straight, having only a small elevation between bases of antenna: head noticeably square in front; back of head transversely striate: large spine on back (of head just inward from each eve and anterior to each posterior ocellus; a pair of small b)ackwardlv curved spines on apex of head: four o)r five spines posterior to each eye, the outer one of each group being prominent on the side of the cheek. Eyes. medium. prominent. but not protruding; pilose; with light inner borders. pigment deep red to black. Ocell; large, separated. orange colored, with orange brown crescents, posterior ones almost contiguous with light borders around eyes. Jfoutd cone pointed. maxillary palpi three-segmnented. .li bennw eight-segmented, about two and one-half times as long as head: brown, unicolorous with body except segment 3, which is yellow, and 4. which is light brown: forked sense cones are fou d on segments 3 and 4 and a pointed sense scale set in a transparent area near tip of segment 6. Segments 3 and 4 constricted near their tips.
Prothwrax noticeably larger than head. sides convex: a short spine on each anterior angle and two long prominent spines on each posterior angle. Jfesothorax largest, anterior angles broadly rounded, posterior ones slightly constricted to meet the smaller metathorax. Sides of metat/orax almost straight and parallel posterior angles
56 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.
rounded. Legs brown. coneolorous iith body except fore tibia~, which are yellow, shading to brown on sides, fore tarsi, which are yellow, and other tarsi which are yellow to light brown. Fore femnora thickened. Fore tarsi armed each with a stout tooth, and near this is a protuberance on which is set a sharp spine. ITgs present; fore wings brown, except )asal fourth, which is white; costa and both longitudinal veins set with long, conspicuous brown spines, twenty-six on costa, twenty on fore vein, sixteen on hind vein, five on scale.
.1lbdnen ovate; third to sixth segments largest and about equal; the seventh to tenth tapering gradually to form the conical tip. A few (quite prominent spines along sides of abdomen, but long and slender ones only on segments and 10, a circlet of eight on segment
9 and six on seoment 10.
Male's smaller than females; antenna,, legs, and wings with similarly placed spines; fore femora thickened, fore tibiae armed with teeth. Tip of abdomen with prominent spines, penis upturned: antenniue with spments 1 and ) to S brown, and 2, 3, and 4 yellow.
A %-.'swhd f01m three females a(nd four males, specimens taken from vetch sweepings near Wrights Station, Santa Clara County, Cal.
The-' species here described corresponds in almhnost every respect to the I)vqyjwxp // c/. I' llalida.v as described by Uzel in his Monographie d(er ()rdmung Thysanoptera, page 115. The genus namne IPlysopus has since been changed to !t//4rp/, byI Hinds in his Monograph of the Thy san(t ioptera of North America. I therefore have called this species A'//Iips /,. c*a/f;,mic/s. The Il/yspN /./dc of Uzel is recorded as found in England (Haliday), in Finland (Reuter), and in Bohemia (uzel).
(13) Euthrips minutus, new species. (P1. IV, figs. 32, 33.)
j ue nt: Head, length 0.096 nn., width 0.14 mnm.; prothorax, length 0.105 nmn., width 0.17 nmn.; mesothorax, width 0.21 mm.; abdomen, width 0.24 nmn.; total body, length 0.83 mm. Antennse: 1. 21p; 2, 301t; 3, 39p; 4, 3(p; 5, 30,u; 6, 42jp; 7, 9 p; 8, 12yu; total, 0.21 Iull. olor uniform dark brown, wings gray-brown.
Ifwad about one and one-half times as wide as long, retracted into thorax; anterior margin of head almost straight, being but slightly and smoothly elevated in front; cheeks straight, diverging posteriorly; no conspicuous markings on head. A weak spine close in front of each posterior ocellus and one behind each eye; other spines very inconspicuous. Eyes moderately large, not protruding, pigment of a deep red. Oce//li widely separated, posterior ones contiguous with light inner margins of eyes; considerably larger than facets of eyes; orange-yellow; margined inwardly with large orange crescents. MoOuthconi- short; maxillary palpi three-segmented. Antenna inserted a little below the margin, slightly more than twice as long as head, quite uniform brown.
Tech. Series 12, Part III, Bureau of Entomology, U. S, Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE IV.
- - -
-- -- T
THSNO R OF CAIONA
Fi.2. E thiN clfr5.i.lfta tn ao fm l. Fg 29 u /)ti) alcsclfinfts
rih fr wn f eiil. i.30 idiip dci alfrncs fr 55 o e al. Fi ".
F.rp' 2&-Euch cri lirois califor ndcs eft antoenn of faemaFie. Fi.-Etrp 2in-Eut teip ;,hiiedTt aridpro thorax of female. Fig. :3:.-Eithipis ,niinatits, right fore wing of female. Fig. :34.- Thips. mindvonii, liead anid prothorax of female. Fig. :35.-Thrips timadronu, right antenna of feniale. Fig. ;36.-TIhrips nm(drovlii, right fore wing of female.
