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Educational criticisms of two art museum education programs : What constitutes success?

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Educational criticisms of two art museum education programs : What constitutes success?
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Kilgore, Karen, 1954-
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Art education ( jstor )
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Docents ( jstor )
Educational evaluation ( jstor )
Educational research ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Museums ( jstor )
Observational research ( jstor )
Tours ( jstor )
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Art museums -- Evaluation ( lcsh )
Curriculum and Instruction thesis Ph. D
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1988.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Typescript.
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Vita.
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by Karen Kilgore.

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EDUCATIONAL CRITICISMS OF WO ART MUSEUM EDUCATION PROGRAMS:
WHAT CONSTITUTES SUCCESS?








By

KAREN KILGORE


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1988


0-E F LIBRARIES


































Copyright 1988

by

Karen Kilgore





























To Mom, Carla, and Rich,

who were always willing to listen

and to Jenny, Mandy, and Will,

who were always willing to

provide a child's eye view of matters

















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Conducting this study has been a challenging as well as

satisfying experience. I would like to express my gratitude to those

people who have made this experience a rewarding enterprise.

First, I would like to thank the members of my doctoral

committee: Ray Ferguson, whose down-to-earth perspective has helped

keep my feet planted firmly on the ground and moving in a forward

direction and whose gentle smile has been a source of encouragement;

Arthur Newcomb, who provided support through his quiet assurance and

helpful comments; and Forrest Parkay, who continually expressed

interest and enthusiasm in my endeavors. I would also like to give a

special thank you to my chair, Dr. Dorene Ross, and my cochair,

Professor Roy Craven. Dr. Ross is one of those rare individuals who

inspires not only through words but through actions. I have benefited

not only from her advice and assistance but also from her example as a

researcher and a teacher. Professor Roy Craven has known me the

longest and has continually encouraged me to continue with my studies.

Through the years, he has given me advice, support, and encouragement,

both personally and professionally. He has shared with me the joys of

art and the pleasures to be found in the world of museums.












I would also like to thank my friends and family who have given

me love and understanding. Throughout the study, they helped me keep

my perspective and reminded me of the truly important matters in life.

Finally, I would like to thank the staff of the museums who

participated in the study. They graciously invited me into their

lives, offering me kindness, assistance, and information. This study

would not have been possible without their help. During the course of

this study, I shared with them the difficulties and rewards of

cultivating an appreciation of art in the audiences they served. As I

observed their endeavors, I was continually reminded of a passage from

Letters to a Young Poet by Rainer Maria Rilke (1962).

With nothing can one approach a work of art so
little as with critical words: They always come
down to more or less happy misunderstandings.
Things are not all so comprehensible as one would
mostly have us believe; most events are
inexpressible, taking place in a realm which no
word has ever entered, and more inexpressible
than all else are works of art, mysterious
existences, the life of which, while ours passes
away, endures. (p. 17)

I hope this dissertation does justice to the museum staff's efforts to

express the inexpressible.

















TABLE OF CONTENTS



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ......... ........................ ... iv

ABSTRACT ........... ............................ ..viii

CHAPTER

I BACKGROUND FOR THE STUDY .... ................... 1

Statement of the Problem ....... ................ 2
Design of the Study ......... .................. 3
Rationale for the Study ........ ................. 4
Possible Use of the Results ..... .. .............. 5
Review of the Literature . .... ................ 7
Clarification of the Study .. .................... 17

II METHODOLOGY ....... ...................... 19

Rationale ...... ........................ 21
Procedures ........ ....................... ... 23
Methods of Data Collection ..... ............... .... 28
Presentation of Data ...... .................. 46
Validity, Generalizability, and Other Matters ... ...... 52
Summary ......... ........................ 59

III THE LITTLE PEOPLE'S TOUR: WHAT CONSTITUTES SUCCESS? . 60

Sculpture: Who Makes It? And How? .. ........... ... 66
Painting: Who Makes It? And How? .. ........... 72
Portraits: Who Are These People and Why Do They Look
the Way That They Do? ...... ................. ... 78
Landscapes and Seascapes: Now Which One Has the Water? 84
The Antiquities: Art Tells a Story .. ........... ... 89
The Wallingford Room: What Is A Museum? ........ 94
Summary: The Little People's Tour .. ........... 99
Analysis in Terms of the Guiding Questions of the Study 100












IV THE FIFTH GRADE TOUR PROGRAM: WHAT CONSTITUTES SUCCESS? 107

The Art Discovery Room: You, Too, Can Make a
Pre-Columbian Pot ...... .................. ... 114
The Slide Show: Jaguars and Monkeys and Snakes!
Oh, No! ......... ....................... ..129
The Pre-Columbian Gallery: Where Is That Bird Thing? 143
Analysis in Terms of the Guiding Questions of the Study 158

V WHAT CONSTITUTES SUCCESS: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN THE TWO PROGRAMS ..... ............... ... 164

Summaries of the Two Criticisms .... ............. ... 165
Similarities and Differences ..............175
Similarities and Differences: Further Reflections . 187

VI CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS .... ............. .. 198

Relationship of Findings to Previous Studies. . . . 202
Contribution of Findings to the Research Community . 208
Contribution of Findings to Practitioners ........ ... 214
Summary ..... ..................... .......... 223

REFERENCES .......... ......................... .. 224

APPENDIX

A FIRST INTERVIEW WITH THE CURATORS OF EDUCATION ..... 230

B SECOND INTERVIEW WITH THE CURATORS OF EDUCATION ..... 231

C INTERVIEW WITH THE DIRECTORS ..... .............. .. 232

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........ ..................... 233















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of
the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

EDUCATIONAL CRITICISMS OF TWO ART MUSEUM EDUCATION PROGRAMS:
WHAT CONSTITUTES SUCCESS?

By

Karen Kilgore

December, 1988

Chair: Dorene D. Ross
Cochair: Roy C. Craven, Jr.
Major Department: Instruction and Curriculum

The purpose of this study was to investigate the evaluation

practices of art museum educators, to identify the criteria used to

determine success, and to examine the relationship between those

criteria and the museum educators' beliefs about art museum education.

Information about two art museum education programs, designated as

successful by the curators of education at their respective

institutions, was collected, analyzed, and presented using a

qualitative research methodology, educational criticism. Observations

at each museum were conducted for 10 to 12 weeks and recorded through

the use of field notes and audiotapes. The curators of education

were interviewed, formally and informally, concerning their goals for

the programs, their evaluation procedures, and their beliefs

concerning the success of the programs. The directors of the museums

and the docents who implemented the programs were also interviewed.


viii











The curators had established three goals for the children who

participated in these programs: to look, to learn, and to enjoy. The

curators evaluated the programs, informally, through observation.

Their criteria for success fell into two categories: child-centered

criteria, determining whether the children were enjoying and

actively involved in the museum experience, and object-centered

criteria, noting whether the activities and questioning strategies

directed the children's attention to the art on display. The

child-centered criteria reflected the curators' beliefs concerning

appropriate instructional strategies for children. The

object-centered criteria reflected the curators' beliefs concerning

the purposes of art museum education programs. The curators also

cited the popularity of the program with educators in their

communities as an indication of success.

The criteria for success identified in this study could be used

as a basis for developing formal evaluation strategies appropriate for

these and other art museum education programs. Additionally, the

study highlighted the complex interrelationship between the curators'

criteria for success, their educational beliefs, and their practices.

The results suggest the need for further research into the educational

beliefs and practices of art museum educators. The study also

illustrated the usefulness of qualitative methods of research and

evaluation in the art museum setting.

















CHAPTER I
BACKGROUND FOR THE STUDY



An art museum is first and foremost about art--those creations of

men and women that give expression to the meaning of human experience.

The staff of an art museum is committed to conserving works of art and

to making them physically and intellectually accessible to the

communities the staff serve. The dilemma facing the staff of most art

museums is that, for many in our society, comprehending the visual

arts is a difficult task. Whether a museum visitor is able to

secure meaning from an art work depends basically upon the

circumstances of the viewing and the capacities of the viewer. In a

museum, art is often seen out of context, separated from the culture

that generated its form and the rituals that gave it meaning. The art

on display may, at first, have no apparent connection with the daily

life of the contemporary viewer. Although the staff of an art museum

cannot readily confer the experience or competence necessary to

understanding art forms, the staff can stimulate and foster the

development of those abilities.

The staff of an art museum is composed of people with varying

interests and capabilities, each with a purpose to fulfill. Some are

required to collect and preserve art, others to classify and arrange














art, and some to exhibit and explain art. The primary responsibility

of the museum's educational staff is to develop means that enable the

viewer to secure meaning from an art form. It is the duty of art

museum educators to provide bridges between the viewer and works of

art. These bridges are built in numerous ways: gallery talks, guided

tours, classes, didactic displays, and outreach programs to schools as

well as community organizations. The museum educator's audience is

diverse, varying widely in age, experience, knowledge, and interests.

The education staff speaks in many voices seeking to be heard by those

who are willing to listen. Whether these messages are intelligible is

often a matter of debate.

Statement of the Problem

It is not easy to understand the dynamic and complex

relationships between the selection and arrangement of art works, the

educational efforts of the museum staff, and the museum visitor. The

broad diversity of visitor backgrounds complicates the matter further.

As art museum educators develop programs, they make a variety of

decisions related to the characteristics of their audience and the

nature of the art exhibition. The beliefs and values that guide such

decisions also form the basis for evaluating the effectiveness of

their practices. Unlike schools, art museum education programs are

not shaped by curricular mandates nor assessed in terms of learner

outcomes. However, the lack of formal evaluation procedures does not














necessarily imply a lack of evaluation in art museum practices. The

purpose of this study was to examine the evaluation efforts of art

museum educators, to identify the criteria used to determine success,

and to investigate the relationship between those criteria and the

educators' beliefs about art museum education.

Design of the Study

Qualitative methods of research were used to gather and analyze

information. The study consisted of intensive investigations of

educational programs at two art museums. The curators of education 1

at each institution were formally interviewed concerning a number of

topics: the curators' educational goals, the nature of their

audiences, their methods of implementing educational programs, and the

curators' efforts to evaluate their educational programs. These

interviews were intended to discern the perceptions, beliefs, and

values of the curators of education that shaped the educational

programs at their institutions. Detailed observations focused on

programs designated as successful by the curators of education.2

These observations were needed to explore in detail the relationship



1. In many art museums, the term curator of education refers to
the person who directs the museum's educational programs. The art
museum educators interviewed in this study were curators of education.
In sections of this dissertation, the term art museum educator and
curator of education are used interchangeably.

2. See Methodology section for a description of site and program
selection.














between the curators' criteria for success and the educational

programs at their institutions. Additional interviews, both formal

and informal, were conducted with the curators of education, directors

of the museums, other educational staff members, and participants in

the museum programs. Samples of educational materials were also

collected. The researcher secured permission from the University of

Florida Institutional Review Board to conduct the study.

Rationale for the Study

Nine out of 10 art museums offer educational programs. The staff

of art museums conduct classes and tours, design curriculum materials

for the schools, send instructors into classrooms, and offer outreach

programs. These programs are funded from the museums' operating

budgets, private donations, and state or federal dollars (Commission

on Museums for a New Century, 1984; Newsom & Silver, 1978).

Considering the time, energy, and resources that museum staff expend

on education, one might well ask what impact these educational efforts

have had on the communities they serve. What are art museum educators

trying to achieve through their programs? How do they know that they

are succeeding?

Despite the evident commitment to education made by the staff of

art museums, little is known about visitor learning in museums

(Commission on Museums for a New Century, 1984; Eisner & Dobbs, 1986a,

1986b; Goodman, 1985; Wolf, 1980). It would seem that museum














educators develop, implement, and modify educational programs without

benefit of a theoretical or intellectual foundation. What are the

beliefs, values, and perceptions that guide their judgments? Although

numerous researchers have proposed various strategies for evaluating

art museum education programs (Anderson, 1968; Cameron, 1967, 1968;

Chambers, 1984; Chapman, 1982; Chase, 1975; Hein, 1982; Loomis, 1973;

Mariner, 1972; Screven, 1969, 1974a, 1974b, 1984; Shettel, 1973;

Washburn, 1968, 1975, 1985; Wolf, 1980), few researchers have

investigated how art museum professionals actually evaluate their

efforts (Eisner & Dobbs, 1986a, 1986b; Hayes, 1968; Newsom & Silver,

1978). The purpose of this study was to investigate the evaluation

efforts of art museum educators.

Possible Uses of the Results

The extended observations needed to conduct a qualitative study

limited the number of museums and educational programs investigated.

Although the study provides insight into art museum education

practices, specific findings cannot be generalized to other art

museums. However, an intensive investigation of a limited group of

programs may be useful in a number of ways.

The study may have methodological significance to both

practitioners and researchers. Recently, a number of researchers have

advocated the use of qualitative methods to investigate museum

programs (Eisner & Dobbs, 1986a, 1986b; Hein, 1982; Wolf, 1980).














These researchers have stressed the unique learning environment of the

museum and have suggested that qualitative methods of inquiry may be

more fruitful than quantitative measures in the museum environment.

Although qualitative techniques have been used to evaluate and

investigate programs in science and natural history museums (Hein,

1982; Linn, 1983; Wolf, 1980), these methods have rarely been used in

art museums (Eisner & Dobbs, 1986b). Clearly, there is a need to

develop methods capable of assessing the multifaceted nature of the

art museum visit. This study exemplifies the use of qualitative

methodology to investigate art museum education programs.

For researchers, the study may suggest areas for further inquiry.

The findings of a qualitative study may result in the identification

of variables and generation of hypotheses for continued exploration.

This investigation is an addition to the small but growing body of

knowledge concerning art museum education programs.

The study may also be of benefit to art museum professionals.

Intensive analyses of even a limited number of successful programs may

assist the art museum's staff as they develop and implement

educational programs. Additionally, as museums become more dependent

upon public funds to finance their educational programs, they

undoubtedly will encounter the demand for accountability (Commission

on Museums for a New Century, 1984; Newsom, 1980). This study

illustrates an appropriate methodology for practitioners to evaluate

programs at their institutions.














Review of the Literature

What is known about the ways that art museum educators determine

the success of their programs? This question prompts the following

review of the literature on evaluation procedures in art museum

education. One of the first investigations of the evaluation efforts

of art museum educators was a study commissioned by the United States

Department of Education in 1965 (Hayes, 1968). During an 11-month

period, Hayes visited 57 art museums in 49 states; he interviewed

museum staff and observed educational programs. Hayes focused his

investigation on programs for elementary and secondary students. The

majority of these programs were designed to enable children from

various grade levels to visit museums once a year for guided tours

through the museums' permanent collections.

From the interviews of museum staff, Hayes discerned three major

goals for art museum education programs: (a) to give children a

favorable exposure to art museums, (b) to stimulate a heightened

awareness and appreciation of the visual arts, and (c) to relate the

visual arts to topics of interest in the classroom. According to

Hayes, the museum staff believed that attainment of these goals would

result in an enhanced appreciation of art and continued use of art

museums by the participants of the programs.

When asked about evaluation of their goals, Hayes noted a number

of themes in the educators' responses. First,. the educators cited the














numbers of children reached by the museum's educational efforts. The

majority of these programs were conducted in areas which had no formal

art education programs in the schools. The museum staff considered

their programs successful because the museum provided an exposure to

the arts for large numbers of children who did not have such an

opportunity in the normal course of their schooling. Second, the

museum educators pointed to higher attendance records and increased

museum memberships since the inception of formal education programs.

These figures were seen as indications of successful programs. Third,

many of the educators offered anecdotes to illustrate the beneficial

effects of their programs. For example, an art museum educator at the

Taft Museum in Cincinnati told a story about a little boy from an

impoverished area of the city who returned to the museum after a visit

the preceding week. The child brought his kitten to the museum to

show his pet "how pretty it is" (Hayes, 1968, p. 51). Other museum

educators also described incidents of children returning to the museum

with their parents following participation in museum programs. For

the majority of educators interviewed, anecdotes about participants in

the programs were offered as compelling evidence of the success of

their programs.

Hayes expressed the view that such incidents as the solitary

child returning with his pet did constitute a measure of success.

Hayes, however, thought it unlikely that a solitary visit to an art














museum in childhood would grow into an understanding of art and

continued use of art museums. Without support from the community and

collaboration with the schools, Hayes doubted that art museum

educators would fulfill their aim of developing lifelong appreciation

of art and museums in the children they served.

In 1973, the Council of Museums and Education in the Visual Arts

commissioned a study of art museum education practices (Newsom &

Silver, 1978). One hundred and five programs from 71 museums across

the country were investigated by 12 researchers. Their efforts were

led and organized by Newsom and Silver, who edited the final report,

The Art Museum as Educator. The study was conducted over a 3-year

period.

Of the 71 museums investigated in the study, the majority of

their educational budgets were spent on programs for school-age

children. The purposes of these programs fell into three main

categories: (a) to help children feel comfortable in an art museum

and to value museums, (b) to introduce children to the visual arts and

engage them in experiences that would sharpen their perceptions, and

(c) to give children opportunities for studio activities to enhance

their understanding and enjoyment of art.

When asked about evaluation of their programs, many educators

responded with attendance figures and numbers of children reached

through their educational programs. However, Newsom and Silver














questioned whether such figures were truly indicators of successful

programs. For example, Newsom and Silver conducted a follow-up survey

of a program on contemporary art at the Walker Museum which had drawn

the institution's third largest crowd. Unfortunately, the

investigation of the program found that the majority of the visitors

expressed "bewilderment, anxiety, and even anger" (p. 81) following

the tour.

The educators also pointed to follow-up questionnaires sent to

teachers as efforts to evaluate their programs. Newsom and Silver,

however, argued that questionnaires from schoolteachers were

inadequate measures of the success of a program. Questionnaires from

schoolteachers were often returned haphazardly and were probably

unreliable due to the simple fact that teachers were generally

unfamiliar with art and museums and therefore ill equipped to

critically assess the museum's educational efforts. Additionally,

Newsom and Silver noted that no attempt was made by the education

staff to ascertain whether programs for children had resulted, over

time, in an enhanced appreciation of art and art museums.

Newsom and Silver observed that the majority of programs were

evaluated on an informal basis by the museum staff. In their

conclusion, Newsom and Silver noted the difficulties associated with

formally evaluating museum education programs and posed a number of

questions to art museum educators.














Is visual memory an art museum's equivalent of the
schools' measure of academic achievement? Or is it
enough to record the children's evident pleasure
in the museum and the activities offered to them
there? The programs described here, some modest and
some ambitious, suggest that evaluation based on what
goes into a program and how it is conducted may very
well be more helpful for art museum educators than a
hopeless effort to measure what comes out of it.
Learning in an art museum is not quantifiable. (p. 271)

Newsom and Silver concluded that attempts to measure the long-term

effects of art museum education practices were unrealistic and

recommended that evaluation efforts be concentrated on assessing the

quality of individual programs.

In 1984, the Getty Center for Education in the Visual Arts

commissioned an investigation of the state of art museum education in

the United States (Eisner & Dobbs, 1986b). The study, The Uncertain

Profession: Observations on the State of Museum Education in Twenty

American Art Museums, was conducted by Elliot Eisner and Stephen

Dobbs, art educators from outside the museum profession. Eisner and

Dobbs interviewed 38 museum directors and educators in 20 prestigious

art museums around the country, museums such as the Metropolitan

Museum of Art, the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and the Art Institute

of Chicago. The study was conducted over a 6-month period.

Unlike the studies conducted by Hayes (1968) and Newsom and

Silver (1978), Eisner and Dobbs discerned no consensus among museum

professionals regarding the aims of art museum education. One wonders

if this might be due, in part, to the fact that Eisner and Dobbs did














not observe programs and therefore did not engage the educators in

extended discussions concerning the museums' educational programs.

In the area of evaluation, Eisner and Dobbs observed a lack of

formal evaluation procedures and attributed this lack to inadequate

training of the museum education staff. Eisner and Dobbs concluded

that museum educators tended to evaluate their programs on an informal

basis, that is, by "walking through the galleries" (p. 59). Eisner

and Dobbs also noted that when museum professionals spoke of

successful programs, they were often referring to shows with

impressive attendance figures.

Hayes (1968), Newsom and Silver (1978), and Eisner and Dobbs

(1986b) all observed a consistent lack of formal evaluation in art

museums. These studies spanned across two decades of art museum

education. It is interesting to note that during that same time

period, repeated calls for evaluation were being sounded in the museum

literature (Anderson, 1968; Cameron, 1967, 1968; Chambers, 1984;

Chapman, 1982; Chase, 1975; Loomis, 1973; Mariner, 1972; Screven,

1969, 1974a, 1974b, 1984; Shettel, 1973; Washburn, 1968, 1975, 1985).

Apparently these calls for evaluation went relatively unheeded by art

museum educators. The absence of formal evaluation procedures did not

go unnoticed or uncriticized.

In one of the first national conferences on museums and

education, sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution, Anderson (1968)














criticized the lack of evaluation in museum practices and suggested

that museum professionals were afraid of what they would find.

Anderson observed that most museum programs for children were limited

encounters and argued, "if of necessity, an educational program is

brief, it had better be good" (p. 117). Anderson encouraged museums

to establish clear objectives and measure the effectiveness of their

practices using the experimental approach whenever possible as well as

tests, questionnaires, unobtrusive measures, interviews, and

observations.

Other critics echoed Anderson's concerns. Cameron (1967, 1968)

and Screven (1969, 1974a) urged museum educators to establish

objectives and consider ways to achieve and measure them. Matthai

(1974) observed that museum educators relied primarily on inspiration

and tradition in developing educational programs but he cautioned that

such inspiration should be submitted to "careful scrutiny and

empirical verification" (p. 13). Washburn (1985) asserted that the

lack of evaluation had denied museum educators the status of

professionals. Washburn stated, "a characteristic of a true

profession is an abundance of critical self-examination. . I do

not see this as characteristic of the museum profession" (p. 22).

A number of leading spokespersons for art museums responded to

these criticisms. Newsom (1978) argued against the notion that art

museum programs could be compared to school programs and therefore

evaluated using the same procedures. According to Newsom,














critics are justified in crying that museums ought
to be more educationally accountable than they are.
But, if the price of that accountability is control
by the formal educational establishment, there are
many both inside and outside the museum who would
lock arms in the museum's defense. (p. 487)

Newsom further stated,

those of us who are defenders of the museum and its
educational possibilities beg you not to try to capture
it with credentials, lesson plans, and the too formal
trappings of productivity and educator's rule. Museums
are in many ways fragile institutions. Rigidified,
they will surely break. (p. 497)

Sherman Lee (1983), Director of the Cleveland Museum of Art and one of

the most prominent spokesmen for art museums in the past two decades,

agreed with Newsom and argued,

as marginal institutions, art museums . are
understandably sensitive to reasonably objective study,
let alone criticism. . Positive thinking and the
maintenance of a solid, if mute, defensive front are
standard good form in education and the visual arts--
especially with regard to art museums. (p. 67)

These statements indicate an aversion to formal evaluation by art

museum professionals. Why were art museum professionals opposed to

formal evaluations of art museum education programs?

Part of the answer may be found in the results of several

experimental studies conducted in museums during the 1970s (Screven,

1974b; Shettel, 1973; Washburn, 1975). These investigations, using

preordinate evaluation techniques commonly found in the evaluation of

school programs, failed to show that significant learning gains

resulted from art museum visits. For example, Screven (1974b)















assessed visitor learning at the Milwaukee Public Museum and found

that visitors left the museum as uninformed as when they entered.

Other results were similarly dismaying. In fact, one researcher

concluded that the "coercive setting of most museum environments was

positively hostile to the learning experience" (Washburn, 1975, p.

215). Perhaps Anderson was right when she suggested that museum

educators resisted evaluation because they were afraid of what they

would find.

However, the intention of these studies was to measure cognitive

gains even though the stated goals of museum educators were primarily

concerned with the pleasures enjoyed by the visitors who participated

in museum programs (Hayes, 1968; Newsom & Silver, 1978). According to

Newsom and Silver,

the museum is less a place to learn about art than a
place in which to enjoy it. An art museum exists for
our pleasure. .. Certainly we can learn many things
along the way, about the past, about other people, about
aesthetic and philosophical ideas, and about ourselves.
In that sense, the museum is a kind of tuition-free open
university. But it is above all an institution, as one
museum director has put it, that does what it does "for
sheer beauty, not just for education." (p. 1)

When one considers the goals of museum education, the experimental

studies conducted in the 1970s were clearly inadequate. It may be

that the preordinate evaluation techniques were unable to capture the

qualities of the aesthetic experience that art museum educators

valued. It would seem that rather than accept evaluation techniques














that were incapable of assessing their goals, art museum educators

have shunned formal evaluation procedures.

What then is known about the ways that art museum educators

evaluate their programs? The studies conducted by Hayes (1968),

Newsom and Silver (1978), and Eisner and Dobbs (1986b) indicated that

art museum educators evaluated their programs on an informal basis.

Despite repeated calls for formal evaluation, art museum educators

have consistently resisted formal assessments. This resistance may be

due, in part, to the dismaying results from quantitative assessments

(Screven, 1974b; Shettel, 1973; Washburn, 1975) but it may also be due

to the inadequacy of such measures to assess their goals. Both Hayes

(1968) and Newsom and Silver (1978) reported that art museum educators

emphasized the aesthetic dimensions of their educational programs.

The quantitative studies conducted in the 1970s did not adequately

assess the intent of the art museum educators in designing and

implementing their programs. Consequently, art museum educators have

relied on informal assessment to evaluate their programs.

Eisner and Dobbs (1986b) stated that art museum educators

evaluated their programs by "walking through the galleries" but they

did not state what these educators were looking for during their

walks. What characteristics made a program successful in the eyes of

the art museum educator? Were the museum educators looking for

galleries crowded with people? Or did they want to find small groups














of children engaged in hands-on activities? What kinds of

interactions did educators want to see between the docents and the

tour groups? The answers to these questions are not found in the

literature. The studies conducted by Hayes (1968), Newsom and Silver

(1978), and Eisner and Dobbs (1986b) do not offer much insight into

the nature of the educators' informal evaluations. Little is known

about the criteria used by art museum educators to evaluate their

programs or the beliefs that guide their judgments.

Qualitative studies, involving extensive observation, are needed

to answer many of the questions concerning evaluation in art museum

programs. The purpose of this study was to answer some of these

questions through an intensive investigation of selected art museum

programs.

Clarification of the Study

This study was conducted to answer some questions concerning the

process of evaluation in art museum education programs. The following

questions guided the investigation:

1. What does it mean when an art museum educator designates an

educational program a success? That is, what is the educator trying

to achieve? How does the educator know that he or she is succeeding?

2. How do art museum educators' criteria for success reveal

their beliefs about art museum education?














3. Are there consistent patterns in art museum educators'

attempts to evaluate their programs? That is, what are the

similarities and differences in the criteria used by art museum

educators to evaluate their programs?

In considering these questions, the intention of the researcher was to

reveal and analyze the implicit and explicit criteria guiding the

judgments of art museum educators as they evaluated the effectiveness

of their practices.

In the following chapters the methodology, the findings, and

implications are discussed. Chapter II provides an explanation of the

methodology. In Chapters III and IV, educational programs from two

art museums are described, interpreted, and appraised. Chapter V

provides an explanation of the similarities and differences between

the two programs and the criteria used by the art museum educators to

determine the success of their respective programs. Conclusions and

implications are presented in Chapter VI.

















CHAPTER II
METHODOLOGY



Educational criticism, a qualitative research methodology, was

the method chosen to conduct this study. Educational criticism has

been effectively used by researchers to describe, interpret, and

appraise a variety of educational phenomena (Alexander, 1980; Barone,

1980, 1983; Eisner, 1972, 1975, 1978, 1980, 1985; Kelly, 1975; Kyle,

1982; McCutcheon, 1979; Munby, 1979; Ross, 1978, 1984; Willis, 1975,

1978). Through the process of educational criticism, the researcher

attempts to answer such questions as what is happening? What does it

mean to those involved? What is its value? (McCutcheon, 1979). To

answer these questions, the researcher must engage in sustained and

persistent observation in the natural setting of the studied

phenomenon.

To conduct their investigations, educational critics have adapted

methods from social anthropology. These methods include observation,

interviews, and the collection of artifacts (Eisner, 1985; Kyle, 1982;

McCutcheon, 1979; Ross, 1978, 1984). During the course of the

investigation, the researcher continually searches for patterns and

attempts to discern the meaning of events. As information is

gathered, the critic reflects on the observations. These periods of















reflection guide subsequent observations and provide a focus for the

study (McCutcheon, 1979).

The role of the educational critic is modeled after that of the

art critic. The intent of the art critic is to render the ineffable

qualities of an art work into a form that enables the viewer to gain a

deeper understanding of the work. The art critic considers the aims

of the artist, assesses the quality of the art form, and places the

art work in a historical and social context. The intent of the

educational critic is to enhance understanding of educational

phenomena such as a particular classroom, a set of curriculum

materials, or an instructional technique. The educational critic

considers the aims of the educator, evaluates the educational quality

of the phenomenon, and assesses the significance of the phenomenon

with respect to relevant educational theory and research. As Eisner

(1975) explained, the aim of criticism

is to lift the veils that keep the eyes from seeing by
providing the bridge needed by others to experience the
qualities and relationships within some area of
activity. The critic must talk or write about
what he has encountered; he must . provide a
rendering of the qualities that constitute that work,
its significance and the quality of his experiences as
he interacts with it. (p. 1)

By integrating and modifying the approaches of the social

anthropologist and the aesthetic critic, the educational critic is

able to conduct in-depth investigations into the qualitative aspects

of educational life.














As the educational critic presents the results of an educational

criticism, the critic distinguishes between three interrelated

processes that guided the investigation. First, through description,

the critic artistically reconstructs events as they have transpired.

Second, through interpretation, the critic depicts patterns of

behavior that have given order to the educational setting and explains

the meaning of events to those involved. Third, the critic provides

an appraisal of the phenomenon. The critic addresses the question of

whether the educator has fulfilled his or her aims and assesses the

worth of those aims (Eisner, 1985; McCutcheon, 1979; Ross, 1984). The

critic supports his argument with descriptive examples and continued

references to the information gathered.

Rationale

Numerous researchers have noted the scarcity of research and

evaluation in the field of art museum education (Anderson, 1968;

Mariner, 1972; Matthai, 1974; Screven, 1969, 1974a, 1974b, 1984;

Washburn, 1968, 1975, 1985). Lacking a comprehensive research base

and working without a tradition of evaluation, art museum educators

have tended to appraise their programs on an informal basis (Eisner &

Dobbs, 1986b; Hayes, 1968; Newsom & Silver, 1978). Differentiating

between formal and informal practices of evaluation, Stake (1967)

noted that informal evaluation depends on "casual observation,

implicit goals, intuitive norms, and subjective judgment" (p. 523).














The purpose of this study was to investigate the criteria used by art

museum educators to determine the success of their educational

programs. Such an investigation required sustained, intensive inquiry

in the naturalistic setting to discern the implicit goals and

intuitive norms that framed the educators' observations and guided

their judgments. The investigation also required a methodology

capable of portraying the subtleties and complexities of the art

museum experience.

Educational criticism was chosen as the method of inquiry for

several reasons. First, an educational criticism focuses on events as

they unfold in their natural setting. The data collected are

descriptive and are intended to capture the characteristic qualities

of the phenomenon. The descriptive aspect of an educational criticism

is appropriate for conveying the unique qualities of the art museum.

Second, the educational critic is concerned with the meaning of

events and considers the different values and perspectives of

participants. The critic also relates events to the context from

which they emerge. The criteria for evaluating art museum programs

cannot be understood separate from the context that generated and

sustained the criteria. The interpretive aspect of an educational

criticism is an appropriate means for disclosing the meaning of

program success to art museum educators and discerning the beliefs

guiding their judgments.















Third, the educational critic provides an appraisal of the

educational phenomenon under study: an analysis and evaluation of the

aims of the educator. The focus of this investigation, the

determination of program success by art museum educators, entails an

analysis of the relationship between the observed programs and the

educators' criteria for success. An appraisal of those aims is

essential to a thorough understanding of the goals of the observed art

museum practices. The process of appraisal, an integral component of

an educational criticism, is an appropriate means to assess the aims

of art museum educators as they develop, implement, and evaluate their

programs.

Procedures

In the following section, the procedures for implementing the

study are described. Discussions of site selection, gaining entry to

the sites, program selection, and research schedule are included.

Site Selection

The art museums included in the study were selected according to

the following criteria:

1. The museum was accredited by the American Association of

Museums.

2. The museum had a permanent educational staff and a full-time

curator of education.

3. The museum offered ongoing educational programs.














Additionally, due to travel limitations on the part of the researcher,

the selected museums were within a 200 mile radius of the researcher's

home.

Seven museums met the criteria and were initially included in the

study. The researcher visited each institution, observed a variety of

educational programs, and formally interviewed the curators of

education. During the interviews, the curators frequently referred to

one or two programs that they described as particularly successful and

therefore illustrated what the curators were trying to accomplish.

The focus for the study emerged from discussions of these successful

programs. Programs from two museums were chosen for the study.1

The two museums selected were the Wallingford Museum of Art and

the Harrison Museum of Art.2 The Wallingford Museum of Art is in a

large metropolitan area; its operations are funded through private

donations and a sizable endowment. The museum has a significant

permanent collection. The Wallingford Museum offers a variety of

educational programs: docent-led tours for school groups, ranging

from preschool through the 12th grade; an upper education outreach

program for college and university students; a concert series; an art

history lecture series; a series of luncheon-lectures designed for

office workers; and a variety of special events.



1. See program selection for the criteria used to choose the two
programs.

2. The names used in this dissertation are fictitious in order
to maintain the anonymity of the participants.














The Harrison Museum of Art is in a small urban area; its

operating budget is derived from a synthesis of public and private

funding. The museum has a small permanent collection of pre-Columbian

artifacts. The Harrison museum offers a variety of educational

programs: a cooperative program with the public schools of Harrison

County; a guest lecture series of visiting artists and art historians;

an art film series; guided tours for community and civic

organizations; and a variety of special events.

Gaining Entry to the Sites

Access was obtained by contacting the directors of each

institution under consideration. The directors were told that the

researcher wished to investigate the educational programs in various

art museums throughout the state. The directors identified the

curators of education for the researcher (giving the names, official

title, work schedules, and phone numbers of the curators to the

researcher) and notified the curators of the researcher's intent.

After obtaining permission from the directors, the researcher

contacted the curators of education and arranged an initial visit.

During this visit the researcher described the purpose of the study

and explained that the researcher would be compiling case studies of

selected programs. Each of the curators agreed to participate in the

study. The curators were told that they would receive written reports

of the case studies.














Program Selection

After interviewing the curators of education at each institution,

programs at two museums were selected for further investigation.

These programs were chosen from a group of programs designated as

successful by the curators of education. The two programs were

selected for several reasons:

1. The program focused on the original art object. The presence

of the original art object is a distinguishing characteristic of an

art museum; therefore, these programs served a function that programs

at other institutions were not capable of performing. Types of

programs offered by other institutions (such as studio classes) were

not chosen for study.

2. The program was implemented on a daily or weekly basis. The

researcher wished to engage in a sustained investigation over a

3-month period at each institution; therefore, programs implemented on

a monthly or sporadic schedule were not chosen.

3. The intended audiences for the program were children of

elementary school age. The researcher's areas of expertise and

experience are museum education programs for children. Because the

researcher's professional preparation provides a framework for

observations, interpretations, and appraisals, this age group was

deemed the most appropriate for study.

The program selected at Wallingford Museum of Art was

specifically designed for young children. The program, named the














Little People's Tour, consisted of docent-led tours through six

galleries in the museum. Children from local preschools and

elementary schools participated in the program; the tours were

scheduled at the initiative of the teachers who wished to have their

classes participate in the tours.

The program selected at the Harrison Museum of Art was a

cooperative program developed with the local school system. Each

fifth grade class in the county visited the museum; the program was

designed, in part, to reinforce the fifth grade social studies

curriculum. The focus of the tour was the museum's collection of

pre-Columbian artifacts. The school system funded the program and

provided assistance in organizing and scheduling the tours.

Ideally, the present study would have included an investigation

of several programs offered by each institution. Such a study would

have provided a more comprehensive view of the art museum educator as

he or she endeavored to evaluate a variety of programs with diverse

aims and different audiences. Additionally, it would have been

instructive to include a larger population of art museum educators so

that comparisons could have been made among programs and institutions.

However, such a study would have entailed time, resources, and staff

unavailable to the researcher. The number of programs included in the

study was limited by the time constraints on the researcher. Two

programs were chosen to give the researcher ample time to investigate

each program in-depth over a 6-month period.














Research Schedule

The researcher interviewed curators of education and observed art

museum education programs from the seven art museums during the months

of September and October, 1987. After these initial interviews,

programs from two museums were chosen for in-depth investigation.

From November, 1987, until April, 1988, the researcher observed the

selected programs. Each site was visited weekly; each visit consisted

of 4 to 6 hours of observations and interviews. The researcher

investigated one program for 10 to 12 weeks, then moved on to the next

site. The total amount of time spent in the field was approximately

160 hours.

The period from May to August, 1988, was devoted to ongoing data

analysis, return visits to the sites, and completion of the written

report.

Methods of Data Collection

As stated previously, the primary methods of data collection in a

qualitative, naturalistic study are participant observation,

interviews, and the collection of artifacts (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982;

Guba & Lincoln, 1981; Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Lofland & Lofland, 1984).

The following section includes a description of these methods.

Participant Observation

Participant observation in the naturalistic setting is one of the

primary means by which the researcher gains an understanding of the















phenomenon under study (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982; Lincoln & Guba, 1985;

Lofland & Lofland, 1984). During observation, the role of the

naturalistic researcher may range from that of complete observer in

which the researcher's observations are concealed from the

participants to that of complete participant in which the observer

assumes an active role. The extent of participation may vary

throughout the course of the study and depends upon the intentions of

the researcher (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982; Spradley, 1980). For the

purposes of this study, the researcher's role was primarily that of

observer.

When using observational techniques, the naturalistic researcher

needs to consider the possible effects of observation on the

participants. To avoid altering the situation, the researcher should

minimize contact with the participants during the observation periods

(Eisner, 1985; Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Ross, 1984). Although the

concerns about the reactions of participants to observation are

legitimate, Lincoln and Guba (1985) have noted, "social environments

are quite stable and an inquirer's presence may seldom, if ever,

produce the massive imbalances that researchers so carefully seek to

avoid" (pp. 193-194).

Because the museums included in this study were places of public

access, the researcher's observations seemed to have a minimal impact

on the implementation of the museum's educational programs.














Frequently, other visitors to the museum followed the groups of

children touring the museum. Additionally, docents-in-training, who

were observing and taking notes, frequently followed the tour groups.

A few of the museum staff assumed that the researcher was a new

docent, preparing to give tours, and offered words of encouragement to

the researcher. The participants on the tours rarely noticed the

researcher as she observed the groups.

The docents, who conducted the tours, were notified of the

researcher's purpose in following the tour groups. The docents were

told that the researcher was a graduate student observing art museum

education programs throughout the state. Before the beginning of a

tour, the researcher asked each docent for permission to observe; if a

docent did not wish to be observed, the researcher honored the

docent's request. The majority of docents, however, were accustomed

to additional observers on the tours and seemed comfortable with the

researcher's presence.

Typically, the researcher documents observations through the use

of field notes: written accounts of what the observer has seen,

heard, experienced, and thought during the observation period. The

researcher strives for accuracy and completeness as he or she

describes the environment, notes interactions between participants,

and records conversations as precisely as possible. The researcher

also records gestures and facial expressions, detailing as completely














as possible the affective aspects of the phenomenon (Bogdan & Biklen,

1982; Lincoln & Guba, 1985). In addition to recording the studied

phenomenon, field notes also include a record of the researcher's

impressions, opinions, and feelings. These personal observations are

labeled as Observer Comments and are set apart from the recording of

events (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982). The intent of the researcher is not

to systematically categorize behaviors but rather to describe behavior

as completely as possible. The loss of standardization is compensated

for by the richness and depth of the information collected (Wolf,

1980).

During the museum visits, the researcher conducted extensive

observations of the museum tours and documented her observations in

field notes. During the observations of the tour groups, the

researcher noted characteristics of the programs such as the kinds of

connections that the docents made between the art works and the

children's personal experiences, the kinds of questions the docents

asked the children, the kinds of questions the children asked the

docents, aspects of art referred to by the children, and aspects of

art referred to by the docents. During the observation of the tour

groups, the researcher was concerned with noting patterns of

interaction between the participants on the tours and discerning the

meaning of events to the participants.

The researcher also noted the degree to which the tours conformed

to the curators' criteria for success. The researcher observed and














analyzed the tours with respect to the particular objectives set forth

by the curator of education. The researcher's observations were

guided, in part, by noting whether or not the program fulfilled the

stated goals of the curators at each museum. For example, the curator

at-the Harrison Museum of Art stated that her goal for the tour

through the Pre-Columbian Gallery was for the children to look closely

at the artifacts. The curator repeatedly expressed the significance

of focusing the children's attention on the artifacts. The researcher

observed this section of the tour and noted the extent to which the

curator fulfilled her goal. That is, the researcher observed the

children and assessed whether or not the children were attending to

the art on display.

In addition to observing the programs designated as successful,

the researcher also observed a variety of other programs at each

museum. As the curators discussed their goals and criteria for

success, the curators frequently referred to other programs at their

institutions. For example, the curator at the Wallingford Museum of

Art compared the museum's program for older children to the program

for younger children that was being observed by the researcher. The

curator expressed dissatisfaction with the tours for the older age

groups, stating that the tours for the older children were not as

successful as the tours for the younger children. By observing both

programs, the researcher was able to interpret the curator's














statements more effectively than if the researcher had observed only

the successful program. The observations of a variety of programs at

each institution were useful for distinguishing the distinctive

characteristics of the successful programs. Therefore, observations

of a variety of museum programs were conducted.

The researcher also observed docent training sessions. These

observations were conducted to further understand the curators' aims

for the programs and their beliefs concerning appropriate

instructional strategies. For example, during docent training at the

Harrison Museum of Art, the curator of education distributed a

checklist of behaviors used to evaluate the docents on the tours. As

the curator reviewed this checklist and discussed the rationale for

each behavior, she revealed many of her beliefs concerning effective

strategies for working with children.

The researcher also observed docent meetings. During the docent

meetings at both institutions, the docents discussed problems that

they were having on the tours. Frequently, the other docents and the

curator of education suggested ways of handling those problems. The

comments of the docents and curators during these meetings were

helpful in discerning the perceptions of the programs held by the

museum's educational staff and the docents who implemented the

programs.

Although naturalistic researchers often enter the field with a

set of guiding questions, they remain flexible and responsive to the















situation under observation. New questions may emerge as information

is gathered. A number of hypotheses may be developed, modified, and

discarded as the researcher searches for evidence and explores

alternative explanations for the meaning of events (McCutcheon, 1979;

Ross, 1984). For example, both of the observed programs offered

hands-on activities with art materials during the tours. A number of

questions emerged from the observations of these activities. What

were the curators' intentions in developing these activities? How did

these hands-on opportunities relate to the art on the display? How

were these activities perceived by the children? Were the activities

an entertaining diversion or did they enrich the children's

understanding of the art in the museum? Subsequent observations were

conducted to answer these questions.

Clearly, in a naturalistic study, the processes of observation

and analysis are interrelated. The researcher reflects upon his or

her observations; these reflections guide subsequent observations and

analysis. The cyclical processes of observation and analysis continue

until the study is completed. In the present study, observations were

concluded when the researcher had collected sufficient data to

identify significant patterns of interaction between the participants

in the programs, to interpret the meaning of events to participants,

and to establish the relationship between the curators' criteria for

success and the implementation of the programs.















Additional Recording Methods

Multiple methods of observations lend credibility to a

qualitative study (Guba, 1981; Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Ross, 1978,

1984); therefore, the researcher considered the use of audiotapes,

photography, and videotapes to supplement the data recorded in the

field notes. However, the museum staff at these two museums

discouraged the use of photography in their galleries; therefore,

photography was not used. Due to the ambulatory nature of the museum

tour and the researcher's desire to remain as unobtrusive as possible,

videotaping was not used. The researcher, however, tape recorded a

sampling of museum tours.

Interviewing

Intensive interviewing is another tool of the naturalistic

investigator and is a primary means by which the investigator is able

to discover the participants' perceptions of a phenomenon (Bogdan &

Biklen, 1982; Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Lofland & Lofland, 1984).

Interviews may be formal or informal. An interview is characterized

as formal when the interviewer schedules the interview at a particular

time for a particular purpose (Spradley, 1980). The researcher has a

set of questions which provide a framework for the interview session.

An interview is characterized as informal if it occurs during the

period of observation. That is, an observed even may suggest a series

of questions that the researcher then addresses to the participants














(Spradley, 1980). The questions emerge as the situation unfolds and

have not been predetermined by the interviewer. During the course of

interviews, both formal and informal, informants may provide

information that leads to unanticipated questions. These interviews

take the form of "guided conversations" and flow in the directions of

concerns to those interviewed (Lofland & Lofland, 1984).

Formal interviews were conducted with the curators of education

at each museum. For example, the following types of questions were

used in the initial interview with each curator: What audiences are

you trying to reach? What are your strategies for reaching those

audiences? What is your message for those audiences? That is, what

are you trying to achieve? These questions were intended to disclose

the beliefs, values, and assumptions of the museum educators as they

developed educational programs at their institutions.3 During the

in-depth investigation of the observed programs, the researcher, once

again, conducted formal interviews with the curators of education

concerning the success of their programs. The curators were asked to

describe the program, to explain the rationale for the activities in

each section of the tour, and to describe the strengths and weaknesses

of the tours. The curators were also asked about their methods of




3. See Appendix A for a list of the questions asked in the
initial interview.














evaluation. 4 At the Wallingford Museum of Art, one of the docents

played a critical role in the development of the tour and the training

of docents. This docent was also formally interviewed concerning the

success of the program. These interviews were conducted approximately

four weeks after observations had begun so that the researcher was

familiar with the programs at the time of the interviews. Although

these formal interviews had an underlying structure to collect

information systematically from each curator, the interviews did not

follow a standardized format. These interviews were tape recorded and

transcribed.

