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The effects of a self-esteem group versus a study skills group intervention on improving the grade point averages of black college students

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The effects of a self-esteem group versus a study skills group intervention on improving the grade point averages of black college students
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Armstrong-West, Suzan, 1948-
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Academic achievement ( jstor )
African Americans ( jstor )
College students ( jstor )
Grade point average ( jstor )
High school students ( jstor )
Null hypothesis ( jstor )
Self concept ( jstor )
Self esteem ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )
Study skills ( jstor )
African American students -- Education -- Florida ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Group guidance in education ( lcsh )
City of Jacksonville ( local )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1983.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 107-117.
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Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Suzan Armstrong-West.

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THE EFFECTS OF A SELF-ESTEEM GROUP VERSUS A STUDY SKILLS GROUP
INTERVENTION ON IMPROVING THE GRADE POINT AVERAGES OF BLACK COLLEGE STUDENTS




BY



SUZAN ARMSTRONG-WEST




















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1983














































Copyright 1983

by

Suzan Armstrong West






























This is dedicated to my parents,

Mr. & Mrs. Martin and Luressa Armstrong, for their love, encouragement, and support.















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


First and foremost, I would like to thank my parents,

Martin and Luressa Armstrong, for their continuous support from day one of my life. Thanks go to my children, Martin, Joycelyn, and Tanyika, for their sacrifices and patience with me during this endeavor, and to my entire family for their encouragement.

I would like to recognize my wonderful committee members:

Dr. W. Max Parker, chairman, for his patience and encouragement, and Dr. Patricia Miller, Dr. Paul Schauble, and Dr. E.L. Tolbert for their cooperation to the very end.

I would like to express my appreciation to the group facilitators who devoted time and valuable expertise to assist in conducting the groups. They are Dr. Ronald Foreman, Dr. Rosie Bingham, Ms. Rosalie Cook, Ms. Janice Guinyard, Mr. Charles English, and Ms. Juanita Maxwell.

Acknowledgements are given to Brenda and Patricia for their typing services; to Greg, Frank, Bernie, Gary and Leslie for their varied kinds of technical assistance; to Mr. G.W. Mingo, Dr. Betty Stewart, and the staff of DSSSP and PACT for their support; and a very special thanks to all of the students who participated in the groups.


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I would like to express my gratitude to some very special friends. Mrs. Juliet Fields, Mrs. Derya Williams, Ms. Amanda Shackleford, and Dr. Mary Hoover provided invaluable assistance in numerous ways. I will always be indebted to them. I would also like to recognize Mr. Michael Powell, Ms. Linda Graham, and Mr. David Glover. They provided logistical assistance that was much appreciated.

Last, but certainly not least, I would like to acknowledge my colleagues from Edward Waters College, the University of Florida, and the University of Texas at Austin. They all deserve thanks for their support during the different phases of development of this project.

























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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter Page


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ....................................... iv

LIST OF TABLES ....................................... viii

ABSTRACT .............................................. ix



I. INTRODUCTION

Nature of Self-r"steem ............................ 2
Statement of the Problem ......................... 5
Need for the Study ............................... 7
Purpose ........................................... 8
Rationale 8
Research Questions ................................. 10
Definition of Terms ... ***'*** .... 10
Organization of the Remainder of the Study ......... 11

II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Elements of Self-Esteem ........................... 12
Self-Esteem of Blacks ............................ 17
Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement ............... 22
Study Skills ...................................... 25
Group Counseling .................................. 29

III. METHODOLOGY

Population ......................................... 33
Sampling Procedures ................................. 35
Sample ............................................. 36
Instrumentation .................................... 36
Research Procedures ................................. 43
Hypotheses .......................................... 46
Data Analysis ...................................... 48
Limitations ........................................ 50


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Chapter Page


IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Results ........................................ 52
Discussion ........................................ 54

V. CONCLUSIONS

Conclusions ....................................... 67
Limitations ....................................... 73
Recommendations and Implications .................. 74

APPENDIX A Informed Consent Form ..................... 76

APPENDIX B Self-Social Symbols Task ................... 78

APPENDIX C Self-Esteem Inventory ...................... 89

APPENDIX D Instructions for Photo Essay ............... 92

APPENDIX E Course Evaluations ......................... 93

APPENDIX F Treatment Procedures ....................... 98

BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................... 111

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .................................... 122



















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LIST OF TABLES


Table Page


1 Summary *of Data ................................ 53

2 Summary Analysis................................ 55

3 T-test and Correlation ........................... 57

4 Analysis of Covariance by Group.................. 59

5 Analysis of Covariance by Sex.................... 60





























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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE EFFECTS OF A SELF-ESTEEM GROUP
VERSUS A STUDY SKILLS GROUP INTERVENTION
ON IMPROVING THE GRADE POINT AVERAGES OF BLACK COLLEGE STUDENTS

By

Suzan Armstrong West

December 1983

Chairman: Dr. Woodroe Max Parker Major Department: Counselor Education

The purpose of this study was to (1) compare two different group counseling interventions to determine if either has an impact on increasing the level of self-esteem of the participants and (2) to examine changes in grade point averages to determine if there was a correlation between the changes in grade point averages and changes in level of self-esteem.

The sample was comprised of black "special admit" college students at the University of Florida. Students enrolled in a "College Survival Skills" class were randomly assigned to two different kinds of groups, a self-esteem group and a study skills group. The students in the self-esteem group were exposed to black role models, discussed issues related to being in the minority at a university, received information about black history, and participated in assertiveness training. Students in


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the study skills group were taught note-taking, outlining, testtaking, and time management skills, discussed good study habits, and practiced a relaxation technique for test-anxiety. They also participated in assertiveness training.

Three instruments were used as a pretest and posttest to assess the level of self-esteem of each participant: the Self-Social Symbols Task by Ziller, Long, and Henderson, the Self-Esteem Inventory by Coopersmith, and a photographic essay developed by each student to describe "Who am I?"

The results revealed a significant difference between the groups for the scores on the Self-Social Symbols Task and for the change in grade point averages. However, the correlation between the total score for the three self-esteem evaluations and grade point averages was very low. There were also significant differences found between the females in the two different kinds of groups for the Self-Social Symbols Task and for grade point averages. No differences were found for the males. There was a significant increase in grade point averages for all of the participants. These results appear to indicate that both types of group intervention may have been facilitative in improving the grade point averages of the student participants.

X













CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION


Henry, a high school student of average ability, is transformed into a "gifted" student and later becomes one of the "best men of his generation" because of an error in the reporting of his SAT scores (Purkey, 1970). According to the fable, "The Mouse and Henry Carson," a mouse in the office of the Educational Testing Service accidentally triggers a mechanism in the computer while Henry's examination is being scored. Consequently, his less than average scores are changed into very high scores in both the quantitative and verbal areas. As a result of Henry's reported scores, the attitudes of his teachers and counselors are changed drastically. This difference in attitudes and behaviors by the educational staff toward Henry produces a new awareness in Henry of his potentialities. Accompanying this enlightenment is an increase in his level of self-esteem, and, consequently, a significant increase in his level of academic performance.

What mary black college students need is a "Henry Carson" experience. Research studies have shown that the SAT or ACT scores of black students may not be reflective of their potential to succeed in higher education (Boyd, 1977; Houston, 1980; Rovezzi-Carrol & Thompson, 1980). Yet, the attitudes of the
1








2

majority of the educational personnel at both the high school and college levels regarding their academic abilities are based primarily on these aptitude scores. In an analysis of the problems experienced by black students on white campuses, Hedegard (1972) found that the academic pressure imposed on black students because of educators doubting their ability to succeed, and the resulting decrease in self-esteem of the students, was the primary problem. Nature of Self-Esteem

The self has played an important role in many traditional personality theories. As early as 1890, William James included the self as an important topic in his psychological thinking (Wylie, 1961). Allport, Lewin, Mead, and Cattel also focused on the self in the development of their theories. It has also been a contributing factor in the approaches to therapy of several practitioners, i.e., Freud, Homney, Sullivan, and Rogers. In Freud's later writings he stressed the importance of 'ego" development and ".he fNeo-Freudians stress the importance of the "self" picture. Rogers (1951) has identified the selfconcept as the basic unit for the study of behavior. Even behavioral theorists such as Combs and Snygg have included the concept of self (West & Fish, 1973).

The terms "self-concept" and self-esteem" are often used interchangeably in the literature (LaBenne & Greene, 1969; Shavelson et al., 1976). King and Price (1979) contend that








3

the main variables appear similar for the two terms. These variables are (1) the attitudes of the individual toward him or herself, (2) the responses of others, (3) the perception of these responses, and (4) the behavior which the self-concept elicits.

Others make a clear distinction between the two terms

(Beane & Lipka, 1980; Coopersmith, 1967; Frerichs, 1971; Johnsen & Medley, 1978; Rosenberg, 1965). The general consensus of the authors that differentiate between the two terms appears to be that self-concept is a descriptive perception while self-esteem is an evaluative perception. Beane and Lipka (1980) identify self-concept and self-esteem as two distinct, but related, constructs within the self-perception. The self-concept is comprised of perceptions one has of oneself in terms of personal attributes and the various roles which are played or fulfilled by the individual. It is judgemental only in that one may assign some qualitative assessment to the role performance, i.e., an unsuccessful student or a good playmate. Self-esteem is the evaluative assessment one makes regarding personal satisfaction with role(s) and/or quality of performance. These decisions are based on personal values. For example, being a "poor game player" may have a different value for different individuals.

Beane and Lipka also delineate different evaluative terminology for the two perceptions. Self-concepts may be described as clear or confused, complete or incomplete, or general or








4

specific. These are all nonvaluative terms. Self-esteem may be described as positive or negative, strong or weak, or other value-related judgemental terminology.

Most researchers in this area agree that environmental

factors play an important part in the self-esteem of an individual. Ziller et al. (1969) state that self-esteem must be defined within a context of self-other orientation--social self-esteem. They assert that self-evaluation evolves within a social frame of reference. Self-acceptance and social acceptance are inextricably combined.

Shavelson et al. (1976) equate self-concept and self-esteem by defining self-concept as the person's evaluative perception of him or herself which is formed through experience with his or her environment. They identify seven features of the selfconcept: organized, multifaceted, hierarchical, developmental, evaluative, and differentiable. General self-esteem is believed to be at the top of the hierarchy and can be separated into academic and nonacademic components. The latter (nonacademic) is further divisible into physical, emotional, and social aspects.

West and Fish (1973), Fleming and Watts (1980), and LaBenne and Greene (1969) concur with Shavelson et al. that self-concept and/or self-esteem are multifaceted. West and Fish proposed that the wide variety of definitions available, as well as the wide

variety of perceptions about self, indicate that the self-concept is not a unitary trait. Fleming and Watts' research findings







5


correlated with the findings of Shavelson et al., except for the exclusion of physical aspects. Coffin (1971) and Brookover et al. (1967a) divided self-esteem into three areas: social, academic, and personal competence. LaBenne and Greene identified body image, social/personal acceptability, and self-competence as the primary aspects of self-esteem. Other terms that have been used interchangebly with self-esteem include self-value, selfadequacy, and self-acceptance (Coombs, 1964; Paschal 1968; Piers & Harris, 1964).

The process of self-perceiving might finally be described as an interaction between self-concept and self-esteem as various roles are played or fulfilled in situations through which feedback and influence are received (Beane & Lipka, 1980).

Inasmuch as the focus of this study is on self-esteem,

further references to the self-concept will be made only when the research involved defined self-concept in evaluative terms, thus equating it with self-esteem. Particular attention will be paid to the aforementioned aspects of self-esteem identified by LaBenne and Greene. These are body image, social/personal acceptability, and self-competence.


Statement of the Problem

The literature is diverse on whether the level of selfesteem differs for black people (see Chapter II). Kardiner and Ovesy (1951) pose that the self-esteem of Blacks suffers because they are constantly receiving an unpleasant image of








6

themselves from the behavior of others toward them. It has also been suggested that Blacks are much more aware and sensitized to their blackness when they are among Whites than when they are among Blacks (Rosenberg, 1965). Hedegard (1972) reports that the modal experience of black students on predominantly white campuses is that white students perceive them as ignorant and are indifferent to the problems and experiences of blacks. They are prejudged by the students and faculty as being inferior or inadequately prepared for academic work. A comparison of the attrition rates of black college students at predominantly black versus predominantly white institutions reveals that black students are more successful at the black colleges (Brown & Stent, 1977).

Several retention programs are in operation at the University of Florida. Academic Enrichment and Retention Services (AERS) provide academic advisement for all minority students. The Division of Student Support and Special Programs (DSSSP) and the Program for Academic Counseling and Tutoring (PACT) provide special developmental class sections, tutoring, and study skills training for all students admitted through a "special admission" policy for minority students (see Chapter III for additional information on these students and the programs that serve them).

However, at the University of Florida for the fall of 1980, the rate of nonreturn for black students was twice the rate of nonreturn for white students (Affirmative Action Office, 1981).







7


During 1980, 27 percent of all the black students at the university had a grade point average (GPA) of 2.0 or below (Stewart, 1981). Astin (1977) points out that the single variable most strongly associated with staying in college is the student's undergraduate GPA.


Need for the Study

There is an abundance of literature documenting the relationship of self-esteem to academic performance (Brookover et al., 1967; Epps, 1969; Frerichs, 1971; Purkey, 1970; Rosenberg, 1965; Thomas et al., 1969). However, correlations do not necessarily indicate a cause-and-effect relationship. Further research focusing on changing one of these elements and looking at the effect it has on the other component would be useful in clarifying if a causal relationship exists. That is, if working exclusively with students to elevate their level of self-esteem, without providing academic skills training, produces both an increase in level of self-esteem and grade point averages, a clearer indication of a causal relationship would be shown.

A number of studies have been done to identify other

correlates of self-esteem. Again, these have demonstrated relationships, but they may not be determining factors. Implementing different strategies based on these findings in an attempt to improve the level of self-esteem and looking at the resulting changes would assist counselors in identifying agents that are most effective for this purpose.








8

A host of "special programs" have been established at postsecondary institutions to assist black students in matriculating successfully. Yet, the retention rate for black college students at white institutions remains well below that of white students. These programs usually focus on remediation and/or development of the basic skills and the improvement of study skills. The confirmation of the importance of the effect of self-esteem on improving grade point averages would provide credence for adding this element to these programs.

The above discoveries would also provide implications for counselor education programs in training counselors to work with black students.


Purpose

The purpose of this study is twofold. First, the study will compare group counseling interventions to determine if one has greater impact on increasing the level of self-esteem of black college students at a white institution. Secondly, it will examine changes in grade point averages (GPAs) to see if changes in levels of self-esteem had any impact on these. Rationale

Self-concept, whether used as an outcome itself, or as a moderating variable that helps explain achievement outcomes, is a
critical variable in education and in educational evaluative research. In
addition to the indication that improving
the self-esteem of the students will positively influence their GPA's, it







9


appears that the improvement of a students's
self-esteem is to be valued as an educational outcome in its own right. (Shavelson
et al., 1976, p.407)

A group counseling approach has been selected because of the research (Brookover & Erickson, 1969; King & Price, 1979: LaBenne & Greene, 1969; Ziller et al., 1969) indicating the importance of interpersonal relationships and the social environment on the development of self-esteem. Working with students in groups also enables persons in an educational setting to assist more students in a given amount of time. Thus, time efficiency was also a consideration in selecting a group approach rather than an individual counseling mode.

Black culture orientation has led to an increase in Black pride which has subsequently been evidenced in a more positive black self-concept (King & Price, 1979). This research, plus similar findings regarding black pride programs by Lessing (1969), Roth (1970), Van Koughnett and Smith (1969), and Zirkel (1972), and teaching black history units by Georgehoff (1968), served as the basis for focusing on these areas in the self-esteem group.

Weigel and Weigel (1968) have found that study skills courses that focused solely on study skills are ineffective. Kirkland and Hollandsworth (1979) propose that test-taking skills should be focused on before working with more complex and difficult study skills, i.e., reading and writing. Bednar and Weinberg (1970) suggest that study skills courses be used with individual or group counseling, because they found then to be ineffective








10

when used alone. Thus, the study skills group for this study will concentrate on study habits, note and test-taking skills, and time management.


Research Questions

1. Is there a significant change in the level of selfesteem of the participants as a result of group interventions?

2. Does the difference in the type of group interventions have an effect on the change in the level of self-esteem?

3. Is there a difference in the change of level of selfesteem as measured by different instruments which focus on different elements of self-esteem?

4. Is there a significant change in the grade point averages of the participants in the study?

5. Does the difference in the focus of the group intervention have an effect on the grade point averages of the students?

6. Is there a correlation between the changes in selfesteem and the changes in grade point averages? Definition of Terms

Self-concept: an organized configuration of perceptions of

the self which are admissible to awareness (Rogers, 1951) (descriptive).

Self-esteem: a personal judgement of worthiness expressed in the attitudes the individual holds toward him or herself (Coopersmith, 1967) (evaluative). For purposes of this study,










we will divide self-esteem into three elements. These are body image--how one perceives him/herself physically; selfcompetence--how the person perceives his/her abilities; and social/personal acceptability--how one accepts one's characteristics and how he/she thinks that others accept him/her. Organization of the Remainder of the Study

Chapter II will review the published empirical studies related to this investigation.

Chapter III will describe the population, sample, experimental methods, assessment instruments to be used, and the statistical analyses to be utilized in the study.

Chapter IV will report the analyses of the data collected.

Chapter V will discuss the conclusions that can be drawn from the results, limitations of the investigation, and recommendations for further study.














CHAPTER II


REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


The focus of the review of the literature contained in this chapter will be on research relevant to the concepts and areas involved in this study. The review is organized into the following categories: (1) elements of self-esteem, (2) self-esteem of Blacks, (3) self-esteem and academic achievement, (4) the effects of study skills and training on academic performance, and (5) group counseling effects on self-esteem and/or academic performance. In a few instances the studies overlap categories.

As noted earlier, the studies in which self-concept has

been defined in evaluative terms have been included. Those in which self-concept is defined as separate and distinct from self-esteem, or in which self-concept is defined in descriptive terms only, have been omitted from the literature review. Elements of Self-Esteem

The references in this section will focus primarily on subjects of college age. There are a few general references I Chat are generalized for all age groups. Several studies involved "late adolescence" which was defined as 18 and 19 year olds. This would correspond with the age of the traditional freshman and sophomore college students.

12







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Wylie (1961) points to the fact that most measures of selfesteem are global estimates. They are based on the assumption that individuals evaluate themselves consistently and uniformly across situations. This assumption has been found faulty by factor analytic studies (Lawson et al., 1979). Researchers found that global estimates of self-esteem did not predict performance in various situations but more specific measures did. The social self-esteem scale of Ziller et al. (1969) did not predict academic performance; Coopersmith's (1967) global measure did. This is the result of the inclusion of questions of academic self-worth on Coopersmith's instrument, while this type of material is not included on the scale by Ziller et al.

Coopersmith stressed the generability and cross-situational stability of self-esteem, but he also recognized that selfesteem might be multifaceted. As cited in Chapter I, Shavelson et al. (1976) identified seven elements of the self-esteem construct. According to their definition, self-esteem is (1) organized, (2) multifaceted, (3) hierarchical, (4) stable (when considered as a general construct) and unstable (situationally),

(5) developemental (in that factors become more differentiated with age), (6) evaluative, and (7) differentiable from're-ated constructs.

Fleming and Watts (1980) examined the hypothesis that selfesteem is a multidimensional construct via factor analysis. They tested 106 sophomore students in a college psychology course








14

on a modified version of Janis and Fields' Feelings of Inadequacy Scale. These scores were compared with the students' scores on the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, Elms' Empathic Fantasy Scale, Rotter's Locus of Control Scale, the AlexanderHusek Anxiety Differential Scale, and Thorndike's Vocabulary Test as a measure of verbal intelligence. Three factors were found and labeled Social Confidence, School Abilities and SelfRegard. The first factor, Social Confidence, related to selfconsciousness in social situations, shyness, and the ability to deal with people in groups generally. The second factor, School Abilities, concerned self-evaluation of scholastic abilities.

The third factor, Self-Regard, was closest in dimension to selfesteem as it is generally conceived. Correlations of total selfesteem with measures of several of the other constructs were consistent with the findings from previous studies. However, the correlations of the factors with these variables revealed that factors were differentially related to the constructs in some cases. These findings would support Shavelson et al.'s conceptualization that self-esteem is also hierarchical.

Killer et al. (1969) propose that the person's response to the social environment is a function of self-esteem. They contend that self-esteem is a component of the self-system which regulates the extent to which the self-system is maintained under conditions of strain, i.e., processing new information regarding the self. For persons with a high level of self-esteem,








15

evaluations of either a positive or negative nature do not evoke an immediate response. The person examines the new information for relevance and meaning before deciding to inculcate the information or disregard it. Persons of low self-esteem do not possess a well-developed conceptual buffer for evaluating stimuli similar to the high self-esteem person. They are field dependent. Thus, they tend to conform to the influence of the environmental circumstances.

Gergen (1977) reports results of a study that support the

proposal of environmental influences on the level of self-esteem. Participants in this research were students at a large university who responded to a part-time job advertisement. During the preliminary screening, each person was seated in a room alone and asked to complete a number of self-rating forms. Included in these forms was Coopersmith's instrument. After each person had completed the forms, the secretary brought in another "applicant" for the position. Actually, the other applicant was a collaborator for the experiment. For forty applicants, the collaborator was presented as a very desirable applicant for the job. He was well-dressed in a business suit and displayed copies of books on statistics and philosophy when he opened his attache case. The other applicants were exposed to the second applicant who was wearing a smelly sweatshirt, torn trousers, and no socks. He appeared dazed by the procedures and displayed a worn copy of a cheap paperback novel. The original applicant was given a second








16

battery of items to assess level of self-esteem after several minutes of exposure to the silent newcomer. The changes in the level of self-esteem for the subjects were significant. Those that were exposed to the disheveled bumpkin increased in the level of self-evaluation; those exposed to the impressive individual dropped sharply in their level of evaluation. Gergen points out that although there was no direct communication with the other person, the social milieu had a direct effect on the individual's personal perception of self.

Theorists from a number of areas, i.e., Freud and Erikson

(Psychoanalytic theory), McCandles (Social Learning theory), and Lerner (Dynamic Interactional theory), have stressed the relationship between one's view of one's body and its effect on the individual's self-esteem. Padin, Learner, and Spiro (1981) conducted a study with 56 male and 96 female students at Penn State to examine the relationship of perceived physical attractiveness and physical effectiveness to the level of self-esteem. They used three scales developed by Learner to assess this relationship. The first scale asked the subjects to judge the physical attractiveness of 28 of their body parts. The second scale asked them to judge the physical effectiveness of these same body parts. The third scale measured self-esteem. A series of characteristics were presented in bipolar continuums, such as mature to immature and capable to not capable, and the student was asked to select which word on the continuum was most like them. The findings








17

revealed that the students' ratings of their bodily attractiveness and effectiveness were intimately related to the degree of positive self-regard they maintained about themselves.

Wylie (1961) includes a review of the research on body image in her survey of the literature on self-concept. She points out that the term has been used in two senses:

(1) S's perceptions of his/her physical characteristics and his/her feelings and
attitudes toward these characteristics;
(2) S's general attitudes which are associated with the body as a social object
(but which have little to do with the actual physical appearance of the individual's body). (pp. 261-65)

She further states that "the body image, in either of these senses, is assumed to be largely or entirely unconscious.11

Cangelosi, Gressard and Mines (1980) did research with

different approaches to improving self-concept of adolescents and college students. Their results did not indicate that one method was more effective than another, but they did conclude that further research on self-concept should include the impact of treatment of the component of body image on the self-concept.