THE THYSANOPTERA OF CALIFORNIA. 57
1rothoraxr noticeably larger than head, without conspicuous markings; anterior angles straight, posterior broadly rounded. A large spine on each anterior angle and a second on anterior margin on either side about half way between the first spine and the median line; three large spines on posterior margin on either side about equidistant apart, the outer one being the conspicuous spine on the posterior angle; other spines extremely small. Je.Lsot/,ora, widest, sides arched, evenly united with metathorax: sides of matorax almhnost straight, but widening toward the abdomen. Thorax slightly orange colored.
Legs medium, brown, except fore tibite and all tarsi. which are light brown. Hind tibiae and tarsi earned each with a sharp spine. il/nS present, reaching to tip of abdomen; gray-brown, each with a small, white, transparent area about one-tifth the wing's length from its base. Two longitudinal veins, fore vein extending from base to near tip, hind vein appears close after the white area and fades before the end. Fore margin of wing and longitudinal veins set regularly with short, sharp-pointed brown spines, twenty-three on fore margin. eighteen on fore vein, twelve on hind vein.
Abdonen with prominent spines only on last few segments; a weak comb-like arrangement of spines on the posterior margin of segment 8.
.Deh'c.rbed, f'om one female.
Food plf(nt: Grass.
Hab;ttat: Berkeley, Cal.
(14) Euthrips occidentalis Pergande, and (15) Euthrips tritici Fitch.
For descriptions of these species see Hinds's Mlonograph of the Thysanoptera of North America. pages 152 and 148, respectively."
6. Genus PARTHENOTHRIPS Uzel.
(16) Parthenothrips dracene leeger.
For description see Hlinds's Monograph, page 176. Specimens taken from draca-na in greenhouse in San Francisco, by Mr. E. M1. Ehrhorn.
7. Genus THRIPS Linneus.
(17) Thrips madronii, new species. (Pl. IV, figs. 34-36.)
JleaNu.re n ds.: Head, length 0.11 mm., width 0.15 nmn.; prothorax, length 0.13 mm., width ). 20 mm.: mesothorax, width 0.33 mm.; abdomen, width 0.33 mm.; total body, length 1.25 mm. Antenm: 1, 27y; 2, 39p; 3, 60p; 4, 54p; 5,45y; 6, 54y: 7, 21y; total, 0.3 nm. o a The writer has taken specimens of these two species of Eothrips (orccideidldis and tritici) from the most of our wild and cultivated flowers. They are commonly found together. The variations in size, color, and in the relative lengths of segments of the antenname (in each of the two species) are so great that the writer has been unable to draw a sharp line of distinction between them.
58 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.
uniform brown, usually dark brown; wings gray-brown, lighter at base; tibite and tarsi sometimes light brown.
Ikad almost as long as wide, front of head angular, basal segments of antenna set in concave depressions in front of head; cheeks arched, sides roughened; posterior part of head cross-striate. No prominent spines on head, although there is a row of small spines on each side immediately back of the eyes, the inner ones of which are the larger. Eyes prominent, slightly protruding, pilose, margined inwardly with light borders; pigment black. Ocelli subapproximate, separated from inner margin of eyes; light orange colored and margined inwardly with deep orange-red crescents: usually with circular thickening connecting anterior ocellus with outside of posterior ones, and included within this, on either side of the anterior ocellus, is a small spine. Afouth cone long, pointed; maxillary palpi three-segmented; labial palpi twosegmented, first very short, second very long and slender. Antenna with all segments of uniform width and color, except 2, which is somewhat wider and a little darker brown; sometimes segment 3 is also a little lighter brown.
Irothrar about as long as head but somewhat wider; all angles rounded; a pair of prominent spines on each posterior angle, with a smaller pair on posterior margin near center; sometimes a third quite prominent spine is present near larger ones on posterior angles. lesotho/1(/' largest; nectat4orarx smaller with sides almost straight, hind angles rounded. All segments uniform brown. Legs. medium, concolorous with body; hind tibiv armed with several stout spines. Wings fully developed, noticeably broader at base and gradually narrowing toward the tip, light brown, except basal one-fourth, which is light gray-brown. Costal and longitudinal veins prominent only on basal half of wing; costa with about twenty-six regularly placed spines; fore longitudinal vein with two groups on basal half, first group of four and second of three; three other spines on distal half; hind vein with twelve regularly placed spines.
Abdom-n uniform dark-brown, with a darker brown line across anterior margins of segments 2 to 7; connective tissue brown; stout spines on sides of all segments, these becoming longer near the tip with the longest on segments 9 and 10. Comb-like arrangement of spines on posterior margin of segment 8.