The directors of the museum were also interviewed, They were

asked to describe the history of the program at their institution,

their role in developing and implementing the program, and their

perceptions concerning the success of the program.5 These interviews

were conducted to ascertain whether the directors shared the

curators' views that these programs were successful, the role that the

directors played in the development of these programs, and the

influence of the directors' beliefs on the practices of the curators

of education.




4. See Appendix B for a list of the questions asked in the
second interview.

5. See Appendix C for a list of the questions asked of the
directors of the museums.














The researcher also conducted informal interviews with the

curators and the docents who implemented the tours. For example,

before and after tours, the docents met with the curators of education

to discuss the scheduled groups and to tell anecdotes about their

experiences on the tours. During these informal meetings, questions

emerged as the researcher discussed particular incidents with

the participants. For example, a docent at the Harrison Museum of

Art had a different method of implementing a particular section of

the tour: The docent pretended to be a pre-Columbian Indian and

described the artifacts in the Pre-Columbian Gallery as her personal

belongings. Although the other docents admired her theatrical

techniques and believed that her method was effective with the

children, the other docents were reluctant to employ theatrical

techniques in their presentations. The researcher discussed the

docent's performance with the docent and explored the other docents'

reluctance to use theatrical techniques. This incident also prompted

a discussion (between the curator, a few of the docents, and the

researcher) concerning the amount of freedom given to the docents to

improvise their tours. As the researcher asked questions, these

discussions took the form of informal interviews of the docents and

curator.

To avoid disrupting the tours, the researcher refrained from

questioning the docents or participants while the tour was being















conducted. The docents, however, occasionally commented about a

particular activity or explained a certain procedure to the researcher

while the children were engaged in a hands-on activity or as the tour

group moved from one gallery to another. The docents' perceptions

were noted and discussed more fully with the docents at the conclusion

of the tours.

After the docents had departed from the museum, the researcher

frequently met with the curator of education and discussed particular

incidents on the tours, the varied performances of the docents, and

the responses of the children during the tours. Essentially, the

informal interviews with the curator were designed to enhance the

researcher's understanding of the curator's goals for the tours, the

methods chosen to achieve those goals, the reasons for the curator's

choices, and the curator's general perceptions of the tours.

Throughout the investigation, the naturalistic researcher needs

to assess the credibility and bias of the respondents, to recognize

the interactive nature of the interview, and to consider the context

of the interview (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). The researcher may also ask

similar questions in a variety of formats, compare answers, and assess

the consistency of the informants' statements (Ross, 1978). During

this investigation, the researcher discussed the programs with the

curators on a variety of occasions in varied contexts, formal and

informal. Similar questions were repeated throughout the various














interviews. The information gathered in the interviews was compared

to observations and to the responses of other participants. Every

attempt was made to ascertain the credibility and bias of the

participants in the programs by determining the consistency of the

informants' statements and by detailed analyses and comparisons of

interview and observational data.

In a naturalistic study, analysis of interview data involves the

identification of categories of meaning. That is, the researcher

conducts a systematic search for order by "working with data,

organizing it, breaking it into managerial units, synthesizing it,

[and] searching for patterns" (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982, p. 145). For

example, in this study, the interview data were organized and

reorganized according to the curators' statements concerning their

goals, their educational beliefs, their educational practices, and

their perceptions of the success of their programs.

Collection of Artifacts

In addition to observation and interviews, the researcher

collected samples of educational artifacts. Such materials included

descriptions of the programs disseminated to the public and schools,

pre-visit packets distributed to the schools, written materials used

in the training of docents, and internal documents used in the

development of the programs. These materials were examined to

supplement and enrich the information gathered from observations and

interviews.















Typical Research Day

In the following section, a typical research day is described.

This description may clarify for the reader the day-to-day process of

collecting and analyzing data in the field.

The researcher arrived 45 minutes to an hour before the tours

began; she met briefly with the curator of education. They had a cup

of coffee while they discussed the day's schedule. The curator told

the researcher about the groups that were scheduled to come that day:

how many children were in a group, the grade level of the children,

and the characteristics of the school. The curator also told the

researcher about the docents who were leading tours that day; she

mentioned a particular docent that conducted an exceptionally good

tour. The researcher encouraged the curator to describe the docent's

style of giving tours: What made her tours distinctive? Later, the

researcher made a note about the curator's comments and made a special

effort to observe that particular docent during the morning's

observations.

As the curator and researcher talked, the docents arrived. The

researcher, the curator, and the docents chatted amicably as the

docents put away their purses and sweaters, put on their name tags,

and checked the daily schedule. The researcher accompanied the

docents as they left the curator's office to prepare for their tours.

The docents headed in different directions as they gathered materials














for the hands-on activities and arranged the materials in the various

galleries. The researcher walked with one of the docents and assisted

with the arrangement of materials. Their conversation ranged across a

number of topics: Some of the topics were personal, other topics were

about the tours. The researcher asked the docent why she gave tours.

The docent, a middle-aged woman, expressed the pleasure that she

derived from working with young children. She mentioned that there

were rarely behavior problems on the tours. "The children," she

stated, "are delightful." The researcher made a note of the docent's

statements and observed that the curator had also stated that there

were few discipline problems on the tours.

The researcher accompanied the docents to the entrance of the

museum. The docents exchanged personal information about friends and

families as they waited for the buses to arrive. The researcher spoke

individually to each docent and asked for permission to observe the

docent's tour during the morning. A new docent asked not to be

observed and the researcher agreed. As the buses arrived, the docents

quickly decided who would start in each of the different galleries.

The docents briefly reviewed the routing procedures as they went out

to greet the teachers and children who were gathering on the steps of

the museum. The docents and teachers divided the children into small

groups; the researcher noted the number of children in each group. As

the docents led the children into the museum, the researcher noticed

that the children were quiet, almost apprehensive. The researcher was














concerned with the degree of intimidation that the children might feel

during the museum visit.

The researcher followed one of the tour groups into the museum.

On a previous tour, the researcher had noticed that the docent

consistently established connections between the children's personal

experiences and the children's experiences in the museum. As the

researcher made notes, she highlighted the exchanges between the

docent and children that related to the children's personal

experiences. The researcher was exploring the relationship between

the curator's stated belief about the need to make the information on

the tour meaningful to the children by relating it to their personal

experiences. The researcher observed the docent for approximately 20

minutes; she then moved on to another gallery and observed another

docent. During the morning, the researcher observed each of the

docents who had agreed to be observed. The researcher consistently

noted the pattern of making connections between the children's

personal experiences and events on the tour.

After the tour groups departed, the researcher returned to the

museum and assisted the docents as they put away the supplies. One of

the docents had been unusually challenged by her tour group; the

children were from a combined first and second grade gifted class. As

the tour began, one of the children had asked her where to find the

Michelangelo. The docent spoke of the difficulty of changing her

presentation as she realized that the particular group was not what















she had expected. The researcher made a note to investigate the

situation further. Did the museum staff know that the gifted class

was coming? Would the museum staff have made preparations for a

special group? Would the docents have been notified?

A tour group of older children were entering the museum as the

docents for the younger children were leaving. The researcher

observed the group and noted the difference between the older group's

tour and the younger children's tours. The group was large: an

entire fourth grade class. The docent was pleasant; she lectured to

the children about art historical information concerning the art on

display. She did not try to make connections with the students'

personal experiences. The curator had explained to the researcher

previously that she wanted to change the format of the tours for the

older children. She cited discipline problems with the older groups.

On this tour, the researcher noted no overt discipline problems. The

children, however, were inattentive; they appeared bored.

After the last tour groups had left the museum, the researcher,

the curator, and one of the docents ate lunch at a nearby restaurant.

They talked about a variety of matters. One of the topics of

discussion concerned a docent who regularly went over the scheduled

time for her tours. The curator and docent were perplexed as to how

to break the docent of this habit. The curator expressed her

frustrations about the complaints that she had received--not from the

tour groups but from the docents who conducted the tour groups for the














older children. As the docents began the tours for the older

children, their tours were interrupted by the late docent with her

tour group. The researcher made a note to ask the curator how she

dealt with problems such as these. Did she have an established method

for dealing with individual docent problems?

Upon returning to the museum, the researcher observed a docent

training session. The curator lectured to the docents about a group

of Medieval paintings. She did not suggest or discuss methods of

presenting this information to the tour groups. The researcher noted

that art historical information and tour presentation techniques were

covered in separate sessions. The researcher developed a number of

questions to ask the curator about docent training.

After the training session, the curator and researcher returned

to the curator's office. They talked about the day and scheduled the

next observation. They concluded their conversation by discussing

their respective studies. The curator was writing an art historical

dissertation. They offered each other words of encouragement as the

researcher departed for the day.

The above description demonstrates the process of data

collection. A number of factors shaped the researcher's efforts: the

museum's daily schedules, the guiding questions of the study,

unanticipated research questions, the development and modification of

hypotheses, and the researcher's interpretation of events. In the

following section, a discussion of data presentation is provided.










46



Presentation of Data

According the McCutcheon (1979), educational criticism is both a

process and a product of inquiry. The product is the written report,

the presentation of the gathered information. As stated previously,

an educational criticism has three major aspects: description,

interpretation, and appraisal. The distinctions, however, are

artificial. In reality, these aspects are interwoven. For example,

as critics choose dimensions of the phenomenon to describe, they make

value judgments, they decide what is significant to an understanding

of the phenomenon. These decisions are based on the critics'

perceptions of the participants' experiences, that is, the critics'

interpretation of the situation. Nevertheless, the distinctions

between description, interpretation, and appraisal are useful for

clarifying the purposes of the criticism. An explanation of each of

these aspects is given in the following section.

Description

The purpose of description is to portray vividly the essential

elements and characteristic qualities of the phenomenon under study.

Using the information gathered in the field notes, tapes, and other

materials, the critic artistically reconstructs the educational

phenomenon and enables the reader to participate vicariously in the

experiences which the critic has encountered. Barone (1983)

demonstrated the evocative nature of description as he set the stage














for his educational criticism of a high school art program in a small,

rural town in North Carolina.

The mountains looming above Swain County High School
provide a sense of locale, but move inside and where
are you? Many places you have been before. In the more-
or-less standard Modern American School Plant circa 1978.
The building's right-angled innards seem familiar to me:
the variously sized cubicles of space that stare blankly
at the newcomer, the prolonged rectangular corridors that
invite without a hint of destination. . But a
startling difference, so crucial to our story, becomes
vividly apparent as one's eyes move inevitably to a
boldly executed (and placed) 5' by 5' abstract
expressionist painting on the brick wall near the lobby
to the administrative offices. And in several other
spots--from the cloth wall hangings (stuffed tubes
intertwined playfully into serpentine knots) that dangle
above the stairwells, to a remarkable set of drawings
displayed near a side entrance (including a carefully
composed and brilliantly colored still life of red and
green apples)-there is art. (pp. 1-2)

The descriptive aspect of an educational criticism serves as the basis

for the critic's subsequent interpretation and appraisal. The

description must be comprehensive and contain sufficient information

for the reader to assess the adequacy and appropriateness of the

critic's interpretation and appraisal (Eisner, 1985; McCutcheon, 1979;

Ross, 1978, 1984).

Because of its aesthetic qualities and educational opportunities,

an art museum is unique environment. Capturing and conveying the

uniqueness of the museum environment is an important aspect of this

study. Additionally, the descriptions of the observed museum programs

serve as the foundation for the subsequent analyses of the curators'


criteria for success.














Interpretation

McCutcheon (1979) distinguished between two types of

interpretation: intrinsic and extrinsic. In intrinsic

interpretation, the critic identifies the underlying patterns which

give order to events. For example, the patterns in an art museum

program may be shaped by the educator's belief about the nature of the

aesthetic experience or they may take form from the curricular

objectives of participating schools. These patterns are essential to

an understanding of the educational program. As McCutcheon (1979) has

noted, "patterns constitute the threads holding together the fabric of

specific events" (p. 10). Through interpretation, the critic reveals

patterns of behaviors which give shape to the educational phenomenon.

Another aspect of intrinsic interpretation is a consideration of the

meaning of events to participants. The critic goes beyond a physical

description of an observed behavior and offers an interpretation of

the meaning of the behavior in the social context. McCutcheon (1979)

illustrated this process in an analysis of a familiar classroom

behavior.

Children ooh and aah, each with one arm extended upward
to the ceiling, following a teacher's question. What
does this physical behavior mean? . Clearly, children
are raising hands to be called upon, but why are they
groaning to be called upon? Is it a form of competition
for rewards (approval by the teacher) operating here?
Are children trying to prove to their peers who is
smartest? Are they merely eager to share? Do they know
the teacher calls on children with their hands up and
dispenses grades on that basis? (p. 11)














From the information accumulated through observations, interviews, and

other evidence, the critic attempts to clarify the meaning of observed

events to the participants (Eisner, 1985; McCutcheon, 1979; Ross,

1978, 1984).

In extrinsic interpretation, the critic explores the relationship

between the particulars of the studied phenomenon and external

influences such as characteristics of the community, contemporary

events, and political forces. The critic also establishes a

connection between the observed educational practices and educational

theory. Through extrinsic interpretation, the critic provides a broad

social and theoretical framework for understanding the phenomenon

(Eisner, 1985; McCutcheon, 1979; Ross, 1978, 1984). In extrinsic

interpretation, the critic explores alternative interpretations of

events and considers a variety of factors which play a role in

determining the shape of events.

An example may serve to illustrate the role of internal and

external interpretation in this study. For instance, during one of

the interviews, one curator cited a program's popularity as a measure

of its success. The curator believed that the schoolteachers

consistently chose the museum visit as a field trip for their students

because of the quality of the program. The curator, therefore,

interpreted the high attendance figures of the schoolchildren as an

indication that the program was educationally sound. The curator's

perception of the program's popularity exemplifies intrinsic














interpretation. The researcher, however, considered other

interpretations which may have accounted for the program's popularity.

The researcher explored a number of factors. Were there other field

trip opportunities available to children in this age group? What were

the field trip policies set by the school district? Did the same

teachers return year after year? The researcher's investigation of

the program's popularity illustrated the role of extrinsic

interpretation in this study.

Appraisal

The final aspect of an educational criticism is an evaluation of

the educational phenomenon. Through appraisal, the critic assesses

the educational significance and quality of the observed events.

McCutcheon (1979) and Ross (1978, 1984) have defined two types of

appraisal: intrinsic and extrinsic. These approaches grow out of and

complement the intrinsic and extrinsic approaches to interpretation.

In intrinsic appraisal, the critic considers the aims of the

educator and explores the extent to which those aims have been

realized. The criteria for evaluation are found within the context of

the phenomenon: the criteria stated by the educator. In this study,

the researcher investigated the criteria used by the art museum

educators to determine the success of these programs. What were the

characteristics which they believed typified a successful program?

The researcher explored the extent to which these characteristics were

evident in the observed programs. Was there a fit between what the














curator described as a successful program and what actually happened

on the tours? Through intrinsic appraisal, the researcher determined

the extent to which the curators actually fulfilled their stated aims

for the programs. The guiding questions of this investigation are

basically concerned with intrinsic appraisal of the programs.

Through extrinsic appraisal, the educational critic evaluates the

aims of the educator with respect to relevant educational theory and

research. The critic considers the potential benefits or deleterious

effects of the educational program. The intent of the appraisal,

however, is not simply the rendering of an educational verdict. As

Eisner (1985) explained, any discussion of educational practice is

concerned with value.

Education implies some personal and social good. But
to say this is to raise the knotty question of what kinds
of values to apply to phenomena that aspire to be
educational. On this matter there is a wide range of
different views. . Yet, even though different
individuals and groups hold different conceptions of
educational virtue . the need to make these judgments
is inevitable. (p. 235)

The educational critic approaches an educational phenomenon with

a conception of education virtue. The criteria for evaluation are

stated by the researcher. For example, the critic may evaluate

instructional efforts from a Piagetian or behavioral framework (Ross,

1978, 1984). During the critical analysis of the educational program,

the critic explicates beliefs and values which have guided the

appraisal. In this study, the researcher examined the curator's














criteria for success and analyzed the criteria with respect to current

educational theory and research. The researcher was concerned with

two questions: Were the curators' aims worthwhile? Were the programs

beneficial to the children who participated in the tours?

Validity, Generalizability, and Other Matters

A number of questions still remain concerning an educational

criticism. How does one evaluate the validity of a criticism? Are

the findings of a criticism generalizable to other settings? What are

the qualifications of the educational critic? The next section

provides answers to these questions.

Validity

One of the most frequently voiced concerns about qualitative

studies is the validity of the findings. In an analysis of

qualitative methods of inquiry, Lincoln and Guba (1985) have noted

that the issue of validity is centrally concerned with the basic issue

of credibility: Is the study believable? Educational critics have

discussed a number of factors to consider when assessing the

credibility of an educational criticism (Barone, 1980; Eisner, 1975,

1985; McCutcheon, 1979; Ross, 1978, 1984).

First, the reader needs to consider the quantity and quality of

the information collected. The quantity of data should indicate

prolonged and persistent observation in the field. The quality of

data is assessed by noting the richness and diversity of information














presented. Additionally, data collected from one source may be

compared to data acquired from another source. For example, the

information from interviews may be compared to information gathered

during observations. A rich, abundant collection of data enables the

reader to evaluate personally the adequacy of the researcher's

conclusions. Therefore, the quantity and quality of data is an

important consideration in assessing the credibility of a criticism

(McCutcheon, 1979; Ross, 1978, 1984).

Second, the reader needs to consider the consistency and

coherence of a critic's arguments. Critics develop and support their

interpretations and appraisals through a process known as structural

corroboration (Eisner, 1985; McCutcheon, 1979). As critics logically

construct their arguments, they refer to supportive pieces of

evidence. Critics strengthen their cases by presenting additional

pieces of information that corroborate the existent evidence. The

critic also explores alternative hypotheses and investigates

contradictory evidence. In choosing one hypothesis over another, the

critic explains decisions and reveals his or her line of reasoning

(Ross, 1984). In evaluating a criticism, the reader must assess

whether the critic has established an argument that makes sense and is

supported by the evidence. The reader must ask, do the parts add up

to the whole?

Third, the reader needs to compare the criticism to other

knowledge of the phenomenon under study. This process may involve















direct observation of the phenomenon. However, readers may not have

access to the educational setting. Nevertheless, readers may compare

the criticism to their personal knowledge, both practical and

theoretical, of educational settings. Additionally, the reader may

evaluate the legitimacy of the relationship that the critic has

established between the observed phenomenon and relevant educational

theory and practice (Eisner, 1985; McCutcheon, 1979; Ross, 1978,

1984).

In a discussion of art criticism, Dewey (1934) wrote, "the end of

criticism is the reeducation of perception of the work of art" (p.

324). Similarly, the aim of educational criticism is the reeducation

of the perception of an educational phenomenon. The final criteria

for assessing an educational criticism is the extent to which it

enables the reader to perceive more clearly the richness and diversity

of educational life.

Generalizability

Considering the limited scope of this study, generalizations to

other programs and other museums cannot be made. In that sense, the

study does not conform to the notion of generalizability common to

traditional quantitative inquiry. However, an intensive investigation

of even a limited number of programs may enhance understanding of

educational programs in art museums. The generalizability of this

study is discussed in terms of its usefulness to researchers and

practitioners.















This study may contribute to the field of art museum education in

several ways. For researchers in the area of art museum education,

the study may have methodological significance. The effectiveness of

art museum programs have proven notoriously difficult to assess

through traditional quantitative techniques (Newsom & Silver, 1978;

Rawlins, 1978; Washburn, 1968, 1975, 1985). Due to the difficulties

of formally assessing museum education programs, art museums have

tended to rely on what Eisner and Dobbs (1986b) termed the turnstile

method of evaluation: counting the numbers of people who walk through

the doors. Obviously, attendance records are an inadequate means of

determining the merit of these programs. There is clearly a need to

develop mechanisms for investigating and evaluating art museum

education programs which are sensitive to the unique qualities of the

art museum experience. Qualitative methods of inquiry have rarely

been used in the research and evaluation of art museum programs. This

study illustrates the process of qualitative research in the

naturalistic setting of the art museum.

Similar to other qualitative methods of inquiry, an educational

criticism may generate hypotheses and identify future areas of

research. This study may raise new questions and indicate new

directions of research in the area of art museum education.

The study may be of value to professionals currently working in

art museums by providing detailed descriptions and analyses of














successful programs. Such knowledge may assist art museum educators

in making practice more effective and intelligent. Other members of

the art museum staff may gain a more complete understanding of the

multiplicity of factors involved in the implementation and evaluation

of a successful program. By clarifying and articulating the beliefs

and values which underlie a selected group of art museum programs, the

study may stimulate reflection and dialogue among art museum

professionals concerning the goals of their educational programs.

Such discussions may be significant as museum professionals develop

policies for art museum education.

In recent decades, many art museums have become increasingly

dependent on subsidies from local, state, and federal departments of

education. These agencies provide operating funds as well as salaries

for instructional positions (Newsom & Silver, 1978). The allocation

of tax dollars often brings with it the demand for accountability

(Newsom, 1980). Art museum professionals may be called upon to assess

the merits of their programs, to discuss the quality of their

educational programs as well as the quantity of children who receive

the benefits of those programs. The findings from this study may

serve as a basis for developing more adequate means of describing,

interpreting, and appraising art museum programs.

Qualifications and Biases of the Researcher

An appreciation of educational practice, like an appreciation of

art, requires a familiarity with and a sensitivity to the phenomena














encountered. An educational critic must have the skills of an

educational connoisseur: the ability to perceive and appreciate the

subtleties and complexities of educational phenomena. As Eisner

(1985) explained, "connoisseurship is the art of appreciation,

criticism is the art of disclosure. . Connoisseurship provides the

fundamental core of realization that gives criticism its material"

(pp. 219-220).

Clearly, an educational criticism relies extensively on the

capabilities and judgments of the educational critic. The critic's

previous experience and knowledge of educational theory and practice

provide a framework for interpretation and appraisal. It is

important, therefore, to consider the qualifications and biases of the

critic in evaluating the content of an educational criticism.

Experience in education, knowledge of educational theory and practice,

and training in qualitative methods of research contribute to the

researcher's ability to conduct an educational criticism. Listed

below is a brief summary of the researcher's professional experience

and educational preparation:

1. The researcher has four years of experience in museums and

galleries. Her particular area of interest has been in educational

programming.

2. The researcher has earned a B.A. in art, including coursework

in art history and art criticism.














3. The researcher has earned an M.Ed. in early childhood

education and an Ed.S. in art education.

4. The researcher has completed coursework for a Ph.D. in

curriculum and instruction, including courses in art education and

curriculum development with an emphasis on art museum education

programs.

5. The researcher has completed two courses which provided a

foundation in the theory and practice of qualitative research methods.

The researcher has conducted two qualitative studies using

ethnographic techniques.

6. The researcher has read extensively concerning the

theoretical basis of educational criticism as well as a broad sampling

of educational criticisms.

The biases of the researcher are also an important consideration

for understanding and evaluating an educational criticism (Eisner,

1985; McCutcheon, 1979; Ross, 1984). In recognition of the impact of

researcher's beliefs and values on the study, a brief summary of the

researcher's philosophical orientation is offered in the following two

paragraphs.

To develop programs which stimulate the enjoyment of, and

learning from, the museum's collections, art museum educators must

have an understanding of the interests and learning abilities of their

audience. In developing educational programs for children, a museum














educator's understanding of child development and experience with

children is as significant as the educator's knowledge of the museum's

functions and collections.

Children bring with them their own experiences and conceptions

of the world; their perceptions are shaped and limited by their

previous experiences and their stage of intellectual development.

Children learn best through interaction, that is, knowledge is

acquired through interaction between the child's current ways of

knowing and aspects of the external world which the child is able to

perceive and understand. The experiences of adults in museums are

fundamentally different than that of children; therefore, it is

important that museum educators attempt to understand the museum from

a child's perspective as they design children's programs.

Summary

Educational criticisms provide detailed descriptions and in-depth

analysis of a broad variety of educational phenomena. These accounts

contribute valuable insights into the nature of various educational

settings as educators attempt to develop, implement, and modify

educational programs. In this chapter, educational criticism has been

explained in general terms and with respect to this study. In the

following two chapters, educational criticisms of two art museum

education programs are presented. Each program is analyzed in terms

of the guiding questions of the study.

















CHAPTER III
THE LITTLE PEOPLE'S TOUR: WHAT CONSTITUTES SUCCESS?



The children lined up outside the main doors of the museum. They

were young, "little people," as the Curator of Education called them,

children 5 or 6 years of age. They stood quietly as the "big people"

divided them into small groups. A docent gestured for one to hurry

up; a chaperone took another by the shoulders and put him in his

designated place. The children wore blue, easel-shaped name tags,

decorated along the edges with bright spots of paint. When the lines

were completed, the docents led the children into the museum, mother

ducks with their ducklings waddling hurriedly behind. One by one, the

lines traveled through the lobby and disappeared in opposite

directions, each headed for a different gallery.

What were children of this age group doing in a museum of fine

arts? As Martha,1 the Curator of Education, noted, "this age group

really hasn't been art museum territory." Despite the museum's

tradition of serving older children and adults, Martha fought to have

a specially-designed program for young children. She was assisted by

Jane, a dedicated docent, who had once been a teacher of young



1. All names in this dissertation have been fictionalized to
maintain the anonymity of the participants.















children. Their efforts, however, were met with considerable

resistance.

A tour that was expressly designed for the young was
seen as non-academic and therefore an inappropriate use
of gallery time and space. And it was deeply entrenched
and hostile--the belief that there could be no learning,
no valid learning experience that could be offered in a
Fine Arts Museum for a kindergartener. (Martha)

As Jane explained,

most art museums have had that church-like atmosphere-
the feeling that museums should remain quiet--almost a
sacred palace. For years, the museum has opened its
doors to older students without ever thinking of younger
students. When we said, what about little people? They
said, little people! We can't do anything with little
people. They might touch the paintings. . I was
foolish enough to think that everyone was going to love
them . and it wasn't true. We had a lot of resistance.

Martha and Jane persevered in their efforts until the Little People's

Tour became the most popular educational program for school-age

children offered by the museum. During the past 5 years, the museum

opened early, two mornings a week, to accommodate these young

children. The Little People's Tours were begun at 9:30 a.m. to avoid

displacing the tours for older children and adults that began at 11:00

a.m. A specially trained group of volunteers served as docents for

the Little People's Tour. They were called the "pretend" docents to

distinguish them from the "real" docents, who gave the art historical

tours to the older age groups. The pretend versus real distinction

was considered a museum joke but was indicative of the difficulties

faced by the Little People's Tour to gain recognition as a legitimate

educational program.















Why was it important to Martha and Jane to bring young children

into the galleries? Why did they fight tradition? According to Jane,

teaching the young is an investment in the future. Jane was guided by

the belief that an early exposure to the arts is essential to

developing an appreciation of art.

If you are going to develop patrons of the arts, you've
got to do it early. We can't wait until they are in
the ninth grade to bring them. It's like waiting until
they are that old to teach them how to read or take
them to the library. Because when they've had no
exposure to any of this, it's like going to a foreign
land and not being able to speak the language.

Martha echoed Jane's beliefs.

By starting with the very young museum visitor, we are
getting a head start in the community for understanding
and appreciation of the arts. They have a time where
they can really enjoy the better things in life at age
5 or 6. I can't help but think that this is a really
beautiful thing to plant in young people's lives. ...
For each age level and background, there is a need to
bring knowledge and beauty and enjoyment.

Martha and Jane were motivated by the belief that a tour for young

children could be an important step toward developing an understanding

and appreciation of the visual arts.

According to Martha, "the Little People's Tour is phenomenally

successful. . It's a very sound and very strong tour." Jane

concurred with Martha's assessment, "it's a good program. We have

thought it out. What we have here is a wonderful program. . We

are teaching . expanding the children's experiences and having a

good time." What led Martha and Jane to the conclusion that the














Little People's Tour was a success? What were they trying to achieve

with the Little People's Tour? How did they know that they were

succeeding? How were their criteria for success shaped by their

beliefs about art museum education?

According to Martha and Jane, the tour was designed to provide

the children with an enjoyable experience during their visit to the

museum. As Jane explained,

the broadest concept that we want to convey is that a
museum is a place for people to come and have a pleasant
and enjoyable time. . The museum needs to be open
and available--sending the message that we are here for
you. . I want the children to feel better when they
leave then when they came. I want them to leave with a
warm feeling.

Martha and Jane also wanted the children to learn while they were in

the museum.

We want them to know that the museum is a place of
learning. . We truly want them to come and enjoy
themselves, learning while they go. .. It's easy
to make learning fun. You can teach and have people
not even realize that they're learning if you plan
carefully. (Jane)

This is a place where they can think, where they can
use their eyes, and they can understand more about the
world around them. (Martha)

Martha and Jane wanted the children to learn as well as to enjoy

themselves during their museum visit.

But what did Martha and Jane want the children to learn?

While they are here, we want them to expand their
vocabulary, teach them specifics such as the difference
between painting and sculpture. .. We are trying to














expand their horizons. Some of our children come and
have had a tremendous exposure to the arts. Others
come and have had absolutely none. So we are trying
to begin a foundation for those who haven't and expand
those who have had good experiences. (Martha)

Martha and Jane wanted the children to learn basic art concepts,

concepts which they believed would form a foundation for the

children's future learning in the arts.

Martha and Jane, however, realized that there were important

considerations to be met in implementing a tour for young children.

As Martha stated, "you have to know your audience. . The tour

needs to be child-centered." Martha and Jane developed the tour by

considering the characteristics of young children and the learning

opportunities that the museum had to offer. According to Jane,

I sat down and I thought, if I want to teach a young
child in the museum, what are the things that I want
to teach them? How would I want to do it? . I sat
down and I thought, I want them to understanding painting,
I want them to understand sculpture. . I would like
them to understand the portraits, seascapes, and
landscapes. So, I just said, these are the main areas.
How can I teach each of these in a very short frame of
time with what we have to offer? And so I developed an
activity per gallery.

Jane and Martha designed the tour around basic art concepts and

developed participatory activities to illustrate each concept. Martha

and Jane felt that such activities were essential to the success of

the tour.

One of the reasons that the tour works is that it has
activities. The concepts and vocabulary are introduced
and supported by activity: hands-on activities and














personal participation on the part of each individual
child. . If, at their age, their educational
experience in art ends only with listening then they
have not been allowed to develop adequately. They have
to go on to doing in order to really develop. And
that's one of the beauties of this tour--is that they
are allowed to do something at every stop. (Martha)

Martha and Jane's conception of a tour for young children did not

include art historical monologues. They both expressed the view that

young children should participate in their own learning; for Martha

and Jane, children are not empty vessels waiting to be filled.

Involving the children is the key. (Jane)
There are many ways to convey concepts to
children. The younger child needs these hands-on
activities. (Martha)
The young child has to touch. That's one of the
ways that he learns. (Jane)
They have to go on to doing to really develop.
(Martha)

Martha and Jane repeatedly stressed the need for active participation

by each child. Martha and Jane also believed that, whenever possible,

museum experiences should be related to the children's personal

experiences.

The Little People's Tour was designed to involve the children, to

establish a pattern of dialogue between docent and children as well as

interaction between art objects or art materials and children. The

docents, who implemented the program, were trained to work with young

children. They were required to participate in a training session

devoted to learning strategies for young children.

Martha and Jane wanted the children who participated in the

Little People's Tour to enjoy their visit. They also wanted these














children to learn a few basic ideas about the visual arts. Martha and

Jane wanted the children to look, to think, and to respond to the art

around them. To achieve their goals of pleasure and enlightenment,

Martha and Jane believed that each child should be an active

participant on the tour.

One might wonder, however, how 4-, 5-, and 6- year olds

actively participated on a tour through a museum displaying over 2,000

original and valuable art objects ranging from the 5th century B.C. to

the 20th century. How did 5-year-olds cope with room after room of

paintings in gilt frames, all hung above their eye level, and polished

marble statues, begging to be touched but expressly forbidden to the

touch? How were Martha and Jane able to make art real and meaningful

in the lives of these young children? Did the children leave the

museum with a warm feeling? Did they look, think, and respond to the

art around them?

Sculpture: Who Makes It? And How?

A small group of children sit cross-legged in front of a large

marble statue of a Madonna and Child. The group is small, perhaps 10

or 12 children; they each have a clear view of the Madonna and the

docent. The statue is life-sized and is placed against a blue brocade

backdrop. The docent asks the children about the qualities of the

sculpture, "is this stone smooth or rough?" The children unanimously

reply, "smooth!" The docent continues, "is this stone soft like















fabric?" The children answer loudly, "no!" The docent continues her

questioning, "how did the sculptor make it look like fabric?" The

children do not answer.

The docent retrieves a box from behind the statue and begins

passing around fragments of marble. Some of the pieces of stone are

polished and smooth; others are unpolished and rough. The docent

instructs the children to feel the texture of the stones, to close

their eyes and run their fingers over the surface of the stones.

While the children pass around the stones, the docent continues

talking. "The man who made this," she gestures to the Madonna and

Child," was a sculptor. Can you say that?" The children answer in

unison, "sculptor."

In an animated voice, the docent tells the children to put on

their imagination (the docent places an imaginary cap on her head) and

"let's all be sculptors." The docent picks up a hammer from the box

and asks the children what she is holding. She is answered by a

chorus of "hammer!" The docent then picks up a chisel to show the

children. A child tells the docent that the chisel is "a nail." The

docent nods and explains, "the chisel is like a nail, a large, flat

nail." She sits on the floor in the middle of the group, reaches into

the box and lifts out a large piece of marble. The docent chips away

at the rock, tapping the chisel with her hammer. She explains that

this is how the sculptor made his sculpture out of stone. Once again,














she gestures to the Madonna and Child, exclaiming, "this sculpture was

made from a big piece of stone, bigger than I am."

The docent keeps tapping the stone, gently, and says, "the

sculptor had to work very slowly and very carefully. He had to make a

nose and eyes and fingers and toes. What would happen if he hit it

too hard?" One of the children yells out, "a flat nose." The other

children laugh, as does the docent, who responds, "he would have to

start all over." The docent explains that each of them will get a

chance to be a sculptor but they must remember to hammer gently.

The docent calls the children by name. Each one takes a turn

with the hammer. Some are hesitant, awkward in their movements.

Others are bolder and hammer with authority. As they work, the docent

praises their efforts, "you're a great sculptor, Lisa! How talented!

Be a sculptor, Mike!" The other children watch as each of the

children takes a turn. The docent chatters with the children as they

work and watch, asking them what kinds of sculptures they are making.

The children have a thousand answers, "a boat," "an airplane," "a

person," "a snake," "a jet," "a bunny."

As the children finish, the docent asks them to think about how

difficult it was for the sculptor to make the Madonna and Child. The

docent points to delicate details of the sculpture: the wrinkles on

the baby's knees, the folds in the Madonna's robe, the curls on the

baby's head. She asks the children if they think that it would take a















long time to finish the sculpture and make all those fine details.

The children nod their heads.

The docent finishes her presentation by asking the children if

they have ever made something out of play-doh. She tells them that

they were being sculptors and didn't even know it. She explains that

sculptures can be made out of clay or rock or metal. As they leave

the gallery, the docent tells them, "you'll be seeing some sculpture

in the museum today and every time you see a piece of sculpture, I

want you to call out, 'sculpture!"'

Sculpture: Analysis in Terms of Martha and Jane's Goals

What were Martha and Jane trying to achieve when they designed

this section of the tour? According to Jane,

children tend to think that everything comes from
Pic 'n' Save. They have no conception of how a
Madonna and Child comes to be. They don't even
understand that it was once a block of marble. I
think the activity conveys the idea of sculpture to
a child who really needs to feel the rock and the
hammer and to see it in all its different states. ...
We have to show them the beginning of things.

Martha and Jane wanted the children to understand how this sculpture

was created. That is, they wanted the children to understand that a

person made the sculpture, working in stone, using hammers and

chisels.

During the activity, the docent said very little about the other

art objects in the room: the paintings on the wall or the marble

reliefs on either side of the Madonna and Child. Nor did the docent














comment on the period, style, or country of these objects. The docent

concentrated her efforts on one art work, definitions of the terms
"sculpture" and "sculptor," and the hands-on activities. The

discussion of the sculpture centered on the texture of the stone and

the technical aspects of creating the piece. The docent maintained a

focus: Who makes sculpture? From what? And how?

Martha and Jane considered the learning characteristics of young

children as they designed the sculpting activity.

The young child has to touch. That's one of the ways
that he learns. But we can't let 3,000 children a year
touch the Madonna and Child. But they can touch the
stones presented in a variety of ways. Some of the
stones are highly polished so that we can say, in order
to make it feel the way that the Madonna feels, you have
to polish it like this. (Jane)

Through the hands-on activity, the children were given a feel for the

material of the sculpture, the idea that people make sculpture, and a

rudimentary understanding of how a stone sculpture is made. The

children actively participated as they responded to the docent's

questions and engaged in the activity. The children appeared

satisfied and stimulated throughout the activity. After completing

this section of the tour, children could be seen confidently pointing

to sculptures in the museum and calling out, "sculpture."

Sculpture: Further Reflections

Researchers have indicated that children of this age have a

mechanistic conception of the arts (Gardner & Winner, 1982; Parsons,














1976). They tend to think that art works are produced in simplistic,

mechanical ways, that is, produced in factories along with their

McDonald's happy meal boxes. Children of this age often do not

realize that art is made by people and that it is in any way different

from other objects in their environment. Nor do children of this age

have any concept of the skill required to produce such objects. These

perceptions may be due, in part, to the developmental stage of young

children. It is important, however, that the children encounter

contradictions to those beliefs in order to develop their

understanding of artistic forms. Through the sculpting activity the

children were introduced to the idea that art is made by people using

techniques requiring skill and coordination.

Martha and Jane designed this section of the tour based on the

premise that young children learn by doing. Developmental

psychologists have emphasized the significant role that tactile

experiences and participatory activities play in young children's

learning (Piaget & Inhelder, 1969). In recognition of these findings,

the Office of Museum Programs at the Smithsonian Institution issued a

set of guidelines for designing young children's programs which

stressed the need for active participation (Matthai & Deaver, 1976).

The sculpting activity, designed by Martha and Jane, was

developmentally appropriate for their young audience. The children

participated in a similar activity in another section of the tour.

The focus, however, was on painting not sculpture.














Painting: What Makes It? And How?

The docent walks around the gallery, a room filled with Medieval

paintings. She explains that every painting in the room tells a story

about Mother Mary and Baby Jesus. She also tells the children that

there is something the same about every painting: They all have the

same colors. The docent walks up to a painting, points to an area,

and asks the children, "what colors do you see?" The children answer

with refrains of "red! yellow! blue!" The docent repeats the

procedure with five or six more paintings. She asks the children why

they think the artists used red, gold, and blue in all of these

paintings. The children offer a variety of replies. "Make it nice

and pretty." "Make it colorful." "They're Christmas colors." The

docent tells them that each of them is right but there is another

reason, too. She explains that Mary is a queen, the Mother of God,

and that red, gold, and blue are royal colors, "special colors that

tell you that she is a special person."

The docent asks the children to use their imaginations and

pretend that they are painters living a long, long time ago. "And you

wake up one morning and you want to paint, but," the docent sighs and

looks distressed, "you have no paint. So you decide to make some

paint. You go to the garden, looking for different colors, looking

for a red and a blue and a green. And what do you find?" The

children raise their hands and talk about flowers and berries and














grass and leaves. The docent continues, "that's right. Now if I want

red, what kind of berries am I looking for? Maybe a --" The docent

pauses, waiting for the children to finish her sentence. The children

call out, "strawberries," "cherries," "radishes," "raspberries." "And

if I want blue?" the docent asks. "Blueberries," the children reply.

"And if I want purple?" she asks. "Grapes," they reply.

The docent walks to a cart placed nearby and picks up a plastic

container of red tempera paint. She says, "this morning I went to the

garden and picked some strawberries and crushed them up." The docent

picks up two eggs and says, "and then I went to the henhouse and I

gathered some eggs." The docent cracks an egg, separates the yolk

from the white, and drops the yolk into a clear plastic cup. Some of

the children rise up on their knees, straining to see. The docent

spoons some of the red powder into the cup and quickly mixes it with

the egg yolk. She holds up the cup and asks the children, "what do I

have now?" The children shout out, "paint!"

The docent picks up an unpainted canvas sitting on an easel,

passes it around for the children to feel, and asks them if it feels

like cloth. The docent then passes around a painted canvas and

encourages the children to feel the dry, hard surface of the paint.

The children are well behaved; they sit quietly, reaching out with

their hands to stroke the surface of the canvas. She explains that

the paint sticks to the canvas and dries hard.















The docent spoons up a glob of paint and indicates that the paint

is sticky because the egg is sticky. The docent asks the children if

they've ever had to clean up a dropped egg or washed a plate with

dried egg yolk on it. The chaperones begin laughing and the docent

says to them, "you know what I'm talking about."

The docent replaces the canvas on the easel and calls on two

children to come and paint. She explains that each child will get a

chance. As one pair finishes, she calls upon another pair. To the

children that are finished, she gives a clue to a painting in the room

and asks them to look for it. She whispers in their ears, "look for a

bird and go stand by that painting" or "look for a painting with a

crown." While the children paint, she praises them, "such talent,

Roy! Look at you guys! Marvelous, marvelous!"

In a few minutes, the last pair of children have finished

painting and pairs of children stand beside paintings around the room.

The pairs are excited pointing to their clue, and showing the bird or

crown to one of the chaperones. The docent walks from pair to pair

asking them about their clue and praising them for their successful

efforts.

Painting: Analysis in Terms of Martha and Jane's Goals

The children, once again, were active participants during this

section of the tour. Through questioning strategies and hands-on

activities, the docent elicited the children's participation. The














children's attention was maintained; their eyes, hands, and minds were

engaged in solving a variety of problems presented by the docent.

As in the sculpture presentation, a major focus of this section

of the tour was on the hands-on activity, a demonstration of how these

paintings were made. Martha and Jane wanted the children to

understand how the paintings were produced and who created them.

We introduce concepts of materials and techniques and
how things are accomplished. We do the egg yolk
binder for the egg tempera and they get to paint with
that. So they see how paint can be made very simply
out of resources that the artist had available. (Martha)

The children were given an opportunity to work with the painter's

materials. They touched the canvas and painted on its surface with

egg tempera. Once again, the docent said little about the time

period, style, or country in which the paintings were produced. The

children's attention was focused on the sensory and technical aspects

of the paintings. 2

The docent, however, also involved the children in a discussion

of the expressive qualities of the paintings. She noted that all of

the paintings were of Mary and Child and that the colors were

specially chosen by the artist for their symbolic significance. The




2. Broudy (1971) distinguished four dimensions which merit
consideration in a discussion of a work of art: sensory (elements
such as color, line, shape, and space), formal (its design or
composition), technical (the media and skill used to create the
piece), and expressive (its imagery or meaning). The terms-sensory,
formal, technical, and expressive--are used as Broudy defined them.














children looked closely at the paintings as they verified that the

paintings were of a mother and child and that the colors were

consistently red, yellow, and blue. In the final activity, as the

children searched for their "clues," they were also stimulated to note

the various imagery depicted-in the paintings. That is, the children

had to read the imagery to successfully find their clue. The children

were stimulated to look and to think.

According to Martha, one aspect of art museum education is the

development of "visual literacy," the ability to read artistic forms.

Martha noted, however, that such a task is often difficult with

children who are constantly exposed to technologically produced

imagery.

We are combating that "media mentality" that one finds
when a child walks in the door. That's something that
every museum, every traditional museum, is faced with.
[We have to contend with] the short attention span
that TV has imposed on them as being good, as being the
only kind of communicative style they know. . Their
perceptions are based on quick, unstudied images.

Martha argued that contemporary children have developed "extremely

sophisticated, non-reflective, visual literacy." That is, they are

exposed to technically sophisticated and emotionally intense images:

a shuttle exploding in space, Rambo destroying legions of armed

police, and fantastic worlds created through the use of special

effects. Children are bombarded constantly with these images and have

little time to reflect on their meaning or visual form. According to















Martha, traditional fine arts have a difficult time competing with the

high speed stimulation of electronic imagery. TV and movies are

active; paintings are passive. Therefore, the paintings do not

readily engage the attention of young children. Martha and Jane

designed the questioning and looking activities in this section of the

tour to engage the children's attention, and to stimulate them to look

and to think about artistic forms. Although the paintings were

passive, the children were active.

Painting: Further Reflections

As indicated previously, children of this age have little

conception of how art is made or who makes it (Gardner & Winner,

1982). The painting activity vividly demonstrated the process of how

these paintings were created. Such activities are appropriate not

only for young children but for other audiences as well. Lee (1983)

argued that the museum must educate the public about the techniques of

art, that "the doing . or observing of the doing is fundamental to

understanding and evaluating works of art" (p. 58). This activity (as

well as the sculpture activity) served just such a purpose.

The children, however, learned more than the technical aspects of

creating these paintings; they were also encouraged to look at the

paintings and to interpret artistic forms. The activities were

designed to develop the children's visual literacy. Such an aim is

central to the art museum educator's task. As Martha pointed out,















however, such an aim is difficult to achieve. Others have agreed with

Martha's assessment of the difficulties that art museum educators face

as they attempt to focus the viewer's attention on the work (Eisner &

Dobbs, 1986b; Goodman, 1985; Lee, 1983, 1984). As Goodman (1985)

explained,

where do you start and when do you stop looking at
a picture? There is no going forward or backward,
no beginning and no end. You can take it all in,
superficially, at a glance, and the average looking
time per viewer per picture viewed must be something
under five seconds. Dynamic as a work may be in
expression and design, it is physically inert, while
the human being is alive and restless. . Somehow
the immutable work and the volatile viewer have to be
reconciled. Attention must be held long enough for a
work to work. (p. 58)

Martha and Jane's activities were an initial step in focusing the

children's attention on the art works, of reconciling the immutable

painting with the volatile child. Martha and Jane achieved their

desire of stimulating the children to look by involving the children

in simple analyses of the paintings and providing opportunities for

active participation. Martha and Jane's focus on looking continued in

other sections of the tour.