Self-Esteem of Blacks

The majority of the research investigating the self-esteem of Blacks has been done utilizing elementary black students as subjects. Thus, it was necessary to include some of the major studies with this age group in this section.








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Viewed in historical perspective, the direct examination of black self-esteem is a very recent event and almost all of the studies before 1960 were descriptive and impressionistic in nature (Coopersmith, 1975). Wylie's 1961 review of self-concept did not include one study of black self-concept. Her 1976 work mentioned twelve studies connected with Blacks out of a total of 1134 studies reviewed (Stone, 1981).

The classic study cited by most researchers examining the self-esteem of Blacks is the study with dolls done by Clark and Clark (1947). Black children were presented with both black and white dolls. They were asked to respond to the following requests by choosing one of the dolls and giving it to the experimenter:

1. Give me the doll that you like to play with--(a) like best.

2. Give me the doll that is a nice doll.

3. Give me the doll that looks bad.

4. Give me the doll that is a nice color.

5. Give me the doll that looks like a white child.

6. Give me the doll that looks like a colored child.

7. Give me the doll that looks like a Negro child.

8. Give me the doll that looks like you.

Requests 5, 6, and 7 were asked to determine the child's knowledge of racial differences. The results indicated a clearly established knowledge of racial difference. The responses to request 8, designed to determine racial self-identification, revealed that only 66'/ of the total group identified themselves with the black doll.








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Approximately two-thirds of the subjects indicated by their responses to requests 1 and 2 that they liked the white doll "best," and that the white doll is a "nice" doll. Fifty-nine percent of these children indicated that the colored doll "looks bad." Only 38 percent of the children thought that the black doll had a [Inice color." Clark and Clark (1980) repeated this study over twenty years after the original study and obtained similar results.

Researchers interpreted the results of Clarks' study as an indication of self-hate. The black child's preference for white dolls was viewed not only as a preference for whites but also as an emphatic rejection of their own racial group. Clark (1955) points out that a child cannot learn what racial group he/she belongs to without being involved in the larger pattern of emotions and conflicts which are a part of realizing what the society thinks about his/her race.

Kardiner and Ovesey (1964) also investigated self-hatred in Blacks. They utilized Rorschachs, psychoanalytic interviews, and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) to explore self-perceptions of Blacks. Their results indicated a large amount of self-hatred in the group. The assumption in most of these studies is that the Black who feels disdain or hatred for his/her own racial group expresses, at some level, disdain and hatred for him/herself.

Most recent research has produced conflicting results regarding the self-perceptions of Blacks. Hraba and Grant (1979) reported a willingness on the part of black children to identify with their








20

race. Attenborough and Zdep (1973) found that black female children and adolescents have a higher level of self-esteem. Simmons et al. (1978) found that (1) black adolescents have higher self-esteem than whites, and (2) girls of both races have lower self-esteem than boys. Johnsen and Medley (1978) obtained results indicating that 40 percent of black high school seniors ranked above average in self-esteem, and 54 percent of the remaining students were average. Hare (1979) found that black girls occupied a "psychological middleground" in comparison to white females and black males. They scored lower than the white females but higher than black males in self-esteem. Guggenheim (1967) found no racial differences in self-esteem between black, white, and Hispanic elementary students in New York City. Nichols and McKinney (1977) used Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory with elementary students in the state of New York and also found no difference between black and white students.

Some researchers have suggested that the self-perceptions of

Blacks depend on the environment in which they are functioning. Rosenberg and Simmons (1971) state that Blacks are generally much more acutely aware and sensitized to their Blackness when among Whites than when among Blacks. They found that black children in predominantly black schools regard themselves more favorably than the black student in a predominantly white school. Rosenberg and Simmons contend that Blackness becomes "more or less salient and significant depending on the context in which a given event occurs."







21


Findings by Levine (1968) indicated that inner-city children develop a lower self-image when placed in integrated schools. Caplin (1966) compared students in de facto segregated schools versus desegregated schools in New Jersey. He found that both black and white students in desegregated schools had higher levels of self-esteem. Stephen and Rosenfield (1978) obtained results indicating that Blacks from segregated backgrounds had more negative attitudes toward both out and in group members after desegregation than before, but desegregation had little effect on self-esteem. Coopersmith (1975) poses that black students may have an unclear image of themselves as effective learners but are quite clear and positive about themselves regarding their capacities and effectiveness in the broader social world outside of school.

"Experimental research has implicitly and explicitly attributed the change in black self-concept measures to a greater adherence to a black culture orientation" (King & Price, 1979, p.217). There is evidence that the black pride social movement is succeeding in enhancing the self-concept of black children (Zirkel, 1972). Van Koughnett and Smith (1969) reported a significant improvement in the self-concept of black elementary school children participating in a program based on positive reinforcement of the "Black is beautiful" theme. Georgehoff's (1968) study indicated that the self-concept of both black and white children in integrated neighborhood schools improved significantly as a result of being








22

taught a unit on the history of the black American. Both Halpern (1970) and Lessing (1969) found positive correlations between students involved in civil rights movements and/or black power movements and positive self-concepts. Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement

A wealth of information is available on the positive relationship between self-concept and academic achievement of students in general. Less research has been done on self-esteem and its relationship to academic performance. Even less has been done on the self-esteem of Blacks in relation to academic performance. This section will include both of the latter categories.

Zarb (1981) points out that past research has found that academic variables (IQ, achievement and aptitude scores) may account for only 25-50 percent of the variance in academic achievement. Zarb looked at six non-academic variables in 10th grade, low-income, urban students. The variables were study habits, self-concept in relation to peers, acceptance of the educational system, self-concept in relation to family, general achievement, and academic self-concept. He did a stepwise regression analysis with grade point average as the criterion variable. The results indicated that academic self-concept and study habits are significant predictors of GPA.

Coopersmith (1967) ordered the reported GPAs of 69 students into categories of high (A, B+), medium (B, B-, C+), and low (C, C-, D), and compared these to the subjects' scores on the Self-








23

Esteem Inventory (SEI). He noted the great frequency with which low self-esteem persons reported a low average. The percentage of persons with low averages and low self-esteem was 40.7 percent. This was twice that of those with medium self-esteem and low averages (15.4 percent) and those with high self-esteem with low averages (17.3 percent).

The relationship between self-esteem and academic performance has been reported primarily using two different criteria. Comparisons are usually done either between self-esteem and standard achievement test scores or self-esteem and grade point averages. Fitts (197Z) points out that standardized achievement tests are only one of many criteria of academic performance and that test scores probably hold less significance and meaning to the individual than grades. Scores with the Tennessee Self Concept Survey have shown a stronger relationship with GPA than with achievement tests. Fitts contends that this is logical because course grades are more a product of the "total" self than achievement test scores. Also, the student's immediate performance, as reflected in grades, probably has greater significance for his/her self-esteem than scores on an impersonal standardized test.

Rosenberg and Simmons (1971) concur with Fitts that the relationship between self-esteem and grades is stronger than between self-esteem and standardized test scores. They point out that many students do not take standardized achievement tests, and very few take them regularly. Even if the students do take such tests,







24


often the individual does not learn the results, or is unable to interpret the results. Grades, in contrast, are obtained on a regular basis. In their Baltimore study, Rosenberg and Simmons (1971) found the student's global feeling of self-worth is strongly related to his/her success or failure in school. Among the A students, 71 percent had high self-esteem, compared with only 39 percent of those with D and F grades.

Although a positive relationship has been found on all educational levels (Coopersmith, 1967; Frerichs, 1971; Hamachek, 1971; LaBenne & Greene, 1969, Paschal, 1968; Purkey, 1970; Rosenberg, 1965) and for both black and white populations (Caplin, 1966), Felker (1974) raises the question of what mechanisms are operating to produce the relationship. He points out that the individual with low ability who meets failure would be expected to have low self-esteem. But the relationship appears to be based on more than adequate ability. Binder (1975) has found that the level of self-esteem is a significant predictor of academic performance even when ability measures are considered. Felker proposes that self-esteem and academic performance interact. The low level self-esteem could produce lower performance, which in turn would feed the low self-esteem and it, in turn, would produce even lower performance. Purkey (1970) concurs with this explanation. Purkey suggests a continuous interaction between the two; each directly influences the other. A student identified as a "poor" student comes







25


to view him or herself as such and behaves accordingly. However, if the student is led to believe that he/she is capable of achieving well, the student will do so. Banks and Grambs (1972) point out that it is important to note that none of the research reports any evidence of high achievement resulting from low levels of self-esteem. Brookover and Erikson (1969) emphasize this point also. Although a number of studies have found students with high self-concepts of ability attaining low academic achievement, practically no students with low self-concepts of ability were achieving at a high level of performance.

Stanton (1980) points out that many students seeking assistance from university counselors have low levels of self-esteem. The low level of self-esteem results in an inability to cope with their university studies and with lifein general. Study Skills

Very little information was encountered relating study skills to self-esteem. However, the research relating study skills to academic achievement is abundant. Several researchers recognized the need for developing self-esteem and study skills to improve academic performance.

As noted in the previous section, Zarb (1981) found that out of six non-academic variables, academic self-concept and study habits were the only significant predictors of GPAs. Driskel and Kelly (1980) observe that although studies of college students who have inadequate study habits indicate that they need to learn








26

to select, organize and manipulate information, these skills have not been integrated into study skills training. They conducted a study to investigate whether there was a significant difference in GPAs for freshmen who took six weeks of study skills instruction versus those who did not. SAT scores were used as the covariate. Fourteen students were enrolled in a one credit hour study skills class. The class met twice a week for class periods of fifty minutes. A guided notetaking and study skills system developed by the authors was incorporated in the instruction. This system provided instruction and practice in selecting and summarizing important information and observing relationships between given concepts. The lessons combined instruction in higher cognitive skills with conventional study skills instruction. The aim was to guide students in selecting, comprehending, analyzing and organizing information for recall. A review of the content of the sessions included

Session 1: scheduling and general study orientation

Sessions 2-3: notetaking skills

Sessions 4-7: SQ3R study system (Study, Question, Read, Recite, Review)

Sessions 8-11: Test preparation

Session 12: Assessment (criterion referenced test)

The results of Driskel and Kelly's study revealed that the students that took the study skills class obtained a significantly higher GPA at the end of the semester.








27

Weigel and Weigel (1968) present evidence that students

know how to study but do not use the study techniques. Robyak and Downey (1979) add that students often learn study skills through these courses but don't necessarily change their study habits. They have found that whether or not the students change their study habits is dependent on their personality type. Robyak and Downey determined that the best predictors of extended academic performance are past academic performance and the change in study habits made during a study skills course.

Johnson (1975) contends that most study skills instructors

agree that the improvement in study skills would stimulate improvement in level of self-esteem. She conducted a study with 108 metropolitan community college students. All of the students volunteered from behavioral sciences classes. Those desiring to take the study skills course were randomly divided into two groups-an experimental group and a motivated control group. A third group of students volunteered to participate in the pretesting and posttesting but were not interested in taking the study skills course. They were assigned to the unmotivated control group.

The three groups were pretested and posttested using several academic skills tests, i.e., reading, reading rate, verbal recognition, a personality inventory, and a questionnaire to evaluate academic self-esteem. The experimental groups received a three week, nine hour study skills course.








28

Topics included in the course were reading efficiency, comprehension attacks, test study techniques, listening and notetaking, test preparation, test taking, time scheduling, and behavior control.

Results of the study indicated (a) differences on most

variables for the experimental groups over both of the control groups, (b) few differences between the two control groups (motivated vs. unmotivated), and (c) changes in a positive direction on all variables for the experimental group. The researcher recommends the use of skills instruction not only to improve skills but to improve self-esteem.

Kirkland and Hollandsworth (1979) conducted a study with

college students to determine the relationship between test anxiety, study skills, and academic performance. They administered Alpert and Habe's Achievement Anxiety Test (AAT), Sarason's Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) and General Anxiety Scale (GAS) and Brown's Effective Study Test (EST) to 305 undergraduate students in introductory psychology and sociology courses. They found that test-taking skills and test-anxiety contribute significantly to the prediction of grade point average.

Dillard et al. (1977) noted that teaching testwiseness was significantly effective in reducing test anxiety and improving test-score results. However, applied test-taking skills and selfconcept were not significantly improved.








29

Bednar and Weinberg (1970) state that academic underachievement is considered to be a function of both emotional problems and study skills deficits. They submit that a minimum amount of time for a successful study skills course is ten hours.

Parker, Schauble and Mitchell (1979) have developed an eight session group seminar model to increase the study skills and to redefine the self-concept of the participants. They recommend the inclusion of learning strategies, two-way communication, learning styles, note-mAking, test-taking, and academic coping strategies. The authors report that the use of this model with a group of college students yielded successful results in both increasing study skills and improving self-concept. The group was comprised of volunteer students indicating a desire to prepare themselves to succeed in college. The group met once a week for two hours over an eight week period. Parker et al. propose that both study skills and self-concept development should be included in programs designed to assist minority students in succeeding in college. Group Counseling

The final section of the literature review includes research supporting the selection of (1) a group mode of counseling versus an individual method, and (2) specific group activities to be included in the study.

Pollard and Galliano (1982) propound that positive support

and encouragement are two necessary elements in a smooth transition to college for the non-traditional student.








30

They suggest that a network of campus-service support and peer support can greatly enhance the college experience for the non-traditional student. A counseling group can be a place for response to their special needs. Yalom (1975) has found that one of the three outcomes of a group counseling experience perceived by college students is an increase in the level of selfconfidence. The other two are satisfaction with the group and interpersonal learning in social situations.

Cordell (1974), Geisler (1969),Stanton (1980), Hunt and Hardt (1969), King (1974), and Payne and Dunn (1972) found significant increases in level of self-esteem as a result of participation in group counseling. King developed an experimental workshop specifically designed to enhance self-concept of black adolescents. Stanton used a self-enhancement group with egoenhancing activities to encourage students to think more positively about themselves. The activities included acquaintanceship exercises; remembering and sharing success experiences; selfimage projection whereby participants share their images of themselves and receive feedback from others; "nourishing," in which participants focus on things other group members have said or done which made them feel more positive about themselves; trust exercises of a non-verbal kind; and "words that describe me." Twenty low self-concept university students participated in a six-week group that met for two hours each week. Another twenty students participated in the same group experiences, on a residential weekend.








31

Twenty-seven students who were unable to attend either group acted as a control. The student's were administered a face-valid selfconcept scale and the Self-Concept Scale during the

first and last sessions. _,-'n of the Self Enhancement Groups (SEG) increased significantly in Self-esteem. There was no change in the control group. A follow-up study six months later indicated that the increases were maintained for the SEGs.

The application of assertiveness training was used to increase self-esteem by Kornfeld (1974) and Miller (1974). Trotzer and Sease (1971) compared group-centered and topic-centered methods of increasing self-esteem in college students. They did not find a difference in using the two approaches.

A review of the research on group counseling to elevate selfesteem by Cangelosi et al. (1980) indicates that no one type of approach in itself is invariably effective, but certain trends do exist. They suggest that programs that attempt to teach new skills and foster understanding are more successful with older adolescents.

In summary, research on the subject of self-esteem has produced the following findings:

1. Self-esteem is multifaceted.

2. There is a dichotomy in the literature regarding the level of self-esteem of Blacks.

3. There is a consensus of opinion that Black pride and

Black history programs are instrumental in improving self-esteem.

4. A relationship has been found between self-esteem and academic performance.








32

5. A relationship has also been found between study skills and academic achievement.

6. Several authors propose that both self-esteem and study skills are important in improving grade point averages.

7. There is evidence to support the use of a group counseling setting for improving self-esteem and teaching new skills.














CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY


The purpose of this study was to determine if the small

group interventions designed to elevate the level of self-esteem were effective and, if so, was there a concurrent change in the grade point averages of the students. Changes in the level of self-esteem were evaluated by administering the Self-Social Symbols Task by Ziller, Long and Henderson, Coopersmith's Self Esteem Inventory, and by having the students develop a photographic essay before and after the groups. Grade point averages for the semester prior to participation and for the term during which intervention occurred were also compared.


Population

The population for this study included all special admit black students at the University of Florida.

Because of the low enrollment of black students in predominantly white state universities in Florida (the University of Florida has less than 5 percent), the state Board of Regents instituted a policy to accept minority students who do not meet regular admissions requirements. Thus, the University of Florida, along with the other state universities, may admit up to 10 percent 33








34

of its freshman class through this "Special Admission Program.11 Freshmen "special admit" students are provided services by either of two programs on campus, the Division of Student Support and Special Programs (DSSSP) or the Program for Academic Counseling and Tutoring (PACT).

DSSSP is a federal program funded through the Department of Education to assist disadvantaged students in progressing successfully at postsecondary institutions. Disadvantaged students are defined for this program as meeting one of the following criteria: 1) academically disadvantaged, as measured by standardized test scores, i.e., SAT or ACT; 2) economically disadvantaged, as determined by the Department of Labor's poverty index; 3) culturally disadvantaged, if the student is from a rural or isolated area; or 4) physically handicapped. All of the participants in UF's OSSSP were "special admits," thus, falling into category #1. Ninety-eight percent of these students are black. DSSSP provides orientation, special course sections, individual and group counseling, and workshops of special interest to the students, i.e., financial aid, career development, study skills, test-takina skills, etc.

PACT is funded through the Board of Regents and augments the services of DSSSP. It serves the additional freshman special admit students that DSSSP is unable to serve and provides services for all the special admit students during their sophomore year. In addition to counseling and tutoring, PACT also works with orientation








35

and academic advisement. This program has the same racial composition as DSSSP.

The sample for this study was drawn from participants in these two programs.


Sampling Procedures

DSSSP offers special sections for several of the general education courses. Enrollment in these sections is restricted to OSSSP and PACT participants. A new course was developed by the researcher for this study entitled "College Survival Skills." It was offered through the Behavioral Studies Department under the "Special Topics" course designation (BES 2930). The course offered credit for one semester hour as an elective. Two sections of the course were offered. Registration for each section was limited to 24 students.

Students from DSSSP and PACT enrolled in the course on a

voluntary basis. They were informed of the research study involved in teaching the course prior to enrollment and were asked to sign an informed consent form (see Appendix A) on the first day of class. Each section of the course was divided into two groups. Students were randomly assigned to either the study skills or self-esteem group by selecting a number from a hat. The groups were not identified in the class. The students were only made aware that topics of discussion would vary in the two groups but that both groups would focus on surviving in school. Subsequent








36

to the initial class meeting, the two groups from each section met in separate classrooms.


Sample

The sample is comprised of 42 black students who attended the BES 2930 course during the summer 1982. The sample was initially composed of 48 students, but students missing more than two group sessions were eliminated from the sample. Twenty-three of the students participated in one of the two self-esteem groups. Twelve were in one group; eleven were in the other. The nineteen students completing the study skills group were divided with nine in one group and ten in the other.

The male/female breakdown of the group was sixteen males and twenty-six females. The composition of the groups by sex was as follows: 6 males and 6 females in one self-esteem group; 3 males and 8 females in the second self-esteem group; 4 males and

6 females in one study skills group; and 3 males and 6 females in the other study skills group. Instrumentation

Three different instruments were utilized to determine levels of self-esteem: (1) the Self-Social Symbols Task by Ziller, Long, and Henderson, (2) Self-Esteeem Inventory by Coopersmith, and

(3) photo essays developed by each participant.

Self-Social Symbols Task. Killer, Long, and Henderson (1966) have developed three forms of this instrument, one for adults, one








37

for students (grades 5 through college), and one for children (ages 5-9). The student form was used in this study. Each form includes items to measure self-esteem, social interest, selfcentrality, identification, majority identification, complexity, power, openness, inclusion, and marginality. The self-esteem component and the complexity component were evaluated, although five other items from the instrument were used as fillers. Killer et al. (1966) point out that the items for the individual components may be used as separate instruments. They suggest, however, that filler items from the other components be included. (See Appendix B for copy of items.)

The items to measure self-esteem are presented in horizontal or vertical arrays of six circles and a list of significant other people such as a friend, a selfish person, a grandmother, someone you hope to be like, a teacher and yourself. The task requires the subject to assign each person to a circle. The score is the weighted position of the self. In accordance with the cultural norm, positions to the left are associated with higher self-esteem (Ziller et al., 1966). Five items with different sets of "others" are scattered throughout the filler items. To score, the circles are numbered 1 through 6, starting at the right side for the horizontal arrays or at the bottom for the vertical arrays. The sum of the scores on all five items represents the self-esteem score for this instrument.

The self-esteem scale on the student form was found to have a split-half reliability of .80 for 99 high school students and .89








38

for 203 ninth grade students. Validity was determined based on the following results obtained by the authors of the test:

1. Sociometric stars indicated higher self-esteem than
sociometric isolates.

2. Political candidates who won in an election for state
legislature rose in self-esteem in contrast to those
who lost the election.

3. A positive relationship was found between self-esteem
and frequency and consistency of verbal participation
in group therapy.

4. A positive relationship was found between self-esteem
and socioeconomic status.

5. Higher self-esteem was expressed by normals as opposed
to neuropsychiatric patients, as well as by normals as
opposed to behavior problem children.

6. Adolescents with a physical handicap show lower selfesteem than a control group.

The self-esteem component is applicable to this study because it has been found to measure two of the three elements of selfesteem identified for this study, social/personal acceptability and self-competence. Its primary focus is on the first of these two elements.

The Self-Esteem Inventory. The inventory consists of fifty items concerned with the student's self-attitudes in four areas: peers, parents, school, and personal interests (Coopersmith, 1967). The form has been modified by the author for use with different age groups. The form available to the researcher was worded for students living at home with their parents. Therefore, it was necessary to reword a couple of items to refer to wherever they lived, instead of assuming that they lived at home. The term








39

"teacher" was changed to "professor." One-half of the items are presented in positive terms, thus reflecting a positive selfperception. The remainder of the items are stated in a negative manner, indicating a lower level of self-esteem. The individual is given the option of placing a check under the column headed "like me" or "unlike me" for each item. One point is given for each positive item checked according to the above. Those responses representing negative perceptions are not given any points. The final score is a total of the positive responses.

The Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) produced a test-retest

reliability of .88 with a sample of thirty students after a five week interval. A reliability of .70 was obtained with a different sample of 56 students after a three year interval. Coopersmith (1967) suggests that this high correlation in scores after a lapse of three years indicates that the inventory is measuring general self-esteem rather than a situational phenomena.

The SEI was validated on a total of 1,748 students attending the public schools of central Connecticutt. Coopersmith states that the sample was diverse in ability, interest, and social background. The teachers of all the 1,748 students were asked to rate each student on a fourteen-item five-point scale on behaviors presumed to be related to self-esteem. Items in this rating schedule referred to such behaviors as the student's reaction to failure, self-confidence in a new situation, sociability with peers, and the need for encouragement and reassurance. "On theoretical and








40

empirical grounds, the behaviors were assumed to be an external manifestation of the person's prevailing self-appraisal" (Coopersmith, 1967). In the initial use of the Behavior Rating form, two raters were used for each child to test crossrater reliability. Test-retest reliability was also done before it was assumed that the test was valid. The correlation between the two was .73.

