Citation
Technical papers on miscellaneous forest insects

Material Information

Title:
Technical papers on miscellaneous forest insects
Series Title:
Technical series / United States Bureau of Entomology ;
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
x, 185 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Forest insects ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
bibliography ( marcgt )
federal government publication ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
General Note:
Published separately with continuous numbering.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029621745 ( ALEPH )
35268535 ( OCLC )
Classification:
632 ( ddc )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
"BRARY STATE PLANT BOAR
TECHNICAL SERIES, No. 20, PART V.

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
TMBUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY.
L. O. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.




TECHNICAL PAPERS ON MISCELLANEOUS

FOREST INSECTS.




V. A PRELIMINARY SYNOPSIS OF


CERAMBYCOID LARVE.





BY

J. L. WEBB,
Entomological Assistant.




ISSUED AUGUST 14, 1912.














CRpillflRroCNER





WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1912.












BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY.

L. O. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.
C. L. %LMARLATTr, Entomologist and Acting Chief in Absence of Chief.
R. S. CLIFTON, Executive Assistant.
W. F. TASTET, Chief Clerk.

F. H. CHrrrENDEN, in charge of truck crop and stored product insect investigations. A. D. HOPKINS, in charge of forest insect investigations. W. D. HUNTER, in charge of southern field crop insect investigations. F. M1. WEBSTER, in charge of cereal and forage insect investigations. A. L. QUAINTANCE, in charge of deciduous fruit insect investigations. E. F. PHILLIPS, in charge of bee culture. D. 'M. ROGERS, in charge of preventing spread of moths, field work. ROLLA P. CURRIE, in charge of editorial work. MABEL COLCORD, in charge of library.

FOREST INSECT INVESTIGATIONS.

A. D. HOPKINS, in charge.

H. E. BURKE, entomological assistant, in charge of Forest Insect Field Station 5,
Yreka, Cal.
W. D. EDMONSTON, entomological assistant, in charge of Forest Insect Field Station 6,
Klamath Falls, Oregon.
JOSEF BRUNNER, agent and expert, in charge of Forest Insect Field Station 1, Columbia
Falls, Mont.
E. B. MASON, entomological assistant, in charge of Forest Insect Field Station 7, Spartanburg, S. C.
FRITS JOHANSEN, expert on forest Lepidoptera, Forest Insect Field Station 8, East Falls
Church, Va.
T. E. SNYDER, agent and expert, engaged in investigations of insect damage to telegraph
and telephone poles, East Falls Church, Va.
J. L. WEBB, entomological assistant, specialist on cerambycid beetles and liable.' S. A. ROHWER, agent and expert, specialist on sauflies (Tenthredinoidea). MARY E. FAUNCE, MARY C. JOHNSON, MAUDE TAYLOR, ELZABETH RITCHIE, EDNA
O. HASLUP, preparators.
STransferred to Southern Field Crop Insect Investigations.
II


























CONTENTS.

Page.
Introduction............................................................. 149
Superfamily Cerambycoidea.............................................. 151
Family Lamiide ................................................... 152
Family Cerambycide............................................... 153
Family Lepturidoe ................................................. 154
Family Prionide........... ........................................ 155
Family Asemide ................................................... 155





ILLUSTRATIONS.
PLATE.
Page.
PLATE XXVII. Dorsal aspect of heads of representative larve of each family
of Cerambycoidea: A, Prionus; B, Tetropium; C', Cyrtomerus;
C2, Phenicus; D, Liopus; E, Rhagium ..................... 152
III















Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013

















http://archive.org/details/technicalpaperso00unit-2,*







U. S. D. A., B. E. Tech. Ser. 20. Pt. V. F. I. I., August 14, 1912.

TECHNICAL PAPERS ON MISCELLANEOUS FOREST INSECTS.


V. A PRELIMINARY SYNOPSIS OF CERAMBYCOID LARVAE.
By J. L. WEBB,
Entomological Assistant.
INTRODUCTION.

In this study of cerambycoid larvae the writer has adopted the primary groups defined by Schiodte,' but has given them family rank under a superfamily. Schipdte's primary groups, namely, Prionini, Asemini, Cerambycini, Lepturini, and Lamiini, are easily recognized, and up to the present time no other author has given a better division of the family into primary groups. The writer proposes the raising of these groups to family rank under the superfamily Cerambycoidea, designating the families as Lamiidae, Cerambycidae, Lepturide, Prionidae, and Asemidae. Schiodte gives most excellent plates showing the characteristics of these different groups. He fails, however, to give any tables of genera or to subdivide his primary groups. He does give a morphological conspectus of the genera known to him, but it is not in the form of a table by which the identity of any of the genera treated can be definitely determined. And, so far as the writer has been able to determine, no author has ever attempted such a table for the entire superfamily as here recognized, and for a very good reason, namely, the great difficulty experienced in finding suitable characters upon which to base a table of genera. Perris alone gives a table separating the genera Spondylis, Tetropium, Criocephalus, and Asemum, but further than this he does not go, although he divides the entire family into groups, subgroups, etc., without indicating the characters by which his divisions are made. Specific descriptions innumerable are given by different authors, but these are practically worthless when it comes to identifying isolated larvae.
The need for such a table is all too apparent. The larvae of the Cerambycoidea are much more commonly met with in an economic way than are the adults. Thus larvae of a given species may be found
I De Metamorphosi Eleutheratorum Observationes: Bidrag til Insekternes Udviklingshistorie ved J. C. Schiodte.
4265o-12 149






