Technical papers on miscellaneous forest insects

Material Information

Technical papers on miscellaneous forest insects
Series Title:
Technical series / United States Bureau of Entomology ;
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
x, 185 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Forest insects ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
bibliography ( marcgt )
federal government publication ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
General Note:
Published separately with continuous numbering.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029621745 ( ALEPH )
35268535 ( OCLC )
632 ( ddc )


This item has the following downloads:

Full Text

~~~~~~ ART PAT(4~~EP P


L$. OWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.


Exet Preprtor, Forest Insect Investigations.

In Chaf4rge of Forest Insect Investigai one.

A ISSUED MY5,1911.


L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.


Expert Preparator, Forest Insect Investigations.

In Charge of Forest Insect Investigations.

ISSUED MAY 5, 1911.



L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chf of Bureau.
C. L. MIARLATT, Entomologist andA A-Iting Ch Ikj in A bsciice of Chief.
R. S. CLIFTON, Execuitive Assistant, W. F. TASTET, (Thief Clerk.

R. 11. CiiiTTENDEN, in charge of truck crop~ and stored product insect io vestigatlions.
A. D). HOPKINS, in charge of forest insect in rest u/at ions.
W. D). HUNTE I, in charge of southern field crop) insewct incsligations.
R. M WEBSTER, in charge of cereal and fortuje inse ct tin rest igat ions.
A. L. QUAINTANCE, in charge of decalduous fruit insect invecstigautions.
E. 11. PHIILLIPS, in charge of bee culture.
D). TNM. R0;ERS7 in charge of p~reventintg spread of moths, jielId work.
ROLLA 1'. C~uuuit ii, in charge (!f editorial work.
MABEL ('OLCORi, librarian.


A 1). hIOPKINS in charges,

EDMONSON, W. B. TURN El, aqents and exjperts. E. J. KRA US, cx JPert JrJaao AR V, VAI UNCE-', preparator. WILIAM MIDjDLETO)N, MARY C. JOHN!4ON, s11ut1/e1 I (sSiStanS.

PkIesigind J une 19, 1909.

C () N T l N "F S.

Introduction .....................................11
H history ............................................r .........y .. 112
The principal characters of the family Lychti-e 114
Synopsis of genera .............................. ........ ................. 115
Revisional notes ...................................................115
Synopsis of species of the genus Lyctus ......................................I 16
System atic notes .......................................................... 121
Genus Lyctus Fabricius ................................................ 121
Lyctus impressus Com olli ............ ............................... 121
Lyctus punctatus (Le Conte) ........................................ 121
Lyctus californicus Casey ........................................... 121
Lyctus parallelopipedus (Melsheimer) ............................... 121
Lyctus curtulus Casey ........................................... 122
Lyctus politus n. sp ................................................ 122
Lyctus. brunneus (Stephens) ....................................... 123
Lyctus pubescens Panzer .......................................... 123
Lyctus opaculus Le Conte .......................................... 123
Lyctus suturalis Faldermann ..................................... 124
Lyctus cavicollis Le Conte ......................................... 124
Lyctus planicollis Le Conte ..................................... 124
Lyctus parvulus Casey .................... ......................1 _25
Lyctus linearis (Goeze) ............................................ 125
Genus Lyctoxylon Reitter ........................................ 126
Lyctoxylon japonum Reitter ........................................ 126
Genus Minthea Pascoe ................................................ 126
Minthea rugicollis (Walker) ........................................ 127
Minthea stichothrix (Reitter) ........................................ 127
Bibliography ............................................................. 128
Appendix. Notes on habits and distribution, with list of described species. 130
H abits ............................................................... 130
Distribution ......................................................... 132
The Lyctido represented in the collections examined by Kraus and Hopkins (classification according to Kraus) ................................ 136
List of described species, with synonymy according to the literature and
recent studies by the authors ......................................... 137

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013

http ://arch ive~org/detailIs/tech nicalpapersoO0u nit-0"

U. S. D. A., B. E. Tech. Ser. 20. Pt. H1f. F. I. 1. MI ay 5, li9i .




By E. 1. KRAUS,
Expert Prepara tor, Forest Insect In vest igatIions.
[By A. D. HOPKiNs.]
This contribution by Mr. Kraus is based on a study (1) of the material in the forest insect collection and general collections of the Butreaui of Entomo logy and of the United States National Museum and (2) of the types of species described by Doctor Le Conte and Colonel Casey, and of specimens of Europea~n species submitted by Mr. Edmund Reitter, of Austria. The family Lyctidve is represented in North America by certain species which are of special economic importance as causing the injury to seasoned wood products known as "powder post." These species have been the subject of extended investigation by the writer and his associates to determine their habits, seasonal history, and practical methods, of control. There has, therefore, been special need of a revision of the group to bring the knowledge of systematic facts up to date and to furnish a reliable basis for working uip the biological data.

Much has been written regarding the mfemb}ers of the f amily Lyctidee, especially with respect to their economic importance. There has, however, been considerable doubt as to the correct idlentity of some of the species, perhaps more especially on account of their enormous variability. In this paper the author has attempted to point out the more prominent specific characters and, give something of the range of variation within the species as he has recognized them. For the determination of some of the species he has had occasion to examine a series of several hundred specimens. .Through the courtesy of Col. T. L. Casey, the author has been permitted to examine the types of his species. Mr. Samuel Henshaw, of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass., has kindly permitted, him to make a personal examination of the Le Conte types; Dr. Henry Skinner, of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadel-


phia, has generously ailorded him a, like privilege with the Horn collection, andl Mr. Edmund Reitter, of Paskau, Austria, has sent him. irj)I'CseiltatiYQs ( omeI of the European species.
1n this colililectioli the author desires to express his appreciation of the facilities offered by Mr'. E. A. Schwarz, of the Bureau of Entoinologv., of the valuable assistance rendleredl by him in the study of the inaterial inl the TT. S. National.Museum, and of his helpf ul advice in the
~vseiat(~work, andl by Dr. A. D. Hopkins in allowing unlimitedl use
()f the large series of specimens and notes of the forest insect collect io i of the Bureau of Entomology.
Tfe genius L!/ctus an(I allied genera constitute a group which has al way b eeni a source of p~erplexi ty to systema tists, a(id the 'opinions as to their relationship have been almost as many and varied as the number of writers who have ventured them, as may in a general way be gained from the following summary:
T11. first reference to anl insect belonging to the present family Lyctidaw was made by (Jeoiii'oy (1762), whose description reads thus:
Derauwstes ob/ontu tisci.Cs, elviris stiaiis. Le (lernieste levrier sties.
The ne(xt reference, is by (ioeze (1777), who described the same insect as Dermcstcs itfl(Ufl8. Ini 1783 Hlerbst agai described andl fig tired ti e spec ies as Xhrni ( 8toid(s wiU ipwln eta tus. Oilivier, first in 1 790, and again inl19,(ecie a Ip ol -, adgvs a vei'y goo(l
figure of it. Falbricitis (1711))eetdtegltsLcu i~
to t 1 spcie, oilyoneof which, L. ca-iilibculatUs Fabricius (11 n arls (ioeze), belongs t) the genus as now recognized. L. liu uris (Uoe()(ze) is therefore, the type of thie genlus. Hlerbst (1793) erectedl the genus BItwuqt, to wich he ref erred his Tb 1W( stoUi(c ui11111j)Ufcttts, together with thiree,- other species. altreille (1 803) placed Lyctus, together with IBadrtitus and several other geniera, in the family Xvlophag-es, and ini 1807 under the Bostrichinii. in I83(0 Stephens described aii()t her species, brunu s, ani( erected for it the genus XAyiqotrogas, ait preferred( 1both this genuis Uhlil Ly!/tu8 to the Eingi(la,, to wh-ilch 'amnily V Melsheiinier (18411) also ref erred several new species of Lqyctus Ulti A//lotroqIs (Tiflogo!loli) (lescrilbed by hitl. Wohlanstoi (1854), alter t )Inipi) il, di fl 1( 1isstctit il c( )iiile(e Xylotroqms a,;s 'Y N1-n 'y tibias witli icits(~ a il placed't it iii tlie ( olytliUah. I wrae(1857)

hut reiwai'ktvtI 1 at lit' rbwills are it) 111n11 wasberranit anld nlot we('l j~ld~t'd Ihe, especially Ibecluse o (4 te 5-sega ilititl tarlsi. Ile placedI ( V !,It; f/i/) Tlu.r!/iuuon pu( ridlopipcdi ; M elsiv~iier inl 1)yj *w qcr118 ti Ie flie ( oIlii(Ida. MI416' (1 *S 1S), ill his (niogz J the odI (teiS( 1;, t ho )I' 111 iiitIioul Id/C/UN. I'lioiiisoii (I ),inl hli,,- Scq( ice


of families, followed the BostricijidtV ~PwIii t he Lyctidaw, of whihl hie gives the following synopsis:
C'aput ponie ocitlos rottIfl(1(s valde IprolIiIlos in coAlli giobosim constrictun; sulcis antennariis nulis; clypeo stiura fronlali (iscrela ; int ()fagilo lato. rochanteres a4)ice fore recta truneato. Anlenni ub til)be~hrcl( fronlali insertaw, clava 2-3 art iculata, compressa, prothoraciti basinl hand( aLI Iitigeliles. MesoIplemra coxas interlfledias hand atigi. ( oxwP anticte sulbglobo.s(ir, parui exserf v, cont igmtu poetic marginiem elyt rorum att i gente s, 1.ransverstw, parurn (Iistaiil vs. FEpisterna metathoracis hucearia, libera. Tibiaw calcari anlic() uflcjnal 0. ri'arsi )-art ieilat i, compressi, articulo 1:o obsoleto, 5:o reliquis simul suiil1 longrlore.
lie dividledl the family into two tribes, Dinodleriiia and Lyetina, the latter of which lie dliagnosedl thus: Antennie 11 -articulatwa, clava biarticulata. Labrurn transversurn, apice emarginato, libero. ()oxae anteriores rotun~lw parurn, })ostica', lat ius dislantes. Tibiwe externe haud dent iculatoe. Acetabula antica occl usa.