Portraits: Who Are Those People and Why Do They Look the Way
That They Do?

In another gallery, a group of children sit in a room full of

paintings. The room is dark, wall-papered in green brocade. The

paintings are set in rich gold frames; they are portraits. The docent

stands in front of a large painting; it is of an elegantly dressed















noblewoman. A little boy, in awe of the paintings in the room,

wonders if these "are the rich people who own this place."

The docent begins, "these are all paintings of real people. They

are called portraits. Are you a real person?" The children nod their

heads. The docent bends down to the children and squeezes their

shoulders. "You certainly feel real!" The docent strolls around the

room, gesturing toward the paintings. She asks, "don't all these

people look important? Here is Philip, King of Spain, wearing his

sword at his side to defend his lady. Look at all those rings on his

fingers!" The docent continues walking and talking. "This man looks

like George Washington, but he's not. He's a Marquis. Look at the

gold threads in his jacket and his lace cuffs!" The docent finishes

her stroll around the-room, having talked about four or five of the

paintings. Some of the children have been watching the docent as she

talks; others have lost interest, preferring to chat with their

neighbor or play with their friend's plaited hair. The docent comes

back to the painting directly in front of the children. She indicates

the painting with a wave of her hand and asks, "who do you think this

is?"

One of the children answers, "a queen." The docent smiles and

says, "she certainly is fancy, isn't she? Do you think that she is

rich or poor?" The children are now paying attention, responding to

the docent's questions. A number of children answer, "rich." "How do














you know that the lady is rich?" the docent asks. The children

quickly come up with evidence of the lady's wealth. "Her clothes."

"Couldn't buy that necklace for a dollar!" "The rings on her

fingers."

The docent asks the children if they think the woman dressed up

to have her portrait painted or did she dress elegantly every day.

One of the children answers her quickly with confidence, "she dressed

like that every day." The docent smiles, then asks, "when you had

your school picture taken, did you get all dressed up?" Some of the

children say "yes," some say "no," others don't respond. The docent

continues, "your school picture is a portrait and I bet when you had

it taken you wore your best clothes and combed your hair and put on

all your richest jewels!" The children laugh.

The docent picks up a basket and begins pulling out sparking

pieces of jewelry-gold chains and multicolored beads and diamond

bracelets. She hands them to the children, who chatter excitedly.

"Oooh, see what I got!" "Look!" "I want a gold chain!" "You got the

prettiest." The docent pulls out golden sashes and silver ribbons

which she drapes over the shoulders of the children, exclaiming, "you

are the Marquis! You are a Duchess! And you are a Princess!" The

children giggle, obviously enjoying the pretense.

The docent takes a gold frame from the basket and tells the

children that they are going to play a game. She places the frame in














front of a little girl's face, then asks the other children, "this is

a portrait of --?" She pauses and waits for the children to answer.

The little girl giggles and the other children laugh. The docent

laughs and says, "look at that smiling face! This is a portrait of

Michelle!" The docent walks among the children, framing each child's

face and saying, "this is a portrait of -?" The children quickly

catch on and begin shouting out the names of the framed person. One

of the children sticks out his tongue as he is framed. The docent

mocks disapproval as she says, "and this is a portrait of Jeremy's

tongue." The children laugh. The docent then frames one of the

chaperones and once again the children laugh.

As the docent replaces the frame, she pulls out a sheaf of

papers. The sheets are printed with a large drawing of an elaborate

frame; the interior of the frame is empty. As the docent hands a

sheet and a crayon to each child, she explains that she wants them to

draw a self-portrait, a picture of themselves. She asks the children

to touch their heads, to feel their ears and their eyes. She tells

them to look at the clothes that they are wearing. Do they have on

stripes? Or red shoes? Or bows in their hair? The children look at

each other while they do this, smiling, acting silly, but enjoying

themselves. One of the children comments, "it's going to be hard."

He fingers his jacket and looks at his nametag. The children sprawl

around the gallery floor; many of them lie on their bellies, crayons















in hand. One of the children is upset. His shirt is blue; his crayon

is green. The children work quietly, occasionally talking to each

other. "I need a red." "I got it. I got a red." "I can't draw."

The docent encourages the children, "you can draw! You are an artist!

Wonderful!"

Portraits: Analysis in Terms of Martha and Jane's Goals

The activities in this section of the tour were designed to make

the concept of portrait meaningful to young children. According to

Martha,

we use a portrait frame to frame their faces and say this
is a portrait so that the concept becomes clearer
through an activity. It's useless to get up there and
say, "this portrait of Andrew Jackson was painted in --."
It's useless to say anything about the portrait of Andrew
Jackson if your audience is unaware of what a portrait is.
And, of course, they think Andrew Jackson is Michael Jackson's
father.

Martha and Jane believed that the concept of a portrait would be more

meaningful to the children if related to their own experiences. The

docent developed the concept of portrait through a number of

strategies. She made connections between the portraits on the wall

and the children's lives. The portraits are of real people; the

children are real people. She related their yearly school pictures to

the painted portraits. In the framing game, children viewed living

portraits of their classmates. And, finally, the children made

portraits of themselves. The use of props, the frame and the jewels,

also made the activities more entertaining for those involved.















Martha and Jane also wanted the children to look and to think

about the portraits. The analysis of the noblewoman's portrait was

intended to develop the children's looking skills. As the docent

asked the children questions about the noblewoman, the children

consistently scanned the painting for more information. They noted

details such as the lace around the noblewoman's collar and the rings

on her fingers. The children looked, thought, and responded as they

discussed the noblewoman's portrait.

Portraits: Further Reflections

The activities in the portrait gallery vividly illustrated Martha

and Jane's belief that the children's experiences in the museum should

be related to the children's personal experiences. The comments about

school pictures, the framing game, and the "dress-up" activity all

related the children's own experiences to the paintings hanging on the

wall. Additionally, the children were encouraged to participate, to

respond, and to think about what they were seeing. By relating the

concept of portrait to the children's personal experiences and

eliciting their involvement in activities which illustrated the

concept, the children appeared to grasp the meaning of portrait.

The activities, however, introduced more than the concept of

portraits. The discussion of the noblewoman's portrait illustrated

the idea that looking at art is a way of learning about lifestyles of

other times and places. The analysis of the noblewoman's attire















informed the children that she was probably a rich and important

person. Reading the imagery in the noblewoman's portrait was a

stimulating activity for the children, one which encouraged the

children to observe and reflect upon their observations. In another

gallery, the children were, once again, encouraged to look, to think,

and to respond.

Landscapes and Seascapes: Now Which One Has the Water?

A docent walks around a room filled with 19th century landscapes.

She is explaining the difference between a seascape (it has the ocean

in it) and a landscape (it has land in it). The docent stops at each

painting, the children following behind her, and asks the children

questions. "Does this painting have water in it? Is the water an

ocean or a lake or a river? Is the painting a landscape or a

seascape?" Sometimes the children respond correctly; other times they

appear either confused or hesitant to answer.

After they finish looking at each painting in the gallery, the

docent stops beside one painting and explains that it is her favorite

painting in the room. The painting is a 19th century Romantic

landscape, a sunset glowing with the grandeur of nature. The docent

tells the children that she likes the painting and names one aspect of

the painting that she admires: the golden glow of the clouds. She

asks the children to find "something special" in the painting. The

children offer a variety of responses: "the clouds," "the lady under














a tree," "they look happy," "the flowers," "the mountains," "the bird

in the water." As the children respond, the docent often comments on

their choices. She talks about the warm glow of the clouds and asks

the children about the kinds of colors that the artist has chosen to

create that effect. She mentions the brushstrokes of color in the

trees and notes that their shapes make you think of leaves.

Throughout the discussion, the children are eager to share their
"something special" and are disappointed when someone else names it.

Their disappointment, however, provokes them to keep looking. After

they finish their discussion, the docent tells them "to find one

painting in the gallery that you really like and go stand by it." The

children disperse, in pairs and in trios, to various paintings around

the room. When the children are settled by a painting, the docent

walks around the room and asks each child to share "something special"

with the others about the painting. Some of the children are shy but

others talk about various aspects of the paintings such as "the cows

in the field" or "a boat on the river." After she has talked with

each group, the docent instructs the children to line up. As they

form their lines and prepare to exit, the children continue to comment

on the paintings. As they leave the gallery, they walk and talk,

looking at the paintings and occasionally bumping into the children in

front of them. "Look at that." "See that wagon. See it?"















Landscapes and Seascapes: Analysis in Terms of Martha
and Jane's Goals

This section of the tour was designed to develop an understanding

of the terms, landscape and seascape. During the first few minutes of

this section, the children were given definitions of each term. They

were then asked to decide if a particular painting fit the category of

landscape or seascape. It is unclear to what extent the children

actually learned the difference between a landscape and a seascape.

Some children had no difficulty with the concepts; others seemed

confused.

After introducing the children to landscapes and seascapes, the

docent focused the children's attention on one particular painting.

She asked the children to find "something special." This activity

prompted the children to look and look again as they named their
"something special." According to Martha, "one of the objectives is

to have the children observe details. You don't observe details

necessarily without learning to observe detail." The more the

children looked, the more they found.

In the final activity, the children chose their "something

special" from other paintings in the room. They were excited as they

searched the gallery for a particular painting with a specific

attribute that they admired. As the children left the gallery, they

were still chattering about the paintings and pointing to specific

details. Each of these activities successfully focused the children's















attention on the paintings, encouraging them to look and to keep on

looking. Similar to other activities on the tour, these activities

were designed to stimulate the children to look, to think, and to

respond to the art around them.

Landscapes and Seascapes: Further Reflections

These activities were probably less important for the vocabulary

and concepts that they introduced (landscape, seascape) than for the

looking that they stimulated. Through a variety of questioning

strategies, the docent focused the children's attention on the art

work. The docent and the children discussed sensory, formal, and

expressive characteristics of the work. Through her comments and

questions, the docent introduced simply stylistic concepts; that is,

how the artist used various techniques to achieve certain effects.

Her discussion of the brushstrokes, the choice of colors, and the mood

of the pieces were simple lessons on concepts of style. The children

were acquiring the rudiments of a visual vocabulary, learning to read

the imagery in paintings and to understand some of the ways that

artists render that imagery.

Additionally, the children were given a small measure of freedom

in the gallery. They were given a problem to solve: to find an art

work that particularly appealed to them. Such an activity is

reminiscent of Taylor's (1971) instructions to art museum educators.

What do you do with children when you go to a museum
this way? What you don't do is troop the children















through the galleries . and have them sit in front
of paintings while you point things out to them...
You don't tell them, you ask them. Furthermore, you
give them some time to look at things on their own.
Set the problem ahead of time, then let people go look
for themselves, and finally come back and discuss what
they have found. . If a child looks at a Giotto and
doesn't see it as an example of the early fourteenth
century, but says, "I sort of like her," give him an "A".
It's only a hardened art historian who could look at a
Boucher Venus and say "Where's you eye level here?"
(pp. 23-24)

By setting a problem for the children, then giving them a chance to

explore on their own, the docent gave the children a measure of

autonomy usually reserved for adults in a museum. The docent,

however, had prepared the children to use the time productively and

purposefully. They were to find and show her "something special" in a

painting that they liked, just as she had shown them "something

special" in a painting that she liked.

According to Jensen (1982), children often feel powerless in

museums. They are in an unfamiliar environment; their behaviors are

restricted. Jensen and others (Chase, 1975; Matthai & Deaver, 1976;

Williams, 1974) have argued that children need to be given the

opportunity to explore the museum environment. The search for
"something special" afforded the children that opportunity. The

children were truly active participants in their museum experience as

they sought and found a painting suited to their taste. In another

section of the tour, however, the children sat and listened.















The Antiquities: Art Tells a Story

The children sit in front of a glass case filled with

antiquities: an Egyptian mask, a large Greek amphora, Etruscan

earrings. The docent instructs the children to follow her with their

eyes as she walks over to the glass case. She begins, "these things

are very old. Everything in here is old, older than you grandmother

and your grandfather." The docent suddenly stops talking. She puts

her hands on her hips, looks puzzled, then asks, "what is this?" She

looks perplexed and turns toward the children. She is standing beside

a Greek amphora, a tall container made of reddish clay and decorated

with a black line drawing. A few of the children respond: "a vase,"
"something to put water in." The docent picks up a plastic milk

container sitting behind the case. She asks the children if maybe the

vase is a jug to carry milk in, like the milk jugs that we have today.

The children nod, murmuring their assent.

The docent explains that a long time ago, people didn't have

plastic so they made their jugs out of clay. The docent replaces the

milk jug and picks up a piece of red clay; it is the same color as the

amphora. The docent quickly shapes the clay into a small pinch pot.

While she works, she tells the children that they also made their cups

out of clay and when they were done, they decorated them with

drawings. The docent puts the clay down and motions toward the

amphora, saying, "this is an amphora and it was used to carry wine.














The picture on it tells a story about a man named Dionysius who made

wine." She indicates a figure surrounded by grapevines. "Would you

like to hear a story about this man?" The children nod their heads; a

few say yes. They are quiet, intently watching the docent. The

docent draws her hands together, bends toward the children, opens her

eyes wide, and begins her story.
"Dionysius lived a long, long time ago. He was a teacher and he

taught people how to make wine. Dionysius worked very hard making

wine. One day he took a walk on the beach and he was very, very

tired. So he laid down on the sand and fell asleep." The docent

sighs and lays her head upon her folded hands. After a few seconds,

she quickly raises her head, walks a few steps, and turns toward the

children. "While he was sleeping, a pirate ship came sailing upon the

ocean." The docent makes wave-like motions with her hands. "The

captain looked through his looking glass [the docent holds an

imaginary looking glass to her eye and scans the horizon] and he saw

Dionysius lying on the beach. Dionysius was very rich and wore

beautiful clothes, so the Captain thought that Dionysius must be a

Prince. Well, the Captain decided to kidnap Dionysius and hold him

for ransom. The Captain sailed his boat back to shore and took

Dionysius back to the ship. When Dionysius woke up, he stretched and

yawned [the docent stretches and yawns] and asked [the docent speaks

in a sweet voice], 'where am I?" The docent's voice becomes rough














and deep. "The bad captain said, 'you are my prisoner. I am going to

keep you!' Well, what do you think Dionysius said?"

The children have been leaning forward, captivated by the

docent's performance. A little boy answers, "let me go!" Another

says, "I bet he was scared." He nods his head and rolls his eyes.

The docent continues. "That's right. Dionysius said, 'oh, please let

me go."' The docent furrows her brow and speaks in a pleading voice.

"But the bad Captain laughed, 'ha! ha! ha!"' The docent laughs in a

rich booming voice. "Dionysius pleaded with the Captain, 'please,

please, please, Captain, sir. Please let me go."' The docent clasps

her hands, speaking in a pleading voice. The docent raises her

eyebrows, looks at the children and asks, "do you know what happened

next?" The children appear entranced; a few shake their heads.

"All of a sudden a storm came up. The clouds gathered and the

rains came down and the winds roared. And Dionysius grew and grew and

grew." The docent puffs up her cheeks, sticks out her belly, and

holds her arms out wide. "Soon he was bigger than the ship. And the

ship was covered with grapevines and filled up with wine. The bad

Captain and pirates were scared and jumped into the ocean and started

to drown." The docent begins thrashing her arms. "Glub. Glub.

Glub. Well, Dionysius worked his magic and he turned all the pirates

into-- [The docent pulls out a puppet, squeaking and jumping in the

air]. Dionysius turned them all into dolphins, the most human of all




Full Text
206
the programs, then those return visits were, in fact, a measure of
success. Undoubtedly, the curator in this study, who observed
children returning to the museum on weekends and on holidays, would
agree with Hayes's conclusion. Although the curators in this study
did not conduct long-term follow-up studies, they were confident of
the quality of their programs and believed that their programs were
having an impact on the children served.
The curators in this study shared the view stated by Anderson
(1968) that "if of necessity, an educational program is brief, it had
better be good." These curators focused their evaluation efforts on
the hour and a half that the children were in the museum. Similar to
the art museum educators described by Eisner and Dobbs (1986b), these
curators evaluated their programs by walking through the galleries.
During their walks, however, these curators observed tour groups with
specific objectives in mind. Through observation, the curators
conscientiously attempted to evaluate the goals of their tours: to
enjoy, to learn, to look. These curators were proud of their
programs; they probably would not have feared evaluation of the
short-term goals for their programs. Their evaluations of the
programs, however, were informal. Why did these curators not attempt
formal evaluations to assess their goals of looking, learning, and
enjoying?
The review of the literature revealed an aversion to formal
assessment among the staff of art museums (Lee, 1983; Newsom & Silver,


109
Recognizing that she knew little about the fifth grade social
studies curriculum, Rose enlisted the aid of fifth grade teachers in
designing the tour.
I met with a committee of fifth grade teachers. We sat down
and talked for days and we talked about what would work and
what wouldn't work, what they would like to have, and what
they were really trying to teachnot just what was in the
curriculum guide that I had been given. They pointed out
things that were really important to them.
Rose also sought the advice of the docents, the volunteers who
implemented the program.
Then I met with committees of docents. I asked the docents
if they would like to serve as the committee for this
gallery or that gallery and they did. And so we sat down
and worked out what they wanted. Between what the teachers
wanted and the docents wanted and what they loved about
tours and what they hated about tours, we designed it.
Rose was proud of the collaborative effort that went into the fifth
grade program and argued that there were few programs like it
throughout the country. Why did Rose designate this program a
success? What was Rose trying to achieve? How did she know that she
was succeeding? How did her criteria for success reveal her beliefs
about art museum education?
According to Rose, the primary goal for the fifth grade tour was
to give the children an enjoyable experience in the museum.
The overall, underlying objective, the oblective, the goal
of the fifth grade tour is that the kids leave here with a
warm, friendly feeling about the museum and that they know
its a place that they can come back with their parents and
their friends for free. That's the whole reason that we are
doing the fifth grade tour program. Then there is a whole
bunch of educational objectives for fifth graders but
basically that's what the tour is all about.


54
direct observation of the phenomenon. However, readers may not have
access to the educational setting. Nevertheless, readers may compare
the criticism to their personal knowledge, both practical and
theoretical, of educational settings. Additionally, the reader may
evaluate the legitimacy of the relationship that the critic has
established between the observed phenomenon and relevant educational
theory and practice (Eisner, 1985; McCutcheon, 1979; Ross, 1978,
1984).
In a discussion of art criticism, Dewey (1934) wrote, "the end of
criticism is the reeducation of perception of the work of art" (p.
324). Similarly, the aim of educational criticism is the reeducation
of the perception of an educational phenomenon. The final criteria
for assessing an educational criticism is the extent to which it
enables the reader to perceive more clearly the richness and diversity
of educational life.
Generalizability
Considering the limited scope of this study, generalizations to
other programs and other museums cannot be made. In that sense, the
study does not conform to the notion of generalizability common to
traditional quantitative inquiry. However, an intensive investigation
of even a limited number of programs may enhance understanding of
educational programs in art museums. The generalizability of this
study is discussed in terms of its usefulness to researchers and
practitioners.


106
Despite their firm belief in the quality of the Little People's
Tour, Martha and Jane did have reservations about the tour. These
weaknesses, however, concerned the museum's relationship with the
schools. Martha and Jane both felt that their next challenge was to
work more cooperatively and intensively with the schools.
A museum visit should not be treated as a one-time
experience. 'I would love to know that we could have
these tours going every morning. That we could have
children returning every two months to build on things
that we have taught them. I would like a lot of repeat
visits. I would like to have more preparation going
into the visits at the schools. We send letters and
call the teachers. But I would like to send out pictures
and do some post-visit teaching. I wish that we could
reach the teachers. (Jane)
Martha and Jane envisioned a successful program as one in which the
children returned repeatedly to the museum and engaged in pre-visit
and post-visit activities in their classrooms. Such a program would
entail a willingness and commitment on the part of the public schools.
The arts, however, were a low priority in the local school system. A
few of the elementary schools in the museum's districts had art
teachers; most did not. Martha and Jane were not alone in their
predicament; museums all over the country have faced the same
obstacles as they attempted to reach school-age children (Lee, 1983;
Newsom, 1977; Newsom & Silver, 1978).
Despite the wish that they could have done more, reached more
children more often, and extended their efforts into the schools,
Martha and Jane were proud of the Little People's Tour. They were
confident that the Little People's Tour had been good for the
children, good for the museum, and good for art.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
Dorene D. Ross, Chair
Associate Professor of Instruction
and Curriculum
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
Raymc r
Ferguson
Associate Professor
and Curriculum
Instruction
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
P (J, 1
Arthur P. Newcomb, Jr.
Associate Professor of Instruction
and Curriculum


56
successful programs. Such knowledge may assist art museum educators
in making practice more effective and intelligent. Other members of
the art museum staff may gain a more complete understanding of the
multiplicity of factors involved in the implementation and evaluation
of a successful program. By clarifying and articulating the beliefs
and values which underlie a selected group of art museum programs, the
study may stimulate reflection and dialogue among art museum
professionals concerning the goals of their educational programs.
Such discussions may be significant as museum professionals develop
policies for art museum education.
In recent decades, many art museums have become increasingly
dependent on subsidies from local, state, and federal departments of
education. These agencies provide operating funds as well as salaries
for instructional positions (Newsom & Silver, 1978). The allocation
of tax dollars often brings with it the demand for accountability
(Newsom, 1980). Art museum professionals may be called upon to assess
the merits of their programs, to discuss the quality of their
educational programs as well as the quantity of children who receive
the benefits of those programs. The findings from this study may
serve as a basis for developing more adequate means of describing,
interpreting, and appraising art museum programs.
Qualifications and Biases of the Researcher
An appreciation of educational practice, like an appreciation of
art, requires a familiarity with and a sensitivity to the phenomena


98
I think it's important to know one's roots. And in a
sense, our roots are here in that room. . The
Wallingford's room is a beginning for the museum. . .
We talk about collecting and that's something that the
children can identify with. Most of them have a
collection of something. It may be bottle caps but it
is a collection. We talk about the things that Mrs.
Wallingford collectedher paintings, her chests, her
sculpture. And they can understand that very clearly.
Like collecting baseball cards or cabbage patch cards.
Martha and Jane wanted the children to understand the concept of what
a museum is and to learn more about the origins of this museum in
particular.
Upon entering the room, the children appeared overwhelmed. They
entered an unfamiliar environment, a room filled with accoutrements of
luxurious living. Their desire to explore, to look, and to touch was
restrained by velvet ropes. The docent, however, successfully put the
children at ease. The docent engaged the imaginative capabilities of
young children; she invited them to a tea party. After the tea party,
the docent told the children a story and the children listened.
As in the telling of the Greek myth, the docent used theatrical
techniques. She involved the children as she told the story; she
asked question and encouraged the children to anticipate and analyze
events in the story. The docent also related the story to the
children's personal experiences. As Martha and Jane intended, the
children were active participants despite the limitations placed on
them in this stimulating, yet restrictive, environment. As they
learned about the Wallingford Museum of Fine Arts, they enjoyed
themselves.


121
responses, "a TV," "a bed," "a stereo," "a car." The docent asks the
children to make something out of their clay that an archeologist
would find, something that would tell him about who they are, and what
they like, and how they live. A few of the children begin building
cars. A little girl makes her cat. Another child makes her living
room: a sofa, a chair, a coffee table, and a vase of flowers. While
the children work, they talk to one another and explain what they are
trying to do. Frequently, they call to the docent or chaperone to
notice their creations. The docent and chaperone assist the children,
occasionally lifting up a child's object to show to the other
children. As they are finishing, the timer goes off and the docent
explains that it is time to clean up. The docent instructs the
children to reform their clay into balls. The children do so quickly,
mashing their various creations. To the distress of their peers, a
few smash the efforts of their neighbors. While the chaperone
collects the balls of clay, the docent tells the children that they
have learned two methods of making pots: pinching and coiling. They
have also learned how to create patterns using two techniques:
incising and applique. She explains that in the next gallery they
will learn more about the pre-Columbian Indians by looking at some
slides of the land where they lived and the art that they made.
The Art Discovery Room: Analysis in Terms of Rose's Goals
As Rose intended, the children clearly had an enjoyable
experience in the Art Discovery Room. In this introductory session,


27
Little People's Tour, consisted of docent-led tours through six
galleries in the museum. Children from local preschools and
elementary schools participated in the program; the tours were
scheduled at the initiative of the teachers who wished to have their
classes participate in the tours.
The program selected at the Harrison Museum of Art was a
cooperative program developed with the local school system. Each
fifth grade class in the county visited the museum; the program was
designed, in part, to reinforce the fifth grade social studies
curriculum. The focus of the tour was the museum's collection of
pre-Columbian artifacts. The school system funded the program and
provided assistance in organizing and scheduling the tours.
Ideally, the present study would have included an investigation
of several programs offered by each institution. Such a study would
have provided a more comprehensive view of the art museum educator as
he or she endeavored to evaluate a variety of programs with diverse
aims and different audiences. Additionally, it would have been
instructive to include a larger population of art museum educators so
that comparisons could have been made among programs and institutions.
However, such a study would have entailed time, resources, and staff
unavailable to the researcher. The number of programs included in the
study was limited by the time constraints on the researcher. Two
programs were chosen to give the researcher ample time to investigate
each program in-depth over a 6-month period.


118
Indians." The docent asks if they know what pre-Columbian means. She
enunciates the word slowly, distinguishing between the pre and the
Columbian. Several of the children answer with authority, "before
Columbus." The docent answers, "that's right. So these objects were
made by the Indians who lived in America before Columbus arrived."
The docent reaches into a canister, gathers some balls of clay,
and hands them to the children. The children roll the balls around
the tables; a few toss them into the air. The docent explains what
they will be doing with the clay, "first, we will make a pinch pot,
then a coil pot, and then an artifact of our own." The docent takes
four, small, round pots off the glass shelves, hands them to the
children, and announces that these are pinch pots. The children rub
the surfaces of the pots, put their fingers in them, and twirl them
around on their thumbs.
The docent picks up a ball of clay and holds it up so that the
children are able to watch her actions. She explains, "the
pre-Columbian Indians made pots by two basic techniques: pinching
them or coiling them. Now, making a pinch pot is exactly the way it
sounds. Take your thumb, push it into the clay but not all the way
through. Now pinch and turn." While she talks, the docent
demonstrates. The children imitate her motions, watching her and each
other. The docent puts down her pot and circulates among the
children. She offers praise and advice about their pots. The


25
The Harrison Museum of Art is in a small urban area; its
operating budget is derived from a synthesis of public and private
funding. The museum has a small permanent collection of pre-Columbian
artifacts. The Harrison museum offers a variety of educational
programs: a cooperative program with the public schools of Harrison
County; a guest lecture series of visiting artists and art historians;
an art film series; guided tours for community and civic
organizations; and a variety of special events.
Gaining Entry to the Sites
Access was obtained by contacting the directors of each
institution under consideration. The directors were told that the
researcher wished to investigate the educational programs in various
art museums throughout the state. The directors identified the
curators of education for the researcher (giving the names, official
title, work schedules, and phone numbers of the curators to the
researcher) and notified the curators of the researcher's intent.
After obtaining permission from the directors, the researcher
contacted the curators of education and arranged an initial visit.
During this visit the researcher described the purpose of the study
and explained that the researcher would be compiling case studies of
selected programs. Each of the curators agreed to participate in the
study. The curators were told that they would receive written reports
of the case studies.


48
Interpretation
McCutcheon (1979) distinguished between two types of
interpretation: intrinsic and extrinsic. In intrinsic
interpretation, the critic identifies the underlying patterns which
give order to events. For example, the patterns in an art museum
program may be shaped by the educator's belief about the nature of the
aesthetic experience or they may take form from the curricular
objectives of participating schools. These patterns are essential to
an understanding of the educational program. As McCutcheon (1979) has
noted, "patterns constitute the threads holding together the fabric of
specific events" (p. 10). Through interpretation, the critic reveals
patterns of behaviors which give shape to the educational phenomenon.
Another aspect of intrinsic interpretation is a consideration of the
meaning of events to participants. The critic goes beyond a physical
description of an observed behavior and offers an interpretation of
the meaning of the behavior in the social context. McCutcheon (1979)
illustrated this process in an analysis of a familiar classroom
behavior.
Children ooh and aah, each with one arm extended upward
to the ceiling, following a teacher's question. What
does this physical behavior mean? . Clearly, children
are raising hands to be called upon, but why are they
groaning to be called upon? Is it a form of competition
for rewards (approval by the teacher) operating here?
Are children trying to prove to their peers who is
smartest? Are they merely eager to share? Do they know
the teacher calls on children with their hands up and
dispenses grades on that basis? (p. 11)


225
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60(6), 48-56.
Chase, R. (1975). Museums as learning environments. Museum News,
54(1), 37-43.
Commission on Museums for a New Century. (1984). Museums for a new
century. Washington, DC: American Association of Museums.
Dewey, J. (1934). Art as experience. New York: Minton, Balch and Co.
Eisner, E. (1972). Emerging models for educational evaluation.
School Review, 80, 572-590.
Eisner, E. (1975). The perceptive eye: Toward the reformation of
educational evaluation. Paper presented at the annual meeting of
the American Educational Research Association, Washington, DC.
Eisner, E. (1978). Humanistic trends and the curriculum field.
Journal of Curriculum Studies, 10, 197-204.
Eisner, E. (1980). Toward a conceptual revolution in evaluation.
Educational Forum, 44, 373-374.
Eisner, E. (1985). The educational imagination (2nd ed.). New York:
Macmillan.
Eisner, E., & Dobbs, S. (1986a). Museum education in twenty American
art museums. Museum News, 65(2), 42-49.
Eisner, E., & Dobbs, S. (1986b). The uncertain profession:
Observations on the state of museum education in twenty American
art museums. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Center for Education in
the Arts.
Gardner, H. (1982). Art, mind, and brain. New York: Basic Books.
Gardner, H., & Winner, E. (1982). Children's conceptions and
misconceptions of the arts. In H. Gardner, Art, mind, and brain
(pp. 103-109). New York: Basic Books.
Gombrich, E. (1961). Art and illusion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press.
Goodman, N. (1976). Languages of art. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.
Goodman, N. (1985). The end of the museum? Journal of Aesthetic
Education, 19(2), 53-62.


197
the curators believed that their goals of looking, learning, and
enjoying were achieved through a child-centered, object-centered
approach.


195
Indians. Much of what is known about the pre-Columbian Indians has
been learned through the study of artifacts such as those on display
at the Harrison Museum of Art. Focusing on the artifacts would have
maintained the object-centered approach of the tour while educating
the children about the culture of the pre-Columbian Indians. Such an
effort would have been similar to the section of the Little People's
Tour in which the children heard a Greek myth to illustrate the
cultural significance of the imagery depicted on a Greek amphora.
That is, the cultural significance of the art object was derived from
a consideration of the distinctive characteristics of the object.
Occasionally, the Little People's Tour also deviated from an
object-centered, child-centered approach. For example, in the
Portrait Gallery, the children looked at and talked about one painting
in the room: the noblewoman's portrait. The activity effectively
focused the children's attention on an art work and stimulated
discussion concerning the painting. The children spent the rest of
the time in the gallery participating in activities intended to convey
the concept of portrait. The children played a framing game and made
self-portraits. The time spent drawing their self-portraits, however,
was time that the children did not spend looking at and responding to
a few more portraits in the room. The children appeared uncomfortable
as they bent over in awkward positions or sprawled on the floor in an
attempt to complete their drawings. The self-portrait session could


53
presented. Additionally, data collected from one source may be
compared to data acquired from another source. For example, the
information from interviews may be compared to information gathered
during observations. A rich, abundant collection of data enables the
reader to evaluate personally the adequacy of the researcher's
conclusions. Therefore, the quantity and quality of data is an
important consideration in assessing the credibility of a criticism
(McCutcheon, 1979; Ross, 1978, 1984).
Second, the reader needs to consider the consistency and
coherence of a critic's arguments. Critics develop and support their
interpretations and appraisals through a process known as structural
corroboration (Eisner, 1985; McCutcheon, 1979). As critics logically
construct their arguments, they refer to supportive pieces of
evidence. Critics strengthen their cases by presenting additional
pieces of information that corroborate the existent evidence. The
critic also explores alternative hypotheses and investigates
contradictory evidence. In choosing one hypothesis over another, the
critic explains decisions and reveals his or her line of reasoning
(Ross, 1984). In evaluating a criticism, the reader must assess
whether the critic has established an argument that makes sense and is
supported by the evidence. The reader must ask, do the parts add up
to the whole?
Third, the reader needs to compare the criticism to other
knowledge of the phenomenon under study. This process may involve


71
1976). They tend to think that art works are produced in simplistic,
mechanical ways, that is, produced in factories along with their
McDonald's happy meal boxes. Children of this age often do not
realize that art is made by people and that it is in any way different
from other objects in their environment. Nor do children of this age
have any concept of the skill required to produce such objects. These
perceptions may be due, in part, to the developmental stage of young
children. It is important, however, that the children encounter
contradictions to those beliefs in order to develop their
understanding of artistic forms. Through the sculpting activity the
children were introduced to the idea that art is made by people using
techniques requiring skill and coordination.
Martha and Jane designed this section of the tour based on the
premise that young children learn by doing. Developmental
psychologists have emphasized the significant role that tactile
experiences and participatory activities play in young children's
learning (Piaget & Inhelder, 1969). In recognition of these findings,
the Office of Museum Programs at the Smithsonian Institution issued a
set of guidelines for designing young children's programs which
stressed the need for active participation (Matthai & Deaver, 1976).
The sculpting activity, designed by Martha and Jane, was
developmentally appropriate for their young audience. The children
participated in a similar activity in another section of the tour.
The focus, however, was on painting not sculpture.


148
where would the Indians get the idea of making a jaguar?" the docent
asks. "From the jaguars in the jungle," the children respond. The
docent asks the children to count the jaguar's legs. One of the
children points out that the jaguar has two legs and two arms. The
child squats, resting his hands on his knees, to indicate the jaguar's
position. The docent asks the children about the third leg of the
pot. The children look curiously at the pot, then one cries out,
"it's the jaguar's tail." The children laugh and a few walk behind
the case to get a look at the jaguar's tail.
The docent holds up the sheet, points to the next drawing, and
asks if anyone found this. She is answered by a chorus of "number
20." The group moves to the case containing the object. It is a
bowl, held aloft by three mythic figures. The three forms appear to
be birds; they have sharp, protruding beaks. Their torsos, however,
are human. The docent announces that the name of the object is
"Tripod Bird Bowl." She asks the children to explain the name. "Why
is it called tripod?" she asks. "Because it has three legs," answers
a child. "And the bird?" she asks. "Because it has bird legs,"
answers another child. The docent asks the children why the bowl has
three legs instead of four. One of the children suggests that the
Indians were saving clay. The docent explains that it is because
three legs are more stable than four when set on an uneven surface
like the ground.


223
the similarities and differences between the two programs may help
researchers and museum professionals to perceive more clearly and
appreciate more fully the complexity of factors involved in the
development, implementation, and evaluation of successful programs.


140
between the culture of the pre-Columbian Indians and that of 20th
century America, a gap which is extremely difficult to bridge. It was
unclear whether this section of the slide show fulfilled Rose's
intention of educating these children about the culture of the
pre-Columbian Indians and thereby giving them a means of interpreting
the artifacts.
Rose also developed the slide show as an introduction to the
artifacts in the Pre-Columbian Gallery.
The slide show is like an advance organizer; [it] tells
the children what to look for. . The close up shots
of some of the pots are of the objects that they are going
to see.in the Pre-Columbian Gallery. It's hard to
discriminate details when you are in there. So we show
closeups. And then they look at the details when they go
in there. Things you would not see if you had not seen
that big blowup. (Rose)
As Rose intended, the slide show enabled the students to focus on
particular details of the artifacts presented as well as reinforcing
ideas introduced in the Art Discovery Room. The children
discriminated various media and techniques used to create the
artifacts. Their attention was focused on the art forms as they
attempted to discern various stylistic differences and identify some
of the forms depicted. Additionally, the slide show established the
relationship between the imagery of the artifacts and the animals in
the jungles of Central America. As the children discussed the slides,
they were looking closely and carefully at the artifacts from the
Pre-Columbian Gallery. Their discussion was animated; their attention


214
This study illustrates the usefulness of qualitative methods of
research in the art museum setting. Qualitative, naturalistic studies
may offer insight into the complex interaction between the visitor,
the educational efforts of the museum staff, and the art on display.
Rather than isolating and studying variables of phenomena,
naturalistic studies examine and describe a dynamic system of
interconnected factors. To increase our understanding of the process
and product of art museum educators efforts, researchers need to
conduct and have access to qualitative accounts of educational
programs in art museums. Such accounts would have implications for
research as well as practice.
Contribution of Findings to Practitioners
Of what significance to practitioners is a study describing,
interpreting, and appraising two art museum education programs?
Although the results of this study cannot be generalized to other art
museums, the in-depth investigation of these two programs clarifies
and explains the complex, dynamic relationship between works of art,
the educational efforts of the museum staff, and the museum visitor
common to all art museum education programs. The study has
implications for art museum educators and other museum professionals.
The study may stimulate reflection among art museum educators
concerning the educational programs at their institutions. The art
museum educators involved in this study conceptualized goals for their


113
how long they would be in the gallery. According to Rose, the docent
should "maintain the momentum of the tour and emphasize important
points and relationships." Rose also emphasized the need for a review
at the end of each gallery section as well as a review at the
conclusion of the tour. During docent training, Rose clearly
indicated the types of strategies that she believed were effective in
engaging the children's attention and keeping the children involved
and content during the tour.
Rose also viewed the docent as a "catalyst between viewers and
exhibits." For Rose, the task of the art museum educator is to
facilitate and inform the interaction between the visitor and the art
objects.
There are a lot of things that you can do as an art educator
to help a student get closer to understanding the visual art
object or many visual art objects. It can be done in an
hour, too. There can be something there, that they end up
having a relationship with the art object. . [The tour
is designed] to focus on the object. If I just tell [the
children] to look at an object, they are not going to do
that. ... I don't care what piece they like the most or
hate the most. . The main thing for me is that they've
stopped and looked at the work for more than 3 seconds
which is the average adult time in front of a work of art
in a museum.
During the tour, Rose believed that the children's attention should be
focused on the art objects.
Rose wanted the fifth grade tour to be an enjoyable and an
educational experience. Rose viewed the role of the docent as
critical in her endeavor; Rose expected the docent to act as host and


145
others point out that it is the same piece of fabric they saw in the
slide show. The docent remarks, "the complexity of the pattern shows
us the sophistication of the pre-Columbian Indians."
The docent tells the children to look around the room and read
the names of the countries. "Where do most of these objects come
from?" she asks. The children answer with every country listed,
Mexico, Costa Rica, Colombia, Peru. However, as the docent indicates,
only one country, Costa Rica, is listed repeatedly on the pedestals.
The docent walks to the map on the wall and motions to the area where
Costa Rica is located. She asks the children to tell her where
Florida would be if it were painted on the map. The children call out
instructions. "Go up." "Over some." "Higher." The docent does not
respond; she asks the children for directions. The appear momentarily
confused, then a child tells her to go "east." The docent moves to
her right, and asks, "east and what?" A number of the children
answer, "north." The docent tells them that they are right and points
to the area where Florida would be on the map.
The docent asks for three volunteers and hands them materials to
pass out. Despite protests concerning the lack of erasers on certain
pencils, the volunteers successfully distribute a clipboard,
worksheet, and pencil to each child. The docent holds up the sheet,
saying, "this is a game not a test. On the sheet are drawings of five
objects in this room." The docent walks over to one of the cases,


95
woman dressed in grey silk, smiling benevolently to the children
standing before her. The docent addresses the portrait, "Mrs.
Wallingford, I would like for you to meet the boys and girls from Pine
Forest Elementary School. Theyve come to have tea with you."
The docent turns to the children and says, "Mrs. Wallingford is
delighted that you are here and is so pleased that you will be staying
for tea." The docent picks up a teapot and pours a cup of tea into an
imaginary teacup. She takes a sip, smiles at the children, and says,
"uhmm, good tea." The docent tells the children to get their cups
ready and she begins pouring tea into the imaginary cups that the
children hold out to her. When she is finished pouring, she picks up
her teacup, and drinks with the children. The docent gently places
her empty cup on an ornate china tray. As she carries the tray among
the children, they, too, gently place their cups on the tray. They
watch the docent, wondering what will happen next. In a quiet voice,
the docent tells a story.
"A long, long time ago, there lived a very nice young lady who
married a very nice young man. They built a house right here where we
are standing. They were very much in love and very happy. They
traveled all over the world and collected things. Do you know what it
means to collect things?" The children are quiet. The docent tries
again. "Do you like to collect Pound Puppies or GI Joes or baby
dolls? Maybe transformers? What do you like to collect?"


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of
the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
EDUCATIONAL CRITICISMS OF TWO ART MUSEUM EDUCATION PROGRAMS:
WHAT CONSTITUTES SUCCESS?
By
Karen Kilgore
December, 1988
Chair: Dorene D. Ross
Cochair: Roy C. Craven, Jr.
Major Department: Instruction and Curriculum
The purpose of this study was to investigate the evaluation
practices of art museum educators, to identify the criteria used to
determine success, and to examine the relationship between those
criteria and the museum educators' beliefs about art museum education.
Information about two art museum education programs, designated as
successful by the curators of education at their respective
institutions, was collected, analyzed, and presented using a
qualitative research methodology, educational criticism. Observations
at each museum were conducted for 10 to 12 weeks and recorded through
the use of field notes and audiotapes. The curators of education
were interviewed, formally and informally, concerning their goals for
the programs, their evaluation procedures, and their beliefs
concerning the success of the programs. The directors of the museums
and the docents who implemented the programs were also interviewed.
viii


51
curator described as a successful program and what actually happened
on the tours? Through intrinsic appraisal, the researcher determined
the extent to which the curators actually fulfilled their stated aims
for the programs. The guiding questions of this investigation are
basically concerned with intrinsic appraisal of the programs.
Through extrinsic appraisal, the educational critic evaluates the
aims of the educator with respect to relevant educational theory and
research. The critic considers the potential benefits or deleterious
effects of the educational program. The intent of the appraisal,
however, is not simply the rendering of an educational verdict. As
Eisner (1985) explained, any discussion of educational practice is
concerned with value.
Education implies some personal and social good. But
to say this is to raise the knotty question of what kinds
of values to apply to phenomena that aspire to be
educational. On this matter there is a wide range of
different views. . Yet, even though different
individuals and groups hold different conceptions of
educational virtue . the need to make these judgments
is inevitable, (p. 235)
The educational critic approaches an educational phenomenon with
a conception of education virtue. The criteria for evaluation are
stated by the researcher. For example, the critic may evaluate
instructional efforts from a Piagetian or behavioral framework (Ross,
1978, 1984). During the critical analysis of the educational program,
the critic explicates beliefs and values which have guided the
appraisal. In this study, the researcher examined the curators


45
older children. As the docents began the tours for the older
children, their tours were interrupted by the late docent with her
tour group. The researcher made a note to ask the curator how she
dealt with problems such as these. Did she have an established method
for dealing with individual docent problems?
Upon returning to the museum, the researcher observed a docent
training session. The curator lectured to the docents about a group
of Medieval paintings. She did not suggest or discuss methods of
presenting this information to the tour groups. The researcher noted
that art historical information and tour presentation techniques were
covered in separate sessions. The researcher developed a number of
questions to ask the curator about docent training.
After the training session, the curator and researcher returned
to the curator's office. They talked about the day and scheduled the
next observation. They concluded their conversation by discussing
their respective studies. The curator was writing an art historical
dissertation. They offered each other words of encouragement as the
researcher departed for the day.
The above description demonstrates the process of data
collection. A number of factors shaped the researcher's efforts: the
museum's daily schedules, the guiding questions of the study,
unanticipated research questions, the development and modification of
hypotheses, and the researcher's interpretation of events. In the
following section, a discussion of data presentation is provided.


128
educational objectives for this section of the tour as well as
fulfilling the overall goal of providing a pleasurable, learning
experience for the children. Rose's instructional strategies
exemplify a few basic educational principles: stimulate active
participation by the children; begin with what the children know, that
is, consider their background knowledge and use that as a basis for
instruction; and move from the concrete to the abstract.
Rose's activities and instructional strategies in this initial
session demonstrated a fundamental understanding of how children
learn. Her approach was compatible with the Piagetian view of the
child as one who constructs knowledge through interaction. Rose
considered the child's current ways of knowing, presented information
in ways which related to what the child knows, and challenged the
child to expand and modify his or her conceptions of the world through
active participation (Piaget & Inhelder, 1969).
Rose's instructional efforts were aimed at developing some basic
concepts about museums and art. According to Rose, many of these
children have had relatively few, if any, experiences with museums.
According to Jensen (1982), most children have little understanding of
museums. That is, they do not know why they exist nor what their
various functions may be. Rose's efforts to educate children about
the nature of museums was an important first step in developing the
children's museum literacy: an understanding of the museum as an


115.
call it Harrison?" A child responds impatiently, "because it's in
Harrison County!" The docent nods, answering, "yes, and the museum
belongs to the people of Harrison County. Why do we call it "of Art?"
A child confidently responds, "because it's full of art." The docent
asks them if they know of any other kinds of museums. Her question is
answered with a variety of responses, "bone museums," "science
museums," and "dinosaur museums."
The docent then introduces herself. She removes her nametag,
points to her name and indicates the museum logo. She gives the
nametag to the children to pass around. The docent walks around the
room, reading the children's nametags. The children proudly lift
their chests, showing her their names and helping with pronunciations
as needed. When she returns to the center of the room, she tells the
children that she has a special name here at the museum and wonders if
any of them know what it is. A boy quickly answers, "docent." When
asked what the word means, the boy confidently says, "a tour guide."
The docent asks the children if they collect anything. The
children respond with a chorus of answers, "coins," "stamps," "dolls,"
"seashells," "He Men," "rocks." "What do you do with your
collections?" she asks. A girl answers, "I have little shelves and I
put my dolls on them." The docent smiles and says, "you share them
with your friends, don't you?" Another child raises his hand saying,
"I let my friends come over and look at my spiders." The docent seems


58
3. The researcher has earned an M.Ed. in early childhood
education and an Ed.S. in art education.
4. The researcher has completed coursework for a Ph.D. in
curriculum and instruction, including courses in art education and
curriculum development with an emphasis on art museum education
programs.
5. The researcher has completed two courses which provided a
foundation in the theory and practice of qualitative research methods.
The researcher has conducted two qualitative studies using
ethnographic techniques.
6. The researcher has read extensively concerning the
theoretical basis of educational criticism as well as a broad sampling
of educational criticisms.
The biases of the researcher are also an important consideration
for understanding and evaluating an educational criticism (Eisner,
1985; McCutcheon, 1979; Ross, 1984). In recognition of the impact of
researcher's beliefs and values on the study, a brief summary of the
researcher's philosophical orientation is offered in the following two
paragraphs.
To develop programs which stimulate the enjoyment of, and
learning from, the museum's collections, art museum educators must
have an understanding of the interests and learning abilities of their
audience. In developing educational programs for children, a museum


88
through the galleries . and have them sit in front
of paintings while you point things out to them. . .
You don't tell them, you ask them. Furthermore, you
give them some time to look at things on their own. . .
Set the problem ahead of time, then let people go look
for themselves, and finally come back and discuss what
they have found. ... If a child looks at a Giotto and
doesn't see it as an example of the early fourteenth
century, but says, "I sort of like her," give him an "A".
It's only a hardened art historian who could look at a
Boucher Venus and say "Where's you eye level here?"
(pp. 23-24)
By setting a problem for the children, then giving them a chance to
explore on their own, the docent gave the children a measure of
autonomy usually reserved for adults in a museum. The docent,
however, had prepared the children to use the time productively and
purposefully. They were to find and show her "something special" in a
painting that they liked, just as she had shown them "something
special" in a painting that she liked.
According to Jensen (1982), children often feel powerless in
museums. They are in an unfamiliar environment; their behaviors are
restricted. Jensen and others (Chase, 1975; Matthai & Deaver, 1976;
Williams, 1974) have argued that children need to be given the
opportunity to explore the museum environment. The search for
"something special" afforded the children that opportunity. The
children were truly active participants in their museum experience as
they sought and found a painting suited to their taste. In another
section of the tour, however, the children sat and listened.