MAales much smaller than females and with large light-colored oval areas on ventral sides of segments 3 to 6.
Described from twenty-one females and three males.
Food plants: Blossoms of madrofia, California laurel, and California lilac.
Habitat: Santa Clara Valley, California.
This species in a general way resembles Ethrips pyri, and either one at a casual glance could be easily mistaken for the other.
THE THYSANOPTERA OF CALIFORNIA. 59
(18) Thrips tabaci Lindeman.
For description see Hinds's Monograph, page 179.
Trips tabaci is common everywhere in wild and cultivated flowers, but its principal food plant is the onion. It has been very destructive on several large seed farms where onions are grown for seed purposes. It is commonly known as the onion thrips.
(19) Thrips bremnerii, new species. (P1. V, figs. 37-39.)
Afeasurements: Head, length 0.1 mm., width 0.10 mm.; prothorax, length 0.12 mm., width 0.14 mm.; mesothorax, width 0.18 mm.; abdomen, width 0.21 mm.; total body, length 1.08 mm. Antenne: 1, 21p; 2, 33p; 3, 42p; 4, 36y; 5, 33p; 6, 39p; 7, 15p; total, 0.21 mmi. Color uniform light lemon-yellow, shading to light brown; abdominal segments often shaded brown on dorsal side. Body long and slender.
Head about as long as wide, angular in front, basal segments of antenna received in concave depressions on upper front side, back of head faintly cross-striate; cheeks arched but little. A spine on either side of anterior ocellus and one immediately behind each posterior ocellus, the spines light, concolorous with head and not conspicuous. Eyes prominent, protruding, pilose, black or deep purple by transmitted light, red by reflected light. Ocelli subapproximniate, very light and margined inwardly with light-brown crescents. loutI cone shading dark brown toward the end and tipped with black; maxillary palpi three-segmented, labial palpi two-segmented, terminal one very long. Antenoe quite uniform light brown, basal segment often lighter or second segment darker.
Prothorax but little larger than the head; all angles rounded, and if the body is distended, together with the light colored intersegmental membrane, the prothorax is quite round; two large brown spines on each posterior angle, with a row of three on each side along the hind margin, the inner one being the larger. Pturthora.r somewhat darker than prothorax; sides of mesothorax rounded, sides of metathorax narrowed in front, forming a (quite noticeable concave depression on either side. Legq medium, concolorous with or somewhat lighter than body, hind tibia alone armed with spines, a darkbrown spot on the tip of each tarsus. Il7nyg fully developed, though not reaching to tip of abdomen, broad at base; uniform white with brown spines. Veins are either very rudimentary or, as in some specimens, highly developed. In these latter the two longitudinal veins may be seen extending to and joining the margin on either side of the tip; also there are two cross veins, one at about one-third, and a second at about two-thirds the wing's length from the base; they connect costa and fore longitudinal vein. Costa with twenty-tive spines; fore vein with twelve, arranged as follows: Two groups of four and three, respectively, on basal half of wing, and five others regularly placed on distal half; twelve on hind vein.
Abdomen long' and slendcr: eo'IIWIAS 3 to Avith a 1)1'oNvii line near anterior niarj,riii- -;pines mi h !-;t segrinent.,.; not noticeably long.
Towli l(tO: Figs. -;Peciniens taken from the inside of ripe figs.
IbIZ;t(ll: Santa Clara Valley. Odifornia.
8. Genus TRICHOTHRIPS Uzel.
(20) Trichothrips dens, new -,pecie.- (P]. v fi(I.S.
Ifew"Oly'vIllclits: He:td 1( Iigth I 26 width (). 2-7) inin. prothorax, lenoth 0.1.) nun., Width 0.2t niiii.; nie- ()tliorax. Nvidtli 0.3,5 nuu. abdoineii. Nvidth.0.40 iiiiii. tiOw, length 0.14 nini.: total bodv, length 1.5 111111. .Antcnmv : L, :))Op. 2. 6011: f ll 54y, 48y; 8, 24p;
total, 0.44 111111. C(We)l' I)I-OW111 Nvith cmispictiotts red pignient blotches oil 1)odv ;1nd le("S.