Pascoe (1863) described the genus inhthea andI remarked that in Erichison's arrangement this genus, owing to the position of the coxx andl the large basal abdominal- segment, would be placed with Bothrideres and Sosyl'us in the ColydIlidue. Redtenbacher (1874) placed Lyctus in the Cryptophagides. In 1877 Kiesenwetter, in his revision of the Anobiadve, divides the family into the Bostrichini, Anobiini, and Ptinini, and again divides the Bostrichini into five groups, Psoini, Sphindini, Lyctini, Bostrichini yeni, and Hendecatomini. Lyctus, in which lie included Xylotrogus Stephens, was the only representative of the Lyctini. lie further remarked that while this group is related to the Bostrichini it might well be considered as a connection between the Anobiadve and the Colydii, but that it was widely separated from C~is by its mouthparts and the antenfhal and tarsal structure, and that eventually a separate family might well be erected for it. He probably had not seen Thomson's work. The following year (1878) Reitter published an article, "Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Lyctidve." He assigned no characters to the family, but referred to it Lyctus Fabricius, Trogoxylon Le Conte, Lyctoxylon Reitter, new genus, and Lyctopholis iReitter, new genus (Jfinthea Pascoe), and described several new species. Le- Conte and Horn (1883) divided the Ptinidoe into four subfamilies, Ptininve, Anobiinaw, Bostrichinve, and Lyctinoe. To the Lyctinve are assigned Lyctus Fabricius and Trogoxylon Le Conte. In 1885 Reitter again gave a synopsis of the European species of L'yctus and Trogoxylon and assigns them as before to the family Lyctidoe. Casey (1890) diescribed several new species of Lyctus under the Ptinidue, but in the appendix of the same paper referred the genus to his more broadly conceived Cucujidoe, and gave a discussion on its apparent relationship to other families and genera. Lesne (1896-1898), in his revision of the Bostrichidee, (divided that family into four tribes-


Psoine, Polycaonine, Dinoderinm, and Bostrychine, but made no mention of Lyctus. Kolbe (1901) has retained the Lyctide as a family and placed it in his IHeterorrhabden under the suborder Heterophaga; and Ganglbauer (1903) placed the family between the Anobiide and Sphindide in his Diversicornia under the suborder Polyphaga. Reitter, in 1906, has the family between the Bostrychide and the Anobiidoe.
Without doubt the family Lyctide is a valid one, its members possessing characters which will not readily admit of their being placed in any other family. The family Ptinide of Le Conte and Horn is a composite one, and the subfamilies Ptinine, Anobiine, Bostrichinaw, and Lyetine are deserving of family rank and in fact have already been so treated by European coleopterists. While it is not intended to treat extensively on the exact position of the Lyctide, it may be said that the family is apparently most closely allied to the Bostrychide, especially by the pentamerous tarsi with the first segment very short, the method and point of insertion of the antennT, and the only too well-known destructive habits of the larve, which bore into the solid wood. The larva possesses three pairs of well-developed prothoracic legs, and in form and structure is scarcely to be distinguished from the bostrychid larva, but is totally different from any scolytid larva to which it has been likened, the resemblance being scarcely even superficial. The mouthparts of the adult Lyctus are very similar to those of Dinoderus, especially in the structure of the labium, maxills, and the broad mentum. The family has very little in common with the Cucujide. As pointed out above, the larva is of a wholly different character in form and habits, and the adults, while agreeing in one character or another with those found in certain other genera included by Colonel Casey in his broadly conceived Cucujide, have probably derived those characters in(lependlently of any real connection with them. The family seems best placed as in the latest (1906) edition of the Catalogus Coleopterorum Europa,, i. e., immediately after the Bostrychide and preceding the Ptinida.
lentum large, transverse, corneous; glossa coriaceous, ciliated; palpl)i with 3 flexible segments.
MAaxille not exposed at base; galea subchitinous, densely ciliate at apeX, more strongly (chitinized at base; lacinia subchitinous, fringed with long cill'; p)alp)i moderately short, with four rather stout

An t ei at the siles of the head beneath the produced frontal angles and before the eyes, eleven-segnmented, clavate, the club WO)- sFlglentl a1(1 wit 1out Dorolus sensitive 2 118s.


Head prominent, constricted behind the eyes; oral organs small; epistoma distinct, labrum distinct.
Prothorax with the episterna and epimera fused; lateral margin distinct or obsolete; coxal cavities rounidemld, closed( behind.
Mesosternum small, surrounding the coxaw anteriorly and at the sides; mesepisternum and mesepimeron not attaining the coxa.
Metasternum long.
Elytra entire, completely covering the abdomen, epipleurw narrow.
Abdomen with five visible ventral segments, the first a always longer than the second.
Anterior coxe subcontiguous or widely separated, subglobose, moderately prominent; middle coxe similar to anterior; posterior coxw widely separated, transverse, subprominent internally, externally grooved for the reception of the thighs.
Legs not contractile, slender; tibim slender; tarsi five-segmented, the first segment very short.


At present but three distinct genera belonging to this family are recognized. They may be separated as follows: Antennal club with both segments subequal, neither decidedly elongated; pronotum varying in shape from subquadrate with all angles acute to cordate with the angles rounded; elytra punctate, the punctures confused or distinctly seriate; pubescence confused or seriate; anterior tibiae slender, acutely produced externally; tarsi slender..................................................Lyctus Fabricius.
Antennal club with both segments very strongly elongated, the segments much longer than broad, the terminal one very much narrower than the preceding; sides of head with three hooklike teeth; the prothorax as in Lyctus (Trogoxylon), the margins, however, clothed with bristles; elytra punctured in not very regular rows, the pubescence, however, scarcely in rows; anterior tibia on either side strongly widened into a tooth externally, with a large tooth, straight at the base and hooklike at the apex; tarsi rather slender; claw-segment simple......Lyctoxylon Reitter. Antennal club with terminal segment elongate, sides of head with three weak teeth at either side; margins of pronotum denticulated and, like the margins of the body, with bristles; elytra striately punctured, with rows of erect bristles. Tibiae at the outer angle unequal, curved, the anterior widened into a tooth at the apex, with a somewhat large curved spine; tarsal segments short, claw segment strongly clavately thickened, claws simple, rather small; form of body and prothorax as in Lyctus.......................................................Minthea Pascoe.


In the foregoing generic synopsis Trogoxylon Le Conte has been placed with Lyctus, as has been done by Colonel Casey (1891). Le Conte, in separating the genera, did so on the ground that TrogoxyIon did not have the anterior tibia prolonged at the outer apical
a The first visible ventral segment in the Lyctide is the third abdominal sternite. (See Hopkins, Tech. Ser. 17, Pt. I, Bur, Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 55, fig. 38, 1909.)
766860-11- 2


angle. As stated by Reitter, later by Casey, and as is easily seen, they are produced and in some species as strongly as in any true Lyctus. Reitter in his synopsis states that in Trogoxyilon the sides of the head are provided with three hooklike teeth, that the pronotum has all its angles sharp, and that the elytra are without rows of punctures or hairs, but that these are irregularly disposed. As a matter of fact, LYctus (Trogoxylon) imnpressus Comolli does have the three elevations mentioned, but in all the species so far recognized in the United States not only the tooth over the eye is obsolete, but the posterior angles and margin of the epistoma are closely joined to the angles of the front, so that the epistoma is but slightly depressed below the level of the front, and the two elevations seen in many species of Lyctus are not traceable-a character also observable in L. (Xylotrogus) politus n. sp. The shape of the pronotum is of little value; in L. brunneus Stephens all the angles are acute. The elytral punctures in L. (Trogoxylon) californicus Casey are decidedly striate and there is a tendency to the same thing in L. curtulus Casey.
The first visible ventral segment in most species which would fall in Trogoxylon is as long as the second and third combined, but in others it is not longer than the second and one-half of the third.
Xylotrogus has long since been shown by Wollaston (1854) and other writers to be syfionymous with Lyctus, and Trogox'lon must also be so considered, though it might well be regarded as representing a well-marked subgenus.
The species of the family Lyctide are very variable, especially in size. Well-developed individuals are frequently four or five times larger than others, the difference in size perhaps dependinglargely on food supply; for the offspring of those individuals which have bred in the same piece of wood for four, five, or six generations are very much smaller and quite different in some of the structural details from the first individuals reared. Accompanying the d(lecrease in size are found such changes as in the shape and punctation of the pronotum and the punctation and pubescence of the elytra. As a result, one must allow for much variation within the limits of the species, and characters which might be of specific importance in groups more constant in character can only be held to be individual.
Elytral pubescence confused over the entire surface or sometimes in single rows,
never in double series separated by wide intervals; apical angles of the prothorax usually dec(i(Ied(ly prominent if nott, at least suhprominent and the sides of pronotum decidedlyy convergent posteriorly.......... Division I, pages 117-119.
Elytral iubescence always arranged in distinct series, the series at the sides at least
4separate(d by a double row of fine, deep punctures or a single row of large, shallow, circular puncture ............. ..................Division 11, pages 119-120.



Elytral punctures confused, o(r somewhat striat e, but if so, the series never impressed.
Subdivision A, pages 17-118.
Elytral punctures distinctly seriate, the series distinctly impressed.
Subdivision l, pages 118-119.
SUBDIVISION A. ( Trogo'.r/on Le (')nte.)

Head with a distinct tubercte over the eye; pronotlum quadrate, with the sides not
convergent posteriorly ................................... Section ai, page 117.
Head without tubercle over the eye; pronotum with the sides more or less convergent
posteriorly............................................. Section a2, page 117.
Section al.

Length 3 to 4.5 mm.; ferruginous. Pronotum opaque, very densely, evenly punctured; anterior margin slightly trisinuate; sides sinuate, scarcely convergent posteriorly; anterior and posterior angles very prominent, right, not at all rounded; median impression narrow, deep near the center of the disk, broadly expanded toward anterior and posterior margins. Elytra subparallel, just visibly wider at base than prothorax, extremely finely, densely, confusedly punctured; pubescence fine, decumbent, confused. Head with front subconvex, densely, evenly punctured; frontal angles very prominent, narrowly rounded; side margins of epistoma forming an acute, slightly reflexed tooth; antenne slender, club feeble, ovate. Abdomen slightly shiny below, excessively minutely punctured.
impressus Comolli, page 121.
Section a2.

Pronotum broader than long, the vestiture very short, coarse, and bristling; prosternum distinctly punctured throughout.............. Subsection bl, page 117.
Prothorax as long or longer than wide anteriorly, the pubescence rather long, fine, and
decumbent or subdecumbent; prosternum not punctured or but very feebly so near its side margins .................................. Subsection b2, page-117.

Subsection bl.

Length 3 mm.; body nigro-piceous, short, broad, stout, subconvex, densely clothed
with short, stiff bristles. Prothorax feebly shiny; side margins strongly convergent posteriorly; anterior margin broadly rounded; punctures large, deep, more dense posteriorly; median impression shallow, broad; pro-episternal area coarsely, distinctly punctured. Elytra broad, shiny, subparallel, densely, coarsely punctured, the punctures feebly seriate. Head with front subconvex, densely, evenly punctured; epistoma slightly depressed, side margins scarcely reflexed, with a dense fringe of coarse bristles, which also occur on the angles of
the front; antenna stout. Abdomen subopaque below.
>unctatus Le Conte, page 121.
Subsection b2.
Elytral punctures in distinct series; epistoma with side margins strongly reflexed.
Series cl, page 117.
Elytral punctures confused, without distinct serial arrangement; epistoma not reflexed
at sides................................................. Series c2, page 118.

Series cl.

Length 2.2 to 2.5 mm.; very slender, parallel, compressed, castaneous throughout,
strongly shining. Prothorax with side margins rather strongly convergent posteriorly; anterior margin strongly arcuate; anterior angles strongly rounded,


posterior obtusely rounded; median impression very broad and shallow; punctures coarse, rather d(lense, sparser and finer anteriorly. Elytra elongate, the punctures small and arranged in distinct series, becoming confused toward suture and base, the pubescence sparse and recumbent. Head with front scarcely convex, densely, finely punctured; epistoma depressed, side margins strongly reflexed; antenme slender. Abdomen shiny below, densely, exceedingly finely punctured........................................ californicus Casey, page 121.

Series c2.

Length 2 to 4 nun.; elongate, rather slender, ferruginous to nigro-piceous. Prothorax
with side margins strongly convergent posteriorly; anterior margin strongly trisinuate; anterior angles ac~itely rounded; posterior right, not at all rounded; median impl)ression very shallow, broad, deeper posteriorly; punctures fine and dense. Elytra subparallel, slightly narrowed posteriorly; punctures very fine, dense, confused; Ipubescence yellowish, fine, and dense. Head with front subc onvex, finely, densely )unctured, the pubescence very short, reflexed at the sides; antenlue slender, the club large and prominent. Abdomen subopaque below, densely, coarsely punctured ...... parallelopipedus Melsheimer, page 121. Length 2.7 to 3.3 nn.; stout, comparatively broad, eastaneous to nigro-piceous. Prothorax with the sides slightly convergent posteriorly; anterior margin broadly rounded or faintly trisinuate; anterior angles acutely rounded; posterior obtuse and blunt; niedian impression broad, rather deep, more so posteriorly; punctures coarse and dense, less so anteriorly. Elytra stout, slightly narrowed toward the base; pI)unctures coarse, dense, faintly, subseriately arranged toward sides; pubescenice rather coarse, sparse, decumbent, and arranged in faint series. Head with front convex, densely, subrugosely punctured, the pubescence short and fine; epistoma nearly flat, coarsely punctured, side margins very faintly reflexed; antenname stout, the club robust, small, oval. Abdomen polished below, extremely finely and sparsely punctured...................... curtulus Casey, page 122.

SunDIVISIoN B. (Xylotrogus Stephens.)

Length 2.5 to 3.5 mm.; castaneous throughout. Pronotum shiny, strongly punctured
posteriorly, the punctures becoming very small or obsolete anteriorly; side margins strongly sinuate; anterior angles very broadly rounded. Elytra with the sides nearly parallel; strial punctures fil(ne, close-set, confused near suture; interspaces flat; pubesence fine, decumbent, sparse. Ihlead with front densely, evenly ptunlctured, feebly shiny, scarcely impressed before the eyes; epistoma
convex, finely punctured, not at all elevated at lateral margins.
politus n. sp., page 122.
Length 3 to 5 nrm.; rufo-fuscous throughout. Pronotum subopaque; side margins
nearly straight, densely, finely serrulate and strongly convergent posteriorly; anterior angles aute, slightly prominent, blunt, but scarcely rounded; punctures Iore d(ense losteriorly, finer, not becoming obsolete anteriorly. Elytra with the sides nearly parallel; serial punlctures line, impressed; inters)aces, especially toward sides, subonvex; l)ubescence fine, (decuibent. Head with front densely, rather coarsely punct ure(d, (onvex, strongly impressed at the sides before the eyes;
epistina subeonvex, its anterior angles distinctly elevated.
bru mus Stephens, page 123.
lgtlh 4.5 to ) in111). ; ruf-tesaeoul, held a ( f)rotlorax piceous. Pronoltum opaque,
PuliUt'llto-sbllos; antilor Ilargill very broadly curved; sid( e maTins feebly Milnal, ratTlr slfrollgly conivergenl posteriorly; anterior angles subprominllent, obt use, ery broadly rMounded, posterior obtuse, Inot rounded; median imIn)resin merely a narrow feebly inmpreed furrow extending from near anerior


margin to posterior margin. Elytra shiny, subparallel, a little broader than prothorax; punctures large, distinct, deep), circular, strongly serial(, thle series impressed; interspaces slightly convex; pubescence fine, sparse, seriate. Iea( with front convex, opaque, densely, rugosely punctate; epistomai strongly 'depressed, not at all elevated at the sides; antenna stout, the club large, elongate oval............................................ pubescens Panzer, page 123.


Elytral strike composed of a double or sometimes a single row of fine, elongate, deeply
impressed punctures.............................Subdlivision C, pages 119-120.
Elytral strike each compcsed of a single row of large, shallow, circular punctures.
Subdivision D, page 120.

Prothorax anteriorly distinctly narrower than the elytra at base.
Section a3, pages 119-120.
Prothorax fully as wide anteriorly as the elytra at their base.... Section a4, page 120.

Section a3.

Pronotum distinctly longer than wide, its anterior angles not at all prominent, very
broadly rounded; median impression merely a narrow, faintly impressed groove from anterior to posterior margins; elytral intersp)aces frequently subconvex, especially toward sides............................ Subsection bl, page 119.
Pronotum quadrate or subquadrate; anterior angles distinct, subprominent but not
acute; median impression large, broadly oval, deep; elytral interspaces not at all or but feebly convex.........................Subsection b2, pages 119-120.

Subsection bi.

Length 2.1 to 4 mm.; castaneous. Pronotum opaque, punctato-scabrous; anterior
margin broadly rounded; side margins straight or slightly sinuate and convergent posteriorly; anterior angles subobsolete; posterior sharp, everted. Elytra slightly narrowed toward base; interspaces toward the sides feebly to rather strongly elevated; punctures coarse, elongate, and in double series between the interspaces; pubescence fine, short, dense, decumbent. Head with front strongly convex, densely punctured and granulose; epistoma narrow, depressed, side margins strongly divergent posteriorly, anterior deeply emarginate, its anterior angles not elevated; antennae slender, the club stout, narrowly oval. Abdomen
subopaque below, densely, finely, granulately punctured.
opaculus Le ( onute pages 123-124.
Subsection b2.

Length 3 to 5 mm.; ferruginous, head and prothorax slightly darker. Pronotum
opaque, punctate, scabrous; anterior margin broadly rounded; side margins nearly straight, finely denticulate, acute, parallel or very faintly convergent posteriorly; anterior angles subprominent, obtuse, blunt; posterior angles right, prominent, not rounded; median impression broadly oval, deep. Elytra subparallel, scarcely narrower anteriorly, convex but not more noticeably so at their middle; strial punctures very fine, elongate, arranged in single or sometimes in double series, especially toward sides; pubescence seriate, fine, sparse, decumbent. Head with front strongly convex, opaque, densely punctato-granulate, sides slightly elevated over the eye; epistoma strongly depressed, narrow, its anterior angles not elevated; antennu stout, the club strong, oval. Abdomen subopaque below, densely, finely punctured...suturalis Faldermann, page 124.


').5 to 4.5 mm.; fi'Mlginoti Pronotum shiny. rather densely I)ut not at
all or piinOtired, the punctures smaller and lesss dense anteriorlN-, ut(,(Iian ililpres.4c)n broadly oval, deep, not approaching anterior margin; nntirior inanria 1.)nudly rounded, sides. parallel, straight or faintly sinuate; ant(,rior angles obtu6,uly rounded; posterior- angles right, promiDent, not at all ()I, V(11,V feehly rounded. Elytra I)road, (K tinctly narrowed toward base, more
-I,,- coin-(,x at about their iniddle; interspaces not at all elevated; punctures
-:eriate as in o mcillits; pulwsco:-,nee of medium leno-t1l, fine,
(,Hate in arrangenient.. Head with front strongly convex, w,-enly but not densely punctin-ed; epistonia. depressed, its ant(,ri(,r itian-,in htva(lly einarginate. tll(, anterior an(yles elevated and with coarse ptih(-een(-(- anteiina i-ery slender,, the chib -NN-eak, narrowly oval. Abdomen
ft,(.hly sldny ],(,Iuw, (. exceedingly finely, do2nsely punctured.
caricollis Le Conte, page 194.
,'Izecf;m a-;.

Lenolli. 2. to 5.5 inill.: black. Pronotinn, shinv, ratlier denselv ]mt not at all
rill(ro-ely pin-wWred. niedian broad, sliallo,N-, narnm- frmaa posterior
111ar'-111 to 1,11iddle, wliere it bec()nws broadly. gradually expande(I to tlic anterior 1111.11"Irin, rar(Iy deep, suboval an(I scarcely expanded anteriorly; anterior niargin broadh- roiind(A; side margins strongIN- llvtlale and convel-c'ent P()Steriorly or iw.irly .,in)],glit and subparallel; anterior angle 1)1.()ad1V r(milded. ll()t at all pr(amnent, 1)(): ierior obtuse and feebly rotinded (w stil)],ectangtilar and sharp.
EIN-tra eh-)nOat(,. convergent, tt)wird I)a,( the inlersj)acez, flat or just -6sil4v conV(IX ptinci N,(,rv filw, !,erlate a.,-; in opacill is; pidw cenee fine, sparse, deculnbelitl di t ilictly ,-( riate. Hezid X -ltli fn)nt strongly convex, densely, subrijgosely ptincttirf.,d: epist.unia depressed, anterior margin broadIN- eniarginate. anterior a n (-rl('S n0f elevated; antennD stotit, club pr61ninent: abdomen Iiiny bebm-.
fillely pinicttired ------------------- plani(-ollis Le C(inte. paves 124-125.
Lengill, 2.-1 to 4.1 nim.: bLick. Prowtiiin opaqtie, punctaf()-scahroiis: inedian
r(.dtlced 1" a shallow, nan-mv line froin anterior to Imsterior nianin;
anterl()r margin broadly arctiate; side margins ,llrongly ciii-N-ed
and tnterk)r angles Nery hrt)adly, obtusely rotinded:
jj()t l'olillded. El\-tra 11.11T(A%-( d 1()NN-ar(l 1)ase: intersi)aces ptin(Atire-coarse, Plibescence
fillel ZTar,( create. llead witlifroiit lt-()iigly(,otiN-( x, scabrous; epistoinasniall,
d(-I)ressed: mitfrior inargin broadly (,iimrginatc; awellntP slender, club
collipact, OV,11. Abdonien stibopaqtie heluw, ver\- densel\-, finely pijnrtiir(-d.
pal-1,11111"; Ca (,N-, page 125.
,S UB DI V 18 10 N D.

L, ji-tfi 2.,5 t,) 5 111111.; ferni(,inoti, Pronottwi (q),tipie; -sarface \.ery filwly "r.111111ate
;111(1 pliho-c('11t; Illediall ()v ll, (b'ep, extell(II111() t nm i '111lerior fourth
I'lairtli all(] ilw iw e v(,ry ii.trn w ly 1() llizil"rill" "Interim. 111,11--in slr(,11(_ Iv -Irctlate? "I(Ie,< (w 1,1.(.I)lv Sil)II'lle, ll()t '11 ill ()I. but scarc('k- narhellilld; till(Thd, (J)IIIS4 rm lfldf d: pw4((1F1()r '11101('s n(flit,
T11-1 lt 'A l I'M 111(if-d I", I O Y:1 jll -Zt 11,11-I'llW (ld l(M "U'd hzl- o, flat;

Ill..Y :11.(, ill svrif. ,; ptlhe COIWII T ,Ire, fille, (Icrid(,dly (.rialc ill arrailgeille]it. Ih-,ld w ith fnm t (-f)II\ (,X,
Ow (hf) f.jv. llfwk epistm il"t lla1T(M', its '1111crim, Illar-in
hrw dly, emm-11i.lo- '111(crior '111"Ics Ill,( cl(.\ ,lw& alitclill"t, ".1clider

,I -I I- AN" fill( 'I I'll w -1:1 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . II'm (irl's G w ze. 125 126.


Genus LYCTUS Fabricius. Lyectus Fabricius, 1792, p. 502. Xylotrogus Stephens, 1830, pp. II (16-1 17. Trogoxylon Le Conte, 1861, p. 209.
Lyctus impressus ('omolli. Lyctus impresses Comolli, 1837, pp. 40-85; Seidlitz, 1875, p. 160; Erichson, 1877,
p. 17.
Trogoxylon impress (Comolli) Reitter. 1885, p. 100.
This species is the largest of the Trogoxylon group which the author has seen. It is very distinct in the quadrate prothorax and in the possession of the three elevations at the sides of the head, one over the eye, another just before it at the frontal angle, and another at the lateral angle of the epistoma.
Material examined.-A series of 5 specimens, very constant in
character, except in size. The species occurs in southern Europe, but has not as yet been recorded from the United States.
Lyctus punctatus (Le Conte). Trogoxylon punctatum Le Conte, 1866, p. 104.
Lyctus punctatus (Le Conte) Casey, 1891, pp. 13, 16.
This species is easily known by its short, broad form, coarse punctation of the pronotum and elytra, and the stiff, short, almost squamose pubescence.
Material examined.-A single specimen from Santa Rosa, Lower California, and Le Conte's type, which is from Cape San Lucas, Lower California.
Lyctus californicus Casey. Lyctus californicus Casey, 1891, p. 14.
This species is readily recognized by its elongate, highly polished body, and by the finely but definitely striated punctures of the elytra, the pubescence of which is fine and sparse. It is easily distinguished from L. curtulus, to which it is probably most closely allied, by its more slender, parallel, elongate form, finer elytral punctures, and other minor details. There is some variation in size and density of color, but other characters are quite constant.
Material examined.-A series of 5 specimens from Santa Rosa, Lower California. Colonel Casey's specimens are from Fort Yuma, Cal.
Lyctus parallelopipedus (Melsheimer).
Xylotrogus parallelopipedus Melsheimer, 1844, p. 112.
Trogoxylon parallelopipedum (Melsheimer) Le Conte, 1861, p. 209; Le Conte and
Horn, 1883, p. 229.
Lyctus parallelopipedus (Melsheimer) Casey, 1891, p. 13.


Most readily recognized by the very finely, densely, confusedly punctured elytra, with the pubescence long, dense, fine, and decumbent, and the margin of the prothorax strongly trisinuate.
There is great variation in size, as usual. The side margins of the prothorax are generally straight, sometimes slightly curved inward, and the prothoracic punctures are generally fine.
Material examined.-A series of more than 100 specimens. Distributed throughout the eastern and southeastern United States.
Lyctus curtulus Casey.
Lyctus curtulus Casey, 1891, p. 15.
One of the smaller species, easily separated from parallelopipedus Melsheimer by its coarse elytral punctation, average smaller size, and prothoracic structure, and from californicus Casey by its much shorter, robust form, denser elytral pubescence, coarser and less sinuate arrangement of elytral punctures, and in being much less shiny.
There is considerable variation, more especially in size and coloration, and likewise in the density and size of the prothoracic and elytral punctures, in the convergence of the sides of pronotum, in the sinuation of its anterior margin (the latter sometimes becoming feebly trisinuate), and in the degree of depression of the epistoma. A single specimen from Bonner, Mont., differs quite noticeably in several respects from the more typical examples of curtulus, and may represent an undescribed species. However, it is placed here until more specimens show it to be distinct.
Material examined.-A series of more than 300 specimens. Distributed throughout the soutl western ITnited States.
Lyctus politus n. sp.
Type.-Cat. No. 7432, United States National Museum; U. S. Department of Agriculture, No. 7414; one of 21 specimens collected and reared by Dr. F. II. ('hittenden from licorice at Washington, D). ('.
This species is readily separated from brunneus Stephens by its much shorter, broader formI, more shiny, finely and less densely punctured prothlorax, and by the structure of the front as outlined in theI synopsis (p. 1 18).
There is consi(lerable variation in size, and to a less extent inii the convergence of the sidles (of the i)rothorax posteriorly, and in the plr-obotal l)ulctatioll.
It is )ossibh that this species ihas been already described, but the author has heell unable to place it in any of the species of which he has had speci IHCs or oldescriptions and has, in consequence, described it as beillrg new.


Lyctus brunneus (Stephens).
Lyctus parasiticus Stephens, 1829, p. 94.
Xylotrogus brunneus Stephens, 1830, p. 116, pl. 18, fig. 4; Seidlitz, 1875, p. 160.
Lyctus glycyrrhizx Chevrolat, 1829-1838, pp. 191-192, pl. 4 1, fig. 3.
Lyctus rugulosus Montrouzier, 1861, p. 266.
Lyctus brunneus (Stephens) Wollaston, 1854, p. 152; Erichlisoni, 1877, p). 17; Reitter,
1885, p. 100; Reitter, 1906, p. 423.
Lyctus caroline Casey, 1891, pp. 13-14.
This species, while allied to L. politus n. sp., is readily distinguished by its larger size and coarser structure throughout and more acute anterior angles of prothorax; the epistoma also is more depressed, its posterior angles as in planicollis Le Conte. The series of specimens is very constant, except that there is the usual variation in size and color. A single specimen from Philadelphia, Pa., is more slender, the prothorax narrower and more constricted behind, with the sides straight, and the anterior margin more strongly arcuate. It is probably best placed here for the present. A series of 3 specimens from Mr. Reitter shows considerable variations, more especially in the shape of the prothorax, and one individual has the pronotum much more coarsely punctured.
Material examined.-A series of 14 specimens. The species is
widely distributed throughout the world.
Lyctus pubescens Panzer.
Lyctus pubescens Panzer, 1793, fasc. 4, fig. 17; Erichson, 1877, p. 16; Reitter, 1878,
p. 196; Reitter, 1885, p. 99.
Lyctus bicolor Comolli, 1837, p. 41; Seidlitz, 1875, p. 160.
Lyctus caucasicus Tournier, 1874, p. 412; Reitter, 1878, p. 196; Reitter, 1885, p. 99.
Lyctus pubescens v. caucasicus (Tournier) Reitter, 1906, p. 423.
The species is very distinct. It is perhaps more closely allied to brunneus Stephens than any other, both in elytral and prothoracic structure, though very distinct from it. It is remarkable in having the prothorax very much darker than the elytra, a character seldom met with in this family.
Material examined.-Two specimens from Mr. Reitter are labeled "Silesia, on Willow." One of them has the prothorax strongly narrowed posteriorly, the other much less, although distinctly so. The species occurs in Europe, but up to the present time it has not been recorded from the United States.
Lyctus opaculus Le Conte.
Lyctus opaculus Le Conte, 1866, p. 103; Casey, 1890, p. 324; Casey, 1891, p. 13.
This species is remarkably distinct and easily separated by the narrow, convex prothorax, the anterior angles being very broadly rounded, the side margins strongly convergent posteriorly, the surface opaque and very densely subrugosely punctured, the median


impression long, shallow, and narrow, and the strial punctures of the elytra deep and coarse.
There is considerable variation, more especially in size, in the acuteness,-- of (lhe po(sterior angles of the protliorax, in the convergence o)f its side margins posteriorly, and in the elevation of the elvtral iit ersl)aces.
Matm(ifi erailtfl) d .-A series of 60 specimens. The species is distributed throughout, the eastern United States.
Lyctus suturalis Faldermann.

Lyctuis suturalis Faldermann, 1837, p). 225; Reitter, 1878, p. 196; Reitter, 1885,
p. 99; Reitter, 1906, p. 423.
Lylqusi dleyrolici Tournier, 1874, p. 411.
Thiis species is related to lieais Goeze in prothoracic structure, but is wholly different in elvt~ral structure, resembling, in this respect, planiiicollis Le Conte, though quite different in th at f or the most part the strive are made up of but a single row of exceedingly fine punctures.
The spec(-imiens are quite constant in character, though there is considlerable variation in the prominence and roundness of thie anterior angles of the prothorax.
ilfatu~ial exantind.--A series o-f four specimens from Mr. Better. Thie species occurs in the Caucas;us. lUp to the present time it hias not been recorded from tbe 11 iitel 'States.
Lyctus cavicollis Le Conte.
Lycls car?'ollis Le Conic, ISO;. p). 103; Casey, 1890. p. 324; Casey, 1891, p. 13.
This species is vr ishc, an sraiysep)arated from the other
spIecies by t he shinig narw Iuq alrt e, subconvex protlhorax within the si(les, parallel, the po~steior angles sharply rectanguldar, an(l the form general' ly stout. It is not closely allied to any other specRis. It. resembles jdiMM icl Le Conite i el'Nt ral struct ure, but the prothiorax is totally different. There is son)ii variation in size, but, tHie stnit~Utuul (h'ails are quite (015t anit
Material CUuid-Aseries of 25 specimens, till from California.
Lyctus planicolis Le Omte.
LycI pfioihs Le (Conte, 158, 1). *74; L e Conte. IS8;(, p. 103; Igs,1883,
pp. .-) 58); Ca .-:y, 1890, p., 324;., 'ae,189)1, 1). 13.
(?)Ly1iu8 Wutiuis\all, 1832, 1). 1(1.
Ibissp~e.-cis (xtrmlN Nni1)l('; perh-1aps Ifl()I'C So thlan anly others of t lie grenus. I iivd1l-aneinlng i ro 2..5 to 5.5 mm11. Th'le
protliorax v-aries fon broader tHan1 long(, wN11ithte side mar11ginls !sI roughJ vsIlua Ie ant fJuVre tps eiry to stubqu1adrate and( tHie sides paale ,hw(Vawasa widle an1te(riorly as H ie elyt ma1
at ll"1e, lieat ior mlesalas ouddIhepoti'o mevm S


The pronotum may be densely, evenly puncturedl over the entire surface, or have the punctures less denise and the surface polished anteriorly, but is never scabrous; the median impression varies from very deep and becoming broadly expanded anteriorly, wilth a small circular impression at either sidle, to subobsolete in I lie smaller specimens.
Whether this species and carbonarius Waltl are synonymous the author can not say, since he has not seen Waltl's description. However, he has 2 specimens widch Mr. E. A. Schwarz tells him are
from Mexico, received through Dr. E. D)ughs from Guanajuat(o.
These specimens are probably from among the series on which Doctor Dughs based his "Metamorphoses du Lyctus planicollis." Tihey
differ in some of the minor details from planicollis, more especially in having the pronotal punctures coarser and less (lense; and the median impression is deep, oval, and not broadly expanded anteriorly. Should these characters prove constant in a larger series they might well be considered as representing a distinct species, probably carbonarius Waltl, very closely allied to planicollis.
Material examined.-A series of over 500 specimens. The species is found widely distributed throughout the entire United States at least.
Lyctus parvulus Casey.
Lyctus parrulus Casey, 1884, p. 175; Casey, 1890, p. 325; Casey, 1891, p. 13.
This species is remarkably distinct and is separated at once from the other species by the broad cordate prothorax and its dense, coarse, subrugose punctation.
There is great variation in size and to a less degree in the shape of the prothorax and in the acuteness of the posterior angles. In general form it resembles planicollis Le Conte, but in structural details resembles opaculus Le Conte. It is readily separated from either, and is far removed from linearis Goeze, with which species it has very little in common.
Material examined.-A series of about 50 specimens. Distributed throughout the western and southwestern United States.
Lyctus linearis (Goeze).
Dermestes oblongusfuscus, elytris striatis, Geoffroy, 1762, p. 103.
Dermestes linearis Goeze, 1777, p. 148; Thunberg, 1784, p. 4, no. 4.
Lyctus linearis (Goeze) Reitter, 1906, p. 423.
Dermestes oblongus (Olivier) Fourcroy, 1785, p. 19, no. 9.
Ips oblonga Olivier, 1790, vol. 2, no. 18, sp. 8, pl. 1, fig. 5, a, b; 1792, p. 405,
no. 9.
Lyctus oblongus (Olivier) Latreille, 1804, p). 241; Latreille, 1807, p. 16, sp. 1;
Stephens, 1830, p. 117.
Dermestoides unipunctatus Herbst, 1783, p. 40, pt. 21, fig. H, h.
Bitoma unipunctata Herbst, 1793, p. 26, pl. 46, fig. 3.

'llerbst.) Kieenwetter, 1877, p. 15; Reitter, 1885, p. 99. L11011S cawd;cobflos FaLlicius, 1792. 1). -004, no. 11; Panzer. 1793. fase. 4, fig. 16;
Paykiffl, P,00. no. 9; Fabriciu ISOL 0 el I
vol. 2, p. 562, no. 1*3: -tyll ilial
09, no. I: Th( )nisun. IS63, vol. 5. p. 204; Tournier, V-L 6. P -411. 11(). 103.
Fabricitis) If(Ilivig, 1-92, vol. 4. p. 405. no. S.
1844, vol. 2, p. 112; Casey 1840, vcd. 5, P. 324; Casey, P.
1844, vol. 2, p. 113.
Lyo is Diift-rhmid. IS 25. vol. 3, p. 148.
TY 11 Is.1 'I";(11s -;('Idlitz' 1 71). 1). 16.
This species is at once and easily recognized by its peculiar, large, shallow, circular punctures of the elytral strike, not observable in any other of our species. There is conSiderable variation in size, but in other respects the species is quite constant.
NO(r *al (x(imiiitd.-A series of several hundred specimens. Occurs thrmighout the United States Europe, and probably the entire W01.1d.
Genus LYCTOXYLON Reitter.
1?1r1o.r!17rm Reitler. 1878.
Lyctoxylon japonum Reitter.
Lydary7orJapomim Reitter. p. '199.
Subdepressed, ferruginous, feebly shiny, rather densely clothed with very short subs(luainose bristles. Segments 1-4 of the aiitenmT subelom,,ite, 5-0 stibtransverse club stron(r]v elon(rate, ci-liii(lrical s1-2-ments neariv three times as Iona as lwmid. the terminal one a little nari-ower flitan the precedhil(r. Head tmd pt-otlion-Ix densely confii-sed1v Imucture(l, the putictitres subpapillate. Pr(ollorax a
little broader than long, more narrow toward the base, anterior anolles obtuse, posterior right, tll(' Zetulo'se-ciliate' at t lie, mid(Ile of the dorsuin lowrit-11(limill fON-011tely hillm-esse(l and with a "'Imil,
'trmigly excavate line before the "cutellmil. ElYtra, it little broa(ler thall p.11-allel, more than twice as Imig as wide. vitheie IN-tl-ml "-wriatelv, iwar the sutm-e irreO.111,11.1y pulictilred, with short, dcl)'(" jilst visibly seriate. "111)"ettik)-w "c'1les. Len(rth 1.5 to 2 min. Reitter.]
-1 ) -( ------ A series ()f -1 specimens fi-() Ne v Je sey
*( I (xmft *w L I III N I 1
111111'(1d frol-11 c"Itle. The "Iwvies wzls de ;crlhe(l fl-wil _Teci111CIII-1 Jalmil alid Chilla.
Genus MINTHEA PaFtcoe.
97-1 It,-111er, IAW, 1)

Minthea rugicollis (Walker).
Ditomna rugicollis Walker, 1858, p. 206.
Minthea similata Pascoe, 1863, p. 141.
Minthea rugicollis (Walker) Waterhouse, 1894, ). 68; Arrow, 1904, p. 30;Reitter, 1906, p). 423.
Eulachus hispidus Blackburn, 1885, p. 141.
Lyctopholisfoveicollis Reitter, 1878, p. 199.
Prothorax at the middle of the dorsumi with ani obloniig-oval, deeply impressed foveola. Subcylindrical, ferriginouis, feebly shiny, somewhat densely clothed with erect, white, suibsquamose bristles thickened at the apex. First segment of club of antenna subquadrately transverse, the terminal half again as long as it, elongate oval. Prothorax somewhat densely punctate, the punctures scarcely separated, not at all deeply impressed; elytra a little wider than prothorax, parallel, lightly seriately punctured, the punctures very feebly impressed, interspaces just visibly rugose, feebly shining, the alternate ones with erect seriate bristles. Length about 2 mm. [Translated from
Reitter's original description of foveicollis.] Minthea stichothrix (Reitter).
Lyctopholis stichothrix Reitter, 1878, p. 199.
Thorax with the dorsuili scarcely excavated, but with an almost obsolete longitudinal line at the middle, becoming less anteriorly at the apex. Subcylindrical, ferruginous, rather densely clothed with long, white, erect sete thickened at the apex. First segment of antennal club transverse, the terminal segment three times as long as the former, subcylindrical. Head and thorax confusedly, rugosely punctured, opaque, the sides of the latter evidently denticulate and ciliate; elytra seriately punctate, interspaces densely, rather strongly, rugosely punctured, the alternate ones with seriate erect sets. Length 2.7 mm. [Reitter.]
Described from specimen from Bogota, Colombia. The species occurs also in Europe.
Material examined.-One specimen from Mr. Reitter, labeled
"Styria;" another in the Horn collection, without name, labeled "N. Y.," and with light-green square.
Representatives of the genus occur throughout the world, J1. rugicollis Walker being recorded from the West Indies, Ceylon, Malay Archipelago, Hawaiian Islands, and Europe. The single specimen in the Horn collection, mentioned above, is, so far as the author is aware, the only record of the genus in the United States.



CrF-'(-)FF-j1oy1 E. L.-Ilistoire abre1,6ei des insects (Iiii se trouvent aux environs
de Paris, Vol. 1, P. 103 11(). 9.
1777. GOEZE, I I- J. A. E.-Entomolo-ische Beiti-ii-e Vol. 1, p. 148, no. 43.
1783. IIERBST, J. F. W.-In Fflessly, Archiv der ln:- ectewzeschichte, p. 403, pl. 21,
fig. H, h.
1784. THUNBERG, C. P.-Nowe insectorum species descriptw. Vol. 4, p. 4, no. 4.
1785. FoURCROY, A. F.-Entomololia Parisiensis, Vol. 1, p.,19, no. 9. 1790. OLIVIf.1t, M.-Entornoloaie ou histoire naturelle des iiisectes. Coleopteres
Vol. 2, no. 18, 1). 7, sp. 8, pl. 1) fig. 5, a, b.
1792. OLIVIER, M.-Encyclopediie methodique, histoire naturelle, insects, vol. 7,
p. 405, no. 9.
1792. FABRICIVS, J. C.-Entomolo-ja systematic, voI. 1, pp. .502-1504. 1792. IIELLWIG, J. C. L.-Schueidei-'s Magazine, Vol. 4, p. 405, no. S. 1793. IIERBST, J. F. W.-XatuniN- 4tem aller bekalnnten in- und aushindischen
Tnsekten-Kifer, Vol. 5, P. i6.
1793. PAINZER, G. AN'. F.-Faunw Insectorum Germanicte, fase. 4) figs. 16, 17. 1800. VON PAYIKULL, G.-Fauna, Stiecica, Vol. 3, p. 332, no. 9. 1801. FABRICIUS, J. C.-Systema, Elcutheratorum, Vol. 2, p. 062, no. 13. 1803. LATREILLE, P. A.-Histoire naturelle des crustiw(-s et des insects, vol. 5,
p. 2,53.
1804. LATREILLE, P. A.-Histoire naturelle des crtista(,-es et de, insects, Vol. III
p. 241.
1807. LATREILLE, P. A.-Genera Crustaceortim et Insectortim, Vol. 3, pp. 16, 17. 1813. GYLLJ-1'N1IAL, L.-Insecta Sueeica, Vol. 1, pt. 3, pp. 108--109', no. 1.
182-5. Dut-rscHmID, C.-Fauna Austriaca, Vol. 3, 1). '148, no. 1. 1829-1838. CHEVROLAT, A.-ln G ue'rin-.1.1 ('nevi Ile, Iconographic du reg-ne ammal,
pp. 191-192, pl. It, fig. 3.
1830. STEPHENS, J. F.-Illtist rat ions of British Entomology, Mandibulata, vol. 3,
pp. 116-117, pl. 18, figZ1. 4.
1 32. NVALTL, J.-Fannus, Vol. 1, 1). 167.
1 37. FALDE.UNIANN, F.-Fauna Entonio1()(ri(,a, Transcaticasica, 2, 1). 22-7). 1( 37. Co'mm.ii, k.-De coleopteris nm-is zi(1- rarioribu:4 mintisve c()(,nitis proNhiclia,
Nov(,(,()mi, p. 41.
1844. MELSHEIMER, F. E.-Descriptions of new Coleoptera of the United Slaw .
1847. Ejacyi.soN, W. F.-COJISPOCWS iTISOCIOMM Coleopternrum quve in Republica
J)cniana ob 4ervma smit. de Vzmcica genro Cis des auteiirs. ISV ERICIPS()N) W. dci- hisekleti Petitschlawls '01.
25s, 2 7.
\VMAAST()N, T. V.-ITI Wctzi M.i(lereri:4ii, 1)1). 151-11)3, pl. -1, fi -. 3.
1,A('()RDAM1':, T]).- IhStolrc mittirefle des irisecte,;. (icnera des coh' ()I)t -res,
\()I. 1, pp. -7)17' ")IS.
WALKEI?, 14'.- Oh 111110 midescrilw(I Ceyloti itisout ,. ist-, 206.
1 (-r. -(d 2 ,
1839. TA' CONTI%) .1. 1,.-A(1(I0 loms to t1w c(doopterim:4 f;miia of tiorthern California
2 SO
I'l f 111114' de 1.'I Xom -elle Caledolml.
<.\mi. Ew France, vo l. 1, -vc. 1, 1). 266.


1861. LE CONTE, J L.-( laissificatioji of tie ( oleoptera of N orth A mericapt 1,
p. 209.KSrnithsoianl MIiscel laneotis ( offect jotis, Vol. 26.
1863. PASCOE, F. P.-On the ( olydiidaw of thle A niazon V~alley. 110. 8, pp. 97-98, pl. 5, fig. 6.
1863. PASCOE, F. P.-On the ('olydiidaw collect ed iti lie Indlian Islands by NMr. A It.
Wallace. 1869. GEMMINGER, M.7 ET DE HJAROLD, 13.-( atalogus (oleopi eroruin, vol. 6 p
1874. TOURNIER, 11 .-Tableau syfloptique des espekes Europe('nnes (di genre Lyctus.
Deutschlands. Coleoptera, vol. 5, pp. 11-18.
1878. REITTER, EDM.-Beitrag zur Kenntniss der 1,yctidve.KVerh. K. K. zool.- bot.
Ges. in Wien, vol. 28, pp. 19.5-199.
1883. DUGkS, E.-Metamorphoses diu Lyct us pit ficollis Lec. 1883. LE CONTE, J. L., and HORN, G. 1.-Classification of the ('oleoptera of North
America, p. 229. 1884. CASEY, T. L.-Contributions to the descriptive and systematic colcopterology
of North America, pt. 2, p. 175.
1885. REITTE R, EDM .-Bestimmungs-Tabellen der europiiischen Colopteren, vol. 1,
pp. 98-100.
1885. BLACKBURN, T.-Memoirs on the Coleoptera of the Hawaiian Islands. 1890. CASEY, T. L.-Coleopterological Notices II. pp. 324, 325, and appendix, pp. 495--497.
1891. CASEY, T. L.-Coleopterological Notices III. pp. 12-16.
1894. SHARP, D.-Biologia Centrali-Americana. Coleoptera, vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 464, pl.
14, fig. 25.
1894. WATERHOUSE, C. 0.-Coleoptera. New species and notes. list., ser. 6, vol. 14, p. 68.
1896. LESNE, P.-Revision des cole'opte'res de la famille des bostrychides . Soc. Ent. France, vol. 65, pp. 95-127. 1897. LESNE, P.-Ibid., vol. 66, pp. 319-350. 1898. LESNE, P.-Ibid., vol. 67, pp. 438-621. 1898. SEIDLITZ, GE ORG .-Nachtrdge und IBerichtigungen zur Familie Anobiadaex
Hdlfte, pp. 801-812.
1899. EVERTS, J. E.-Coleoptera, Neerlandica, vol. 1, pt. 2, pp. 564-566. 1901. KOLB E, H. J .-Vergleichend-morphologische LUntersuchungen an Koleopteren
nebst Grundlagen zu einem System und zur Systematik derselben. f fr Naturgeschichte, vol. 67, pp. 89-150.
1903. GANGLBAUER, C. L.-Sstematisch-koleopterologische Studien. 11 Grundztige
eines neuen Systemes 4cr Koleopteren.K.Niinchener koleopteroloogische
Zeitschrift, Vol. 1, pp. 271-319.
1904. ARROW, G. J.-Note on two species of Coleoptera introduced into Europe.
1906. REITTER, EU~M. (joint author).-Catalogus Coleopterorum Europ.9, p. 423.


By A. 1). HOPKINs,
In charge of Forest Insect Inrestigations.

So far as known, the species of the family Iyctide live in dead and dry wood of natural growth, in the seasoned sapwood of commercial products, and in the pith of vines and the dried roots of herbaceous plants, but do not infest the wood of coniferous trees.
Some of the species appear to prefer the dead and dry wood of standing trees, shrubs, and vines under natural conditions, and therefore are rarely found in the commercial articles; for this reason they are not subject to temporary or permanent removal from the natural range of the species. The other species, which infest commercial products, are subject to wide distribution over the world.
The following notes relate to species represented in the collections of the United States National Museum and United States Departniment of Agriculture, the habits of which have been observed by the writer or recorded in connection with the specimens.

DivIsIo I.
Si:c oN al.
L. im pressus ('omolli.- -This species has been found in an umbrella handle, in which it was evidently introduced into Mississippi.

L. puncttatus (1,e ('onte). Ia)its not recorded.
This portion of the paper was prepared some months after Mr. Kraus submitted his maiiuscript and includes data on additional specimens.
The primary and sermondary divisions, sections, and( genus are included under habitM and d(list ribut ion in order to aid in the comparison of facts concerning allied groups and species.


Subsection b .
Series ( 1.

L. californicus Casey.-Recorded as breeding in adobe wall.
L. prxustus Erichson.-HIabits not recorded.
Series c2.

L. parallelopipedus (Melsheimer).-Extensive olb)servations have been made on the habits of this species. It infests the seasoned sapwood of commercial products made from persinnon, hickory, ash, oak, and bamboo; it also lives in the dead wood or natural growth of osage orange, sassafras, and fig.
L. curtulus Casey.-Common in dead wood or natural growth of mesquite, Parkinsonia, mimosa, hackberry, cotton stems, and fig.


L. politus Kraus.-Found in dried licorice roots.
L. brunneus (Stephens).-In seasoned wood and dried herbaceous roots.
L. pubescens Panzer.-Habits not recorded in connection with specimen.
Subsection bl.

L. opaculus Le Conte.-In pith of dead grapevines.
Subsection b2.
L. suturalis Faldermann.-Ilabits not recorded.
L. cavicollis Le Conte.-In commercial products, seasoned orange wood and hickory, tanbark oak, and cordwood of live oak.
L. cinerius Blanchard.-Habits not recorded.
L. planicollis Le Conte.-Extensive observations have been made on the habits of this species. It is common in commercial products of seasoned ash, oak, hickory, persimmon, and sycamore. Rearing records show that it may breed continually in the same wood during a period of at least six years, or until all the wood tissue has been converted into powder.
L. carbonarius Waltl.-In seasoned oak and bamboo, in natural growth and in commercial products.
L. parmlus Casey.-In dead and dry wood of locust (Robinia neomexicana), according to Schwarz.


(d): ei-vation.s have been made on the of this It is coin'inon iii commercial products of
C (I; walnut, Illid 11 11, .1111d o(
11-4)1led hickory ().1k, 'Cas,0111-illy in poplar
Nvild cherry, and lmti:- t- It is iiot rvcm-de(l froin natural grONN-th in this cotllltllv but i--- ,tid to iiifest such 11Q Well as commercial PrOducts, in Europe.

THE G"ENT-S jy(,,rroxyi,()x.
j(1powill, Reitter.
L. -Follild ill Nvalkill r stick froni Jzipaii and in
conmici-cial, ai-ticles inadc fi-om baniboo ill Chilla.

AL 1,11(ficollis (Walker).-Unbits iiot recouped in speciiiiens ill the national collection.
JL stichotlivix (Reitter).-Ilabits not recorded.
The (list ribution of the species of the fainily Lyctidtv preseiitv some interestino- features especialIv M r(W(li'd to the natural habitat and the temporary allot permanent. introductions.
vie jiflbit.s of some of the species ivitich Hife,,,,t commercial products 11111[ke it Imssible for theiii to be Avidely distril)uted olitside, of flier iiaturill r(IjigO, but it, does not iiecessarily folloNv HIM a species ilitroducled to [Iiiotlt(,r country iii coniiiiercial, products will becoine establislied ill its Ilew (111 Therefore ive fiWd nizin.v records Ill
litentlure (d, loc(dities, lu which specilliells of .1 -,,pecics have beeii collectedy soiiie: of wfilch evidei-itly represent accidental or temporary iliti-whictimis. 'Soille ooller records jila v I )(, lield in doubt zw4 to periiiinent introduction uw1l tit(, v are vel.1fled h v ohservzltiolis Nvjlicll Wolild illdictate that tjle loc,111tiec', nre (Ither Nvithin flic, iiatural, range of tile ',p('cI(-, or 111,1t the species llls hecmile established.
It Ipp"m, that the lll()',t reli'lMe (rilide to the lintund distribititiou of tfic ,peclics is, their Imbil of livilig III nilt,111-1 I Itl
I I gr )NN It 'al
1111(jef- 1111,turd cmidition's of eximsure to clilliziltic 11111111clices -it till
of, ille vear.
Ill, :11 "tudv 4d ih( record,, iept-(,,,viit(,d b\1 ,pvcljnells in the
(.01lectM il n lid (d, 01c. vvidelld v autliciltic ill litel.,1011-e, it
I Id )p ;w ,11. 1h ;11 Ilw ill-, 1)1 1 1
0 In ilioll (d, 1he specie-, ()I* the v L vcG l,[ ill 1lW c(1111111clit 1,- 1)(1hVet'll J )m It ille pan-11I() I-t I 1 111 t I It t I I i rt W t I I I ("i"t (11,11 c( M t 'I 11clit

T1ii FAMILY I1. YCiIE. .133

and Australia, from about the fifty-fifthl parallel north to tlie fortietli parallel south. The genus Lqctus has Irnatially e ,,tlae range ,s the family; the genus Lyctoxylo it seems to h ave its natural distribtion in eastern India and Asia between thle twentieth i and( fortietlh parallels north; while in the genus Mfittu (h one species is from IRo(Irirguez Island and the Philippines, with a record(l from soutlerin Europe, and the other species is from Bogota, Colombia, South Ameria.
It appears that the center of (l istrib)utition of the greatest number of species of the family is between the twentieth and fortieth parallels north in both continents.
The available evidence would intdlicate that the natural distributions of the species studlie(d by the writer are approximately as follows:

L. impresses Comolli.-Northern Africa, southern Italy, Greece, Spain, and the Caucasus. Probably temporarily introduced into central Europe and southern North America.
Subject n iii.
L. punctatus (Le Conte).-Lower California.
,ubsection bI?.
Series el.
L. californicus Casey.-Lower California.
L. prwustus Erichson.-Peru and Brazil.
Series (2.
L. parallelopipedus (Melsheimer).-Florida, Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, District of Columbia. Long Island, N. Y., Ohio, and Missouri. The natural distributionll of the species is evidently in the South Atlantic and Gulf States, and( in part of the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, from which it has been temporarily introduced into other States.
L. curtulus Casev.-California, Arizona, TFexas, and Guatemala. This evidently represents its natural distribution. One record from Montana indicates temporary introduction, and a recor(l from the Sandwich Ian(ls may represent a permanent introduction.

L. )olit us Kra us .-Temporarilv introduced into the District of Columbia, probably from northern Spain or Italy, from which the commercial product of licorice is exported.
L. bru nne u (Stephens) .-Paraguay, Brazil, Cuba, and Mexico. This evidently indicates the natural range of the species, from which it h ias probably been introduced and become established in Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia. It has been recorded from South Carolina, from Philadelphia, Pa,., and from Chicago, Ill., which probably represenut temporary introductions, although it is not at all improbable that it may become permanently established in the Gulf States, especially in Florida and Texas.
L. ptd*.w ccns Panzer.-R ecorded as common in southern and mid(Ile Europe, which may be its ~atural distribution.

Subsction 1)1.
L. opaculus Le Conte.-MNichig,)an, Iowa, Nebraska, Ohio, Long Island and Staten Island, N. Y., District of Columbia, andl North Carolina. This probably represents the natural distribution, andl since the species lives in natural growth it is not likely to be distribuited out of its natural range.

L. ,oitarais Falderniain.-Caucasus, southern Ruissia.
L. ca riwoi, Le C'(on te.-C -(alifornia, several localities, wthi (loubtfuil record from Oregron.

L. pla'i ;colfi Le ('onte.-Arizona, Nevadla, Texas, and thie Gulf alldl Sonth Atlantic States. Thlis range probably represents thle naturul (list ribution of the species, but it is frequently intro(luced tempIorarily into the Northiern and11(lidle States zand evidently into other cou1ntries, since there is a (lelillite recor-d fromi Capetown, South Africa, in lumbeor froni the southern iT iited St ales. This species is eWvi(lntlV d erive(l from one or more subtropical forms, of whiich L. Octbi vjolt s is a1 representatives.
1L. c(1140fl4Hus Wa'tlt1.- Mexico and Florida. "Ihis spec-ies is cvi(let l (iftinct from L. plainicolis, as inldicate(1 byv a large( series not 4(IPserve(Id by Mr.1 lrals, A0hich had beenIl revared by MrII. I. G. HubImnl frontl NNViIter-k~lleci 1)U11 )111)( IIO'kka. ThCt SlWCl~i~Is fi-onI HFli-IU 11tld Mvxico a1rv readiiv lstiluihy ri averager( ,jwedOf pil iiols byV Iileiril OFCt h'v(lIliSI (o00 bit otherwise agree


with characters mentioned by Mr. Kraus. It is probable that there is some overlapping of the ranges of these two allied species in Florida and from Tex as to California, and that in such localities occasional specimens will be found which occui)y an intermediate position.
L. parvulus Casey.- Arizona, C "alifornia, an( Itah. This evidently indicates the natural distribution of the species.

DivisioN 1I.

L. linewaris (Goeze).-This species is recorded in literature as extending over Europe, and especially England, France, and Germany, where it lives in natural growth, cordwood, etc. This evidently represents its natural habitat, from which it has been introduced in commercial wood products to many other countries of the world, but it would appear from observations and records in the United States that it becomes permanently established only in those countries with climates similar to that of central and northern Europe. The species appears to be permanently established in the States north of North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas. There are a great many records from this area, including Maine, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, and Minnesota. The specimens in the national collection show but a single record from the South Atlantic and Gulf States, and that is evidently a temporary introduction. Undoubtedly the species is frequently carried into the southern region, but evidently does not survive there.


L. japonum Reitter.-Japan, China, and India. This probably represents the natural range of the species, from which it has been introduced into Europe, America, and other countries, possibly becoming established in those with climatic conditions similar to that of its original habitat. The recorded introductions into the United States are from China into California and Massachusetts, and probably from Japan into New Jersey.

M. rugicollis (Walker).-Philippine Islands, Siam, China, Ceylon, and the Malay Archipelago. This probably represents the natural habitat, from which it may have been introduced into Europe, the West Indies, and the Hawaiian Islands.
M. stichothrix (Reitter).-Bogota, Colombia, South America.



Mvii, ii T.
(Troqw.lbja .

Comolli. Secti,,ii it2.

-Zec I I
Serie, c I.

Ser-'e:, ('2.
portilb Iop I'l)(4, is Melsheimer.

1'0 Colite.


I)i\ I-Pol If.

Genus LYCTOXYLON Reitter.

Genus XINTHEA Pascoe.


Genus LYCTUS Fabricius.

sequalis Wol last on. S. Jago. africanus Lesne. Africa. brunneus, (Xylotrogus) Step-heins. LoAglamIl ; A11 'ti ;JiPai;laragtiay;llraii ;
Cuba; Mexico; Philadelphiia,lPa.
caroling Casey. South 11 arolina.
colydioides IDejean. Fran (--.
glycyrrhiza? Fhevrolat.
parasiticus Stephen.
rugulosus Montrouzier. Wood lark Isl ai ds (near A Ii ral ia). californicus, Casey. Lower California. carbonarius WNalt 1. M\exico; iFlorida. caucasicus Tournier. Caucasus (Russia). cavicollis Le Conte. California; Mlissouri; ()regoai, cinereus Blanchard. Chile. cornifrons Lesne. Obock, Africa (Rted Sea). costatus Blackburn. Australia. curtulus Casey. Arizona; California; Montana; Texas (..'uatemala; Sandwich
depressicatus WNhite. New Zealand. discedens Blackburn. Australia. disputans Walker. Ceylon. foericollis Reitter. Santo Domingo, West Indie,.4 griseus Gorham. Guatemala. hispidus Kiesenwetter.
.seric-hispidus Kiesenwetter. Japan.
impressus Comolli. Cordova, Mex.; ('orini h, Greece; Gall ia; Meridian, Miss.
var. capitalis Schauf. Algeria, Africa; Mallorca (Mediterranean).castaneus Perroud. Middle Europe.
glabiatus Villa. Lombard ia, Italy.
ixrei Galeazzi. Lombardia, Italy.
1 xripennis Faldermann. Caucasus; Greece. leococianus Wollast on. Mad eira. linearis Goeze. Canada; District of Columbia; Illinois; Iowa; JIndianla; Ma""ssachtisetts; Maine; Michigan; Minnesota; Alis.souri; New Yo)rk; Ohio; Pennsylvania; Texas; West Virginia; Virginia; Middle Europe.
var. axeliarius Melsheimer. Pennsylvania.
canaliculatus Fabricius. Larupa, South America (C-hile).
duftschmidti Des Grozes.
fuscus Seidlitz.
var. fuscus Melsheimer. P~ennsylIvan ia.
linearis Thunb erg.
var. nitidus Dahl. Ilunoaria, Austria.
oblongus (Dermestes) Olivier.
pubescens Duftschmid.
striatus Melsheimer. Pennsylvania.
unipunctatus (Derniestoidcs) Hlerbst. Austria? longicornis Reitter. Bogota, South America. nitidicofis IReitter. Bogota, Colombia; Chile.


obsetus Wollaston. S. Jago. opaculus Le Conte. District of Columbia; Iowa; Long Island; Michigan; North Carolina; Nebraska; Ohio; Pennsylvania; Texas; West Virginia. parallelocollis Blackburn. Australia parallelopipedus (Xylotrogus) Melsheimer. District of Columbia; Florida; Georgia; Louisiana; Missouri; Ohio; South Carolina; Texas; West Virginia; Virginia; New York.
parvulus Casey. Arizona; California; Utah. planicollis Le Conte. Arizona; California; Colorado; District of*Columbia; Florida; (Georgia; Illinois; Iowa; Mexico; Michigan; Minnesota; Missouri; Nevada; Ohio; Oregon; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas; Cape Town, Africa. politus Kraus. (Reared at Washington, D. C.) praeustus Ericnhson. Brazil; Peru. prostomoides Gorham. Guatemala; Panama. pubescens Panzer.
bicolor Comolli. Middle Europe.
caucasicus Tournier.
subarmatus Megerle. Austria.
punctatus (Trogoxylon) LeConte. Cape San Lucas and Santa Rosa, Lower California. punctipennis Fauvel. Caen; New Caledonia; Sumatra. recticolli (Trogoxylon) Reitter. La Plata. retractus Walker. Ceylon. simplex Reitter. Colombia. suturalis Fildermann. Caucasus.
deyrollci Tournier. Mingrelia (Russia). tomentosus Reitter. Mexico.

Genus LYCTOXYLON Reitter.

japonum Reitter. Hindostan; Europe; China; ('alifornia; Massachusetts; New Jersey; New York.
jalnophae Wollaston. San Antao.

Genus MINTHEA Pascoe.

rugicollis Walker. Philippine Islands.
Lyctopholis frricollis Reitter. Santo Domingo.
Eulachus hispitus Le Conie.
Ditoma rugicollis Walker. Rodrigues Is.; Missouri; Madagascar.
Minthea similata Pascoe. Styria Marhunaland, near Austria. stichothrix Reitter.
Lyetopholis stichothrix Reitter. Bogota (Colombia); Africa; South Germany;





Ift? i

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 09229 6184


Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EOORBRJ4N_SJEO98 INGEST_TIME 2014-08-14T18:42:00Z PACKAGE AA00022880_00002