The SEI is applicable for this study because the items included measure all three of the elements of self-esteem identified for investigation. There is only one item that addresses body image specifically. Self-competence and social/personal acceptability are the primary foci of the instrument. (See Appendix C for copy of instrument.)

Photographic Essay. Ziller and Combs (1977), Amerikaner,

Schauble, and Ziller (1980), Ziller and Lewis (1981), and Ziller, Vera, and Santoya (in press) have developed a method of utilizing

a photographic essay describing "Who Am I?" to evaluate the level of self-esteem and/or self-concept. Several advantages have been found in using this approach. "Respondents are able to represent themselves in any framework that they please; the approach is simple; and, there is a quality of rich revealingness about the self-representation" (Ziller et al., in press). In addition, the photographic, non-verbal approach requires gross information reduction, is phenomenological, and may be the preferred representational system for subjects with communication handicaps.







41


Students were given a sheet with instructions for creating the photo essay. (See Appendix 0.) They were also provided with an instamatic camera with the film already loaded and a flash cube. Once they took their photos, they returned the camera with the film still in place. Development of the film was the responsibility of the researcher. After the pictures were developed, they were returned to the students for completion- of the tasks delineated on the instruction sheet. That is, each student ordered his/her photos and placed a sentence statement on the back of it explaining why this picture tells who they are. The researchers of this method have requested various numbers of photos for this exercise, ranging in number from three to twelve per person. For this study, four pictures were requested initially, and another four were requested at the completion of the groups. This number was chosen for economical purposes.

Ziller et al. (1977, 1981, in press) have looked at a number

of categories in analyzing the content of the sets of photographs. These include:

1. self--percentage of photographs with self included.

2. other people--percentage of photographs including
people other than the self.
3. groups--percentage of photographs showing two or more
people.
4. groups larger than three--percentage of photographs
showing three or more people.
5. father--percentage of photographs showing father.

6. mother--percentage of photographs showing mother.









42

7. self holding a child.

8. home--percentage of photographs showing individual's
home.

9. school--percentage of photographs showing a school.

10. aesthetic orientation--percentage of photographs focusing
upon one or more of the following: potted plants, trees,
shrubs, flowers, scenes, art objects.

11. hedonic tone--percentage of photographs showing people
where at least one person is smiling.

12. activities--percentage of photographs showing at least
one person doing something (such as being involved in a
sport) or showing a symbol of an activity (such as sports
equipment).

13. music or art activities--a special subunit of the activities category.

14. possessions--percentage of photographs focusing upon
belongings of the individual, such as a watch or record, or an object of future possession such as an automobile.

15. religion--percentage of photographs which include a symbol
of religion such as a church, cross, statue of a religious
person, or book about religion.

16. game--percentage of photographs depicting a game, such
as chess.

17. toys--percentage of photographs showing objects such as
dolls.

18. range of orientation--the total number of the above
categories (1-17) which are used in coding a set of
photographs.

Inter-rater reliability for these categories ranged from .50 to .99 (Ziller et al., in press).

Categories # 1, 2, 3, 9, 12, and 14 were looked for in the photographs including the self were of particular interest. The assumption is that individuals that are comfortable with their body








43

image are more inclined to include themselves in the picture than those who are not comfortable with their body image. The number of photographs including others and/or groups were counted in looking at social acceptability. Pictures that include referEnce to being a student were looked at in terms of self-competence. Activities and possessions were viewed to determine if they have a relationship to one of the three elements of self-esteem being evaluated. A numerical score was determined by adding the total number of categories included and how many of each category. Several categories may be included on each photo, and a category may be repeated on several photos.

Killer et al. (in press) submit that the auto-photographic approach compels consideration of the environment in understanding persons. Thus, it is proposed that the data-collection approach, auto-photography, compels ecological validity to interpersonal understanding.


Research Procedures

As indicated in the section describing the sample, the students were divided into four small groups; two self-esteem groups and two study skills groups. The groups initially contained an equal number of students, but attrition of six students resulted in nine and ten students each in the study skills groups and eleven and twelve students each in the self-esteem groups.

All the groups met three times a week for one hour sessions

for six weeks, for a total of eighteen sessions. A group counseling








44

approach was utilized in both groups. Topics were introduced by the group leader, but the group participants were encouraged to actively participate in the discussion in both types of groups.

The self-esteem groups focused on elevating the level of

self-esteem of the group members. Topics of discussion for these groups included Black history, physical characteristics of Blacks, being black on a white campus, sharing of photo essays developed by the group members, and visits with black role models on campus. Three black role models were invited to talk with the group. A black female psychologist from the counseling center met for one session with each of the groups. A black male professor who directs the Afro-American Studies Department also met for one session with each of the self-esteem groups. A black male graduate student did likewise. These three persons were chosen because they represent different levels of success. The students can foresee being a graduate student in the nearer future than the other positions. The researcher also felt that it was important to include a successful black female. All three were asked to share their personal experiences with barriers to succeeding in college and how they overcame these.

The study skills groups focused on the traditional topics that are usually covered by "special programs" for disadvantaged students. Study habits and techniques, time management, note-taking and outlining skills, test-taking skills, library skills, and the academic regulations of the institution were covered by this group.








45

All groups included sessions on assertiveness training and dealing with test-anxiety. A detailed description of each session for both type group is included in Appendix F. (See Treatment Procedures.)

Each participant completed the pre- and post-assessments

during the first and last group meetings respectively. All of the members of each group were assured that they would be provided the opportunity to participate in subsequent groups which would provide the information that was not provided to their particular group during the study. They were also assured of confidentiality regarding their responses on the instruments and on information divulged in the groups. No one was requested to place names on any of the instruments completed. They were asked to place the last four digits of their social security number only. The students were informed that the data wouId be analyzed collectively. Therefore, their individual progress or lack of progress would not be delineated in the study. All of this information was explained prior to their participation in the group and they were asked to sign an informed consent form (Appendix A).

Two trained counselor educators were the leaders for the groups. One of the counselors works for the DSSSP program, the other for the PACT program. Each counselor worked with all four groups to control for individual differences in counseling style. They exchanged groups based on their preferred topics for discussion. Resource persons were brought in for the Black history sessions, study skills, library skills, test-anxiety, and role modeling.








46

Experimental Design. A randomized experimental groups, pretest-posttest design will be used (see Figure 1).

Independent variable: type of group intervention

Covariate: pretest scores on self-esteem instruments, GPAs Dependent variables: posttest scores on self-esteem instruments, GPAs

Experimental groups: (1) two self-esteem groups

(2) two study skills groups Hypotheses

1. Null Hypothesis: there is no significant difference
between the sum of the scores on the pretests and
posttests for self-esteem.

2. Null Hypothesis: there is no significant difference
between the two kinds of groups on the sum of the
scores for the tests.

3. Null Hypothesis: there are no significant differences
in the change in the level of self-esteem as measured
by Self-Social Symbols Task for the two kinds of groups.

4. Null Hypothesis: there are significant differences in
the change in the level of self-esteem as measured by
Self-Esteem Inventory for the two kinds of groups.

5. Null Hypothesis: there are no significant differences
in the change in the level of self-esteem as measured
by photographic essay for the two kinds of groups.

6. Null Hypothesis: there are no significant differences
in the change in the grade point averages for all of
the participants in the study.

7. Null Hypothesis: there are no significant differences
in the change in grade point averages for the two kinds
of groups.

8. Null Hypothesis: there is no relationship between the
change in the level of self-esteem and the change in
grade point averages.








47





EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN





Group Pretests Treatment Posttests


Self-Esteem Group A TI XA T2

Self-Esteem Group B T1 X A T2

Study Skills Group A T1 XB T2

Study Skills Group B TI XB T2




Randomized Experimental Groups Pretest--Posttest Figure 1








48

Data Analysis

All of the instruments were hand-scored by the researcher.

Raw scores were used for computing purposes in all of the analyses. Scores on the self-esteem component of the Self-Social Symbols Task (SSST) can range from 5 points to 35 points. The Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) has a range of possible scores from 0 to 50 points. One point was given for each category (self, others, groups, and/or school) included in a photograph. Thus, sixteen points could be accrued for the four photographs. Grade point averages for the University of Florida range from 0.0 to 4.0.

The corrected t-test was used to test hypotheses #1 and #6. This test was selected because the pretest and posttest scores and GPAs are from a single sample. Thus, the data is comprised of pairs of measurements. These may be correlated. In this type of design, a test for the significance of the difference between the two means is recommended (Ferguson, 1959).

The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used for evaluating

the data to determine if Null Hypotheses #2-5 and #7 were acceptable. This means of analysis was used because the groups might differ in the mean scores for each measurement on the pretest. The use of the ANCOVA design statistically controls any initial differences in the students which might have been present and which confound differences between the groups of students (Huck et al., 1974). Utilizing this method, an adjustment is made on the dependent variable means. Even if the means for the group were identical,








49

the ANCOVA would have been used, since it is a more powerful statistical analysis.

An initial test was done to check the assumption of homogeneity of variance since the N's for the group were not identical.

Initial assessments were also done to test the assumptions of common slope and linearity.

Since these assumptions were confirmed, the posttest scores on each instrument, the total score for the three instruments, and post grade point averages were analyzed separately using an ANCOVA design with the appropriate covariate in each analysis. Analyses of covariances were also done to determine if there were any differences between the male and female participants in the groups.

A Product-Moment Correlation (Pearson) was computed to determine if there is a co-relationship between the change in the level of self-esteem (total score) and the grade point average (Null Hypothesis #8). This particular correlational technique was used because both variables have continuous scores.

A course evaluation was also developed for each kind of

group (see Appendix E ). The two evaluations were designed using the same format. Some of the questions were identical, i.e.:

1. What did you like the most about the class?

2. What did you like the least about the class?

3. What would you like to see added to the course?

4. What would you like to see deleted from the course?

The participants were asked to rate the components of their respective class on a continuum from not helpful to very helpful using








50

a Likert-type scale from 0-4. Some of the components were common to both types of groups: size of group, group discussions, guest speakers, and assertiveness training. Others differed. For the self-esteem group the additional items were: Black Rhapsody tape, Black history presentation by black graduate student Charles English, being black on a white campus discussion, presentation by black psychologist Dr. Rosie Bingham, and sharing of photographic essay. The additional components for the study skills groups were: test-taking skills, test anxiety discussion, relaxation techniques, time management, note-taking and outlining skills.

Responses to the open-ended questions were noted and tallied if a response was given more than once. Mean scores were calculated for the Likert-type scale responses. The components were then ranked by mean score.


Limitations

Two limitations were recognized by the researcher in the

selection of the sample. The sample was composed of all "special admit" students because they are the focus of the population for which the study was designed. Yet, having a select group of students such as this group yields a very homogeneous group for evaluation. This may be viewed as a severe limitation by some researchers, but the researcher for this study proposes that this group of students is relatively homogenous for the same characteristics at other institutions also.








51

The other limitation is the fact that the students volunteered to enroll in the course and participate in this study. The fact that these students were seeking some assistance with increasing their grade point averages may indicate a higher level of motivation to improve.














CHAPTER IV


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Data collected for analysis in this study included pretest and posttest scores on the self-esteem component of the Self-Social Symbols Task (SSST), pretest and posttest scores on the Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI), pretest and posttest scores on the photographic essays developed by each student, and grade point averages for the semester prior to participation in the group and for the semester during which participation in the group occurred. Data was collected for a total of forty-two students. Results

Self-Social Symbols Task. The range of scores possible on the self-esteem component of the SSST is 5-35 points. For the sample involved in this study, the scores ranged from 23 to 35 points on the pretest with a mean score of 30 points. For the posttest the range was 19-35 with a mean score of 29.5 points for the total group. A breakdown of the scores by group is given on the data summary chart (see Table 1).

Self-Esteem Inventory. Scores on the SEI could range from 0-50. The range of scores obtained on the pretest was from 18 to 45 with a mean score of 33.7. The mean score on the posttest was 35.2 with a range of 27-45.

52









TABLE 1


Summary of Data



Pre-test Post-test
Assessment
Form Group Min Max Mean Min Max Mean


SSST Self-esteem A 27 35 30.8 22 35 30.9
Self-esteem B 23 35 29.7 20 35 29
Study skills A 23 38 30.4 19 32 28.7
Study skills B 24 33 32.2 27 31 29.2

SEI Self-esteem A 31 45 37.9 29 45 34.7
Self-esteem B 18 41 33.2 27 41 35
Study skills A 26 41 30.4 30 40 34.7
n9
Study skills B 26 42 32.1 C 41 33.1

PE Self-esteem A 4 8 4.8 4 8 4.6
Self-esteem B 4 9 6 4 8 5.4
Study skills A 4 8 5 4 7 5
Study skills B 4 8 5 4 8 5

GPA Self-esteem A 1.0 3.43 2.29 1.64 4.0 2.73
Self-esteem B 0.0 3.25 2.3 1.16 4.0 2.52
Study skills A 0.0 2.5 1.77 1.75 4.0 2.66
Study skills B 1.0 2.6 2.19 1.5 2.5 2.26

Ln
w








54

Photographic Essay. The scoring system devised for the photographic essay yielded a possible range of 4-16 points for four pictures. Scores ranged from 4 to 9 points on the first set of pictures with a mean score of 5.3. On the second set of pictures the range narrowed to 4-8 with a mean score of 5.0.

Grade Point Averages. The University of Florida utilizes a 0.0 to 4.0 grading system. During the semester prior to the students' participation in the groups, GPAs ranged from 0.0 to 3.43 with a mean GPA of 2.14. GPAs for the term during which the students participated in the group were calculated omitting the grade for the BES 2930, because the criteria for receiving an A in the course differed from the traditional course requirements. Grading was based on attendance, participation in the groups, and completion of the pretests and posttests for the BES 2930. Thus, most of the students received an A in the course, which may have inflated the term GPA if it were not omitted. GPAs for the term, with the deletion of the indicated grade, ranged from 1.16 to 4.0 with a mean GPA of 2.5.


Discussion

A correlated t-test was calculated on the sum of the pretest and posttest scores for self-esteem to determine if there was a significant difference between these two groups of scores. A correlated t-test was also computed to assess if there was a significant difference between the GPAs for all the participants prior to and after participation in the groups.










TABLE II


SUMMARY ANALYSIS





Overall Self-Esteem Group Study Skills Group


Variable Mean Stand. Dev. Mean Stand. Dev. Mean Stand. Dev


SSST Pretest 30.07 3.45 30.26 3.05 29.84 3.96

Posttest 29.52 3.94 36.41 5.02 28.95 2.93

SF1 Pretest 33.69 5.87 35.65 5.93 31.32 4.96

Posttest 35.22 4.47 36.41 5.02 33.84 3.35

Photos Pretest 5.29 1.39 5.32 1.53 5.26 1.28

Posttest 4.97 1.24 4.95 1.35 5.00 1.15

GPA Before 2.15 0.76 2.29 0.83 1.98 0.64

After 2.52 0.68 2.60 0.78 2.42 0.54
qn
(1"








56

An analysis of covariance was performed on the scores for each mode of assessment of self-esteem, both separately and collectively, to determine if there were any significant differences in the post-treatment levels of self-esteem for the two kinds of groups. An analysis of covariance was also done on the grade point averages to establish if there was a significant difference in grade point averages for the two different kinds of groups.

In addition, a correlational study was done to measure for a relationship between the change in level of self-esteem and the change in grade point averages. The difference in the sex of the students with the groups was also examined in relation to the change in level of self-esteem and grade point averages.

The discussion of the analyses of the results is arranged according to the hypotheses presented in Chapter III.

Null Hypothesis #1. There is no significant difference between the sum of the scores on the pretests measuring the level of self-esteem and the sum of the scores on the posttests for each participant in the sample.

A correlated t-test was used to test this hypothesis. The formula t =U / lu was selected for the calculation, with -9 representing the mean difference in the pretests and posttests scores and S D representing the mean standard deviation. A t-score of

0.782 was obtained with 36 degrees of freedom. This score is not significant at the .05 level of confidence. The null hypothesis must be accepted for this comparison. The composite scores for all










TABLE 3


T-test and Correlation


Degrees
Comparison Test t or r of Significant*
Freedom

Pretest and Posttest Correlated t= .782 41 no
scores on S-E t
instruments (SUM)


GPAs prior to group Correlated t= 3.93 41 yes
and post-group t
GPAs


Change in self-esteem Pearson r= .13 very low
and change in GPA Product- correlation
moment




*At .05 level of confidence



Cn








58

of the self-esteem instruments do not differ significantly from pretesting to posttesting.

Null Hypothesis #2. There is no significant difference

between the two kinds of groups in level of self-esteem as measured by the sum of the scores on the three self-esteem instruments at the conclusion of the groups.

An analysis of covariance was done utilizing the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) computer program package to calculate a Type IV Sum of Squares, the F value, the degrees of freedom, and the level of probability for the F value. This is accomplished through the use of a General Linear Models Procedure. The sum of the posttests scores was identified as the dependent variable with the type of group as the independent variable. Pretest scores were introduced into the calculation as the covariate. An F value of 0.42 was obtained from this analysis with one degree of freedom. This value is not significant at the .05 level of confidence. The null hypothesis was accepted for this comparison of the groups. There was no significant difference in the scores for the two types of groups.

The total scores for self-esteem were also examined for differences between the two sexes and for differences by sex between the two kinds of groups. An analysis of covariance yielded an F value of 0.03 with one degree of freedom when the males and females were compared without the designation of group membership. This is an insignificant score at the .05 alpha level. Thus, the










TABLE 4


Analysis of Covariance by Group


Adjusted
Assessment Group Mean* F-value Significant**

SSST Self-esteem 29.76 18.02 yes
Study skills 28.98

SET Self-esteem 35.18 1.11 no
Study skills 34.78

PE Self-esteem 4.93 .05 no
Study skills 5.02

Sum of Self-esteem 69.87 .42 no
S-E scores Study skills 68.78

GPA Self-esteem 2.54 5.28 yes
Study skills 2.37


*Post-test mean after adjustment for pretest scores
*For one degree of freedom at .05 level of confidence










TABLE 5


Analysis of Covariance


Females Males
Adjusted
Assessment Group Mean* F-value Significant"* Mean F-value Significant** SSST Self-esteem 29.83 2.8ys29.69 2.6n
Study skills 29.32 2.8ys28.41 2.6 n

SEI Self-esteem 35.04 .7 o34.58 1.5n
Study skills 35.48 .79no1.09n PE Self-esteem 5.34 0. o4.5 .9n
Study skills 4.73 0. o5.27 .9 n

Sum of Self-esteem 70.21 .0 o68.77 36n
S-E scores Study skills 69.53 .0 o67.07 36n

GPA Self-esteem 2.72 4.8ys2.26 .7n
Study skills 2.44 4.8ys2.26 .7 n


*Post-test mean after adjustment for pretest scores

*For one degree of freedom at .05 level of confidence








61

assumption must be made that there is no significant difference in level of self-esteem between the males and females as a result of participating in any of the groups. There were also no significant differences found between the two kinds of groups for either sex. An F-value of 0.02 was obtained when comparing the females in the two different kinds of groups. For the comparison of males the F-value was also O.C2. With one degree of freedom for each of these analyses, neither one of these values was significant at the .05 alpha level. No significant difference was found between the females in the self-esteem groups versus the females in the study skills groups. Nor were there any differences found in the level of self-esteem of the males in the different types of groups.

Null Hypothesis #3. There is no significant difference between the two kinds of groups in level of self-esteem as measured by the Self-Social Symbols Task (SSST) at the end of the groups.

An analysis of covariance was computed with the posttest scores on the SSST as the dependent variable, the pretest scores on the SSST as the covariate, and the type of group as the independent variable. The analysis produced an F-value of 18.02. For one degree of freedom this value is significant at the .0001 alpha level, which is a much higher level of significance than the .05 level required for this study. The null hypothesis can be rejected. A significant difference was found between the two groups on the SSST scores. A review of the mean scores for the groups reveals that both of the study skills groups' scores decreased on the








62

posttest, while the scores for the self-esteem groups remained relatively stable.

An analysis of covariance for the two kinds of groups by sex reveals that there is a significant difference between the groups for females, but not for the males. An F-value of 23.08 was generated for the comparison of females in the different kinds of groups. For the males the F-value was 2.66. Both analyses involved one degree of freedom. In congruence with the comparisons for the total group, females in the study skills groups had lower self-esteem than the females in the self-esteem groups at the end of the study when compared using only the SSST scores. The males in the two kinds of groups did not differ.

Null Hypothesis #4. There is no significant difference

between the two kinds of groups in level of self-esteem as measured by the Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) at the end of the groups.

A comparison of the scores of the two groups on the SEI by an analysis of covariance produced no significant differences at the .05 level of confidence. The computed F-value was 1.11. For one

degree of freedom this score does not meet the minimum for significance. The null hypothesis must be accepted in this comparison.

An analysis by sex between the groups for the SEI resulted in no significant differences either. A comparison of the females yielded a 0.79 F-value. An F-value of 1.05 was obtained for the males. Neither of these values are significant for one degree of freedom at an alpha level of .05.








63

Null Hypothesis #5. There is no significant difference

between the two kinds of groups in level of self-esteem as measured by the photographic essays.

An analysis of covariance on the posttest scores for the

photographic essays generated an F-value of 0.05. For one degree of freedom this value is not significant at the .05 level of confidence. Therefore, the null hypothesis must be accepted for this comparison also.

A look at the results of this analysis by sex also produced

insignificant values. A value of 0.00 was obtained for the females. For males the value was 0.49. Neither of these met the criteria for one degree of freedom at the designated level of significance.

Null Hypothesis #6. There is no significant difference

between the grade point averages for the semester prior to participation in the group and the grade point averages (minus the grade for BES 2930) for the term during which the groups took place.

A correlated t-test was calculated to determine if there was a significant difference between the grade point averages for each individual. The same t-score formula that was used to test hypothesis #1 was computed for this assessment. A t-score of 3.93 was obtained. For 41 degrees of freedom, this value is significant at the .001 alpha level. Therefore, the null hypothesis can be rejected in this case. A review of the results shows that there is an increase in the mean grade point averages for all groups.








64

Null Hypothesis #7. There is no significant difference between the two kinds of groups in grade point averages earned during the term that they participated in the groups.

An analysis of covariance was done on the grade point

averages to determine if there was a difference between the groups. The analysis was calculated with the grades for the term during which the groups took place as the dependent variable and the group in which they participated as the independent variable. GPAs for the previous semester were used as the covariate. An F-value of 5.28 was generated from the analysis. This value is significant at the .027 level of probability for one degree of freedom. The null hypothesis for this comparison can be rejected.

There is a significant difference between the two groups when GPAs are considered. A look at the adjusted means for the groups for GPAs demonstrates that the participants in the self-esteem groups did significantly better for the term than those in the study skills groups.

A look at the difference in performance by sex reveals that there is a significant difference between the females in the two kinds of groups. An F-value of 4.98 was produced. This is significant at a .03 alpha level for one degree of freedom. Feinales in the self-esteem groups attained higher GPAs than those in the study skills groups. However, there was no significant difference for the males in the two kinds of groups. The F-value of 0.07 was obtained for the males. Mean GPAs were lower overall for the males.








65

Null Hypothesis #8. There is no relationship between the change in level of self-esteem and the change in grade point averages for the participants in the groups.