11, 11 / about as lono- a,- ivide. I)n)-adly rounded in f ront; f rons elevate(l mdv '11(ditly herween segnients of antenna. Cbee'ks
al'Ched, cmlvero'illo' Nv*th ed().
es rotto'hened: bearino- a few
slmi-t 'tollt spilles which :tre r"llsed on ,IIIaII tltbercl('.' Red pio-Inent on he"Id i.-, coll-q)IC110111 A pair of short. inconspicuotis, postocitlar I't w t 11 'sli 1:111 facets. bl"Ick I)v t tted I 1%rili-I-Q11i
11(1.11t with li(rhl ilmer ka.dcrs -'wd 11(dit lenwil-vellow transparent OtIter 1)orden': 11()t pn,.sent. margined
illw"IrdlY with darl cre.-welit'. "tilterk)], 0110 011 apex 4 he'Id. AlolitA CO)OI Imilited, Ivachillo. heymid lwstcrior 111aro-in ()f prothonix. _"bitcmi e mle and hv()-thirds tiniest as long as head- brown., miic(dorou-, with ))()d v. except that the hase and tip 4 segnient 3 and 1)a.'. ('s of "eo'llielits 4 (in(t .7) ,hade to light bi-mvii or h'I'llon-vellow. Se o-ment I truncat(.-. 2cmi-strico,(I ,tt base intoa broad stalk and fitting iiit() t depressionn, in se (),nient 1; 3 to C inclitsive each with a slewler at 1)as(,. (-ich at-s() ()niewhat constricted at the
&-;tal end; 7 c0indrictil-ovate and vei-N ch)sely and evenly united Nvith S. which i,-4 conical. A darl spot on ,e(1,-nient 22 is prol)ably a sense area, 3 to 1; iiwlm- ive each Nvith three siniple Sense cones,
with one (,-on(, on seginent-; .5 and 6 rtidinientary; T and S lwar each a simple sense, cone and a fringe of eight or nine sense hairs on their inner niaraiii.
J Iolleo&tx 111)out half as long as head btit Nvider than bead is long. It bears no hairs other than, a single, stout, transparent, knobbed pair on the hindangles andftsimilar sinaller pair on tho anterior angles. _3416,soand ilwItitbolwx about equal in. Nvidth andslight1v wider than protll()I,LX; With Si(IOS a11110A paral lei; they bear no conspicuous spines or ha i I Each i ol, cox(t projects considerabIN- T)eyond margin at sides, of prothorax and fornis what appears to 1w the prominent angle; each bears a short, stout, trai i spare tit, knobbed hair on prominent angle.
Tech. Series 12, Part III, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE V.'
*HSNOTR OF CAIONA
Fi.:7 h i) ben w ile d i r4 oa )ffn l i.bNw ticl )
alidolliell ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 offnae i.3, 1wjsb-unri iItfr i ,I eml. F 0 rco
thris (, is. ead nd rotionx offelial. Fg. H -Trchohris elnsllef Iltell l (f fll)11c Fi. Ti -1otrj), dn,; igi fr wn o em l. i. Ins nd o
abdomen ~ ~ ~ 7 of /eiae Fig /4-rcoh~p.ftitai rih/nen1(ffn
THE THYSANOPTERA OF CALIFORNIA. 61
Fore femora enlarged; fore tarsi stout and each armed with a stout tooth. Other than a single row of stout spines on the hind tibiv, the legs bear no conspicuous spines and only a few small hairs. MvYq.8 reach to base of tube; both pairs equal; edges parallel; with simple fringe of long, straight hairs on both margins. Fore wings double fringed on posterior margin near tip by seven or eight hairs. Membrane of wings transparent, shaded gray-brown near base. Fore wings each with a single median rudimentary vein and center of wing along vein shaded light brown. Base of wing bears three knobbed hairs, one long and two short ones; costal margin near base with wavy thickenings.
Abdoinen about as wide as thorax, last three segments tapering abruptly; tube slender and about two-thirds as long as head; terminal hairs as long as tube. The abdomen is brown and red, unicolorous with the thorax and head. Each posterior angle of all segments except the first bears a stout, transparent, knobbed hairl, these increasing in length from the second to and including the ninth. Other smaller hairs are also found on the prominent angles.
-Describedfrom one female; male unknown.
Food i)an 1: Apricot.
Habitat: Santa Clara Valley, California.
(21) Trichothrips femoralis, new species. (Pl. V, fig. 44; Pl. VI,
figs. 45, 46.)
measurements: Head, length 0.21 mam., width 19 mam., prothorax, length 0.20 mm., width 0.33 mm. (including coxa); mesothorax width 0.38 ram.; abdomen, width 0.40 mm.; tube, length 0.16 mm.; total body, length 1.7 mam. Antennte: 1, 33pi; 2, 48p; 3, 66p; 4, 66px; 5, 66,u; 6, 63yx; 7, 63px; 8, 48yj; total, 0.52 mam. Color uniform darkbrown, except fore tibiae and tarsi and segments of antenna, 3 to 6 inclusive, which are yellowv; middle and hind tarsi light brown. Orange-colored pigment may be seen in lighter colored specimens.