150 MISCELLIANEOUS FOREST INSECTS.
within their host perhaps during the greater part of the year, while the adults are to be found in the host only within a very short period of the year, namely, just before they, leave the host. A tree or piece of wood may be found to be badly infested and damaged by Cerambycoid larvae, and no adults present to give a clue to the identity of the species. In fact, there may be several species present. The question immediately arises, "Which is the destructive species and what is it? What are the known habits of the species? And what relation to the damage done, and to the primary enemy, do the other species bear?" Without knowing the identity of the destructive species one is at sea as to its known habits and the methods which may have been used to combat it. This necessitates the working out of life history and habits in each case. It can thus be seen that much time and labor would be saved if the larvae could be readily identified.
As indicated above, the making of a table by which the genera of cerambycoid larvae can be recognized is extremely difficult. The first requisite is, of course, the possession of authentically identified specimens of the different genera. To gather together such a collection is in itself a stupendous task. Cerambycoid larvae are to be found in abundance, and in many cases in situations which seem to indicate the identity of the species. But right here is where extreme care must be exercised to avoid making serious mistakes. The fact that a certain larva is taken from a piece of wood or bark, and that later a certain adult Cerambycoid is reared from the same host, is by no means proof that the larva and adult are the same species. In fact, adults of two or three species are often reared from the same piece of wood. The most conclusive proof of the identity of a given larva is obtained by rearing it to the adult stage in a vial or other receptacle, where it is kept entirely to itself until the adult stage is reached. In order to do this the larva must be taken from its host only after it has practically completed its growth. If the collector' cuts out a half-grown larva there is practically no chance of rearing it to the adult stage. It can not complete its growth and go through its metamorphoses outside of its natural environment. However, the building up of a collection of larvae identified by this method is such a slow process that for practical purposes the writer has accepted as authentic, identifications made in other ways. Thus, where several larva, exactly similar morphologically, have been found together with pu):e and adults, all of which are tho same species, he has considered the larvi to be the same species as tie adults.
Ia all, the writer has studied thl larvt of 46 genera of Cerambycoidca; 15 in the family Laniida, 18 in the family Cerambycidie, 5 in the family Lep)turida, 5 in the family Prionida', and 3 in the family Asemidw. Iteushaw lists 175 genera of Corambycidat for America north of Meico. Therefore it is readily seen that the present effort







SYNOPSIS OF CERAMBYCOID LARVAE. 151

is a bare beginning of the work. The material studied has for the most part been collected by the members of the Branch of Forest Insect Investigations of the Bureau of Entomology, United States
Department of Agriculture.
The 46 genera referred to above are as follows: In the family Lamiide: Ptychodes, Monohammus, Leptostylus, Dorcaschema, Acanthoderes, Liopus, Hyperplatys, Oncideres, Goes, Lepturges, Plectrura, Synaphoxta, Saperda, Graphisurus, and Acanthocinus. In the family Cerambycid e: Chion, (Eme, Tylonotus, Phymatodes, Euderces, Opsimus, Clytanthus, Cyrtophorus, Hylotrupes, Smodicum, Elaphidion, Callidium, Romaleum, Physocnemum, Cyllene, Neoclytus, Xylotrechus, and Notorhina. In the family Lepturide: Desmocerus,
Bellamira, Leptura, Rhagium, and Ulochkates. In the family Prionidse: Tragosoma, Prionus, Ergates, Orthosoma, and Mallodon. In the family Asemide: Asemum, Tetropium, and Atimia.
The following table is based upon these genera and beyond the family characters may not be found applicable to the entire superfamily. (See also Plate XXVII.)
Superfamily CERAMBYCOIDEA.

Head much longer than broad, deeply invaginated into the prothorax.... Division I. Head as broad as long, or broader than long, not deeply invaginated into the prothorax..............................................................Division II.

DIVISION I.

Labrum large; clypeus large, filling frontal margin.................Family Lamiide.

DIVISION II.