A Pearson product moment correlation was calculated to determine if there is a relationship between the difference in the sum of the scores on the pretests and posttests for level of self-esteem and the difference in the grade point averages for the semester prior to participation in one of the groups and for the term during which participation took place. The correlation coefficient obtained was equal to .13. This low correlation between the two differences necessitates an acceptance of the null hypothesis. There is no significant relationship between a change in self-esteem and a change in grade point average.

A compilation of the course evaluations produced the following assessment by the participants in the groups.

1. The group discussions were liked most by the majority of the participants (54 percent).

2. The fact that the course was only offered for one

credit hour was reported most often as the thing they liked least about the course (19 percent). However, 42 percent of the participants did not respond to this question.

3. Group discussions were ranked highest from the components common to both groups (R = 3.88 on a 4 point scale).

4. Relaxation techniques for dealing with test-anxiety

wereranked highest for components offered only in the study skills groups (R = 3.44).








66

5. Dr. Rosie Bingham's presentation on giving positive feedback was rated highest for the components unique to the self-esteem group (R = 3.87).

6. Only 21 percent of the participants -_-S.ponded to "What would you like to see added to the cours-:,"'' Only two persons responded similarly. They recommended showing a "film on Blacks."

7. There were no responses to the question "What would you like to see deleted from the course?" except the word "nothing."

See Appendix E for a complete tally of the evaluations.

Summary of Discussion. Three of the null hypotheses were rejected. There is a significant difference between the groups on the Self-Social Symbols Task. There was also a significant difference in the grade point averages prior to the groups in comparison with those for the term during which the groups occurred. The groups also differed significantly in grade point averages. It was necessary to accept the remainder of the null hypotheses because of insignificant results.














CHAPTER V


CONCLUSIONS


The final chapter will address three areas based on the findings reported in Chapter IV. The conclusions that can be drawn will be discussed. Limitations of the study will be delineated, and recommendations for application and further research will be given.


Conclusions

Six questions were posed in Chapter I of this manuscript. This section will attempt to answer these questions based on the results obtained from the study.

Is there a significant change in the level of self-esteem of the participants as a result of the group interventions? A comparison of the sum of the pretest and posttest scores for the three self-esteem instruments indicates that there was not a significant change in the level of self-esteem. The mean scores for the pretests and posttests differed by only 0.63 points. It is important to note, however, that the verbal feedback received from the participants in both kinds of groups and the observed behavioral changes indicated that there was a change in the level of self-esteem of the students involved in the study. Although the individuals did not use the term "self-esteem," they made comments 67








68
at the end of the groups, such as "I feel more confident in myself as a student;" "I am surer that I can be successful now. "I feel better about myself as a student at UF," "I'm not afraid to speak in class now;" etc. The behaviors observed that were evidence of these different evaluations of themselves included more participation in group discussions by those who were very quiet in the beginning of the groups; increased use of positive statements about themselves versus the put-downs that they verbalized initially; and more use of eye contact in communicating by those who initially behaved in a very "shy" manner.

Does the difference in the type of group interventions have an effect on the change in level of self esteem? Grouping the data according to the type of group interventions that the students receive and then analyzing the results did not reflect a significant difference in the pretests and posttests scores between the groups. It appears that the type of group interventions did not have an effect on the change in scores on these instruments.

Is there a difference in the change of level of self-esteem as measured by different instruments which focus on different elements of self-esteem? This question can be answered in the affirmative. There is apparently a difference in how each of the instruments reflects level of self-esteem. There was a signifi-dant difference between the two kinds of groups on the SelfSocial Symbols Task. However, there were no significant differences for either the Self-Esteem Inventory or the photographic essay.








69

Scores remained relatively stable for the self-esteem groups on the SSST but decreased slightly for both of the study skills groups. Scores increased for one of the self-esteem groups on the SEI but decreased for the other self-esteem group. However, both of the study skills groups increased on the SEI posttest. On the photographic essays, both of the self-esteem groups decreased slightly. The mean scores for both of the study skills groups did not change at all from pretest to posttest. Overall, there was less change in the scores on the photographic essays for all groups. The scores also varied less from individual to individual on the photographic essay. Although there was a possibility of earning sixteen points on a set of four pictures, only one person in the entire sample acquired over half of those points. The categories portrayed on the photographs were quite limited. It is also important to note that the participants in all of the groups were very reluctant to participate in this activity, although all of the cameras and the film were provided by the researcher and the development of the film was taken care of by the researcher. There was a noticeable lack of pictures of the participants themselves in the essays. Pictures focused on significant others, groups of friends, activities, environments, and possessions.

The SSST was identified as an instrument to measure the

social/personal acceptability and self-competence components of self-esteem. Its primary focus was assessed to be social/personal








70

acceptability. The fact that it was the only instrument for which significant differences were obtained, and these differences were in the direction anticipated by the researcher, support its validity for measuring what it was purported to measure. The congruence with behavioral changes in the students further confirms this.

The foci for the SEI involved the same components as for the SSST. It was perceived, however, that the two components were more equally represented on this instrument. The SEI also included one item related to the third component. The fact that both study skills groups obtained higher scores on this instrument on the posttest may indicate that scores on this test are more valid for self-competence.

The photographic essays were projected to be indicative of body image and social/personal acceptability. Self-competence was expected to also be reflected through the school and activities categories. The narrowness of focus of the photos limits interpretation. Developing positive body images was one of the objectives of the self-esteem groups. Although these were the groups whose scores were slightly lowered on the posttest, this score does differentiate between those pictures that included self and those that did not. It is conceivable that the categories that were eliminated were other than that of "self."

Is there a difference between the grade point averages for the semester prior to participation in the group and for the








71
semester during which the group took place? The significant difference between the GPAs for the two terms yields a positive response for this question. Mean GPAs for all of the groups increased for the second term.

Does the difference in the focus of the group intervention have an effect on the grade point averages of the students? In addition to there being an overall significant increase in grade point averages, there was also a significant difference between the two kinds of groups for these increases. Students in the self-esteem groups attained GPAs that were significantly higher than those of members of the study skills groups.

Is there a correlation between the changes in self-esteem and the changes in GPAs? The correlation between the changes in self-esteem and GPA were low. This was to be expected after the preceding analyses were done, because there was a significant change in one of these variables (GPA) while there was no difference in the other variable (self-esteem). Perhaps if a correlational study was done for the SSST only and the GPAs, the correlation might be higher.

Research questions were not posed at the beginning of the study to evaluate if there were any differences between males and females in the groups because it was uncertain if there would be enough male participants to compare. Males do not typically participate as actively in the services provided by DSSSP and PACT as the female students. In this study there were fewer male








72

participants than females, but there were enough to analyze their scores for significant differences. There were no significant differences between the males and females overall. The females did tend to have higher scores on all of the instruments and to have higher GPAs. However, significant differences were observed between the females in the two kinds of groups for the SSST and for GPAs. The difference in the scores for the females was probably the reason for the significant differences for the groups, since there were no significant differences between the males in the two different kinds of groups for any of the comparisons.

A review of the conclusions drawn reveal that although there is no indication that the level of self-esteem changed except by the SSST considered independently and by observations by the researcher, the groups in which self-esteem interventions were the focus had larger increases in grade point averages. Another observation of considerable value is that all of the students appear to have benefited from participation in a group, irrespective of the type intervention, since all improved in grade point averages. The fact that retention was higher in the self-esteem groups than in the study skills groups may also be an indication of the effectiveness of the group. Only one student dropped out of one of the self-esteem groups, in opposition to the five students that did not complete the study skills groups.








73

Limitations

The primary limitation for generalizing the results from this study is the fact that the groups were held during a six-week summer term. This resulted in an intense six weeks of intervention, with the participants meeting three times a week. Spreading the groups out over a full semester might either increase or decrease the effect of the intervention. Grade point averages may also differ if the study was done during a regular semester rather than the shortened summer term. However, the differences for the two time spans may balance out. Although the students are enrolled in fewer courses during a summer term, the work load is intensified to cover the same amount of material in a shorter amount of time. During the regular semester, students are enrolled in more courses but have more time to learn the information and complete course requirements.

The other limitation is using only the self-report method for evaluating level of self-esteem. As Coombs (1964) points out, often self-report methods are not sensitive to the overall level of self-esteem, but reports how the individual feels at the particular moment when self-regard is assessed. The participants in the study completed the posttests during the week of finals. It is possible that their feelings regarding their worth may have been altered during the particular time period.









74

Recommendations and Implications

It is recommended that similar studies on this topic include a method for assessing the level of self-esteem other than self-report. The observations of the researcher in this study support the utilization of a behavioral checklist in either a pretest and posttest format or as an ongoing evaluation. There are some behavioral checklists that have been used by other researchers to evaluate self-esteem. One might be developed that was appropriate for the population.

Other suggestions include following the grade point averages of the participants for a subsequent semester. There has been evidence to support the phenomenon of changes in self-esteem not taking place after intervention until up to six months later. It might also be valuable to repeat the administration of the self-esteem instruments six months after the termination of the groups. Conducting the same study during the regular semester in opposition to the summer term might be informative regarding the difference in a short, intense intervention versus intervention over a longer period of time.

There are two implications important to educators and counselors. The results indicate that GPAs increased during the term of intervention for the students in all of the groups. Prior research had provided evidence that there was merit for focusing on each of these areas to improve academic performance. A combination of the two interventions should impact grade point








75

averages even more. Research is needed in integrating these two areas of focus into educational programs.

For counselors and educators, more research is needed in

specific types and kinds of activities for developing the selfesteem of students at all levels. A well researched and designed "Henry Carson experience" could bring out the potential in many students whose resources have yet not been recognized.














APPENDIX A


INFORMED CONSENT


In an effort to determine the effectiveness of the "College Survival Skills" class, and to improve the course, different methods will be used in the two sections being offered this term. The purpose of both sections will be to assist you in your academic achievement here at the University of Florida. However, different topics, or a different order of presentation of topics, will be employed in each group. No topics will be included in either section that have not already been determined to be helpful for succeeding in college. No students will be at a disadvantage because of the section to which they are assigned. Students will be assigned to the two sections on a random basis.

You are invited to ask Suzan West, the graduate student who will be collecting and analyzing the data, any questions that you might have regarding the study. You will be free to withdraw your consent to participate in this study at any time without negative consequences.

No monetary compensation will be made to you for your participation but the materials distributed in both sections will be available to all participants at the end of the term, as well as the results of the investigation. The effectiveness of the course

76








77

will be determined by your responses on the questionnaires that you will be asked to complete and your academic success this term.

"I have read and I understand the procedure described above. I agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description."



Signatures:
Student Date


Witness Date










APPENDIX B


SELF-SOCIAL SYMBOLS TASK

by

Ziller, Long, and Henderson

The circle marked "Y" stands for Yourself. The other circles stand for other people. Draw as amny or as few lines as you wish from the circle for Yourself to the circles which stand for other people.





0

0 0


C0



0 09 0




0 0
0 0


0



0

78










The circles below stand for people. Mark each circle with the letter standing for one of the people on this list. Do this in any way you like, but use each person only once and do not omit anyone.

U someone who is not kind H the happiest person you know
P a polite person N a neighbor
S the strongest person Y Yourself
you know

















00 00 C







30

(D Cr CH CP CN CS 0 ( D

These letters stand for the following people: O Doctor,

OF Father, (;r Friend, CH someone you know who is happy,



S P I a politically active person, C a neighbor, C 11 yourself, Psull someone you know who is successful, O someone with whom
you are uncomfortable.

Your task is to arrange these people into as many or as few groups as you wish. In the space below, draw a circle around the letter to stand for each person, putting whichever ones you with together. It does not matter how you arrange the people, but use each person only once and be sure to use all of them. If you think a person does not belong with any of the others, he may be placed by himself. When you have finished grouping the circles, draw a large circle around each of the groups in order to keep them separated.








81

The circles below stand for people. Mark each c i rc I e wi th the letter standing for one of the people in the list. Do -this in any way you like, but use each person only once and do not omit anyone.

Y Yourself C a cruel person
S your sister or someone who W someone who has learned a lot
is most like a sister L a lucky person
a fireman














0. r 0
-0







82
The two figures below stand for two groups of people you know. The small circles stand for other people. Draw a circle to stand for Yourself anywhere in the space below.













Oo0
0



00







83

The circles below stand for people. Mark each circle with the letter standing for one of the people in the list. Do this in any way you like-, but use each person only once and do not omit anyone.

F Father Y Yourself
S your best friend K a kind person
D doctor M someone who makes mistakes












...... .. .









84

The ten circles within the large circle stand for other

people. Choose any one of the ten circles to stand for yourself, and place a "Y" over it.







r7










Suppose the top circle represents the best possible life for you circle that shows where you would be today. and the bottom circle represents the worst. Put a "Y" in the




































I f







06

The circles below stand for people. Put a "Y" to stand for

Yourself.








1 \
























\ )










/\


\/








87

Instructions: Here is a list of words. You are to read the words quickly and check each one that you think describes YOU. You may check as many or as few words as you like, but be HONEST. Don't check words that tell what kind of person you should be. Check words that tell what kind of person you really are.


1. able 22. cheerful 43. friendly

2. active 23. clean 44. funny

3. afraid 24. clever 45. generous

4. alone 25. comfortable 46. gentle

5. angry 26. content 47. glad

6. anxious 27. cruel 48. good

7. ashamed 28. curious 49. great

8. attractive 29. delicate 50. happy

9. bad 30. delightful 51. humble

10. beautiful 31. different 52. idle

11. big 32. difficult 53. important

12. bitter 33. dirty 54. independent

13. bold 34. dull 55. jealous

14. brave 35. dumb 56. kind

15. bright 36. eager 57. large

16. busy 37. fair 58. lazy

17. calm 38. faithful 59. little

18. capable 39. false 60. lively

19. careful 40. fine 61. lonely

20. careless 41. fierce 62. loud

21. charming 42. foolish 63. lucky








88

64. mild 89. small

65. miserable 90. smart

66. modest 91. soft

67. neat 92. special

68. old 93. strange

69. patient 94. stupid

70. peaceful 95. strong

71. perfect 96. sweet

72. pleasant 97. terrible

73. polite 98. ugly

74. poor 99. unhappy

75. popular 100. unusual

76. proud 101. useful

77. quiet 102. valuable

78. quick 103. warm

79. responsible 104. weak

80. rough 105. wild

81. rude 106. wise

82. sad 107. wonderful

selfish 108. wrong

84. sensible 109. young

85. serious

86. sharp

87. silly

88. slow







APPENDIX C

SELF-ESTEEM INVENTORY Please mark each statement in the following way: If the statement describes how you usually feel, put a
check (V) in the column "Like Me."

If the statement does not describe how you usually feel,
put a check (V) in the column "Unlike Me."

There are no right or wrong answers.
Like Me Unlike Me

1. 1 spend a lot of time daydreaming.

2. I'm pretty sure of myself.

3. 1 often wish I were someone else.

4. I'm easy to like.

5. My friends and I have a lot of fun together.

6. 1 never worry about anything.

7. 1 find it very hard to talk in front of the class.

8. 1 wish I were younger.

9. There are lots of things about myself I'd change if I could.

10. 1 can make up my mind without too much
trouble.

11. I'm a lot of fun to be with. 12. 1 get upset easily. 13. 1 always do the right thing. 14. I'm proud of my schoolwork. 15. Someone always has to tell me what to do. 16. It takes me a long time to get used to
anything new.


89








90

Like Me Unlike Me 17. I'm often sorry for the things I do. 18. I'm popular with my peers. 19. My parents usually consider my feelings. 20. I'm never unhappy. 21. I'm doing the best work that I can. 22. 1 give in very easily. 23. 1 can usually take care of myself. 24. I'm pretty happy. 25. 1 would rather associate with people
younger than me.

26. My parents expect too much of me. 27. 1 like everyone I know. 28. 1 like to be called on in class. 29. 1 understand myself. 30. It's pretty tough to be me. 31. Things are all mixed up in my life. 32. Others usually follow my ideas. 33. No one pays much attention to me. 34. 1 never get criticized. 35. I'm not doing as well in school as I'd
like to do.

36. 1 can make up my mind and stick to it. 37. 1 really don't like being a male-female. 38. 1 have a low opinion of myself. 39. 1 don't like to be with other people.




Full Text
36
to the initial class meeting, the two groups from each section
met in separate classrooms.
Sample
The sample is comprised of 42 black students who attended
the BES 2930 course during the summer 1982. The sample was
initially composed of 48 students, but students missing more than
two group sessions were eliminated from the sample. Twenty-three
of the students participated in one of the two self-esteem groups.
Twelve were in one group; eleven were in the other. The nineteen
students completing the study skills group were divided with nine
in one group and ten in the other.
The male/female breakdown of the group was sixteen males and
twenty-six females. The composition of the groups by sex was as
follows: 6 males and 6 females in one self-esteem group; 3 males
and 8 females in the second self-esteem group; 4 males and
6 females in one study skills group; and 3 males and 6 females
in the other study skills group.
Instrumentation
Three different instruments were utilized to determine levels
of self-esteem: (1) the Self-Social Symbols Task by Ziller, Long,
and Henderson, (2) Self-Esteeem Inventory by Coopersmith, and
(3) photo essays developed by each participant.
Self-Social Symbols Task. Ziller, Long, and Henderson (1966)
have developed three forms of this instrument, one for adults, one


Like Me
91
Uni ike Me
40. There are many times when I'd like to
1eave school.
41. I'm never shy.
42. I often feel upset in school.
43. I often feel ashamed of myself.
44. I'm not as nice looking as most people.
45. If I have something to say, I usually say it.
46. People pick on me very often.
47. My instructors make me feel that I'm not
good enough.
48. I often get discouraged in school.
49. I always know what to say to people.
50. My parents understand me.


48
Data Analysis
All of the instruments were hand-scored by the researcher.
Raw scores were used for computing purposes in all of the analyses.
Scores on the self-esteem component of the Self-Social Symbols
Task (SSST) can range from 5 points to 35 points. The Self-Esteem
Inventory (SEI) has a range of possible scores from 0 to 50 points.
One point was given for each category (self, others, groups, and/or
school) included in a photograph. Thus, sixteen points could be
accrued for the four photographs. Grade point averages for the
University of Florida range from 0.0 to 4.0.
The corrected t-test was used to test hypotheses #1 and #6.
This test was selected because the pretest and posttest scores
and GPAs are from a single sample. Thus, the data is comprised
of pairs of measurements. These may be correlated. In this type
of design, a test for the significance of the difference between
the two means is recommended (Ferguson, 1959).
The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used for evaluating
the data to determine if Null Hypotheses #2-5 and #7 were acceptable.
This means of analysis was used because the groups might differ in
the mean scores for each measurement on the pretest. The use of
the ANCOVA design statistically controls any initial differences
in the students which might have been present and which confound
differences between the groups of students (Huck et al., 1974).
Utilizing this method, an adjustment is made on the dependent
variable means. Even if the means for the group were identical,


69
Scores remained relatively stable for the self-esteem groups on
the SSST but decreased slightly for both of the study skills
groups. Scores increased for one of the self-esteem groups on
the SEI but decreased for the other self-esteem group. However,
both of the study skills groups increased on the SEI posttest.
On the photographic essays, both of the self-esteem groups de
creased slightly. The mean scores for both of the study skills
groups did not change at all from pretest to posttest. Overall,
there was less change in the scores on the photographic essays
for all groups. The scores also varied less from individual to
individual on the photographic essay. Although there was a
possibility of earning sixteen points on a set of four pictures,
only one person in the entire sample acquired over half of those
points. The categories portrayed on the photographs were quite
limited. It is also important to note that the participants in
all of the groups were very reluctant to participate in this
activity, although all of the cameras and the film were provided
by the researcher and the development of the film was taken care
of by the researcher. There was a noticeable lack of pictures of
the participants themselves in the essays. Pictures focused on
significant others, groups of friends, activities, environments,
and possessions.
The SSST was identified as an instrument to measure the
social/personal acceptability and self-competence components of
self-esteem. Its primary focus was assessed to be social/personal


42
7. self holding a child.
8. home--percentage of photographs showing individual's
home.
9. school--percentage of photographs showing a school.
10. aesthetic orientation--percentage of photographs focusing
upon one or more of the following: potted plants, trees,
shrubs, flowers, scenes, art objects.
11. hedonic tone--percentage of photographs showing people
where at least one person is smiling.
12. activities--percentage of photographs showing at least
one person doing something (such as being involved in a
sport) or showing a symbol of an activity (such as sports
equipment).
13. music or art activities--a special subunit of the acti
vities category.
14. possessions--percentage of photographs focusing upon
belongings of the individual, such as a watch or record,
or an object of future possession such as an automobile.
15. religion--percentage of photographs which include a symbol
of religion such as a church, cross, statue of a religious
person, or book about religion.
16. game--percentage of photographs depicting a game, such
as chess.
17. toys--percentage of photographs showing objects such as
dolls.
18. range of orientation--the total number of the above
categories (1-17) which are used in coding a set of
photographs.
Inter-rater reliability for these categories ranged from .50 to .99
(Ziller et al., in press).
Categories # 1, 2, 3, 9, 12, and 14 were looked for in the
photographs including the self were of particular interest. The
assumption is that individuals that are comfortable with their body


APPENDIX A
INFORMED CONSENT
In an effort to determine the effectiveness of the "Col
lege Survival Skills" class, and to improve the course, different
methods will be used in the two sections being offered this term.
The purpose of both sections will be to assist you in your academic
achievement here at the University of Florida. However, different
topics, or a different order of presentation of topics, will be
employed in each group. No topics will be included in either
section that have not already been determined to be helpful for
succeeding in college. No students will be at a disadvantage
because of the section to which they are assigned. Students will
be assigned to the two sections on a random basis.
You are invited to ask Suzan West, the graduate student who
will be collecting and analyzing the data, any questions that you
might have regarding the study. You will be free to withdraw
your consent to participate in this study at any time without
negative consequences.
No monetary compensation will be made to you for your parti
cipation but the materials distributed in both sections will be
available to all participants at the end of the term, as well as
the results of the investigation. The effectiveness of the course
76


King, R. A workshop method form improving self-concept of black
youth.(Doctoral dissertation, Temple University, 1973).
Dissertation Abstracts International, 1974, 34, 4876A.
Kirkland, K., & Hoi 1andsworth, J. G., Jr. Test anxiety, study
skills, and academic performance. Journal of College Student
Personnel, 1979, 20_, 431-35.
Kornfeld, J. Assertive training with juvenile delinquents
(Doctoral dissertation, Univeristy of South California, 1974).
Dissertation Abstracts International, 1974, 35_, 1501- 1502A.
Kubiniec, C. The relative efficiency of various dimensions of
the self-concept in predicting academic achievement. American
Educational Research Journal 1970, 7_, 321-36.
LaBenne, W., & Greene, B. Educational implications of self-concept
theory. Pacific Palisades, CA: Goodyear, 1969.
Lawson, J., Marshall, W., & McGrath, P. The social self-esteem
inventory. Educational and Psychological Measurement,
1979, 39, 803-11.
Lerner, R., Karabenick, S., & Stuart, J. Relations among physical
attractiveness, body attitudes, and self-concept in male and
female college students. Journal of Psychology, 1973, 85,
119-129.
Lessing, E. Racial differences in indices of ego functioning
relevant to academic achievement. Journal of Genetic
Psychology, 1969, 115, 153-167.
Levine, D. The integration-compensatory education controversy.
The Educational Forum, 1968, 312, 323-332.
Miller, R. The effects of assertion training on three types of
female adolescent delinquents (Doctoral dissertation, Califor
nia School of Professional Psychology, 1974). Dissertation
Abstracts International, 1974, 34, 520IB.
Morrison, T., Thomas, M., & Weaver, S. Self-esteem and self
estimates of academic performance. Journal of Consulting
and Clinical Psychology, 1973, 41_, 412-15.
Murillo, N. Shaffer, P., & Michael, W. The development and
validity of a preliminary measurement for student evaluation
and group counseling. Experimental Education and Psychologi-
cal Measurement, 1981, 41, 463-472.