Head slightly longer than wide, rounded in front; frons elevated between basal segments of antenna; cheeks almost straight and parallel; margins roughened; back of head with cross striations. Postocular spines prominent; other small spines not conspicuous. Eyes occupying about one-third the length of the head, with small facets, not pilose; with light, irregular, orange-tinted inner borders and light lemon-yellow narrower outer borders. Ocelli present, anterior one on apex of head, posterior ones orange-tinted and contiguous, with light inner borders of eyes. -Month cone small, no longer than width at base, tip bluntly pointed; rudimentary chitinous thickening on either side about halfway between base of cone and eyes, equally well developed on both sides. Anten w eight-segmented, slightly more than twice as long as head; basal segment brown; 2 brown, shading to
62 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.
yellow; 3 to 6 inclusive are yellow, with 5 and 6 shading to gray-brown at tips; 7 and 8 brown. Dark-brown area on inner margin of segment 2 probably a sense area; simple sense cones on segments 3 to 8.
Pirothorax almost as long as head and about one-third wider thin long; it bears ten prominent spines, a pair on anterior margin, one on each anterior angle, one midway on each side, and two on each posterior angle. Sides of mnsothorax almost parallel and united evenly with the sides of the metathorax, which latter converge posteriorly. Thefore coxm are protruding and form what appear to be the prominent sides of the prothorax; each is tipped with a long spine. Fore femora enlarged; fore tarsi each armed with a very small tooth. Wing reaching nearly to base of tube, both pairs similar, clear white, with a long simple fringe on both anterior and posterior margins.
Abdomnen about equal or slightly wider than the mesothorax; segments 2 to 7 inclusive taper uniformly, with hind angles prominent. Abdomen uniform brown with the thorax and head; red pigment conspicuous. Segments 1 to 7 each with two long spines on each side rear posterior margin, the outer ones in each case appearing as the spine on the outer prominent angle; the spines approach each other and the margin on segments 7, 8,. and 9 to form a pair on the prominent angles. Segments 1 to 7 have each two pairs of strong, incurved spines at about one-fourth the width of the abdomen from the margin and in each case the hinder pair is the stouter; these spines function in holding the wings when at rest. Tip of tube bears six long spines about as long as the tube itself, and several shorter ones. Scales present on last segments of females.
Males are similar to females in most respects, but possess the very greatly enlarged fore femora and do not have scales on the lastabdominal segments.
Decribhdf/YI/ one female and two males.
Fodlplant: Wi ld mullein.
IHabitat: Newcastle, Cal.
(22) Trichothrips ilex, new species. (P1. VI, figs. 47-49.)
MIeasurements: Head, length 0.21 mm., width 0.20 mm.; prothorax, length 0.13 mm., width, including coxa, 0.32 mm.; mesothorax, width 0.38 mm.; abdomen, width 0.50 mm., length of tube 0.16 mm.; total length of body 1.70 mm. Antennae: 1, 30y; 2, 51y; 3, 60p; 4, 60y; 5, 60u; 6, 54y; 7, 54y; 8, 30y; total, 0.35 mm. Color very dark brown, almost black; all tarsi and tips of fore tibim and segments 3 and
4 of antenna shading to yellow.
Head about as long as wide, broadly rounded in front, frons projecting between basal segments of antenna; cheeks slightly convex, and with edges roughened, back of head with transverse striations. Postocular spines prominent. Eyes medium, with small facets, not
THE THYSANOPTERA OF CALIFORNIA. 3
protruding, not pilose, with light-yellow outer inmargin and a light, irregular inner border. Oc/li present, granulated, anterior one oni apex and posterior ones bordering inner margins of eves. Alout/ cone about as broad as long, reaching nearly to posterior margin of prosternum, pointed at tip; chitinous thickenings between base of mouthcone and eyes very rudimientary and about equally well developed. Maxillary palpi two-segmented; basal segment very small, second segment long. Labial palpi two-segmented, basal segment shortest. Anten nie eight-segmented, about twice as long as head; color brown, except segment 3 and )asal parts of segments 4, 5, and 6, which are yellow. Segment 2 with darkened sense area on dorsal surface; 3 to
7 have simple sense cones; 7 and S have a row of sense hairs.
Irot/oratr about twice as wide ais long; it bears ten long spines, two on anterior margin, one on each anterior angle, one near middle of each side, and two at each posterior angle. Sides of pterthorar slightly convex, converging )oth anteriorly and posteriorly. Fore coxte apparently immovably set and forming the outer angles of the prothorax; fore femiora somewhat enlarged; all tarsi with a brown spot at tip and armed with a small tooth. If7ngs reaching nearly to tip of eighth segment, bo1th pairs similar; first pair light brown, hind pair gray; each with a long, simniple fringe on )oth margins; tip of fore wing double fringed behind y about twelve hairs: with three prominent spines at base and a wavy thickening near anterior margin at base; wings without veins.
