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Papers on Coccidae or scale insects

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Title:
Papers on Coccidae or scale insects
Series Title:
Technical series / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology ;
Creator:
Marlatt, C. L
Sanders, James Glossbrenner, 1880-
Sasscer, E. R ( Ernest Ralph ), 1883-
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
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U.S. G.P.O.
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English
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8 pts. (132 p.) : ill. ; 23 cm.

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Coccidae ( lcsh )
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serial ( sobekcm )
bibliography ( marcgt )
federal government publication ( marcgt )

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Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.

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University of Florida
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This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
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029623245 ( ALEPH )
35268516 ( OCLC )
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632 ( ddc )

Full Text

BRARY
TECHNICAL SERIES, No. 16, PART V. ITATE. PLANT' ARP
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau. .



PAPERS ON COCCIDIE OR SCALE INSECTS.





THE GENUS FIORINIA IN THE


UNITED STATES.




BY E. R. SASSCER,
Scientific Assistarnt.










010
IsatD DECEMER 6, 1912.























WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1912.



















CONTENTS.


Introduction ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Description of the Genus Fiort .ra ...................... 7
Fio rinia the Green.n7
Fiori afiorin Tarioni 79tti
Fiortro'afiorinix minor MaskeI1 .. . ................... 7
Fiorrni fiorn i j aponica Kuwana ..................... 8







ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATES. Page.
PLATE X.Ana pate of Fiorinia them ..............................., 76
XI. Fig-. 1,-Fioriia tkex on leaf of Camellia.. 2 .-Fiorinia them on leaf of Camellia---------------------------...... 7
XII. Anal plate of Florin ia ftorinia ................----------- .. 8
XIII. Anal plate iFkwrnufiorinimnlor-------------------..... 8








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U. S. D. A., B. E. Tech. Ser. 16, Part V. Issued December 6, 1912.

PAPERS ON COCCID}E OR SCALE INSECTS.


THE GENUS FIORINIA IN THE UNITED STATES.

By E. R. SASSCER, Scientific Assistant.
INTRODUCTION.
The genus Fiorinia at the present time consists of some 30 described species and 4 varieties, and of this number there are only 2 species and 1 variety established in this country, viz, Fiorinia fiorinix Targioni Tozetti, F. thew Green, and F. fiorinix japonica Kuwana. Judging from the available records at hand, it is quite evident that the first two coccids mentioned were imported on ornamental plants, and their status in some locations is such as to warrant the use of remedial measures. The last-named variety of fiorinix is a Japanese importation, and while it appears to be established in only one State, it is not infrequently collected at quarantine on imported evergreens.

Fiorinia TARGIONI.

This genus is characterized by the adult female being smaller, decreasing in size after the second molt, and entirely inclosed in the second larval exuvia; puparium elongate, with first larval exuvia extending beyond the margin. Male scales white, elongate, with
or without carin, larval exuvia at anterior extremity. Pygidium of adult female (Fiorinia s. str.), possessing well-defined median lobes, and some species exhibiting a small pair on either side; paragenitals normally in five groups, although in some species the median and anterior laterals coalesce, forming an arch.
Leonardi in his paper,' "Saggio de Sistematica delle Fiorionim" divides Fiorinia sens. lat. into three subgenera, viz, Trullifiorinia (paragenitals and lobes present), Anamefiorinia (paragenitals present, lobes absent), and Adiscofiorinia (paragwenitals absent). Fiorinia s. str. is characterized by possessing paragenitals and plates, and the species discussed in this paper come distinctly within this division.
Redia, vol. 3, p. 16, 1905.
67972*-12 75












"female, id igne and amenterior telparagengl:,Ze, Onlly



polentd...err ate ral 10-ckenin ....... ....................
aaeita mass and luero meia 3-1,an

p e e iiiiiiiiiii lat l s 101..... . . .. . ... P fiiliiiioi iilii = iiiilii
Posterior lateralsi19-81............... F. foriniaii var. Japom

TBTEA SCALE.

Fiorisia thex GREEN.