24
often the individual does not learn the results, or is unable
to interpret the results. Grades, in contrast, are obtained on
a regular basis. In their Baltimore study, Rosenberg and Simmons
(1971) found the student's global feeling of self-worth is strong
ly related to his/her success or failure in school. Among the A
students, 71 percent had high self-esteem, compared with only 39
percent of those with D and F grades.
Although a positive relationship has been found on all edu
cational levels (Coopersmith, 1967; Frerichs, 1971; Hamachek, 1971;
LaBenne & Greene, 1969, Paschal, 1968; Purkey, 1970; Rosenberg,
1965) and for both black and white populations (Caplin, 1966),
Felker (1974) raises the question of what mechanisms are operating
to produce the relationship. He points out that the individual
with low ability who meets failure would be expected to have low
self-esteem. But the relationship appears to be based on more
than adequate ability. Binder (1975) has found that the level of
self-esteem is a significant predictor of academic performance
even when ability measures are considered. Felker proposes that
self-esteem and academic performance interact. The low level
self-esteem could produce lower performance, which in turn would
feed the low self-esteem and it, in turn, would produce even lower
performance. Purkey (1970) concurs with this explanation. Purkey
suggests a continuous interaction between the two; each directly in
fluences the other. A student identified as a "poor" student comes


TABLE 1
Summary of Data
Pre-test
Post-test
Assessment
Form
Group
Min
Max
Mean
Min
Max
Mean
SSST
Self-esteem A
27
35
30.8
22
35
30.9
Self-esteem B
23
35
29.7
20
35
29
Study skills A
23
38
30.4
19
32
28.7
Study skills B
24
33
32.2
27
31
29.2
SEI
Self-esteem A
31
45
37.9
29
45
34.7
Self-esteem B
18
41
33.2
27
41
35
Study skills A
26
41
30.4
30
40
34.7
Study skills B
26
42
32.1
29
41
33.1
PE
Self-esteem A
4
8
4.8
4
8
4.6
Self-esteem B
4
9
6
4
8
5.4
Study skills A
4
8
5
4
7
5
Study skills B
4
8
5
4
8
5
GPA
Self-esteem A
1.0
3.43
2.29
1.64
4.0
2.73
Self-esteem B
0.0
3.25
2.3
1.16
4.0
2.52
Study skills A
0.0
2.5
1.77
1.75
4.0
2.66
Study skills B
1.0
2.6
2.19
1.5
2.5
2.26
CO


CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
The purpose of this study was to determine if the small
group interventions designed to elevate the level of self-esteem
were effective and, if so, was there a concurrent change in the
grade point averages of the students. Changes in the level of
self-esteem were evaluated by administering the Self-Social
Symbols Task by Ziller, Long and Henderson, Coopersmith's
Self Esteem Inventory, and by having the students develop a
photographic essay before and after the groups. Grade point
averages for the semester prior to participation and for the
term during which intervention occurred were also compared.
Population
The population for this study included all special admit
black students at the University of Florida.
Because of the low enrollment of black students in predomi
nantly white state universities in Florida (the University of
Florida has less than 5 percent), the state Board of Regents in
stituted a policy to accept minority students who do not meet
regular admissions requirements. Thus, the University of Florida,
along with the other state universities, may admit up to 10 percent
33


87
Instructions: Here is a list of words. You are to read
the words quickly and check each one that you think describes
YOU. You may check as many or as few words as you like, but be
HONEST. Dont check words that tell what kind of person you
should be. Check words that tell what kind of person you really
are.
1.
abl e
2.
active
3.
afraid
4.
alone
5.
angry
6.
anxious
7.
ashamed
8.
attractive
9.
bad
10.
beautiful
11.
big
12.
bitter
13.
bold
14.
brave
15.
bright
16.
busy
17.
calm
18.
capable
19.
careful
20.
care!ess
21.
charming
22.
cheerful
23.
clean
24.
cl ever
25.
comfortable
26.
content
27.
cruel
28.
curious
29.
delicate
30.
delightful
31.
different
32.
difficult
33.
di rty
34.
dull
35.
dumb
36.
eager
37.
fai r
38.
faithful
39.
fal se
40.
fine
41.
fierce
42.
foolish
43.
friendly
44.
funny
45.
generous
46.
gentle
47.
glad
48.
good
49.
great
50.
happy
51.
humble
52.
idle
53.
important
54.
independent
55.
jealous
56.
kind
57.
large
58.
lazy
59.
little
60.
1ively
61.
lonely
62.
loud
63.
lucky


32
5. A relationship has also been found between study skills
and academic achievement.
6. Several authors propose that both self-esteem and study
skills are important in improving grade point averages.
7. There is evidence to support the use of a group counseling
setting for improving self-esteem and teaching new skills.


94
14. What would you recommend deleting from the class?
NOTE The course evaluation for the study skills groups was iden
tical to the preceding form except the following components were
substituted for questions 7-11:
7. Test-taking skills
8. Time management
9. Note taking skills
10. Outlining
11. Relaxation technique for test
anxiety


A host of "special programs" have been established at
postsecondary institutions to assist black students in
matriculating successfully. Yet, the retention rate for black
college students at white institutions remains well below that
of white students. These programs usually focus on remediation
and/or development of the basic skills and the improvement of
study skills. The confirmation of the importance of the effect
of self-esteem on improving grade point averages would provide
credence for adding this element to these programs.
The above discoveries would also provide implications for
counselor education programs in training counselors to work
with black students.
Purpose
The purpose of this study is twofold. First, the study
will compare group counseling interventions to determine if
one has greater impact on increasing the level of self-esteem
of black college students at a white institution. Secondly,
it will examine changes in grade point averages (GPAs) to see
if changes in levels of self-esteem had any impact on these.
Rationale
Self-concept, whether used as an outcome
itself, or as a moderating variable that
helps explain achievement outcomes, is a
critical variable in education and in
educational evaluative research. In
addition to the indication that improving
the self-esteem of the students will
positively influence their GPA's, it


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First and foremost, I would like to thank my parents,
Martin and Luressa Armstrong, for their continuous support from
day one of my life. Thanks go to my children, Martin, Joycelyn,
and Tanyika, for their sacrifices and patience with me during this
endeavor, and to my entire family for their encouragement.
I would like to recognize my wonderful committee members:
Dr. W. Max Parker, chairman, for his patience and encouragement,
and Dr. Patricia Miller, Dr. Paul Schauble, and Dr. E.L. Tolbert
for their cooperation to the very end.
I would like to express my appreciation to the group facili
tators who devoted time and valuable expertise to assist in con
ducting the groups. They are Dr. Ronald Foreman, Dr. Rosie Bingham,
Ms. Rosalie Cook, Ms. Janice Guinyard, Mr. Charles English, and
Ms. Juanita Maxwell.
Acknowledgements are given to Brenda and Patricia for their
typing services; to Greg, Frank, Bernie, Gary and Leslie for their
varied kinds of technical assistance; to Mr. G.W. Mingo, Dr. Betty
Stewart, and the staff of DSSSP and PACT for their support; and a
very special thanks to all of the students who participated in the
groups.
TV


acceptability. The fact that it was the only instrument for which
significant differences were obtained, and these differences were
in the direction anticipated by the researcher, support its
validity for measuring what it was purported to measure. The
congruence with behavioral changes in the students further confirms
this.
The foci for the SEI involved the same components as for the
SSST. It was perceived, however, that the two components were
more equally represented on this instrument. The SEI also included
one item related to the third component. The fact that both
study skills groups obtained higher scores on this instrument on
the posttest may indicate that scores on this test are more valid
for self-competence.
The photographic essays were projected to be indicative of
body image and social/personal acceptability. Self-competence
was expected to also be reflected through the school and activi
ties categories. The narrowness of focus of the photos limits
interpretation. Developing positive body images was one of the
objectives of the self-esteem groups. Although these were the
groups whose scores were slightly lowered on the posttest, this
score does differentiate between those pictures that included
self and those that did not. It is conceivable that the cate
gories that were eliminated were other than that of "self."
Is there a difference between the grade point averages for
the semester prior to participation in the group and for the


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE EFFECTS OF A SELF-ESTEEM GROUP
VERSUS A STUDY SKILLS GROUP INTERVENTION
ON IMPROVING THE GRADE POINT AVERAGES OF BLACK COLLEGE STUDENTS
By
Suzan Armstrong West
December 1983
Chairman: Dr. Woodroe Max Parker
Major Department: Counselor Education
The purpose of this study was to (1) compare two different
group counseling interventions to determine if either has an im
pact on increasing the level of self-esteem of the participants
and (2) to examine changes in grade point averages to determine
if there was a correlation between the changes in grade point averages
and changes in level of self-esteem.
The sample was comprised of black "special admit" college
students at the University of Florida. Students enrolled in a
"College Survival Skills" class were randomly assigned to two
different kinds of groups, a self-esteem group and a study skills
group. The students in the self-esteem group were exposed to
black role models, discussed issues related to being in
the minority at a university, received information about black
history, and participated in assertiveness training. Students in
IX


31
Twenty-seven students who were unable to attend either group acted
as a control. The students were administered a face-valid self-
concept scale and the Ter/', :ee Self-Concept Scale during the
first and last sessions. I./n of the Self Enhancement Groups (SEG)
increased significantly in self-esteem. There was no change in
the control group. A follow-up study six months later indicated
that the increases were maintained for the SEGs.
The application of assertiveness training was used to increase
self-esteem by Kornfeld (1974) and Miller (1974). Trotzer and
Sease (1971) compared group-centered and topic-centered methods
of increasing self-esteem in college students. They did not find
a difference in using the two approaches.
A review of the research on group counseling to elevate self
esteem by Cangelosi et al. (1980) indicates that no one type of
approach in itself is invariably effective, but certain trends do
exist. They suggest that programs that attempt to teach new skills
and foster understanding are more successful with older adolescents.
In summary, research on the subject of self-esteem has produced
the following findings:
1. Self-esteem is multifaceted.
2. There is a dichotomy in the literature regarding the
level of self-esteem of Blacks.
3. There is a consensus of opinion that Black pride and
Black history programs are instrumental in improving self-esteem.
4. A relationship has been found between self-esteem and
academic performance.


56
An analysis of covariance was performed on the scores for
each mode of assessment of self-esteem, both separately and
collectively, to determine if there were any significant differences
in the post-treatment levels of self-esteem for the two kinds of
groups. An analysis of covariance was also done on the grade point
averages to establish if there was a significant difference in
grade point averages for the two different kinds of groups.
In addition, a correlational study was done to measure for a
relationship between the change in level of self-esteem and the
change in grade point averages. The difference in the sex of the
students with the groups was also examined in relation to the change
in level of self-esteem and grade point averages.
The discussion of the analyses of the results is arranged
according to the hypotheses presented in Chapter III.
Null Hypothesis #1. There is no significant difference be
tween the sum of the scores on the pretests measuring the level
of self-esteem and the sum of the scores on the posttests for
each participant in the sample.
A correlated t-test was used to test this hypothesis. The
formula t = D / was selected for the calculation, with I) repre
senting the mean difference in the pretests and posttests scores
and Sp representing the mean standard deviation. A t-score of
0.782 was obtained with 36 degrees of freedom. This score is
not significant at the .05 level of confidence. The null hypothesis
must be accepted for this comparison. The composite scores for all


35
and academic advisement. This program has the same racial com
position as DSSSP.
The sample for this study was drawn from participants in
these two programs.
Sampling Procedures
DSSSP offers special sections for several of the general
education courses. Enrollment in these sections is restricted
to DSSSP and PACT participants. A new course was developed by
the researcher for this study entitled "College Survival Skills."
It was offered through the Behavioral Studies Department under
the "Special Topics" course designation (BES 2930). The course
offered credit for one semester hour as an elective. Two sections
of the course were offered. Registration for each section was limited
to 24 students.
Students from DSSSP and PACT enrolled in the course on a
voluntary basis. They were informed of the research study involved
in teaching the course prior to enrollment and were asked to sign
an informed consent form (see Appendix A) on the first day of
class. Each section of the course was divided into two groups.
Students were randomly assigned to either the study skills or
self-esteem group by selecting a number from a hat. The groups
were not identified in the class. The students were only made
aware that topics of discussion would vary in the two groups but
that both groups would focus on surviving in school. Subsequent


29
Bednar and Weinberg (1970) state that academic underachievement
is considered to be a function of both emotional problems and
study skills deficits. They submit that a minimum amount of time
for a successful study skills course is ten hours.
Parker, Schauble and Mitchell (1979) have developed an eight
session group seminar model to increase the study skills and to
redefine the self-concept of the participants. They recommend the
inclusion of learning strategies, two-way communication, learning
styles, note-making, test-taking, and academic coping strategies.
The authors report that the use of this model with a group of
college students yielded successful results in both increasing
study skills and improving self-concept. The group was comprised
of volunteer students indicating a desire to prepare themselves
to succeed in college. The group met once a week for two hours
over an eight week period. Parker et al. propose that both study
skills and self-concept development should be included in programs
designed to assist minority students in succeeding in college.
Group Counseling
The final section of the literature review includes research
supporting the selection of (1) a group mode of counseling versus
an individual method, and (2) specific group activities to be
included in the study.
Pollard and Galliano (1982) propound that positive support
and encouragement are two necessary elements in a smooth transition
to college for the non-traditional student.


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Suzan Armstrong West was born July 2, 1948, in Jacksonville,
Florida. She is the daughter of Martin and Luressa Armstrong.
She grew up and received her public school education in Levittown,
Pennsylvania. Her bachelor's degree was received from Howard
University in Washington, D.C., in the areas of biology and
psychology. She received a masters degree in counseling/education
from the University of North Florida in Jacksonville. Her work
experience includes teaching in the public school system and coun
seling and administration at the University of North Florida;
directing the developmental learning center at Edward Waters
College in Jacksonville, which included the responsibility for
the Upward Bound and Special Services Programs operated through
the center; and teaching at Florida Junior College at Jacksonville.
During her stay at the University of Florida, she worked as a
Graduate Assistant in the Division of Student Support and Special
Programs. She is currently employed as a Student Development
Specialist in the Dean of Students office at the University of
Texas at Austin.


APPENDIX F
TREATMENT PROCEDURES
Self-Esteem Group
Session #1
Introductions; overview of topics was given. Students were
asked to introduce themselves using one adjective that best
described them. This adjective was paired with their name and
the group played a round-robin game associating the name and
adjective until everyone was able to identify the other group
members by their first name. The general nature of the course
was described since both groups were still together at this
point. The information regarding the research was re-explained.
(The fact that the course would be taught on an experimental
basis was initially explained at the time of registration for the
course through the DSSSP office.) A hat was passed which con
tained the numbers 1 through 24. Each person was asked to pick a
number from the hat. Persons with even numbers were assigned to
the Self-Esteem Group. Those with odd numbers were assigned to
the Study Skills Group. (The students were not aware of the name
of each group.) Students had received Informed Consent forms
prior to the description of the research procedure. They were
asked to sign these and return them to the group leader if they
were willing to participate.
98


102
Discussion of their personal experiences with test anxiety and
the teaching of a simple relaxation method occured during the
first of these sessions. They were encouraged to practice the
relaxation technique prior to the next meeting of the group. In
the next session, even harder questions from the GRE were distri
buted with instructions that the papers would be scored for com
petition among the group members. They were reminded to use the
relaxation exercise to reduce test anxiety. Discussion of the
experience followed. Pressure was increased during the simulated
testing by the group leader by continuously calling out the
amount of time remaining and making it appear to shorten faster
than in reality. The students were not expected to complete the
"test", but were not informed of this before the simulation was
completed. Answers to all questions were given as a part of the
discussion.
Sessions #14, #15, and #16
Black role models were invited to meet with the group, one
per meeting. A black professor on campus, a black female admi
nistrator, and a black graduate student were asked to attend.
They were asked to share and discuss personal obstacles that they
encountered in the educational process and how they overcame
these. The fact that the group was a sharing and discussion
group was shared with the role models prior to their meetings
with the group, so that they would be aware that they were not
expected to give a lecture.


1/4
Weigel, R. G., & Weigel, V. M. The relationship of knowledge and
usage of study skills techniques to academic performance.
Journal of Educational Research, 1968, _61_, 78-80.
Weinberg, M. Minority students: A research appraisal. Washington,
D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1977.
West, C. K., & Fish, J. A. Relationship between self-concept and
school achievement: A survey of empirical investigations.
(Final report for NIE). Urbana, Illinois: ERIC Clearinghouse
on Early Childhood Education, 1973.
Wire, D. Mastery learning program, Durham College: Report on
progress during the first year, September 1, 1978-Auaust 31,
1979.
Wylie, R. C. The self-concept. Nebraska: University of Nebraska
Press, 1961.
Wylie, R. C. The self-concept (revised edition). Lincoln: Uni
versity of Nebraska Press, 1974.
Yalom, T. The theory and practice of group therapy. Basic-Books,1979.
Zarb, J. M. Non-academic predictors of successful academic achieve
ment in a normal adolescent sample. Adolescence, 1981, 16,
891-900.
Ziller, R. C. The social self. New York: Perqamon Press, Inc.,
1973.
Ziller, R., & Combs, J. The photographic self-concept of counselees.
Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1977, 24, 452-455.
Ziller, R. C., Hagey, J., Smith, M. W., & Long, B. H. Self-esteem:
A self-social construct. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
Psychology, 1969, 33, 84-95.
Ziller, R., & Lewis, D. Orientations: self, social and environ
mental precepts through auto-photography. Personality and
Social Psychology Bulletin, 1981, _7 (2), 338-343.
Ziller, R., Vera, H., & de Santoya, C. Understanding children of
poverty and affluence through auto-photographic metaphor.
In press.
Zimmerman, T., & Ringle, R. Effects of model persistence and
statements of confidence on children's self-efficacy and
problem solving. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1981,
73, 485-93.


and stimulating materials. Each group took notes and asked the
other groups questions from these notes.
Session #9
Outlining skills: outlining skills were taught by having
students identify some goals in life and the activities necessary
to achieve these. They then organized a plan to achieve these
utilizing an outline format.
Sessions #10 and #11
Library skills: Mrs. Sherry Dupree was invited to present a
two-session workshop on "How to Use the Library." (Mrs. Dupree
is a reference librarian at UF's library.) A tour of the dif
ferent areas of the library was included.
Sessions #12 and #13
Test-taking skills: each kind of test item for objective
tests was discussed during the first session. Taking essay
exams was discussed during the second of these sessions.
Sessions #14 and #15
The same as Sessions #12 and #13, Test-Anxiety, in the
Self-Esteem Group.
Session #16
Same as Session #10, Assertiveness Training, for the
Self-Esteem Group. Note that this group had only one session on
assertiveness.


THE EFFECTS OF A SELF-ESTEEM GROUP VERSUS A STUDY SKILLS GROUP
INTERVENTION ON IMPROVING THE GRADE POINT AVERAGES
OF BLACK COLLEGE STUDENTS
BY
SUZAN ARMSTRONG-WEST
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1983


36
The circles below stand for people. Put a "Y" to stand for
Yourself.
V


14
on a modified version of Janis and Fields' Feelings of Inadequacy
Scale. These scores were compared with the students' scores
on the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, Elms' Empathic
Fantasy Scale, Rotter's Locus of Control Scale, the Alexander-
Husek Anxiety Differential Scale, and Thorndike's Vocabulary
Test as a measure of verbal intelligence. Three factors were
found and labeled Social Confidence, School Abilities and Self-
Regard. The first factor, Social Confidence, related to self-
consciousness in social situations, shyness, and the ability to
deal with people in groups generally. The second factor,
School Abilities, concerned self-evaluation of scholastic abilities.
The third factor, Self-Regard, was closest in dimension to self
esteem as it is generally conceived. Correlations of total self
esteem with measures of several of the other constructs were
consistent with the findings from previous studies. However,
the correlations of the factors with these variables revealed
that factors were differentially related to the constructs in
some cases. These findings would support Shavelson et al.'s
conceptualization that self-esteem is also hierarchical.
Ziller et al. (1969) propose that the person's response
to the social environment is a function of self-esteem. They
contend that self-esteem is a component of the self-system
which regulates the extent to which the self-system is maintained
under conditions of strain, i.e., processing new information
regarding the self. For persons with a high level of self-esteem,


TABLE II
SUMMARY ANALYSIS
Overal1
Self-
Esteem Group
Study Skills Group
Variable
Mean
Stand. Dev.
Mean
Stand. Dev.
Mean
Stand. Dev
SSST Pretest
30.07
3.45
30.26
3.05
29.84
3.96
Posttest
29.52
3.94
36.41
5.02
28.95
2.93
SEI Pretest
33.69
5.87
35.65
5.93
31.32
4.96
Posttest
35.22
4.47
36.41
5.02
33.84
3.35
Photos Pretest
5.29
1.39
5.32
1.53
5.26
1.28
Posttest
4.97
1.24
4.95
1.35
5.00
1.15
GPA Before
2.15
0.76
2.29
0.83
1.98
0.64
- After
2.52
0.68
2.60
0.78
2.42
0.54
cn
<_n


15
evaluations of either a positive or negative nature do not evoke
an immediate response. The person examines the new information
for relevance and meaning before deciding to inculcate the in
formation or disregard it. Persons of low self-esteem do not
possess a well-developed conceptual buffer for evaluating stimuli
similar to the high self-esteem person. They are field dependent.
Thus, they tend to conform to the influence of the environmental
circumstances.
Gergen (1977) reports results of a study that support the
proposal of environmental influences on the level of self-esteem.
Participants in this research were students at a large university
who responded to a part-time job advertisement. During the pre
liminary screening, each person was seated in a room alone and
asked to complete a number of self-rating forms. Included in
these forms was Coopersmith1s instrument. After each person had
completed the forms, the secretary brought in another "applicant"
for the position. Actually, the other applicant was a collaborator
for the experiment. For forty applicants, the collaborator was
presented as a very desirable applicant for the job. He was
well-dressed in a business suit and displayed copies of books
on statistics and philosophy when he opened his attache case.
The other applicants were exposed to the second applicant who
was wearing a smelly sweatshirt, torn trousers, and no socks.
He appeared dazed by the procedures and displayed a worn copy of
a cheap paperback novel. The original applicant was given a second


34
of its freshman class through this "Special Admission Program."
Freshmen "special admit" students are provided services by either
of two programs on campus, the Division of Student Support and
Special Programs (DSSSP) or the Program for Academic Counseling
and Tutoring (PACT).
DSSSP is a federal program funded through the Department
of Education to assist disadvantaged students in progressing suc
cessfully at postsecondary institutions. Disadvantaged students
are defined for this program as meeting one of the following
criteria: 1) academically disadvantaged, as measured by standard
ized test scores, i.e., SAT or ACT; 2) economically disadvantaged,
as determined by the Department of Labor's poverty index; 3) cul
turally disadvantaged, if the student is from a rural or isolated
area; or 4) physically handicapped. All of the participants
in UF's DSSSP were "special admits," thus, falling into category
#1. Ninety-eight percent of these students are black. DSSSP
provides orientation, special course sections, individual and
group counseling, and workshops of special interest to the students,
i.e., financial aid, career development, study skills, test-taking
skills, etc.
PACT is funded through the Board of Regents and augments the
services of DSSSP. It serves the additional freshman special admit
students that DSSSP is unable to serve and provides services for
all the special admit students during their sophomore year. In
addition to counseling and tutoring, PACT also works with orientation