Abdomen broadly ovate, segments 1 to 7 inclusive aI)out equal; eighth tapering abruptly to meet the smaller ninth and very narrow tenth; segments with two long and several shorter spines on prominent angles, these spines increasing in length toward the tip. Segments 1 to 7 each with two pairs of inwardly curved spines about onefourth the width of the abdomen from the margin; the posterior pair in each case is the larger. Tip of tube bears six long and several short hairs. Females with scales on last segments of abdomen.
DescribeUdfron numerous specimens.
alde similar to female, but without scales on abdomen.
Food plant: Christmas berry (Iteroin e' rbUtifolia).
habitat: Coast region of California.
(23) Trichothrips ilex dumosa, new variety.
The members of this variety are very similar to the species, differing only in minor details. The two insects are about equal in size; the head is somewhat longer in T. dle. (lumosa, the awntenme are brown, with only the base of segment 3 yellow; all tarsi are gray-brown to brown. The food plant is the scrub oak, Quercu.. d unsoNa.
Iabitat.-Saratoga, Santa Clara County, Cal.
64 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.
9. Genus ACANTHOTHRIPS Uzel.
(24) Acanthothrips doaneii, new species (P1. VI, figs. 50-52.)
MJeasurements.-Head, length 0.37 mm., width 0.25 mm.; prothorax, length 0.20 mm., width, including protruding coxa, 0.45 nm.; mesothorax, width 0.50 mm.; abdomen, width 0.50 mm.; tube, length 0.28 mm.; total body, length 2.4 nun. Antenne: 1, 48u; 2, 69p; 3, 126p; 4, 120u; 5, 114p; 6, 81,u; 7, 781; 8, 45p; total, 0.633 mm. Color very dark brown, except tips of tibim, tarsi, and basal and distal parts of segments 3 to 6, inclusive of antenna, these parts shading to yellow.
ILIad about one-third longer than wide; cheeks converging posteriorly: frons elevated between basal segments of antennae; back of head with cross striations, roughened and set with small spines raised on conspicuous tubercles. Eycs large, slightly bean-shaped, not pilose, finely faceted, each with an orange-colored inner border and a light lemnon-yellow, uniform outer border. Ocelli present, anterior one near apex of head, posterior ones contiguous with central concave portions of inner margins of eyes. Mitout cone pointed, reaching almost to posterior margin of prosternum. Antenn eight-segmented, scarcely twice as long as head; segments 1, 2, 7, and 8 dark brown, 3 to 6 inclusive brown. shading light brown or yellow at either end; segment 1 cylindrical: 2 subclavate, 3 to 6 inclusive constricted to broad stalks at base, and constricted abruptly at their distal ends where they receive sense cones, two on segments 3 and 7, three (one rudiminentary) on 5 and 6. four (two rudimentary) on segment 4.
Iothoerax about twice as wide as long, reticulate, bearing a single pair of short spines on anterior angles and a long pair of knobbed hairs on posterior angles: surface faintly covered with short inconsp)icuious hairs. iLeotowraxr with front margin almost straight, projecting beyond sides to form a short, rounded shelf where the segment is widest; sides almost parallel. constricted after the middle, posterior angles rounded. JletathoraR with sides evenly convexed, roughened, and reticulate; mesonota and metanota also reticulate. Fore coxe protruding beyond and not readily distinguished from sides of prothorax; fore femora greatly enlarged and armed on inner margin of distal part with a stout tooth, each fore tarsus also armed with a tooth; other legs long and slender. Wings fully developed, both pairs alike, with regular fringe of long, closely arranged hairs on either margin; a wavy thickening along anterior margin at base of fore wing, upon which stand one long and two short knobbed hairs; distal anal wing margin double fringed with about twenty-four hairs.
Abdomen about as wide as mesothorax and slightly wider than the metathorax. Sides of segments 1 to 5 almost equal and parallel, other segments tapering gradually to meet the tube; a pair of knobbed hairs on each prominent angle; tip of tube bears six long and several short hairs.
Tpch. Series 12, Part III, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. 0ept. of Agriculture PLATE V1.
THYSANOPTERA OF CALIFORNIA 45.-Ti icl otlt)-ijoz fvwot ,,b's. head and prothorax of feuiale. Fig. 46.-Trichotlwips fiinoralis,
end of abdoineii of feinale. Fig. 47.-Trichotlirips i1ex. head and prothorax of female. Fig 48.Tru'hotlo'ip- ikx, left antenna of female. Fig. 49.-Trichothrip 'i1cx. base of right fore whig of fem;ile. Fig. 50.-Aca0hothrips domwil'. head aiid prothorax of iiiale. Fig. 51.-Araidhotlo-ips douncii, le it ant(?THI t of niale. Fig. 52.-Acaidhothrips doaivii, ciA of abdoi-nen of inale.
