Annual report of the Canal Zone Plant Introduction Gardens


Material Information

Annual report of the Canal Zone Plant Introduction Gardens
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Canal Zone Plant Introduction Gardens
Panama Canal Press
Place of Publication:
Mount Hope, C.Z
Publication Date:
annual (irreg.)


Subjects / Keywords:
Plant introduction -- Panama   ( lcsh )
Plants, Cultivated -- Panama   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report year ends June 30.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Reports for 1925 and 1926 combined.
Numbering Peculiarities:
No report published for 1927; report for 1928 covers the period May 1927-June 1928.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030998503
oclc - 09160379
lcc - SB109 .C212
System ID:

Related Items

Succeeded by:
Annual report of the Canal Zone Experiment Gardens

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Annual report
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text




t Introduction


For the Fiscal Year



a-0.i s -5-0.5i

For additional copies of this publication addr
or Balboa Heights, Canal Zone.



BALBOA HEIGHTS, C. Z., )uly 20, 1924.

Chief Quartermaster,
alboa Heights, C. Z.

have the honor to submit the following report of operations of
SIntroduction Gardens for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1924.
J, 1923, work was completed on the greenhouses of the Summit
Pnction Gardens. Three of the old poultry houses were used
fose after modifications and additions. Land was cleared and
d plowed and made ready for planting as soon as possible.
work had progressed sufficiently, I was authorized to make a
tington, D. C., to visit the Department of Agriculture, and
a large number of valuable plants and brought them back to
Zone. These plants were the first plant inhabitants of the
oduction Gardens. Shortly afterwards a number of plants
were dotd to the gardens by the District Quartermaster at Pedro
se had been obtained by him the previous year from Washing-
t. C Thus a fair start was made, and during the year many new
plants and seeds were received both from Washington and

and plants of the local flora were also collected for propagating
and at present our collection comprises at least 5oo species
ted by many thousands Of young plants. During a trip made in
N be, 1923, to Costa Rica, I succeeded in obtaining approximately
Plants, many ofwhich promise to be of value to the Canal Zone.
first operations of the Plant Introduction Gardens also included
iang of seeds for stock plants of mangos, avocados, and citrus.
Itfllowing paragraphs are mentioned somewhat in detail the more
imprtat activities carried on during the year.


A shipment of bulbs of several varieties of the Manila
received during the year. Unfortunately they we
arrival. It would be of great importance to get t
Abacai started in the Western tropics. With the rece
law in the Philippines prohibiting the exportation of
has been made still more difficult to obtain planting
possibility of sending seeds here from the Philippin
up with the Bureau of Fiberplant Investigation of t
Agriculture, and seeds of two varieties of Philippine
been received. Experiments are being conducted at Si
raised from seed obtained in Costa Rica. Although t
long drawn out selection work among unknown seedli
possibility that a fiber worth while may be obtained.
being tried'out are the Boehmeria nivea, Ramie fiber, a
Sisal hemp.
The important question of raising a high grade of con
the Canal Zone has been taken up. During the year,
mittees were sent out from Washington in order to inve
possibilities in the Canal Zone. The members of
traversed most of the rubber-growing countries c
in search of seeds of Para Rubber, Hevea braziliensis
a fair quantity of seeds over to the Summit Gardens.
Hevea trees are now found growing there from seeds
It is the intention gradually to plant these trees out in
the Atlantic side of the Isthmus, where the rainfall r
heavy for Para Rubber. About Ioo trees have already
Monte Lirio district.
Besides Para Rubber the following rubbers have
experimental purposes and are found in the Sun
Fontumia elastica, Castilla panamensis, Manihot gla
sp., Mimmusops balata, Cryptostegia grandiflora, ar
some of which, apart from a botanical interest, ma
economic importance.
Considerable attention has been given to the introd
gation of superior varieties of fruits. If plenty of such

the Isthmug a new and profitable industry would undoubtedly be
o ed up, and a good market should readily be found, both locally and
t ugh steamers transiting the Canal.

local and hardy sour orange was used for stock and a large quantity
were planted on which to bud desirable varieties of Citrus. Most
o is stock is still rather small for extensive budding. All sufficiently
l stockplaits, however, are being used and by next year a consider-
a number of budded trees will be available. A collection of about
3 iferent Citrus relatives were received from Washington, mainly to
etd out for their possibilities as stockplants. They were all planted
a special field where they can be kept under surveillance.