PLArES X AND XI.
Piorniafioini var. camellix Rolfe and Quaintance, Coacidae Anefm, -Ddd
S898).
Fioini thw reen, Indian Museum Notes, V, No. 1, p. 3 (1900). ]V Fioini thz tebbing, Insects that affect forestry, No. 1, p. 183 192.Fg Fiornia hm reen, Indian Museum Notes, V, No. 3, p. 102 (1908). Rcr Yiornia hez'erald, Catalogue of the Coecidae of the wrld, p. S5i193, Piornia hem att and Mann, The pests and blights of the tea platpd 36,iiV9 2d diion (903). Fig.
Aoriia tem eonardi, Redia, III, p. 28 (1905). Fig. "4Saggio di tmc,1

Pioini Om Geen dnd Mann, Memoirs of the Departmhent of Agriutel aj Entooloica Series, I, No. 5, pp. 343, 350 (1907). Bibliographyadrod6AJ Fioini thm Geen, Memoirs of the Department of Agdriture in nfa.:Eb NT







logca Seie, II, No. 2, p. S9 (1908). Record only. Fioriia thm Sobbing, Manual of forest zoology for India, .p. 188 (10)Fi-, Fiornia hem indinger, Beitechr. f. wise. Insektenbiol., VIl, 4, p. 17 Notwthsanding the fact that the tea scale, Fioris, G hasbee inthe National Collection of Deceidas since 18 ~,
as F fioini Targ., it was not described until 1900 byG emba4 fro Asam nd Kangra, India. A thorough study of < en
in hi coletion revealed the fact that all the speciMqp wit th exeption of Comstock's type of F. cavmelimwii Ia recogni ea synonym of F. fiorinix Targ., are th t b4"'

In 197 ockerell 'recorded what he considered a (Deade i-iii, No. 6 [1898]), distributed by Rolfs an uia ",
I Bul. Bot. Dept.' Jamales, n. s.4, p. 149 (1897).
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Tech. Series 16, Part V, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE XI.
































FIG. 2.-FIORINIA THE,A ON CAMELLIA LEAF. ENLARGED FIVE TIMES. (ORIGINAL.)


































FIG. 1.-FIORINIA THE,/E ON LEAF OF CAMELLIA. TWICE ENLARGED. (ORIGINAL.)





~ ~ T~IO~fl]4 d p UNITED STATES.
I IL

labeled Kfiorinia var. camdbix4 proves it to be F. thew Green and '-oa variety.
In March, 1908, Mr. George F. Mitchell, of the Experimental Tea Farm at.Sammerville, S. C., submitted leaves of tea thickly infested with Fiorinia thewe Green and stated that it was becoming a serious
of this plant. At the request of Dr. R. H. True, Mr. J. G. Sanders, at that time an agent of the Bureau of Entomology, visited the tea farm and found this scale in abundance on Assam hybrid, Darjeeling, and China teas and camellias grown for ornamental parposes. Mr. Sanders observed that the Darjeeling tea which was grown in moist lowland was frequently covered with a brown fungus, which was apparently parasitic on the scale.
It is the belief of Dr. Charles U. Shepard, who is in charge of the experimental farm, that the tea affords better food than Camellia aponica, and he states that it is seldom if ever that the latter plant is killed by attack of this insect alone.
Since no plants have been introduced from. Asiatic regions, all being grown from seed, it is extremely probable that its introduction was through the agency of the camellias, which have been for a number of years greatly in demand as ornamental plants in this country.,
According to Watt and Mann I this scale is of common occurrence M both Assam and Kangra, and is the most prevalent of all coccids in the former Province. Mr. Stebbing records it on the leaves of
e olive, Ola glandulifera, in the northwestern Himalayas, frequently causing the leaves to turn yellow and drop off. Although this insect occurs on both sides of the leaves of tea and Camellia japonica, it is more commonly found dn the underside, and. if present in sufficient numbers it can be easily detected by yellow marrkings plainly to be seen on the upper surface.
Fiorinia thvew, Green can be readily separated from F. ftorinix Targ. jby the larger and darker scale, the -presence of a proboscis-like projection between the antennT which have no stout spines, and in the absence of lateral lobes on the pygidium.
Scale of female.-Elongate, narrow, dark brown in color, usually darker than F. ftorinie, with a distinct dark median longitudinal carina; adult insect entirely inclosed in the hardened exvia of the second stage, which varies from 1 to 1.24 mm. in length, and does not bear a secretionary margin. Length, 1 to 1.40 mm. Breadth, 0.40 to 0.60 mm.
Scale of male.--Snow-white, sides nearly parallel, usually indistiuctly tricarinate, pellicle pale yellow approaching lemon-yellow at extreme posterior tip. When present in large numbers the puparia
I The Pests and Blights of the Tea Plant (second edition), p. 306 (1903).
2Manual of Forest Zoology of India, p. 166 (190S).