Fig. head aild prothorax of feniale. Fig. 4.--Vcfjalothrips bcs1) TUS,
right antenila ()f feinale. Fig. 55.--lIqlalot1trips 1w.q)crits, end of abdomen of feniale. Fig. 56.McgulothriP., lw. pervs, end of abdomen of male.
THE THYSANOPTERA OF CALIFORNIA. 65
Describedf1. one male.
]habitat: Alum Rock Canyon, Cal.
10. Genus MEGALOTHRIPS Heeger.
(25) Megalothrips hesperus, new species. (Pl. VI, figs. 53-56;.)
AJeas.'urement8: Head, length 0.58 mm., width 0.26 mm.: prothorax, length 0.25 mm., width 0.46 mm.; metathorax, width 0.83 mn.: abdoinen, width 1 mm.; tube, length 0.83 mm., width 0.11 mi.; total body, length 4.66 mm. Antennoe: 1, 75pu; 2, 84yw 3, 315p ; 4, 234y ; 5, 195p; 6,102,u; 7, 75yu; 8, 90pu; total, 1.17 mm. Coor dark brown, with orange or red pigment; all tibiw and tarsi shaded to yellow; bases of antennal segments 3, 4, 5, and 6 are lemon-yellow.
head more than twice as long as wide, greatest width across eyes; .cheeks roughened, almost parallel, slightly concave close behind eyes, constricted at union with prothorax; frons elevated between bases of first segments of antennae; back of head transversely striate and with a few short spines set on very small tubercles. E y, N large, with conspicuous light-yellow outer borders: with small facets and very faintly pilose. Ocelli present, anterior one on apex of head, posterior ones contiguous, with indistinct, light inner margins of eyes. Jfn,th cone broad and short, with blunt tip, and reaching hardly halfway across prosternum. Maxillary palpi two-segmented, basal segment very short; labial palpi very small. Anten nw eight-segmented, about twice as long as head; segments 1, 2, 7, and 8, and tips of 4, 5, and 6 brown; tip of 3 light-brown; segment 3 with a long, narrow stalk; segments 4 and 5 similar, but with shorter stalks. Darkened sense area on segment 2; one sense cone on segment 6, two on segments 3 and 5, four on 4, and a row of sense hairs on segment 8.
Prothorax about one-half wider than long, transversely striate: it bears six prominent spines, two on anterior margin, a pair on anterior angles, and a larger pair on the posterior angles. Ie(,thorair with prominent, square, anterior angles; sides almost straight and parallel, with edges roughened, united evenly with metathorax. Jfetatoi), /J with posterior angles broadly rounded. Legs long and slender; all femora dark-brown; tibipe yellow, shaded with brown near the middle; tarsi yellow tipped with brown; trochanters with red pigment. All legs armed with long, stout, yellow spines; these are especially prominent on femora; fore coxwe protruding, forming the prominent angles of the prothorax. mings present, reaching to tip of fourth abdominal segment; membrane white; both pairs with long, simple anterior and posterior fringes of closely arranged hairs; anterior wings double fringed along their posterior distal margin for about half their length; each wing with a single rudimentary vein.
66 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.
Abdomen with segments 2, 3, and 4 widest and about equal; other segments tapering evenly to base of tube. Tube long apd slender and about seven times as long as wide. Segments 2 to 7, inclusive, each closely transversely striate, with a dark transverse line near anterior border. Intersegmental membrane brown, with net strueture. When the abdomen is distended the connecting tissue is almost as wide as the segment itself. Segments each with two or three prominent spines on angles.
Male: Head, length 0.58 mm., width 0.23 mm.; prothorax, length 0.23 mm., width 0.42.; metathorax, width 0.73 mm.; abdomen, width 0.72 inm.: tube, length 0.63 mm., width 0.10 mm.; clasper, length 0.66 mm.; total body, length 4.66 mm. As long but somewhat smaller than female. Wings present. A long tube-like clasper projects from either side of segment 6; this is black at the base and shades to yellowbrown, and on the tip it bears a short bulb-like hair. Segments 7 and 6 each have a similar though smaller side projection near the posterior edge; the pair on segment S is the larger and is thumb-shaped. Scales present, tube tipped with eight long, clear lemon-yellow hairs and several smaller ones. Posterior half of abdomen and the tubes are very dark brown.
De ribedtrom two females and one male.
I'ond plant: Unknown.
Habitat: Stanford U1niversity ('al.
11. Genus CRYPTOTHRIPS Uzel.
(26) Cryptothrips californicus ID)aniel.
as'urm,.1.t: Ilead(, length 0.26 nmn., width 0.16 mm.; prothorax, length 0.15 nmm., width, including prominent coxa, 0.25 nni.; mesothorax, width 0.33 iuni. : abdomen, width 0.38 mnm.; total body, length 1.7 num. Antennw: 1, 24p; 2, 51p; 3, 755p; 4, 69y; 5, 51y; 6,45p; 7, 42y; 8, 27y; total, 0.35 mm. General color black, often dark brown under the microscope, with purple pigment.