25
to view him or herself as such and behaves accordingly. However,
if the student is led to believe that he/she is capable of
achieving well, the student will do so. Banks and Grambs (1972)
point out that it is important to note that none of the research
reports any evidence of high achievement resulting from low levels
of self-esteem. Brookover and Erikson (1969) emphasize this point
also. Although a number of studies have found students with high
self-concepts of ability attaining low academic achievement, prac
tically no students with low self-concepts of ability were achieving
at a high level of performance.
Stanton (1980) points out that many students seeking assistance
from university counselors have low levels of self-esteem. The
low level of self-esteem results in an inability to cope with
their university studies and with life 'in general.
Study Skills
Very little information was encountered relating study skills
to self-esteem. However, the research relating study skills to
academic achievement is abundant. Several researchers recognized
the need for developing self-esteem and study skills to improve
academic performance.
As noted in the previous section, Zarb (1981) found that out
of six non-academic variables, academic self-concept and study
habits were the only significant predictors of GPAs. Driskel
and Kelly (1980) observe that although studies of college students
who have inadequate study habits indicate that they need to learn


CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS
The final chapter will address three areas based on the
findings reported in Chapter IV. The conclusions that can be
drawn will be discussed. Limitations of the study will be de
lineated, and recommendations for application and further research
will be given.
Conclusions
Six questions were posed in Chapter I of this manuscript.
This section will attempt to answer these questions based on the
results obtained from the study.
Is there a significant change in the level of self-esteem
of the participants as a result of the group interventions? A
comparison of the sum of the pretest and posttest scores for the
three self-esteem instruments indicates that there was not a
significant change in the level of self-esteem. The mean scores
for the pretests and posttests differed by only 0.63 points. It
is important to note, however, that the verbal feedback received
from the participants in both kinds of groups and the observed be
havioral changes indicated that there was a change in the level of
self-esteem of the students involved in the study. Although the
individuals did not use the term "self-esteem," they made comments
67


99
Session #2
Pretesting: administration of the two written instruments.
The instruction sheet for taking the photographs was distributed
and reviewed. Cameras were also distributed during this session.
Session #3
Black History and Black Pride: the first half of Black
Rhapsody by Dr. Ed Robinson of Philadelphia, Pa., was played.
This is a recording of a live address that Dr. Robinson gave to a
black high school audience. He relates a lot of instances in
Afro-American history to instill awareness and pride in black
listeners. Of special interest on this side of the record is the
story of the "eagles" that are hatched in a chicken yard and are
unaware of their true "identity". The recording was played at
the beginning of the session as a stimulus for discussion on
black identity. Group members were encouraged to share their
personal experiences in this session and all subsequent sessions.
Session #4
Black History and Black Pride (continued): the second half
of the recording by Dr. Robinson was played. This side emphasi
zes the ingeniousness of the slaves in communicating with each
other while in bondage and their brilliant planning and manipula
tion when attempting to escape. He makes the listener aware that


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The focus of the review of the literature contained in this
chapter will be on research relevant to the concepts and areas
involved in this study. The review is organized into the fol
lowing categories: (1) elements of self-esteem, (2) self-esteem
of Blacks, (3) self-esteem and academic achievement, (4) the
effects of study skills and training on academic performance,
and (5) group counseling effects on self-esteem and/or academic
performance. In a few instances the studies overlap categories.
As noted earlier, the studies in which self-concept has
been defined in evaluative terms have been included. Those in
which self-concept is defined as separate and distinct from
self-esteem, or in which self-concept is defined in descriptive
terms only, have been omitted from the literature review.
Elements of Self-Esteem
The references in this section will focus primarily on
subjects of college age. There are a few general references
that are generalized for all age groups. Several studies in
volved "late adolescence" which was defined as 18 and 19 year
olds. This would correspond with the age of the traditional
freshman and sophomore college students.
12


11.3
Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. Development through life: A
psycho-social approach. Chicago:- The Dorsey Press, 1975.
Nichols, N. J., & McKinney, A. W. Black or white socio-economically
disadvantaged pupils: They aren't necessarily inferior.
Journal of Negro Education, 1977, £6 (4), 443-49.
Ntiri, D. W. Training the economically disadvantaged. Training
and Development Journal, 1980, 34, 97-103.
Padin, M. A., Learner, R. M., & Spiro, A., III. Stability of body
attitudes and self-esteem in late adolescents. Adolescence,
1981, 16, 371-84.
Parker, W., Schauble, P., & Mitchell, E. Improving self-concept
and learning skills of marginal black students: A seminar
approach. Journal of Non-White Concerns, 1979, 8, 21-30.
Paschal, B. T. The role of self-concept in achievement. Journal
of Negro Education, 1968, 37, 392-6.
Payne, B. F., & Dunn, C. J. An analysis of the change in self-
concept by racial description. Journal of Neqro Education,
1972, 41 (2), 156-63.
Piers, E., & Harris, P. Age and other correlates of self-concept
in children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1964, 55,
91-95.
Pollard, K. D., & Galliano, G. Group counseling support for the
nontraditional student. Journal of Colleqe Student Personnel,
1982, 23 (2), 175.
Polite, C. K., Cochrane, R., & Silverman, B. I. Ethnic group
identification and differentiation. Journal of Social
Psychology, 1974, 92 (1), 149-50.
Portes, A., & Wilson, K. L. Black-white differences in educational
attainment. American Sociological Review, 1976, 41, 414-431.
Powell, E. R., & White, W. F. Affect structure and achievement in
a select sample of rural Negro children. Journal of Neqro
Education, 1972, 41 (1), 53-56.
Purkey, W. W. Self concept and school achievement. New Jersey:
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1970.


APPENDIX E
COURSE EVALUATION
COLLEGE SURVIVAL SKILLS
BES 2930
1.Please indicate what you liked most about the class.
2.Please indicate what you liked least about the class.
Please rate the following aspects of the class using this scale:
0 = not helpful
1 = could be helpful if presented better
2 = somewhat helpful
3 = helpful
4 = very helpful
3. Limiting class to a small number of people. 01234
4. Group discussions. 01234
5. Guest speakers. 01234
6. Assertiveness training. 01234
7. Black history tape and discussion. 01234
8. Dr. Foreman's presentation. 01234
9. Being black on a white campus discussion. 01234
10. Charles English's presentation. 01234
11. Dr. Rosie Bingham's presentation. 01234
12. Photo essay sharing. 01234
13. What would you recommend adding to the class?
93


80
These letters stand for the following people: 0 Doctor,
(Ty Father, (^Fr) Friend, (^Hy someone you know who is happy,
politically active person, 0 a neighbor, (^S^! yourself,
P ) a
^Su/ someone you know who is successful, (jJ^ someone with
you are uncomfortable
whom
Your task is to arrange these people into as many or as few groups
as you wish. In the space below, draw a circle around the letter
to stand for each person, putting whichever ones you with together.
It does not matter how you arrange the people, but use each person
only once and be sure to use all of them. If you think a person
does not belong with any of the others, he may be placed by himself.
When you have finished grouping the circles, draw a large circle
around each of the groups in order to keep them separated.


TABLE 3
T-test and Correlation
Comparison
Test
t or r
Degrees
of
Freedom
Significant*
Pretest and Posttest
scores on S-E
Correlated
t
t= .782
41
no
instruments (SUM)
GPAs prior to group
and post-group
Correlated
t
t= 3.93
41
yes
GPAs
Change in self-esteem
and change in GPA
Pearson
Product-
moment
r= .13
very low
correlation
* At .05 level of confidence


LIST OF TABLES
Table
Page
1
2
3
4
5
Summary .of Data
Summary Analysis
T-test and Correlation
Analysis of Covariance by Group
Analysis of Covariance by Sex .
53
55
57
59
60
vi ii


90
Like Me Unlike Me
17. I'm often sorry for the things I do.
18. I'm popular with my peers.
19. My parents usually consider my feelings.
20. I*m never unhappy.
21. I'm doing the best work that I can.
22. I give in very easily.
23. I can usually take care of myself.
24. I'm pretty happy.
25. I would rather associate with people
younger than me.
26. My parents expect too much of me.
27. I like everyone I know.
28. I like to be called on in class.
29. I understand myself.
30. It's pretty tough to be me.
31. Things are all mixed up in my life.
32. Others usually follow my ideas.
33. No one pays much attention to me.
34. I never get criticized.
35. I'm not doing as well in school as I'd
1 ike to do.
36. I can make up my mind and stick to it.
37. I really don't like being a male-female.
38. I have a low opinion of myself.
39. I don't like to be with other people.



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41
Students were given a sheet with instructions for creating
the photo essay. (See Appendix D.) They were also provided with
an instamatic camera with the film already loaded and a flash cube.
Once they took their photos, they returned the camera with the
film still in place. Development of the film was the responsibili
ty of the researcher. After the pictures were developed, they were
returned to the students for completion' of the tasks delineated
on the instruction sheet. That is, each student ordered his/her
photos and placed a sentence statement on the back of it explaining
why this picture tells who they are. The researchers of this method
have requested various numbers of photos for this exercise, ranging
in number from three to twelve per person. For this study, four
pictures were requested initially, and another four were requested
at the completion of the groups. This number was chosen for
economical purposes.
Ziller et al. (1977, 1981, in press) have looked at a number
of categories in analyzing the content of the sets of photographs.
These include:
1. selfpercentage of photographs with self included.
2. other peoplepercentage of photographs including
people other than the self.
3. groupspercentage of photographs showing two or more
people.
4. groups larger than threepercentage of photographs
showing three or more people.
5. fatherpercentage of photographs showing father.
6. motherpercentage of photographs showing mother.


79
The circles below stand for people. Mark each circle
with the letter standing for one of the people on this list.
Do this in any way you like, but use each person only once and
do not omit anyone.
U someone who is not kind H the happiest person you know
P a polite person N a neighbor
S the strongest person Y Yourself
you know


Sessions #17 and #18
Same as Self-Esteem Group.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it confirms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and
is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
'JU.
Dr. Woodroe Max" Parker, Chairman
Associate Professor of Counselor
Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and
is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
, feU. x %//<
Associate Professor of Psychology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and
is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Dr. Paul Schauble
Professor of Pshchology


73
Li mitations
The primary limitation for generalizing the results from this
study is the fact that the groups were held during a six-week
summer term. This resulted in an intense six weeks of interven
tion, with the participants meeting three times a week. Spreading
the groups out over a full semester might either increase or de
crease the effect of the intervention. Grade point averages may
also differ if the study was done during a regular semester
rather than the shortened summer term. However, the differences
for the two time spans may balance out. Although the students
are enrolled in fewer courses during a summer term, the work load
is intensified to cover the same amount of material in a shorter
amount of time. During the regular semester, students are en
rolled in more courses but have more time to learn the information
and complete course requirements.
The other limitation is using only the self-report method for
evaluating level of self-esteem. As Coombs (1964) points out,
often self-report methods are not sensitive to the overall level
of self-esteem, but reports how the individual feels at the
particular moment when self-regard is assessed. The participants
in the study completed the posttests during the week of finals.
It is possible that their feelings regarding their worth may have
been altered during the particular time period.


Experimental Design. A randomized experimental groups,
pretest-posttest design will be used (see Figure 1).
Independent variable: type of group intervention
Covariate: pretest scores on self-esteem instruments, GPAs
Dependent variables: posttest scores on self-esteem instru
ments, GPAs
Experimental groups: (1) two self-esteem groups
(2) two study skills groups
Hypotheses
1. Null Hypothesis: there is no significant difference
between the sum of the scores on the pretests and
posttests for self-esteem.
2. Null Hypothesis: there is no significant difference
between the two kinds of groups on the sum of the
scores for the tests.
3. Null Hypothesis: there are no significant differences
in the change in the level of self-esteem as measured
by Self-Social Symbols Task for the two kinds of groups
4. Null Hypothesis: there are significant differences in
the change in the level of self-esteem as measured by
Self-Esteem Inventory for the two kinds of groups.
5. Null Hypothesis: there are no significant differences
in the change in the level of self-esteem as measured
by photographic essay for the two kinds of groups.
6. Null Hypothesis: there are no significant differences
in the change in the grade point averages for all of
the participants in the study.
7. Null Hypothesis: there are no significant differences
in the change in grade point averages for the two kinds
of groups.
8. Null Hypothesis: there is no relationship between the
change in the level of self-esteem and the change in
grade point averages.


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Henry, a high school student of average ability, is trans
formed into a "gifted" student and later becomes one of the
"best men of his generation" because of an error in the reporting
of his SAT scores (Purkey, 1970). According to the fable,
"The Mouse and Henry Carson," a mouse in the office of the
Educational Testing Service accidentally triggers a mechanism
in the computer while Henry's examination is being scored.
Consequently, his less than average scores are changed into
very high scores in both the quantitative and verbal areas.
As a result of Henry's reported scores, the attitudes of his
teachers and counselors are changed drastically. This difference
in attitudes and behaviors by the educational staff toward Henry
produces a new awareness in Henry of his potentialities.
Accompanying this enlightenment is an increase in his level of
self-esteem, and, consequently, a significant increase in his
level of academic performance.
What many black college students need is a "Henry Carson"
experience. Research studies have shown that the SAT or ACT
scores of black students may not be reflective of their potential
to succeed in higher education (Boyd, 1977; Houston, 1980;
Rovezzi-Carrol & Thompson, 1980). Yet, the attitudes of the
1


APPENDIX D
INSTRUCTIONS FOR PHOTO ESSAY
I would like for you to describe how you see yourself by
creating a photo essay that tells who you are. These photographs
can be of anything just as long as they tell something about who
you are. You should not be interested in your skill as a photo
grapher. Keep in mind that the photographs should describe who
you are as you see yourself.
When you have taken the four photographs, please return the
camera to me with the film in place. I will remove the film and
have it developed. I will then return the pictures to you with
the following instructions:
Mark the photograph which best describes you with a (1) on
the back, and write a brief caption or description of the picture
next to the number. Mark the picture which next best describes
you with a (2) and again write a brief caption. Continue with
the third and fourth pictures in the same manner.
92


21
Findings by Levine (1968) indicated that inner-city children
develop a lower self-image when placed in integrated schools.
Caplin (1966) compared students in de facto segregated schools
versus desegregated schools in New Jersey. He found that both
black and white students in desegregated schools had higher
levels of self-esteem. Stephen and Rosenfield (1978) obtained
results indicating that Blacks from segregated backgrounds had
more negative attitudes toward both out and in group members af
ter desegregation than before, but desegregation had little effect
on self-esteem. Coopersmith (1975) poses that black students may
have an unclear image of themselves as effective learners but are
quite clear and positive about themselves regarding their capac
ities and effectiveness in the broader social world outside of
school.
"Experimental research has implicitly and explicitly attributed
the change in black self-concept measures to a greater adherence to
a black culture orientation" (King & Price, 1979, p.217). There is
evidence that the black pride social movement is succeeding in en
hancing the self-concept of black children (Zirkel, 1972). Van
Koughnett and Smith (1969) reported a significant improvement in
the self-concept of black elementary school children participating
in a program based on positive reinforcement of the "Black is
beautiful" theme. Georgehoff's (1968) study indicated that the
self-concept of both black and white children in integrated
neighborhood schools improved significantly as a result of being


APPENDIX C
SELF-ESTEEM INVENTORY
Please mark each statement in the following way:
If the statement describes how you usually feel, put a
check (/) in the column "Like Me."
If the statement does not describe how you usually feel,
put a check (V) in the column "Unlike Me."
There are no right or wrong answers.
Like Me Unlike Me
1. I spend a lot of time daydreaming.
2. I'm pretty sure of myself.
3. I often wish I were someone else.
4. I'm easy to 1 ike.
5. My friends and I have a lot of fun together.
6. I never worry about anything.
7. I find it very hard to talk in front of
the class.
8. I wish I were younger.
9. There are lots of things about myself I'd
change if I could.
10. I can make up my mind without too much
trouble.
11. I'm a lot of fun to be with.
12. I get upset easily.
13. I always do the right thing.
14. I'm proud of my schoolwork.
15. Someone always has to tell me what to do.
16. It takes me a long time to get used to
anything new.
89


~n
The circles below stand for people. Mark each circle with
the letter standing for one of the people in the list. Do this
in any way you like, but use each person only once and do not omi
anyone.
- Father Y Yourself
B your best friend K a kind person
0 doctor M someone who makes mistakes


20
race. Attenborough and Zdep (1973) found that black female
children and adolescents have a higher level of self-esteem.
Simmons et al. (1978) found that (1) black adolescents have
higher self-esteem than whites, and (2) girls of both races have
lower self-esteem than boys. Johnsen and Medley (1978) obtained
results indicating that 40 percent of black high school seniors
ranked above average in self-esteem, and 54 percent of the re
maining students were average. Hare (1979) found that black girls
occupied a "psychological middleground" in comparison to white
females and black males. They scored lower than the white females
but higher than black males in self-esteem. Guggenheim (1967)
found no racial differences in self-esteem between black, white,
and Hispanic elementary students in New York City. Nichols and
McKinney (1977) used Coppersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory with
elementary students in the state of New York and also found no
difference between black and white students.
Some researchers have suggested that the self-perceptions of
Blacks depend on the environment in which they are functioning.
Rosenberg and Simmons (1971) state that Blacks are generally much
more acutely aware and sensitized to their Blackness when among
Whites than when among Blacks. They found that black children in
predominantly black schools regard themselves more favorably than
the black student in a predominantly white school. Rosenberg and
Simmons contend that Blackness becomes "more or less salient and
significant depending on the context in which a given event occurs.


10
when used alone. Thus, the study skills group for this study
will concentrate on study habits, note and test-taking skills,
and time management.
Research Questions
1. Is there a significant change in the level of self
esteem of the participants as a result of group interventions?
2. Does the difference in the type of group interventions
have an effect on the change in the level of self-esteem?
3. Is there a difference in the change of level of self
esteem as measured by different instruments which focus on
different elements of self-esteem?
4. Is there a significant change in the grade point
averages of the participants in the study?
5. Does the difference in the focus of the group inter
vention have an effect on the grade point averages of the students?
6. Is there a correlation between the changes in self
esteem and the changes in grade point averages?
Definition of Terms
Self-concept: an organized configuration of perceptions of
the self which are admissible to awareness (Rogers, 1951) (descrip
tive) .
Self-esteem: a personal judgement of worthiness expressed
in the attitudes the individual holds toward him or herself
(Coopersmith, 1967) (evaluative). For purposes of this study,


27
Weigel and Weigel (1968) present evidence that students
know how to study but do not use the study techniques. Robyak
and Downey (1979) add that students often learn study skills
through these courses but don't necessarily change their study
habits. They have found that whether or not the students change
their study habits is dependent on their personality type.
Robyak and Downey determined that the best predictors of extended
academic performance are past academic performance and the change
in study habits made during a study skills course.
Johnson (1975) contends that most study skills instructors
agree that the improvement in study skills would stimulate improve
ment in level of self-esteem. She conducted a study with 108
metropolitan community college students. All of the students volun
teered from behavioral sciences classes. Those desiring to take
the study skills course were randomly divided into two groups--
an experimental group and a motivated control group. A third
group of students volunteered to participate in the pretesting
and posttesting but were not interested in taking the study skills
course. They were assigned to the unmotivated control group.
The three groups were pretested and posttested using several
academic skills tests, i.e., reading, reading rate, verbal recog
nition, a personality inventory, and a questionnaire to evaluate
academic self-esteem. The experimental groups received a three
week, nine hour study skills course.


Coopersmith, S. Self-concept, race and class, in Verma, G., &
Bagley, C., Race and education across cultures, 1975.
Coopersmith, S. Self-esteem inventory. Journal of Social Psy
chology, 1977, 102, 179-182.
Cordell, L. The effect of structured group counseling on the
self-concept, attendance, and achievement of absentee-
prone high school students.(Doctoral dissertation, Ohio
State University, 1974). Dissertation Abstracts International,
1974, 34, 4733A.
Darden, B., & Bayton, J. Self-concept and blacks: Assessment
of black leading roles in motion pictures and TV. Journal
of Applied Psychology, 1977, 62, 620-23.
Dillard, J., Warrior-Benjamin, J., & Perrin, D. Efficacy of
test-wiseness on test anxiety and reading achievement among
black youth. Psychological Reports, 1977, 41, (3, pt. 2),
1135-1140.
Driskel, J., & Kelly, E. A guided notetaking and study skills
system for use with university freshmen predicted to fail.
Journal of Reading, 1980, 23^, 327-31.
Epps, E.G. Correlates of academic achievement among northern and
southern urban Negro students. Journal of Social Issues,
1969, 25, 55-72.
Felker, D. Building positive self-concept. Minneapolis: Burgess,
1974.
Ferguson, G. Statistical analysis in psychology and education.
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1959.
Fitts, W. H. The self-concept and performance. Nashville:
Dede Wallace Center, 1972.
Fleming, J., & Watts, W. The dimensionality of self-esteem:
some results for a college sample. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 1980, 24^, 921-29.
Freidlander, J. Are college support programs and services reaching
high-risk students? Journal of College Student Personnel,
1980, 21, 23-28.
Frerichs, A. Relationship of self-esteem of the disadvantaged to
school success. Journal of Negro Education, 1971, 40,
117-120.


majority of the educational personnel at both the high school
and college levels regarding their academic abilities are based
primarily on these aptitude scores. In an analysis of the
problems experienced by black students on white campuses,
Hedegard (1972) found that the academic pressure imposed on
black students because of educators doubting their ability to
succeed, and the resulting decrease in self-esteem of the
students, was the primary problem.
Nature of Self-Esteem
The self has played an important role in many traditional
personality theories. As early as 1890, William James included
the self as an important topic in his psychological thinking
(Wylie, 1961). Allport, Lewin, Mead, and Cattel also
focused on the self in the development of their theories. It
has also been a contributing factor in the approaches to therapy
of several practitioners, i.e., Freud, Horney, Sullivan, and
Rogers. In Freud's later writings he stressed the importance
of "ego" development and he Neo-Freudians stress the importance
of the "self" picture. Rogers (1951) has identified the self-
concept as the basic unit for the study of behavior. Even
behavioral theorists such as Combs and Snygg have included the
concept of self (West & Fish, 1973).
The terms "self-concept" and self-esteem" are often used
interchangeably in the literature (LaBenne & Greene, 1969;
Shavelson et al., 1976). King and Price (1979) contend that


64
Null Hypothesis #7. There is no significant difference
between the two kinds of groups in grade point averages earned
during the term that they participated in the groups.
An analysis of covariance was done on the grade point
averages to determine if there was a difference between the groups.
The analysis was calculated with the grades for the term during
which the groups took place as the dependent variable and the
group in which they participated as the independent variable.
GPAs for the previous semester were used as the covariate. An
F-value of 5.28 was generated from the analysis. This value is
significant at the .027 level of probability for one degree of
freedom. The null hypothesis for this comparison can be rejected.
There is a significant difference between the two groups when GPAs
are considered. A look at the adjusted means for the groups for
GPAs demonstrates that the participants in the self-esteem groups
did significantly better for the term than those in the study skills
groups.
A look at the difference in performance by sex reveals that
there is a significant difference between the females in the two
kinds of groups. An F-value of 4.98 was produced. This is
significant at a .03 alpha level for one degree of freedom. Females
in the self-esteem groups attained higher GPAs than those in the
study skills groups. However, there was no significant difference
for the males in the two kinds of groups. The F-value of 0.07
was obtained for the males. Mean GPAs were lower overall for the
males.