CHAPTER III
THE LITTLE PEOPLE'S TOUR: WHAT CONSTITUTES SUCCESS?
The children lined up outside the main doors of the museum. They
were young, "little people," as the Curator of Education called them,
children 5 or 6 years of age. They stood quietly as the "big people"
divided them into small groups. A docent gestured for one to hurry
up; a chaperone took another by the shoulders and put him in his
designated place. The children wore blue, easel-shaped name tags,
decorated along the edges with bright spots of paint. When the lines
were completed, the docents led the children into the museum, mother
ducks with their ducklings waddling hurriedly behind. One by one, the
lines traveled through the lobby and disappeared in opposite
directions, each headed for a different gallery.
What were children of this age group doing in a museum of fine
arts? As Martha,1 the Curator of Education, noted, "this age group
really hasn't been art museum territory." Despite the museum's
tradition of serving older children and adults, Martha fought to have
a specially-designed program for young children. She was assisted by
Jane, a dedicated docent, who had once been a teacher of young
1. All names in this dissertation have been fictionalized to
maintain the anonymity of the participants.
60


36
(Spradley, 1980). The questions emerge as the situation unfolds and
have not been predetermined by the interviewer. During the course of
interviews, both formal and informal, informants may provide
information that leads to unanticipated questions. These interviews
take the form of "guided conversations" and flow in the directions of
concerns to those interviewed (Lofland & Lofland, 1984).
Formal interviews were conducted with the curators of education
at each museum. For example, the following types of questions were
used in the initial interview with each curator: What audiences are
you trying to reach? What are your strategies for reaching those
audiences? What is your message for those audiences? That is, what
are you trying to achieve? These questions were intended to disclose
the beliefs, values, and assumptions of the museum educators as they
developed educational programs at their institutions.^ During the
in-depth investigation of the observed programs, the researcher, once
again, conducted formal interviews with the curators of education
concerning the success of their programs. The curators were asked to
describe the program, to explain the rationale for the activities in
each section of the tour, and to describe the strengths and weaknesses
of the tours. The curators were also asked about their methods of
3. See Appendix A for a list of the questions asked in the
initial interview.


226
Guba, E. (1981). Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of
naturalistic inquiries. ECTJ, 29(2), 75-91.
Guba, E., & Lincoln, Y. (1981). Effective evaluation. San
Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Hayes, B. (1968). A study of the relation of museum art exhibitions
to education. In E. Larrabee (Ed.), Museums and education (pp.
115-126). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Hein, G. (1982). Evaluation of museum programs and exhibits. In T.
Hansen, K. Andersen, & P. Vestergaard (Eds.), Museums and
education (pp. 21-26). Denmark: International Council of
Museums.
Jensen, N. (1982). Children, teenagers, and adults in museums: A
developmental perspective. Museum News, 60(5), 25-30.
Kelly, E. (1975). Curriculum evaluation and literacy criticism:
Comments on the analogy. Curriculum Theory Network, 5(2), 87-
106.
Kyle, D. (1982). Using educational criticism for middle school
evaluation. American Middle School Education. _5(2), 10-15.
Langer, S. (1942). Philosophy in a new key. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press.
Lee, S. (1975). On understanding art museums. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall.
Lee, S. (1983). Past, present, east, and west. New York: George
Braziller.
Lee, S. (1984). The art museum as a wilderness area. Museum News,
62(3), 57-59.
Lincoln, Y., & Guba, E. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills,
CA: Sage.
Linn, M. (1983). Evaluation in the museum setting: Focus on
expectations. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. 5(1),
119-127.
Lofland, J., & Lofland, L. (1984). Analyzing social settings.
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.


196
have been conducted in the children's classroom where the children
would have had the time and the materials necessary to complete the
assignment. Such an activity in their classrooms would have been an
appropriate post-visit activity. Although the concept of portrait was
important to understanding the portraits in the room, the concept was
not more important than actually looking at the portraits in the room.
Additionally, the concept of portrait had been adequately conveyed
through the framing game and discussion of portraits. The clustering
of multiple activities in the portrait gallery was a deviation from
the object-centered approach to the tour.
Why did Martha and Jane deviate from an object-centered approach?
As Martha and Jane developed the Little People's Tour, they
encountered considerable resistance. Part of this resistance was due
to the staff's concern that young children might damage the art in the
museum. One might wonder if the multiple activities were designed, in
part, to keep the children's hands actively engaged and away from the
art objects on display. The looking activities in the Landscape and
Seascape section of the tour, however, clearly kept the children's
attention focused on the art work without endangering the objects.
Despite these occasional deviations, the Little People's Tour and
the Fifth Grade Tour maintained an object-centered and child-centered
approach to educating these children concerning art and museums. The
curators of education designated these programs as successful because


46
Presentation of Data
According the McCutcheon (1979), educational criticism is both a
process and a product of inquiry. The product is the written report,
the presentation of the gathered information. As stated previously,
an educational criticism has three major aspects: description,
interpretation, and appraisal. The distinctions, however, are
artificial. In reality, these aspects are interwoven. For example,
as critics choose dimensions of the phenomenon to describe, they make
value judgments, they decide what is significant to an understanding
of the phenomenon. These decisions are based on the critics'
perceptions of the participants' experiences, that is, the critics'
interpretation of the situation. Nevertheless, the distinctions
between description, interpretation, and appraisal are useful for
clarifying the purposes of the criticism. An explanation of each of
these aspects is given in the following section.
Description
The purpose of description is to portray vividly the essential
elements and characteristic qualities of the phenomenon under study.
Using the information gathered in the field notes, tapes, and other
materials, the critic artistically reconstructs the educational
phenomenon and enables the reader to participate vicariously in the
experiences which the critic has encountered. Barone (1983)
demonstrated the evocative nature of description as he set the stage


134
also tells them that the men look alike; she flashes back from one
slide to the other indicating similarities such as the bone structure
of the face and the shape of the nose and eyes. She explains that the
sculpture is over a thousand years old but that the man portrayed in
the sculpture could be the other man's great-great-great-great
grandfather.
The next slide is of a ceramic vessel. A jaguar head protrudes
from the belly of the pot; its fangs bared and bloody. The surface of
the pot is covered with repetitive rows of circular motifs. The
docent asks the children what material was used to make the vessel.
The children immediately respond, "clay." She tells them that the
vessel represents something and she wants to know what the vessel
looks like to them. The children have little difficulty noting the
resemblance to the jaguar seen previously. The docent wants to know
how the children are able to see that the animal is a jaguar. Several
children indicate "the spots" on the pot. The docent comments that
the Indians have created a beautiful design on the surface of the
vessel, repeating over and over again the shape of the spots. She
notes that the patterns are painted, not incised or appliqued. She
asks the children to find the legs of the jaguar. One of the children
says that the jaguar has "the legs of a jaguar" and the "arms of a
man." The docent notes that the Indians have created a wonderful
combination of animal and human characteristics. The docent goes on


6
These researchers have stressed the unique learning environment of the
museum and have suggested that qualitative methods of inquiry may be
more fruitful than quantitative measures in the museum environment.
Although qualitative techniques have been used to evaluate and
investigate programs in science and natural history museums (Hein,
1982; Linn, 1983; Wolf, 1980), these methods have rarely been used in
art museums (Eisner & Dobbs, 1986b). Clearly, there is a need to
develop methods capable of assessing the multifaceted nature of the
art museum visit. This study exemplifies the use of qualitative
methodology to investigate art museum education programs.
For researchers, the study may suggest areas for further inquiry.
The findings of a qualitative study may result in the identification
of variables and generation of hypotheses for continued exploration.
This investigation is an addition to the small but growing body of
knowledge concerning art museum education programs.
The study may also be of benefit to art museum professionals.
Intensive analyses of even a limited number of successful programs may
assist the art museum's staff as they develop and implement
educational programs. Additionally, as museums become more dependent
upon public funds to finance their educational programs, they
undoubtedly will encounter the demand for accountability (Commission
on Museums for a New Century, 1984; Newsom, 1980). This study
illustrates an appropriate methodology for practitioners to evaluate
programs at their institutions.


144
nudges his companion saying, "there's that thing!" A few of the
children sit on the sofa, lounging briefly among its comforting
pillows before being admonished by the chaperone to join the others.
The children wander in small groups, leaning against each other,
looking briefly in the cases, reading a label or two, then moving on.
The children appear curious. The children talk quietly, making
comments to one another. "That's from Mexico." "What is_ that thing?"
"This is cool." "Look at that bird thing." After a few minutes, the
docent asks the children to return to the center of the room and sit
on the floor. The children do so, although a few, once again, make an
unsuccessful attempt to sit on the sofa.
The docent asks the children to look at the geometric frieze
which decorates the upper walls of the gallery. The pattern is
created by interlocking geometric shapes in yellow and brown. The
docent instructs them to look at the yellow design, then at the brown
design. She asks the children if they notice anything special about
the patterns. A number of children raise their hands, anxious to
answer. The docent calls on a child, who explains, "they are the same
design, only upside down." The docent agrees and says that they are
an "interlocking step designvery complex." The docent walks over to
a scrap of fabric, framed and hung on the wall. She tells the
children to look at the design on the cloth. Various children quickly
exclaim that it is the same pattern that is painted on the walls as


156
As the children entered the gallery, they were given permission to
wander among the artifacts with the same degree of freedom given to an
adult in a museum. The children moved from case to case, expressing
pleasure as they found objects seen previously in the slide show. The
children sought out additional information; they read the labels and
descriptive paragraphs mounted on the walls. Museum educators have
noted that children in museums need to be given the same respect
accorded to adult visitors. Children as well as adults need the
opportunity to explore the museum environment and to seek out areas of
interest (Chase, 1975; Taylor, 1971; Williams, 1974). Rose gave the
children that opportunity. Rose, however, prepared the children to
explore the gallery in a purposeful and productive manner. The
children's interest in the artifacts had been stimulated in the slide
show and in the Art Discovery Room.
Although the search sheet was a structured activity, it was also
designed to give the children an opportunity to explore. The children
were able to complete the sheet at their own pace, in whatever
sequence they chose, with or without the help of partners. The
children were also free to use their own judgment as they chose a
favorite object to draw. As Jensen (1982) noted, children often
experience a sense of powerlessness in a museum. They feel
overwhelmed by the novelty of the environment and repressed by the
behavioral expectations set by the staff. Rose, however, developed an


192
The art museum educators in this study shared the views expressed
by Lee. Both curators spoke of the need to develop the children's
visual literacy by focusing the children's attention on the art
objects in the museum. Their efforts were aimed at developing the
children's relationships with the art objects rather than teaching the
children art historical information about the objects. For example,
Rose described the educational intervention of the museum educator as
a 3-point event between the educator, the art form, and the viewer.
Rose explained, however, that the eventual aim of the educator is to
enable the viewer to experience the art object directly and for the
museum educator to eventually withdraw from the 3-point encounter.
Obviously, the children on both tours spent time listening to the
docents and engaging in activities that did not directly focus their
attention to the art on display. However, these activities were
initiated by a consideration of specific qualities or characteristics
of the art object and were concluded by a renewed consideration of the
art object on display. The curators' criteria for success revealed
the curators' belief that an art museum education program should be
object-centered.
In summary, the curators' criteria for assessing the success of a
tour basically fell into two categories: child-centered criteria,
that is assessing the degree to which the children were actively
involved in and enjoyed the museum experience; and object-centered


185
artifacts due to the childrens lack of prior knowledge concerning the
culture of the pre-Columbian Indians and the role of art in their
culture. Martha and Jane did not face a similar obstacle as they
designed their program.
Many of the remaining differences between the two programs
concerned the collaborative nature of the Fifth Grade Tour Program.
As part of the Fifth Grade Tour Program, the children participated in
pre-visit activities designed to prepare them for the museum visit.
The children's prior knowledge of the museum and the artifacts was
evident and contributed to the effectiveness of the program. The
school board of Harrison County, funded the pre-visit packets and
provided the administrative support needed to organize and implement
the Fifth Grade Tour Program. The support of the school board enabled
Rose to offer pre-visit preparation and enhanced Roses belief in the
success of the program. The Little People's Tour did not offer
pre-visit preparation although the curator at the Wallingford Museum
believed that pre-visit activities would have contributed to the
success of the program. The Wallingford Museum, however, did not
receive support and assistance from the local school board to organize
and finance such a program.
Although both programs had educational objectives, the objectives
of the Fifth Grade Tour Program were shaped, in part, by the
committees of teachers and docents; these objectives were also subject


122
the docent handled the children with confidence and ease. She greeted
the children warmly, established eye contact with each child, and
learned the children's names. According to Rose, the first few
minutes of the tour are critical in developing a good rapport with the
children. Rose devoted part of docent training to introductory
techniques. According to Rose, the docent should "offer a warm
greeting, a pleasant introduction, and a welcome; demonstrate
enthusiasm and excitement; call the children by name; and provide an
orientation to the museum and to the tour." Evidently, docent
training had the impact that Rose intended. The docent followed the
procedures suggested by Rose and established a good rapport with the
children.
The docent also expressed interest in the children's own
experiences and established a connection between the children's
collecting activities and the museum's collections. In her discussion
of collections, the docent explained the function of a museum and
introduced expected behaviors during the museum visit. Rose believed
that in order for the children to feel comfortable in the museum, they
needed to know what was expected of them and what would happen on the
tour.
The main thing that I want [the docents] to do in the first
three minutes when they enter the museum is to talk about
collections and behaviors with collections. Start with the
kid's collections of stickers or rocks or coins or whatever
and talk about how they like their friends to act. That's
exactly the same thing that we have here. I hate to hear


16
that were incapable of assessing their goals, art museum educators
have shunned formal evaluation procedures.
What then is known about the ways that art museum educators
evaluate their programs? The studies conducted by Hayes (1968),
Newsom and Silver (1978), and Eisner and Dobbs (1986b) indicated that
art museum educators evaluated their programs on an informal basis.
Despite repeated calls for formal evaluation, art museum educators
have consistently resisted formal assessments. This resistance may be
due, in part, to the dismaying results from quantitative assessments
(Screven, 1974b; Shettel, 1973; Washburn, 1975) but it may also be due
to the inadequacy of such measures to assess their goals. Both Hayes
(1968) and Newsom and Silver (1978) reported that art museum educators
emphasized the aesthetic dimensions of their educational programs.
The quantitative studies conducted in the 1970s did not adequately
assess the intent of the art museum educators in designing and
implementing their programs. Consequently, art museum educators have
relied on informal assessment to evaluate their programs.
Eisner and Dobbs (1986b) stated that art museum educators
evaluated their programs by "walking through the galleries" but they
did not state what these educators were looking for during their
walks. What characteristics made a program successful in the eyes of
the art museum educator? Were the museum educators looking for
galleries crowded with people? Or did they want to find small groups


91
and deep. "The bad captain said, 'yu are mY prisoner. I am going to
keep you!' Well, what do you think Dionysius said?"
The children have been leaning forward, captivated by the
docent's performance. A little boy answers, "let me go!" Another
says, "I bet he was scared." He nods his head and rolls his eyes.
The docent continues. "That's right. Dionysius said, 'oh, please let
me go.'" The docent furrows her brow and speaks in a pleading voice.
"But the bad Captain laughed, 'ha! ha! ha!"' The docent laughs in a
rich booming voice. "Dionysius pleaded with the Captain, 'please,
please, please, Captain, sir. Please let me go.'" The docent clasps
her hands, speaking in a pleading voice. The docent raises her
eyebrows, looks at the children and asks, "do you know what happened
next?" The children appear entranced; a few shake their heads.
"All of a sudden a storm came up. The clouds gathered and the
rains came down and the winds roared. And Dionysius grew and grew and
grew." The docent puffs up her cheeks, sticks out her belly, and
holds her arms out wide. "Soon he was bigger than the ship. And the
ship was covered with grapevines and filled up with wine. The bad
Captain and pirates were scared and jumped into the ocean and started
to drown." The docent begins thrashing her arms. "Glub. Glub.
Glub. Well, Dionysius worked his magic and he turned all the pirates
into [The docent pulls out a puppet, squeaking and jumping in the
air]. Dionysius turned them all into dolphins, the most human of all


87
attention on the paintings, encouraging them to look and to keep on
looking. Similar to other activities on the tour, these activities
were designed to stimulate the children to look, to think, and to
respond to the art around them.
Landscapes and Seascapes: Further Reflections
These activities were probably less important for the vocabulary
and concepts that they introduced (landscape, seascape) than for the
looking that they stimulated. Through a variety of questioning
strategies, the docent focused the children's attention on the art
work. The docent and the children discussed sensory, formal, and
expressive characteristics of the work. Through her comments and
questions, the docent introduced simply stylistic concepts; that is,
how the artist used various techniques to achieve certain effects.
Her discussion of the brushstrokes, the choice of colors, and the mood
of the pieces were simple lessons on concepts of style. The children
were acquiring the rudiments of a visual vocabulary, learning to read
the imagery in paintings and to understand some of the ways that
artists render that imagery.
Additionally, the children were given a small measure of freedom
in the gallery. They were given a problem to solve: to find an art
work that particularly appealed to them. Such an activity is
reminiscent of Taylor's (1971) instructions to art museum educators.
What do you do with children when you go to a museum
this way? What you don't do is troop the children


101
often neglected by the educational staff of fine arts museums: young
children. What were Martha and Jane trying to achieve with the Little
People's Tour? How did they know that they were succeeding? How were
their criteria for success shaped by their beliefs about art museum
education?
As stated previously, Martha and Jane wanted the children to have
an enjoyable experience in the museum. As Jane said, they wanted the
children to leave the museum with a "warm feeling." Martha and Jane
also wanted the children to learn during their visit to the museum.
They viewed the children's learning in the museum as a beginning, a
foundation for the children's future learning in the visual arts. For
Martha and Jane, an enjoyable and educational tour was an important
step toward developing the children's appreciation and understanding
of art.
For their efforts to be successful, Martha and Jane believed that
their goals had to be met in a manner appropriate to the learning
characteristics of young children. Martha and Jane expressed the view
that young children should be participants on a museum tour; young
children should be actively engaged in a variety of activities.
Martha and Jane designed the tour to invite personal participation by
each child, to stimulate each child to look, to think, and to respond.
The docents, who implemented the tour, were specially trained to
elicit involvement by the children.


82
in hand. One of the children is upset. His shirt is blue; his crayon
is green. The children work quietly, occasionally talking to each
other. "I need a red." "I got it. I got a red." "I can't draw."
The docent encourages the children, "you can draw! You are an artist!
Wonderful!"
Portraits: Analysis in Terms of Martha and Jane's Goals
The activities in this section of the tour were designed to make
the concept of portrait meaningful to young children. According to
Martha,
we use a portrait frame to frame their faces and say this
is a portrait ... so that the concept becomes clearer
through an activity. It's useless to get up there and
say, "this portrait of Andrew Jackson was painted in ."
It's useless to say anything about the portrait of Andrew
Jackson if your audience is unaware of what a portrait is.
And, of course, they think Andrew Jackson is Michael Jackson's
father.
Martha and Jane believed that the concept of a portrait would be more
meaningful to the children if related to their own experiences. The
docent developed the concept of portrait through a number of
strategies. She made connections between the portraits on the wall
and the children's lives. The portraits are of real people; the
children are real people. She related their yearly school pictures to
the painted portraits. In the framing game, children viewed living
portraits of their classmates. And, finally, the children made
portraits of themselves. The use of props, the frame and the jewels,
also made the activities more entertaining for those involved.


174
attentive? Were the children responding to the docent's questions?
Did their responses indicate that they were being stimulated to
observe and to think about the information being presented? Were the
children actively participating in the activities? Rose believed that
the tour was successful because the instructional strategies of the
docents conformed to her beliefs about effective teaching practices.
For the most part, the docents performed according to her
expectations. The children, in turn, were responsive to the docents'
efforts.
Rose was also concerned with the degree to which the children
were attending to the objects on display. Were the children looking
at the artifacts or were they listening to a lecturing docent? Did
the children respond to the docent's questions concerning particular
objects? Did their responses indicate that they were observing and
thinking about the artifacts? Rose believed that the tour was
successful because the children were stimulated to look at and respond
to the art on display.
Rose also reported anecdotes of children returning to the museum
on weekends and on holidays as evidence of the impact that the tour
had on the children. Rose believed that the program was contributing
to the children's appreciation of art and museums.
Additionally, Rose cited the school board's continuing support of
the program as an indication of success. Rose believed, however, that


119
chaperone, who has also been making a pot, joins the docent in helping
the children.
The docent returns to the center of the room and holds up a
fragment of a large pot. The surface is covered with a complex linear
pattern. The docent indicates the pattern to the children, then rubs
her hand along the surface of the pot, noting that the design has been
"incised, pressed into the wet clay with some kind of tool." The
docent hands the fragment to the children and encourages them to feel
the texture created by the incised pattern. The docent passes around
shells and toothpicks for the children to use as tools to create
patterns on their pot's surface. The docent then holds up another
pottery fragment. This one is decorated by rows of tiny spheres, bits
of clay applied to the surface of the pot. Once again, the docent
indicates the pattern to the children, encourages them to feel the
surface of the design, and notes that "this method of decoration is
called applique."
The children soon have a diversity of pots in different sizes and
shapes, decorated in a variety of ways. The docent circulates among
the children, encouraging their efforts and noting unusual designs.
She frequently asks a child to raise his or her pot, so that others
may admire the pot. The children seem to be enjoying themselves; they
occasionally laugh and talk about each other's pots. As they finish
their pinch pots, the docent tells them, "now you've made a pot the
way that the pre-Columbian Indians did."


138
discussion of the lifestyle of contemporary Indians living in Central
America. As Rose explained, "[the slides demonstrate] what a
contemporary Indian who lives in a village looks like and what his
ceremonies are like which are not unlike pre-Columbian ceremonies
1,000 years ago." The slides of the thatched huts and the
contemporary Indian engaged in a hunting ritual were intended to
reveal various aspects of the pre-Columbian Indians' culture. By
noting the similarities between the ancient sculpture and the
contemporary Indian hunter, the docent attempted to establish a
connection between the lifestyles of the pre-Columbian Indians and
contemporary Indians. The slide of a contemporary artist was intended
to illustrate some differences between the pre-Columbian artist and an
artist now living in Central America.
One wonders, however, if Rose achieved her aim of educating the
children about the lifestyle of the pre-Columbian Indians. Although
the docent talked briefly about the materials with which the huts were
constructed (the palm fronds), she did not engage the children in any
discussion concerning the resources available to the Indians, the
influence of the climate on the construction of the hut, or the level
of technology employed by the Indians.
In the discussion of the hunter, the children were exposed to
another aspect of the culture of the Indians; it is a hunting society
and this Indian is a hunter. But what sense did the children make of


21
As the educational critic presents the results of an educational
criticism, the critic distinguishes between three interrelated
processes that guided the investigation. First, through description,
the critic artistically reconstructs events as they have transpired.
Second, through interpretation, the critic depicts patterns of
behavior that have given order to the educational setting and explains
the meaning of events to those involved. Third, the critic provides
an appraisal of the phenomenon. The critic addresses the question of
whether the educator has fulfilled his or her aims and assesses the
worth of those aims (Eisner, 1985; McCutcheon, 1979; Ross, 1984). The
critic supports his argument with descriptive examples and continued
references to the information gathered.
Rationale
Numerous researchers have noted the scarcity of research and
evaluation in the field of art museum education (Anderson, 1968;
Mariner, 1972; Matthai, 1974; Screven, 1969, 1974a, 1974b, 1984;
Washburn, 1968, 1975, 1985). Lacking a comprehensive research base
and working without a tradition of evaluation, art museum educators
have tended to appraise their programs on an informal basis (Eisner &
Dobbs, 1986b; Hayes, 1968; Newsom & Silver, 1978). Differentiating
between formal and informal practices of evaluation, Stake (1967)
noted that informal evaluation depends on "casual observation,
implicit goals, intuitive norms, and subjective judgment" (p. 523).


30
Frequently, other visitors to the museum followed the groups of
children touring the museum. Additionally, docents-in-training, who
were observing and taking notes, frequently followed the tour groups.
A few of the museum staff assumed that the researcher was a new
docent, preparing to give tours, and offered words of encouragement to
the researcher. The participants on the tours rarely noticed the
researcher as she observed the groups.
The docents, who conducted the tours, were notified of the
researcher's purpose in following the tour groups. The docents were
told that the researcher was a graduate student observing art museum
education programs throughout the state. Before the beginning of a
tour, the researcher asked each docent for permission to observe; if a
docent did not wish to be observed, the researcher honored the
docent's request. The majority of docents, however, were accustomed
to additional observers on the tours and seemed comfortable with the
researcher's presence.
Typically, the researcher documents observations through the use
of field notes: written accounts of what the observer has seen,
heard, experienced, and thought during the observation period. The
researcher strives for accuracy and completeness as he or she
describes the environment, notes interactions between participants,
and records conversations as precisely as possible. The researcher
also records gestures and facial expressions, detailing as completely


47
for his educational criticism of a high school art program in a small,
rural town in North Carolina.
The mountains looming above Swain County High School
provide a sense of locale, but move inside and where
are you? Many places you have been before. In the more-
or-less standard Modern American School Plant circa 1978.
The building's right-angled innards seem familiar to me:
the variously sized cubicles of space that stare blankly
at the newcomer, the prolonged rectangular corridors that
invite without a hint of destination. . But a
startling difference, so crucial to our story, becomes
vividly apparent as one's eyes move inevitably to a
boldly executed (and placed) 5' by 5' abstract
expressionist painting on the brick wall near the lobby
to the administrative offices. And in several other
spotsfrom the cloth wall hangings (stuffed tubes
intertwined playfully into serpentine knots) that dangle
above the stairwells, to a remarkable set of drawings
displayed near a side entrance (including a carefully
composed and brilliantly colored still life of red and
green apples)there is art. (pp. 1-2)
The descriptive aspect of an educational criticism serves as the basis
for the critic's subsequent interpretation and appraisal. The
description must be comprehensive and contain sufficient information
for the reader to assess the adequacy and appropriateness of the
critic's interpretation and appraisal (Eisner, 1985; McCutcheon, 1979;
Ross, 1978, 1984).
Because of its aesthetic qualities and educational opportunities,
an art museum is unique environment. Capturing and conveying the
uniqueness of the museum environment is an important aspect of this
study. Additionally, the descriptions of the observed museum programs
serve as the foundation for the subsequent analyses of the curators'
criteria for success.


167
Martha, contemporary children are accustomed to the high speed
stimulation of electronic imagery which makes the task of focusing
their attention on traditional fine art more difficult. Martha and
Jane also noted that children often feel intimidated in the museum
environment. Martha and Jane developed the tour with these concerns
in mind.
Why did Martha and Jane believe that they were achieving their
goals? What were their criteria for success? Martha and Jane did not
attempt to assess measurable outcomes of the tour. That is, they did
not test the children's comprehension of the concepts and vocabulary
presented nor did they measure the degree to'which the Little People's
Tour actually contributed to the children's appreciation and
understanding of art and museums. According to Martha, "evaluation
takes place constantly" but it's "not a statistical evaluation."
Martha and Jane evaluated the Little People's Tour through
observation. Martha and Jane's evaluation efforts were focused
primarily on the hour and a half that the children were in the museum.
What were Martha and Jane looking for as they observed the tours?
They were concerned with determining (a) whether the children were
enjoying themselves, (b) whether the tours conformed to their beliefs
concerning appropriate instruction for young children, and (c) the
degree to which the children were looking and responding to the art
on display.


81
front of a little girl's face, then asks the other children, "this is
a portrait of ?" She pauses and waits for the children to answer.
The little girl giggles and the other children laugh. The docent
laughs and says, "look at that smiling face! This is a portrait of
Michelle!" The docent walks among the children, framing each child's
face and saying, "this is a portrait of ?" The children quickly
catch on and begin shouting out the names of the framed person. One
of the children sticks out his tongue as he is framed. The docent
mocks disapproval as she says, "and this is a portrait of Jeremy's
tongue." The children laugh. The docent then frames one of the
chaperones and once again the children laugh.
As the docent replaces the frame, she pulls out a sheaf of
papers. The sheets are printed with a large drawing of an elaborate
frame; the interior of the frame is empty. As the docent hands a
sheet and a crayon to each child, she explains that she wants them to
draw a self-portrait, a picture of themselves. She asks the children
to touch their heads, to feel their ears and their eyes. She tells
them to look at the clothes that they are wearing. Do they have on
stripes? Or red shoes? Or bows in their hair? The children look at
each other while they do this, smiling, acting silly, but enjoying
themselves. One of the children comments, "it's going to be hard."
He fingers his jacket and looks at his nametag. The children sprawl
around the gallery floor; many of them lie on their bellies, crayons


222
descriptions and analyses of the types of activities and patterns of
interaction characteristic of these programs, the rationale for
limiting the size of the tour groups became apparent. The detailed
descriptions and intensive analyses characteristic of an educational
criticism may be a useful method for art museum educators to document
the distinctive characteristics of their programs, provide a rationale
for their methods, and offer evidence of the quality of their
programs. This study may help museum professionals develop methods of
evaluation that do justice to the museum's educational programs and
enlighten local and state officials concerning the art museum's
educational functions.
Summary
Art museums are one of the few institutions in our society that
offer educational programs in the arts. For the children who
participated in the programs described in this study, their visit to
the art museum was one of their few exposures to the visual arts.
Considering the limited exposure that the majority of museum visitors
have to the visual arts, the educational staff of an art museum has a
special responsibility to construct programs with care and thoughtful
deliberation. Art museum educators have the additional responsibility
of evaluating their programs to insure that those who participate in
art museum education programs view them as successful. The
educational criticisms presented in this study and the discussions of


APPENDIX B
SECOND INTERVIEW WITH THE CURATORS OF EDUCATION
1. Can you tell me about the history of the program? How it
began?
2. How did you decide on the format for this tour?
3. How did you decide on the numbers of children in a group?
4. Why was this age group chosen?
5. What concepts do you want to convey on the tour?
6. Can you tell me about each section of the tour? How did you
develop the activities for each gallery?
7. What were the goals for each section of the tour?
8. When you walk through the galleries, what do you want to see
happening? What should the docent be doing? What should the children
be doing?
9. How do you know if a tour is going well?
10. Do you evaluate the docents? In what ways?
11. Do you evaluate the tours? In what ways?
12. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the program?
13. What would you like to be doing that you are not doing now?
14. Why do you think this program has been successful?
231


132
children if they can figure out how the house was built. The children
sit quietly; either they do not know the answer or they do not
understand the question. The docent encourages the children to look
at the trees growing behind the hut. One of the children immediately
calls out, "palm trees." The docent nods and says, "yes, and if you
look at the hut you can see that they have woven palm fronds together
to build their house."
The docent then shows a slide of a man standing beside some
contemporary sculpture. She explains that he is an Indian in Costa
Rica who is also a modern artist. She indicates the artwork and says
that it is made of modern materials such as metal. The children are
quiet; she asks them no questions.
The next slide evokes an immediate response from the children.
Sounds of "ugh" and "gross" fill the air as the children look at the
image of an elaborately coiffed and costumed Indian preparing for a
hunting ritual. The docent asks the children who they think this man
might be. One of the children says that he must be a medicine man;
another says that he is a warrior because he wears shark teeth around
his neck. The docent answers, "he does have a necklace of teeth,
evidence that he must have killed a ferocious animal, perhaps a
jaguar. But what about his head?" The children are mystified by the
Indian's hair; it is matted and colored orange and black. The
children offer a variety of suggestions: maybe the Indian is wearing


4
between the curators' criteria for success and the educational
programs at their institutions. Additional interviews, both formal
and informal, were conducted with the curators of education, directors
of the museums, other educational staff members, and participants in
the museum programs. Samples of educational materials were also
collected. The researcher secured permission from the University of
Florida Institutional Review Board to conduct the study.
Rationale for the Study
Nine out of 10 art museums offer educational programs. The staff
of art museums conduct classes and tours, design curriculum materials
for the schools, send instructors into classrooms, and offer outreach .
programs. These programs are funded from the museums' operating
budgets, private donations, and state or federal dollars (Commission
on Museums for a New Century, 1984; Newsom & Silver, 1978).
Considering the time, energy, and resources that museum staff expend
on education, one might well ask what impact these educational efforts
have had on the communities they serve. What are art museum educators
trying to achieve through their programs? How do they know that they
are succeeding?
Despite the evident commitment to education made by the staff of
art museums, little is known about visitor learning in museums
(Commission on Museums for a New Century, 1984; Eisner & Dobbs, 1986a,
1986b; Goodman, 1985; Wolf, 1980). It would seem that museum


90
The picture on it tells a story about a man named Dionysius who made
wine." She indicates a figure surrounded by grapevines. "Would you
like to hear a story about this man?" The children nod their heads; a
few say yes. They are quiet, intently watching the docent. The
docent draws her hands together, bends toward the children, opens her
eyes wide, and begins her story.
"Dionysius lived a long, long time ago. He was a teacher and he
taught people how to make wine. Dionysius worked very hard making
wine. One day he took a walk on the beach and he was very, very
tired. So he laid down on the sand and fell asleep." The docent
sighs and lays her head upon her folded hands. After a few seconds,
she quickly raises her head, walks a few steps, and turns toward the
children. "While he was sleeping, a pirate ship came sailing upon the
ocean." The docent makes wave-like motions with her hands. "The
captain looked through his looking glass [the docent holds an
imaginary looking glass to her eye and scans the horizon] and he saw
Dionysius lying on the beach. Dionysius was very rich and wore
beautiful clothes, so the Captain thought that Dionysius must be a
Prince. Well, the Captain decided to kidnap Dionysius and hold him
for ransom. The Captain sailed his boat back to shore and took
Dionysius back to the ship. When Dionysius woke up, he stretched and
yawned [the docent stretches and yawns] and asked [the docent speaks
in a sweet voice], 'where am I?'"
The docent's voice becomes rough


100
activities were also designed to stimulate the children's imagination.
The activities were predicated on an understanding of the young
child's ability to pretend and to enjoy imaginative activities. Time
after time, the children were asked to "put on their imaginations."
During the tours, children
can be painters, they can be sculptors, they can be
artists. They can do all these things at the museum.
We want them to think with their heads, and look with
their eyes, and listen with their ears and know that
they can grow up to do any of these things. (A docent)
The activities included in the Little People's Tour conveyed
fundamental artistic concepts in a manner suitable for young children.
Throughout the tour, the children were stimulated to look, to think,
to respond, and to imagine.
The Little People's Tour is reminiscent of Bettelheim's (1984)
views concerning the value of a museum visit to a child.
This then, I believe to be the museum's greatest value
to the child, irrespective of what a museum's content
might be: to stimulate his imagination, to arouse his
curiosity so that he wishes to penetrate ever more
deeply the meaning of what he is exposed to in the
museum, to give him a chance to admire on his own good
time, things which are beyond his ken, and most important
of all, to give him a feeling of awe for the wonders of
the world. Because a world that is not full of wonders
is one hardly worth the effort of growing up in. (p. 19)
Martha and Jane designed The Little People's Tour as a beginning for
these children, an awakening to the wonders of the visual arts.
Analysis in Terms of the Guiding Questions of the Study
Martha and Jane believed that they had developed an innovative
program. They designed the Little People's Tour to reach an audience


86
Landscapes and Seascapes: Analysis in Terms of Martha
and Jane's Goals
This section of the tour was designed to develop an understanding
of the terms, landscape and seascape. During the first few minutes of
this section, the children were given definitions of each term. They
were then asked to decide if a particular painting fit the category of
landscape or seascape. It is unclear to what extent the children
actually learned the difference between a landscape and a seascape.
Some children had no difficulty with the concepts; others seemed
confused.
After introducing the children to landscapes and seascapes, the
docent focused the children's attention on one particular painting.
She asked the children to find "something special." This activity
prompted the children to look and look again as they named their
"something special." According to Martha, "one of the objectives is
to have the children observe details. You don't observe details
necessarily without learning to observe detail." The more the
children looked, the more they found.
In the final activity, the children chose their "something
special" from other paintings in the room. They were excited as they
searched the gallery for a particular painting with a specific
attribute that they admired. As the children left the gallery, they
were still chattering about the paintings and pointing to specific
details. Each of these activities successfully focused the children's


34
situation under observation. New questions may emerge as information
is gathered. A number of hypotheses may be developed, modified, and
discarded as the researcher searches for evidence and explores
alternative explanations for the meaning of events (McCutcheon, 1979;
Ross, 1984). For example, both of the observed programs offered
hands-on activities with art materials during the tours. A number of
questions emerged from the observations of these activities. What
were the curators' intentions in developing these activities? How did
these hands-on opportunities relate to the art on the display? How
were these activities perceived by the children? Were the activities
an entertaining diversion or did they enrich the children's
understanding of the art in the museum? Subsequent observations were
conducted to answer these questions.
Clearly, in a naturalistic study, the processes of observation
and analysis are interrelated. The researcher reflects upon his or
her observations; these reflections guide subsequent observations and
analysis. The cyclical processes of observation and analysis continue
until the study is completed. In the present study, observations were
concluded when the researcher had collected sufficient data to
identify significant patterns of interaction between the participants
in the programs, to interpret the meaning of events to participants,
and to establish the relationship between the curators' criteria for
success and the implementation of the programs.


26
Program Selection
After interviewing the curators of education at each institution,
programs at two museums were selected for further investigation.
These programs were chosen from a group of programs designated as
successful by the curators of education. The two programs were
selected for several reasons:
1. The program focused on the original art object. The presence
of the original art object is a distinguishing characteristic of an
art museum; therefore, these programs served a function that programs
at other institutions were not capable of performing. Types of
programs offered by other institutions (such as studio classes) were
not chosen for study.
2. The program was implemented on a daily or weekly basis. The
researcher wished to engage in a sustained investigation over a
3-month period at each institution; therefore, programs implemented on
a monthly or sporadic schedule were not chosen.
3. The intended audiences for the program were children of
elementary school age. The researcher's areas of expertise and
experience are museum education programs for children. Because the
researcher's professional preparation provides a framework for
observations, interpretations, and appraisals, this age group was
deemed the most appropriate for study.
The program selected at Wallingford Museum of Art was
specifically designed for young children. The program, named the


216
according to such criteria may not be a commonly used or easily
achieved practice. The criticisms included in this study may provide
a basis for the educational staff's deliberation on the effectiveness
and ultimate success of their programs.
The curators in this study evaluated their programs through
observation, yet neither curator was aware that observation could
serve as the foundation for a formal evaluation. For example, Rose
developed a checklist of docent behaviors which she used to provide
feedback to the docents concerning their tours. Her checklist could
have served as the first step toward developing a formal evaluation of
the program. Rose could have accomplished this in several ways. She
could have developed a schedule of observations, occurring on a
regular basis, which included a systematic sampling of docents and
tour groups. The checklist could have been modified to include
open-ended questions rather than a simple listing of particular
behaviors. Such a checklist could have included a variety of
questions based on Rose's stated criteria during the interviews: Does
the docent establish connections with the children's personal
experiences? In what ways? How does the docent involve the children
in dialogue? What kinds of ways do the children respond to the art?
Rose might also have noted the length of time that the children spent
actually looking at the art. By systematically documenting her
observation that the children spent more than 3 to 30 seconds


131
identify the imagery in the screen, the docent notes that these
particular places were important to the Indians. She explains that
the Indians dug clay from the riverbeds and gathered rocks from the
hardened lava of the volcanoes. She asks the children why these
materials were important to the Indians. The children begin talking
about the objects that they have just seen: the pots made from clay
and the celts made from stone.
The next set of slides are of animals from Costa Rica. The
children laugh as a monkey peers out at them from the screen. As
images appear, the docent asks the children to identify each animal.
The children seem to enjoy this activity; they call out the answers to
the ones that they know and guess when they do not. The images are of
jaguars prowling in the forest, snakes slithering in the sand, and
toucans perching on a branch. With each animal, the docent indicates
distinctive or colorful designs: the spots on the jaguar's coat, the
geometric shapes of the snake's skin, and the brightly colored
patterns of the toucan bird's plumage and beak. The docent tells the
children that the Indians admired these patterns and used them in
their art work. The children are much more attentive now; their
interest has been captivated by the slides of animals in the wild.
The next slide is of an Indian family standing beside a small,
thatched hut. The docent explains that this house is probably similar
to the houses used by the pre-Columbian Indians. The docent asks the


136
docent asks the children if the pattern reminds them of anything that
they have seen before. The children are quiet for a moment, then a
child calls out "the snake skin." The other children voice their
agreement and the docent instructs them to remember that pattern. The
docent concludes the section by stating that the children will see
these objects on the next part of their tour. She quickly flashes
through the slides, going in reverse order, and has the children
briefly identify each one. When she is finished, the children stand
up and stretch. They seem anxious to move on.
The Slide Show: Analysis in Terms of Rose's Goals
Rose designed the slide show to achieve four basic aims: to
reinforce the fifth grade curriculum, to illustrate the influence of
the natural environment on the development of the artifacts, to
establish a context for interpreting the artifacts by introducing the
children to the culture of the pre-Columbian Indians, and to focus the
children's attention on the visual attributes of the artifacts. Did
Rose achieve her aims?
Much of the material presented in the first part of the slide
show (the map, the photographs of tundra, and the artist's
reconstruction of the New World and the landing of Columbus) served as
a review of material previously learned in school. According to Rose,
this section of the slide show was designed to reinforce the fifth
grade curriculum and to establish a link between what the children


103
present a discipline problem. That this is true shows
how really valid the tour is. We have proven that we
can take these children through the museum.
The lack of discipline problems with the younger children contrasted
with the behavior of the older age groups who toured the museum
receiving a traditional art historical lecture. Martha viewed the
discipline problems with the older groups as a lack of appropriate
teaching techniques. Martha explained, "if I could only match up
every other tour with the learning level of the children involved and
equally appropriate instruction for them, I think so many of the
authoritarian confrontations would disappear."
Martha and Jane believed that the tour was successful because
their learning strategies were suitable for their young audience; the
Little People's Tour conformed to Martha and Jane's beliefs about
effective education for young children.
The Little People's Tour is placed on the learner's
level and learning is taking place at a comfortable
pace for the child. . [The children] have a
comfortable feeling in the galleries that allows them
to learn without endangering the objects. (Martha)
Martha and Jane believed that they had developed a tour which was
appropriate to the needs and abilities of young children. The tour
was successful because it was "educationally sound" (Martha).
As Martha and Jane walked through the galleries, they looked for
children actively engaged; they noted the degree of participation in
the hands-on activities; they observed the look of absorption on the


190
targeted. Martha designed The Little People's Tour with the
assistance of Jane, a former teacher of young children. Rose designed
The Fifth Grade Tour Program with the assistance of a committee of
fifth grade teachers. As they developed and implemented these
programs, the curators of education at both museums relied extensively
on the advice of people who had extensive training and experience in
teaching children. The curators interpreted the support of community
educators (teachers and school board) as evidence of the educational
quality of their programs.
Additionally, as the curators trained the docents, they
emphasized the particular learning characteristics of the children.
The practice of training docents in educational theory and practice is
not a common characteristics of most docent training programs (Eisner
& Dobbs, 1986b). This additional training session as well as the
curators consistent efforts to evaluate the docents contributed to the
success of their programs.
In many respects, the curators' instructional strategies were
consistent with many educators and developmental psychologists view of
appropriate educational methods for children (Piaget & Inhelder,
1969). The programs were designed to elicit active participation by
the children and to relate museum experiences to the children's
personal experiences and background knowledge. It is interesting to
note that the curators' criteria for assessing the extent to which the


143
pre-Columbian Indians, the making of images was intimately connected
with magic and religion. Many of these objects were created for
ceremonial use; they embody the beliefs and values of the people who
created them. Rose obviously recognized the importance of
understanding the culture that produced these ritual objects. Rose,
however, faced a dilemma: How does one convey an understanding of a
culture so different from that of her audience? Rose was not alone in
her dilemma; many other art museum educators have faced the same
problem as they attempted to interpret art from non-Western cultures
(Newsom & Silver, 1978; Rice, 1987). It was unclear, however, whether
Rose's use of slides of contemporary Indians effectively conveyed a
sense of the pre-Columbian Indian's culture.
The Pre-Columbian Gallery: Where Is That Bird Thing?
The children file into the Pre-Columbian Gallery, a room filled
with artifacts enclosed in plexigls bonnets sitting atop pedestals.
The names of countries are boldly printed across the side of the
pedestals: Costa Rica, Colombia, Mexico, Peru. Painted on one wall
is a map of the Americas. The land masses are brown and contrast
sharply with the beige of the room. On the opposite wall sits an old,
but comfortable, dingy brown sofa.
As the children enter the room, the docent encourages them to
wander around and look at the objects. One of the children seems
confused, asking, "these things aren't real are they?" Another child


29
phenomenon under study (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982; Lincoln & Guba, 1985;
Lofland & Lofland, 1984). During observation, the role of the
naturalistic researcher may range from that of complete observer in
which the researcher's observations are concealed from the
participants to that of complete participant in which the observer
assumes an active role. The extent of participation may vary
throughout the course of the study and depends upon the intentions of
the researcher (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982; Spradley, 1980). For the
purposes of this study, the researcher's role was primarily that of
observer.
When using observational techniques, the naturalistic researcher
needs to consider the possible effects of observation on the
participants. To avoid altering the situation, the researcher should
minimize contact with the participants during the observation periods
(Eisner, 1985; Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Ross, 1984). Although the
concerns about the reactions of participants to observation are
legitimate, Lincoln and Guba (1985) have noted, "social environments
are quite stable and an inquirer's presence may seldom, if ever,
produce the massive imbalances that researchers so carefully seek to
avoid" (pp. 193-194).
Because the museums included in this study were places of public
access, the researcher's observations seemed to have a minimal impact
on the implementation of the museum's educational programs.