e local mkngo has been used for seedling stock, and several thous-
young, sturdy plants were grown. At the present most of these
vbeen budded, and the growing buds are in very fine condition.
Adeal of budwood was received from Florida through the Depart-
t of Agriculture at Washington. In all cases this budwood did not
st p well. It was possible, however, to save practically enough
oeties sent to ensure a start for future propagation, and h
orchard has been commenced at Summit. At the present timb
ttion contains some I5 varieties of the fiberless and turpentine-
ango. Besides the budding of young seedling stock the Summit
during the year, topworked a large number of older mango trees
w the superior varieties found in the region from Paraiso to Ancon
,n al boa. This was done to improve the quality of the future fruit
s y, and partly to extend the sources of budwood for future propa-

Seeds from local seedling trees were planted in the Summit nurseries
stock. Heavy rains have at times caused some difficulty in getting
h avocado buds established. At this moment, however, a considerable
nuber of the Guatemalan Avocados are making a vigorous growth.
Seral of the West Indian varieties are also being propagated as well
the best of local selections. Among the latter are some very excellent
i At Pedro Miguel the District Quartermaster has done some
et work with the inarching of the avocado and has commenced

It seems fair to assume that good pine9
sections of the Isthmus. The small farmi
appl -growing a profitable undertaking.,
the Isthmus vary considerably in quality
various kinds of pineapples, ahd to be abl
about'three acres were planted with pineal
Seeds for this planting were obtained from N
and Taboga, in order to cover a wide range

GOod papayas are universally liked an
-constantly shown in the planting of this
The main difficulty seems to lie in the fa
remain true to seed and i n producing a great
plants. A strain now growing at the Sumr
.a very superior quality and of a high perc
It is being propagated as rapidly as possit

So far extensive tests with bananas wer
varieties were introduced however..T
immune to the banana wilt, was obtdne
country was also obtained the hardy "Co
the "Datila,"'and two particularly good
duced bananas stayed healthy in Costa R
surrounded by fields thoroughly infested
particular interest and importance to the
wilt is spreading in ratio with the exten,

This very delicious Eastern fruit is
and seems to adapt itself with difficulty to
home. Two trees are on the Isthmus, now

inarching and budding from
o raise about 12 plantsthis
from Trinidad and Jamaica

L have been propagated and
e of the more important are
subjected to extensive tests.
montchi, Governor's Plum;
rge variety of this delicious
ifolia, Cherimoya- Averrhoa
,Pili nut; ClausenaLansium,
,a Dombey, Dombey plum;
japonica, Loquat; Eugenia
'ig; Zizyphus jujube, Jujuba;
Itocarpus integrifolia, Jack-
punicfolia, Surinam cherry;*
a aculeata, Barbados Goose-
id Guava; Rubus sp. Rasp-
Via Sapida) Akee; Passiflora
[en Apple.


ied, several of which show a
ged dry season of the Canal
rising green feed. in sufficient
seems) to some extent, to be
is made to the Napier grass,
a. Three distinct strains of
. year, and all are doing well.
enough to run any definite
equipped for analytical tests,
notes on the growth of this
e past year it did not suffer
lent, yielding a satisfactory
Its it should be cut before the
ight of about 5 feet. When
, Many cattlemen visited the
-rest in the Napier Grass. A

large quantity of cuttings were distributed
well as in the Canal Zone, and it should be a
when this grass is universallygrown on the
Guatemala grass, Tripsacum laxum, is an
It is a vigorous grass, although of a somew
Napier grass if planted in dry locations.
it seems to stand the drought well. Its st
than those of the Napier grass and it grows
-7apanese sugar cane.-A plot was planted
and high yielding cane in order to try it out.
E. K. 28 is a new sugar-cane from Java, (
Molasses grass, Melinis minutiflora.-A p]
very dense growth and gives promise of heir
slow incoming to maturity, and so far has se
7aragua grass, Andropogon rufus.-This gr
4 feet. When 3 months old it was in full b
height of 4 feet. It grows into large tufts w
appears to be very drought resistant. The
the grass shows great facility in getting itse
be of importance as a haygrass.
Sudan grass, Sorghum sp.-The experim
have shown but poor promise. Although
factory, attacks of rust soon make the for
very arid sections this grass may be of more
Rhodes grass, Chloris guayana.-A sma
promise as a hay and pasture grass. The s
in germinating in the field, and it was foun
nursery beds. After this the growth was rapi
in 3 months, growth apparently not being cl
Dallis grass, Paspalum dilatatum.-This
draught-resisting qualities which, once est
7ava grass, Polytris praemorsa, is a prom