Labrum small; clypeus small, not filling frontal margin .............Subdivision A.
Labrum large; clypeus large, filling frontal margin..................Subdivision B.

SUBDIVISION A.
Without spines or tubercles on anal and ninth abdominal segments.
Family Cerambycide.
SUBDIVISION B.
Head somewhat flattened; sides of head behind epistoma separated, angulate. Legs
quite long.................................................Family Lepturide.
Head not flattened; sides of head not separated immediately behind epistoma. Legs
moderate...........................................................Section al.

Section al.
Sides of head behind epistoma fused for some distance, later separating, angulate.
Head invaginated into prothorax almost to base of maxills. Usually larve of very large size.....................................................Family Prionide.
Sides of head behind epistoma fused almost to apex, farther back each one rounded.
Head not invaginated into prothorax to base of maxillse. Larve of medium size.
Family Asemide.







152 MXISCEIA EQUS FOREST INSECTS.

Family LAimA.

Abdominal segments bearing fleshy tubercles............................Division I.
Abdominal segments without fleshy tubercles..........................Division II.
DIVISION I.
Dorsal aspect of ninth abdominal segment smooth ....................Subdivision A.
Dorsal aspect of ninth abdominal segment bearing one or more spines or chitinous
tubercles......................................................Subdivision B.
SUBDIVISION A.
Sternum of prothorax not separated from sternellum by well-defined, deep suture.
Section al.
Sternum of prothorax separated from sternellum by well-defined, deep suture.
Section a2.
Section al.
Pleural folds present on at least seven abdominal segments...........Subsection bl.
Pleural folds not present on more than three abdominal segments.... Subsection b2.
Subsection bl.
Anal segment bearing a group of small spines on ventral aspect...........Ptychodes.
Anal segment without spines....................................... Monohammus.
Subsection b2.
Gular suture or sutures present..........................................Series cl.
Gular suture or sutures lacking..........................................Series c2.
Series cl.
Posterior half of protergum alutaceous ................... ................ Leptostylus.
Posterior half of protergum smooth and shining.........................Dorcaschema.
Posterior half of protergum rugose and shining......................... .Acanthoderes.
Series c2.
Epipleural sutures of prothorax deep at posterior end and extending almost entire
length of segment. Anterior half of protergum sparsely but evenly clothed with long erect hairs.......................................................Liopus.
Epipleural sutures of prothorax extending only about half the length of segment.
Anterior half of protergum with only a few straggling hairs............Hyperplatys.

Section a2.
Epistoma with many parallel longitudinal carinae .........................Oncideres.
Epistoma without parallel longitudinal caring .................................Goes.
SUBDIVISION B.
Ninth abdominal segment bearing a single, slender, strongly chitinized spine pointing
dorsally...............................................................Lepturges.
Ninth abdominal segment bearing a more or less fleshy spine pointing posteriorly.
Plectrura.
Ninth abdominal segment bearing two very small, closely placed, chitinized points
sometimes apparently merged into one.................................Synapheta
DIVISION II.
All abdominal segments bearing pleural folds.............................. Saperda.
Pleural folds borne only on posterior three abdominal segments ...... Subdivision C.

















Tech. Series 20, Part V, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agricultu~re. PLATE XXVII.















































>


























4-4









:.


C-11 Cx







SYNOPSIS OF CERAMBYCOID LARVE. 153

SUBDIVISION C.
Ninth abdominal segment with blunt chitinized tubercle on posterior dorsal margin.
Graphisurus.
Ninth abdominal segment without chitinized tubercle .................. Acanthocinus.

Family CERAMBYCIDY,.

Epipleural lines on protergum distinct for entire length of prothorax ...... Division I. Epipleural lines on protergum indistinct, or faintly impressed on anterior part of protergum ............................................................. Division II.
DIVISION I.
Legs present ...................................................... Subdivision A.
Legs lacking ...................................................... Subdivision B.
SUBDIVISION A.
Legs long .............................................................. Section al.
Legs short ............................................................ Section a2.
Section al.
Long hairs on anterior part of protergum dense. Median line of protergum showing
for entire length of segment .............................................. Chion.
Section a2.
Head bearing long, dense hairs near base of antennae .......................... (Eme.
Head not bearing long, dense hairs near base of antennae .............. Subsection bl.
Subsection bi.
Median line on protergum distinct only on anterior portion of segment.... Tylonotu8. Median line on protergum distinct on posterior portion of segment ......... Series cl.
Series cl.
Head with an ocellus near base of each antenna ......................... Phymatodes.
Head without ocelli ..................................................... Euderces.
SUBDIVISION B.
Median ine of protergum indistinct ....................................... Opsimus.
Median line of protergum distinct ...................................... Section a3.