172
making the children feel comfortable in the museum. The docent was
also responsible for maintaining the children's attention throughout
the tour. Rose also expressed the view that the docent should
facilitate and inform the interaction between the children and the art
objects on display. Docent training was devoted to various
instructional strategies such as how to orient the children to the
museum, the tour, and the activities; how to use a variety of
questioning strategies to stimulate the children to think and to
respond; how to organize and present information; and the effects of
verbal and non-verbal communication on students' behavior.
As Rose designed activities for the tour and trained the docents,
she considered the learning characteristics of children. Rose
developed instructional strategies which conformed to three basic
principles: (a) stimulate active participation by each child, (b)
consider the children's background knowledge and use that as a basis
for instruction, and (c) begin with concrete experiences before
proceeding to abstract concepts.
How did Rose evaluate the success of the fifth grade tour
program? What were her criteria for success? Neither the museum
staff nor school personnel attempted to assess formally the extent to
which the educational objectives of the program were being met.
Follow-up studies of the impact of the museum's visit on the
children's perceptions of art and museums were not conducted. Rose


178
whereas children on the Fifth Grade Tour Program were asked to search
for objects depicted on a sheet. Children at both museums were also
given opportunities to find and talk about favorite art objects. On
both tours, the docent directed the children's attention to the work
by means of questioning strategies.
The curators viewed the docents as critical in their endeavor to
implement a successful tour. Both museums offered docent training
specifically designed to educate the docents about the learning
characteristics of their audiences and effective instructional
strategies for their particular audience. These training sessions
were an additional requirement beyond the art historical training
required of the docents.
What were the similarities in the curators' attempts to evaluate
their programs? Curators at both museums evaluated the tours
informally. Neither curator attempted to assess the extent to which
the tour developed the children's appreciation and understanding of
art and museums. Nor did the curators attempt to ascertain in a
systematic manner whether or not the specific educational objectives
of the tour were being met. Why did these curators rely on informal
evaluation procedures rather than conduct formal evaluations of their
programs?
Both curators assumed that formal evaluation implied the
measurement of prespecified objectives. For these curators, formal


I would also like to thank ray friends and family who have given
me love and understanding. Throughout the study, they helped me keep
my perspective and reminded me of the truly important matters in life.
Finally, I would like to thank the staff of the museums who
participated in the study. They graciously invited me into their
lives, offering me kindness, assistance, and information. This study
would not have been possible without their help. During the course of
this study, I shared with them the difficulties and rewards of
cultivating an appreciation of art in the audiences they served. As I
observed their endeavors, I was continually reminded of a passage from
Letters to a Young Poet by Rainer Maria Rilke (1962).
With nothing can one approach a work of art so
little as with critical words: They always come
down to more or less happy misunderstandings.
Things are not all so comprehensible as one would
mostly have us believe; most events are
inexpressible, taking place in a realm which no
word has ever entered, and more inexpressible
than all else are works of art, mysterious
existences, the life of which, while ours passes
away, endures, (p. 17)
I hope this dissertation does justice to the museum staff's efforts to
express the inexpressible.
v


89
The Antiquities: Art Tells a Story
The children sit in front of a glass case filled with
antiquities: an Egyptian mask, a large Greek amphora, Etruscan
earrings. The docent instructs the children to follow her with their
eyes as she walks over to the glass case. She begins, "these things
are very old. Everything in here is old, older than you grandmother
and your grandfather." The docent suddenly stops talking. She puts
her hands on her hips, looks puzzled, then asks, "what is this?" She
looks perplexed and turns toward the children. She is standing beside
a Greek amphora, a tall container made of reddish clay and decorated
with a black line drawing. A few of the children respond: "a vase,"
"something to put water in." The docent picks up a plastic milk
container sitting behind the case. She asks the children if maybe the
vase is a jug to carry milk in, like the milk jugs that we have today.
The children nod, murmuring their assent.
The docent explains that a long time ago, people didn't have
plastic so they made their jugs out of clay. The docent replaces the
milk jug and picks up a piece of red clay; it is the same color as the
amphora. The docent quickly shapes the clay into a small pinch pot.
While she works, she tells the children that they also made their cups
out of clay and when they were done, they decorated them with
drawings. The docent puts the clay down and motions toward the
amphora, saying, "this is an amphora and it was used to carry wine.


52
criteria for success and analyzed the criteria with respect to current
educational theory and research. The researcher was concerned with
two questions: Were the curators' aims worthwhile? Were the programs
beneficial to the children who participated in the tours?
Validity, Generalizability, and Other Matters
A number of questions still remain concerning an educational
criticism. How does one evaluate the validity of a criticism? Are
the findings of a criticism generalizable to other settings? What are
the qualifications of the educational critic? The next section
provides answers to these questions.
Validity
One of the most frequently voiced concerns about qualitative
studies is the validity of the findings. In an analysis of
qualitative methods of inquiry, Lincoln and Guba (1985) have noted
that the issue of validity is centrally concerned with the basic issue
of credibility: Is the study believable? Educational critics have
discussed a number of factors to consider when assessing the
credibility of an educational criticism (Barone, 1980; Eisner, 1975,
1985; McCutcheon, 1979; Ross, 1978, 1984).
First, the reader needs to consider the quantity and quality of
the information collected. The quantity of data should indicate
prolonged and persistent observation in the field. The quality of
data is assessed by noting the richness and diversity of information


139
this hunter? The children were perplexed by his appearance. They
gave comical interpretations of the way he looks: He wears a coconut
on his head and has war paint on his cheeks. The ensuing discussion
did not seem to supplant these notions with a sense of the importance
of hunting rituals to these people. The mystical nature of these
rituals and the magical power of the hunter's emblems were not
established by the docent. One wonders if the image of the hunter
simply reinforced simplistic notions about Indians and hunting
societies. Did the children leave the museum and make fun of the man
with the orange hair and painted face? Or did they make sense of why
he looks the way that he does and of the importance to his society of
what he is doing?
The slide of the modern Indian artist working with modern
materials was confusing for similar reasons. Although the children
had been learning about traditional techniques of making pots, they
had not been prepared to appreciate the differences between the
pre-Columbian artist and the contemporary artist. The role of an
artist in pre-Columbian culture and the role of an artist in
contemporary culture is significantly different. Those differences
are worthy of investigation and are more complex than the difference
in media.
Admittedly, these are difficult concepts to relate to a child
from an advanced technological culture. A tremendous gap exists


8
numbers of children reached by the museum's educational efforts. The
majority of these programs were conducted in areas which had no formal
art education programs in the schools. The museum staff considered
their programs successful because the museum provided an exposure to
the arts for large numbers of children who did not have such an
opportunity in the normal course of their schooling. Second, the
museum educators pointed to higher attendance records and increased
museum memberships since the inception of formal education programs.
These figures were seen as indications of successful programs. Third,
many of the educators offered anecdotes to illustrate the beneficial
effects of their programs. For example, an art museum educator at the
Taft Museum in Cincinnati told a story about a little boy from an
impoverished area of the city who returned to the museum after a visit
the preceding week. The child brought his kitten to the museum to
show his pet "how pretty it is" (Hayes, 1968, p. 51). Other museum
educators also described incidents of children returning to the museum
with their parents following participation in museum programs. For
the majority of educators interviewed, anecdotes about participants in
the programs were offered as compelling evidence of the success of
their programs.
Hayes expressed the view that such incidents as the solitary
child returning with his pet did constitute a measure of success.
Hayes, however, thought it unlikely that a solitary visit to an art


CHAPTER I
BACKGROUND FOR THE STUDY
An art museum is first and foremost about artthose creations of
men and women that give expression to the meaning of human experience.
The staff of an art museum is committed to conserving works of art and
to making them physically and intellectually accessible to the
communities the staff serve. The dilemma facing the staff of most art
museums is that, for many in our society, comprehending the visual
arts is a difficult task. Whether a museum visitor is able to
secure meaning from an art work depends basically upon the
circumstances of the viewing and the capacities of the viewer. In a
museum, art is often seen out of context, separated from the culture
that generated its form and the rituals that gave it meaning. The art
on display may, at first, have no apparent connection with the daily
life of the contemporary viewer. Although the staff of an art museum
cannot readily confer the experience or competence necessary to
understanding art forms, the staff can stimulate and foster the
development of those abilities.
The staff of an art museum is composed of people with varying
interests and capabilities, each with a purpose to fulfill. Some are
required to collect and preserve art, others to classify and arrange
1


77
Martha, traditional fine arts have a difficult time competing with the
high speed stimulation of electronic imagery. TV and movies are
active; paintings are passive. Therefore, the paintings do not
readily engage the attention of young children. Martha and Jane
designed the questioning and looking activities in this section of the
tour to engage the children's attention, and to stimulate them to look
and to think about artistic forms. Although the paintings were
passive, the children were active.
Painting: Further Reflections
As indicated previously, children of this age have little
conception of how art is made or who makes it (Gardner & Winner,
1982). The painting activity vividly demonstrated the process of how
these paintings were created. Such activities are appropriate not
only for young children but for other audiences as well. Lee (1983)
argued that the museum must educate the public about the techniques of
art, that "the doing ... or observing of the doing is fundamental to
understanding and evaluating works of art" (p. 58). This activity (as
well as the sculpture activity) served just such a purpose.
The children, however, learned more than the technical aspects of
creating these paintings; they were also encouraged to look at the
paintings and to interpret artistic forms. The activities were
designed to develop the children's visual literacy. Such an aim is
central to the art museum educator's task. As Martha pointed out,


150
from. Some of the children read the label on the pedestal and state
that the man is from Mexico. "That's right," she says, "Vera Cruz is
a place in Mexico."
The children and docent continue around the room, discussing the
remaining objects on the sheet. The docent questions the children
about the name of the object and points out distinctive features. The
majority of the children are attentive and respond to her questions.
Although there are only 12 in this group, there are still a few on the
outer edges who cannot see the objects. These few tend to wander away
briefly or whisper to their friends.
After the docent has finished discussing the objects on the
sheet, she moves the group from case to case, asking if anyone has
drawn an object in this particular case. If a child has done so, she
asks the child to name the object. As with the objects on the sheet,
the docent asks the child about the distinctive characteristics of the
object or to describe the medium and explain how the object was made.
For example, a child has drawn a figurine in one of the wall cases.
The child thinks that it is "some kind of doll." The docent asks her
what the figurine is made of. The child says that it is stone not
clay. The docent wants to know how the Indians carved this object out
of stone. The girl answers, "a chisel." Other children suggest
knives. A boy argues that it was carved with "those things we saw in
that room." The docent is pleased and tells him that he is right and


204
That is, the curators could have easily doubled the attendance
figures for these programs by doubling the size of the tour groups.
They chose not to do so because they believed that small tour groups
were essential to the success of their programs. Both curators
believed that the popularity of their programs was due to the high
quality of the programs. In their view, increasing the size of the
tour groups would decrease the effectiveness of the programs and
ultimately detract from the popularity of the programs with teachers
and school administrators. The curators did not choose quantity over
quality as Eisner and Dobbs have implied in their report. It should
be noted, however, that Eisner and Dobbs based their conclusions on
the results of 20 interviews with 20 museum educators, each interview
lasting approximately an hour. Perhaps intensive observations and
interviews would have revealed additional criteria for success besides
attendance records.
The aims of the programs described in this study were similar to
the aims described by Hayes (1968) and Newsom and Silver (1978): to
develop the visitors' appreciation of art and museums. Similar to
other museum educators described by Hayes and Newsom and Silver, the
curators of education did not attempt to assess the impact of their
programs on the children's perception of art and museums. That is,
they did not ascertain whether or not the tour contributed to the
children's appreciation of art and museums. Why did these curators
not attempt to assess their stated aims?


125
through the hands-on activity. As she designed this section of the
tour, Rose was guided by the belief that children learn best by having
actual experiences with the objects being studied.
Despite the evident pleasure that the children derived from
working with clay, one might wonder if this activity was too
simplistic for fifth graders. Had they not learned the rudimentary
techniques of pot construction in school? On questioning the
children, it was evident that this was not the case. Since these
children did not have art teachers in their schools, many of them had
not worked with clay and were unfamiliar with these basic techniques
of construction and decoration.
The connection between these techniques and the finished products
was made clear by the samples which the docent distributed before the
demonstrations. Throughout the activities, the docent gave clear
instructions, modeled appropriately, offered assistance, and provided
support. Once again, the docent's actions exemplified many of the
strategies suggested by Rose during docent training. According to
Rose, the docent should "provide clear directions and instructions
throughout the tour experience, provide orientation to activity prior
to its implementation and distribution of materials, and be thoroughly
familiar with the participatory activities used during the tour." The
docent should also "give the children positive reinforcement for
contributions to discussion, and give positive reinforcement for


162
Although Rose believed that the fifth grade tour program was
successful, Rose wanted to do more. She did not believe that one
visit, once a year to the museum was enough to develop the children's
appreciation of art and museums.
I would like to see more than a one-shot, once a year visit.
... I would like to see us do more, expand the program
. . follow up with more activities in the classroom
related directly to the curriculum, in areas outside of
art as well as art curriculum areas. Then come back to
the museum and have a real sequential learning plan. So
you are talking about a lot more money for busing and the
logistics would be difficult but I think that it could be
done.
Although the size of the groups were small (between 10 and 15
children), Rose wanted to groups to be even smaller.
Another problem is the size of the groups. The tour
bus holds 60 kids and we've got to break them down
into four groups. That gives us 15 kids in a group.
And I think any over 9 or 10 is too many. ... I
would love it if we could have one class and 7 or 8
kids in a group. ... It would be ideal if there were
less than 10 kids in a group.
Rose believed that small groups and more frequent visits to the
museums would be necessary to truly develop the children's
appreciation of art and museums. Rose argued that the children should
have more intensive, more frequent encounters with original art forms.
Rose also wanted to work more closely with the classroom
teachers.
The way that we've been able to effect the most change
has been through the teacher workshops. Instead of
having people power here at the museum on a one-to-one
basis with the kids, its been better to work with the


130
Central America. The docent explains that the pre-Columbian Indians
walked from Asia across a land bridge into the Americas. As she
talks, the docent traces the path with her finger. The docent
gestures to a point on the map and asks the children if they know what
is there now. One of the children says that it is the Bering Strait.
The next few slides are of tundra and an artists reconstruction
of what the Americas would have looked like tens of thousands of years
ago. The docent asks the children what the Indians would have eaten
on their walk through the Americas. What kinds of animals would they
have hunted? The children supply the answers as they scan the slides
for information, "buffalo," "goats," "bison."
The next few slides are of Columbus, his ships, and the landing
in the New World. Once again, the docent asks the children questions.
How did Columbus get to the New World? From where did he sail? When
did he sail? What were the names of his ships? Where did he think
that he was going? The children readily answer the docent's
questions. They seem to know the material, providing the answers
quickly, almost mechanically. They are polite. They sit quietly but
are not enthusiastic in their responses.
The mood of the group changes as the slides show scenes of Costa
Rica in the area where Columbus landed. Color photos of thundering
waterfalls and smoking volcanoes replace the faded paintings of the
Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. After asking the children to


209
programs revealed a number of variables worthy of continued
investigation. The findings of the study also prompted a number of
questions concerning art museum education programs. In the following
section, the possible uses of this study are discussed in terms of the
variables identified and the questions raised during the course of
this investigation.
The rich and varied information gathered in this study indicates
that the evaluation efforts of art museum educators are influenced by
a number of variables: the museum educators' perceptions of the
audiences they serve, beliefs concerning appropriate instructional
strategies for their audiences, and their beliefs concerning the
purposes of art museum education programs. The similarities between
the two museum educators' evaluation criteria are striking and suggest
that these patterns of evaluation should be explored further. The
accumulation of a number of studies concerning the process of informal
evaluation in art museums is important for developing a more complete
understanding of art museum education programs. Additional studies of
the process of evaluation are needed to clarify the role that museum
educators' perceptions and beliefs play in the determination of
program success by art museum educators.
The results of this study suggest a number of questions related
to the variables identified above. Both curators described similar
criteria for evaluating the tours as they were implemented in the


116
pleased as she explains that museums also house collections of objects
which they share with visitors just like the children share their
collections with their friends.
The children are attentive. They seem anxious, however, to know
what they will be doing in the museum. The docent continues talking,
telling the children that there are a few simple but very important
rules in a museum: The children must walk and talk gently and not
touch any of the objects on display. She asks the children why they
think the museum has those rules. Many children raise their hands and
a few answer, "things will break," "they cost a lot," "don't bother
other people." The docent nods as they answer, reassuring them that
their answers are correct. The docent briefly explains that the
children will visit a number of galleries today. First, they will
work with clay in this gallery, then they will move next door where
they will see some slides, and finally they will visit a gallery and
look at some pre-Columbian art. They will spend approximately 25
minutes in each gallery; she sets a timer and places it on one of the
tables.
The docent walks to the plexigls case and extracts an object
from the sand. It is a small object, about 3 inches long, made of
clay and shaped like a bird. While she cleans the object, she asks
the children if they know what kind of scientist digs in the sand "to
find hidden treasures from the past."
A child quickly answers, "an


31
as possible the affective aspects of the phenomenon (Bogdan & Bilclen,
1982; Lincoln & Guba, 1985). In addition to recording the studied
phenomenon, field notes also include a record of the researcher's
impressions, opinions, and feelings. These personal observations are
labeled as Observer Comments and are set apart from the recording of
events (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982). The intent of the researcher is not
to systematically categorize behaviors but rather to describe behavior
as completely as possible. The loss of standardization is compensated
for by the richness and depth of the information collected (Wolf,
1980).
During the museum visits, the researcher conducted extensive
observations of the museum tours and documented her observations in
field notes. During the observations of the tour groups, the
researcher noted characteristics of the programs such as the kinds of
connections that the docents made between the art works and the
children's personal experiences, the kinds of questions the docents
asked the children, the kinds of questions the children asked the
docents, aspects of art referred to by the children, and aspects of
art referred to by the docents. During the observation of the tour
groups, the researcher was concerned with noting patterns of
interaction between the participants on the tours and discerning the
meaning of events to the participants.
The researcher also noted the degree to which the tours conformed
to the curators' criteria for success. The researcher observed and


Ill
trip but rather a "field study." The children came to the museum to
learn about museums, art, and the relationship between the
pre-Columbian Indians they were studying in school and the
pre-Columbian artifacts on display. The children were also expected
to think about and respond to what they were seeing and hearing on
their tour.
Were Rose's desires to create a warm, friendly atmosphere a
contradiction to the academic aims of the program? Not necessarily.
Rose believed that children need to feel comfortable in the museum in
order to learn.
That [warm, friendly feeling] opens it up for the children
to be receptive. If you don't let them know that, then they
are going to be afraid and not learn anything that whole hour
and a half that they are here.
Rose expressed the concern that children might feel intimidated in the
art museum and therefore would be unresponsive to the educational
efforts of the docent. According to Rose, establishing a warm
emotional climate was an essential first step in achieving the
educational objectives.
For Rose, the docent played a crucial role in developing a
pleasurable learning environment. Rose referred to the docent as a
"host," who makes the children feel comfortable in the museum, and a
"teacher," who educates the children concerning the objects on
display. Rose trained the docents to be hosts and teachers during an
eight week session on learning strategies.


217
observing an art work (a stated goal of her program related to the
literature concerning visitor behavior in museums), Rose would have
collected convincing data to support the success of her efforts.
Documenting specific examples of her stated goals would have been
evidence of success as well as useful information for training and
evaluating docents.
Both of these curators were capable of describing their criteria
in the interviews; these criteria could have been effectively
translated into an observation guide to use as a formal evaluation
tool. The curators' observations, done in a comprehensive and
systematic manner, could have provided these curators with the basis
for formal evaluations of their programs.
The curators' observations could have been supplemented with
interviews of children and teachers participating in the programs.
The perceptions of the teachers and children were important to these
curators' determination of success, yet neither curator systematically
gathered information concerning the children or teachers' perceptions
of the tours. Small samples of children and teachers could have been
interviewed as they departed from the museum. Additionally,
questionnaires for teachers could also have been developed to assess
the teachers' perceptions of the tours: What did they perceive as the
major concepts on the tours? Were the instructional strategies
effective for their classes? What changes would they suggest for


93
the amphora to the children's own experiences. The amphora is a jug
similar to the milk jugs in their refrigerators. The amphora,
however, was not made of plastic because the Greeks did not have
plastic. But the amphora was made of clay and the docent quickly
fashioned a piece of clay into a cup for the children to see. The
docent developed the children's conception of an amphora through an
analogy to the children's personal lives as well as through an active
demonstration.
But what did the children learn about art during this session?
When Martha explained her educational goals, she spoke of the need to
"re-infuse museum art with its cultural significance." According to
Martha, an appreciation of the Greek amphora is not possible without
an understanding of the significance of the amphora to the people who
created it. Through the interpretative efforts of the docent, the
Greek amphora was imbedded in a cultural context; its function and
meaning was revealed to the children.
The Antiquities: Further Reflections
The very simple theme presented here is that art communicates,
that art tells a story. A Greek amphora, thousands of years old, came
alive in the minds of 6-year-olds through the story that the drawing
tells. The notion that art is a form of communication is fundamental
to understanding the visual arts. Many have spoken of art as a
symbolic language (Cassirer, 1944; Gombrich, 1961; Goodman, 1976;


EDUCATIONAL CRITICISMS OF TWO ART MUSEUM EDUCATION PROGRAMS:
WHAT CONSTITUTES SUCCESS?
i
By
KAREN KILGORE
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1988
S0J2F F libraries


203
studies conducted by Hayes (1968), Eisner and Dobbs (1986b), and
Newsom and Silver (1978) revealed that art museum educators evaluated
their programs informally. As Eisner and Dobbs stated, art museum
educators evaluated their programs by "walking through the galleries"
(p. 59). These studies, however, did not describe what the art museum
educators were looking for during their walks. Nor did these studies
identify the criteria that formed the basis for the museum educators'
judgments as they observed programs. This study was undertaken to
investigate more fully the evaluation efforts of art museum educators.
The review of the literature also revealed that the educational
staff of art museums tended to rely on attendance figures as a measure
of success (Eisner & Dobbs, 1986b; Newsom & Silver, 1978). Eisner and
Dobbs interpreted art museum educators' reliance on attendance figures
as an indication that the museum educators valued quantity over
quality. The results of this study, however, do not support Eisner
and Dobbs's interpretation. During the initial interviews with the
curators of education in the present study, the curators proudly cited
the numbers of children reached through their programs as a measure of
success. The curators expressed the view that they were reaching many
children that otherwise would not have been exposed to the visual
arts. Nevertheless, during the in-depth investigations of these
programs, the curators clearly stated that they limited the numbers of
children in the tour groups to maintain the quality of their programs.


61
children. Their efforts, however, were met with considerable
resistance.
A tour that was expressly designed for the young was
seen as non-academic and therefore an inappropriate use
of gallery time and space. And it was deeply entrenched
and hostilethe belief that there could be no learning,
no valid learning experience that could be offered in a
Fine Arts Museum for a kindergartener. (Martha)
As Jane explained,
most art museums have had that church-like atmosphere
the feeling that museums should remain quietalmost a
sacred palace. For years, the museum has opened its
doors to older students without ever thinking of younger
students. When we said, what about little people? They
said, little people! We can't do anything with little
people. They might touch the paintings. ... I was
foolish enough to think that everyone was going to love
them . and it wasn't true. We had a lot of resistance.
Martha and Jane persevered in their efforts until the Little People's
Tour became the most popular educational program for school-age
children offered by the museum. During the past 5 years, the museum
opened early, two mornings a week, to accommodate these young
children. The Little People's Tours were begun at 9:30 a.m. to avoid
displacing the tours for older children and adults that began at 11:00
a.m. A specially trained group of volunteers served as docents for
the Little People's Tour. They were called the "pretend" docents to
distinguish them from the "real" docents, who gave the art historical
tours to the older age groups. The pretend versus real distinction
was considered a museum joke but was indicative of the difficulties
faced by the Little People's Tour to gain recognition as a legitimate
educational program.


137
were learning in school and the pre-Columbian artifacts on display in
the museum. As Rose stated, "what the slides are used for is to talk
about the land bridge and how people most likely got to Central
Americawhat's in the fifth and sixth grade textbooks." As the
slides were presented, the docent asked factual questions which the
children easily answered. The children, however, appeared bored.
Rose also wanted the children to understand how the environment
influenced the development of pre-Columbian art forms.
[The slides illustrate] what kinds of plants and animals
were most likely at the time of the pre-Columbians, 2,000,
1,000, and 500 years ago and what is there now. So that
[the children] understand the flora and the fauna and why
certain plants and animals show up [in the art].
The docent easily demonstrated the connection between the materials
used to create the artifacts in the Art Discovery Room and the
materials available to the pre-Columbian Indians in the surrounding
landscape. Additionally, the slides of the animals in the wild
prepared the children for their later analyses of the imagery used by
the pre-Columbian Indians. The children were much more responsive to
the slides of the jungle than they were to the slides of the map, the
tundra, and Columbus discovering the New World. Their attention was
engaged; they were being stimulated to think about the artifacts and
their relationship to the natural environment.
Rose designed the next section of the slide show to convey a
sense of the lifestyle of the pre-Columbian Indians through a


123
someone say, "DONT TOUCH! DON'T RUN!" If I were to hear
that, the first thing that I would want to do is leave.
Many of the children have never been here before or to
another museum and they are terribly intimidated. They know
that there is a certain way that they are supposed to act in
museums but they don't know what it is. It's up to us to
tell them. It's the same way you act at a friend's house
looking at his rocks or his stickers. It's the same way.
The docent clearly stated appropriate museum behaviors and explored
the rationale for those behaviors with the children.
Early in the tour, it was also apparent that the children were
prepared for their visit. The children understood such terms as
"docent" and "archeologist." As the docent unearthed objects from the
archeological dig, the children recognized the pieces and were able to
answer questions concerning their function. The children appeared
confident, secure in their understanding of the objects and concepts
presented. Rose believed that the pre-visit preparation was an
important aspect of making the children feel comfortable in the museum
as well as facilitating their learning in the museum.
Before the fifth grade class came to the museum, the assistant
curator of education visited the school and talked to the fifth grade
teachers about the museum visit. She also left a packet of pre-visit
materials: activities to do with the children, an artifact from the
collection, and a scripted slide presentation about the museum and the
collection. According to Rose, the pre-visit preparation made a
significant difference in the quality of the tours.


108
educational institution and enlisted the aid of the local school
system. According to Rose, the Curator of Education,
[the superintendent and the school board] recognized that
the museum could . fill a void in the curriculum and
that the museum was a good way, a quality way to do that.
. . Part of their reasoning is the federal government
mandating in 1984 that art be a basic component in the
curriculum. . [The superintendent] is taking advantage
of the art museum being part of the community.
During the 1987-88 academic year, the museum received a
significant portion of its operating budget from public funds. These
funds were allocated to provide educational services for the children
of Harrison County. In exchange for financial support, the museum
provided tours for every fifth grade class in the county, workshops
for secondary art teachers and general classroom teachers, programs
for exceptional student education, circulating exhibits on loan to the
schools, curriculum consultations, and exhibitions of student art
works. The most extensive of these educational endeavors was the
fifth grade tour program which served over 6,000 children. According
to Rose,
a curriculum requirement of the fifth grade is that you have
to come to the museum . that's when the children are
studying the land bridge and they are studying Central
America. So it worked out well with the permanent
collection.
Because the museum's permanent collection consisted primarily of
pre-Columbian artifacts from Central America, the museum staff and
school board chose the fifth grade as the grade most likely to benefit
from a museum visit.


163
teachers. Then the teachers change their classroom
curriculum because of their better understanding of art
and the role of art.
Each of these strategiesfrequent museum visits, smaller groups,
working more closely with the teacherswould require the support of
the school board. These changes may become a reality considering the
support that the school' board has consistently given the museum.
Rose's efforts, however, were limited by another school board
policy: the absence of art instruction in the elementary schools.
The children came to the museum ignorant of basic art concepts and
techniques. Obviously, Rose could not provide the art background
needed to understand these artifacts in one visit lasting an hour and
a half.
Considering the brief time that she had with the children and
their limited understanding of the visual arts, Rose accomplished a
formidable task. She developed a tour which maintained the interest
of the children while learning about art from a culture quite
different from their own. The children appeared comfortable and
content as they moved from gallery to gallery. They were engaged in a
variety of experiences, as they interacted with the docent and
attended to the objects on display. As Rose intended, the children
looked, they learned, and they enjoyed.


112
We have a series of workshops that I teach on educational
strategies that I have developed from teacher training
materials. There are workshops on verbal and nonverbal
communication, listening, asking questions, responding to
questions, how to give an introduction, how to conclude your
tour, how to prepare for your presentation that day. . .
We have that common vocabulary and experience from the
workshop to talk about their problems. I can ask, have you
thought about your nonverbal communication? How are you
holding yourself? Are you getting down on their level? Are
you pausing three or four seconds after you ask a question?
During docent training, Rose emphasized two major areas of concern:
how the docent interacts with the children and how the docent
organizes the tour.
Rose was concerned with the quality of interaction between the
docent and the children; she wanted the docents to display genuine
interest in the children.
I want the docents to be nice to the group. I want them to
be sincere. I have a checklist of docent behaviors: eye
contact, listen and respond to the needs of the group.
Rose also wanted the docents to encourage active participation by each
child. According to Rose, the docents should "engage the children in
dialogue during the tour; ask children their opinions, reactions, and
interpretations; and relate the tour to the children's experiences as
much as possible." For Rose, creating a warm, friendly feeling is a
more complicated task than being a warm, friendly docent.
Rose was also concerned with the overall organization of the
tour, that is, how the docent introduced, presented, and reviewed
educational objectives for each section of the tour. For example, she
stressed the importance of orienting the students to each gallery and


229
Williams, P. (1984). Object contemplation: Theory into practice.
Journal of Museum Education, £(10), 10-12.
Williams, P. (1985). Educational excellence in art museums: An
agenda for reform. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 19(2), 105-
123.
Willis, G. (1975). Curriculum and literary criticism. Journal of
Curriculum Studies, £(1), 3-17.
Willis, G. (Ed.). (1978). Qualitative evaluation. Berkeley, CA:
McCutcheon.
Wolf, R. (1980). A naturalistic view of evaluation. Museum News,
58(6), 39-45.
Wolf, R. (1986). The missing link: A look at the role of orientation
in enriching the museum experience. Journal of Museum Education,
11(1), 17-21.
Zeller, T. (1984). Art museum educators: Art historians, curators,
or educators? Curator, 27(2), 105-123.
Zeller, T. (1985). Art museum educators: Who are they? Museum News,
63(5), 53-59.


180
appear comfortable in the museum? Did the children appear content
throughout the tour? Did the children leave the museum happy?
Educators at both museums stated that they attempted to evaluate the
mood of the tour group, although they expressed difficulties in
verbalizing those qualities. As Jane stated, "it's the peace or
happiness that's in the galleries."
To evaluate their educational goals, the curators observed the
tours to determine the extent to which the tour conformed to their
beliefs concerning appropriate instruction for their particular
audience. The curators observed the behavior of the docents and the
children. They observed the docents to determine whether or not the
docents were implementing the suggested educational strategies. Did
the docents engage the children in dialogue? Did the docents relate
the children's experiences to the museum experiences? Did the docents
elicit active participation from the children? The curators evaluated
the docents according to a set of criteria based on their beliefs
about effective instructional methods.
As part of their efforts to evaluate their educational goals, the
curators also observed the children. As stated previously, the
curators' primary concern was that the children's attention had been
engaged. Were the children attentive? Were they responsive to the
docents' questions? Did they participate in the activities?
Educators at both museums noted the absence of discipline problems as


12
not observe programs and therefore did not engage the educators in
extended discussions concerning the museums' educational programs.
In the area of evaluation, Eisner and Dobbs observed a lack of
formal evaluation procedures and attributed this lack to inadequate
training of the museum education staff. Eisner and Dobbs concluded
that museum educators tended to evaluate their programs on an informal
basis, that is, by "walking through the galleries" (p. 59). Eisner
and Dobbs also noted that when museum professionals spoke of
successful programs, they were often referring to shows with
impressive attendance figures.
Hayes (1968), Newsom and Silver (1978), and Eisner and Dobbs
(1986b) all observed a consistent lack of formal evaluation in art
museums. These studies spanned across two decades of art museum
education. It is interesting to note that during that same time
period, repeated calls for evaluation were being sounded in the museum
literature (Anderson, 1968; Cameron, 1967, 1968; Chambers, 1984;
Chapman, 1982; Chase, 1975; Loomis, 1973; Mariner, 1972; Screven,
1969, 1974a, 1974b, 1984; Shettel, 1973; Washburn, 1968, 1975, 1985).
Apparently these calls for evaluation went relatively unheeded by art
museum educators. The absence of formal evaluation procedures did not
go unnoticed or uncriticized.
In one of the first national conferences on museums and
education, sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution, Anderson (1968)


126
appropriate behavior." Through the efforts of the docent and the
activities in this section of the tour, the children learned basic
ceramic techniques, expanded their vocabulary, and had the opportunity
to experience, first hand, a few pre-Columbian artifacts.
Clearly, the children had an educational as well as a pleasurable
experience in the Art Discovery Room. They appeared content as they
learned about art and museums. They did not appear bored; they were
stimulated to think about the objects that they were seeing and
producing. The docent's efforts to put the children at ease and to
engage their attention were effective. The docent met Rose's stated
expectations: She interacted with the children, related concepts to
their personal experiences, and was responsive to the needs and
abilities of her group. The docent was also well organized; she
maintained the momentum of the tour as she achieved each of the
educational objectives set for the Art Discovery Room. Through her
final review, she reinforced the significant concepts of this section
of the tour and provided a smooth transition to the next section. The
children left the room happy with what they had accomplished and eager
for the next gallery.
The Art Discovery Room: Further Reflections
Clearly, Rose's conception of what constitutes a successful tour
is a departure from the typical art historical lecture found in many
art museum tour programs for children. As soon as the children walked


CHAPTER II
METHODOLOGY
Educational criticism, a qualitative research methodology, was
the method chosen to conduct this study. Educational criticism has
been effectively used by researchers to describe, interpret, and
appraise a variety of educational phenomena (Alexander, 1980; Barone,
1980, 1983; Eisner, 1972, 1975, 1978, 1980, 1985; Kelly, 1975; Kyle,
1982; McCutcheon, 1979; Munby, 1979; Ross, 1978, 1984; Willis, 1975,
1978). Through the process of educational criticism, the researcher
attempts to answer such questions as what is happening? What does it
mean to those involved? What is its value? (McCutcheon, 1979). To
answer these questions, the researcher must engage in sustained and
persistent observation in the natural setting of the studied
phenomenon.
To conduct their investigations, educational critics have adapted
methods from social anthropology. These methods include observation,
interviews, and the collection of artifacts (Eisner, 1985; Kyle, 1982;
McCutcheon, 1979; Ross, 1978, 1984). During the course of the
investigation, the researcher continually searches for patterns and
attempts to discern the meaning of events. As information is
gathered, the critic reflects on the observations. These periods of
19


40
interviews. The information gathered in the interviews was compared
to observations and to the responses of other participants. Every
attempt was made to ascertain the credibility and bias of the
participants in the programs by determining the consistency of the
informants' statements and by detailed analyses and comparisons of
interview and observational data.
In a naturalistic study, analysis of interview data involves the
identification of categories of meaning. That is, the researcher
conducts a systematic search for order by "working with data,
organizing it, breaking it into managerial units, synthesizing it,
[and] searching for patterns" (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982, p. 145). For
example, in this study, the interview data were organized and
reorganized according to the curators' statements concerning their
goals, their educational beliefs, their educational practices, and
their perceptions of the success of their programs.
Collection of Artifacts
In addition to observation and interviews, the researcher
collected samples of educational artifacts. Such materials included
descriptions of the programs disseminated to the public and schools,
pre-visit packets distributed to the schools, written materials used
in the training of docents, and internal documents used in the
development of the programs. These materials were examined to
supplement and enrich the information gathered from observations and
interviews.


210
museum. The curators were concerned with assessing the degree to
which the children were looking, learning, and enjoying their visit.
That is, their criteria were child-centered. These criteria reflected
the curators' beliefs concerning appropriate instructional strategies
for children and played a significant role in the curators'
determination of success. Recent surveys have indicated that the
majority of art museum educators do not have formal training in
education (Eisner & Dobbs, 1986b; Zeller, 1984, 1985). Yet, in this
study, the educational beliefs of the curators and their perceptions
of the learning characteristics of children played an instrumental
role in the development and evaluation of their programs. What are
the educational beliefs of art museum educators? How do those beliefs
vary concerning the audiences served and the nature of the art
exhibition? What is the source of art museum educators' beliefs?
Clearly, more research is needed to determine the nature and source of
art museum educators' educational beliefs and the relationship of
those beliefs to practice.
The curators' criteria for a successful tour also revealed their
concern for assessing whether or not the tours were object-centered.
These criteria reflected the curators beliefs concerning the purposes
of art museum education programs. Both curators emphasized the
importance of developing the children's appreciation and understanding
of art by stimulating the children to observe and contemplate the


218
future tours? Such information could have been useful as the curators
modified their programs and enabled the curators to provide data to
support their assertions of success.
These suggestions are a few examples of the ways that art museum
educators could develop methods of formal evaluation appropriate to
their goals. The criteria for success identified in this study could
be used as a basis for developing evaluation strategies appropriate to
these and other art museum education programs. Clearly, museum
educators need to be aware of a variety of evaluation procedures and
the benefits of formal evaluation to their educational endeavors.
The curators in this study were also concerned with the
perceptions of other educators (teachers and school staff) as they
assessed the success of their programs. This study may prompt art
museum educators to seek out educators in the communities as a
resource for program development as well as program evaluation. Both
art museum educators in this study enlisted the support and assistance
of educators familiar with their intended audiences. Teachers were
involved in the development and implementation of each of these
programs. Clearly, the educational staff of museums and the
educational staff of schools have much to gain from each other. Each
type of educator has distinctive skills and knowledge to contribute to
the education of the children that they serve. These programs
illustrate the fruitfulness of collaborative efforts between teachers
and art museum educators.


152
The docent asks the children if they have had a good time. She
is engulfed in a chorus of "yes." "Will you come back?" she asks,
peering at them in mock sternness. Once again the children answer,
"yes." "And how much did it cost you?" the docent asks. The children
look at each other momentarily. "Nothing," comes the reply. "Well,
come back then and bring your families!" As the children file out of
the room, the docent hands each child a sticker to wear. On the
sticker is a photo reproduction of the Vera Cruz man sitting beside
the words, Harrison Museum of Art. As she passes out the stickers,
she asks each child to tell her who the Vera Cruz man is and how old
he is. As the children tell her, she says, "now you come back because
where else can you come and see a 1,500 year old man?"
The Pre-Columbian Gallery; Analysis in Terms of Rose's Goals
For Rose and her committees of docents and teachers, designing
the tour through the Pre-Columbian Gallery was a difficult task.
In the Pre-Columbian Gallery, we had a hard time knowing
what to do in there that wouldn't separate the children
from the objects. When they are in the museum with real
museum objects, I don't want them to spend most of their
time doing other things. . [There could be] an awful
lot of time spent looking at the docent and listening to
the docent while the objects are all around them and they
can't see them [because they are] sitting on the floor,
listening to a docent. They have to stand up to look at
[the objects]. So we decided that the best way to do
that was with a search sheet. But I hate those search
sheets where kids are standing there and writing a lot of
stuff. So, I said, okay, they can write a number. I
don't want anything written down . and it seems to me
that when I walk through to observe, the kids are looking
at the objects. I don't care what happens to that search
sheetthe kids are looking at the objects and I'm happy
with that.


CHAPTER VI
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
The purpose of this study was to examine the evaluation practices
of art museum educators, to identify the criteria used to determine
success, and to investigate the relationship between those criteria
and the museum educators' beliefs concerning art museum education.
Research has consistently shown that art museum educators do not
conduct formal assessments of their educational programs. The lack
of formal assessment, however, does not necessarily imply a lack of
evaluation in art museum education practices.
To investigate the evaluation efforts of art museum educators,
the researcher observed two art museum education programs designated
as successful by the curators of education at their respective
institutions. The study was designed to include the extensive
observations and intensive interviewing necessary for developing an
understanding of the process of evaluation in the art museum setting.
Each program was observed on a weekly basis over a 3-month period.
The curators of education were interviewed, formally and informally,
on numerous occasions. These interviews were conducted to ascertain
the curators' goals for the programs, the curators' methods of
evaluation, and the curators' beliefs concerning the success of these
198


183
The Little People's Tour was designed for young children; the
Fifth Grade Tour was designed for children 10 or 11 years of age. The
difference in the tours due to the ages of the children was manifested
most clearly in the different pace of the tours. That is, the Little
People's Tour consisted of multiple activities in six different
galleries. The children changed activities every 10 to 15 minutes.
The Fifth Grade Tour Program, however, was divided into three
segments, approximately 25 to 30 minutes in length. The multiple
activities on the Little People's Tour were designed for the short
attention span of younger children. An additional difference due to
the children's ages was the emphasis placed on imaginative activities
on the Little People's Tour. The children were frequently asked to
pretend, a favorite activity of young children. These imaginative
activities were not encountered on the Fifth Grade Tours.
The two programs also differed due to the distinctive
characteristics of the museums' permanent collections. The Little
People's Tour was an exploration of Western art whereas the Fifth
Grade Tour was an exploration of non-Western art, a significant
difference in subject matter. Educating Westerners (even young ones)
concerning Western art is a simpler task than educating Westerners
concerning non-Western art. An example may serve to illustrate the
difference. On the Little People's Tour, the children were asked to
analyze a portrait of a noblewoman. The children quite easily


38
The researcher also conducted informal interviews with the
curators and the docents who implemented the tours. For example,
before and after tours, the docents met with the curators of education
to discuss the scheduled groups and to tell anecdotes about their
experiences on the tours. During these informal meetings, questions
emerged as the researcher discussed particular incidents with
the participants. For example, a docent at the Harrison Museum of
Art had a different method of implementing a particular section of
the tour: The docent pretended to be a pre-Columbian Indian and
described the artifacts in the Pre-Columbian Gallery as her personal
belongings. Although the other docents admired her theatrical
techniques and believed that her method was effective with the
children, the other docents were reluctant to employ theatrical
techniques in their presentations. The researcher discussed the
docent's performance with the docent and explored the other docents'
reluctance to use theatrical techniques. This incident also prompted
a discussion (between the curator, a few of the docents, and the
researcher) concerning the amount of freedom given to the docents to
improvise their tours. As the researcher asked questions, these
discussions took the form of informal interviews of the docents and
curator.
To avoid disrupting the tours, the researcher refrained from
questioning the docents or participants while the tour was being


70
comment on the period, style, or country of these objects. The docent
concentrated her efforts on one art work, definitions of the terms
"sculpture" and "sculptor," and the hands-on activities. The
discussion of the sculpture centered on the texture of the stone and
the technical aspects of creating the piece. The docent maintained a
focus: Who makes sculpture? From what? And how?
Martha and Jane considered the learning characteristics of young
children as they designed the sculpting activity.
The young child has to touch. That's one of the ways
that he learns. But we can't let 3,000 children a year
touch the Madonna and Child. But they can touch the
stones presented in a variety of ways. Some of the
stones are highly polished so that we can say, in order
to make it feel the way that the Madonna feels, you have
to polish it like this. (Jane)
Through the hands-on activity, the children were given a feel for the
material of the sculpture, the idea that people make sculpture, and a
rudimentary understanding of how a stone sculpture is made. The
children actively participated as they responded to the docent's
questions and engaged in the activity. The children appeared
satisfied and stimulated throughout the activity. After completing
this section of the tour, children could be seen confidently pointing
to sculptures in the museum and calling out, "sculpture."
Sculpture: Further Reflections
Researchers have indicated that children of this age have a
mechanistic conception of the arts (Gardner & Winner, 1982; Parsons,


35
Additional Recording Methods
Multiple methods of observations lend credibility to a
qualitative study (Guba, 1981; Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Ross, 1978,
1984); therefore, the researcher considered the use of audiotapes,
photography, and videotapes to supplement the data recorded in the
field notes. However, the museum staff at these two museums
discouraged the use of photography in their galleries; therefore,
photography was not used. Due to the ambulatory nature of the museum
tour and the researcher's desire to remain as unobtrusive as possible,
videotaping was not used. The researcher, however, tape recorded a
sampling of museum tours.
Interviewing
Intensive interviewing is another tool of the naturalistic
investigator and is a primary means by which the investigator is able
to discover the participants' perceptions of a phenomenon (Bogdan &
Biklen, 1982; Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Lofland & Lofland, 1984).
Interviews may be formal or informal. An interview is characterized
as formal when the interviewer schedules the interview at a particular
time for a particular purpose (Spradley, 1980). The researcher has a
set of questions which provide a framework for the interview session.
An interview is characterized as informal if it occurs during the
period of observation. That is, an observed even may suggest a series
of questions that the researcher then addresses to the participants


102
How did Martha and Jane evaluate the Little People's Tour?
According to Martha,
evaluation takes place constantly. We wouldn't keep it
going if we didn't feel like it wasn't a valid kind of
tour. It isn't all written down, filled in, bubble
marked, and comes back with a raw score. It's not a
statistical evaluation.
Rather than conduct a statistical evaluation, Martha and Jane
evaluated the Little People's Tour by observing tour groups in an
unobtrusive manner. According to Jane, "we are forever hiding behind
walls." Martha and Jane evaluated the tour by walking through the
galleries and looking for involvement, children actively
participating.
There's a chemistry. You know right away, you see. I
like to see whether or not the children are doing most
of the talking. I like to see that the docent is
actually extracting information from the children. . .
That involvement, that questioning and answering, you've
got to have that dialogue. . Generally, it's the
peace or happiness that's in the galleries. (Jane)
I look for that "attention spark," between docent and
group. It's achieved in so many different ways by so
many different people at different times that it's hard
to say what has done it. I am distressed when I see
inattentive children who are having to be kept in
control artificially. I think the control of the group
comes out of genuine attention. What I like to see in
a group is genuine attention. (Martha)
Martha and Jane interpreted the attentiveness of the children as a
measure of effective practice. According to Martha, discipline
problems with children on the tour were rare occurrences.
We have very few discipline problems. . The amazing
thing is that this age child in the museum does not


57
encountered. An educational critic must have the skills of an
educational connoisseur: the ability to perceive and appreciate the
subtleties and complexities of educational phenomena. As Eisner
(1985) explained, "connoisseurship is the art of appreciation,
criticism is the art of disclosure. . Connoisseurship provides the
fundamental core of realization that gives criticism its material"
(pp. 219-220).
Clearly, an educational criticism relies extensively on the
capabilities and judgments of the educational critic. The critic's
previous experience and knowledge of educational theory and practice
provide a framework for interpretation and appraisal. It is
important, therefore, to consider the qualifications and biases of the
critic in evaluating the content of an educational criticism.
Experience in education, knowledge of educational theory and practice,
and training in qualitative methods of research contribute to the
researcher's ability to conduct an educational criticism. Listed
below is a brief summary of the researcher's professional experience
and educational preparation:
1. The researcher has four years of experience in museums and
galleries. Her particular area of interest has been in educational
programming.
2. The researcher has earned a B.A. in art, including coursework
in art history and art criticism.