Test plantings were made of about 8 dist
They all matured well formed seedheads and
further tests, The Shallu Sorgho seemed


Rice.-In cooperation with the Bureau of Cereal Crops, of the Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Washington, 25 selections of rice were planted. This
experiment is in continuation of selection work commenced at Porto
R o and Santo Domingo in 1918. All of the selections were closely
.noted as to growth and yield and are now again planted for further tests.
Last year's tests showed R. D. 148 and P. R. 358 as the most promising.
It is hoped by continual selection to establish a pure and high-yielding
strain of a non-irrigated rice suited to our climate.

Tests are being run with the planting of leguminous covercrops. All
of the following cowpeas grew satisfactorily: Brabham, Early Buff, Groit,
Victor, making a luxuriant growth and maturing seeds.
The following velvet beans were planted: Tracy's Early, Bush Velvet,
Porto Rican Velvet Bean, Early Arlington, Georgia. There is no apparent
difference in their value as a luxuriant covercrop; they all produce an
immense quantity of green matter, of value as a green manure, as protein
cattle feed, and as a covercrop, easily coping with and keeping down the
wild weed vegetation.
None of the following Soy beans grew to satisfaction, possibly on
account of lack of proper inoculation; Biloxi, Laredo, Peking, Tokio
Virginia, Wilson.

A very large number of trees have been grown, some of value as orna-
mentals, others as important shade or timber trees. In many regions of
the Canal Zone the lands have been denuded of all forest growth, many
pastures being almost without trees. Every day the forests on large
tracts of land is being cut down to give room for the planting of bananas.
With such conditions prevailing the question of tree planting becomes an
important one. Several of the more valuable native trees are in course
of being propagated at the Summit Gardens. Likewise a number of
foreign trees were introduced. Among the more important of these are
such as the Bambus balcooa, one of the Bambus so extensively used in
the Far East for building purposes. It will grow canes 70 feet long and is
making a rapid growth at the Summit Gardens. The rapid growing
Australian trees are represented by Eucalyptii; Grevillea robusta and
Casuarina equiselifolia, all of which should do well on our beaches in
exposed locations. Among the good timber trees which have been

contains over 30 species, many ot which a
of land where the palm garden is to be es
small to be transplanted, are still in the g
An orchid collection has also been comn
35 species of Central American orchids.
in the Canal Zone, Panama, and Costa R
to the gardens by Mr. Powell, the orchid


In connection with the work of the Su
cleared and planted with Taraktogena Kul
Burma. The land where this new plant
Flat Rock on the Chagres River. The 8
from the Bureau of Plant Industry, Dep
ington, D. C. They are as yet very small:
healthy, and the probabilities are gooc
plantation will become of importance as
loathsome disease of leprosy.
Oncoba echinata-More than To were
shrub, most of them making satisfactory g
plant may be another source of Chaulmoc
tage of reaching a bearing age earlier tha
Stevia rebaudiana.-This plant has be
its leaxies, containing a sugar which may
Coffee.-About 8 different species of cof
Liberian group were planted in the field f
Cacao.-Several selections were made an
flex paraguensis, Mate.-A number of
U. S. Department of Agriculture of this s
yield the tea which is a national drink in
The first plants set out in the field made b
Cola acuminata, Kola nut.-Several of
Arboretum, the seeds of which have valueI
Pimento acris, Cassiafarnesiana, and C
the perfumery plants of the arboretum.

done along the line of vegetable growing,
t suffice. An experimental planting has
s given promise of sf anding the heat and
ell, and may help to solve the difficulty
s during the rainy season.
le of S varieties of sweet potatoes from
3 varieties of yams, 4 varieties of tanyias,


gardens at different times, many of them
West Caribbean Training School, the
and La Escuela Normal de Institutoras,
ie gardens with their teachers and pupils,
ns and lectures were given on the various
pon the whole the interest taken in the
plant life increased noticeably during the

o farms and gardens and was consulted
dens proper by persons seeking informa-
plaut growth.
ere distributed, both ornamentals, trees,
several farms, budding and pruning were
ns. Arrangements have also been made
able seeds which will be used for distri-
one. Much seed of forage crops was also
dIuable trees of various kinds were set

espectfully submitted.