ILiad cylindrical, one and one-half times as long as wide; front of head strongly prominent between basal segments of antennae; sides ahnost straight and parallel, roughened, converging only slightly posteriorly; back of head transversely striate; head without conspicuous spines, except a single one posterior to each eye. IE'es large, prominent, but not protruding, with rather small facets; not pilose. Ocells situated far forward, anterior one on tip of prominent apex. fouth cone broad at base, short, reaching only a little past the middle of the pronotum; maxillary palpi three-segmented and quite long and slender. Antenna with eight segments, separated at base by prominent prolonged vertex; segments 1 and 2 dark brown, unicolorous with head, 3 and base of 4 yellow, others shading brown toward the tip.
THE THYSANOPTERA OF CALIFORNIA. 67
Prothorax small, about as long as width of head; sides straight, but extending outward posteriorly, with a prominent blunt spine on each hind angle; the protruding fore coxe form what appear to be the prominent angles. Pterthorax hardly as wide as abdomen, sides
almost straight, narrowed abruptly in front, gradually behind. Legs long and slender and unicolorous with body; fore cox'e greatly enlarged. V;ngs extending to seventh abdominal segment; both pairs alike, clear white and with long simple fringe on both anterior and posterior margins, excepting fore wings at tips, which are double fringed behind by about six hairs.
Abdomen long and slender; it tapers gradually from second to
eighth segments; the ninth segment is small; the tenth, the tube, is very small and slender. Hairs on prominent angles of segments 7, 8, and 9 long and slender; several long and several shorter ones on end of tube. Protruding scales on last abdominal segments of males.
Males similar to but usually somewhat smaller than the females.
Redescr;bed fro n many specimens. For original description see
Entomological News, 1904, page 293.
This thrips has been found almost exclusively under the old shells of the brown apricot scale (Leca (Ii, r11/Ucfl .a W, Craw) and the
black scale (Sassetia olex Bern.) and probably feeds on the remains of the old scales.
I[abitat: Central and southern California.
LIST OF CALIFORNIA THYSANOPTERA AND THEIR FOOD PLANTS.
Species. Food plants.
(1) Orothrips kelloggii, new species...... ------lanzanita and inadrofia blossoms.
(2) ~Eolothrips kuwan ii, new species....- California lilac ( (eanothus thyrsflorus).
(3) ~Eolothrips koaanaii, variety robusta. (Found on apricot tree.)
(4) Sericothrips apteris Daniel----------........... Grass.
(5) Sericothrips reticulats, new species.. Grass.
(6) Sericothrips stanfordii, new species... Grass.
(7) Heliothrips hnmorrhoidalis Bouch...- Azaleas, ferns, dahlias, cherry laurel, laurestina.
(8) Ileliothripsfasciatus Pergande. ------ Oranges, pea vines, wild vetch.
(9) Euthrips orchidii, new species------....... Orchids.
(10) Euthrips pyri Daniel ...............-------------- Apricots, apples, almonds, cherries, figs,
grapes, pears, prunes, plums, walnuts.
(11) Euthrips chrhornii, new species ------Grass.
(12) Euthrips ulicis californicus, new variety Vetch.
(13) Euthrips minutus, new species------....... Grass.
(14) Euthrips occidentalis Pergande....... ------Most wild arid cultivated flowers.
(15) Euthrips tritici Fitch .............. --------------Grass, alfalfa, California sage (Arte'misia
californica), mnanzanitas (especially A retostaphylos tomentosa), oranges, roses, lilacs, etc.
(16) Parthenothrips drac'n' Heeger...... ------Dracana.
(17) Thrips madronii, new species........ -------Blossoms of miadrofia, California laurel,
and California lilac.
68 MISCELLANEOUS8 PAPERS.
Species. Food plantse.
(18) Thrips tlbci Lindeman ------- Wild and cultivated flowers, oin
(19) Thrips bremtnerii, niew species --- Figs.
(20) T-ich othrips dIew;, niew sApecies ------Apricot.
(21) Trich,)t~iripN femoral'N, niew Species --Wild mullein.
(22) Trichothrips new species--------Christmas berry (IHeteromete8 arhuifli
(23) Triclwthr* ps iex dunmwa, niew variety- Scrub oak (Qiiercus dunwsa).
(24) A cunth oth rip dounoei, new sees Grass.
(25) Me lufohdpqs hespierus, niew species-.- Unknown.
(26) G>yploth rips cao1roiws Daniel U.. nknowni (This species has been foun under the old shellsof the brow-napi scale (Lecmdml arm11enkwaum Craw~)an the black scale (SIaissefit ol, er. andl probably feeds oil the remaiso the old scales.)
0 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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