28
Research Schedule
The researcher interviewed curators of education and observed art
museum education programs from the seven art museums during the months
of September and October, 1987. After these initial interviews,
programs from two museums were chosen for in-depth investigation.
From November, 1987, until April, 1988, the researcher observed the
selected programs. Each site was visited weekly; each visit consisted
of 4 to 6 hours of observations and interviews. The researcher
investigated one program for 10 to 12 weeks, then moved on to the next
site. The total amount of time spent in the field was approximately
160 hours.
The period from May to August, 1988, was devoted to ongoing data
analysis, return visits to the sites, and completion of the written
report.
Methods of Data Collection
As stated previously, the primary methods of data collection in a
qualitative, naturalistic study are participant observation,
interviews, and the collection of artifacts (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982;
Guba & Lincoln, 1981; Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Lofland & Lofland, 1984).
The following section includes a description of these methods.
Participant Observation
Participant observation in the naturalistic setting is one of the
primary means by which the researcher gains an understanding of the


CHAPTER V
WHAT CONSTITUTES SUCCESS: SIMILARITIES AND
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO PROGRAMS
Chapters III and IV consisted of educational criticisms of two
art museum education programs designated as successful by the curators
of education at their respective institutions. Two questions guided
the investigations of these programs:
1. What does it mean when an art museum educator designates an
educational program a success? That is, what is the educator trying
to achieve? How does the educator know that he or she is succeeding?
2. How do art museum educators' criteria for success reveal
their beliefs about art museum education?
In this chapter, the third guiding question of the study is addressed:
3. Are there consistent patterns in art museum educators'
attempts to evaluate their programs? That is, what are the
similarities and differences in the criteria used by art museum
educators to evaluate their programs?
This chapter includes a brief summary of the two criticisms and a
discussion of the similarities and differences between the evaluation
efforts of the art museum educators at each institution.
164


215
programs through a consideration of the distinctive characteristics of
their audiences and the museums' collections. Both curators were able
to articulate goals for their programs and methods that they believed
were effective for achieving their goals. Through observation, these
art museum educators conscientiously evaluated their programs as they
were implemented in the museum. To evaluate their programs, art
museum educators must be able to conceptualize their goals, examine
the connection between their goals and their practice, and be aware of
the beliefs and values which guide their judgments. This study may
stimulate reflection among art museum educators concerning their
beliefs, their practices, and their criteria for success. By
comparing and analyzing their own programs with respect to the
programs described in this study, other art museum educators may
perceive more clearly the process of development, implementation, and
evaluation necessary to conduct a successful program.
The criteria for success described by these art museum educators
may be useful to other art museum educators as they evaluate their
programs. By actively monitoring their programs, art museum educators
can evaluate the extent to which their programs are conducted in a
manner appropriate to their audiences and determine whether or not
their programs make use of the art museum's most valuable resource:
the original art object. Although these criteria for evaluating a
tour may appear self-evident, in reality, evaluating programs


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Conducting this study has been a challenging as well as
satisfying experience. I would like to express my gratitude to those
people who have made this experience a rewarding enterprise.
First, I would like to thank the members of my doctoral
committee: Ray Ferguson, whose down-to-earth perspective has helped
keep my feet planted firmly on the ground and moving in a forward
direction and whose gentle smile has been a source of encouragement;
Arthur Newcomb, who provided support through his quiet assurance and
helpful comments; and Forrest Parkay, who continually expressed
interest and enthusiasm in my endeavors. I would also like to give a
special thank you to my chair, Dr. Dorene Ross, and my cochair,
Professor Roy Craven. Dr. Ross is one of those rare individuals who
inspires not only through words but through actions. I have benefited
not only from her advice and assistance but also from her example as a
researcher and a teacher. Professor Roy Craven has known me the
longest and has continually encouraged me to continue with my studies.
Through the years, he has given me advice, support, and encouragement,
both personally and professionally. He has shared with me the joys of
art and the pleasures to be found in the world of museums.
iv


64
expand their horizons. Some of our children come and
have had a tremendous exposure to the arts. Others
come and have had absolutely none. So we are trying
to begin a foundation for those who haven't and expand
those who have had good experiences. (Martha)
Martha and Jane wanted the children to learn basic art concepts,
concepts which they believed would form a foundation for the
children's future learning in the arts.
Martha and Jane, however, realized that there were important
considerations to be met in implementing a tour for young children.
As Martha stated, "you have to know your audience. . The tour
needs to be child-centered." Martha and Jane developed the tour by
considering the characteristics of young children and the learning
opportunities that the museum had to offer. According to Jane,
I sat down and I thought, if I want to teach a young
child in the museum, what are the things that I want
to teach them? How would I want to do it? ... I sat
down and I thought, I want them to understanding painting,
I want them to understand sculpture. ... I would like
them to understand the portraits, seascapes, and
landscapes. So, I just said, these are the main areas.
How can I teach each of these in a very short frame of
time with what we have to offer? And so I developed an
activity per gallery.
Jane and Martha designed the tour around basic art concepts and
developed participatory activities to illustrate each concept. Martha
and Jane felt that such activities were essential to the success of
the tour.
One of the reasons that the tour works is that it has
activities. The concepts and vocabulary are introduced
and supported by activity: hands-on activities and


205
Anderson (1968) suggested that art museum educators did not
evaluate their programs because they were afraid of what formal
evaluations would reveal. That is, museum educators feared that their
programs might not have the impact intended by the educators. Did
such fears play a role in the lack of formal assessments of the
programs observed in this study? The curators interviewed in this
study expressed the concern that without consistent and intensive
exposure to art and museums, the children would not develop a lifelong
appreciation of art and museums. Both curators expressed reservations
that a single tour, perhaps these children's sole exposure to the
visual arts, would be sufficient to attain their aim of developing
the children's appreciation of art and museums. As Anderson
suggested, perhaps these curators were afraid of the results of long
term studies of the impact of their programs on the children's
appreciation of art and museums.
Despite these curators' reservations concerning the efficacy of a
one-shot tour, they believed and hoped that the tour did have an
impact on the children that the programs served. Similar to museum
educators described in the study conducted by Hayes (1968), one of the
curators of education included in this study related anecdotes of
children returning to the museum as evidence of the impact of the tour
on the children who had participated in the program. Hayes argued
that if the programs had an impact on even a few children served by


To Mom, Carla, and Rich,
who were always willing to listen
and to Jenny, Mandy, and Will,
who were always willing to
provide a child's eye view of matters


175
to truly accomplish her goal of developing the children's appreciation
and understanding of art and museums, the children should come to the
museum more often. Rose would like the museum to work more closely
with teachers and school personnel to develop a program in which the
children came more frequently to the museum and participated in
pre-visit and post-visit activities. Rose also wanted to work with
even smaller groups of children. Each of these changes, however,
would require the cooperation of the school system. Despite the
support that the school board had given to the museum for educational
programs, Rose was uncertain as to whether her goals of a multi-visit
program would be met. Rose explained that the logistics of such an
endeavor would be much more complex than the present program and would
be difficult to organize and to finance. Despite her reservations
concerning the effectiveness of a one-shot tour, Rose believed that
the program provided the children with a pleasurable learning
experience in the museum.
Similarities and Differences
These two programs were implemented in museums with distinctly
different collections for children from different age groups. One
program was a collaborative school-museum program; the other was not.
Despite the apparent differences in these two programs, there were
also many similarities in design, implementation, and evaluation. In
the following sections, the two programs are compared and contrasted


159
particular. The children were also expected to learn about the
artifacts on display and the people who created them. Rose wanted the
children to be challenged on the tour and stimulated to think about
their experiences in the museum.
Rose's instructional strategies demonstrated her belief that the
key to meaningful learning is engagement: the children's attention
should be engaged throughout the tour. As she designed the tour, Rose
considered the learning characteristics of children; she provided
tactile experiences and participatory activities. Rose also
recognized that what the children were able to learn during their
museum visit was shaped by their prior experiences. Many of her
instructional strategies were intended to relate the content of the
tour to the children's personal experiences. Rose used the children's
personal experiences as a foundation for further learning.
Rose viewed the role of the docent as critical in her endeavor to
make the museum visit both enjoyable and educational. The docent was
responsible for making the children feel comfortable in the museum;
she was also responsible for maintaining the children's attention so
that they were actively engaged in the museum experience.
How did Rose evaluate the fifth grade tour? According to Rose,
I use observation too much. ... I spend time out observing
what's going on. ... In this museum, you can lurk around
corners, here and there, and hear what's going on. And you
can . look through the glass panels and see what they
are doing in the galleries.


85
a tree," "they look happy," "the flowers," "the mountains," "the bird
in the water." As the children respond, the docent often comments on
their choices. She talks about the warm glow of the clouds and asks
the children about the kinds of colors that the artist has chosen to
create that effect. She mentions the brushstrokes of color in the
trees and notes that their shapes make you think of leaves.
Throughout the discussion, the children are eager to share their
"something special" and are disappointed when someone else names it.
Their disappointment, however, provokes them to keep looking. After
they finish their discussion, the docent tells them "to find one
painting in the gallery that you really like and go stand by it." The
children disperse, in pairs and in trios, to various paintings around
the room. When the children are settled by a painting, the docent
walks around the room and asks each child to share "something special"
with the others about the painting. Some of the children are shy but
others talk about various aspects of the paintings such as "the cows
in the field" or "a boat on the river." After she has talked with
each group, the docent instructs the children to line up. As they
form their lines and prepare to exit, the children continue to comment
on the paintings. As they leave the gallery, they walk and talk,
looking at the paintings and occasionally bumping into the children in
front of them. "Look at that."
"See that wagon. See it?"


142
The Slide Show: Further Reflections
In the discussion of the artifacts, the docent focused her
efforts on developing the childrens visual perceptiveness. By
stimulating the children to analyze an artifact in terms of the
distinctive attributes of the animal depicted, the docent also
stimulated the children to look carefully at the formal
characteristics of the art work. Rose obviously placed a high
priority on developing the children's sensitivity to the visual
characteristics of the work. Rose, like many museum educators, was
concerned that visitors spend too little time looking at the art on
display. According to surveys, museum visitors spend an average of 3
to 30 seconds actually looking at museum objects (Commission on
Museums for a New Century, 1984; Eisner & Dobbs, 1986b; Goodman, 1985;
Newsom & Silver, 1978). During this section of the slide show, the
docent successfully stimulated the childrens interest in the
artifacts through a comparison of the distinctive characteristics of
the jungle animals and specific attributes of the pieces.
Rose, however, also wanted the children to learn about the
function of the objects and the meaning of the imagery. Rose
attempted to provide the children with background knowledge to
interpret the pre-Columbian artifacts. She was guided by the belief
that an understanding of pre-Columbian art is predicated upon an
understanding of the culture of the pre-Columbian Indians. For the


42
for the hands-on activities and arranged the materials in the various
galleries. The researcher walked with one of the docents and assisted
with the arrangement of materials. Their conversation ranged across a
number of topics: Some of the topics were personal, other topics were
about the tours. The researcher asked the docent why she gave tours.
The docent, a middle-aged woman, expressed the pleasure that she
derived from working with young children. She mentioned that there
were rarely behavior problems on the tours. "The children," she
stated, "are delightful." The researcher made a note of the docents
statements and observed that the curator had also stated that there
were few discipline problems on the tours.
The researcher accompanied the docents to the entrance of the
museum. The docents exchanged personal information about friends and
families as they waited for the buses to arrive. The researcher spoke
individually to each docent and asked for permission to observe the
docent's tour during the morning. A new docent asked not to be
observed and the researcher agreed. As the buses arrived, the docents
quickly decided who would start in each of the different galleries.
The docents briefly reviewed the routing procedures as they went out
to greet the teachers and children who were gathering on the steps of
the museum. The docents and teachers divided the children into small
groups; the researcher noted the number of children in each group. As
the docents led the children into the museum, the researcher noticed
that the children were quiet, almost apprehensive. The researcher was


166
collection of art objects. Martha and Jane also wanted to introduce
the children to concepts and vocabulary such as sculpture, painting,
portrait, landscape, and seascape. These ideas, concepts, and terms
were related to a specific art object or art objects in the museum.
Marthaand Jane designed a variety of activities to engage the
children's attention and to stimulate them to look, to think, and to
respond to the art around them. These activities took the form of
active manipulation of art materials, storytelling, and games. Many
of these activities were developed with an understanding of the young
child's capacity to imagine.
For their efforts to be successful, Martha and Jane believed that
the tour should be implemented in a manner appropriate to their young
audience. As they designed the tour, Martha and Jane considered the
learning characteristics of young children. Because Martha and Jane
expressed the view that children should be active participants in
learning, the tour was designed to stimulate participation by each
child. This was accomplished in several ways. First, museum
experiences were related to the children's personal experiences.
Second, the docents, who implemented the tours, were trained in
strategies to elicit participation by the children. Third, Martha and
Jane structured the tour so that each child would be able to observe
and respond to the art in the museum.
Martha and Jane cited two major difficulties involved in an
attempt to educate young children in a fine arts museum. According to


165
Summaries of the Two Criticisms
The following section includes summaries of the Little People's
Tour at the Wallingford Museum of Art and the Fifth Grade Tour Program
at the Harrison Museum of Art. Because the curators' criteria for
success cannot be separated from the program's goals and
implementation, each summary includes a synopsis of the goals of the
program as well as the methods used to implement the program.
The Little People's Tour
Martha, the Curator of Education, and Jane, a dedicated docent,
developed the Little People's Tour to reach an audience often
overlooked by the staff of fine arts museums, young children. Martha
and Jane were motivated by the belief that a program for young
children could be an important means of providing a foundation for
these children's future learning in the arts. For Martha and Jane,
the Little People's Tour was an initial step in developing the
children's appreciation and understanding of art and museums.
The Little People's Tour was designed to provide the children
with an enjoyable as well as an educational experience in the museum.
Martha and Jane wanted the children to perceive the museum as a place
to have a pleasurable time as well as a place to learn. During the
children's visit, Martha and Jane wanted to expose the children to
several ideas about art and museums: (a) art is made by people, (b)
art is a form of communication, and (c) a fine arts museum houses a


191
children were having an educational experience and the curators'
criteria for assessing the extent to which the children were having an
enjoyable experience were similar. That is, children who were
attentive and responsive on the tours also appeared to be content. If
the tours' instructional strategies were effective, then the children
learned, and the children enjoyed themselves. In a sense, both of
these programs were child-centered; the criteria for success were, in
part, an assessment of the extent to which the programs conformed to
the curators' beliefs concerning a child-centered approach to teaching
and learning.
But the tours were also object-centered in that these
instructional strategies were designed to teach the children to look
at the art around them. The distinguishing characteristic of the art
museum as an institution is the presence of the original art object;
the goal of educating the children to look at art is the most
significant endeavor of art museum education programs (Eisner & Dobbs,
1986b; Goodman, 1985; Lee, 1983; Taylor, 1971; Williams, 1984, 1985).
As Lee (1983) has noted, "in the world of visual images . the
museum is the primary source for education" (p. 57). According to Lee
(1983), art museum educators should teach toward the art object rather
than from or about the object. That is, the art objects should not be
used as tools to illustrate an art historical lecture, but rather the
focus of the museum educator's efforts should be on the uniqueness of
the original art object.


APPENDIX A
FIRST INTERVIEW WITH THE CURATORS OF EDUCATION
1. What audiences do you particularly want to reach? How are
you doing that?
2. What is "your message" for these particular audiences? (What
are you trying to achieve?)
3. What do you consider a particularly successful program?
Tour, lecture series, etc.?
4. How do you evaluate your educational programs?
5. How do you know when a program is going well? What are the
docents doing? What are the children doing?
6. What would you say are the strengths and weaknesses of your
educational programs?
7. What are you not doing now that you would like to be doing?
230


APPENDIX C
INTERVIEW WITH THE DIRECTORS
1. Can you tell me about the history of this program? How it
began?
2. What role did you play in the development of the program?
3. Do you observe the tours?
4. What are you looking for during your observations? What do
you want to see happening on the tours?
5. In what ways has this program been successful?
6. What do you think has contributed to the success of this
program?
232


50
interpretation. The researcher, however, considered other
interpretations which may have accounted for the programs popularity.
The researcher explored a number of factors. Were there other field
trip opportunities available to children in this age group? What were
the field trip policies set by the school district? Did the same
teachers return year after year? The researchers investigation of
the program's popularity illustrated the role of extrinsic
interpretation in this study.
Appraisal
The final aspect of an educational criticism is an evaluation of
the educational phenomenon. Through appraisal, the critic assesses
the educational significance and quality of the observed events.
McCutcheon (1979) and Ross (1978, 1984) have defined two types of
appraisal: intrinsic and extrinsic. These approaches grow out of and
complement the intrinsic and extrinsic approaches to interpretation.
In intrinsic appraisal, the critic considers the aims of the
educator and explores the extent to which those aims have been
realized. The criteria for evaluation are found within the context of
the phenomenon: the criteria stated by the educator. In this study,
the researcher investigated the criteria used by the art museum
educators to determine the success of these programs. What were the
characteristics which they believed typified a successful program?
The researcher explored the extent to which these characteristics were
evident in the observed programs. Was there a fit between what the


228
Ross, D. D. (1978). Teaching beliefs and practices in three
kindergartens (Doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia,
1978). Dissertation Abstracts International, 40, 661A.
Ross, D. D. (1984). An introduction to curriculum criticism. Journal
of Thought, 19(2), 47-60.
Screven, C. (1969). The museum as a responsive learning environment.
Museum News, 47(10), 7-10.
Screven, C. (1974a). Learning and exhibits: Instructional design.
Museum News, 52(5), 67-75.
Screven, C. (1974b). The measurement and facilitation of learning in
the museum environment: An experimental analysis. Washington,
DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Screven, C. (1984). Educational evaluation and research in museums
and public exhibits: A bibliography. Curator, 27(2), 147-165.
Shettel, H. (1973). Exhibits: Art forms or educational media?
Museum News, 52(1), 32-41.
Spradley, J. (1980). Participant observation. New York: Holt,
Rinehart and Winston.
Stake, R. (1967). The countenance of educational evaluation.
Teachers College Record, 68(7), 523-540.
Stapp, C. (1984). Defining museum literacy. Journal of Museum
Education, £(1), 3-10.
Taylor, J. (1971). To catch the eye and hold the mind: The museum as
educator. Art Education, 24(7), 18-24.
Washburn, W. (1968). Are museums necessary? Museum News, 47(2),
9-10. ~
Washburn, W. (1975). Do museums educate? Curator, 18(3), 211-217.
Washburn, W. (1985). Professionalizing the muses. Museum News,
64(2), 18-24, 70-71.
Williams, P. (1974). Find out who Donny is. Museum News, 52(7).
42-45.


72
Painting: What Makes It? And How?
The docent walks around the gallery, a room filled with Medieval
paintings. She explains that every painting in the room tells a story
about Mother Mary and Baby Jesus. She also tells the children that
there is something the same about every painting: They all have the
same colors. The docent walks up to a painting, points to an area,
and asks the children, "what colors do you see?" The children answer
with refrains of "red! yellow! blue!" The docent repeats the
procedure with five or six more paintings. She asks the children why
they think the artists used red, gold, and blue in all of these
paintings. The children offer a variety of replies. "Make it nice
and pretty." "Make it colorful." "They're Christmas colors." The
docent tells them that each of them is right but there is another
reason, too. She explains that Mary is a queen, the Mother of God,
and that red, gold, and blue are royal colors, "special colors that
tell you that she is a special person."
The docent asks the children to use their imaginations and
pretend that they are painters living a long, long time ago. "And you
wake up one morning and you want to paint, but," the docent sighs and
looks distressed, "you have no paint. So you decide to make some
paint. You go to the garden, looking for different colors, looking
for a red and a blue and a green. And what do you find?" The
children raise their hands and talk about flowers and berries and


Copyright 1988
by
Karen Kilgore


9
museum in childhood would grow into an understanding of art and
continued use of art museums. Without support from the community and
collaboration with the schools, Hayes doubted that art museum
educators would fulfill their aim of developing lifelong appreciation
of art and museums in the children they served.
In 1973, the Council of Museums and Education in the Visual Arts
commissioned a study of art museum education practices (Newsom &
Silver, 1978). One hundred and five programs from 71 museums across
the country were investigated by 12 researchers. Their efforts were
led and organized by Newsom and Silver, who edited the final report,
The Art Museum as Educator. The study was conducted over a 3-year
period.
Of the 71 museums investigated in the study, the majority of
their educational budgets were spent on programs for school-age
children. The purposes of these programs fell into three main
categories: (a) to help children feel comfortable in an art museum
and to value museums, (b) to introduce children to the visual arts and
engage them in experiences that would sharpen their perceptions, and
(c) to give children opportunities for studio activities to enhance
their understanding and enjoyment of art.
When asked about evaluation of their programs, many educators
responded with attendance figures and numbers of children reached
through their educational programs. However, Newsom and Silver


43
concerned with the degree of intimidation that the children might feel
during the museum visit.
The researcher followed one of the tour groups into the museum.
On a previous tour, the researcher had noticed that the docent
consistently established connections between the children's personal
experiences and the children's experiences in the museum. As the
researcher made notes, she highlighted the exchanges between the
docent and children that related to the children's personal
experiences. The researcher was exploring the relationship between
the curator's stated belief about the need to make the information on
the tour meaningful to the children by relating it to their personal
experiences. The researcher observed the docent for approximately 20
minutes; she then moved on to another gallery and observed another
docent. During the morning, the researcher observed each of the
docents who had agreed to be observed. The researcher consistently
noted the pattern of making connections between the children's
personal experiences and events on the tour.
After the tour groups departed, the researcher returned to the
museum and assisted the docents as they put away the supplies. One of
the docents had been unusually challenged by her tour group; the
children were from a combined first and second grade gifted class. As
the tour began, one of the children had asked her where to find the
Michelangelo. The docent spoke of the difficulty of changing her
presentation as she realized that the particular group was not what



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212
support as an indication that the tours were educationally appropriate
for their audience. As Newsom and Silver (1978) have suggested,
teachers may be unfamiliar with art and museums and therefore
inadequately equipped to assess an art museum tour. Nevertheless,
teachers are familiar with children and various instructional
strategies to educate children. As the curators in this study have
implied, teachers may be a significant source of information
concerning the adequacy of the museum's instructional efforts.
Teachers at both museums played a role in the development of these
programs; their return visits to the museum was interpreted by one
curator as a measure of success. It would seem that teachers might be
able to play a more active role in the determination of program
success. Research into the perceptions of teachers could be an
important source of information concerning the success or lack of
success of art museum education programs. Determining teachers'
perceptions of success should be the subject of future investigations:
What are teachers' criteria for a successful art museum education
program?
Rose also cited the continuing support of the school board as
an indication of the success of the Fifth Grade Tour Program; the
staff of the Harrison Museum of Art effectively solicited and
maintained the support of the local school board. An investigation
of the Harrison County School Board's perceptions of the Fifth Grade


65
personal participation on the part of each individual
child. . If, at their age, their educational
experience in art ends only with listening then they
have not been allowed to develop adequately. They have
to go on to doing in order to really develop. And
that's one of the beauties of this touris that they
are allowed to do something at every stop. (Martha)
Martha and Jane's conception of a tour for young children did not
include art historical monologues. They both expressed the view that
young children should participate in their own learning; for Martha
and Jane, children are not empty vessels waiting to be filled.
Involving the children is the key. (Jane)
There are many ways to convey concepts to
children. The younger child needs these hands-on
activities. (Martha)
The young child has to touch. That's one of the
ways that he learns. (Jane)
They have to go on to doing to really develop.
(Martha)
Martha and Jane repeatedly stressed the need for active participation
by each child. Martha and Jane also believed that, whenever possible,
museum experiences should be related to the children's personal
experiences.
The Little People's Tour was designed to involve the children, to
establish a pattern of dialogue between docent and children as well as
interaction between art objects or art materials and children. The
docents, who implemented the program, were trained to work with young
children. They were required to participate in a training session
devoted to learning strategies for young children.
Martha and Jane wanted the children who participated in the
Little People's Tour to enjoy their visit. They also wanted these


39
conducted. The docents, however, occasionally commented about a
particular activity or explained a certain procedure to the researcher
while the children were engaged in a hands-on activity or as the tour
group moved from one gallery to another. The docents' perceptions
were noted and discussed more fully with the docents at the conclusion
of the tours.
After the docents had departed from the museum, the researcher
frequently met with the curator of education and discussed particular
incidents on the tours, the varied performances of the docents, and
the responses of the children during the tours. Essentially, the
informal interviews with the curator were designed to enhance the
researcher's understanding of the curator's goals for the tours, the
methods chosen to achieve those goals, the reasons for the curator's
choices, and the curator's general perceptions of the tours.
Throughout the investigation, the naturalistic researcher needs
to assess the credibility and bias of the respondents, to recognize
the interactive nature of the interview, and to consider the context
of the interview (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). The researcher may also ask
similar questions in a variety of formats, compare answers, and assess
the consistency of the informants' statements (Ross, 1978). During
this investigation, the researcher discussed the programs with the
curators on a variety of occasions in varied contexts, formal and
informal. Similar questions were repeated throughout the various


41
Typical Research Day
In the following section, a typical research day is described.
This description may clarify for the reader the day-to-day process of
collecting and analyzing data in the field.
The researcher arrived 45 minutes to an hour before the tours
began; she met briefly with the curator of education. They had a cup
of coffee while they discussed the day's schedule. The curator told
the researcher about the groups that were scheduled to come that day:
how many children were in a group, the grade level of the children,
and the characteristics of the school. The curator also told the
researcher about the docents who were leading tours that day; she
mentioned a particular docent that conducted an exceptionally good
tour. The researcher encouraged the curator to describe the docent's
style of giving tours: What made her tours distinctive? Later, the
researcher made a note about the curator's comments and made a special
effort to observe that particular docent during the morning's
observations.
As the curator and researcher talked, the docents arrived. The
researcher, the curator, and the docents chatted amicably as the
docents put away their purses and sweaters, put on their name tags,
and checked the daily schedule. The researcher accompanied the
docents as they left the curator's office to prepare for their tours.
The docents headed in different directions as they gathered materials


221
museum educators play in the museum's operations. For example, in
this study, the director of the Harrison Museum of Art designated the
educational programs of the museum as central to the museum's mission;
he solicited and gained financial and administrative support from
local and state government to provide educational programs for the
children of Harrison County. Such policy decisions have far-reaching
consequences for the functions of the museum's education department.
Descriptions of these two successful programs may help museum
directors understand the multitude of factors involved in the
development, implementation, and evaluation of successful museum
programs.
Finally, this study may provide a model for museum professionals
as they attempt to evaluate their programs. During the past decade,
museums have become increasingly dependent upon public funds to
finance their programs. The educational programs at the Harrison
Museum of Art, financed by local and state educational funds, are an
obvious example of the current trend. As they provide educational
services, the museum's staff may be called upon to account for the
public monies spent on educational services. Clearly, art museum
educators need to be able to articulate their goals, justify their
methods of implementation, and provide evidence of success. For
example, the museum educators in this study stressed the impact of
small tour groups on the success of their programs. Through the


193
criteria, that is assessing the degree to which the activities and
questioning strategies focused the children's attention on the art.
The child-centered criteria reflected the curators' beliefs concerning
appropriate strategies for children. The object-centered criteria
reflected the curators' beliefs concerning the purposes of art museum
education programs. These programs were deemed successful by the
curators of education because the tours were both child-centered and
object-centered.
It should be noted, however, that there were occasions on the
tours when the curators' criteria for success were not met. These
occasions occurred primarily when the tours deviated from their
object-centered, child-centered approach. For example, on the Fifth
Grade Tour, the children reviewed academic material previously learned
in school. This review was conducted through the use of slides. The
children, however, appeared bored. This section of the tour did not
meet Rose's criteria for success. Rose was attempting to fulfill the
objective of reinforcing the fifth grade curriculum. Rose's criteria
for success, however, were based on her personal beliefs concerning
the purposes of art museum education. It would seem that the
ineffectiveness of the slide show may have been due to a mismatch
between Rose's beliefs concerning the purposes of art museum education
and the academic objective of reinforcing the school curriculum.
Another section of the slide show also seemed ineffective. The
children appeared confused when the docent attempted to educate the


186
to approval by the school board. In addition to the objectives
concerning museums and art, the Fifth Grade Tour Program was also
designed to reinforce the fifth grade curriculum. The Fifth Grade
Tour had sections which were tangentially but not directly related to
the objects on display. That is, sections of the tour were devoted to
general concepts about the pre-Columbian Indians rather than to
specific concepts about the artifacts in the museum's collection. For
example, during the slide show on the Fifth Grade Tour Program, the
children reviewed academic material that they had learned previously in
school. This section of the tour was developed, in part, to make a
connection between what the children had learned in school and what the
children were learning on the tour.
The educational objectives of the Little People's Tour, however,
were developed solely by the museum staff. The objectives focused
exclusively on art and museums and were developed as Martha and Jane
considered the unique characteristics of the Wallingford's permanent
collection and the developmental characteristics of their audience.
Martha and Jane did not directly consider the children's school
curriculum as they designed the Little People's Tour.
The curators' criteria for success did not differ considerably.
Rose, however, noted that children returned on weekends and holidays
to visit the museum whereas Martha and Jane did not cite children
returning to the museum as a sign of success. One might wonder why


147
children finish, the docent asks them to return to the center of the
room and gather around her.
The docent holds up the sheet and points to the first drawing and
asks the children where they found it. The children point to the case
and call out, "over there," "number 16." The group walks to the case
and the docent asks the children about the object. One of the
children identifies it as the "jaguar pot." The docent smiles and
says, "that's right, you remember, the jaguar effigy vessel." She
asks the children why the Indians would make something like this. The
children offer a variety of possibilities: "to drink out of," "for a
God." The docent explains that it was probably used in religious
ceremonies and she attempts to establish a connection with a
contemporary religious holiday. She mentions Easter (an upcoming
religious holiday) and asks the children to name some religious
objects used in the celebration of Easter. One of the children talks
animatedly about the crosses in her church but the others are silent.
The docent does not pursue the topic.
The docent asks the children what the pot is made of and how the
pot was made. The children answer, "clay." A few take turns
explaining the coil method and the pinch method of making pots, "you
know what we did in the other room." The docent points to the
decorative motifs and asks the children if they were painted or
incised. The children know the answer; the design was painted. "And


96
One of the children answers "skateboards" and one of the
chaperones says that she collects teapots. The docent asks the
children to look around the room and try to decide what kinds of
things Mrs. Wallingford liked and what kinds of things she probably
collected. A few children offer replies, "furniture," "vases."
Soon all of the children are offering suggestions: "sofas,"
"pillows," "pictures," "pictures," "a piano." The docent smiles and
says that Mrs. Wallingford liked to collect lots of things, mainly
paintings and sculptures and chests. While she speaks, the docent
walks around the room, pointing to the paintings and touching the
chests. She walks back to the children and holds her arms out wide,
saying, "Mrs. Wallingford collected all these things. When she got
old, she wanted to give all these things to someone special. She
didn't have any children, so she decided to give these things to the
children of Hendersonville. And where do you live?"
The children look at her for a few minutes, thinking, then a few
shout out, "Hendersonville." The docent replies, "then these things
must be for you to share with all the children of Hendersonville.
Mrs. Wallingford also gave us her house, too. But it was very old,
falling down old, and not very safe for children. So they tore down
the house and built the museum right here. But they saved one room.
Now think! What room did they save?"
The children are quiet for a moment then a little girl calls out,
"this room!" The children all echo the little girl as they say, "this


3
necessarily imply a lack of evaluation in art museum practices. The
purpose of this study was to examine the evaluation efforts of art
museum educators, to identify the criteria used to determine success,
and to investigate the relationship between those criteria and the
educators' beliefs about art museum education.
Design of the Study
Qualitative methods of research were used to gather and analyze
information. The study consisted of intensive investigations of
educational programs at two art museums. The curators of education 1
at each institution were formally interviewed concerning a number of
topics: the curators' educational goals, the nature of their
audiences, their methods of implementing educational programs, and the
curators' efforts to evaluate their educational programs. These
interviews were intended to discern the perceptions, beliefs, and
values of the curators of education that shaped the educational
programs at their institutions. Detailed observations focused on
programs designated as successful by the curators of education.2
These observations were needed to explore in detail the relationship
1. In many art museums, the term curator of education refers to
the person who directs the museum's educational programs. The art
museum educators interviewed in this study were curators of education.
In sections of this dissertation, the term art museum educator and
curator of education are used interchangeably.
2. See Methodology section for a description of site and program
selection.


67
fabric?" The children answer loudly, "no!" The docent continues her
questioning, "how did the sculptor make it look like fabric?" The
children do not answer.
The docent retrieves a box from behind the statue and begins
passing around fragments of marble. Some of the pieces of stone are
polished and smooth; others are unpolished and rough. The docent
instructs the children to feel the texture of the stones, to close
their eyes and run their fingers over the surface of the stones.
While the children pass around the stones, the docent continues
talking. "The man who made this," she gestures to the Madonna and
Child," was a sculptor. Can you say that?" The children answer in
unison, "sculptor."
In an animated voice, the docent tells the children to put on
their imagination (the docent places an imaginary cap on her head) and
"let's all be sculptors." The docent picks up a hammer from the box
and asks the children what she is holding. She is answered by a
chorus of "hammer!" The docent then picks up a chisel to show the
children. A child tells the docent that the chisel is "a nail." The
docent nods and explains, "the chisel is like a nail, a large, flat
nail." She sits on the floor in the middle of the group, reaches into
the box and lifts out a large piece of marble. The docent chips away
at the rock, tapping the chisel with her hammer. She explains that
this is how the sculptor made his sculpture out of stone. Once again,


74
The docent spoons up a glob of paint and indicates that the paint
is sticky because the egg is sticky. The docent asks the children if
they've ever had to clean up a dropped egg or washed a plate with
dried egg yolk on it. The chaperones begin laughing and the docent
says to them, "you know what I'm talking about."
The docent replaces the canvas on the easel and calls on two
children to come and paint. She explains that each child will get a
chance. As one pair finishes, she calls upon another pair. To the
children that are finished, she gives a clue to a painting in the room
and asks them to look for it. She whispers in their ears, "look for a
bird and go stand by that painting" or "look for a painting with a
crown." While the children paint, she praises them, "such talent,
Roy! Look at you guys! Marvelous, marvelous!"
In a few minutes, the last pair of children have finished
painting and pairs of children stand beside paintings around the room.
The pairs are excited pointing to their clue, and showing the bird or
crown to one of the chaperones. The docent walks from pair to pair
asking them about their clue and praising them for their successful
efforts.
Painting: Analysis in Terms of Martha and Jane's Goals
The children, once again, were active participants during this
section of the tour. Through questioning strategies and hands-on
activities, the docent elicited the children's participation. The


105
levels were less likely to be locked into an inflexible academic
schedule and were therefore more accessible to the museum's
recruitment efforts. Nevertheless, Martha and Jane believed that the
quality of the tour appealed to the teachers.
Teachers who go on [the tour] realize that it is
educationally sound and they bring other teachers and
other groups. It's been very much word of mouth.
Teachers look for something good to have their children
do. If they go to all the trouble to get permission
slips, schedule buses, collect money, and take them out
of school, they want to take their children someplace
that they will have an educational and pleasant experience.
And this is our biggest selling point. (Martha)
Many of the same teachers returned, year after year, bringing their
classes and expressing pleasure with the tour.
Despite their pride in the numbers of children served by the
program, Martha and Jane attempted to keep the school groups small to
maintain the quality of the tour. Six docents were available to serve
between 60 and 75 children on the two mornings that the tour was
given. The tour groups were never larger than 15 and were usually
around 10 children in a group. According to Jane,
the smaller the group, the better. The more interaction
that you can have with an individual child, the more you
can accomplish. I have hammered away ever since I've
been here that our groups have to be small. You can
speak better to 15 children than to 30 children for the
simple reason that you can't give eye contact to 30
children. And if you can't do that, you are going to
lose the ones that you need to get the most.
Martha and Jane did not attempt to inflate their numbers by increasing
the size of the groups that they would accept.


173
was concerned about the lack of formal evaluation. However, she
evaluated the tours informally. That is, she walked through the
museum and observed the tour groups.
What was Rose looking for during her observations? She was
looking for evidence that (a) the children were enjoying themselves,
(b) the docents were implementing the suggested instructional
strategies, (c) the children were attentive and responsive to the
docents' efforts, and (d) the children were looking at the artifacts
on display.
Rose looked for indications that the children were having a
pleasurable experience. Did the children appear relaxed and
comfortable in the museum environment? Did they appear content
throughout the tour? Rose was satisfied as she observed the tour
groups and noted evidence of happy docents and happy children engaged
in a variety of activities.
Rose also looked for evidence that her instructional strategies
were being implemented. As Rose observed the docents, she used a
checklist of docent behaviors. She observed the interaction between
the docents and the children; she monitored the organization of the
tour. As she observed the tours, Rose kept the objectives for each
section of the tour in mind and informally assessed the extent to
which these objectives were being met by the docent.
Rose also noted the behaviors of the children as an indication of
the docent's effectiveness. Were the children bored or were they


149
The docent asks, "what next?" The children move toward a
sculpture in the corner, saying, "number 61." The sculpture is of a
seated man, the same figure seen in the slide show. He is
approximately two feet tall. His chest is bare; he wears a simple
loin cloth. He appears to be grimacing; his lips are drawn back
showing filed, sharpened teeth. The docent tells the children that
this object is 1,500 years old and is the most valuable piece in the
room. She asks the children if they think that this man was
important. Some of the children nod; one says, "he was probably a
god." The docent asks why they think that he was an important man.
The children offer a variety of responses: "his crown," "his
tattoos," "the jewelry," "those bracelets," "he's sitting in an
orderly way."
The docent briefly discusses the various characteristics that the
children have pointed out. She talks about the jewelry that a
pre-Columbian Indian might have worn: the bracelet on his wrist, his
necklace, and the large ear holes which once held earrings. The
docent points to a case on the wall which contains a necklace made of
jade.
The docent notes how interesting it is that the Indians who lived
long ago tattooed themselves. The headdress, she says, is actually
made of flowers. The docent explains that the sculpture is named the
Vera Cruz man. She asks the children if they know what country he is


59
educator's understanding of child development and experience with
children is as significant as the educator's knowledge of the museum's
functions and collections.
Children bring with them their own experiences and conceptions
of the world; their perceptions are shaped and limited by their
previous experiences and their stage of intellectual development.
Children learn best through interaction, that is, knowledge is
acquired through interaction between the child's current ways of
knowing and aspects of the external world which the child is able to
perceive and understand. The experiences of adults in museums are
fundamentally different than that of children; therefore, it is
important that museum educators attempt to understand the museum from
a child's perspective as they design children's programs.
Summary
Educational criticisms provide detailed descriptions and in-depth
analysis of a broad variety of educational phenomena. These accounts
contribute valuable insights into the nature of various educational
settings as educators attempt to develop, implement, and modify
educational programs. In this chapter, educational criticism has been
explained in general terms and with respect to this study. In the
following two chapters, educational criticisms of two art museum
education programs are presented. Each program is analyzed in terms
of the guiding questions of the study.


CHAPTER IV
THE FIFTH GRADE TOUR PROGRAM: WHAT CONSTITUTES SUCCESS?
The museum was small, a one story building, painted a drab beige
with the words Harrison Museum of Art-*- printed across the side in
chocolate brown. The form of the building was vaguely familiar; it
once housed a grocery store. Beside the museum, a large multi-story
edifice was nearing completion. The roar of machines filled the air
as beams were lifted into place and mounds of dirt were moved to clear
space for further construction. This structure was the site of the
new museum, a six million dollar arts complex built with funds from
city, county, and state government. The new building was striking
evidence of an alliance between the museum, the city government, the
local school district, and the state department of education. What
had motivated city, county, and state to build an art museum?
According to the director, the primary focus of this museum from
its inception had been education, "we started the museum with
education and built around that rather than collections. Our first
consideration was what's good for children not what's good for
pre-Columbian art." The director developed the museum as an
1. All names in this dissertation have been fictionalized to maintain
the anonymity of the participants.
107


160
Rose evaluated the fifth grade tours by walking through the galleries
and observing the tour groups as unobtrusively as possible.
What was Rose looking for during her walks through the museum?
As Rose observed tours, she looked for evidence of happy children and
happy docents. Evidently, she found them.
We smile a lot; we have a good time. Youll hear laughter
on a tour. That is real important. Some of the most
successful tours are the ones that the kids are really
having a blast while they are here. And thats a surprise
for them because they thought it was going to be a sacred
grove. (Rose)
As Rose evaluated the tours, she also monitored the quality of
interaction between docent and children and assessed the overall
organization of the tour. Rose also checked to see that the
educational objectives of the tour were being met.
I watch the kids to see if they are responding or if there
are a lot of behavior problems. . [I] check the
quality and the atmosphere of what's going on. . .1 want
[the docents] to keep in mind the objectives for each area.
. . The objectives are real clear.
If Rose observed that a docent was having problems on a tour, she
discussed the tour with the docent and made suggestions for
improvement.
But Rose also wanted the children to develop a relationship with
an art form on their tours. Many of the activities as well as the
questioning strategies of the docent were designed to focus the
children's attention on the artifacts. Rose was encouraged by her
observations that the children spent a significant portion of their
time looking at the art rather than watching a lecturing docent.


177
efforts of the museum staff. Educators at both museums also cited
obstacles in their attempts to focus the childrens attention on the
art work. Martha spoke of the "media mentality" of the contemporary
child whereas Rose spoke of the difficulties of focusing a group of
children's attention on works enclosed in plexigls cases. Both
educators recognized the difficulties involved in directing the
attention of active children to the "passive" works of art.
Both curators expressed the view that the key to learning is
engagement. That is, they believed that the children's attention must
be actively engaged for learning to occur. As they designed the
tours, both curators considered the developmental stages and
background knowledge of the children in their audiences. Strategies
to engage the children's attention consisted of opportunities for
active participation, involvement in hands-on experiences, and
opportunities for making independent choices. The educators also
emphasized the importance of questioning strategies designed to
involve the children in dialogue concerning their experiences. The
activities on the tours were designed to relate museum experiences to
the children's personal experiences.
Educators at both museums also developed a variety of activities
to focus the children's attention on the artwork. Some of these
activities were in game format. For example, children on the Little
People's Tour were asked to look for a clue or "something special"


73
grass and leaves. The docent continues, "that's right. Now if I want
red, what kind of berries am I looking for? Maybe a The docent
pauses, waiting for the children to finish her sentence. The children
call out, "strawberries," "cherries," "radishes," "raspberries." "And
if I want blue?" the docent asks. "Blueberries," the children reply.
"And if I want purple?" she asks. "Grapes," they reply.
The docent walks to a cart placed nearby and picks up a plastic
container of red tempera paint. She says, "this morning I went to the
garden and picked some strawberries and crushed them up." The docent
picks up two eggs and says, "and then I went to the henhouse and I
gathered some eggs." The docent cracks an egg, separates the yolk
from the white, and drops the yolk into a clear plastic cup. Some of
the children rise up on their knees, straining to see. The docent
spoons some of the red powder into the cup and quickly mixes it with
the egg yolk. She holds up the cup and asks the children, "what do I
have now?" The children shout out, "paint!"
The docent picks up an unpainted canvas sitting on an easel,
passes it around for the children to feel, and asks them if it feels
like cloth. The docent then passes around a painted canvas and
encourages the children to feel the dry, hard surface of the paint.
The children are well behaved; they sit quietly, reaching out with
their hands to stroke the surface of the canvas. She explains that
the paint sticks to the canvas and dries hard.