Section a3.
Median line of protergum deeply impressed on anterior half of segment... Clytanthus. Median line of protergum not deeply impressed on anterior half of segment.
yrtophorus.
DIVISION II.
Sternum and sternellum of prothorax differentiated ................... Subdivision C.
Sternum and sternellum of prothorax not differentiated ............... Subdivision D.

SUBDIVISION C.
Body robust. Abdominal segments 3, 4, 5, and 6 not constricted near middle.
Hylotrupes bajulus.
Body slender. Abdominal segments 3, 4, 5, and 6 constricted near middle.
Smodicum.







154 MISCELLANEOUS FOREST INSECTS.

SUBDIVISION D.
Legs long ................................................... ........ Section a4.
Legs short ............................................................ Section a5.
Legs lacking.........................................................Section a6.
Section a4.
Body very slender...................................................Elaphidion.
Body robust..................................................Subsection b2.
Subsection b2.
Anterior part of protergum with scarcely any hairs........... Callidium antennatum.
Anterior part of protergum sparsely clothed with long hairs.................Series c2.

Series c2.

Scutum, scutellum, and postscutellum of both mesotergum and metatergum plainly differentiated......................................................Romaleum.
Scutum, scutellum, and postscutellum of mesotergum and metatergum not differentiated.........................................................Subseries dl.

Subseries dl.

Head with an ocellus near base of each antenna....................Physoenemum.
Head without ocelli.
Sides of thoracic and abdominal segments bearing long, dense, yellowish hairs.
Callidium xreum.
Sides of thoracic and abdominal segments not bearing long, dense, yellowish hairs.
Hylotrupes (ligneus and amethystinus).

Section a5.

Head with 3 ocelli at each side......... Cyllene (robinia, crinicornis and antennatus). Head with not more than one ocellus at each side........................ eoclytus.

Section a6.

Xylotrechus, Notorhina, and Cyllene caryx, impossible of separation by the author.

Family LEPTURIDE.

Abdominal segments bearing fleshy tubercles.......................... Division I.
Abdominal segments without fleshy tubercles ........................Division II.

DIVISION I.

Mandibles very finely sulfate on middle third. Long hairs on eighth and ninth
abdominal segments arising from small tubercles .....................Desmnocerus.
Mandibles not finely sulcate on middle third ......................Subdivision A.

SUBDIVISION A.

Tubercles on first seven segments not closely placed, but separated from each other
and spherical.......................................................Bellamira.
Tubercles closely grouped................Leptura (with the exception of L. nitens).
DIVISION II.

I:ead very much flattened. Mandibles tridlentate ....................... Rhagium.
Head(l not extremely flattened. Mandibles bidentate ............... Subdivision B.







SYNOPSIS OF CERAMIBYCOID LARVA. 155

SuDIVISION B.

Each mandible with a rather prominent groove or sulcus extending longitudinally on anterior third...................................................... Ulochxtes.
Mandibles without prominent groove on anterior third.............Leptura nitens.

Family PRIONIDe.

Sternum and sternellum of prothorax divided by a well defined, curved suture.
Division I.
Sternum and sternellum of prothorax not divided by a well defined, curved suture.
Division II.
DIVISION I.
Presternum and sternum of prothorax not divided..................... Tragosoma.
Presternum and sternum of prothorax divided.......................Subdivision A.
SUBDIVISION A.

Scutellum of mesothorax short, dorsal. Presternum of prothorax in form of an equilateral triangle.........................................................Prionus.
Scutellum of mesothorax not showing. Presternum of prothorax small, transverse.
Ergates.
DIVISION II.

Epistoma bearing four more or less well-defined teeth or tubercles. Presternum of
prothorax not differentiated........................................Orthosoma.
Epistoma without teeth or tubercles. Presternum small, triangular....... Mallodon.

Family ASEMIDE.

Labrum longer than broad............................................Division I.
Asenmum.
Labrum broader than long...........................................Division II.
DIVISION II.

Ninth abdominal segment bearing two small, narrowly separated, chitinized points
on dorsal aspect................................................... Tetropium.
Ninth abdominal segment bearing two chitinized points on dorsal aspect, widely
separated, and curved toward each other in the form of hooks.............Atimia.

The foregoing classification is based entirely upon the characters of the larvea, irrespective of adult characters. Thus the genus Atimia falls in the family Asemida instead of in the Cerambycide proper, where it has been placed in the classification of the adults.
The writer realizes fully the imperfections and deficiencies of this work. And it is only with the hope that it may prove the basis of a more complete and perfect classification of cerambycoid larve that he now offers it for publication.


A DDITIONAL COPIES of this publication
may be procured from the SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS, Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C., at 5 cents per copy.











UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 09229 6416




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EBORRDJOW_0E96LT INGEST_TIME 2014-08-14T20:49:20Z PACKAGE AA00022880_00004
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES