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Bartow Public Library
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University of florida
Volume Number One
Pepper Pub. & Ptg. Co.
In presenting to the students, faculty and friends of the University, this, our first volume of the SEMINOLE, we trust you will keep in mind that as yet our Institution is quite young (a four-year-old); that as yet we are living in the early morn of what promises to be a bright and prosperous day; that as yet we are few in numbers and consequently, not free from financial embarrassment. Nevertheless, in this as in all undertakings, success is our goal and to this end we have worked. If we have failed, it is our misfortune and not our fault and the satisfaction of the undertaking still remains. But if, when you look through these pages either now or in later years, you derive some pleasure or benefit therefrom, then we will feel that our efforts have not been spent in vain.
Dedication. In grateful appreciation of those who have directed'
us through our college years, this book is inscribed to OUR FACULTY.
H. L. THOMPSON, J. C. MCMILLAN,
Editor-in-Chief Business Manager
E. C. CALHOUN, R. D. RADER, D. E. CAPPLEMAN,
Literary Editor Athletic Editor Class Editor
J. B. STEFFEE, C. C. SMALL, Roy HELMt,
Literary Editor Art Editor Editor Student Organizations
S. S. HOLDEN, L. P. HARDEE,
Editor of Classes Assistant Business Manager
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A. A. MURPHREE, A. M., LL.D., President of the University.
JAS. M. FARR, PHD., Vice President of the University, and Professor of English.
J. N. ANDERSON, PHD., Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, and Professor of Latin and Greek.
J. R. BENTON, PHD., Dean of the College of Engineering, and Professor of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
J. J. VERNON, M. S. AGR., Dean of the College of Agriculture and Professor of Agriculture.
A. J. FARRAH, A. M., LL.B.,
Ilean of the College of Law, and Professor .of Law.
E. R. FLINT, M. D., PH.D.,
Professor of Chemistry.
ENOCH MARVIN BANKS, PH.D., Professor of History and Economics.
H. S. DAvis, PH.D.,
Professor of Zoology and Geology.
H. G. KEPPEL, PH.D.,
Professor of Mathematics.
JOHN A. THACKSTON, PH.D.,
Professor of Philosophy and Education.
C. L. CROW, PH.D.,
Professor of Modern Languages.
CHAS. H. KICKLIGHTER, B. S.,
Professor of Mechanical Engineering.
W. L. FLOYD, M. S., Professor of Biology.
G. M. LYNCH, A. B.,
Professor 'of Secondary Education.
N, H. Cox, B. S.,
Professor of Civil Engineering.
HARRY R. TRUSLER, LL.B.,
Professor of Law.
MAJOR E. S. WALKER, U. S. A., RETIRED,
Commandant of Cadets; Professor of Military Science.
M. B. HADLEY, A. B., Instructor of Mathematics and Librarian.
F. T. WILSON, B. S. IN AGR. Instructor of. AgriCulture.
MRS. S. J. SWANSON,
G. E. PILE,
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The University of Florida.
A distinguished scholar in a recent speech referred to the University of Florida as the "baby" in the family of State Universities-"a robust infant whose remarkable growth gave promise of an early and splendid manhood." Another eifiinent writer has characterized it as the culmination of a movement begun in territorial days; the realization of an ideal framed by the pioneer settlers. Both conceptions are true. From one point of view, the University is the youngest among the state universities of America; from another, it is the final stage in a process of educational evolution, which has extended over three quarters of a century.
Even when Florida was a territory, her legislators dreamed of a great university, but it' was not till the early fifties that this dream began to materialize. TIhe first definite beginnings of higher education by the state were the founding of the East Florida Seminary at Gainesville, and the West Florida Seminary (afterwards the Florida State College), at Tallahassee. Through many years these institutions, begun in a modest manner, continued to flourish. Gradually they increased in equipment, faculty, number of students, and grade of work. In the eighties the Agricultural College was founded at Lake City. It grew rapidly and in 1903 was made the University of the state. A Normal School was established at DeFuniak Springs, and the South Florida College at Bartow. All these institutions sent out many graduates who have taken a leading part in the development of the state. This group of schools constituted the system of higher education maintained by Flprida prior to 1905.
In that year the State Legislature passed an act, usually spoken of as the "Buckman Act," which thoroughly revised this condition. The necessity for this revision was forcibly brought to the attention of the Legislators by the financial demands of the various institutions. The measure resulted not so much from a criticism of the individual schools, all of which were in a prosperous condition and ambitious for further development, as from the fact that the foundation and growth of each had been independent of the others. Looked upon as a whole, they did not represent a single, unified system of education. The expense of maintaining a plant and teaching force for each was great. In some instances they were rivals in the same field of activity; in others, they were competing with the High School system. The Legislators, therefore, determined that these scattered and heterogeneous energies could be more economically and wisely expended if they were concentrated and properly co-ordinated. They enacted the law of 1905, the central idea of which is the merging of the former institutions into a single endeavor and the placing of this under one management, "the Board of Control." As a result, the State has today two institutions, co-ordinated in their work, but fully differentiated by the sex of their students: the University of Florida at
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Gainesville and the Florida State College for Women at Tallahasssee. These, in turn, form a system of higher education clearly distinct from the province of the High School system; and in the near future the two systems will be thoroughly articulated with each other. The educational system of Florida has emerged from a state of heterogeneous, extravagant, and unsatisfactory confusion to one of homogeneous, economical and satisfactory order.
Thus arose the University of Florida. It is a continuation of the former schools and looks upon their histories and their graduates as a part of itself; it is a new birth, rising phoenix-like from the ashes of the older schools, founded in the wisdom gained from past experience and in the light of the most advanced ideas and ideals of what a state university should be-a lusty infant which with its twin sister at Tallahassee, saw the light in the year 1905.
When compared with the largest and the richest of the state universities, its student body may be small, its equipment meager, its resources slender; but the University of Florida has no apologies to make for the manner of its founding, nor for the progess it has made in the five years of its life. Its foundations were laid on the solid bed-rock of honest educational ideals and its future development is merely a matter of time. It has no desire. to appear more than it is-a comparatively small school, doing efficient and honest work in its field. Like the map of its campus, the plan of organization is laid out with a view to expansion. The University is divided into four colleges: the College of Arts and Sciences; the College of Agriculture; the College of Engineering; and the College of Law. These colleges require an equivalent of the eleventh grade of the High Schools for entrance and give full four year courses for graduation with the degree of Bachelor of Arts or Science. The university demesne is located at the western extremity of the progressive and beautiful town of Gainesville. It is reached by a broad avenue of macadamized street and cement pavement, an extension of the principal thoroughfare of the town. Its more than five hundred acres of level, fertile land stretch out in splendid extent along this road. A large part of this property is utilized by the Agricultural Experiment Station and is under cultivation. The ninety acres adjacent to the town are devoted to the Campus.
The Campus itself has a wide.driveway running from its eastern to its western extremity. It is covered with pines which. cluster together in stately profusion and picturesque growth. Rows of hardwood trees have been planted, and in the course of a few years will furnish abundant shade. At the western end lie the athletic fields, and the tennis courts-spacious, level, and well clayed. Next come the group of buildings which have so far been erected. Then follows an unbroken stretch of level pine land, where those who love the institution can already see the various buildings which the future years will bring to complete the magnificent scheme of development outlined by the managing board.
The present buildings, five in number, form a pleasing architectural group. The Main Building, containing administrative offices, dining hall, library, chapel, 21
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and lecture rooms,. is a long structure extending three hundred feet and rising three stories. Parallel with it lies the Dormitory, a twin building slightly shorter. A little to the east and north stands Science Hall. To the south of these, near to the gardens, lies Agricultural Experiment Station Building. These four, with their tiled roofs, their red brick walls, their cement facings and battlements in the Early Tudor style, form a harmonious, dignified and appropriate group. Already they are being overgrown with ivy and are surrounded with plots of grass and connected by cement walks.
Though new, the Campus is fast acquiring the appearance suitable for a seat of learning. The natural advantages are being utilized and the dignified repose of the buildings thoroughly harmonizes with their surroundings. In a few years it will present one of the most attractive scenes in a state of beautiful scenery. And, though new, it is rapidly creating for itself an intellectual atmosphere and a tradition which will make it the pride of the Commonwealth.
P. H. ROLFS, M. S.,
Director of the Experiment Station,
B. F. FLOYD, A. M., Plant Physiologist.
JOHN M. SCOTT, B. S.,
Animal Industrialist and Assistant Director.
JOHN BELLING, B. S.
Assistant Botanist and Editor.
S. E. COLLISON, M. S.
K. H. GRAHAM,
Auditor and Bookkeeper.
A. W. BLAIR, A. M.,
MRS. E. W. BERGER,
E. W. BERGER, PH.D., Entomologist.
Miss BERTHA EVES, Secretary.
H. S. FAWCETT, M. S.,
C. K. MCQUARRIE, Farmers' Institutes.
Agricultural Experiment Station.
To state it briefly and in one sentence-the object of the Experiment Station is to acquire and to diffuse useful agricultural knowledge. This is the ideal toward which every earnest member of the staff is working. The first question to be considered when a problem is submitted is whether it will add to the fund of knowledge, and then the second, will it be to the farmer or horticulturist? These two questions must be answered in the affirmative so definitely that there can be no doubt in the mind of a reasonable person.
The Congressional Act establishing the Experiment Stations further states that this useful knowledge shall be disseminated through the means of printed bulletins and annual reports.
The aims and objects of the Experiment Stations are thus very definite. The methods for accomplishing them are left to the staff. The efficiency of the staff, therefore, determines the efficiency of the Experiment Stations. In the best institutions of this kind the individual members of the staff are experts in their particular line and know the facts connected with their particular work better than anyone else.
WHAT Is AN EXPERIMENT?
The question as to what is an experiment is quite generally misunderstood. It is not uncommon for a demonstration to be called an experiment. In iact it is quite usual to use the term experiment in the laboratories of instructional institutions to designate what is called a demonstration in an investigational one.' The Experiment Station being an investigational institution restricts the meaning of experiment to those operations that have for their object the acquiring of unknown truths. The general laws and regulations define the term experiment so clearly that there need be no doubt as to what is meant.
The Congressional Act of 1887 established an Experiment Station in every State and Territory in the Union. This step led to the simultaneous founding of about fifty Experiment Stations in the United States, calling for not less than five hundred trained workers. Under the conditions it was found that the workers were not in the country, but had to be trained. After about twenty years of work, it was found that a fairly competent corps of Experiment Station workers had been trained for the work. Much time and money was lost in hiring efficient and untrained men to do the work of specialists.
We now have in the United States a larger number of well organized Experiment Stations and a larger number of scientifically trained agricultural experts than are found anywhere else in the world. Many of the European countries still are immeasurably ahead of us in the number of Experiment Stations
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in proportion to their population and area, and from these we can learn much that is of advantage to us.
WHAT THE EXPERIMENT STATION HAS DONE.
The Experiment Station has now published 102 bulletins, 140 press bulletins and 22 annual reports. The bulletins each represent a thesis on some particular line of work. The law requires that at least four shall be published annually; we have usually published more than this number. The press bulletins present in brief, concise words some phase of special lines of work, especially those results of our recent investigations that have a special bearing on the agricultural operations of the particular time of the year; as for instance the discovery of a new fungus parasitic on the whitefly, the results of feeding velvet beans to dairy cows, the use of crushed limestone to correct'acidity of the soil. These press bulletins are especially prepared for the newspapers of the State and sent to them only. The annual reports summarize the work done by the institution as a whole, and by the different departments individually.
In addition to the matter published by the institution, the individual workers have furnished many articles to various agricultural papers. The various members of the staff have many importunities to address agricultural and horticultural meetings. These requests are granted so far as it is possible without impairing the investigational work in hand.
In so large a State as Florida, and one which the agricultural industry is so varied, it is impossible to grow all the crops under natural conditions at the central Station. Since we can not bring the crops to us we must go to the crops. Experiments on pineapples to give us reliable results must be conducted under natural conditions in a region where this crop is grown. We have been conducting experiments continuously for eight years on one set of pineapple plots at Jensen. The results have been published in a series of six bulletins. We are now carrying on a set of citrus fertilizer experiments that will not be complete until 1918. From time to time, as valuable results are obtained, bulletins on this work will be published. This keeps the citrus-grower fully informed as to the progress of our knowledge.
These co-operative experiments are of mutual advantage to the Experiment Station and to the men who co-operate with us. We get the advantage of having the work done by 'a thoroughly practical grower, and the grower gets a thoroughly scientific understanding of the problem. The cost of such experiments is borne about equally by the Experiment Station and the co-operator. The number of co-operative experiments that we can carry on varies from year to year, but usually runs from about ten to fifteen.
LINES OF INVESTIGATION.
The number of projects in hand varies from year to year. As some are completed new ones are begun. These projects naturally fall into various departments; as Horticulture, including plant breeding, plant introduction, propagation, etc.; Animal Industry, including the study of feed crops, the effect of feeding certain crops to cattle and hogs, and the growing of feed and forage crops; Agronomy, including the breeding of cotton, corn, and other farm crops; Plant-Pathology, including the study of plant diseases produced by fungi and bacteria; Plant Physiology, including the study of plants as affected by fertilizer and soil conditions; Chemistry, including the study of fertilizers and soils, especially as to the effect on plants; Entomology, including the study of insecticides, insects, and their parasites.
In spite of the fact that the work of the staff has been greatly hampered by the want of suitable laboratory facilities, and for many years by the lack of suitable agricultural lands, many most valuable *results have been attained. We are now in possession of an excellent farm. for our work, and the laboratories are approaching completion. Within another year we expect to have such surroundings as are enjoyed by most of the less populous States of the Union.
In Experiment Station work it is necessary to make long-continued and painstaking efforts to accomplish good results. New .facts are accumulated only by long research, but in time these have a profound influence for the good of the commonwealth to which they relate. Florida is isolated geographically, and has a peculiar soil and climate. We must, therefore, work out our problems for ourselves. Some of the results obtained may be summarized as follows:1. The most definite and accurate information to be had anywhere on the production of pineapples.
2. Exactly how many pounds of Florida-grown feed is required to produce a gallon of milk or a pound of beef.
'3. The varieties of corn best adapted to certain localities.
4. Improvement in the varieties of long-staple cotton.
5. Causes and treatment of destructive diseases of citrus fruits.
6. Discovery of natural enemies of the citrus scales and whitefly.
7. Introduction or distribution of the velvet bean, the Lron bean, and other valuable legumes.
8. Introduction and testing of Natal and other valuable grasses.
9. Introduction and testing of thousands of varieties of new or little-known useful plants.
10. Distribution of over 750,000 pieces of agricultural literature.
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P. H. Rolfs, M. S., Director. John M. Scott, B..S., Animal Industrial and Assistant Director. A. W. Blair, A. M., Chemist. E. W. Berger, Ph. D., Entbmologist. H. S. Fawcett, M. S., Plant Pathologist. B. F. Floyd, A. M., Plant Physiologist. John Belling, B..S., Assistant Botanist and Editor. S. E. Collison, M. S., Assistant Chemist. John Schnabel, Assistant Horticuturist. Mrs. E. W. Berger, Librarian. Bertha Eves, Secretary. K. H. Graham, Auditor and Bookkeeper. M. Crews, Farm Foreman. O. F. Burger, A. B., Laboratory Assistant to Plant Pathologist B. B. Ezell, B. S., Laboratory Assistant to Plant Physiologist. A. B. Massey, B. S., Laboratory Assistant to Entomologist.
Problems of the Experiment Station.
BY JOHN BELLING, B. S. (Univ. of London.)
In old times every man was his own experimenter, and usually paid for each piece of knowledge he gained with the loss of one or more crops. Thousands of isolated growers had to work out their own salvation alone. They were sometimes led astray through lack of proper training in experimentation; and without experiments little certain knowledge can be had. What experiments they could try could only be done at odd times. When they had gained some valuable new knowledge they had no means of imparting it, except to a few of their neighbors, and it often died with them. Now, it is the duty of the Experiment Station to discover and disseminate as much valuable new knowledge as possible. Its trained staff sacrifices plants, trees, crops, and animals to gain new knowledge which will mean dollars (often many dollars) to the community as well as to the individual grower. Few things yield so large a money return to the State as do new and useful discoveries. We are living in an age of discovery, and the advance of our civilization, which we regard with pride, is due to discovery.
The discovery of new and useful facts with regard to soils and fertilizers in their relation to growing crops, has for many years been the foundation of improvements in agricultural practice and a potent means of increasing the wealth of the world. On account of the peculiar soil and need of fertilizers in Florida, new knowledge in this direction is of no inconsiderable money value to the State. There are in Florida some important cultures which have not yet been thoroughly studied with regard to soil and fertilizer in any other part of the United States, or of the World. Such are pineapples and citrus fruits. The Florida station has just finished a long series of researches on the soil and fertilizer needs of pineapples, which is without a parallel in other pineapple-growing country. Thus a foundation has been laid for such knowledge of the needs of the pineapple plant, as will effect every possible saving in the growing of this valuable fruit. Work is now progressing with a research into the soil and fertilizer needs of citrus fruits, with the aim of gaining new knowledge which will save as much money as possible to those who supply the market with oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, lemons, etc.
Our best crops are usually the products of long ages of cultivation. The most valuable of our plants have been distributed primarily from the seats of ancient civilizations, such as Mexico, Peru, China and Japan, India, and the Mediterranean countries. The majority of the best crops cultivated in the United States were first brought from foreign countries and afterwards improved by selection.
It is of importance that some one in Florida should try thoroughly all the products of subtropical and tropical countries which show any likelihood of yielding paying returns. Hence one duty of the experiment station is to test new agricultural and horticultural plants from foreign lands. The explorers of the federal Department of Agriculture in all parts of the World are continually sending in promising seeds or roots, and citizens of Florida often introduce new plants. Those which are considered to show possibilities of beirg profitable in Florida are tested on the grounds of the experiment station; first on a small scale, and if satisfactory, in larger plots or fields. It is unnecessary to point out the value to the State of the discovery of new and paying kinds of forage or hay plants, clover crops, fruits, or vegetables.
Breeding is one line of agricultural work which shows great activity in discovery just now. Within the last few years some most striking discoveries have been made in this line-discoveries which are as yet so new that we can hardly estimate their full importance. Research in breeding is in full swing, and more valuable discoveries can confidently be anticipated. Corn is an important crop in Florida. Although some northern States have been exceedingly active in developing varieties of corn which will give the highest yields within their borders, there is still much to be done in our State in breeding varieties which will give the greatest yield in our cliftate. One of the important problems of the experiment station is that of increasing the yield per acre of varieties of corn suited to Florida. Any slight increase in the yield, due to breeding, will total up to a large money value. The same is true with the Sea-Island cotton, both as to yield and length of staple. Improving the breed of cattle by the use of the proper thorough-bred sires, also is of immediate cash value to both producers and consumers of meat. These three, corn, cotton, and cattle, are at present the three chief breeding problems of the experiment station.
Every town has its medical men who care for the health of its inhabitants. The State has competent veterinarians to cure horses, cattle, and other domestic animals. But there are, as yet, no plant-doctors anywhere. The experiment station supplies their places, giving medical treatment to diseased fields or groves; whether the disease is due to insect parasites, fungi, bacteria, or is owing to soil or fertilizer, etc. Since most of these diseases are new, they require research and discovery before a cure can be found. Hence, three great problems before the Florida experiment station are: diseases due to insects, especially the whitefly of citrus trees; diseases due to fungi or bacteria, especially diseases of citrus trees; and diseases due to soil, fertilizer, etc. (physiological troubles), especially with regard to the important citrus crop.
Many problems of cattle-feeding in our State are still waiting solution. Since, on account of our peculiar soil and climate, the experience of other States 35
is often unavailable to us, the solution of these problems is attended with an immediate financial return to the farmers and people of Florida. First among these points is the accurate determination of the feeding value of Florida-grown feeds, both for steers and for dairy cows. When this has been completely determined our stock-raisers and dairymen will be able to effect many economies in their feed; and, with proper balanced home-grown rations, produce meat and milk at a lower cost and with a greater profit. The thorough testing of promising new forage and hay plants with regard to their relative cost and efficiency in maintaining stock, forms an important piece of research. Accurate knowledge on this point is of direct money value, and the Florida experiment station is often the only place in the United States where such accurate new knowledge can be gained.
E. TERRELL BARCO. Tampa, Florida.
Bachelor of Arts.
Captain Company "A."; Yocum Literary Society; Krook Klub; I Tappa Keg.
DANIEL E. CAPPLEMAN, Ocala, Fla.
Bachelor of Arts.
1st Lieutenant and Battalion Adjutant; Class secretary-treasurer, 1908 1909; Class vice-president, 1909-1910; Class Editor Seminole; Yocum Literary Society; I Tappa Keg.
EUGENE C., CALHOUN, Perry, Fla.
Bachelor of Laws.
Entered 1909 from Stetson University;
Member John Marshall Debating Society; Literary Editor Seminole.
OSSIAN W. DRANE, Lakeland, Fla.
Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering.
Captain Company "A" (resigned); Class Vice-President, 1907-1908; SecretaryTreasurer Y. M. C. A., 1907-1908; President Senior Class, 1910 (resigned); Winner Sophomore Declamation Medal, 1908; Tennis Club; President Y. M. C. A., 1910.
LINUS P. HARDEE, Chiefland, Fla..
Bachelor of Laws.
Entered 1909 from Stetson University;
Member John Marshall Debating Society;
Assistant Business Manager Seminole.
Roy HELM, B. A. Bowling Green, Ky.
Bachelor of Arts.
B. A. Kentucky .State Normal School, 1906-7; Vice-Principal DeFuniak High School, 1907-8; Vice-Principal Bradentown High School, 1908-9; Entered Senior Class University of Florida 1909; Editor Student Organization's Semintole.
SAMUEL S. HOLDEN, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Bachelor of Science.
Entered 1909-10 from Brooklyn Polytechnic
Institute; Assistant in Physics and Chemistry; Editor of Classes' Seminole; Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity.
JAMES C. MCMILLAN, Milton, Fla.
Bachelor of Science.
Captain Company "B"; Business Manager Florida Pennant; Business Manager Seminole; Member Board of Managers from the Senior Class, 1909-1-0; Krook Klub; Varsity Football Team, 1907-09,
ARTHUR R. PINKERTON, St. Paul, Minn.
Bachelor of Laws.
Entered 1909-10 from St. Paul College of Law; Member John Marshall Debating Society; I Tappa Keg.
PUBLIC LIBRARY BARTOW, FLORIDA
RALPH D. RADER, Miami, Fla. Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering.
Major Battallion, 1909-10; Assistant Officer in Charge 1909-10; President Y. M. C. A., 1908-9; Winner Junior Oratorical Medal, 1909; Varsity Football Team, 1906-1909; Captain Football Squad, 190910; President Senior Class, 1909-10; President Atheletic Association, 1909-10; Athletic Editor Seminole; President Transit Club; Alpha Tau Omega Fraternity.
CARLETON C. SMALL, Lake City Fla.
Bachelor of Laws.
Entered from Stetson University 1909; Attorney General John Marshall Debating Society, first term; President John Marshall Debating Society second term; Art
J. BEAUCHAMP STEFFEE, Kissimmee, Fla.
Bachelor of Science.
First Lieutenant Company "A."; Literary Editor Seminole; German Club.
HARRY L. THOMPSON, Pensacola, Fla. Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering.
First Lieutenant and Battalion Quartermaster; President Junior Ball, 1909; President Junior Class, 1908-09; Secre.tary-Treasurer Senior Class; Editor-inchief Florida Pennant; Editor-in-chief Seminole ; German Club; Transit Club; Alpha Tau Omega Fraternity; Secretary to the President.
Science teaches us that all higher forms of life have evolved from some lower forms, and in accordance with this natural law, has the dignified senior of '10 evolved from the verdant freshman of '06. When we stop and look over our record of the past several years, we are confronted with the question: "What have we accomplished?" We shall leave that for others to answer, but as a mere matter of record we here briefly outline the record of ours, the banner class, of Florida.
Time and space forbid even a hasty summary of the "joys and sorrows" of our four years of "college life." Let it suffice to say that in any and all contests, be the nature of which as it may, we "have been there." There are not, and never have been, very many large men in our class, but we have alvxays been well represented on the athletic field. Several of our classmates have won. the coveted "F" in both baseball and football, and it was one of our number who this year so victoriously led the 'varsity squad against her State rivals.
But instead of tabulating our various achievements, it might be better to mention that members of our senior class have held every possible office from that of officer in charge, through the various academic and athletic departments, to the dizzy heights of wonderland where, with beaming countenance and majestic air, sits in a halo of glory-our "Faculty Nurse."
Rapidly descending from the realms of bliss we are again in position to view worldly things; and, since it is of next importance, naturally our military career would flash into our minds. A glance at our parade grounds on Wednesday afternoons will show that among the corps of officers might be noticed from the class of '10 one major, two captains, one first lieutenant, one adjutant, and one quartermaster,-all of which goes to show that we are as proficient in military tactics as in other branches of University work.
Because of ill health, we have reluctantly been separated from some member of our class during each of our several years of college work. Yet, from time to time, new students have entered, and even in this, our senior year, we right gladly received three new classmates from as many well-known institutions.
Realizing the truthfulness of the saying that "United we stand, divided we fall," we have remained steadfast in our purpose; and having, by dint of grim tenacity, paved the way to the final goal with honors to the members of our class, we feel that we are drawing the year to a fitting close.
In short, we feel that we, with some little help from the faculty, have so well lived up to the "ideal" that each and every one of us should be proud to herald the name of the institution, a vital part of which he is.
And now as we are about to take leave of dear "Old Florida," may we always look with the greatest pride upon the days we spent at our Alma Mater. However, we must not forget that Commencement Day is to us but the introduction to the beginning of life's struggle. It is now up to us to take advantage of our great opportunities. Let them not slip from our grasp, and when the tocsin is sounded at the end of our college course, may it be the signal for us to strive onward, ever onward, to nobler and better things, and for the development of our beloved State and country.
The Senior Law Class.
The law class of 1910 has the proud distinctiori of being the first class graduating from the college of law of the University of Florida. It has only the history of one short eventful year to review. In the beginning of the year it was composed of six members. However, one of its number, Mr. C. H. Maguire, a former student of the University of Georgia, early in his course "committed matrimony" and, remembering that "law is a jealous mistress," peacefully avoided strife by devoting his time and attention to other subjects. Mr. H. S. Glazier was also unable to continue his work.
All of our members were drawn from other law schools, but upon entering this school, we realized that, although in its infancy, its foundation and prospects were such that in a very few years it would rank among the leading law schools of the South. We congratulate our worthy successors of the Junior Law Class, who will go forward over the trail that we have blazed for them.
As the spider spins its web with tireless energy, so the Law Class of 1910 has striven to spin out the principles of law in all their intricacies and refinements. We have learned that we, as lawyers, are properly conservators of the peace, not instigators of strife. Instead of allowing our fellows to become entangled in the meshes of litigation, we should strive to prevehtt it; and if, unfortunately, they enter, we should seek to disentangle them-for a Iconsideration.
Now, the Senior Class desire to hand the Law Class of 1911 some token of appreciation and remembrance. We remember thei 'heated legal arguments in the John Marshall Debating Society, and feel we could leave them no gift more valuable than the decisions rendered in the aforesaid society by Judges Linus P. Hardee, Eugene C. Calhoun, Arthur R. Pinkerton and Chief Justice Cassius C. Small. These illuminous expositions of the law, re hereby devise and bequeath to them.
We have learned that when a man enters the legal profession, he leaves the line of those who toil merely for a daily wage; he steps out from the ranks of those whose sole ambition in life is fortune, name and fame; he becomes a member of that small class of men whose lives are devoted to the glorious tasks of peace-making and the betterment of their fellowmen.
These are high ideals. But we shall cherish our enthusiasms, resolved that if tarnished they must become, it will be, never by the milldew of pessimism, but by the blasts of experience.
We have learned much in our year's work beyond the technicalities of the law. The roots of the law ramify every phase of life. It is not only law, but life that we have learned; and in looking backward over our college days we can reimember them without regret, other than that they can never more return; for,
We spent them not in toys, or lusts, or wine;
But search of deep Philosophy,
Wit, eloquence, and poesy:
Arts which I loved, for they, my friends, were thine.
Florida-the far away land of many childish dreams; the happy reality of beauty-loving men and women; curtained and condoned by the feathery, rustling palms and soft-hued flowers, and perfumed by the sweetest odors, wafted through jungles of roses on the winging breezes. I love to sail on her waters, as pure as those cleaved by the fountain-loving nymphs of old, with a foam, a floatsam, as mystic as that from which the beautiful goddess rose; I love to linger along some lover's lane of towering pines, and listen to the sweet strains of the wooing nightingale across the way, and hear the eternal melody of the rippling waters near by; I love to wander along the golden, sands of her seashore, and hear the waves rumbling in from the islands of the sea. "Roll on, deep blue sea, and hold in your surging bosom the stories that never will be told." I love her rivers, whose shores are festooned with tropical trees and clinging mosses, as from the bowers of ferns and flowers the creamy lotus nods to their dimpling waves.
And in this land of purest delight, where we are lulled to pleasing rest by the dreamy haze of perpetual summer, and all tears and cares are lost in the Lythean tide, all of life is beautiful, all of our thoughts are dreams, and, winging on the shimmering sheen of the imagination, we build castles of gold in glowing groves of the. far away worlds--worlds of ineffable beauty-with gardens of light and crystal waters, where countless sails glisten on their far away summer seas, and from whose filmy fields we hear the music of the spheres, and gather sweets from a thousand unwithering flowers.
Have you ever beheld the goddess of morn, as with her rosy fingers she rolled back the curtain of night; and have you ever seen the chariot of day put away the silvery dews, and close the bugles of the morning glory-the herald of his coming
-brighten the budding rose, and flood the whole world with a glorious light ? Have you ever stood on your veranda at even-tide, and watched the cloud isles drifting in the radiant sunset seas of gold? Then, you have seen the symbols of the glory of Florida.
In Florida the mornings are rapturous thoughts; the noons are joyous rests, and the evenings glorious dreams. All hearts are thrilling with a thousand tiny thrills; all lips are rosying with soulful smiles of laughter; there is a modest gleaming of the eyes; a flutter of happy, wholesome life. The cool breezes slip ahead of the dawn, and blow dim the calm, Greek stars, stir the intricate branches of the coral-lipped oleander lining the rivulets, and crisp the soft waves of the Gulf tide, the sunshimmers the thousands of silvery lakes with streaming gold at noontide, and the fragrance of the flowers hangs like caresses twining the twilight at eventide. Florida is large and beautiful-the Eden of the World. Come over to God's country and live with us.
Among the hammocks and prairies of the Florida Everglades, in a land unknown to the white man, lives a remnant of the once large and powerful tribe of the Seminole Indians. Driven Southward, fighting desperately and contesting every foot of ground, they found at last in the mysterious fastnesses of the 'Glades at once a fortress and a home. Here they have remained unconquered, the only people living on American soil who do not claim allegiance to the Stars and Stripes.
So often deceived and mistreated by the white man, the Seminoles are very suspicious, many of them never venturing near the towns. They have their villages on the fertile hammock islands of the Everglades. Their manner of living is practically the same as it was a hundred years ago. The braves hunt the alligator, deer, wild turkey and wild cats, and trap the coon and the otter. Fish abound in the streams that drain the Everglades. The squaws raise little garden patches of sugar cane, sweet potatoes and Indian squash.
The men, in their hunting shirts of red or blue, with kilts reaching to their knees and broad bands of contrasting colors inserted in the sleeves and waists, present a very picturesque appearance. Sometimes the Indian finishes his costume by a Derby hat, but he never fails to put an eagle feather or two in his hat when he does. The squaw wears gowns of bright colored calico, reaching to the ground, several pounds of beads around their necks, and usually a black-eyed papoose strapped to a board on their back.
The Seminoles, in common with most North American Indians, believe in the Great Spirit and a Happy Hunting Ground. But their religion seems to have reached a higher stage than that of many other tribes. Their laws bear a striking resemblance to those laid down by Moses for the children of Israel. Of their festivals, the "Green Corn Dance" is the most important. This ceremony lasts for several days, and is observed at the present time with as much fervor as it was before the white man came to rob the Indian of his land, and turn his hunting grounds into farms and cities.
The tribe is.gradually dying out. They now number about four hundred souls. But they still cling to their old traditions and customs, and the old men warn the youths to beware of the man with the white skin, and tell them of the time when there was game "ojus" (plenty) in the land, before the white man brought his gun and his sawmills and his "holowoggus wyomi" (bad whiskey).
They tell them of "Coacoochee," the great and good chief, friend of the white man, who became the terrible "Wild Cat" of the Seminole War, after his beautiful Creole wife had been stolen and sold into slavery, and he, himself, had been lied to, mistreated, and finally treacherously seized and imprisoned by the "forkedtongued white man." They tell how he and his companions, in a dungeon in old Fort Marion, starved themselves until they were able to squeeze through a small hole in the wall and escape. From that time on he became a veritable demon. He and his men would fall upon and massacre a garrison in one place today and tomorrow would strike a hundred miles away. The American soldiers could not any more catch him than they could "The Spirit Torch," or Will-o-Wisp, which hovers over swamps at night. This and many other stories are told the young Seminoles, so that the present generation is as suspicious of the white man as their ancestors were.
The home of this interesting race of people is not, as is commonly supposed, a swamp. There is no stagnant water in the Everglades. It is just as though Lake Okechobee were a great bowl, tipped so that the water runs over the Southern part of the brim and finds its way through a net work of streams and rivers to the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. The Glades or Prairies are covered with coarse grass, and during the rainy season are inundated with water to a depth of two or three feet. They are dotted here and there with islands which, being above the water line, are densely wooded with tropical hardwoods, tree ferns, palms, creepers, briars, and grape vines. The' fauna of these oasis-like hammocks is as profuse as their flora. Birds of brilliant plumage abound and game is plentiful. It is indeed an Indian's Paradise. He travels about in his dug-out canoe, seeing highways where the white man sees -only a maze hammock, stream and 'glade. His, wants are few and the genial climate makes very little in the way of shelter and clothing necessary.
And now comes the proposition to drain the Everglades. "The land is fertile and will make us wealthy," says the white man. Never a thought is given the Indian whose domain it is by right of conquest and exploration. Cannot at least a part of it be set apart for him? Surely this much is due to the people who at one time owned all of Florida and Georgia-the only people who ever engaged in war with the United States and remained unconquered.
RALPH D. RADER.
It was evening. Though the glorious tints of sunset had not faded from the sky, the bright stars were already glowing, large and brilliant, as they do in tropical latitudes. Both the colors and the silver stars were reflected in full glory on the calm surface of the river, except where the water was disturbed by the leaping of silvery mullet. Overhead, a couple of gigantic cranes flapped heavily towards their Everglade home, and somewhere in the distance a mocking-bird whistled his ever-changing song.
A troop of calvary-men emerged from the forest and stopped to allow their jaded horses a drink from the river. They had been in the saddle since daylight and were now returning to Fort Dallas, tired and dejected. Occasionally the troopers conversed in low tones, but for the most part they sat on their horses in silence. Their lean, bronzied faces, had the look of men inured to danger and hardship. Their lithe limbs denoted strength combined with quickness of action. Loyal they were to the backbone, every mother's son of them, and yet there was an air of almost hopeless discouragement on some of their faces, born of the solitude and the eternal grind of military routine. Such were the men who matched strength and skill against cunning and ferocity through the long Seminole War.
"By jingo, Hawkins, I'm sick of this whole business," said the Captain, as the cavalcade resumed its march." "Here we are, hundreds of miles from civilization, doing nothing but watch a bunch of redskins who would be glad to take our scalps if they got a chance, but will never fight in the open. Hang it all, I'm not a quitter and I'm not a coward, but this eternal waiting, waiting, waiting, for the Old Harry knows what, gets on my nerves. I've got a wife and baby back in Virginia and I've got a mind to chuck it all and go back to 'em."
The big sergeant, thus addressed, shifted his quid of Navy Plug to the other cheek, and spat meditatively. "Well I reckon it is sort er nauseatin' Cap, to a man who has a home back North. It don't worry me none. I'd a blame sight rather let the Injuns take a pot shot at me once in a while, than to let my old woman frame me over the head with a rollin' pin like she uster to do. Long's I git my rations and my plug of terbaccy,-Listen," he broke all suddenly, "sounds like a kid squallin in yon thicket." The Captain listened. "Yes, it must be a child," he said, at the same time heading his horse towards the thicket in question. "Hold on Cap," objected Hawkins, "It's only some Injun brat that's strayed off. The old 51
Squaw'll find it by sunup." But the Captain, if he heard at all, paid no heed. His mind was filled with thoughts of his own child, the little blue-eyed, goldenhaired girl he had not seen for two long, lonsome years.
The owner of the voice which had attracted the attention of the troopers proved to be a little Seminole girl about six years of age. In spite of dirt and tears, she was very pretty, as were many of the children of Indian and Creole parents. The good-natured Hawkins, repenting his rough speech of a minute before, swung down to raise the child to his saddle. Quick as lightening her little fingernails left a row of parallel red lines across his cheek, to the amusement of the rest of the troopers. "Wait a minute, Cap, I'll fix 'er" spoke up a corporal, a mere lad of eighteen, saluting. Drawing a string of colored beads from his saddlebags he held them towards the child. She hesitated and then shyly came towards him. He placed the beads round her neck, and talking kindly to her, raised her to a seat in front of him. The cavalcade then continued its march.
Next morning Chief Tigertail, one of the most powerful as well as the most feared chiefs of the tribe, stalked into camp. "You got em papoose, think so. Me take em" he remarked. Then seeing the child, he spoke to her in Seminole, turned and strode away, the girl following.
During the next ten years many changes came to the little garrison at Fort Dallas. The Captain had, at his own request, been transferred to a post in Virginia.' The new Commandant was inclined to be harsh and oppressive in his attitude towards the Indians and they were beginning to resent it. Their trips down the river in their dugouts to barter gator hides and venison for groceries and ammunition became less and less frequent, and their actions more and more sullen and threatening. Miami, the pretty daughter of Tigertail, came often to the fort. She was a general favorite, but she seemed to show special preference to the corporal who had first won her friendship when she was found in the woods, and as Sergeant Hawkins put it, "Young Corporal Brown 'pears to be mighty bad hit with that Injun gal."
The friction between the garrison and the Seminoles increased. The soldiers felt it, but years of peace had led them into a feeling of fancied security. Finally, Miami's visits ceased and the Indians, though they still came occasionally, did so only to keep up appearances, though the white men did not seem to realize it even yet.
A month went by, and at last Miami came, at night, like a shadbw out of the woods. She demanded to see Brown. When she was alone with him, she said, "After two suns, then come the Seminoles, many of us, like the leaves on the trees. Kill all paleface men. Burn Fort. My father he said it. But you, Miami 52
love you. You must not be kill. You go, quick. Go back to paleface village. But you not tell others, not one. They must be kill, all. It is better." "But I must tell them, Miami," said the corporal. "They are my friends." "No tell, Go," she said. "I can't go, I must tell them, I can't go back on my pals" he insisted. "Then Miami be kill" she said, and disappeared into the darkness. Brown would have detained her but could find no trace of her.
The garrison thus warned, prepared for the attack and doubled the sentry guard. Two days later, the Indians, attempting a surprise, found the soldiers ready and drew off without striking a blow. Without the girls' warning the whole of the little garrison would inevitably have been massacred.
But the next day, while reconnoitering in the neighboring wood, a squad of troopers came upon the body of the beautiful Indian maiden, a knife through her heart. But there was a smile on her lips. She had met death without flinching, happy that she had saved her lover. Happy, even tho' she was denied even the Seminole funeral rites, and tho' her death was at the hands of her own father, as was the Indian custom.
A thriving city, bearing her name, now stands on the site of Old Fort Dallas, and long after the tribe has become extinct, will continue to stand as a monument to the memory of Miami, the Seminole heroin.
WM. E. CHRISTIAN, "Lord" P. K. A. McIntosh, Fla.
General Science Course; 2nd Sergeant, Co. B.; German Club.
FREDERICK J. FREI, "Honk" Arcadia, Fla.
Electrical Engineering Course; 1st Lieut. Co. B.; Y.
M. C. A. Delegate to Montreat Convention, '08; Editor of Y. M. C. A. Hand-book, '10; Agricultural Club.
WALTER B. HILTON, "Judge" Philadelphia, Penn.
A. B. Pedegogical Course; Pres. Y. M. C. A. '09-'10;
Pres. Press Club, '09-'10; Agricultural Club; Masonic Club.
JAMES P. HUNTER, "Big Jim" Largo, Fla.
Civil Engineering Course; Tst Sergeant Co. A.; Captain Varsity Base Ball Team, '07-'08, '08-'09, '09-'10; Vice-pres. of the class; Y. M. C. A.;
BERNARD G. LANGSTON, "Beauty" Chipley, Fla.
A. B. Course; 2nd Lieut. Co. B.; Athletic Editor of
"The Pennant," '08-'09; Associate Editor, '09'10; Varsity Ball Team, '07-'08, '08-'09, '09-'10; Sec'y. Bo-Gator Club; Yocum Literary Society; Winner of Gold Medal offered by the Children
of the Confederacy for Historic Essay, '09.
PHIL S. MAY, "Granny" A. T. O. Quincy, Fla.
A. B. Course; Battallon Sergeant-Major; Exchange
Editor of "The Pennant"; Pres. Commencement Ball, '10; Pres. Yocum Literary Society; German Club; I. T. K.; Winner of State U. D. C.
Medal for Historic Essay, '09.
PLEASANT C. O'HAVER, Keuka, Fla.
A. B. Course; Pres. Masonic Club; Y. M. C. A.
CHARLES H. OVERMAN, "Heck" Pensacola, Fla.
Civil Engineering Course; 3d Sergeant; Press Club;
Y. M. C. A.; Transit Club; Yocum Literary Society; Philattelist.
DOUGLAS PERRY, Gainesville, Fla.
Civil Engineering Course; Transit Club.
W. CLINTON PRICE, "Senator" Miami, Fla.
A. B. Course; "Pennant" Staff, '08-09; Pres. Sophomore Class, '08-'09; Pres. Junior Class; Varsity Ball Team, '07-'08, '08-'09, '09-'10; Yocum Literary Society; German Club.
ROMERO M. SEALEY. A. T. O., Live Oak, Fla.
A. I. Pedegogical Course; Y. M. C. A.; Press Club;
Teachers Club; Pres. Agricultural Club.
JOSEPH W. SHANDS, K. A., Gainesville, Fla.
A. I. Course; "Pennant" Staff '08-'09; Literary Editor of "The Pennant," '09-'10.
G. LESLIE HOWARD, "Bromus" Madison, Fla.
IRA E. SOAR, "Fungi" Dade City, Fla.
Agricultural Course; Agricultural Club; Press Club*
Y. M. C. A.; Yocum Literary Society.
WILEY C. TAYLOR, Gainesville, Fla.
Civil Engineering Course; Transit Club.
D. FRAZIER THOMAS, "Mut" Gainesville, Fla.
Civil Engineering Course; Transit Club.
ROBERT F. WALKER, "Lady-Killer" Auburndale, Fla.
General Science Course: Press Club; Yocum Literary Society; Track Team.
JAMES H. VIDAL, "Foots" Gainesville, Fla.
Civil Engineering Course; Transit Club.
Since it is customary to record the history of classes, the junior class, not wishing to violate the custom, has decreed that a history of the class of '11 should be put upon record.
If at times I seem to be a little boastful, remember that we believe in blowing our own horn, for if a man is so utterly lazy that he will not blow his own horn at the proper time, then it should rust.
The history of this class was made possible by the arrival at the University, on September 25th, 1907, of a "bunch" of boys, who had sprigs of rustic greenness hanging from their locks and had the buttons of. their trousers far above their shoe tops. But let that be as it may, they had the proper stuff in them.
All-during the time that the class of '11 has been in the University it has figured largely in athletics, in the military department, in societies and in fraternities,-in fact, in all phases of college work and activities.
In the first year of its existence it furnished four men for the base ball team, including the captain. It has also largely been represented in other forms of athletics. In this freshman year we won the class fight which added considerably to our own self-respect at that time.
In our sophomore year we again won the class fight. One of the membersof our class won a distinctive honor in the shape of a medal offered by the Florida Division of the United Daughters of the Confederacy for the best essay on some assigned subject relating to the Civil' War. It was won over competition from our own and various other institutions of learning in the State.
In this, our junior year, we have maintained our previous high standing. Mr. W. C. Price, having proved himself a worthy leader of the class of '11, has been honored with a second year in the presidential chair. We are supporting athletics of every kind,-on the gridiron, in tennis and on the baseball diamond. But we have not let our athletic achievements overshadow our other successes. Heretofore we have had men on the PENNANT staff and this year we have not fallen below our previous record for literary men. The Y. M. C. A. has, this year, seen fit to choose its president and also the editor of its Handbook from students from the members of this class.
The junior class has striven, with marked success, to be one distinguished for its development in every form of college work,-a class that will honor the Institution.
Old St. Joe.
During the history of the world thousands of cities .have risen and fallen,
and have left only a few old ruins to mark the site of a once famous city, or traditions and old stories, or perhaps a few words on the pages of history to tell of
a city built on sand.
It is with wonder and awe that we read about such cities; the rise and fall of
Jerusalem; the wonderful stories of the castles on the Rhine, little thinking that the United States, too, has had such a city almost forgotten and unknown even to her own people, but yet one that is marked with an history as startling as that of Tyre or Athens, and with stories and traditions as strange and as wonderful as
those of the old Feudal States.
On the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, near the mouth of the Apalachicola
River, there lie a few old ruins now covered by creeping vines and surrounded by palmetto and myrtle bushes, which today serve as the only monument of the onetime pearl of the South, Old St. Joe, the worthy rival of Charleston, Savannah
and New Orleans during the ten years between 1832 and 1842.
Old St. Joe was settled in the early thirties by men "with unbounded ambition and lust for gold, the peer of the strenuous business men of today; builded as strongly and solidly as could be done with cement, brick and timber, a city here that drew to its portals many a prominent merchant and traveler of the world of eighty years ago." The splendid location, harbor and other trade facilities, combined with an unexcelled climate caused by the ever-cooling breezes from over the gulf, attracted traders from all parts of the world, and in a short time Old St.
Joe was a thriving city of several thousand inhabitants. The seashore was early dotted by long wharves extending as far as three-fourths of a mile into the sea and-with large warehouses and a shipyard. Farther inland were built fine stores, hotels, magnificent churches, public building and commodious offices; while still farther -inbeyond these, and apart from the busy turmoil of the city, were built th egant homes of the business and professional men of Old St. Joe, as well as a large.timber of magnificent homes of the wealthy Southern planters, the aristocrats 6f the South. Along with the great progress of the city in these times there were built fine hotels, a large racing track, and the third railroad to be built in America. This railroad was built by the business men of Old St. Joe in the early
- "-thirties, and so well was it built that many of the old ties still remain. The road
waA between.St. Joe and Iola. Before the building of this road the large cotton crops of Georgia and Alabama were transported down the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers, and then were laboriously moved to tidewater down the Apalachicola River, whence the crops were forwarded to New England or English ports.
On account of this railroad the great trade of Georgia and Alabama was turned from other cities to Old St. Joe. And with this great increase in trade St. Joe
rivaled Charleston and New Orleans both in trade and attractiveness.
It is surprising to know how much business this railroad of eighty years ago carried on in such a thinly settled country. The St. Joseph Times states that up to December 23, in 1839, the cotton shipments alone would exceed 50,000 bales, though the road was opened for business in the same year of 1839. The promoters of this road, in order to further increase their business interests, applied for and were granted a charter to construct a canal between St. Joe and Lake Wimico; however, this canal was never completed.
The fine hotels and excellent climate throughout the entire year drew thousands of visitors from all parts of the world to St. Joseph. The most famous of these famous hotels, the Tontine, the Shakespeare, the Byron and the Railroad Cottage, were kept busy throughout the year. Along with the progress of St. Joe the streets were beautifully laid out, extending from the business districts out to the residences of the town. The main streets of this busy city were the Bay, the Columbus, the Commerce, the Magnolia, the Palmetto and the Washington street. Great banking houses, brickyards, mills, wholesale houses were established in the early years of St. Joe, but unfortunately the banking houses existed in the wildcat banking days and were the means of causing many Southern planters to suffer.
In an educational line Old St. Joe progressed equally well as she did in commercial lines. Schools, a seminary and an excellent newspaper were established. The St. Joseph Times, the name of the newspaper, was established in 1836, and was printed on an excellent grade of paper with clear type. Unlike the papers of today which devote one-half of their space to scare-heads and the remaining half to scandal and mudslinging, the Times, as did most papers in that time, told the news in short paragraphs, while the main part of the paper was devoted "to stories, copies of old poems, literature of the olden days" and other such useful purposes.
As the years passed by Old St. Joe prospered more and more. It seemed indeed as if she were allowed many days of prosperity in order to make her fall all the greater. St. Joseph reached her zenith in about 1839. At this time an important body of men assembled in Old St. Joe for the purpose of formulating a State Constitution. The Florida historian, Fairbanks, in his history, says, "It was by all odds the ablest body of men that ever assembled in Florida." And it is not saying too much to state that St. Joe would have been undoubtedly the capital of Florida had it not been destroyed.
Along with the great growth of wealth of Old St. Joe, there came hand-inhand wickedness. '.The St. Joseph Times of May 5th, 1840, speaks of St. Joseph as a summer resort in glowing terms." It tells, of pleasant rides, fish in all varieties, sailing parties, pretty women, romantic islands, and an occasional opportunity of taking an ice cream or drinking a glass of hock or ice burgundy." Finally, on account of its growth in meanness, St. Joseph received the well-deserved reputation of being the wickedest city in America.
But amidst the laughter of pretty women and the loud shouts from the race tracks and the clinlking of glasses there came a visitor, death. In the summer of 59
1841 there sailed a ship from some southern point bringing to Old St. Joe, the then dreaded disease of yellow fever. At this time the marshy lagoons and swamps around St. Joseph were filled with lukewarm water which served as breeding places for millions of mosquitoes. And in a short time the disease, which then meant certain death, spread to such an extent that graves could scarcely be dug rapidly enough. Now all business ceased, the racing track, the gambling and the drinking were given up; the ships would quietly slip out of the harbor at night. The only noise now to be heard where late the clinking glasses sounded was the noise of wagons as they busily carried away the dead. Families were quickly broken up, only to be gathered in a short while in death. Many fled to the country only to die a horrible death beneath the shelter of some friendly tree. A very few escaped the city and fever, but almost every one died in a short while in the swamps or forests in that thinly populated section of Florida. The only survivors of the proud city of a month before were a few negroes who are peculiarly exempt from many such tropical fevers. These, however, fled as soon as possible, leaving in truth a deserted village of the once queen city.
Old St. Joe never recovered from this terrible scourge. For two or three years the palatial homes, fine public buildings and full warehouses awaited their owners never to return. Only a few venturesome fishermen, attracted by the stories of great treasures, dared to come near the city. In 1844 a great hurricane, followed by a tidal wave, swept over the deserted homes. For three days and nights the fierce winds as if maddened by their lost prey raged through old St. Joe. Brick and marble were swept miles inland or carried into the sea by the receding tidal wave. At the end of the third day the storm abated, but only after there was no more damage it could do to Old St. Joe. Only a few scattered blocks of marble or a brick every now and then, and the graveyard, three miles inland, were left where lately stood the splendid homes and public buildings. Even today, there are no homes within miles of the old town which might have been the capital of Florida, and which was the queen city of the South.
The city, now almost forgotten to the world, is seldom ever seen, and then only by strangers who visit it, cast a sigh and forget it, or by fishermen or an adventurer who are either attracted there on account of its fishing facilities or by the stories of hidden treasures around the lost city.
Among the inhabitants near Old St. Joe there are many myths or stories told about Old St. Joe. Numbers of the settlers firmly believe that, like Sodom or Gomorrah, St. Joseph was destroyed on account of its wickedness-certain it is that Old St. Joe was not found wanting in meanness. But more frequently at the fireside, after the hours of work, when imagination rules the world, various rumors are told in a whisper concerning vast treasures hidden by the wealthy men of St. Joe during the wildcat banking days, and during the time of the yellow fever, when all were preparing to flee from the yellow death. Even to this day men quietly slip into the harbor of St. Joseph and search for gold. One of the most notable features of the old city today is the heap of earth which shows clearly that some venturesome man has been seeking the hidden trasures. Also there
are frequent rumors of some men who, after having visited the ruins, immediately went North, where they began spending money-all gold-freely.
During late years, since the building of the Panama Canal, a tide of thought is again turned to the advantageous location of St. Joe. Even now a railroad is being extended from Apalachicola, Fla., to go to the place where eighty years ago the third railroad of America was built. Besides many Northern capitalists, seeing the wisdom of such a move, are considering the project of rebuilding a city to be called the "White City," where now the myrtle bushes bloom and the creeping vines cling to the wasted ruins of the Pearl of the Gulf. -Langston.
[The data for this piece was obtained chiefly from an intimate acquaintance of the settlers around St. Joseph; from copies of the St. Joseph Times and contemporary papers, and from the Panama City Pilot.-B. G. L.]
Class of 1911.
Colors -Garnet and Grey. Flower -Violet.
President -W. C. PRICE.
Vice-Pres.-J. P. HUNTER.
Secretary-PHIL S. MAY.
Guests of The Heidleberg are not, as a rule, early risers; but there was one exception among them, during this particular summer, in the person of Miss Ethel Mervin, daughter of the Cincinnati banker. It was her invariable custom to rise with the sun and take a long ride on her favorite horse before breakfast. On this particular morning she rode for several miles on the Asheville road, and then turned into an unfrequented fork that she had marked out (on one of her former rides), for an exploring expedition.
Miss Mervin was one of a not unusual type of American girl, a beautiful heiress whose whole time was taken up with spending the money which her grandfathers had made, and that which her father was now making. There was always plenty of it, and it was natural that she should spend it freely in pursuit of pleasure. She was a member of a family which had many illustrious ancestors on both sides, and there was a social position to be maintained, and that was an important duty of the Mervin family. All of their select circle of friends could trace their ancestry almost back to the ark, and they were as exclusive as a European royal family.
She presented a striking picture in her green riding habit, the breeze playing with her bronze hair, mussing it into charming disarray. Her eyes were light blue, and her complexion fair. Her features were not perfect, yet her face was wonderfully beautiful, and when lighted up with a smile, showing her. even, white teeth, it was a face which could attract the most confirmed woman-hater and immediately enslave the average young man.
She was an excellent horsewoman, graceful in the saddle, firm in her grip of the reins and perfect in the control of her animal. A true lover of horses, she was never happier than when enjoying her early morning ride on a spirited animal.
The morning was superb and the fair rider was oblivious to time as her gallant mount carried her miles and miles over the mountain road. A sudden turn in the road brought her into the midst of a camp which, she judged, to be the camp of the men surveying the route of the Asheville and Northern, of which she had heard some talk of at the hotel. Not being interested in anything so commonplace as surveyors or railroads, she rode on after bestowing a casual glance on the tents and finding nothing interesting. A mile further on she came upon the civil engineers themselves, and Dixie took it into her equine head to shy at one of the khaki-clad surveyors, carrying a transit over his shoulder. A moment sufficed for Ethel to regain control of the animal, but in the struggle she dropped her crop. The engineer who had drawn to one side to allow horse and rider to pass, set his transit down and picked up the crop. "I am very sorry to have caused you any trouble with your horse,' he said as he restored it to her. "Oh! that's all right," she replied graciously, "Dixie often takes crazy notions, but it is excellent sport 62
to ride a really spirited animal, and I would not have her otherwise for the world." It was only then that she realized that it was getting late, and glancing at her watch she continued, "Goodness! It's nearly eight o'clock, and I must be quite a distance from Flat Rock." "About ten miles, I think," replied the young man. "Mother will be worried very much," she half-mused, addressing the horse, "so we must go back faster than we came." Suiting the action to the word, she turned Dixie's head in direction of Flat Rock and set out a brisk gallop. In answer to some unexplainable inclination she glanced back over her shoulder and saw the young surveyor standing in the middle of the road watching her as she rode away. When he noticed that she had seen him he quickly picked up his transit and set off down the road at a fast walk.
In returning through the camp she gave it more than a casual glance. Through the flap of the largest tent in the group she noticed a trunk with a name on the end of it. To satisfy her curiosity, she pulled Dixie up and read:
Intuition told her that the owner of the trunk was the same young man whom she had encountered a few moments before. "Well," she mused, "Mr. Meredith is not strikingly handsome, but I like his face, unmistakable character shines through that coat of sun-burn and those eyes, and that hair weren't at all bad." Then she laughed, "Why, Ethel Mervin, you surprise me. Actually giving that ordinary transit-carrier a second thought."
It was after nine before she reached the hotel, and found an anxious mother waiting for her on the porch. "Ethel, where on earth have you been?" was the first thing that she heard. A few words of explanation sufficed to satisfy Mrs. Mervin, and then Ethel ran up to her room to change her dress.
The next morning she started out as usual and almost without thinking turned into the road over which she had ridden the day before. This time she rode only as far as the camp, for she did not care to see Meredith again. But fate was against her. A forgotten note-book had brought him back to the camp, and he came out of his tent just as Ethel was turning around. He lifted his hat and against her better judgment she smiled and bowed. A moment afterward she condemned herself bitterly for bowing to a man whom she had never met, and who, despite his gentlemanly face, was probably no better than her groom. The idea of the very conventional and aristocratic Ethel Mervin even noticing a common railroad employee who possibly ate with his knife! She little imagained that her "common railroad employee" was just at that moment searching, for the hundredth time, for some mark on a square bit of linen which he had picked up at the same time as the crop, but which he had not restored to its owner. What would she have said if she had heard him curse himself for a sentimental fool and then had seen him carefully place that same handkerchief in the left-hand pocket of his khaki shirt!
Her firm resolve never to ride on that fork of the Asheville road lasted until
the next morning. Then she became suddenly interested in right-of-ways, and wanted to inspect the one which was being surveyed in that neighborhood. Half way to the camp she realized that Meredith would probably think it peculiar to see her ride in the direction of his camp three successive mornings, so she turned Dixie around and went back to the hotel. The following mornings she was careful to avoid the fork of the Asheville road.
For a few days she bestowed little thought on the surveyor's camp on the fork of the Asheville road. All went well with her resolve to think no more of Meredith until the chief engineer on the Asheville and Northern came down from the North to inspect the progress of the right-of-way. He made his headquarters at The Heidleberg, for it was nearer to the camp, and was a much more quiet place than the city. Being a wealthy man and holding an important position with the new railroad, he was introduced to al Ithe guests of the hotel and, of course, Ethel met him. One afternoon he drove to the camp and returned to the hotel with Blair Meredith in the buggy. There were some important details of the work that he wanted to discuss with the young engineer. Soon after their arrival Meredith was duly presented to Miss Mervin, according to instructions, as the engineer in charge of surveying this end of the right-of-way. A few minutes after dinner sufficed to settle the business in hand, and then, strange to say, Meredith and Miss Mervin wandered off to a secluded corner of the porch and were soon deeply engrossed in an animated conversation. She asked him a few questions about himself, and then he began a story of the last few years of his life. He told her how, by much hard work, he had graduated from "Boston Tech," and how, immediately after graduation, he had procured the lucrative position which he now held. He also told her of his excellent chances of promotion, and that he some day hoped to be a large stockholder in the company, and possibly general manager, of the system.
His recital struck a chord in Ethel's nature which no man ever before had been able to strike, and she became deeply interested in this ambitious young engineer whom she believed would attain the success to which he aspired, even though he had only his strength and his salary, as she thought, to help him, but she felt that he would attain this success too late in life to be able to marry the kind of woman he deserved. He deserved a beautiful, rich, noble wife, who would stand high in the social world, but, of course, he would be unable to win such a wife until he himself was rich and had won social recognition. She forgot that she had once thought it possible that he ate with his knife, but she realized that a man with his salary could not live in her world.
After that night he made frequent visits to The Heidleberg to see her, and in spite of her mother's protests, she would see him. At first she could see no harm in her friendship with this, supposedly, poor young engineer. Later she began to realize that he was in love with her, and that even she was beginning to feel more than a casual interest in this, her friend of another world. Then -she avoided him and discouraged him in every way possible, but his perseverance was remarkable, and he was not to be discouraged. She knew that it was best for
both of them that the affair end where it was; it had already gone too far. The only way to end it, she felt, was for her to leave Rock Flat. Accordingly, she persuaded her mother to cut their visit short on the plea of weariness of the place. At first she decided 'that it would be best to leave without telling Meredith of her intended departure, but on second thought she changed her mind, for she knew his sensitive nature, and realized that it would cut him to the quick for her to leave without giving him a chance to say good-bye.
The night before her intended departure Blair rode over from the camp, to see her. She told him at once that she would leave the next day, and begged him to excuse her, so that she could finish her packing. He looke dsomewhat surprised and said:
"Why, Miss Mervin, I thought you were going to stay here two weeks longer."
"We were, but mother and I have both gotten rather tired of Flat Rock, so we will leave tomorrow for Newport, where we will spend the remainder of the summer."
For a brief moment he was silent, then a strange light came into his eyes and he began, "Ethel, I have something to say to you that I have wanted to say for a long time, but-"
"Mr. Meredith, please do not say it. Spare me that pain."
"Pain? Is it painful to listen to the declaration of an honest love?"
"In this case, yes. It is a hopeless love, Mr. Meredith, and no good can come from a further discussion of it."
"Why do you say hopeless, Ethel? I have every reason to believe that you love me. As for me, I love you more than life itself, and have loved you almost from the first time I saw you. You have been an inspiration to me in my work, and the hope of winning you has been my all-possessing thought since that morning on the fork of the Asheville road. Do not say that I am mistaken, and that you do not love me. Then if you do love me, why is mine a hopeless love?"
His passionate declaration made her realize that she did love him, and for thd moment she gave herself up to him. She was in his arms half stifled by his embrace. Then his lips sought and found hers, yielding. For a moment they' stood silently thus. Finally Ethel remembered her wealth, social position, the pleasures that her riches gave her, her horses, her automobiles, her Paris gowns and millinery. All, all would have to be given up if she married this struggling young engineer. Gently disengaging herself, she said:
"Yes, Blair, I do love you, but it has only been in these last few monents that I have realized it. I love you dearly, but marry you, I can not."
A short silence followed by a pained "Why ?"
"Father and mother would both object, and-"
"Cupid has more ways than one."
"Yes, but I was corning to the main reason. You and I, dear boy, belong to different worlds. Now, if we were characters ini a modern novel, we could 'marry and live happily ever afterwards,' but in real life it is different. Two people, like
you and me, separated so far in wealth and position, seldom marry and then generally unhappily. A girl can not.give up wealth and the blessings it brings, the friends of her world, her position and all, and still be happy."
For a moment he was silent. So she thought he was a poor young engineer and had nothing. in the world but his salary. Well, she had no reason to think otherwise, since he himself had not told her of his real position in the world, and there had been no one else to tell her. But now, since she thought him poor, he would put her to the test and see if her love for money was greater than hier love for him.
"Ethel, this is America, where no class distinctions should be recognized, so there you have no real reason for refusing me. As to your other reason, I have now a good position, and have been making excellent progress. It will not be many years before I will be able to support you in the style to which you have been used all of your life."
"But if I should marry you now, there would be unhappiness until you were wealthy, and then there would be a chance of its lasting even longer. We are both young, you can go out in the world and win success, and then come to me. I will marry you, and there will be no cause for the slightest unhappiness between us. Believe me, Blair, that would be best for us both. Remember, that you love me, and success will soon come to you, and everything will-end happily. Will you do it ?"
No answer from him, and then she added, "Think over it, Blair, and you will see that I am right. For the present, dear boy, it must be 'Auf Weidersehen.' "
She held out her hand, he took it and held it for a moment, and then strode to where the groom held his horse in readiness. She watched him mount and ride off in the pale moonlight. Soon he was out of sight and the sound of his horse's hoofs died away. She turned slowly to enter the house, and slowly went up to her room. Was it possible that she had lost him forever?
When Blair reached the camp he went immediately to his tent and started undressing for bed. He stumbled over a stool and waked up his tent-mate, Tom Bennett, who had graduated from "Tech" with him, and who was now his first assistant.
"Cut out the racket, will you ?" came in sleepy tones from Tom's cot.
"Old chap, you remember that discussion that we had about wealth and its relation to love? Well, you were right and I was wrong. Love does play a second fiddle to wealth in this sordid old world."
"What's the trouble?"
"She turned me down because she thought that I was a poor engineer, and," bitterly, "she would not give up her wealth and rich friends to be the wife of a poor man whom she loved."
The following winter Ethel Mervin was visiting her Vassar class-mate, Kath66
arine Barnett, a New York debutante. The night after the arrival of the Cincinnati belle, a grand ball was given in her honor. After the second dance she and Katharine were standing at one end of the ball-room when" she saw Ned Barnett enter with--could it be ?-Blair Meredith! For a moment she was stunned; what could he be doing here ?
Then she became aware that her hostess was speaking to her. "See that handsome, sun-burned chap that just entered the room with Ned? That is Blair Nelson, heir to the Nelson millions, and some of the most important railway systems in the country. All New York is wild about him, and he is the catch of the season."
Blair Nelson?" Ethel finally managed to say, "I knew a young engineer in North Carolina by the name of Blair Meredith, who is the perfect image of Mr. Nelson."
"Oh! So you knew him as Blair Meredith, did you? Well, that means the telling of his story. His whole name is Blair Meredith Nelson. He is far different from the usual run of heirs in our set; is very democratic and cares little about society; does not recognize any distinctions of wealth and position, but judges people strictly by their real worth. Well, you kuow all about the Nelson millions, and how long they have been in the family. Though Blair doesn't care much about the money, he knows that it is his duty to look out for the interests of the family, and had made it his life's work to prepare himself for that responsibility. Ever since he was a youngster he has taken a great interest in his father's business, and has learned a great deal about it. Then he took a course in railroad engineering at "Boston Tech," and specialized in construction work. To fit himself properly to look out for his immense railway interests, he thought it best to do some actual work on the Nelson road, and so to familiarize himself with all[ phases of the work. Immediately after graduation his fathei- gave him a position in the corps surveying the right-of-way for the Asheville and Northern. It is his rule, when at work, to use his first two names to avoid notoriety. Of course it isn't an "incog." for many people know him, anyhow, but it serves his purpose."
"If I had only known this before I committed that fateful mistake," thought Ethel.
Just as Katharine finished speaking Ned brought Blair up to present him to his sister's guest, but Blair stopped him.
"Miss Mervin and I have met before," he said. "She knew me as Meredith, when I was surveying the route of the Asheville Northern. Miss Mermin" he continued, "that is the life for me. I love my work, and then I am learning how tQ look after those railroads of which I will, one day, have charge. Mother and Margaret (my sister) would have me spend all my time in New York, but that would be impossible if I would do my work justice."
During the two dances which he had with her, he made several casual remarks in regard to North Carolina, but made no mention of the subject nearest his heart. Her hopes were finally dashed during the intermission after their last dance. She lead him to the conversation only to hear him talk of his work. He
never once alluded to that last night on the porch at The Heidleberg.
After "Home, Sweet Home," he came up to tell her good-night. "I am awfully sorry, Miss Mervin," he said, "that I won't be able to see you again during your stay in New York. I will have to leave for Asheville in the morning to begin work on the construction of the new line."
Two summers afterwards Mrs. Mervin and Ethel were spending several months in Eurpoe. When they reached Paris Ethel found the following letter from her old school-mate awaiting her: "DEAREST ETIIEL:
"Your delightful letter was received a few days ago, and, of course, I was charmed to get it. 0
"I am awfully glad you are having such a grand time in Europe, but please be careful and do not fall in love with any of those horrid noblemen over there, as so many of our friends have done. Do not fall in love with their titles, either, for the "pills" want too much for them.
"Of course, you remember Blair Nelson. Well, he is the talk of New York now. Just the other day his engagement to Miss Yuonne Younge was announced. Her father is a groceryman in some little NorthCarolina town, and they say that she has a brother who actually works in the horrid store! Think of it, when he could have had any girl in New York with all her millions, to go and marry that little Southern girl whose father is not worth fifty thousand. I hear that she is wonderfully beautiful, but that is no excuse for the fifty thousand.
"But, really, I never expected anything better of him. He has always been so democratic and so foolish in not believing in such things as distinctions of wealth.
"Well, that is about all the news, and mother is waiting for me to go shopping with her, so will have to close.
Class of 1912.
When we, a class of twenty-two, arrived here in the fall of 1908, we were "Fresh" in two respects-Freshmen in class and fresh-men in actuality. We went before the entrance committee with trembling and fearing, with our certificates from the High School. We were promptly scheduled for classes and assigned to rooms.
As soon as we came out on the campus, we were hailed by a large number of fine, congenial-looking- boys, who greeted us as if with great pleasure. They branded us as "RATS," a name we carried throughout the freshman year. Others from different parts of the campus were heard saying, "Fresh meat," "Where are you from ?" "Well, now, what do you think of that ?" "I like not of 'knowed' you." "Are there any' more at home like you?" "Are you a good sprinter?" "Can you run the gauntlet?" "Do you sleep well at night ?" etc.
Soon after supper the first night, we were invited around to the Gymnasium. Here we lined up according to height, and marched around the room several times, and the strangest thing of all to us was, the old boys wore neither belts nor suspenders during the march. We were halted, and one by one placed upon a stack of chairs so high that our heads just cleared the ceiling. In this position we were requested to make a spiel, or sing a song.
Everything worked well, and we had had several speeches and songs, when a long,' lean, lanky, guy got up and began to sing Yankee Doodle.
Just as he was in the middle of the chorus, there was a knock at the door, and the President entered. "Well, how is the meeting progressing?" said the President, as he drew his pipe and struck a match. "Boys," said the President, "I think we, as a company of young men, could find better employment in the common room. So I declare this meeting adjourned."
That night we found the beds rather, narrow, and I think a good many of us got too far over to one side and turned them over. Anyway, we would awake lying on the floor.
We soon got down to business and made a good record throughout the year. When our class fight came off, we met the Sophs fair in the face. The result of which left a good portion of the campus destitute of grass. The most important feature was the combat between Big Baker and Soar.
In athletics we were well represented, especially in football. The star player of the season was a freshman. In our class baseball games we licked the sopho69
mores about three out of four games. When Field Day exercises came, we won everything we entered-relay race, three-legged race, tug of war, and basket ball.
This year we have stepped one notch higher, and look with pity on the poor fresliies, who have just stepped into our shoes. Several of our old men did not return, but a good many new ones came in, making our class even larger than last year.
Again this year the class has been successful in athletics. There were more sophomores on the football eleven that any other class in school. We were also well represented in baseball. In Field Day exercises this year we won all the interclass contests.
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On September 28th, 1909, the class of '13 was born. On the night of September 28th, the freshman class began to learn the meaning of the short word "r-a-t," for on that same night our dear friends, the sophomores, began their little acts of courtesy by summoning all the "rats" to meet them at a little party in the Gym., given in honor of the freshmen. By the time the party was over and it was time to bid our hosts "good-night," we all knew we had actively entered into college life.
During the next succeeding nights we were called upon in our rooms. The way we most often knew we had had visitors was by waking up and finding ourselves on the floor about one o'clock or two in the morning, our beds turned over and the mattresses and bed clothes on top of us, and at the same time we could hear the loud noise of retreating foosteps that sounded like sophomores going down-stairs in 'something of a hurry. After a few nights of this we learned the true meaning of that very expressive expression, "dumped."
Oh, but we got it back on the sophomores. Just wait a minute and let me tell you all about it: Along in December the sophs began to noise it about that in the near future the soph-fresh fight was going to be pulled off, and they openly hinted that the freshmen would have to stay in bed the day following. Of course we told them that we could "mop up with them."
.Things continued in this shape for a few days. But as all things must have an ending, so the "hot air" had to end. And it ended in this way:
As we were filing out of mess hall after a bountiful dinner, with mince pie for dessert, the fight was mentioned again and taken up by everybody. Our beloved president, "Country," and "Bogator," one of the mightiest of the mighty sophomores, were close to each other, and in some way their arms and legs got tangled 73
up and the result of said entanglement was that the mighty "Bogator" went to ground with "Country" on top of him.
War cries of both classes were given, and in a few minutes the ground was covered with struggling forms. The fight continued for several minutes, but the sophs never recovered from "Country's" mighty assault, and the freshmen were victorious!
After this we began to be recognized as somebody.
In athletics the freshman class has held its own this year. We furnished four men for the 'varsity football team, and three for the baseball team. We had the best average in field sports. In baseball a large number of inter-class games are to be played, and we feel very confident of winning many victories.
All seniors have a memory,
A memory they hold dear, Of the times they had in college,
In their good old freshman year.
The freshman is but a stepping stone,
To reach the senior's lofty throne; You learn to walk before you run,
The first step's the vital one.
College life is but a day
With many an hour "to let," The freshman's sun is rising,
While the senior's sun is set.
On the twenty-ninth of September, 1909), twenty-six baby boys were adopted by the University. These twenty-six infants constitute the sub-freshman class. There area fine lot of youngsters, and although many trials beset their path-such as having their rest disturbed in the middle of the night by the appearance of sophomore with a big army belt in his hands-yet the outlook is promising for their development into creditable young college men.
The class is represented in all athletics and all other phases of college life, from football down to "crack-a-loo," some members, however, chiefly prominent in "crack-a-loo."
The first year of the sub-freshman is rather stirring, and, although he is not considered very important by his elder brothers, he feels that he is as important as anybody else. He is always anxious to do something to be heard, if not seen. He loves his Alma Mater with a deep and abiding affection, and in return for this !ove the expects, at least, a seat in the Mess Hall.
History of the Law Class of 1911.
The fall of 1909 marks the brilliant opening of the history of the 1911 law class, consisting of twenty-four ambitious members gathered from every nook and corner of the State. The great treadmill of legal perfection was soon set in motion, utilizing every atom of our noble body. Nothing was lost.
On the heart of each member was soon written this maxim: "He that burneth midnight amperes in silent and solitary meditation shall wax wise in the eye of the Dean; but woe unto him whose ambition leadeth him in the way of many maidens, whose highest ambition is a card game with hearts as trumps and cupid as a partner; for verily I say unto you, he shall be likened unto a pitcher in a muddy box, who tangleth his understanding and findeth at last that the Dean rewardeth a fool after his folly."
With the space allotted me, I can only give an abridged panorama of the class-not by selection, but by directing my pen at random.
Mr. Epperson, by his quiet demeanor, his firm but gentlemanly bearing, compels the respect and esteem of all of his associates. He possesses to a remarkable degree those qualities so desirable in a young man, and as a tribute to his ability he was elected president of the class.
Vice-president Crocker, a son of Lake Butler, is ever present (especially at mess hall), with a proverbial comment: "Eat, drink soup and be merry, for tomorrow ye may die,"-and sometimes we fear he will.
Our quiet, blushing, and much-honored secretary, Mr. Robbins, is proficient in music as well as in law. He never misses a choir practice-wonderful aesthetic development.
It now becomes my duty to speak of the class historian, your humble scribe. This is obviously a puzzling task, for who can see himself as others see him? So with your kind indulgence I shall leave you to judge the historian by the work that falls from his pen.
Lanier, our noble "hot-air" athlete, is an authority on Florida legislation, and is proficient in the branches of science as well as in law. He is destined to surpass the noted Cook in great discoveries. Even now he has to his credit a brilliant invention on the study of law-the absorption method (patent applied for).
Mr. "Pat" Johnston, who never tries singing the praises of Kissimmee, is quite resourceful. He can demonstrate every principle of tort and contract law with an illustration from the wild cattle region of Osceola county.
Eager to learn the law, Mr. Roland is no less eager to tell what he has learned
-and something more.
Mr. Leonidas E. Wade is well named "Happy." He is a human radiator of good cheer, and his ever-ready smile is to his fellow students as the invigorating breezes of spring time.
Mr. A. C. Adams, understudy to Lanier, won the first prize for individual excellence in the field meet this year, and has been turning intellectual handsprings in the class rooms ever since.
Syd L. Carter, Jr., has his individual method of reciting. If he knows, he tells it; if he doesn't, he says so; and in all events he speaks "the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth"-the good of our judicial system.
Mr. Green has doubtless discovered that it is hard to see the law-at any rate, he is using glasses.
J. E. Keen, with characteristic discrimination, asserts that he isn't lazy, but he just doesn't like to work. While in the same view the earnest S. S. Keen insists that though his brother's name is Keen, he is most certaily Keener-especially if there is a beautiful widow in.view.
Crews-Blackstone II-has kindly agreed to remain silent, lest he should commit a tort against the class by surpassing the original.
Last, least, and loudest, comes Rivers, conspicuous in chapel by his absence; but "Charley at the wheel" in class-a pity that such noble talent should perish in the sublimity of its own thought.
The great mill turns on, the mist begins to break away, and coming legal stars begin to twinkle, each striving to excel in this noble branch of useless "usefulness"; and now, as the close of the year approaches, and we look backward over the year's work, the largest mountain that looms up in memory's vision is a "night-mare of hard work," the price of the whistle.
The John Marshall Debating Society.
The Law School was added to the University this year, and it thus became the duty of the students of this college to set a good example to the future generations of the law students. Feeling it to be our duty to give something to -the college which would be lasting and to our credit, we organized The John Marshall Debating Society. Out of the many great names -considered we selected John Marshall as a token of our. respect and admiration for him as one of the greatest of American jurists. It has been said that John Marshall put flesh and blood upon the bony skeleton of the Constitution.
In order that .the organization should continue to belong to us, as well as to those who follow us, we have enacted in our Constitution a provision that every graduate of the College of Law of the University of Florida shall become ipso facto an honorary'member of this society.
We have been putting forth united and continuous efforts in debating and other literary work this year. A very notable event of our society was a public debate given in the city of Gainesville upon the question: "Resolved, That the State of Florida should adopt a State bank guarantee deposit law." The contestants selected were E. C. Calhoun, C. O. Rivers, R. G. Johnson and J. H. Buttram. Two sets of Bouvier's Law Dictionaries were given by the law faculty to the members of the winning team.
The membership of our society at' present is as follows: DR. A. A. MURPHREE, W. B. LANIER, DEAN A. J. FARRAH, C. C. EPPERSON, PROF. H. R. TRUSLER, A. C. ADAMS, PROF. W. E. BAKER, A. R. PINKERTON, JUDGE HORATIO DAVIS, S. S. KEEN, E. C. CALHOUN, J. E. KEEN, C. O. RIVERS, J. H. BUTTRAM, OLIN CROCKER, R. M. ROLAND, L. E. WADE, A. S. CREWS, C. C. SMALL, H. S. GLAZIER, R. M. ROBBINS, L. M. WOODELL, L. P. HARDEE, S. A. GRIMALDI. R. G. JOHNSON,
We hope that the list of membership to the John Marshall Debating Society will increase to hundreds and even thousands as the years pass. We have faith in it. We know whaf individual power it has brought to us, and what intellectual fellowship. Thus, we are sure by the means of this society, no matter how widely we may roam, or in what different paths of life we may walk, we will always be bound by "one more" strong and living tie to the University of Florida.
The College of Law.
At a joint meeting of the State Board of Education and the Board of Control, held in the City of Tallahassee early in June, 1909, a resolution was passed authorizing the Board of Control to establish a college of law in the University of Florida. Pursuant to that resolution, the Board of Control met in the city of Jacksonville the last of June, 1909, and provided for the opening of the College of Law, September 29th, 1909. Though briefly stated, it was in this way that the youngest member of the University's family was brought into being.
In launching the new department, Florida was not without precedent, for she was but following in the foot-steps of thirty-three of the thirty-seven American Commonwealths maintaining State Universities. The propriety of giving the science of law a place in the curriculum of the University of Florida, can not be better expressed than in the words of Sir William Blackstone, in' his opening lecture at Oxford University in 1758, when he said: "Sciences are of a sociable disposition and flourish best in the neighborhood of each other Nor is there any branch of learning but may be helped by assistance drawn from other arts. ....... But that a science which distinguishes the criteria of right and wrong; which teaches to establish the one and to prevent, punish or redress the other; which employs in its theory the noblest faculties of the soul and exerts in its practice the cardinal virtues of the heart; that a science like this should have ever been deemed unnecessary to be studied in a University, is a matter of wonderment and concern."
The course of study prescribed for the College of Law is of two years' duration and includes all of the most important branches of the law, covering, as it does, the course of study prescribed by the- Supreme Court of Florida for admission to the Bar.
Through the wisdom and foresight of the Board of Control and President Murphree, the Law School was able to begin its career with a splendid library of more than 2,000 volumes. This library gives the students access to the decisions of our own State, those of the United States Supreme Court and the court of last resort in each of the American States. It also includes two sets of selected cases, the Encyclopedia of Law, and many of the leading text-books and books of reference.
While the junior high school course has been prescribed as the requirement for admission to the College of Law as a candidate for a degree, all prospective students are earnestly advised to add to this preparation to the fullest extent possible. The law is an intricate science, requiring for its mastery and successful practice powers of analysis and generalization of a high order and such powers can, as a rule, be acquired only by severe mental discipline and practice in study. Dean Ashley, of the Law School of New York University; expressed
it thus: "A broad, general education should be demanded to train the mind and prepare the faculties for professional studies, and further, because the trained lawyer ought to be a well educated man and not only ought but must be if he is to take high rank in his chosen calling." The necessity of this thorough preliminary preparation on the part of the future bar of Florida will become more and more apparent as the State grows older and increases in wealth and population and competition if the profession becomes cheaper. If this additional preparation is not possible before taking up the study of law, it should be the settled purpose of the student to add to his general education by a carefully planned and systematic course of private study, after admission to the bar, as suggested by Judge Shackleford in his interesting and instructive lectures recently delivered to the students in this department.
During this, the first year of its existence, the College of Law has registered thirty-one students. This result is most gratifying to those responsible for its inauguration, as well as to those intrusted with its management. The true significance of these figures will be more fully understood when it is stated that this enrollment has never been equalled in a single year in any other Law School in Florida.
It may not be out of place to add a few words in reference to the purpose and ideals of the College of Law. It has been said that the chief end of general education is mental training and that the acquisition of facts is a subsidiary object and that, in legal education, information, rather than mind drill and discipline, is the end sought. It is safe to say, at any rate, that the study of law, when properly pursued, should not only supply valuable knowledge, but it should also afford broad and efficient training. More specifically, it is the purpose of the College of Law to ground the students in the fundamental principles of the common law and at the same time so to train them along legal lines as to develop the power to "think clearly, reason closely, appreciate distinctions quickly, investigate thoroughly, generalize accurately and state their conclusions tersely." It is sought to accomplish these results by the careful study of well-written text-books and by the close study and careful analysis of well selected cases, illustrating and applying the principles of law already considered in the text-books.
But this is not all that should be included under the ideals and purpose of the College of Law. Population is rapidly increasing; the complexity of human affairs is becoming greater and greater; from the press, and from the platform are coming new schemes for the amelioration of social and economic conditions. We also hear much at this time of the "commercializing of the legal profession," that it is fast ceasing to be a profession and is becoming a "mere money getting business," in which the lawyers will take that side of the case that will pay the largest fee, regardless of the right and wrong involved. Then, too, there is the added accusation that the best talent in the profession is selling itself to the highest bidders among the so-calle'c-vast soulless aggregations of capital and labor which wrongfully take toll and exact tribute all along the
highway of commerce and at every place where mother earth has stored her treasures. I do not assume to say how much of these charges is true and how much is false, but I do say that conditions are such as to challenge the serious consideration of the law schools .which can be and should be the nurseries of the ethics of the profession. No opportunity on the part of the law schools can be greater than this. They have in their charge more than eighty per cent. of the bar of the future and at a time when right standards and high ideals of the profession can be lastingly impressed. I do not mean to intimate that the law schools should be charged with the work of the Sunday-schools, but rather that, in the discussions in the class room, ethical problems are often necessarily interwoven with the legal and the two must be considered and solved together. In these class-room discussions the minds of the students can be led to just and righteous conclusions as to these problems, so that when they enter the ranks of the profession, there will "flow a constant stream of enlightenment and inspiration to keep pure and fresh the fountains of our law."
These should be some of the purposes and ideals of our College of Law. If carried out, she will have done her part toward making the law
"The hope of all who suffer,
The dread of all who wrong."
4K Ole 6 ~
The. Florida 4
4,' #.!. i-'J i"ll/
X December, 9
The Young Men's Christian Association.
The Young. Men's Christian Association is an organization of Idealistic Principles attempting to hold up before men the true relationship among themselves and with their God. The Association represents the Christ as a Man among men-strong, sympathetic, virile and just. In co-operation with the Church the Young M'en's Christian Association endeavors to inspire all men to the height of their energy, and to encourage the discontented to the fullest measure of efficiency. Those, who have been unfortunate, are given the opportunity to improve their privileges; and the strongest are bidden to help, aid and assist any one that is trying to make an honest struggle for life. It is the hope and aim of the Young Men's Christian Association to see the day when every man who desires to partake of this world's goods will not only manoeuvre of his own individual interests, but will plan and contrive so that others will be benefited by his realized accomplishments. No higher ideal can the Young Men's Christian Association present to mortal beings than, that the world must be made better by each individual having lived as a true, honest and faithful co-worker with his associates.
Our local Association is young in respect to years, though rapidly growing wiser and determined to accomplish the most necessary and essential ends by the means of direct and personal contact with his fellow-beings. Theories are forming themselves into actual practices; and her efforts are more than mere good intentions. Her prayers are: More love, more faith, more determinations, more workers, more souls, and men for the Christ.
P. C. O'HAVER, Class 1911.
Y. M. C. A. Cabinet
W. B. Hilton, President. George J. Gage, Vice-President. Fred Frei, Secretary. T. D. Felton, Treasurer.
Ralph D. Rader,
Chairman of Committee on Bible Study R. M. Sealey, Chairman of Social Committee.
J. Thad Grace, Chairman of Membership Committee. O. F. Burger, Chairman of Auditing Committee.
C LU 85
I~ 4,, ~jS i k ~ix~:
R. D. RADER, President ** ! ?
H. L. THOMPSON, Vice President */2
W. C. TAYLOR, Secretary- Treasurer /100
D. S. PERRY C. C. OVERMAN **X J. P. HUNTER */0
T. D. FELTON C. C. SIMPSON A. J. HENDRY *******
D. F. THOMAS (******. ... .) o0 J. G. TAYLOR**************** I. E. SOAR *?
NON RESIDENT MEMBERS
W. W. GIBBS*/cO W. B. CATHEY ************************ HONORARY MEMBERS
DR. MURPHREE DR. BENTON MAJOR WALKER CAPTAIN COX JUNIOR MEMBERS J. A. HOWZE ** C. A. ROWLETTE ** B. B. EZELL *
(See following text for explanation of stars.)
Colors.-Red and White: See any good transit rod, barber pole or stick of candy if you want to match the colors.
Motto.-Sic Transit Gloria Mundi (which Dr. Anderson will tell you 91
means, "A sick transitman went to glory last Monday"), regarded by the Club as appropriate since Friday, Saturday and sometimes part of Sunday were being spent on field trips at the time said motto was selected.Object in Life,--To impress ourselves and everybody else with the fact that as Civil Engineers are the Aristocracy of Practical Men, so Civil Engineering students are the natural leaders among those who do things in the University. Also, incidentally, to help each other land good jobs during vacationsand last, but not least, to have a good feed occasionally.
The Club was organized by the C. E. students during the spring of 1909, as a result of the fraternal feeling brought about by the close comradeship of camp life, which in the field on the. extensive road survey work, undertaken by the department at that time working together during the day, eating together the generous fare provided, spinning yarns around the camp fire at night, and sleeping side by side around and under the big camp wagon, aroused a spirit of pride and exclusiveness in the men that have made the Transit Club one of the strongest of the student organizations. It is fashioned along the lines of the great National .Engineering Societies of which the American Society of Civil Engineers is the oldest and greatest, and in which our student engineers hope to one day be worthy of membership.
Our fortnightly gatherings have been interesting and profitable. A short business meeting is followed by the speaker of the evening, who presents a paper on some engineering topic which is discussed by all present. Later on refreshments follow, stories are told, and the evening closes. Occasionally our honorary members are persuaded to give us a talk and the work of Dr. Benton and Major Walker in this line has been of much interest and value to us. We also break away from the regular routine once or twice a year to accept the hospitality of some of the honorary members at their homes in the city, at. which times our lady friends aid us in effectually driving dull care away.
Our initiatory ceremonies are exceedingly impressive. Once a year our trained goats and mules are brought forth and our candidates pass through a baptismal ordeal. No two ceremonies are exactly alike and they are always of a public nature.
As noted above, the field trips of the 2nd Semester brought the Club into being and they form a thoroughly enjoyable and most instructive part of the year's work. Actual field conditions of survey work are closely approximated and the friendly rivalry between the two field parties results in rapid and satisfactory work. The student who is inclined to think that it requires two or three hours to set up an instrument and take one or two readings gets a much better idea as to the possibilities of covering ground in a day's work.
One particularly strenuous trip last year was the Warren Cave expedition. Some eighteen men left town on the camp wagon. at 8 P. M. Friday; going into camp at the Devil's Mill Hopper at 11 P. M. The drowsy god was not wooed to any great extent and breakfast was served at 3 A. M. The beauties of the Mill Hopper were investigated in the dawning twilight and instruments were
set up as early as it was possible to see through them; about 4 A. M. A hearty meal at 9 A. M. caused everybody to refer to the rest of the day as the afternoon. At 1 P. M. six miles of preliminary line had been completed, which was considered a full day's work. The party then proceeded to Warren's Cave, which was thoroughly explored and proved quite a novelty to most of us. Leaving the cave at 5 P. M., it being about fifteen miles distant. The University was reached about 10 P. M. Truly this was a, long summer day, but we got Fraser back in time to attend Sunday-school all right and are sure that it was desirable to do so, though we understood that he made up for most of his lost sleep while there. The rest of the outfit attended the morning service in a body and made up their deficiency in sleeping line at that time.
The expeditions this year have been less numerous and more local in character, owing to various obstacles, but are regarded as a permanent feature of the Club work.
It is impossible to leave this subject of camp life without dwelling lovingly and tenderly upon the artistic cooking of Cathey, Gibbs and Overman; the housewifely skill of Glover Taylor, and Felton in washing dishes; the unparalleled merits of Riley and Hunter as potato parers, and the ability of Thompson in preparing the cocoa for our evening meal. Joe Bubba, our colored driver and roustabout, is with us no more, but his "Look Pleasant" when snapping the camera at us and his ingenious modification of, "I am" into "I'm is" should not pass unnoticed. The profane members of the Club soon found that Field work was well calculated to cause displays of talent in this line, so a fine of five to ten cents was decided upon and the financial success of the expedition thereby assured. A complete list of contributors to this fine forfeiture fund will be found just below the title line of this article, the number of stars indicating the number of dollars thus far charged against them.
Last year an extension survey of the roads of this county was undertaken, and close to one hundred miles of line was run. This year no such pretension work is being attempted, but the Civil Engineering Department has much of the more important construction work on the campus to plan and direct, and much outside work is done in the city and vicinity. Street and sidewalk work, sewer and drainage propositions, location of disputed land lines, etc. Topographical surveys, map work and blue printing are constantly awaiting the energetic student who wishes additional experience and has the time to spare from other duties. Summer work in Engineering lines is also closely watched by the department and every effort made to place the students in good positions during the summer months. The benefits of this fall chiefly to the Transit Club men.
WE ARE THE PEOPLE.
Nine Rahs for the Transit Club.