184
indicated that the woman wore diamonds, pearls, and lace and therefore
was a woman of wealth. One child hypothesized that the noblewoman was
a queen. Although the child was only 5 years of age, she was able to
recognize signs of status in our Western culture and correctly
identify the noblewoman as a person of royalty.
The children on the Fifth Grade Tour, however, had little
background knowledge with which to interpret the pre-Columbian
artifacts. One could not ask the children to decipher the imagery
depicted on the pre-Columbian vessels in the same manner that the
children on the Little Peoples Tour were asked to read the imagery of
the paintings on display. Rose attempted to compensate for the
children's ignorance by introducing the children to basic concepts
about pre-Columbian culture through the slide show. Rose also
attempted to relate the tour to the childrens classroom curriculum
concerning the pre-Columbian Indians. Although the children learned
some basic concepts about the pre-Columbian Indians in school, little
of their curriculum related directly to the artifacts. That is, the
children learned some basic facts about the social, economic, and
political structure of the Indians' culture but they learned little
about the religious beliefs of the pre-Columbian Indians. The
artifacts on display, however, were primarily ceremonial objects used
in religious rituals. As Rose designed the Fifth Grade Tour Program,
she faced a significant obstacle in her attempts to interpret the


84
informed the children that she was probably a rich and important
person. Reading the imagery in the noblewoman's portrait was a
stimulating activity for the children, one which encouraged the
children to observe and reflect upon their observations. In another
gallery, the children were, once again, encouraged to look, to think,
and to respond.
Landscapes and Seascapes; Now Which One Has the Water?
A docent walks around a room filled with 19th century landscapes.
She is explaining the difference between a seascape (it has the ocean
in it) and a landscape (it has land in it). The docent stops at each
painting, the children following behind her, and asks the children
questions. "Does this painting have water in it? Is the water an
ocean or a lake or a river? Is the painting a landscape or a
seascape?" Sometimes the children respond correctly; other times they
appear either confused or hesitant to answer.
After they finish looking at each painting in the gallery, the
docent stops beside one painting and explains that it is her favorite
painting in the room. The painting is a 19th century Romantic
landscape, a sunset glowing with the grandeur of nature. The docent
tells the children that she likes the painting and names one aspect of
the painting that she admires: the golden glow of the clouds. She
asks the children to find "something special" in the painting. The
children offer a variety of responses: "the clouds," "the lady under


208
statistical studies. Additionally, they were unaware of qualitative
methods of evaluation which may have been more appropriate for
evaluating their goals. Similar to the art museum educators described
by Eisner and Dobbs, these curators did not have the knowledge or
training to conduct formal evaluations.
The curators, however, argued that they did evaluate their
programs and that their efforts at evaluation contributed to the
success of their programs. The curators' efforts were focused on
evaluating the hour and a half that the children were in the museum
not on measuring the outcomes of the tours. The curators evaluated
the extent to which the children were enjoying the visit, learning
from the visit, and looking at the art around them. These curators'
efforts at evaluation were reminiscent of Newsom and Silver's
argument that art museum educators should focus their efforts on
"what goes into a program and how it is conducted" rather than a
"hopeless effort to measure what comes out of it" (p. 271).
Contributions of Findings to the Research Community
Unlike previous studies which described the absence of formal
evaluation procedures in art museum education and elucidated the
reasons for that lack of formal evaluation, this study described
the informal evaluation efforts of art museum educators. The study
was conducted using qualitative methods of research. The detailed
descriptions and intensive analyses of these two art museum education


11
Is visual memory an art museum's equivalent of the
schools' measure of academic achievement? Or is it
enough to record the children's evident pleasure
in the museum and the activities offered to them
there? The programs described here, some modest and
some ambitious, suggest that evaluation based on what
goes into a program and how it is conducted may very
well be more helpful for art museum educators than a
hopeless effort to measure what comes out of it.
Learning in an art museum is not quantifiable, (p. 271)
Newsom and Silver concluded that attempts to measure the long-term
effects of art museum education practices were unrealistic and
recommended that evaluation efforts be concentrated on assessing the
quality of individual programs.
In 1984, the Getty Center for Education in the Visual Arts
commissioned an investigation of the state of art museum education in
the United States (Eisner & Dobbs, 1986b). The study, The Uncertain
Profession: Observations on the State of Museum Education in Twenty
American Art Museums, was conducted by Elliot Eisner and Stephen
Dobbs, art educators from outside the museum profession. Eisner and
Dobbs interviewed 38 museum directors and educators in 20 prestigious
art museums around the country, museums such as the Metropolitan
Museum of Art, the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and the Art Institute
of Chicago. The study was conducted over a 6-raonth period.
Unlike the studies conducted by Hayes (1968) and Newsom and
Silver (1978), Eisner and Dobbs discerned no consensus among museum
professionals regarding the aims of art museum education. One wonders
if this might be due, in part, to the fact that Eisner and Dobbs did


97
room." "Which room of the house do you think this one is?" the docent
asks. A number of children quickly answer, "the living room." The
docent asks them if the room is like their living room at home. Some
say yes, some say no, and one of them expresses the desire to "have
one like it."
The docent explains that when they tore down the Wallingford's
house, "they took the floor apart, board by board, and put in in a box
here." The docent mimes the activity, lifting an imaginary board and
placing it in a box, then closing up the flaps. "Then they took the
ceiling apart, board by board, and put them in a box here." Once
again the docent goes through the motions of packing boards into
boxes. "And then they took the walls apart, board by board, and put
them in a box here. And when the museum was built, they took
everything out of the boxes and put the room back together again like
a giant puzzle."
The Wallingford Room: Analysis in Terms of Martha and Jane's Goals
The Wallingford's artwork forms the core of the museum's
collections. Their endowment also funded the building and maintenance
of the museum. Every schoolchild who visits the museum goes through
this room on the tour. According to Jane, the tour through the period
room was designed to educate the children about the history of the
museum and to help them understand that the museum began as a private
collection by an individual.


201
order to learn. The curators' criteria for assessing whether or not
the children were learning reflected the curators' beliefs concerning
effective instructional strategies for children.
3. The curators also noted the extent to which the children were
attending to the art on display. The curators believed that focusing
the children's attention on the art work was the first step in
developing the children's ability to interpret and respond to artistic
forms. The curators' criteria for assessing the degree to which the
children were stimulated to look reflected their beliefs concerning
the purposes of art museum education.
By evaluating the tours according to the above three sets of
criteria, the curators were determining whether or not the programs
were child-centered. Both curators expressed the view that the
children should be active participants on the tours and that museum
experiences should be related to the children's personal experiences.
The third set of criteria indicated the curators concern with
discerning the extent to which the tours were object-centered. That
is, the curators believed that the focus of the tour should be on the
art objects in the museum. Stimulating the children to look and
respond to the art on display took precedence over presenting art
historical information concerning the objects.
Through observation, the curators concluded that the programs
were successful because significant concepts concerning the visual


157
activity which gave the children a sense of control and a means to
successfully master the museum environment.
As in the previous sections of the tour, the children were active
participants. The children were walking and looking rather than
sitting and listening. During the discussion of the artifacts, they
contributed their observations and perceptions of the objects. The
movement of the group was dictated by the children as they pointed to
the objects that they had found or drawn. Once again, Rose's
instructional strategies were compatible with a Piagetian conception
of how children learn. Rose designed a learning experience which
stimulated the children's active participation and gave them the
opportunity to make choices. The children were given respect; they
were treated as curious, perceptive, and thoughtful individuals. The
children, in turn, acted as curious, perceptive, thoughtful, and
responsible individuals.
Rose's objective for this section of the tour was to examine
original artifacts closely. Rose was attempting to develop the
children's connoisseurship: to raise their level of visual awareness.
Throughout the tour, the docent's efforts were focused primarily on
formal and technical aspects of the artifacts. The docent
persistently pursued the topic of how these artifacts were produced
and decorated. Imagery was analyzed in terms of visual similarities
to patterns found in nature (i.e., the circular motifs on the jaguar


133
a painted coconut on his head or perhaps he has combed his hair with
mud. The docent asks them to look at the designs in the hair: black
circles on an orange background. She asks, "what animal have we seen
with black spots?" The children immediately respond with shouts of
"jaguar." The docent asks the children about the man's ears. The
children note his large earrings and hypothesize that they are made
from "bird's feathers" or the "tip of a tiger's tail." Finally, the
docent encourages the children to try and figure out why the man has
black marks on his face. At first the children suggest make-up and
war paint. The docent, however, tells them that someone in our
society, someone that they see on Sunday afternoons, also wears black
marks similar to those of the Indian's. A boy tentatively responds,
"a football player." "And why," the docent asks, "does a football
player wear those marks?" The boy answers confidently, "to keep the
sun out of his eyes." The docent explains that these marks serve the
same function for this manto keep the sun out of his eyes while he
hunts.
The docent then shows a slide of a pre-Columbian sculpture; it is
a man in a seated position, legs crossed, hands on knees. The docent
asks the children if they see any similarities between this man and
the hunter. The children point out similar characteristics: The man
wears a necklace, he has big holes in his ears for earrings, he has
black marks underneath his eyes, and his hair is strange. The docent


124
We go to the schools and meet with the fifth grade teachers
at different schools. So we are doing mini-workshops with
small groups of teachers. That has effected a change; we
see a difference in the kids that are coming now. They've
seen the pre-visit materials. They are familiar with some
of the vocabulary. . The kids come with some basic
information and questions about what they really didn't
understand. They've explored some of the real pieces in
the classroom, they saw some of the slides, they have
some of the vocabulary, they've seen the map, they've seen
the timeline, dealt with it a little bit, and they are
ready to deal with a little bit higher level questions.
The children's familiarity with the pre-visit materials was evident.
The children were at ease and eager to begin the activities of the
tour.
According to Rose, the activities in this section were designed
to meet three objectives: to provide the children with an opportunity
to touch and study authentic pre-Columbian objects, to give the
children experiences with two clay making techniques employed by the
pre-Columbian Indians, and to introduce the children to basic
vocabulary. In this section of the tour, the children were able to
handle objects as well as engage in the techniques used to create such
objects. Through these activities, the children were able to make
connections between their own experiences and the pre-Columbian
artifacts which the children had seen in their pre-visit preparation
and will see on their tour. According to Rose, "the pre-Columbian
Indians pinched [pots] and coiled them. And that's what the kids
dothey pinch pots and they coil pots." The terms, coil pot, pinch
pot, incising, and applique, were made meaningful to the children


37
evaluation. 4 At the Wallingford Museum of Art, one of the docents
played a critical role in the development of the tour and the training
of docents. This docent was also formally interviewed concerning the
success of the program. These interviews were conducted approximately
four weeks after observations had begun so that the researcher was
familiar with the programs at the time of the interviews. Although
these formal interviews had an underlying structure to collect
information systematically from each curator, the interviews did not
follow a standardized format. These interviews were tape recorded and
transcribed.
The directors of the museum were also interviewed, They were
asked to describe the history of the program at their institution,
their role in developing and implementing the program, and their
perceptions concerning the success of the program.^ These interviews
were conducted to ascertain whether the directors shared the
curators' views that these programs were successful, the role that the
directors played in the development of these programs, and the
influence of the directors' beliefs on the practices of the curators
of education.
4. See Appendix B for a list of the questions asked in the
second interview.
5. See Appendix C for a list of the questions asked of the
directors of the museums.


49
From the information accumulated through observations, interviews, and
other evidence, the critic attempts to clarify the meaning of observed
events to the participants (Eisner, 1985; McCutcheon, 1979; Ross,
1978, 1984).
In extrinsic interpretation, the critic explores the relationship
between the particulars of the studied phenomenon and external
influences such as characteristics of the community, contemporary
events, and political forces. The critic also establishes a
connection between the observed educational practices and educational
theory. Through extrinsic interpretation, the critic provides a broad
social and theoretical framework for understanding the phenomenon
(Eisner, 1985; McCutcheon, 1979; Ross, 1978, 1984). In extrinsic
interpretation, the critic explores alternative interpretations of
events and considers a variety of factors which play a role in
determining the shape of events.
An example may serve to illustrate the role of internal and
external interpretation in this study. For instance, during one of
the interviews, one curator cited a program's popularity as a measure
of its success. The curator believed that the schoolteachers
consistently chose the museum visit as a field trip for their students
because of the quality of the program. The curator, therefore,
interpreted the high attendance figures of the schoolchildren as an
indication that the program was educationally sound. The curator's
perception of the program's popularity exemplifies intrinsic


189
look at art (Commission on Museums for a New Century, 1984; Eisner &
Dobbs, 1986b; Gardner, 1982; Goodman, 1985). That is, the curators of
education at these two museums did not have a significant body of
knowledge of theory to guide their efforts as they designed their
programs. How did the curators of education at these two museums
overcome these obstacles?
Both curators developed their programs by considering current
educational theories about how children learn. That is, they designed
their museum programs by following basic educational principles
developed from theories of child development. The curators of
education at the Harrison Museum of Art and the Wallingford Museum of
Art developed their programs on the assumption that children learn in
museums in many of the same ways that children learn in other
environments. It would seem that their assumption was a reasonable
and practical approach to designing their programs. As Wolf (1986)
has argued,
there has been an inordinate amount of discussion of
late as to how visitors learn in museums. ... As a
cognitive psychologist, I am convinced that people
learn in museums in much the same way as they learn
in other environments. . This should not suggest
that museums are like other learning environments, for
indeed they are special. But they are more special
for what they contain rather than how they teach.
(p. 17)
As the curators designed these tours, they sought the assistance
of teachers who had taught children of the particular age groups


99
The Wallingford Room; Further Reflections
According to Jensen (1982), most children have no conception of
why an object is in a museum or what a museum is. In a simplified
form, the journey through the Wallingford's living room conveyed the
idea of the museum as a collection begun by a beneficient patron.
Most art museums in the United States began as collections donated by
patrons and extended through the efforts of private and public
organizations. For example, the National Gallery of Art was begun by
Andrew Mellon who gave his collection and money to establish a
national art museum for the citizens of the United States (Lee, 1975).
This section of the tour established the relationship between Mrs.
Wallingford, her collections, and the museum in a manner appropriate
to young children.
Summary: The Little People's Tour
Several themes were developed on the Little People's Tour. The
children were introduced to concepts about how art is made, that art
is a form of communication, and that a fine arts museum houses a
collection of art forms. Additionally, the children were introduced
to concepts and vocabulary such as sculpture, portrait, landscape, and
seascape. The children analyzed art work with respect to sensory and
technical characteristics as well as expressive and formal qualities.
Ideas about art and museums were presented through a variety of
activities: storytelling, games, and hands-on activities. These


7
Review of the Literature
What is known about the ways that art museum educators determine
the success of their programs? This question prompts the following
review of the literature on evaluation procedures in art museum
education. One of the first investigations of the evaluation efforts
of art museum educators was a study commissioned by the United States
Department of Education in 1965 (Hayes, 1968). During an 11-month
period, Hayes visited 57 art museums in 49 states; he interviewed
museum staff and observed educational programs. Hayes focused his
investigation on programs for elementary and secondary students. The
majority of these programs were designed to enable children from
various grade levels to visit museums once a year for guided tours
through the museums permanent collections.
From the interviews of museum staff, Hayes discerned three major
goals for art museum education programs: (a) to give children a
favorable exposure to art museums, (b) to stimulate a heightened
awareness and appreciation of the visual arts, and (c) to relate the
visual arts to topics of interest in the classroom. According to
Hayes, the museum staff believed that attainment of these goals would
result in an enhanced appreciation of art and continued use of art
museums by the participants of the programs.
When asked about evaluation of their goals, Hayes noted a number
of themes in the educators responses. First,- the educators cited the


22
The purpose of this study was to investigate the criteria used by art
museum educators to determine the success of their educational
programs. Such an investigation required sustained, intensive inquiry
in the naturalistic setting to discern the implicit goals and
intuitive norms that framed the educators' observations and guided
their judgments. The investigation also required a methodology
capable of portraying the subtleties and complexities of the art
museum experience.
Educational criticism was chosen as the method of inquiry for
several reasons. First, an educational criticism focuses on events as
they unfold in their, natural setting. The data collected are
descriptive and are intended to capture the characteristic qualities
of the phenomenon. The descriptive aspect of an educational criticism
is appropriate for conveying the unique qualities of the art museum.
Second, the educational critic is concerned with the meaning of
events and considers the different values and perspectives of
participants. The critic also relates events to the context from
which they emerge. The criteria for evaluating art museum programs
cannot be understood separate from the context that generated and
sustained the criteria. The interpretive aspect of an educational
criticism is an appropriate means for disclosing the meaning of
program success to art museum educators and discerning the beliefs
guiding their judgments.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
Forrest W. Parkay /J
Associate Professor of Educational
Leadership
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the
College of Education and to the Graduate School and was accepted as
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy.
December, 1988
Dean, Graduate School


179
evaluation meant statistical studies and procedures which they did not
feel capable of conducting. The curators seemed concerned about the
lack of statistical evidence to support their beliefs that the
programs were successful, yet both curators also expressed
reservations concerning the usefulness of statistical studies for
assessing their goals. Neither curator recognized that observations,
conducted in a systematic and comprehensive manner, could serve as the
foundation for a formal evaluation. The curators associated
quantitative techniques with formal evaluation and qualitative
techniques with informal evaluation.
Rather than conduct formal evaluations (which the curators
equated with statistical studies), the curators attempted to evaluate
their programs through informal observations during the hour and a
half that the children were in the museum. The curators evaluated
their programs by walking through the galleries and observing the
docents and the children.
As stated previously, these programs were designed to provide the
children with an enjoyable and educational experience in the museum.
These programs were also designed to focus the children's attention on
the art work. The educators' criteria for success were basically
aimed toward assessing three fundamental goals of the programs: to
look, to learn, to enjoy.
To evaluate their goal of enjoyment, the curators looked for
signs that the children were enjoying themselves. Did the children


The curators had established three goals for the children who
participated in these programs: to look, to learn, and to enjoy. The
curators evaluated the programs, informally, through observation.
Their criteria for success fell into two categories: child-centered
criteria, determining whether the children were enjoying and
actively involved in the museum experience, and object-centered
criteria, noting whether the activities and questioning strategies
directed the children's attention to the art on display. The
child-centered criteria reflected the curators beliefs concerning
appropriate instructional strategies for children. The
object-centered criteria reflected the curators' beliefs concerning
the purposes of art museum education programs. The curators also
cited the popularity of the program with educators in their
communities as an indication of success.
The criteria for success identified in this study could be used
as a basis for developing formal evaluation strategies appropriate for
these and other art museum education programs. Additionally, the
study highlighted the complex interrelationship between the curators'
criteria for success, their educational beliefs, and their practices.
The results suggest the need for further research into the educational
beliefs and practices of art museum educators. The study also
illustrated the usefulness of qualitative methods of research and
evaluation in the art museum setting.
ix


220
potential of the opportunities offered by the museum. For example,
the least successful section of the tour through the Harrison Museum
of Art was the section devoted to a review of academic material. The
review did not enhance the children's appreciation and understanding
of the artifacts on display. Collaboration be.tween art museums and
the formal educational establishment has the potential to expand and
enrich the educational lives of children, not by making museums
programs more academic, but by making the best use of the unique
aesthetic and educational opportunities offered by the art museum.
The activities on the tours were predicated on the following
assumptions: (a) art is made by people, (b) art is a form of
communication, and (c) art is a source of information about the people
who create it. These concepts form the basis for an understanding and
appreciation of art. Although these ideas served as the conceptual
framework for the programs, the curators did not consistently
articulate these concepts in their goals. Clarification of these
concepts and an appraisal of goals in light of these concepts could
have served as a means of evaluating the adequacy and appropriateness
of the activities on the tours.
The study may also be useful to other museum professionals.
Directors of museums are in a position to provide the administrative
support and resources necessary to conduct successful programs.
Directors, in concert with the trustees of museums, develop museum
policies and determine, to a significant degree, the role that art


129
institution and the ability to master the language of museum objects
(Stapp, 1984; Williams, 1985).
After introducing the children to basic museum concepts, Rose
focused her efforts on the museum objects. As stated previously, Rose
began with concrete experiences, that is, seeing, feeling, and making.
Art museum educators have argued that the staff of the museum must do
more than passively present art (Matthai & Deaver, 1976; Williams,
1974, 1985). It is also the responsibility of the staff to educate
the public concerning the techniques of art, that is, how artists
produce these forms (Chase, 1975; Lee, 1983; Matthai & Deaver, 1976).
Rose's initial efforts to educate the children about the pre-Columbian
artifacts began by holding the objects and learning the techniques
used to produce them. Her efforts were an appropriate and effective
means to introduce these concepts to children.
The Slide Show: Jaguars and Monkeys and Snakes! Oh, No!
In the next gallery, the children sit on the floor in front of a
screen. The docent asks for volunteers: a child to work the slide
projector, a child to hold the timer, and a child to make sure that
children do not leave their jackets and sweaters behind. The docent
stands at the front of the room, beside the screen. She gestures for
the child at the projector to push the button and advance the first
slide.
A map of the world is projected onto the screen. A line, painted
in red, is drawn from Siberia across to North America down into


151
she points to a collection of celts displayed in a case, explaining,
"those celts were made of a very hard stone and were used to cut hard
surfaces."
The docent and children move from case to case, stopping and
talking about different objects. Some of the children have left the
group and are looking on their own. They are not disruptive and are
not chastised by the docent or chaperone. Eventually, the timer
buzzes and the docent announces that the tour is almost over.
She concludes the tour by summarizing the morning's events. "We
started out by making pots. Remember, we learned how to make pots
using the pinch method and then we learned how to make pots using the
coil method. Then we looked at slides and we saw the jungles where
these Indians lived and the animals that lived in these jungles. We
also saw examples of the things that they made, things made out of
clay and stone. Now, I have a question for you. If you could have
anything that you wanted in this museum, what would it be?" One child
says, "the Vera Cruz man. I'd sell it." A few would like the jaguar
pot while another would like "that one with the monster on it." The
docent then asks, "if the museum were burning down and you could only
save one thing, the most important thing in the museum, what would you
save?" The children are in agreement; they would save the Verz Cruz
man. The children evidently remember the docent's statement that the
Vera Cruz man is the most valuable piece in the collection.


176
with respect to their goals, methods of implementation, and signs of
success.
Similarities
The Little People's Tour and the Fifth Grade Tour Program were
innovative programs designed to reach specific audiences. The
programs were developed by considering the characteristics of the
particular audiences served by the programs and the unique learning
opportunities available at each museum. The curators at both museums
designed these programs to give the children an enjoyable and an
educational experience in the museum. The children were expected to
learn a variety of concepts appropriate to the particular collection
of each museum as well as to learn about the nature and function of
museums. The programs were also designed to direct the children's
attention to the artwork on display. The curators expressed the view
that a pleasurable learning experience in the museum was an important
step toward developing the children's appreciation and understanding
of art and museums.
As they developed their programs, educators at both museums
expressed the concern that children would feel intimidated in the
museum environment. The programs were designed to supplant the
children's timidity with a warm, friendly feeling about the museum.
According to educators at both museums, the children needed to feel
comfortable in the museum in order to be receptive to the educational


32
analyzed the tours with respect to the particular objectives set forth
by the curator of education. The researcher's observations were
guided, in part, by noting whether or not the program fulfilled the
stated goals of the curators at each museum. For example, the curator
at-the Harrison Museum of Art stated that her goal for the tour
through the Pre-Columbian Gallery was for the children to look closely
at the artifacts. The curator repeatedly expressed the significance
of focusing the children's attention on the artifacts. The researcher
observed this section of the tour and noted the extent to which the
curator fulfilled her goal. That is, the researcher observed the
children and assessed whether or not the children were attending to
the art on display.
In addition to observing the programs designated as successful,
the researcher also observed a variety of other programs at each
museum. As the curators discussed their goals and criteria for
success, the curators frequently referred to other programs at their
institutions. For example, the curator at the Wallingford Museum of
Art compared the museum's program for older children to the program
for younger children that was being observed by the researcher. The
curator expressed dissatisfaction with the tours for the older age
groups, stating that the tours for the older children were not as
successful as the tours for the younger children. By observing both
programs, the researcher was able to interpret the curator's


20
reflection guide subsequent observations and provide a focus for the
study (McCutcheon, 1979).
The role of the educational critic is modeled after that of the
art critic. The intent of the art critic is to render the ineffable
qualities of an art work into a form that enables the viewer to gain a
deeper understanding of the work. The art critic considers the aims
of the artist, assesses the quality of the art form, and places the
art work in a historical and social context. The intent of the
educational critic is to enhance understanding of educational
phenomena such as a particular classroom, a set of curriculum
materials, or an instructional technique. The educational critic
considers the aims of the educator, evaluates the educational quality
of the phenomenon, and assesses the significance of the phenomenon
with respect to relevant educational theory and research. As Eisner
(1975) explained, the aim of criticism
is to lift the veils that keep the eyes from seeing by
providing the bridge needed by others to experience the
qualities and relationships within some area of
activity. . The critic must talk or write about
what he has encountered; he must . provide a
rendering of the qualities that constitute that work,
its significance and the quality of his experiences as
he interacts with it. (p. 1)
By integrating and modifying the approaches of the social
anthropologist and the aesthetic critic, the educational critic is
able to conduct in-depth investigations into the qualitative aspects
of educational life.


161
Rose believed that this tour had an impact on these fifth grade
children. She related anecdotes about children returning to the
museum on weekends and holidays as evidence that they were developing
an appreciation of art and museums.
On Tuesday, which was a pupil holiday, we had about a
dozen kids wander in here. There were three little kids
who ran down the hall to the Pre-Columbian Gallery to
see something that they had seen on a tour last week.
It was their day off!
Rose also believed that many of the family visits on the weekend were
generated from the school tour programs.
The families who walk in here on their own are from a
bigger audiencethe audience that we direct our energies
towardthe public schools or school-age children. . .
When a fifth grade kid comes in the museum and drags his
parents down here and goes to the Vera Cruz man in the
Pre-Columbian Gallery . .he's dragged his parents in
here to repeat the things that have happened on the tour.
For Rose, children returning to the museum was evidence of a
successful program. Rose acknowledged that anecdotal reports do not
qualify as a formal evaluation of the school tour program. She was
encouraged, however, by what she saw and heard on the tours and the
return visits of the children and their families.
Rose also believed that the school board's continued support of
the program was an indication of success. According to Rose,
we have a unique relationship with the school board. . .
Whatever we've contracted to do, we've met that contract
on a yearly basis and even exceeded that contract. So when
we go back to ask for something else, we have a real sound,
secure history with the school board. . They're sure
that what we are doing is a strong program. That has a lot
to do with our support.


120
The docent shifts to discussing coil pots. She holds up several
example and points to the ridges which indicate the separate coils.
As the children pass around the examples, she explains that the coil
method was a basic technique used by the Indians to make large pots.
She takes her pinch pot, reforms it into a ball of clay, and begins a
demonstration of the coil technique. "Making a coil pot is just the
way it sounds. You start by making a coil, a long skinny snake. Then
we make the base." The docent rolls out a coil of clay then curls the
snake into a flat disc. She builds the walls by laying one coil on
top of another in a circular motion. During her demonstration, some
of the children have begun their own efforts. A few are having
difficulty; others are progressing quickly. The docent and chaperone
move among the children, helping with the bases, building small
sections of the walls, and smoothing out coils. They offer praise as
well as assistance. The room is alive with chatter. "Ooh, thats
cool." Is this right?" "That's a nice tall one." When the children
finish their pots, the docent praises their efforts and points out
particularly tall ones or wide ones. She walks around the room
lifting up pots for all the children to see.
When she returns to the center of the room, she asks the children
to pretend that they are archeologists living 5,000 years from now.
"And you are digging up your house, looking for artifacts. What kinds
of things will you find? The children answer with a stream of


5
educators develop, implement, and modify educational programs without
benefit of a theoretical or intellectual foundation. What are the
beliefs, values, and perceptions that guide their judgments? Although
numerous researchers have proposed various strategies for evaluating
art museum education programs (Anderson, 1968; Cameron, 1967, 1968;
Chambers, 1984; Chapman, 1982; Chase, 1975; Hein, 1982; Loomis, 1973;
Mariner, 1972; Screven, 1969, 1974a, 1974b, 1984; Shettel, 1973;
Washburn, 1968, 1975, 1985; Wolf, 1980), few researchers have
investigated how art museum professionals actually evaluate their
efforts (Eisner & Dobbs, 1986a, 1986b; Hayes, 1968; Newsom & Silver,
1978). The purpose of this study was to investigate the evaluation
efforts of art museum educators.
Possible Uses of the Results
The extended observations needed to conduct a qualitative study
limited the number of museums and educational programs investigated.
Although the study provides insight into art museum education
practices, specific findings cannot be generalized to other art
museums. However, an intensive investigation of a limited group of
programs may be useful in a number of ways.
The study may have methodological significance to both
practitioners and researchers. Recently, a number of researchers have
advocated the use of qualitative methods to investigate museum
programs (Eisner & Dobbs, 1986a, 1986b; Hein, 1982; Wolf, 1980).


194
children concerning the lifestyle of the pre-Columbian Indians by
comparing the pre-Columbian Indians to contemporary Indians living in
Central America. One might wonder if Rose's efforts at interpretation
might have been more successful if she had maintained a focus on the
artifacts.
An example might illustrate how Rose could have educated the
children about the pre-Columbian culture through a discussion of the
artifacts. According to the museum staff, the imagery in the jaguar
effigy vessel is probably associated with the Mesoamerican myth of the
jaguar as a god who devours the sun each evening. The circular
motifs, clustered around the jaguar's neck, represent the stars of
approaching night. These motifs, often overlooked by contemporary
eyes, were meaningful to the pre-Columbian Indians. The myth of the
sun-devouring jaguar makes these images comprehensible and further
establishes the significance of the jaguar to the Indians. This is a
story that the children would have understood and enjoyed hearing.
Additionally, analyzing the imagery in terms of the myth conveys the
idea that the images depicted on the pre-Columbian artifacts were
meaningful to the Indians who made them. The images conveyed
thoughts, feelings, and beliefs in a visual language that the Indians
understood. Relating the myth of the jaguar god to the images of the
jaguar pot would have illustrated that art is a visual language as
well as conveyed a sense of the religious beliefs of the pre-Columbian


200
An analysis of the similarities between the curators' criteria
for success revealed that four sets of criteria played a significant
role in the curators' determination of program success. The first
three sets of criteria guided the curators observations of the tours
and were intended to assess the curators' goals of looking, learning,
and enjoying. The three sets of criteria are described below:
1. The curators noted the extent to which the children appeared
to enjoy themselves in the museum. The curators believed that if the
children enjoyed their visit, they would be more likely to return with
their friends and families. The curators also believed that the
children needed to feel comfortable and content in the museum
environment in order to learn. The curators attributed the children's
pleasure during the visit to the use of instructional methods
appropriate for their young audiences.
2. The curators evaluated their educational objectives by
observing the docents and the children. The curators observed the
docents, noting whether or not the docents implemented the suggested
instructional strategies. The curators observed the children, noting
whether or not the children appeared attentive and responsive to the
docents' efforts. The curators assumed that if the children were
attentive, then the children were learning. The curators' assumption
was based on the curators' stated belief that the key to learning is
engagement: The children's attention must be actively engaged in


18
3. Are there consistent patterns in art museum educators'
attempts to evaluate their programs? That is, what are the
similarities and differences in the criteria used by art museum
educators to evaluate their programs?
In considering these questions, the intention of the researcher was to
reveal and analyze the implicit and explicit criteria guiding the
judgments of art museum educators as they evaluated the effectiveness
of their practices.
In the following chapters the methodology, the findings, and
implications are discussed. Chapter II provides an explanation of the
methodology. In Chapters III and IV, educational programs from two
art museums are described, interpreted, and appraised. Chapter V
provides an explanation of the similarities and differences between
the two programs and the criteria used by the art museum educators to
determine the success of their respective programs. Conclusions and
implications are presented in Chapter VI.


117
archeologist." As she brushes the sand from the object, the docent
explains to the children how carefully archeologists must work so that
they do not harm the objects that they find. When the docent
finishes, she holds the object up so that the children can see it.
She asks the children if they know what the object is. A child calls
out, "a whistle." The docent smiles and asks, "Andy, how did you know
that?" Andy answers, "I saw one in my classroom." The docent hands
the whistle to Andy and he indicates "the hole that you blow into" and
"the holes where the noise comes from."
The docent once again reaches into the sand and unearthes a flat,
smooth object. The docent strokes the surface of the object and tells
the children that it is made out of "basalt, a black volcanic stone."
She asks the children what the Indians would have done with such an
object. A boy tells her that they would have used it "to carve
something." The docent explains that this is a celt, an important
tool for the pre-Columbian Indians. As the docent retrieves more
objects from the archeological dig, she and the children discuss the
objects and their functions. Some of the objects are made of clay;
some from volcanic rock. The children pass the objects around and the
docent encourages the children to stroke the surface of the objects
and to note the differences in their textures.
As the docent collects the objects, she asks the children if they
know who made them. A number of the children answer, "pre-Columbian


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62
Why was it important to Martha and Jane to bring young children
into the galleries? Why did they fight tradition? According to Jane,
teaching the young is an investment in the future. Jane was guided by
the belief that an early exposure to the arts is essential to
developing an appreciation of art.
If you are going to develop patrons of the arts, youve
got to do it early. We can't wait until they are in
the ninth grade to bring them. It's like waiting until
they are that old to teach them how to read or take
them to the library. Because when they've had no
exposure to any of this, it's like going to a foreign
land and not being able to speak the language.
Martha echoed Jane's beliefs.
By starting with the very young museum visitor, we are
getting a head start in the community for understanding
and appreciation of the arts. They have a time where
they can really enjoy the better things in life at age
5 or 6. I can't help but think that this is a really
beautiful thing to plant in young people's lives. . .
For each age level and background, there is a need to
bring knowledge and beauty and enjoyment.
Martha and Jane were motivated by the belief that a tour for young
children could be an important step toward developing an understanding
and appreciation of the visual arts.
According to Martha, "the Little People's Tour is phenomenally
successful. . It's a very sound and very strong tour." Jane
concurred with Martha's assessment, "it's a good program. We have
thought it out. What we have here is a wonderful program. ... We
are teaching . expanding the children's experiences and having a
good time." What led Martha and Jane to the conclusion that the


219
Enabling others to experience art is a challenging endeavor; the
kinds of knowledge and skills necessary to accomplish that task
involve not only knowledge of art but also knowledge of the viewer and
of the processes involved in learning to appreciate art. As research
has indicated, there is not a significant body of knowledge to assist
art museum educators in their educational endeavors; there are no
texts providing a synthesis of pertinent research or journals devoted
exclusively to art museum education. Additionally, many museum
educators have little or no training in education (Zeller, 1984,
1985); their knowledge of learning theory and instructional methods
may be limited. However, art museum educators do have access to a
myriad of educational research concerning teaching and learning in
other settings which may be useful as they develop and evaluate their
programs. For example, Rose made use of teacher education literature
to train and evaluate docents. The programs described here may
increase the awareness among art museum educators of the significance
of learning theory to the development, implementation, and evaluation
of their programs and may encourage art museum educators to seek
information concerning teaching and learning in a variety of contexts.
It should be noted, however, that the art museum is a unique
setting. Educational programs in art museums should be devoted to the
unique and valuable art objects on exhibit. Neglecting the art object
in order to achieve academic gains is not fulfilling the educational


211
original art objects in the museum. The curators were concerned with
developing the children's visual literacy. Many researchers have
noted, however, that little is known about the ways that people learn
to interpret artistic forms (Eisner & Dobbs, 1986b; Gardner, 1982;
Goodman, 1985). These curators, however, had developed a number of
strategies that they believed were effective in teaching the children
to look at and respond to the art around them. Clearly, more research
is needed to investigate the methods used by art museum educators to
focus the viewers' attention on the art work on display and the
beliefs that guide their efforts. How do museum educators accomplish
the task of focusing viewer attention on the art? What methods do
they believe are effective? Are some methods considered more
effective than others? If so, why? What is the source of their
beliefs? Clearly, more research is needed to investigate art museum
educators' beliefs and practices concerning the development of visual
literacy among museum visitors.
These curators also cited the support of community educators as
evidence that their programs were successful. Martha referred to the
teachers who brought their classes to the museum, year after year, as
an indication of the quality of the Little People's Tour. Newsom and
Silver (1978), however, argued that teacher evaluations of museum
tours are inadequate measures due to teachers' unfamiliarity with art
and museums. These curators, however, interpreted the teachers'


76
children looked closely at the paintings as they verified that the
paintings were of a mother and child and that the colors were
consistently red, yellow, and blue. In the final activity, as the
children searched for their "clues," they were also stimulated to note
the various imagery depicted-in the paintings. That is, the children
had to read the imagery to successfully find their clue. The children
were stimulated to look and to think.
According to Martha, one aspect of art museum education is the
development of "visual literacy," the ability to read artistic forms.
Martha noted, however, that such a task is often difficult with
children who are constantly exposed to technologically produced
imagery.
We are combating that "media mentality" that one finds
when a child walks in the door. That's something that
every museum, every traditional museum, is faced with.
. . [We have to contend with] the short attention span
that TV has imposed on them as being good, as being the
only kind of communicative style they know. . Their
perceptions are based on quick, unstudied images.
Martha argued that contemporary children have developed "extremely
sophisticated, non-reflective, visual literacy." That is, they are
exposed to technically sophisticated and emotionally intense images:
a shuttle exploding in space, Rambo destroying legions of armed
police, and fantastic worlds created through the use of special
effects. Children are bombarded constantly with these images and have
little time to reflect on their meaning or visual form. According to


92
creatures in the sea! Now maybe my story's true and maybe it's not!
You decide." The session ends with children telling stories of Sea
World and other encounters with creatures of the sea.
The Antiquities: Analysis in Terms of Martha and Jane's Goals
This activity was not of the hand; it was not a manipulation of
objects. But it was an activity of the imagination. The children
were entranced by the story, caught up in the magic of a story well
told. The docent told the story with vigor, modulating her voice and
manipulating invisible props. Martha and Jane designed the story
telling session to teach the children about the Greek amphora. They
encouraged and trained the docents to use theatrical techniques.
Involving the children is the key . total audience
participation. . It's the way you present it. . .
When the story is told, the children either nod or answer
or groan or roar or whatever the story is about at that
point. . Theatrics can make a differencethe
difference between excitement and boredom, the difference
between involvement and noninvolvement. They've got to
go home and remember. (Jane)
During the storytelling session, the docent invited the children to
respond, to hypothesize, and to anticipate events. She captured the
children's attention and stimulated their imagination. For Martha and
Jane, the storytelling session qualified as active participation of
the children because the children's minds were actively engaged.
The docent did not attempt to explain who the Greeks were or
where they lived or how long ago they lived. Such concepts are beyond
the grasp of young children. Instead, the docent began by relating


78
however, such an aim is difficult to achieve. Others have agreed with
Martha's assessment of the difficulties that art museum educators face
as they attempt to focus the viewer's attention on the work (Eisner &
Dobbs, 1986b; Goodman, 1985; Lee, 1983, 1984). As Goodman (1985)
explained,
where do you start and when do you stop looking at
a picture? There is no going forward or backward,
no beginning and no end. You can take it all in,
superficially, at a glance, and the average looking
time per viewer per picture viewed must be something
under five seconds. Dynamic as a work may be in
expression and design, it is physically inert, while
the human being is alive and restless. . Somehow
the immutable work and the volatile viewer have to be
reconciled. Attention must be held long enough for a
work to work. (p. 58)
Martha and Jane's activities were an initial step in focusing the
children's attention on the art works, of reconciling the immutable
painting with the volatile child. Martha and Jane achieved their
desire of stimulating the children to look by involving the children
in simple analyses of the paintings and providing opportunities for
active participation. Martha and Jane's focus on looking continued in
other sections of the tour.
Portraits: Who Are Those People and Why Do They Look the Way
That They Do?
In another gallery, a group of children sit in a room full of
paintings. The room is dark, wall-papered in green brocade. The
paintings are set in rich gold frames; they are portraits. The docent
stands in front of a large painting; it is of an elegantly dressed


TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iv
ABSTRACT viii
CHAPTER
I BACKGROUND FOR THE STUDY 1
Statement of the Problem 2
Design of the Study 3
Rationale for the Study 4
Possible Use of the Results 5
Review of the Literature 7
Clarification of the Study 17
II METHODOLOGY 19
Rationale 21
Procedures 23
Methods of Data Collection 28
Presentation of Data 46
Validity, Generalizability, and Other Matters 52
Summary 59
III THE LITTLE PEOPLES TOUR: WHAT CONSTITUTES SUCCESS? ... 60
Sculpture: Who Makes It? And How? 66
Painting: Who Makes It? And How? 72
Portraits: Who Are These People and Why Do They Look
the Way That They Do? 78
Landscapes and Seascapes: Now Which One Has the Water? 84
The Antiquities: Art Tells a Story 89
The Wallingford Room: What Is A Museum? 94
Summary: The Little People's Tour 99
Analysis in Terms of the Guiding Questions of the Study 100
vi


135
to the next slide which also features a vessel decorated with an
unusual creature.
Once again the docent asks the children what material was used to
make the vessel. The children identify this object as a ceramic
piece. They have difficulty, however, identifying the creature
represented. The docent goes around the room, pointing to raised
hands, and calling on children, who offer their hypotheses, "a
dinosaur," "a lion," "a lizard," "all sorts of mixed up things," "an
alligator," and "a dragon." The children are eager to respond; they
seem puzzled yet fascinated by the creature. The docent states that
this must be some sort of magical creature inspired by lots of
different animals. The docent notes that "lumpy bumps of clay" were
used to decorate the rim of the vessel. She asks if the pattern was
painted, incised, or an example of applique. Cued by her clue, the
children respond, "applique." The docent tells the children to be
sure to look for this piece when they go to the Pre-Columbian Gallery.
The final few slides are also of artifacts from the Pre-Columbian
Gallery. As with the previous slides, the docent asks the children to
identify the material used, the animal form depicted, and the patterns
inspired by the distinctive characteristics of the animal. The docent
frequently asks the children to name the methods used to decorate the
artifacts. The last slide is of a piece of cloth made by the Indians.
The fabric has a pattern of interlocking, geometric shapes. The


181
an indication of appropriate instruction. As stated previously, the
curators did not formally assess the learning of children. They
assumed, however, that if appropriate instructional techniques were
being implemented, and the children were attentive, then the children
were learning. The curators determined the success of their
educational efforts primarily by noting the degree to which the tour
conformed to their beliefs concerning appropriate instructional
strategies for their audience.
The curators also observed the tour groups to see if the children
were actually looking at and responding to the art. Did the
questioning strategies focus the children's attention on the art? Did
the various activities stimulate the children to look? As they
evaluated the tours, the curators observed the children, noting
whether or not the children were looking at the art on display.
Both educators also cited external sources of support as evidence
that the tour was successful. Martha and Jane viewed the teachers'
continued support of the program as evidence of success and Rose cited
the school board's continued support of the program as an indication
of success. Both curators indicated that this continued support was
evidence of the quality of their programs.
The curators cited similar weaknesses in their programs. Their
concerns were that their respective programs were one-shot tours.
That is, they both envisioned successful programs as programs that


169
Although the hands-on activities and storytelling briefly diverted the
children's attention from actually looking at the art objects, each
concept, idea, or term developed by the activities was specifically
related to an art object or art objects on display. Martha and Jane
believed that the tour was successful because they observed children
looking, thinking, and responding to the art around them.
Martha and Jane also viewed the teachers' continued support of
the program as evidence of a successful program. Martha and Jane,
however, envisioned a successful program as one in which the staff of
the museum and the school worked cooperatively to provide the children
with a more comprehensive education in the arts. Martha and Jane
believed that to achieve their aims of developing the children's
appreciation of art and museums, the children should come repeatedly
to the museum and participate in pre-visit and post-visit activities
in their classrooms. Martha and Jane faced an obstacle which they
were not able to overcome: the lack of commitment on the part of the
schools to art education.
Martha and Jane designed the Little People's Tour to be both
object-centered and child-centered. The tour conformed to their
beliefs concerning appropriate instruction for children and their
beliefs concerning the purposes of an art museum education program.
Based upon their observations and the criteria described above, Martha
and Jane believed that they were successful in their efforts to


24
Additionally, due to travel limitations on the part of the researcher,
the selected museums were within a 200 mile radius of the researcher's
home.
Seven museums met the criteria and were initially included in the
study. The researcher visited each institution, observed a variety of
educational programs, and formally interviewed the curators of
education. During the interviews, the curators frequently referred to
one or two programs that they described as particularly successful and
therefore illustrated what the curators were trying to accomplish.
The focus for the study emerged from discussions of these successful
programs. Programs from two museums were chosen for the study.^
The two museums selected were the Wallingford Museum of Art and
the Harrison Museum of Art.^ The Wallingford Museum of Art is in a
large metropolitan area; its operations are funded through private
donations and a sizable endowment. The museum has a significant
permanent collection. The Wallingford Museum offers a variety of
educational programs: docent-led tours for school groups, ranging
from preschool through the 12th grade; an upper education outreach
program for college and university students; a concert series; an art
history lecture series; a series of luncheon-lectures designed for
office workers; and a variety of special events.
1. See program selection for the criteria used to choose the two
programs.
2. The names used in this dissertation are fictitious in order
to maintain the anonymity of the participants.