are recently covered with a focln erto ie f yte
Length, 0.80 to I mm.; breadth, about 0.40
: Arranged in double rows enclosed within the

Female. '-"Adult female pale yellow, of normal form.
cose together, on anterior margin; each antenna co o
irregular tubercle with a single curved bristle on one between the antennae springs a stout spatulate process chitinous but of the same consistency as the surround the body. Margin of thorax and abdomen with a series of spinneret ducts opening on to small conical tubercles. (P1. I) with a conspicuous median cleft, on the margin of which situated the moderately large serrate median lobes. First lateral lobes represented only by small serrate thick margin; second lateral lobes obsolete." [Although the are wanting in the adult, they are quite prominent on larval exuvia and are of the normal F. ftorinix type.] "s mal, the dorsal series rather long; one pair springing the median cleft. Circumgenital glands in five groups; and upper lateral groups together forming an almost coi arch. Median group with four or five orifices; upper lateral 13; lower laterals, 15 to 18. A very few circular pores with a panying ducts, on dorsal surface, near the margin. to 0.75 mm."
DISTRIBUTION.

The tea scale is recorded on Camellias in Alabama, Dist Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, and Carolina. It has been collected in Ceylon, Philippine Islands, India, occurring in the following localities in the latter coun Kangra Valley, Assam, Bashahr State close to Kilta "n the S Valley, Calcutta, and the northwestern Himalayas.

FOOD PLANTS.'
In the United States this scale has only been collected on c and tea, but in India it has been recorded on tea, olive (Olea lijera), and citrus. In the Philippine Islands it occurs on a ec of Caryola, and Mr. R. S. Woglum has collected it on 0 Royal Botanical Gardens of Peradenyia, Ceylon. AlthohF seems to show a preference to the tea at Summi le, S. T it to be quite a serious pest on the camellias in several Southern States, and is not infrequently found asso 4osaphes lasicnthi Green.
'Owing to the accuracy of Mr. E. E. Green's description of this species it has been t verbatim. (Indian Museum Notes. 5, No. 1, p. 3 (1900).)





GENUS FIORINIA IN THE UNITED STATES. '9

ENEMIES.

The following predaceous beetles which have been determined by Mr. E. A. Schwarz, of the Bureau of Entomology, were found by Mr. Sanders preying on the tea scale: Chilocorus bivulnerus Muls., Microweisea misella Lec., and Cybocephalus nigritulus Lec. As stated elsewhere, when on the Darjeeling tea these coccids are frequently covered by a parasitic fungus, which doubtless in a measure is effecStive in holding this pest in check.
Fiorinia fiorinix TARG.
PLATES XII AND XIII.

Diaspisfiorinie Targioni, Studii sul. Cocciniglie, p. 14 (1867). Chermes arece Boisduval, Insectologie Agricole, p. 262 (1868). Fiorinia pellucida Targioni, Catalogue, p. 42 (1868). Fiorinia camelliax Comstock, Rep. U. S. Dept. Agr. 1880, p. 329 (1881). Uhleria fiorinix Comstock, 2nd Rep. Dept. Ent. Cornell Univ., p. 111 (1883). Fiorinia palm Green, Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, p. 5 (1896).
This coccid is a very cosmopolitan species and is of common occurrence on kentias in greenhouses. A complete bibliography of this
species is not given, since it has been the subject of numerous papers, S many of which, however, are of little value either from a scientific
or economic standpoint.
DISCUSSION OF SYNONYMY.

A thorough study of the material on Kentia belmoreana, Cycas revoluta, and Camellia which was described by Comstock as Fiorinia
camellia proves this species to be none other than Fiorinia fioriniw Targ. In 1896 Green 2 described a form known as Fiorinia palmx,
but he later reduced it to synonymy. Lconardi,3 in his paper entitled "Saggio di Systematica Delle Fioriniae," reduces Fiorinia fiorinie var. minor Maskell to synonymy, since Maskell in his meager description merely states that it was given varietal rank, owing to its small size. Assuming that the only character of separation was the size of the scale, Leonardi concluded that the difference was too inadequate to justify even varietal rank.
A study of the Maskell material revealed a number of characters which are surely of sufficient importance to allow it to remain as a good variety if not raised to specific rank. As will be seen by examining Plate IV, the median lobes in minor are larger and more chitinized, the marginal pores more numerous, varying from six to seven, and the general shape of the pygidium is different. The material of this variety is very scanty and is on the underside of a leaf which is
lep. U. S. Dept. Agr., 1880, p. 329 (1881). S Redia, III, p. 16 (1905).
lIndian Mus. Notes, IV, p. 5 (18.96).





80

quite haary7 causing. preventi-ug them rom. rea thp pygidi mpf -Fiorinid fiori T

A
DISTRIB.
0.
j
Fiorinio 0im "s Am" ,
a a wid of,
own to.. oe' '. M the flowing yountii4s: Algie,
V4
bados E razil Ceylon, China, Egh ,:,Eur'o 'e Jamaica, Japan .Madeira -MaurititLB, llftxico, '.
Peru6: United Siates (Alabama, C .Jifornia,:,Cblorado.., i Louis=a Ma
bia Hawaiian Islandsy ryl Ta miv.-I..
West Africa, and Zan ibar. -'A:
.-T
FOOD PLANTS*
The food plants of this iAgeot" *,numer vs;, J
fop"
important of yv* the follo
Anthuriunvj4,.-&ule' Appolonias'edna 'e baml,o b... :,Tamell celtis ON
.nut'pAlm *Cuprasui, .0jcas circina& ferns, Ncus elastic, J&.W sp., GaroK#w-vv.,, Hedera quince, Rentia belmoreana, K. fost ,'Xarix sp., .he
tosp
Licula, Livistona, Persea gratissima, canamenm
Phomiulrn tx7=, Phytelephas Macrocaq Podocgpys
Thea japosica).
ENEMIES.
ln,,stu4 i6, slides of the Nation al of Coe
IN
matu en of the" parasite otiphagw,
y re specim.
Ak
disco ' d fficlosed in the,,body of:
in Waaffiington, D. C., on Chwmerops humuli'andjha, a' I 1w4d Lbeen reared from material on 'erfea..Prahs' .1111WH 'r afi., In addition to thezb6 Whs reared from this scal6 on an .. unknown Pi4nf kong, by Mr. Kcebele, and he also collected. kliox How. from this coccid on Ficus sp. at Swatow, Canton"
Among the fungous enemies of this coccid the reftea (Sphzrostilbe coccophila) has been recorded by AMfi,,,
fromMauritius on ideskd Camellia.
DESCRIPTION
Scale of female !,-Bi te, narrow revealing Ai- t
0 1 l s 4 ,ii ed'
Ion itudinal ridge; firS t larval exuvia ello s no
'beyond the margin; second larval exuvia jrahgip fr 9A
Ann. Roy. Bot, Gardens Peradeniya,











Tech. Series 16, Part V, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE XII.




















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GIRONUS 121ITAI THRE -UNITED STATES. 81