68
at the end of the groups, such as "I feel more confident in myself
as a student;" "I am surer that I can be successful now. .
"I feel better about myself as a student at UF," "I'm not afraid
to speak in class now;" etc. The behaviors observed that were
evidence of these different evaluations of themselves included
more participation in group discussions by those who were very
quiet in the beginning of the groups; increased use of positive
statements about themselves versus the put-downs that they verbalized
initially; and more use of eye contact in communicating by those
who initially behaved in a very "shy" manner.
Does the difference in the type of group interventions have
an effect on the change in level of self esteem? Grouping the
data according to the type of group interventions that the students
receive and then analyzing the results did not reflect a significant
difference in the pretests and posttests scores between the groups.
It appears that the type of group interventions did not have an
effect on the change in scores on these instruments.
Is there a difference in the change of level of self-esteem
as measured by different instruments which focus on different
elements of self-esteem? This question can be answered in the
affirmative. There is apparently a difference in how each of
the instruments reflects level of self-esteem. There was a signif
icant difference between the two kinds of groups on the Self-
Social Symbols Task. However, there were no significant differences
for either the Self-Esteem Inventory or the photographic essay.


114-
Robjak, J. E., & Downey, R. G. Effectiveness of a study skills
course for students of different academic achievement levels
and personality types. Journal of Counseling Psychology,
1978, 25 (6), 544-550.
Robyak, J. E., & Downey, R. G. The prediction of long-term academic
performance after the completion of a study skills course.
Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, 1979, T_2, 108-111.
Rogers, C. R. Client-centered therapy. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin,
1951.
Romano, J. L., & Young, H. T. Regular group counseling/study skills
for academic improvement: How effective are they? Journal of
College Student Personnel, 1981, 22 (6), 492-6
Rosenberg, M. Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton,
New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1965.
Rosenberg, M., & Simmons, R. Black and white self-esteem: The
urban school child. Washington, D.C.: ASA, 1971.
Roth, R. W. The effects of black studies on Negro 5th grade
students. Journal of Negro Education, 1969, 38, 435-439.
Roth, R. W. How Negro 5th grade students view "black pride"
concepts. Integrated Education, 1970, 8, 24-27
Rovezzi-Carrol, S., & Thompson, D. Forecasting college success
for low-income students. Journal of College Student Personnel,
1980, 21, 340-3.
Rudman, S. Positive changes in self-concept as a function of
participation in encounter groups and encounter-type groups.
Dissertation Abstracts Internationale, 1971, 31, 5674B.
Savin-Williams, R. C., & Jacguish, G. A. The assessment of adoles
cent self-esteem: A comparison of methods. Journal of
Personality, 1981, 19 (3), 324-336.
Shavelson, R. J., Hubner, J. J., & Stanton, G. C. Self-concept:
Validation of construct interpretations. Review of Educational
Research, 1976, 46 (3), 407-441.
Simmons, R., Brown, L., Bush, D., & Blyth, D. Self-esteem & achieve
ment of black and white adolescents. Social Problems,
1978, 26, 86-96.


ll
Hedegard, J. M. Experiences of black college students at pre
dominantly white institutions. In E. A. Epps (Ed.), Black
students in white schools. Northington, Ohio: Charles
A. Jones Publishing Co., 1972.
Houston, L. Predicting academic achievement among specially
admitted black female college students. Educational and
Psychological Measurement, 1980, 40, 1189-94.
Hraba, J., & Grant, G. Black is beautiful: A re-examination of
racial preference and identification. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 16, 1979, 398-402.
Huck, T. Reading statistics and research. New York: Harper &
Row Publishers, Inc., 1974.
Hunt, D. E., & Hardt, R. H. The effect of upward bound programs
on the attitudes, motivation, and academic achievement of
Negro students. Journal of Social Issues, 1969, 2§_, 117-129.
Jacgues, J. M. & Chason, K. J. Sociological Quarterly, 1977,
18 (3), 399-412.
Johnsen, K. P., & Medley, M. L. Academic self-concept among black
high school seniors: An examination of perceived agreement
with selected others. Phylon, 1978, 39 (3), 264-74.
Johnson, S. Successfully effecting changing on personality
variables through academic skills training. Reading:
Convention and Inguiry--24th Yearbook of the National Reading
Conference (ed. by George McNinch and Wallace Miller),
South Carolina National Reading Conference, Inc., 1975.
Kardiner, A., & Ovesey, L. The mark of oppression. New York:
Norton, 1951.
Keetz, M. A. The effect of incorporating reading and study skills
instruction into a college academic course. In P. L. Nacke
(Ed.), Diversity in mature reading: Theory and research.
Twenty-Second Yearbook of the National Reading Conference,
Vol. 1. Boone, N.C.: National Reading Conference, Inc.,
1973, 270-276.
Kimmel, D. C. Adulthood and aging. New York: John Wilev & Sons.
Inc., 1974.
King, E., & Price, F. T. Black self-concept: A new perspective.
Journal of Negro Education, 1979, 48, 216-21.


62
posttest, while the scores for the self-esteem groups remained
relatively stable.
An analysis of covariance for the two kinds of groups by
sex reveals that there is a significant difference between the
groups for females, but not for the males. An F-value of 23.08
was generated for the comparison of females in the different kinds
of groups. For the males the F-value was 2.66. Both analyses
involved one degree of freedom. In congruence with the comparisons
for the total group, females in the study skills groups had lower
self-esteem than the females in the self-esteem groups at the end
of the study when compared using only the SSST scores. The males
in the two kinds of groups did not differ.
Null Hypothesis #4. There is no significant difference
between the two kinds of groups in level of self-esteem as measured
by the Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) at the end of the groups.
A comparison of the scores of the two groups on the SEI by an
analysis of covariance produced no significant differences at the
.05 level of confidence. The computed F-value was 1.11. For one
degree of freedom this score does not meet the minimum for signifi
cance. The null hypothesis must be accepted in this comparison.
An analysis by sex between the groups for the SEI resulted
in no significant differences either. A comparison of the females
yielded a 0.79 F-value. An F-value of 1.05 was obtained for the
males. Neither of these values are significant for one degree of
freedom at an alpha level of .05.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08555 2809


Zirkel, P. Enhancing the self-concept of disadvantaged students,
California Journal of Educational Research, 1972, 23,
125-137.


TABLE 4
Analysis of Covariance
by Group
Assessment
Group
Adjusted
Mean*
F-value
Significant**
SSST
Self-esteem
29.76
18.02
yes
Study skills
28.98
SEI
Self-esteem
35.18
1.11
no
Study skills
34.78
PE
Self-esteem
4.93
.05
no
Study skills
5.02
Sum of
Self-esteem
69.87
.42
no
S-E scores
Study skills
68.78
GPA
Self-esteem
2.54
5.28
yes
Study skills
2.37
* Post-test mean after adjustment for pretest scores
** For one degree of freedom at .05 level of confidence
cn
to


26
to select, organize and manipulate information, these skills
have not been integrated into study skills training. They
conducted a study to investigate whether there was a significant
difference in GPAs for freshmen who took six weeks of study
skills instruction versus those who did not. SAT scores were
used as the covariate. Fourteen students were enrolled in a
one credit hour study skills class. The class met twice a week
for class periods of fifty minutes. A guided notetaking and
study skills system developed by the authors was incorporated in
the instruction. This system provided instruction and practice
in selecting and summarizing important information and observing
relationships between given concepts. The lessons combined in
struction in higher cognitive skills with conventional study skills
instruction. The aim was to guide students in selecting, compre
hending, analyzing and organizing information for recall. A
review of the content of the sessions included
Session 1: scheduling and general study orientation
Sessions 2-3: notetaking skills
Sessions 4-7: SQ3R study system (Study, Question, Read,
Recite, Review)
Sessions 8-11: Test preparation
Session 12: Assessment (criterion referenced test)
The results of Driskel and Kelly's study revealed that the
students that took the study skills class obtained a significantly
higher GPA at the end of the semester.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES viii
ABSTRACT i x
I.INTRODUCTION
Nature of Self-Esteem 2
Statement of the Problem 5
Need for the Study 7
Purpose 8
Rationale 8
Research Questions 10
Definition of Terms 10
Organization of the Remainder of the Study 11
II.REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Elements of Self-Esteem 12
Self-Esteem of Blacks 17
Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement 22
Study Skills 25
Group Counseling 29
III.METHODOLOGY
Population 33
Sampling Procedures 35
Sample 36
Instrumentation 36
Research Procedures 43
Hypotheses 46
Data Analysis 48
Limitations 50
vi


5
correlated with the findings of Shave!son et a!., except for the
exclusion of physical aspects. Coffin (1971) and Brookover et al.
(1967a) divided self-esteem into three areas: social, academic,
and personal competence. LaBenne and Greene identified body
image, social/personal acceptability, and self-competence as
the primary aspects of self-esteem. Other terms that have been
used interchangebly with self-esteem include self-value, self
adequacy, and self-acceptance (Coombs, 1964; Paschal, 1968; Piers
& Harris, 1964).
The process of self-perceiving might finally be described
as an interaction between self-concept and self-esteem as
various roles are played or fulfilled in situations through which
feedback and influence are received (Beane & Lipka, 1980).
Inasmuch as the focus of this study is on self-esteem,
further references to the self-concept will be made only when
the research involved defined self-concept in evaluative terms,
thus equating it with self-esteem. Particular attention will
be paid to the aforementioned aspects of self-esteem identified
by LaBenne and Greene. These are body image, social/personal
acceptability, and self-competence.
Statement of the Problem
The literature is diverse on whether the level of self
esteem differs for black people (see Chapter II). Kardiner
and Ovesy (1951) pose that the self-esteem of Blacks suffers
because they are constantly receiving an unpleasant image of


49
the ANCOVA would have been used, since it is a more powerful
statistical analysis.
An initial test was done to check the assumption of homogeneity
of variance since the N's for the group were not identical.
Initial assessments were also done to test the assumptions of
common slope and linearity.
Since these assumptions were confirmed, the posttest scores
on each instrument, the total score for the three instruments, and
post grade point averages were analyzed separately using an ANCOVA
design with the appropriate covariate in each analysis. Analyses
of covariances were also done to determine if there were any dif
ferences between the male and female participants in the groups.
A Product-Moment Correlation (Pearson) was computed to deter
mine if there is a co-relationship between the change in the level
of self-esteem (total score) and the grade point average (Null
Hypothesis #8). This particular correlational technique was used
because both variables have continuous scores.
A course evaluation was also developed for each kind of
group (see Appendix E ). The two evaluations were designed using
the same format. Some of the questions were identical, i.e.:
1. What did you like the most about the class?
2. What did you like the least about the class?
3. What would you like to see added to the course?
4. What would you like to see deleted from the course?
The participants were asked to rate the components of their respec
tive class on a continuum from not helpful to very helpful using


54
Photographic Essay. The scoring system devised for the
photographic essay yielded a possible range of 4-16 points for
four pictures. Scores ranged from 4 to 9 points on the first
set of pictures with a mean score of 5.3. On the second set of
pictures the range narrowed to 4-8 with a mean score of 5.0.
Grade Point Averages. The University of Florida utilizes
a 0.0 to 4.0 grading system. During the semester prior to the
students' participation in the groups, GPAs ranged from 0.0 to 3.43
with a mean GPA of 2.14. GPAs for the term during which the students
participated in the group were calculated omitting the grade for
the BES 2930, because the criteria for receiving an A in the course
differed from the traditional course requirements. Grading was
based on attendance, participation in the groups, and completion
of the pretests and posttests for the BES 2930. Thus, most of
the students received an A in the course, which may have inflated
the term GPA if it were not omitted. GPAs for the term, with the
deletion of the indicated grade, ranged from 1.16 to 4.0 with a
mean GPA of 2.5.
Discussion
A correlated t-test was calculated on the sum of the pretest
and posttest scores for self-esteem to determine if there was a
significant difference between these two groups of scores. A
correlated t-test was also computed to assess if there was a
significant difference between the GPAs for all the participants
prior to and after participation in the groups.


45
All groups included sessions on assertiveness training and
dealing with test-anxiety. A detailed description of each session
for both type group is included in Appendix F. (See Treatment
Procedures.)
Each participant completed the pre- and post-assessments
during the first and last group meetings respectively. All of the
members of each group were assured that they would be provided the
opportunity to participate in subsequent groups which would provide
the information that was not provided to their particular group
during the study. They were also assured of confidentiality regard
ing their responses on the instruments and on information divulged
in the groups. No one was requested to place names on any of the
instruments completed. They were asked to place the last four
digits of their social security number only. The students were in
formed that the data would be analyzed collectively. Therefore,
their individual progress or lack of progress would not be delineated
in the study. All of this information was explained prior to their
participation in the group and they were asked to sign an informed
consent form (Appendix A).
Two trained counselor educators were the leaders for the
groups. One of the counselors works for the DSSSP program, the
other for the PACT program. Each counselor worked with all four
groups to control for individual differences in counseling style.
They exchanged groups based on their preferred topics for discussion.
Resource persons were brought in for the Black history sessions,
study skills, library skills, test-anxiety, and role modeling.


Brookover, W., LaPere, J., Hamachek, D., Thomas, S., & Erickson, E.
Improving academic achievement through students' self-concept
Ihancement (Final report of Cooperative Research Project
Number 1636), Michigan State University, 1965.
Brookover, W., Paterson, A., & Thomas, S. Self-concept of ability
and school achievement. Sociology of Education, 1967, 37,
271-78.
Brown, F., & Stent, M. Minorities in U.S. institutions of higher
education. New York"! Praeger Publishers, 1977.
Calsyn, R. J. The causal relationship between self-esteem, locus
of control, and achievement: A cross-lagged panel analysis.
Doctoral Dissertation, Northwestern University, 1973.
Campbell, J. It's me--building self-confidence through art.
Boston: Teaching Resources, 1977.
Cangelosi, A., Gressard, C., & Mines, R. The effects of a rational
thinking group on self-concept in adolescents. The School
Counselor, 1980, 27, 357-60.
Caplin, M. The relationship between self-concept and academic
achievement and between level of aspiration and academic
achievement. (Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University,
1966). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1966, 27_,
979A. (University Microfilms Mo. 66-10, 284).
Clark, K. Prejudice and your child. Boston: Beacon Press, 1955.
Clark, K., & Clark, M. Racial identification and preference in
Negro children. In T.M. Newcomb & E.L. Hartley (Eds.) Read
ings in Social Psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and
Winston, 1947.
Clark, K., & Clark, M. How blacks feel about themselves. Ebony,
1980, 36(1), 170-77.
Coffin, B. Academic achievement in a poverty area high school:
Implications for counseling. Journal of Negro Education,
1971, 40, 365-68.
Coombs, C.F. Perception of self and scholastic achievement in
the academically capable. Personnel and Guidance Journal,
1964, 43, 47-51.
Coopersmith, S. Antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco:
W. H. Freeman & Co., 1967.


63
Null Hypothesis #5. There is no significant difference
between the two kinds of groups in level of self-esteem as measured
by the photographic essays.
An analysis of covariance on the posttest scores for the
photographic essays generated an F-value of 0.05. For one degree
of freedom this value is not significant at the .05 level of con
fidence. Therefore, the null hypothesis must be accepted for this
comparison also.
A look at the results of this analysis by sex also produced
insignificant values. A value of 0.00 was obtained for the females.
For males the value was 0.49. Neither of these met the criteria
for one degree of freedom at the designated level of significance.
Null Hypothesis #6. There is no significant difference
between the grade point averages for the semester prior to parti
cipation in the group and the grade point averages (minus the
grade for BES 2930) for the term during which the groups took place.
A correlated t-test was calculated to determine if there was
a significant difference between the grade point averages for each
individual. The same t-score formula that was used to test hypothe
sis #1 was computed for this assessment. A t-score of 3.93 was
obtained. For 41 degrees of freedom, this value is significant at
the .001 alpha level. Therefore, the null hypothesis can be rejected
in this case. A review of the results shows that there is an in
crease in the mean grade point averages for all groups.


9
appears that the improvement of a students's
self-esteem is to be valued as an educa
tional outcome in its own right. (Shavelson
et al., 1976, p.407)
A group counseling approach has been selected because of
the research (Brookover & Erickson, 1969; King & Price, 1979:
LaBenne & Greene, 1969; Ziller et al., 1969) indicating the impor
tance of interpersonal relationships and the social environment
on the development of self-esteem. Working with students in groups
also enables persons in an educational setting to assist more
students in a given amount of time. Thus, time efficiency was
also a consideration in selecting a group approach rather than an
individual counseling mode.
Black culture orientation has led to an increase in Black
pride which has subsequently been evidenced in a more positive
black self-concept (King & Price, 1979). This research, plus
similar findings regarding black pride programs by Lessing (1969),
Roth (1970), Van Koughnett and Smith (1969), and Zirkel (1972),
and teaching black history units by Georgehoff (1968), served as
the basis for focusing on these areas in the self-esteem group.
Weigel and Weigel (1968) have found that study skills courses
that focused solely on study skills are ineffective. Kirkland
and Hoi 1andsworth (1979) propose that test-taking skills should
be focused on before working with more complex and difficult
study skills, i.e., reading and writing. Bednar and Weinberg
(1970) suggest that study skills courses be used with individual
or group counseling, because they found then to be ineffective


7
During 1980, 27 percent of all the black students at the
university had a grade point average (GPA) of 2.0 or below
(Stewart, 1981). Astin (1977) points out that the single
variable most strongly associated with staying in college is
the student's undergraduate GPA.
Need for the Study
There is an abundance of literature documenting the rela
tionship of self-esteem to academic performance (Brookover et al.,
1967; Epps, 1969; Frerichs, 1971; Purkey, 1970; Rosenberg, 1965;
Thomas et al., 1969). However, correlations do not necessarily
indicate a cause-and-effect relationship. Further research
focusing on changing one of these elements and looking at the
effect it has on the other component would be useful in clarify
ing if a causal relationship exists. That is, if working exclu
sively with students to elevate their level of self-esteem,
without providing academic skills training, produces both an
increase in level of self-esteem and grade point averages, a
clearer indication of a causal relationship would be shown.
A number of studies have been done to identify other
correlates of self-esteem. Again, these have demonstrated rela
tionships, but they may not be determining factors. Implementing
different strategies based on these findings in an attempt to
improve the level of self-esteem and looking at the resulting
changes would assist counselors in identifying agents that are
most effective for this purpose.


85
Suppose the top circle represents the best possible life
and the bottom circle represents the worst. Put a "Y" in
circle that shows where you would be today.
for you
the


77
will be determined by your responses on the questionnaires that
you will be asked to complete and your academic success this term.
"I have read and I understand the procedure described
above. I agree to participate in the procedure and I have
received a copy of this description."
Signatures:
Student Date
Witness Date


13
Wylie (1961) points to the fact that most measures of self
esteem are global estimates. They are based on the assumption
that individuals evaluate themselves consistently and uniformly
across situations. This assumption has been found faulty by
factor analytic studies (Lawson et al., 1979). Researchers
found that global estimates of self-esteem did not predict perfor
mance in various situations but more specific measures did. The
social self-esteem scale of Ziller et al. (1969) did not predict
academic performance; Coopersmith's (1967) global measure did.
This is the result of the inclusion of questions of academic
self-worth on Coopersmith's instrument, while this type of
material is not included on the scale by Ziller et al.
Coopersmith stressed the generability and cross-situational
stability of self-esteem, but he also recognized that self
esteem might be multifaceted. As cited in Chapter I, Shavelson
et al. (1976) identified seven elements of the self-esteem con
struct. According to their definition, self-esteem is (1) or
ganized, (2) multifaceted, (3) hierarchical, (4) stable (when
considered as a general construct) and unstable (situationally),
(5) developemental (in that factors become more differentiated
with age), (6) evaluative, and (7) differentiable from related
constructs.
Fleming and Watts (1980) examined the hypothesis that self
esteem is a multidimensional construct via factor analysis. They
tested 106 sophomore students in a college psychology course


100
these were very intelligent people. He then discusses the
obstacles often experienced by black college students in predomi
nantly white institutions by relating some of his personal
experiences as a student.
Session #5
Dr. Ronald Foreman, Director of Afro-American Studies at the
University of Florida, met with the group. He highlighted some
great Blacks that the group might not have been familiar with in
American History. The presentation was done in a discussion for
mat.
Session #6
Being Black on a White Campus: the attached sheet entitles
"The Meaning of Being Black on a White Campus" by Dr. Fred Harper
of Howard University was distributed to the students at the
beginning of the group meeting. The students were given time to
read it. They were then asked to select the incident that had
the most meaning for them of the ones listed on the sheet. There
were then shared orally with the group.
Sessions #7, #8, and #9
Sharing of photo essays: the developed photos were
returned to the respective members of the group. They were asked
to arrange the photos in order of "the one that best describes
who I am," as requested on the instruction sheet. They were
given poster paper and materials to attach the photos to the
paper. They were also asked to place a one-sentence caption


103
Session #17
Summary and evaluation: students were encouraged to bring
up anything that they wanted to discuss but had not had an oppor
tunity to at that point. Written and oral evaluations of the
groups were also solicited. Cameras were distributed for taking
the second set of pictures.
Session #18
Posttest with written instruments was administered. Cameras
were collected. An invitation was given for students to come in
to see the counselors in DSSSP at anytime subsequent to the
group, with or without problems.


APPENDIX B
SELF-SOCIAL SYMBOLS TASK
by
Ziller, Long, and Henderson
The circle marked "Y" stands for Yourself. The other
circles stand for other people. Draw as amny or as few lines
as you wish from the circle for Yourself to the circles which
stand for other people.
78


30
They suggest that a network of campus-service support and
peer support can greatly enhance the college experience for the
non-traditional student. A counseling group can be a place for
response to their special needs. Yalom (1975) has found that
one of the three outcomes of a group counseling experience per
ceived by college students is an increase in the level of self-
confidence. The other two are satisfaction with the group and
interpersonal learning in social situations.
Cordell (1974), Geisler (1969),Stanton (1980), Hunt and
Hardt (1969), King (1974), and Payne and Dunn (1972) found
significant increases in level of self-esteem as a result of
participation in group counseling. King developed an experimental
workshop specifically designed to enhance self-concept of black
adolescents. Stanton used a self-enhancement group with ego
enhancing activities to encourage students to think more positively
about themselves. The activities included acquaintanceship
exercises; remembering and sharing success experiences; self-
image projection whereby participants share their images of them
selves and receive feedback from others; "nourishing," in which
participants focus on things other group members have said or done
which made them feel more positive about themselves; trust exercises
of a non-verbal kind; and "words that describe me." Twenty low
self-concept university students participated in a six-week group
that met for two hours each week. Another twenty students parti
cipated in the same group experiences, on a residential weekend.