146
points to a number beside an object, and tells the children that every
object in the room has such a number. Their mission is to find the
objects on the sheet and write the number beside the drawing. The
docent then indicates a blank space on the page and tells the children
that they are to find an object in the room that they particularly
like and to draw it in that space. "And remember," she says, "to find
out everything you can about the object."
Most of the children hurriedly begin the search. A few children
stand in the center of the room, looking confused, waiting for the
docent or chaperone to tell them what to do. Some of the children
work in pairs or trios; others race around the room alone. The
children chatter as they roam. "Where's that bird thing?" "Did you
find it? Where?" "Right there in the corner." "Here's that
onenumber 20." "I've already found three." "Wait! The bowl. It's
right here." "Let's go find the piggy thing." "I've done them all."
As the children complete the search, they settle around the room,
drawing their objects. Clumps of children lounge on the floor,
drawing from memory. Others stand and look intently at their object.
The room is quiet now. The docent encourages a child, who dejectedly
announces, "I can't draw nothing." Many of the children draw
carefully and slowly. A few finish quickly, show their drawings to
the chaperone or docent, then stroll leisurely through the room,
talking to their friends, and reading the labels. As the other


75
children's attention was maintained; their eyes, hands, and minds were
engaged in solving a variety of problems presented by the docent.
As in the sculpture presentation, a major focus of this section
of the tour was on the hands-on activity, a demonstration of how these
paintings were made. Martha and Jane wanted the children to
understand how the paintings were produced and who created them.
We introduce concepts of materials and techniques and
how things are accomplished. ... We do the egg yolk
binder for the egg tempera and they get to paint with
that. So they see how paint can be made very simply
out of resources that the artist had available. (Martha)
The children were given an opportunity to work with the painter's
materials. They touched the canvas and painted on its surface with
egg tempera. Once again, the docent said little about the time
period, style, or country in which the paintings were produced. The
children's attention was focused on the sensory and technical aspects
2
of the paintings.
The docent, however, also involved the children in a discussion
of the expressive qualities of the paintings. She noted that all of
the paintings were of Mary and Child and that the colors were
specially chosen by the artist for their symbolic significance. The
2. Broudy (1971) distinguished four dimensions which merit
consideration in a discussion of a work of art: sensory (elements
such as color, line, shape, and space), formal (its design or
composition), technical (the media and skill used to create the
piece), and expressive (its imagery or meaning). The termssensory,
formal, technical, and expressiveare used as Broudy defined them.


IVTHE FIFTH GRADE TOUR PROGRAM: WHAT CONSTITUTES SUCCESS? 107
The Art Discovery Room: You, Too, Can Make a
Pre-Columbian Pot 114
The Slide Show: Jaguars and Monkeys and Snakes!
Oh, No! 129
The Pre-Columbian Gallery: Where Is That Bird Thing? . 143
Analysis in Terms of the Guiding Questions of the Study 158
VWHAT CONSTITUTES SUCCESS: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN THE TWO PROGRAMS 164
Summaries of the Two Criticisms 165
Similarities and Differences 175
Similarities and Differences: Further Reflections . 187
VI CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 198
Relationship of Findings to Previous Studies 202
Contribution of Findings to the Research Community . 208
Contribution of Findings to Practitioners 214
Summary 223
REFERENCES 224
APPENDIX
A FIRST INTERVIEW WITH THE CURATORS OF EDUCATION 230
B SECOND INTERVIEW WITH THE CURATORS OF EDUCATION 231
C INTERVIEW WITH THE DIRECTORS 232
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 233
vii


83
Martha and Jane also wanted the children to look and to think
about the portraits. The analysis of the noblewomans portrait was
intended to develop the children's looking skills. As the docent
asked the children questions about the noblewoman, the children
consistently scanned the painting for more information. They noted
details such as the lace around the noblewomans collar and the rings
on her fingers. The children looked, thought, and responded as they
discussed the noblewoman's portrait.
Portraits: Further Reflections
The activities in the portrait gallery vividly illustrated Martha
and Jane's belief that the children's experiences in the museum should
be related to the children's personal experiences. The comments about
school pictures, the framing game, and the "dress-up" activity all
related the children's own experiences to the paintings hanging on the
wall. Additionally, the children were encouraged to participate, to
respond, and to think about what they were seeing. By relating the
concept of portrait to the children's personal experiences and
eliciting their involvement in activities which illustrated the
concept, the children appeared to grasp the meaning of portrait.
The activities, however, introduced more than the concept of
portraits. The discussion of the noblewoman's portrait illustrated
the idea that looking at art is a way of learning about lifestyles of
other times and places. The analysis of the noblewoman's attire


182
included multiple visits, introduced by pre-visit activities and
reinforced by post-visit activities in the children's classroom. Both
curators recognized that to fulfill their aim of developing the
children's appreciation of art and museums, the children would need to
come to the museum more frequently for more intensive encounters with
original works of art. Both curators, however, expressed reservations
concerning the feasibility of programs involving multiple visits to
the museum. As Rose stated, the logistics of such an endeavor would
be more complicated than the one-shot tour and would therefore require
more extensive support and funding from the school system.
Both curators also faced another obstacle in their attempts to
educate the children concerning the visual arts: the lack of
commitment to art education found in the public schools. The curators
hoped but doubted that the children's learning in the museum would be
reinforced, enriched, and expanded in the schools.
Differences
These programs were designed for different audiences and
developed around distinctively different collections. The Fifth Grade
Tour Program was developed as a collaborative effort between the
school personnel and the museum staff whereas the Little People's Tour
was developed by museum staff. In the following section, these
differences are discussed with respect to their impact on the success
of the programs.


80
you know that the lady is rich?" the docent asks. The children
quickly come up with evidence of the lady's wealth. "Her clothes."
"Couldn't buy that necklace for a dollar!" "The rings on her
fingers."
The docent asks the children if they think the woman dressed up
to have her portrait painted or did she dress elegantly every day.
One of the children answers her quickly with confidence, "she dressed
like that every day." The docent smiles, then asks, "when you had
your school picture taken, did you get all dressed up?" Some of the
children say "yes," some say "no," others don't respond. The docent
continues, "your school picture is a portrait and I bet when you had
it taken you wore your best clothes and combed your hair and put on
all your richest jewels!" The children laugh.
The docent picks up a basket and begins pulling out sparking
pieces of jewelrygold chains and multicolored beads and diamond
bracelets. She hands them to the children, who chatter excitedly.
"Oooh, see what I got!" "Look!" "I want a gold chain!" "You got the
prettiest." The docent pulls out golden sashes and silver ribbons
which she drapes over the shoulders of the children, exclaiming, "you
are the Marquis! You are a Duchess! And you are a Princess!" The
children giggle, obviously enjoying the pretense.
The docent takes a gold frame from the basket and tells the
children that they are going to play a game. She places the frame in


227
Loomis, R. (1973). Please, not another museum survey. Museum News,
52(2), 21-26.
Mariner, D. (1972). Professionalizing the museum worker. Museum
News. 50(10), 14-22.
Matthai, R. (1974). In quest of professional status. Museum News,
52(7), 10-13.
Matthai, R., & Deaver, N. (1976). Child-centered learning. Museum
News, 54(4), 15-19.
McCutcheon, G. (1979). Educational criticism: Methods and
applications. Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, jL(2), 5-25.
Munby, H. (1979). Examples of curriculum review and criticism.
Curriculum Inquiry, £(3), 229-249.
Newsom, B. (1977). The art museum and the school. American
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Newsom, B. (1978). The museum as educator and the education of
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Newsom, B. (1980). A decade of uncertainty for museum educators.
Museum News, 58(5), 46-50.
Newsom, B., & Silver, A. (1978). The art museum as educator.
Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Parsons, M. (1976). A suggestion concerning the development of
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Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1969). The psychology of the child. New
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Rawlins, K. (1978). Educational metamorphosis of the American museum.
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Trans.). New York: W. W. Norton & Co. (Original work published
1934)


66
children to learn a few basic ideas about the visual arts. Martha and
Jane wanted the children to look, to think, and to respond to the art
around them. To achieve their goals of pleasure and enlightenment,
Martha and Jane believed that each child should be an active
participant on the tour.
One might wonder, however, how 4-, 5-, and 6- year olds
actively participated on a tour through a museum displaying over 2,000
original and valuable art objects ranging from the 5th century B.C. to
the 20th century. How did 5-year-olds cope with room after room of
paintings in gilt frames, all hung above their eye level, and polished
marble statues, begging to be touched but expressly forbidden to the
touch? How were Martha and Jane able to make art real and meaningful
in the lives of these young children? Did the children leave the
museum with a warm feeling? Did they look, think, and respond to the
art around them?
Sculpture: Who Makes It? And How?
A small group of children sit cross-legged in front of a large
marble statue of a Madonna and Child. The group is small, perhaps 10
or 12 children; they each have a clear view of the Madonna and the
docent. The statue is life-sized and is placed against a blue brocade
backdrop. The docent asks the children about the qualities of the
sculpture, "is this stone smooth or rough?" The children unanimously
reply, "smooth!" The docent continues, "is this stone soft like


154
are trying to build. . The docent or educator is
helping that facilitation. The main thing that you want
to do is eventually pull out of that picture ... [so
that] they remember the art object not the facilitator.
In her discussions of the objects, the docent directed the children's
attention to the pieces through questioning strategies. She involved
the children in dialogue and employed a variety of questions. As Rose
intended, the children spent the majority of their time looking at the
artifacts not looking at and listening to a lecturing docent.
Themes developed earlier in the tour were also reinforced in the
discussion of the artifacts. The children clearly recognized the
difference between clay objects and stone objects; they were able to
identify various decorative techniques. When asked how the clay
vessels were made, they were quick to relate the pinch and coil
methods of pot construction that they learned in the Art Discovery
Room. They were pleasantly surprised when they recognized the
artifacts introduced during the slide show. As they discussed the
artifacts, the children were capable of discerning particular animal
attributes and were aware that animal forms were a significant source
of imagery for the pre-Columbian Indians.
Through the activities and the efforts of the docent, Rose
successfully achieved her goal of providing the children with a
pleasurable learning experience. The children were not required to
listen quietly; they were obviously enjoying themselves as they
completed the search sheet and discussed the artifacts. As Rose


234
Department of Pediatrics at the University of Florida, assisting in
the development of parent education programs for children at risk for
developmental delay.


68
she gestures to the Madonna and Child, exclaiming, "this sculpture was
made from a big piece of stone, bigger than I am."
The docent keeps tapping the stone, gently, and says, "the
sculptor had to work very slowly and very carefully. He had to make a
nose and eyes and fingers and toes. What would happen if he hit it
too hard?" One of the children yells out, "a flat nose." The other
children laugh, as does the docent, who responds, "he would have to
start all over." The docent explains that each of them will get a
chance to be a sculptor but they must remember to hammer gently.
The docent calls the children by name. Each one takes a turn
with the hammer. Some are hesitant, awkward in their movements.
Others are bolder and hammer with authority. As they work, the docent
praises their efforts, "you're a great sculptor, Lisa! How talented!
Be a sculptor, Mike!" The other children watch as each of the
children takes a turn. The docent chatters with the children as they
work and watch, asking them what kinds of sculptures they are making.
The children have a thousand answers, "a boat," "an airplane," "a
person," "a snake," "a jet," "a bunny."
As the children finish, the docent asks them to think about how
difficult it was for the sculptor to make the Madonna and Child. The
docent points to delicate details of the sculpture: the wrinkles on
the baby's knees, the folds in the Madonna's robe, the curls on the
baby's head. She asks the children if they think that it would take a


153
According to Rose, the objects represented on the search sheet are the
most significant pieces in the collection. Through this activity, the
children's attention was focused on these particular objects. The
children looked at the objects and attended to visually significant
characteristics of the pieces as they scanned the sheets, comparing
artifact to drawing. Although a few of the children seemed to view
the activity as a competitive race, the majority took their time and
worked cooperatively to identify the objects on the sheet.
The assignment to draw a favorite object allowed the children to
look and choose from among a variety of objects the one that
personally appealed to them. According to Rose, "by letting the kids
go to the objects and telling us which ones they want us to talk
about, we can't lose. We are going to the ones that are the most
popular with them." The drawing activity also directed the children's
attention to the objects as they conscientiously attempted to
reproduce the object's form and distinctive attributes. Through the
activities on the search sheet, the children were stimulated to look
carefully at the artifacts, thereby satisfying Rose's objective for
this section of the tour, "to examine original artifacts closely."
Rose also viewed the role of the docent as that of a facilitator
between the children and art objects. According to Rose,
you have a 3-point event happening [the educator, the
art object, and the child] and as soon as possible, the
educator wants to remove himself so that event is the
viewer and the object. That's the relationship that you


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Karen Kilgore was born in Chattanooga, Tennessee, on July 21,
1954. During her childhood, she lived with her family in Puerto Rico,
Atlanta, New York City, and Mexico City before settling in
Gainesville, Florida. Throughout her life, Ms. Kilgore has been
interested and involved in the arts. She enjoys weaving, drawing, and
visiting art museums and galleries.
Ms. Kilgore received the Bachelor of Arts degree in art from the
University of Florida in 1977. Ms. Kilgore has also earned a number
of advanced degrees: She received the Master of Education degree in
1982 and the Specialist in Education degree in 1986, both from the
University of Florida. She will receive the Ph.D. in instruction and
curriculum from the University of Florida in 1988.
Ms. Kilgore's professional experience has been varied. She has
designed and implemented art programs in a variety of settings: the
University Gallery on the University of Florida campus; the Museum of
Arts and Sciences in Jacksonville, Florida; the Florida State Museum,
University of Florida; the Arts and Crafts Center, University of
Florida; and the public schools of Alachua County, Florida. Ms.
Kilgore has also worked as a developmental specialist in the
233


63
Little People's Tour was a success? What were they trying to achieve
with the Little People's Tour? How did they know that they were
succeeding? How were their criteria for success shaped by their
beliefs about art museum education?
According to Martha and Jane, the tour was designed to provide
the children with an enjoyable experience during their visit to the
museum. As Jane explained,
the broadest concept that we want to convey is that a
museum is a place for people to come and have a pleasant
and enjoyable time. . The museum needs to be open
and availablesending the message that we are here for
you. ... I want the children to feel better when they
leave then when they came. I want them to leave with a
warm feeling.
Martha and Jane also wanted the children to learn while they were in
the museum.
We want them to know that the museum is a place of
learning. ... We truly want them to come and enjoy
themselves, learning while they go. . It's easy
to make learning fun. You can teach and have people
not even realize that they're learning if you plan
carefully. (Jane)
This is a place where they can think, where they can
use their eyes, and they can understand more about the
world around them. (Martha)
Martha and Jane wanted the children to learn as well as to enjoy
themselves during their museum visit.
But what did Martha and Jane want the children to learn?
While they are here, we want them to expand their
vocabulary, teach them specifics such as the difference
between painting and sculpture. ... We are trying to


94
Langer, 1942; Lee, 1983). For the ancient Greeks, the line drawing
of Dionysius and grapevines was immediately comprehensible. In this
activity, the docent served as an interpreter, enabling the children
to understand the meaning of the imagery.
As Martha stated, the children should also learn about the
significance of the amphora to the people who made it. The telling of
an ancient Greek myth gave meaning to the amphora in a way that
factual information about the Greeks could not have done. The lesson
on Greek antiquities was taught in a satisfying and stimulating
manner. The children learned about the Greeks, their art, and were
exposed to the idea that art tells a story. The children, however,
had one more lesson to learn before leaving the museum.
The Wallingford Room: What Is a Museum?
One gallery in the museum is different from all the rest. It is
a period room, a recreation of the living room of the founders of the
museum. The wealth of the Wallingfords embraces the children as they
enter the room. The children "ooh" and "aah" as they walk down the
path, lined with velvet ropes, that separates them from the silk
cushions, the brocade curtains, and the massive wooden furniture. One
of the children wants to go beyond the velvet ropes; another child
cautions him, warning him of trouble if he attempts to do so. The
docent unclasps one link in the velvet chain and enters the room. She
approaches a portrait on the wall. The portrait is of an elegant


168
Martha and Jane looked for evidence that the children were having
an enjoyable experience. Were the children at ease, comfortable in
the museum environment? Did they appear content as they participated
in the activities and moved from gallery to gallery? Did they leave
the museum with smiles on their faces?
Martha and Jane also looked for signs that their instructional
strategies were being implemented effectively. They looked for
patterns of dialogue between the children and the docents; they looked
for interaction between the children and art materials. Martha and
Jane's observations were guided by a number of questions: Were the
children actively involved in the museum experience? Did the children
participate in the hands-on activities? Were they responsive to the
docent's questions? Martha and Jane also noted an absence of
discipline problems as an indication that their instructional
strategies were effective. For Martha and Jane, the Little People's
Tour was successful because it conformed to their beliefs about
teaching young children. Their criteria for success were shaped, in
part, by their beliefs about what constituted appropriate educational
strategies for young children. Martha and Jane believed that each
idea, concept, or term was presented in a manner appropriate to their
young audience. As Martha explained, the tour was "child-centered."
As Martha and Jane observed the tours, they also looked for
evidence that the children were attending to the art on display.


155
intended, the children's attention was focused on the objects not the
docent.
At the end of the tour, the docent asked the children to name
their favorite object in the Pre-Columbian Gallery. The children were
eager to respond. Undoubtedly, these children remembered such objects
as the jaguar effigy vessel, the Vera Cruz man, and the "monster pot."
In a sense, they established a relationship with an art form, thereby
fulfilling one of Rose's aim for this tour.
As the children left the museum, they were happy, not only
because they had enjoyed themselves but also because they had been
learning. Rose developed a sequential learning experience which
engaged the children's attention and expanded their knowledge of art.
The docent's review at the end of the tour reminded the children of
what they had learned; they left the museum with a sense of
accomplishment.
The Pre-Columbian Gallery: Further Reflections
Rose enabled these children to learn about unfamiliar art objects
from an ancient culture, objects which were separated from the
children by plexigls barriers. She successfully navigated a journey
through unfamiliar territory and the children enjoyed the trip. How
did Rose accomplish such a formidable task?
Despite the limitations placed on the children in such an
environment, Rose gave the children a significant degree of autonomy.


23
Third, the educational critic provides an appraisal of the
educational phenomenon under study: an analysis and evaluation of the
aims of the educator. The focus of this investigation, the
determination of program success by art museum educators, entails an
analysis of the relationship between the observed programs and the
educators' criteria for success. An appraisal of those aims is
essential to a thorough understanding of the goals of the observed art
museum practices. The process of appraisal, an integral component of
an educational criticism, is an appropriate means to assess the aims
of art museum educators as they develop, implement, and evaluate their
programs.
Procedures
In the following section, the procedures for implementing the
study are described. Discussions of site selection, gaining entry to
the sites, program selection, and research schedule are included.
Site Selection
The art museums included in the study were selected according to
the following criteria:
1. The museum was accredited by the American Association of
Museums.
2. The museum had a permanent educational staff and a full-time
curator of education.
3. The museum offered ongoing educational programs.


13
criticized the lack of evaluation in museum practices and suggested
that museum professionals were afraid of what they would find.
Anderson observed that most museum programs for children were limited
encounters and argued, "if of necessity, an educational program is
brief, it had better be good" (p. 117). Anderson encouraged museums
to establish clear objectives and measure the effectiveness of their
practices using the experimental approach whenever possible as well as
tests, questionnaires, unobtrusive measures, interviews, and
observations.
Other critics echoed Anderson's concerns. Cameron (1967, 1968)
and Screven (1969, 1974a) urged museum educators to establish
objectives and consider ways to achieve and measure them. Matthai
(1974) observed that museum educators relied primarily on inspiration
and tradition in developing educational programs but he cautioned that
such inspiration should be submitted to "careful scrutiny and
empirical verification" (p. 13). Washburn (1985) asserted that the
lack of evaluation had denied museum educators the status of
professionals. Washburn stated, "a characteristic of a true
profession is an abundance of critical self-examination. ... I do
not see this as characteristic of the museum profession" (p. 22).
A number of leading spokespersons for art museums responded to
these criticisms. Newsom (1978) argued against the notion that art
museum programs could be compared to school programs and therefore
evaluated using the same procedures. According to Newsom,


188
developed these programs, they were centrally concerned with giving
children an opportunity to look, to learn, and to enjoy.
Despite the apparent simplicity and obvious significance of such
goals, achieving them is not a simple task. The educational staff of
these museums faced a number of obstacles as they attempted to fulfill
their goals. As the curators of education at these two museums noted
and as others have argued, the museum is often an intimidating
environment (Goodman, 1985; Taylor, 1971; Williams, 1984, 1985).
Overcoming the children's intimidation was a concern.
The curators of education, however, faced another obstacle: The
children served by these programs had very little, if any, prior
education in the arts. In that respect, the children were similar to
many other visitors to art museums. As numerous educators,
philosophers, psychologists, and art historians have indicated, very
few members of contemporary American culture are visually literate
(Goodman, 1985; Lee, 1983; Newsom & Silver, 1978; Taylor, 1971;
Williams, 1984, 1985). That is, the average American visitor to an
art museum is akin to a visitor to the library who does not know how
to read. The museum educator's task is to teach the visitor how "to
read" the art as well as to teach the visitor how to use the museum.
The curators of education at these two museums had the responsibility
of teaching the children to read the languages of art.
Additionally, very little is known about how people (including
children) learn in museums or how people (including children) learn to


110
Rose referred repeatedly to the importance of creating a "warm,
friendly feeling" on the tour. Rose believed that an enjoyable
experience in the museum could be the first step toward developing the
children's appreciation of art and museums. The children's journey to
the museum was also one of their few exposures to the visual arts; the
elementary schools of Harrison County did not have art teachers during
the years that these children were enrolled in elementary school. The
visit to the art museum provided a unique opportunity for these
children to learn about art. For Rose, an enjoyable visit was
critical; if the children did not enjoy their visit, they probably
would not return to the museum nor develop an interest in the visual
arts. Furthermore, Rose viewed the children's appreciation of art and
museums as a means of developing additional support for the museum by
bringing in children for repeat visits accompanied by their friends
and parents.
But what about that "whole bunch of educational objectives"?
According to the materials developed by Rose, the committees of
docents and teachers, and approved by the school board, the fifth
grade tour had four program objectives: to introduce the children to
museums, museum concepts and behaviors, and the Harrison Museum of
Art; to provide the children with opportunities to experience original
museum objects; to reinforce aspects of the fifth grade curriculum;
and to stimulate the children's critical, analytical skills.
These objectives clearly indicated a concern for achieving
academic aims. According to Rose, the museum visit was not a field


79
noblewoman. A little boy, in awe of the paintings in the room,
wonders if these "are the rich people who own this place."
The docent begins, "these are all paintings of real people. They
are called portraits. Are you a real person?" The children nod their
heads. The docent bends down to the children and squeezes their
shoulders. "You certainly feel real!" The docent strolls around the
room, gesturing toward the paintings. She asks, "don't all these
people look important? Here is Philip, King of Spain, wearing his
sword at his side to defend his lady. Look at all those rings on his
fingers!" The docent continues walking and talking. "This man looks
like George Washington, but he's not. He's a Marquis. Look at the
gold threads in his jacket and his lace cuffs!" The docent finishes
her stroll around the room, having talked about four or five of the
paintings. Some of the children have been watching the docent as she
talks; others have lost interest, preferring to chat with their
neighbor or play with their friend's plaited hair. The docent comes
back to the painting directly in front of the children. She indicates
the painting with a wave of her hand and asks, "who do you think this
is?"
One of the children answers, "a queen." The docent smiles and
says, "she certainly is fancy, isn't she? Do you think that she is
rich or poor?" The children are now paying attention, responding to
the docent's questions. A number of children answer, "rich."
"How do


170
provide the children with an enjoyable and an educational experience
in the museum. For Martha and Jane, the support of the teachers was
also viewed as additional evidence of the quality of the program.
The Fifth Grade Tour Program
The Fifth Grade Tour Program was the result of a cooperative
effort between the staff of the Harrison Museum of Art and school
district personnel from Harrison County. Rose, the Curator of
Education, designed the program with the assistance of fifth grade
teachers from Harrison County and the docents who eventually
implemented the program.
According to Rose, the fifth grade tour program provided a unique
opportunity for the fifth graders of Harrison County to learn about
the visual arts. These fifth graders had not received art instruction
during their elementary school years in Harrison County. Nor had many
of these children visited museums previously. Rose believed that the
fifth grade tour could be a means of stimulating these children's
appreciation of art and museums.
Rose designed the tour to provide the children with a pleasurable
learning experience. Rose wanted the children to perceive the museum
as a warm, friendly placea place where they could return to enjoy
themselves with their friends and families. Rose also believed that
creating a warm, friendly atmosphere would enable the children to be
responsive to the educational efforts of the museum staff.


213
Tour Program would be helpful for understanding the role the school
board played in developing and implementing the program. What were
the school board's criteria for a successful program? What factors
contributed to their continued support of this program? Both curators
cited the need for more cooperative programs with the schools in order
to truly develop their goals of developing the children's appreciation
of art and museums. Research is needed to investigate the beliefs and
perceptions of school district personnel concerning art museum
education programs. What are school administrators' criteria for
success?
Rose also cited another criteria for success: the return visits
of children to the museum. Rose interpreted those visits as an
indication that the tours were contributing to the children's
appreciation of art and museums. Was Rose correct in her
interpretation? What were the perceptions of the children who
participated in these programs? The researcher did not conduct
extensive interviews with the children nor did she observe the
children's responses to the tours following their departure from the
museums' premises. Although this study shed some light on the
children's perceptions of the programs, a more concentrated effort is
needed to understand the perceptions of children who participate in
art museum education programs. Such research would add significantly
to researchers' understandings of children's experiences in art
museums.


141
was engaged. Rose succeeded in her desires to focus the children's
attention on the artifacts and to develop their looking skills.
Throughout the slide show, the docent invited the children's
participation. She asked questions and attempted to stimulate
discussion. Her efforts were met with enthusiasm during the slides of
the jungle and the artifacts. However, there were sections of the
tour when the children appeared unresponsive to the docent's efforts.
Although the children answered the docent's questions during the
initial review of academic material, they appeared bored. During the
presentation and discussion of the lifestyle of contemporary Indians,
the children seemed to be confused by the information presented. The
children's attention waxed and waned during the slide show, depending
upon the subject matter presented.
Through the slide show, Rose enabled the children to understand
more clearly the world of the pre-Columbian Indians and the
environmental factors which shaped the development of their art forms.
Additionally, the slides stimulated the children to look at the
artifacts, to recognize imagery used by the pre-Columbian Indians, and
to relate that imagery to the world that the pre-Columbian Indians
inhabited. However, Rose's attempts to convey a sense of lifestyle of
the pre-Columbian Indians seemed ineffective. The children had
difficulty analyzing the slides of contemporary Indians. They did not
seem to make the connection between the images on the screen and the
pre-Columbian Indians who produced the artifacts on display.


17
of children engaged in hands-on activities? What kinds of
interactions did educators want to see between the docents and the
tour groups? The answers to these questions are not found in the
literature. The studies conducted by Hayes (1968), Newsom and Silver
(1978), and Eisner and Dobbs (1986b) do not offer much insight into
the nature of the educators informal evaluations. Little is known
about the criteria used by art museum educators to evaluate their
programs or the beliefs that guide their judgments.
Qualitative studies, involving extensive observation, are needed
to answer many of the questions concerning evaluation in art museum
programs. The purpose of this study was to answer some of these
questions through an intensive investigation of selected art museum
programs.
Clarification of the Study
This study was conducted to answer some questions concerning the
process of evaluation in art museum education programs. The following
questions guided the investigation:
1. What does it mean when an art museum educator designates an
educational program a success? That is, what is the educator trying
to achieve? How does the educator know that he or she is succeeding?
2. How do art museum educators' criteria for success reveal
their beliefs about art museum education?


44
she had expected. The researcher made a note to investigate the
situation further. Did the museum staff know that the gifted class
was coming? Would the museum staff have made preparations for a
special group? Would the docents have been notified?
A tour group of older children were entering the museum as the
docents for the younger children were leaving. The researcher
observed the group and noted the difference between the older group's
tour and the younger children's tours. The group was large: an
entire fourth grade class. The docent was pleasant; she lectured to
the children about art historical information concerning the art on
display. She did not try to make connections with the students'
personal experiences. The curator had explained to the researcher
previously that she wanted to change the format of the tours for the
older children. She cited discipline problems with the older groups.
On this tour, the researcher noted no overt discipline problems. The
children, however, were inattentive; they appeared bored.
After the last tour groups had left the museum, the researcher,
the curator, and one of the docents ate lunch at a nearby restaurant.
They talked about a variety of matters. One of the topics of
discussion concerned a docent who regularly went over the scheduled
time for her tours. The curator and docent were perplexed as to how
to break the docent of this habit. The curator expressed her
frustrations about the complaints that she had receivednot from the
tour groups but from the docents who conducted the tour groups for the


15
assessed visitor learning at the Milwaukee Public Museum and found
that visitors left the museum as uninformed as when they entered.
Other results were similarly dismaying. In fact, one researcher
concluded that the "coercive setting of most museum environments was
positively hostile to the learning experience" (Washburn, 1975, p.
215). Perhaps Anderson was right when she suggested that museum
educators resisted evaluation because they were afraid of what they
would find.
However, the intention of these studies was to measure cognitive
gains even though the stated goals of museum educators were primarily
concerned with the pleasures enjoyed by the visitors who participated
in museum programs (Hayes, 1968; Newsom & Silver, 1978). According to
Newsom and Silver,
the museum is less a place to learn about art than a
place in which to enjoy it. An art museum exists for
our pleasure. . Certainly we can learn many things
along the way, about the past, about other people, about
aesthetic and philosophical ideas, and about ourselves.
In that sense, the museum is a kind of tuition-free open
university. But it is above all an institution, as one
museum director has put it, that does what it does "for
sheer beauty, not just for education." (p. 1)
When one considers the goals of museum education, the experimental
studies conducted in the 1970s were clearly inadequate. It may be
that the preordinate evaluation techniques were unable to capture the
qualities of the aesthetic experience that art museum educators
valued. It would seem that rather than accept evaluation techniques


10
questioned whether such figures were truly indicators of successful
programs. For example, Newsom and Silver conducted a follow-up survey
of a program on contemporary art at the Walker Museum which had drawn
the institution's third largest crowd. Unfortunately, the
investigation of the program found that the majority of the visitors
expressed "bewilderment, anxiety, and even anger" (p. 81) following
the tour.
The educators also pointed to follow-up questionnaires sent to
teachers as efforts to evaluate their programs. Newsom and Silver,
however, argued that questionnaires from schoolteachers were
inadequate measures of the success of a program. Questionnaires from
schoolteachers were often returned haphazardly and were probably
unreliable due to the simple fact that teachers were generally
unfamiliar with art and museums and therefore ill equipped to
critically assess the museum's educational efforts. Additionally,
Newsom and Silver noted that no attempt was made by the education
staff to ascertain whether programs for children had resulted, over
time, in an enhanced appreciation of art and art museums.
Newsom and Silver observed that the majority of programs were
evaluated on an informal basis by the museum staff. In their
conclusion, Newsom and Silver noted the difficulties associated with
formally evaluating museum education programs and posed a number of
questions to art museum educators.


14
critics are justified in crying that museums ought
to be more educationally accountable than they are.
But, if the price of that accountability is control
by the formal educational establishment, there are
many both inside and outside the museum who would
lock arms in the museum's defense, (p. 487)
Newsom further stated,
those of us who are defenders of the museum and its
educational possibilities beg you not to try to capture
it with credentials, lesson plans, and the too formal
trappings of productivity and educator's rule. Museums
are in many ways fragile institutions. Rigidified,
they will surely break, (p. 497)
Sherman Lee (1983), Director of the Cleveland Museum of Art and one of
the most prominent spokesmen for art museums in the past two decades,
agreed with Newsom and argued,
as marginal institutions, art museums . are
understandably sensitive to reasonably objective study,
let alone criticism. . Positive thinking and the
maintenance of a solid, if mute, defensive front are
standard good form in education and the visual arts
especially with regard to art museums, (p. 67)
These statements indicate an aversion to formal evaluation by art
museum professionals. Why were art museum professionals opposed to
formal evaluations of art museum education programs?
Part of the answer may be found in the results of several
experimental studies conducted in museums during the 1970s (Screven,
1974b; Shettel, 1973; Washburn, 1975). These investigations, using
preordinate evaluation techniques commonly found in the evaluation of
school programs, failed to show that significant learning gains
resulted from art museum visits. For example, Screven (1974b)


2
art, and some to exhibit and explain art. The primary responsibility
of the museum's educational staff is to develop means that enable the
viewer to secure meaning from an art form. It is the duty of art
museum educators to provide bridges between the viewer and works of
art. These bridges are built in numerous ways: gallery talks, guided
tours, classes, didactic displays, and outreach programs to schools as
well as community organizations. The museum educator's audience is
diverse, varying widely in age, experience, knowledge, and interests.
The education staff speaks in many voices seeking to be heard by those
who are willing to listen. Whether these messages are intelligible is
often a matter of debate.
Statement of the Problem
It is not easy to understand the dynamic and complex
relationships between the selection and arrangement of art works, the
educational efforts of the museum staff, and the museum visitor. The
broad diversity of visitor backgrounds complicates the matter further.
As art museum educators develop programs, they make a variety of
decisions related to the characteristics of their audience and the
nature of the art exhibition. The beliefs and values that guide such
decisions also form the basis for evaluating the effectiveness of
their practices. Unlike schools, art museum education programs are
not shaped by curricular mandates nor assessed in terms of learner
outcomes. However, the lack of formal evaluation procedures does not


207
1978, Rawlins, 1978). Art museum professionals have consistently
argued against the use of preordinate evaluation techniques commonly
used to evaluate school programs, stating that these techniques were
incapable of assessing the goals of art museum education programs.
Did the museum educators in this study share those views? When the
researcher asked the curators in this study to describe their
evaluation efforts, both curators assumed that the researcher was
talking about statistical studies. One of the curators (Martha)
answered, "evaluation takes place constantly" but it's "not a
statistical evaluation." The other curator (Rose) responded, "I'm
afraid I rely on observation too much." The curators seemed concerned
about the lack of statistical evidence to support their beliefs that
the programs were successful, yet both expressed reservations about
the usefulness of statistical studies. As Martha described the
pleasure that the children derived from the tours, she concluded, "how
can you evaluate that in a number?" These curators equated formal
assessment with measurement of prespecified behavioral objectives and
believed that such assessments were inadequate for their goals. These
curators seemed to share other art museum professionals' aversion to
preordinate evaluation procedures.
Eisner and Dobbs (1986b) also noted that most art museum
educators have little or no training in evaluation methods. The
curators interviewed in this study did not feel competent to conduct


202
arts and museums were presented, the children were attentive and
responsive to the material presented, and the children attended to the
art on display. Therefore, the curators believed that they had
achieved their goals of looking, learning, and enjoying.
The fourth set of criteria consisted of curators' reports of the
popularity of the programs with educators in their communities. The
curator of education at the Wallingford Museum of Art cited the
popularity of the Little People's Tour with teachers from the
community. The curator of education at the Harrison Museum of Art
noted the continuing financial and administrative support provided by
the school board. Both of these curators believed that the support of
the community educators was evidence of the quality of the programs.
Despite the differences in the two programs, an analysis of the
evaluation efforts of the two curators revealed few differences in the
criteria used to assess the programs. The curator of education at the
Harrison Museum of Art cited return visits of children with their
friends and family as an indication of success. The curator of
education at the Wallingford Museum did not describe return visits by
the children. However, the two museums were not equally accessible to
the populations that they served. The accessibility of the museums
may have affected the return rate of the children and their families.
Relationship of Findings to Previous Studies
The review of the literature revealed few studies which
investigated the evaluation practices of art museum educators. The


127
through the doors of the Harrison Museum of Art, they became actively
involved in the tour. Rose believed that for children to have a
pleasurable learning experience they must be active participants in
that experience. Rose began with what the children knew when they
entered the museum and she used that knowledge as a foundation for
further learning. As novel concepts were introduced, the children
were stimulated to relate those concepts to personal experiences.
Additionally, through the pre-visit preparation, the children had a
background of information upon which to build. By preparing the
children before the visit and building on the children's own
experiences, Rose structured the initial session so that the children
experienced success. The children knew the answers to the docent's
questions; they were able to understand the concepts that she
presented.
Through the hands-on activities, Rose demonstrated her belief in
a Piagetian approach to learning. That is, Rose began with concrete
experiences before moving on to theoretical abstractions. The
children learned the difference between a pinch pot and a coil pot by
seeing, feeling, and making pinch pots and coil pots. The children
developed an intimate understanding of these types of artifacts from
their experiences in the Art Discovery Room.
In this initial session, Rose's suggested instructional
strategies were effective. The docent achieved the specific


187
children were observed returning to the Harrison Museum of Art and not
to the Wallingford Museum of Art. Did the Fifth Grade Tour Program
have a greater impact on the participants in the program than did the
Little People's Tour?
Part of the difference may have been due to the location of the
museums rather than the quality of the programs. The Harrison Museum
of Art was located next to the Harrison County Library. Both museum
and library were centrally located in a small urban community. Many
families visited the library (and the swans on the lake nearby)
throughout the week and on the weekends. The Wallingford Museum of
Art, however, was located in an older, upper income neighborhood of a
large metropolitan area, an area infrequently visited by residents of
the city. Additionally, fifth graders in a small urban community may
have been capable of returning to the museum independently whereas
young children in a large urban area may not have been able to do so.
The Harrison Museum of Art was perhaps more accessible to the children
and families of Harrison County than the Wallingford Museum was to the
members of the large urban community which the museum served.
Similarities and Differences: Further Reflections
In many respects, these programs were a departure from the
general art historical tours typically offered by art museums (Eisner
& Dobbs, 1986b; Newsom & Silver, 1978). These tours were designed for
a specific audience to fulfill particular objectives. As the curators


114
teacher. During docent training, Rose taught the docents how to
interact with the children and how to organize their tours to provide
a pleasurable, learning experience for the children. Rose also
expected the docent to act as a catalyst between the children and the
art objects. Rose wanted the children's attention to be focused on
the art. Did Rose achieve her aims? Did the tour give the children a
"warm, friendly feeling" while achieving that "whole bunch of
educational objectives" developed by Rose and her committees of
docents and teachers? Did the children "develop a relationship with
an art object"? What happened to the fifth graders of Harrison County
on their visit to the Harrison Museum of Art?
The Art Discovery Room: You, Too, Can Make a Pre-Columbian Pot
The docent leads the children into a small room; a large sign on
one wall announces that this is the ART DISCOVERY ROOM. Colorful
photographs of pre-Columbian art are posted on one wall; on the
opposite wall are photographs of the museum showing children at work
and play in various galleries. There are 12 children in the group.
They quickly seat themselves around two tables; the boys cluster at
one table, the girls at the other. The docent stands between the two
tables; behind her is a plexigls case filled with sand. Above the
case are glass shelves filled with pre-Columbian artifacts. As the
children settle into their chairs, the docent begins by welcoming them
to the museum. "Welcome to the Harrison Museum of Art. Why do we


199
programs. The researcher also interviewed the directors of the
museums and the docents who implemented the programs.
The investigation revealed that the curators of education had
established three basic goals for the children who participated in the
observed programs: to look, to learn, and to enjoy. During the
children's visit to the museum, the curators expected the children to
enjoy themselves; to learn a variety of concepts appropriate to the
museums' collections; to learn about the nature and function of
museums; and to look, think, and respond to the art on display. The
curators believed that an enjoyable and educational experience in the
museum was an initial step toward developing the children's
appreciation of art and museums. The curators stated that these
programs were successful. That is, the curators believed that they
were achieving their desired goals. How did the curators know that
they were succeeding?
The curators did not formally evaluate their programs. Neither
curator conducted long-term studies to investigate the program's
impact on the children's appreciation of art and museums. Nor did the
curators systematically measure the extent to which the educational
objectives of the tours were being attained. The curators, however,
evaluated the tours on an informal basis by observing tour groups in
the museum. What were their criteria for success? How did their
criteria for success reveal their beliefs concerning art museum
education?


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Educational objectives for the program were developed collaboratively
by museum and school staff. These objectives were to introduce the
children to museums, to provide the children with an opportunity to
experience original museum objects, to reinforce the fifth grade
curriculum, and to stimulate the children's critical, analytical
skills.
Rose developed a variety of activities to meet the educational
objectives of the tour. Ideas about museums were introduced by
relating the collections of the museum to the children's own
collections. Through hands-on activities, the children were given the
opportunity to touch artifacts as well as engage in the techniques
used to create them. During a slide show, the children's prior
learning concerning the pre-Columbian Indians was reinforced and a
cultural context for interpreting the artifacts was introduced.
Throughout the tour, Rose designed activities and questioning
procedures which directed the children's attention to the artifacts on
display. Rose also developed a pre-visit packet to prepare the
children for their tour.
Rose viewed the role of the docent as critical in her efforts to
provide the children with a pleasurable learning experience. During
docent training, Rose emphasized two major aspects of the docent's
role: the docent's interaction with the children and the docent's
overall organization of the tour. The docent was responsible for


55
This study may contribute to the field of art museum education in
several ways. For researchers in the area of art museum education,
the study may have methodological significance. The effectiveness of
art museum programs have proven notoriously difficult to assess
through traditional quantitative techniques (Newsom & Silver, 1978;
Rawlins, 1978; Washburn, 1968, 1975, 1985). Due to the difficulties
of formally assessing museum education programs, art museums have
tended to rely on what Eisner and Dobbs (1986b) termed the turnstile
method of evaluation: counting the numbers of people who walk through
the doors. Obviously, attendance records are an inadequate means of
determining the merit of these programs. There is clearly a need to
develop mechanisms for investigating and evaluating art museum
education programs which are sensitive to the unique qualities of the
art museum experience. Qualitative methods of inquiry have rarely
been used in the research and evaluation of art museum programs. This
study illustrates the process of qualitative research in the
naturalistic setting of the art museum.
Similar to other qualitative methods of inquiry, an educational
criticism may generate hypotheses and identify future areas of
research. This study may raise new questions and indicate new
directions of research in the area of art museum education.
The study may be of value to professionals currently working in
art museums by providing detailed descriptions and analyses of


158
vessel are compared to the spots on the jaguar's coat). By the end of
the tour, the children demonstrated their proficiency in discerning,
through visual analysis, formal characteristics of the work.
Analysis in Terms of the Guiding Questions of the Study
The fifth grade tour was developed through a cooperative effort
between the staff of the school and the staff of the museum. Rose
guided the collaborative effort and believed that she had developed a
successful as well as innovative program. According to Rose, the
fifth grade tour program "is a museum-school program that really
works." Why did Rose designate this program a success? What was she
trying to achieve? How did she know that she was succeeding? How
were her criteria for success shaped by her beliefs about art museum
education?
As stated previously, Rose designed the tour to provide the
children with an enjoyable experience during their visit to the
museum. She stated that she wanted the children to leave with a
"warm, friendly feeling." Rose believed that an enjoyable visit could
be the first step toward developing these children's appreciation of
art and museums.
Rose also designed the museum visit to be educational. The list
of objectives for the tour demonstrated a concern for achieving
academic aims. Rose expected the children to learn basic concepts
about museums, in general, and the Harrison County Museum of Art, in


33
statements more effectively than if the researcher had observed only
the successful program. The observations of a variety of programs at
each institution were useful for distinguishing the distinctive
characteristics of the successful programs. Therefore, observations
of a variety of museum programs were conducted.
The researcher also observed docent training sessions. These
observations were conducted to further understand the curators' aims
for the programs and their beliefs concerning appropriate
instructional strategies. For example, during docent training at the
Harrison Museum of Art, the curator of education distributed a
checklist of behaviors used to evaluate the docents on the tours. As
the curator reviewed this checklist and discussed the rationale for
each behavior, she revealed many of her beliefs concerning effective
strategies for working with children.
The researcher also observed docent meetings. During the docent
meetings at both institutions, the docents discussed problems that
they were having on the tours. Frequently, the other docents and the
curator of education suggested ways of handling those problems. The
comments of the docents and curators during these meetings were
helpful in discerning the perceptions of the programs held by the
museum's educational staff and the docents who implemented the
programs.
Although naturalistic researchers often enter the field with a
set of guiding questions, they remain flexible and responsive to the


69
long time to finish the sculpture and make all those fine details.
The children nod their heads.
The docent finishes her presentation by asking the children if
they have ever made something out of play-doh. She tells them that
they were being sculptors and didn't even know it. She explains that
sculptures can be made out of clay or rock or metal. As they leave
the gallery, the docent tells them, "you'll be seeing some sculpture
in the museum today and every time you see a piece of sculpture, I
want you to call out, 'sculpture!'"
Sculpture: Analysis in Terms of Martha and Jane's Goals
What were Martha and Jane trying to achieve when they designed
this section of the tour? According to Jane,
children tend to think that everything comes from
Pic 'n' Save. They have no conception of how a
Madonna and Child comes to be. They don't even
understand that it was once a block of marble. I
think the activity conveys the idea of sculpture to
a child who really needs to feel the rock and the
hammer and to see it in all its different states. . .
We have to show them the beginning of things.
Martha and Jane wanted the children to understand how this sculpture
was created. That is, they wanted the children to understand that a
person made the sculpture, working in stone, using hammers and
chisels.
During the activity, the docent said very little about the other
art objects in the room: the paintings on the wall or the marble
reliefs on either side of the Madonna and Child. Nor did the docent


104
children's faces as they listened to the docents' stories; they
listened for animated responses to the docents' questions; and they
watched to see if the children were looking and responding to the art.
Martha and Jane were satisfied with what they observed.
Martha and Jane also reported anecdotes of happy children leaving
the museum as evidence of its success.
When you have kids going out after an hour in the gallery
with happy smiles, waving their good-byes, and saying that
they would like to come backthat's an evaluation right
there. I was standing, holding the door for a group to
leave, when this precious little boy reached out and
grabbed me around the knees and hugged me. It was one
of the sweetest knee hugs I've ever had and he just
beamed up at me. How can you evaluate that in a number?
(Martha)
Martha and Jane also viewed the popularity of the program as an
indication of success. As Mary indicated (frequently), the Little
People's Tour served over 2,500 children during the 1987-88 academic
year. The tour was booked up in October for the rest of the year.
Martha and Jane, however, admitted that the popularity of the tour
was not necessarily an indication of the quality of the tour. As Jane
explained,
one reason it's a success is no
It's the simple fact that there
children of this age offered in
the only museum offering a tour
activities for children.
Mary and Jane also recognized that it is much easier for teachers
in the lower primary grades to schedule field trips. These grade
credit to us or anyone,
is nothing else for
our community. We are
like this with hands-on