mm .in lgth and varying from brown. to dark brown with frequently a white secretionary margin, and inclosing the adult insect, which is situated in the anterior portion of the scale. Length 1 to 1.25 mm. Breadth abont 0.50 tnm.
Eggs.-Yellow and arranged in a double row.
Scale of male.-White, tricarinate, larval exuvia pale yellow, Length about. 1 mm. Breadth about 0.40 mm.
Female.-Thin and much contracted after oviposition, elongate, possessing rudimentary antenna, which are apparently two-j ointed, the first consisting of a fleshy tubercle, which bears the second joint ad a bristle, the second joint occasionally possessing a short lateral branch near the tip; anal plate triangular, 0.187 to 0.204 mm.i width, slightly truncate at tip, median notch distinct and formed by the median lobes, which are oblique and serrated along their entire free edge; second lobes prominent both in second larval exuvia and adult, incised, about twice as long as broad and followed by several indentations; margin of the pygidium exhibiting four rather conspieuous tubular pores; between the median lobes are two short spines; located on the dorsal surface situated along the lateral margin of the me.dian lobe there are two spines, the posterior being the larger, one on the outer lobule of the second lobe and two situated between the second lobe and the penultimate segment; on ventral surface there is a spine corresponding with each dorsal spine, except on the first lobe; laterad of each lobe there is an elongate pore and two between the second lobule and the penultimate segment; anal opening twice the width of one median lobe and far removed from the tip; median and anterior lateral paragenitals contiguous, forming an arch, 21 to 23, posterior laterals 10 to 16.
Fioriniaforini japonica Kuw.
Fiorinia fioriia japonica Kuwana, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (3), III, p. 79 (1902). Fioriniaforinix japonica Coleman, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc., XI, p. 84 (1903). Record only.
Fioriniafiorisis japonica Leonardi, Redia, III, Fasc. 1, p. 36 (1905). Bibliography and description.
Fiorinia fiorinix japonica Kuwana, Bul. Imp. Cent. Agi. Exp. Sta., Japan, p. 200 (1907). Bibliography and record only.
Fiorinia fiorinix japonica Brick, Sta. f. Pflanzenschutz z. Hamburg, XI, p. 6 (1909). Record only.
Fiorinia forinix japonica Brick, Jahrb. Hamb. wiss. Anst., XXVII, i. 50 9 Record only.
iia floriniz japonica Essig, Porm. Journ. Ent., II, 2, p. 207 (1910). Descripn.and figure.
Fiotinia fiorini japonica Lindinger, Zeitschr. f. wiss. Insektenbiol., VII, 4, p. 126 (1911). Record only.
Withough this variety of forinix is a native of Japan, it has been S d into this country on numerous occasions on infested ever-





82 PPR NCCIEO CL NET

greens. In September of 1908 it wa c Queens, Long Island, by Mr. F. N. Meyer,whritadpaenl become established, and subsequently it by Mr. E. P. Felt on Japanese hemlock. In June elected on the fruit and leaves of Podoccrpus elaa re Bureau of Plant Industry from the Botanical Gardens Wales. Mr. Edward M. Ehrhorn, while horticult al of California, collected it at quarantine on Podo Pinus sp. Mr. Lindinger in a recent paper I records it pine Islands on Podocar pus nageia and Abies vetchi an reports it from Japan on Pinus pe 'taphyll, P. tMunbergi, sieboldi.
DESCRIPTION.
Scale of female-Fresh female scales frequently covered white powdery substance, median carina indistinct and fr not visible, brown to dark brown, reaching a chestnut brown at anterior end of the scale; first larval exuvia yellow, about threefo of it extending beyond the margin; second larval exuvia1 mm. in.length and from 0.60 to 0.80 mm. in breadth. When on Tsuga sp., it usually occurs on the underside of the leaves this does not hold true in the case of the specimens on Podo
Scale of male.-White, apparently uncarinated, larval em low. Length about 1 mm. Breadth about 0.40 mm.
Female -Thin, pygidium slightly brownish, antenna rudi t apparently two-jointed, the second joint bearing a spine; width pygidium 0.187 to 0.255 mm., slightly truncate, at tip, me serrated along free edge, oblique, forming a distinct n lobes conspicuous in both second larval exuvia and a approximately twice as long as broad, six prominent tu p on the margin of the pygidi'm with two ver short spin the median lobes; gland spines simple, long, one laterad of each and one on the margin near the penultimate segment; on the surface along the lateral margin of the median lobes there are spines, the posterior being the larger, one on the outer lobule of t second lobe, and two between second lobe and penultimate se Anal opening far removed from the tip and twice the Wvidtho median lobe. Paragenitals in five groups, arranged as follo Median group 3 to 11, anterior laterals 16 to 24, posterior lae 19 to 31.
L Loc. cit.

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