28
Topics included in the course were reading efficiency,
comprehension attacks, test study techniques, listening and
notetaking, test preparation, test taking, time scheduling, and
behavior control.
Results of the study indicated (a) differences on most
variables for the experimental groups over both of the control
groups, (b) few differences between the two control groups
(motivated vs. unmotivated), and (c) changes in a positive direction
on all variables for the experimental group. The researcher recom
mends the use of skills instruction not only to improve skills but
to improve self-esteem.
Kirkland and Hollandsworth (1979) conducted a study with
college students to determine the relationship between test anxiety,
study skills, and academic performance. They administered Alpert
and Habe's Achievement Anxiety Test (AAT), Sarason's Test Anxiety
Scale (TAS) and General Anxiety Scale (GAS) and Brown's Effective
Study Test (EST) to 305 undergraduate students in introductory
psychology and sociology courses. They found that test-taking
skills and test-anxiety contribute significantly to the prediction
of grade point average.
Dillard et al. (1977) noted that teaching testwiseness was
significantly effective in reducing test anxiety and improving
test-score results. However, applied test-taking skills and self-
concept were not significantly improved.


under each photo. These were shared with the group in these
three sessions. Discussion evolved around why these perceptions
of self.
Sessions #10 and #11
Assertiveness training: students were trained in asser
tiveness using a model developed by the Florida Junior College at
Jacksonville's Student Development Program as a base. This model
was adapted to training black students, i.e., often a statement
that would be perceived as assertive if spoken by a white person
is perceived as aggressive if spoken by a black person to a white
person. Therefore, Blacks must be cognizant of cultural dif
ferences in tone and level of voice and body language that is
often misinterpreted by others. The information shared and
discussed in the first of these two sessions was role played in
situations identified by the group members in the second session.
Students were also given homework assignments based on their weak
areas of assertiveness as identified by them on the "How
Assertive Are You?" sheet. These instances in which they
attempted to be more assertive were reported back to the group.
(See attached sheets.)
Sessions #12 and #13
Test-anxiety: an anxiety-provoking test situation was simu
lated by the group leader through the administration of a "test"
taken from the Graduate Record Exam Preparation Manual.


CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Data collected for analysis in this study included pretest
and posttest scores Gn the self-esteem component of the Self-Social
Symbols Task (SSST), pretest and posttest scores on the Self-Esteem
Inventory (SEI), pretest and posttest scores on the photographic
essays developed by each student, and grade point averages for the
semester prior to participation in the group and for the semester
during which participation in the group occurred. Data was collected
for a total of forty-two Students.
Results
Self-Social Symbols Task. The range of scores possible on
the self-esteem component of the SSST is 5-35 points. For the
sample involved in this study, the scores ranged from 23 to 35
points on the pretest with a mean score of 30 points. For the
posttest the range was 19-35 with a mean score of 29.5 points for
the total group. A breakdown of the scores by group is given on
the data summary chart (see Table 1).
Self-Esteem Inventory. Scores on the SEI could range from
0-50. The range of scores obtained on the pretest was from 18 to
45 with a mean score of 33.7. The mean score on the posttest was
35.2 with a range of 27-45.
52


51
The other limitation is the fact that the students volunteered
to enroll in the course and participate in this study. The fact
that these students were seeking some assistance with increasing
their grade point averages may indicate a higher level of motivation
to improve.


23
Esteem Inventory (SEI). He noted the great frequency with which
low self-esteem persons reported a low average. The percentage
of persons with low averages and low self-esteem was 40.7 percent.
This was twice that of those with medium self-esteem and low
averages (15.4 percent) and those with high self-esteem with low
averages (17.3 percent).
The relationship between self-esteem and academic performance
has been reported primarily using two different criteria. Com
parisons are usually done either between self-esteem and standard
achievement test scores or self-esteem and grade point averages.
Fitts (1972) points out that standardized achievement tests are
only one of many criteria of academic performance and that test
scores probably hold less significance and meaning to the individual
than grades. Scores with the Tennessee Self Concept Survey have
shown a stronger relationship with GPA than with achievement tests.
Fitts contends that this is logical because course grades are more
a product of the "total" self than achievement test scores. Also,
the student's immediate performance, as reflected in grades, prob
ably has greater significance for his/her self-esteem than scores
on an impersonal standardized test.
Rosenberg and Simmons (1971) concur with Fitts that the re
lationship between self-esteem and grades is stronger than between
self-esteem and standardized test scores. They point out that
many students do not take standardized achievement tests, and very
few take them regularly. Even if the students do take such tests,


we will divide self-esteem into three elements. These are
body image--how one perceives him/herself physically; self-
competence--how the person perceives his/her abilities; and
social/personal acceptabi1ity--how one accepts one's character
istics and how he/she thinks that others accept him/her.
Organization of the Remainder of the Study
Chapter II will review the published empirical studies
related to this investigation.
Chapter III will describe the population, sample, experi
mental methods, assessment instruments to be used, and the
statistical analyses to be utilized in the study.
Chapter IV will report the analyses of the data collected
Chapter V will discuss the conclusions that can be drawn
from the results, limitations of the investigation, and recom
mendations for further study.


74
Recommendations and Implications
It is recommended that similar studies on this topic include
a method for assessing the level of self-esteem other than
self-report. The observations of the researcher in this study
support the utilization of a behavioral checklist in either a
pretest and posttest format or as an ongoing evaluation. There
are some behavioral checklists that have been used by other re
searchers to evaluate self-esteem. One might be developed that
was appropriate for the population.
Other suggestions include following the grade point averages
of the participants for a subsequent semester. There has been
evidence to support the phenomenon of changes in self-esteem not
taking place after intervention until up to six months later.
It might also be valuable to repeat the administration of the
self-esteem instruments six months after the termination of the
groups. Conducting the same study during the regular semester
in opposition to the summer term might be informative regarding
the difference in a short, intense intervention versus intervention
over a longer period of time.
There are two implications important to educators and counse
lors. The results indicate that GPAs increased during the term
of intervention for the students in all of the groups. Prior
research had provided evidence that there was merit for focusing
on each of these areas to improve academic performance. A com
bination of the two interventions should impact grade point


82
The two figures below stand for two groups of people you know.
The small circles stand for other people. Draw a circle to stand
for Yourself anywhere in the space below.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Affirmative Action Office. Equalizing Educational Opportunity
(Annual Report). Gainesville: University of Florida, 1981.
Amerikaner, M., Schauble, P., & Ziller, R. Images: The use of
photographs in personal counseling. Personnel and Guidance
Journal, 1980, 59_, 68-73.
Astin, A.W. Four critical years. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Pub!ishers, 1977.
Attenborough, R., & Zdep, S. Self-image among a national probabili
ty sample of girls (Proceedings of the 81st Annual Convention
of APA, Montreal, Canada, 1973), 237-238.
Banks, J. A., & Grambs, J.E. Black self-concept: Implications
for education and social sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill
Co., 1972.
Beane, J. A., & Lipka, R.P. Self-concept and self-esteem: A con
struct differentiation. Child Study Journal, 1980, 10_, 1-6.
Bednar, R. 1., & Weinberg, S.L. Ingredients of successful treat
ment programs for underachievers. Journal of Counseling
Psychology, 1970, 17, 1-7.
Binder, D. M. Relationship between selected self-concept and aca
demic achievement measures. Measurement and Evaluation in
Guidance, 1975, 13, 92-95.
Bledsoe, J.C. Self-concepts of children and their intelligence,
achievement, interests, and anxiety. Journal of Individual
Psychology, 1964, 20, 55-58.
Boyd, W. M. Black undergraduates succeed in white colleges.
Educational Record, 1977, 58_, 309-315.
Brookover, W., & Erickson, E. Society, schools and learning.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1969.
Brookover, W., Erickson, E., & Joiner, L. Self-concepts of ability
and school achievement, III (Final report of Cooperative Re
search Project Number 1636), Michigan State University, 1967.


6
themselves from the behavior of others toward them. It has
also been suggested that Blacks are much more aware and sensitized
to their blackness when they are among Whites than when they
are among Blacks (Rosenberg, 1965). Hedegard (1972) reports
that the modal experience of black students on predominantly
white campuses is that white students perceive them as ignorant
and are indifferent to the problems and experiences of blacks.
They are prejudged by the students and faculty as being inferior
or inadequately prepared for academic work. A comparison of
the attrition rates of black college students at predominantly
black versus predominantly white institutions reveals that black
students are more successful at the black colleges (Brown &
Stent, 1977).
Several retention programs are in operation at the University
of Florida. Academic Enrichment and Retention Services (AERS)
provide academic advisement for all minority students. The
Division of Student Support and Special Programs (DSSSP) and the
Program for Academic Counseling and Tutoring (PACT) provide
special developmental class sections, tutoring, and study skills
training for all students admitted through a "special admission"
policy for minority students (see Chapter III for additional
information on these students and the programs that serve them).
However, at the University of Florida for the fall of 1980,
the rate of nonreturn for black students was twice the rate of
nonreturn for white students (Affirmative Action Office, 1981).


The ten circles within the large circle stand for other
people. Choose any one of the ten circles to stand for yourself,
84
and place a "Y" over it.


I would like to express my gratitude to some very special
friends. Mrs. Juliet Fields, Mrs. Derya Williams, Ms. Amanda
Shackleford, and Dr. Mary Hoover provided invaluable assistance
in numerous ways. I will always be indebted to them. I would
also like to recognize Mr. Michael Powell, Ms. Linda Graham, and
Mr. David Glover. They provided logistical assistance that was
much appreciated.
Last, but certainly not least, I would like to acknowledge
my colleagues from Edward Waters College, the University of
Florida, and the University of Texas at Austin. They all deserve
thanks for their support during the different phases of develop
ment of this project.
v


38
for 203 ninth grade students. Validity was determined based on
the following results obtained by the authors of the test:
1. Sociometric stars indicated higher self-esteem than
sociometric isolates.
2. Political candidates who won in an election for state
legislature rose in self-esteem in contrast to those
who lost the election.
3. A positive relationship was found between self-esteem
and frequency and consistency of verbal participation
in group therapy.
4. A positive relationship was found between self-esteem
and socioeconomic status.
5. Higher self-esteem was expressed by normals as opposed
to neuropsychiatric patients, as well as by normals as
opposed to behavior problem children.
6. Adolescents with a physical handicap show lower self
esteem than a control group.
The self-esteem component is applicable to this study because
it has been found to measure two of the three elements of self
esteem identified for this study, social/personal acceptability
and self-competence. Its primary focus is on the first of these
two elements.
The Self-Esteem Inventory. The inventory consists of fifty
items concerned with the student's self-attitudes in four areas:
peers, parents, school, and personal interests (Coopersmith, 1967).
The form has been modified by the author for use with different
age groups. The form available to the researcher was worded for
students living at home with their parents. Therefore, it was
necessary to reword a couple of items to refer to wherever they
lived, instead of assuming that they lived at home. The term


43
image are more inclined to include themselves in the picture than
those who are not comfortable with their body image. The number
of photographs including others and/or groups were counted in
looking at social acceptability. Pictures that include reference
to being a student were looked at in terms of self-competence.
Activities and possessions were viewed to determine if they have a
relationship to one of the three elements of self-esteem being
evaluated. A numerical score was determined by adding the total
number of categories included and how many of each category.
Several categories may be included on each photo, and a category
may be repeated on several photos.
Ziller et al. (in press) submit that the auto-photographic
approach compels consideration of the environment in understanding
persons. Thus, it is proposed that the data-collection approach,
auto-photography, compels ecological validity to interpersonal
understanding.
Research Procedures
As indicated in the section describing the sample, the stu
dents were divided into four small groups; two self-esteem groups
and two study skills groups. The groups initially contained an
equal number of students, but attrition of six students resulted
in nine and ten students each in the study skills groups and eleven
and twelve students each in the self-esteem groups.
All the groups met three times a week for one hour sessions
for six weeks, for a total of eighteen sessions. A group counseling


Copyright 1983
by
Suzan Armstrong West


4
specific. These are all nonvaluative terms. Self-esteem may
be described as positive or negative, strong or weak, or other
value-related judgemental terminology.
Most researchers in this area agree that environmental
factors play an important part in the self-esteem of an individual.
Ziller et al. (1969) state that self-esteem must be defined
within a context of self-other orientation--social self-esteem.
They assert that self-evaluation evolves within a social frame
of reference. Self-acceptance and social acceptance are inextri
cably combined.
Shavelson et al. (1976) equate self-concept and self-esteem
by defining self-concept as the person's evaluative perception
of him or herself which is formed through experience with his
or her environment. They identify seven features of the self-
concept: organized, multifaceted, hierarchical, developmental,
evaluative, and differentiable. General self-esteem is believed
to be at the top of the hierarchy and can be separated into
academic and nonacademic components. The latter (nonacademic)
is further divisible into physical, emotional, and social aspects.
West and Fish (1973), Fleming and Watts (1980), and LaBenne
and Greene (1969) concur with Shavelson et al. that self-concept
and/or self-esteem are multifaceted. West and Fish proposed that
the wide variety of definitions available, as well as the wide
variety of perceptions about self, indicate that the self-concept
is not a unitary trait. Fleming and Watts' research findings


37
for students (grades 5 through college), and one for children
(ages 5-9). The student form was used in this study. Each form
includes items to measure self-esteem, social interest, self
centrality, identification, majority identification, complexity,
power, openness, inclusion, and marginality. The self-esteem
component and the complexity component were evaluated, although
five other items from the instrument were used as fillers. Ziller
et al. (1966) point out that the items for the individual components
may be used as separate instruments. They suggest, however, that
filler items from the other components be included. (See Appendix
B for copy of items.)
The items to measure self-esteem are presented in horizontal
or vertical arrays of six circles and a list of significant other
people such as a friend, a selfish person, a grandmother, someone
you hope to be like, a teacher and yourself. The task requires the
subject to assign each person to a circle. The score is the
weighted position of the self. In accordance with the cultural
norm, positions to the left are associated with higher self-esteem
(Ziller et al., 1966). Five items with different sets of "others"
are scattered throughout the filler items. To score, the circles
are numbered 1 through 6, starting at the right side for the hori
zontal arrays or at the bottom for the vertical arrays. The sum
of the scores on all five items represents the self-esteem score
for this instrument.
The self-esteem scale on the student form was found to have a
split-half reliability of .80 for 99 high school students and .89


61
assumption must be made that there is no significant difference
in level of self-esteem between the males and females as a result
of participating in any of the groups. There were also no signifi
cant differences found between the two kinds of groups for either
sex. An F-value of 0.02 was obtained when comparing the females
in the two different kinds of groups. For the comparison of males
the F-value was also 0.C2. With one degree of freedom for each of
these analyses, neither one of these values was significant at
the .05 alpha level. No significant difference was found between
the females in the self-esteem groups versus the females in the
study skills groups. Nor were there any differences found in the
level of self-esteem of the males in the different types of groups.
Null Hypothesis #3. There is no significant difference between
the two kinds of groups in level of self-esteem as measured by the
Self-Social Symbols Task (SSST) at the end of the groups.
An analysis of covariance was computed with the posttest
scores on the SSST as the dependent variable, the pretest scores
on the SSST as the covariate, and the type of group as the indepen
dent variable. The analysis produced an F-value of 18.02. For one
degree of freedom this value is significant at the .0001 alpha level,
which is a much higher level of significance than the .05 level
required for this study. The null hypothesis can be rejected. A
significant difference was found between the two groups on the
SSST scores. A review of the mean scores for the groups reveals
that both of the study skills groups' scores decreased on the


66
5. Dr. Rosie Bingham's presentation on giving positive
feedback was rated highest for the components unique to the
self-esteem group (x = 3.87).
6. Only 21 percent of the participants responded to
"What would you like to see added to the course?" Only two
persons responded similarly. They recommended showing a "film
on Blacks."
7. There were no responses to the question "What would you
like to see deleted from the course?" except the word "nothing."
See Appendix E for a complete tally of the evaluations.
Summary of Discussion. Three of the null hypotheses were
rejected. There is a significant difference between the groups
on the Self-Social Symbols Task. There was also a significant
difference in the grade point averages prior to the groups in
comparison with those for the term during which the groups occurred.
The groups also differed significantly in grade point averages. It
was necessary to accept the remainder of the null hypotheses be
cause of insignificant results.


71
semester during which the group took place? The significant
difference between the GPAs for the two terms yields a positive
response for this question. Mean GPAs for all of the groups
increased for the second term.
Does the difference in the focus of the group intervention
have an effect on the grade point averages of the students? In
addition to there being an overall significant increase in grade
point averages, there was also a significant difference between
the two kinds of groups for these increases. Students in the
self-esteem groups attained GPAs that were significantly higher
than those of members of the study skills groups.
Is there a correlation between the changes in self-esteem
and the changes in GPAs? The correlation between the changes in
self-esteem and GPA were low. This was to be expected after the
preceding analyses were done, because there was a significant
change in one of these variables (GPA) while there was no differ
ence in the other variable (self-esteem). Perhaps if a correlational
study was done for the SSST only and the GPAs, the correlation
might be higher.
Research questions were not posed at the beginning of the
study to evaluate if there were any differences between males
and females in the groups because it was uncertain if there would
be enough male participants to compare. Males do not typically
participate as actively in the services provided by DSSSP and PACT
as the female students. In this study there were fewer male


1] 5
Stake, J. E., & Pearlman, J. Assertiveness training as an inter
vention technique for low performance self-esteem women.
Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1980, 2J_, 276-281.
Stanton, H. E. The modification of student self-concept. Studies
in Higher Education, 1980, _5 (1), 71-76.
Stearns, M. S. Report on preschool programs: The effects of
preschool programs on disadvantaged children and their families.
DHEW Publication No. OCD 72-27, Washington, D.C.: U. S.
Government Printing Office, 1971.
Stephen, W. G., & Rosenfield, D. Effects of desegregation on race
relations and self-esteem. Journal of Educational Psychology,
1978, 70 (5), 670-9.
Stewart, B. A proposal for an academic monitoring system. Univer
sity of Florida, 1981.
Stone, M. The education of the black child in Britain: The myth
of multiracial education.GlSQOw,Britain: Fontana Paperbacks,
1981.
Thomas, S., Brookover, S. B., LePere, J. M. An experiment to modify
self-concept and school performance. Sociological Focus on
Education, 1969, 2, 55-67.
Trotzer, J. P., & Sease, W. A. The effect of group-centered and
topic-centered methods on volunteer college students' self-
concepts. Journal of Colleqe Student Personnel, 1971, 12,
292-296.
Turner, B. F., & Turner, C. B. Evaluation of women and man among
black and white college students. Sociological Quarterly,
1974, 15 (3), 442-56.
Turner, C. J. Convergent and discriminate validity in measures of
self-esteem. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1981,
41, 445-52.
Van Koughnett, B. C., & Smith, M. E. Enhancing the self-concept
in school. Educational Leadership, 1969, 27_, 253-55.
Vincent, J. An exploratory factor analysis relating to the con
struct validity of self-concept labels. Educational and
Psychological Measurement, 1968, 28, 915-21.
Watley, D. J. Performance and characteristics of the confident
student. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1965, 45, 591-96.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and
is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
4.' UP'
Dr. Elias L. Tolbert
Professor of Counselor Education
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the
Department of Counselor Education in the College of Education
and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
December, 1983
Dean for Graduate Studies and
Research


97
7. What would you like to see deleted from the course?
There were no responses to this except the
word "nothing". Others just left it blank.


58
of the self-esteem instruments do not differ significantly from
pretesting to posttesting.
Null Hypothesis #2. There is no significant difference
between the two kinds of groups in level of self-esteem as measured
by the sum of the scores on the three self-esteem instruments at
the conclusion of the groups.
An analysis of covariance was done utilizing the Statistical
Analysis System (SAS) computer program package to calculate a
Type IV Sum of Squares, the F value, the degrees of freedom, and
the level of probability for the F value. This is accomplished
through the use of a General Linear Models Procedure. The sum of
the posttests scores was identified as the dependent variable with
the type of group as the independent variable. Pretest scores were
introduced into the calculation as the covariate. An F value of
0.42 was obtained from this analysis with one degree of freedom.
This value is not significant at the .05 level of confidence. The
null hypothesis was accepted for this comparison of the groups.
There was no significant difference in the scores for the two
types of groups.
The total scores for self-esteem were also examined for
differences between the two sexes and for differences by sex
between the two kinds of groups. An analysis of covariance yielded
an F value of 0.03 with one degree of freedom when the males and
females were compared without the designation of group membership.
This is an insignificant score at the .05 alpha level. Thus, the


39
"teacher" was changed to "professor." One-half of the items are
presented in positive terms, thus reflecting a positive self
perception. The remainder of the items are stated in a negative
manner, indicating a lower level of self-esteem. The individual
is given the option of placing a check under the column headed
"like me" or "unlike me" for each item. One point is given for each
positive item checked according to the above. Those responses
representing negative perceptions are not given any points. The
final score is a total of the positive responses.
The Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) produced a test-retest
reliability of .88 with a sample of thirty students after a five
week interval. A reliability of .70 was obtained with a different
sample of 56 students after a three year interval. Coopersmith
(1967) suggests that this high correlation in scores after a lapse
of three years indicates that the inventory is measuring general
self-esteem rather than a situational phenomena.
The SEI was validated on a total of 1,748 students attending
the public schools of central Connecticutt. Coopersmith states
that the sample was diverse in ability, interest, and social back
ground. The teachers of all the 1,748 students were asked to rate
each student on a fourteen-item five-point scale on behaviors
presumed to be related to self-esteem. Items in this rating schedule
referred to such behaviors as the student's reaction to failure,
self-confidence in a new situation, sociability with peers, and
the need for encouragement and reassurance. "On theoretical and


75
averages even more. Research is needed in integrating these
two areas of focus into educational programs.
For counselors and educators, more research is needed in
specific types and kinds of activities for developing the self
esteem of students at all levels. A well researched and designed
"Henry Carson experience" could bring out the potential in many
students whose resources have yet not been recognized.


50
a Likert-type scale from 0-4. Some of the components were
common to both types of groups: size of group, group discussions,
guest speakers, and assertiveness training. Others differed.
For the self-esteem group the additional items were: Black Rhapsody
tape, Black history presentation by black graduate student Charles
English, being black on a white campus discussion, presentation
by black psychologist Dr. Rosie Bingham, and sharing of photographic
essay. The additional components for the study skills groups were:
test-taking skills, test anxiety discussion, relaxation techniques,
time management, note-taking and outlining skills.
Responses to the open-ended questions were noted and tallied
if a response was given more than once. Mean scores were calculated
for the Likert-type scale responses. The components were then ranked
by mean score.
Limitations
Two limitations were recognized by the researcher in the
selection of the sample. The sample was composed of all "special
admit" students because they are the focus of the population for
which the study was designed. Yet, having a select group of
students such as this group yields a very homogeneous group for
evaluation. This may be viewed as a severe limitation by some
researchers, but the researcher for this study proposes that this
group of students is relatively homogenous for the same character
istics at other institutions also.


17
revealed that the students' ratings of their bodily attractiveness
and effectiveness were intimately related to the degree of positive
self-regard they maintained about themselves.
Wylie (1961) includes a review of the research on body image
in her survey of the literature on self-concept. She points out
that the term has been used in two senses:
(1) S's perceptions of his/her physical
characteristics and his/her feelings and
attitudes toward these characteristics;
(2) S's general attitudes which are as
sociated with the body as a social object
(but which have little to do with the
actual physical appearance of the in
dividual's body), (pp. 261-65)
She further states that "the body image, in either of these senses,
is assumed to be largely or entirely unconscious."
Cangelosi, Gressard and Mines (1980) did research with
different approaches to improving self-concept of adolescents and
college students. Their results did not indicate that one method
was more effective than another, but they did conclude that further
research on self-concept should include the impact of treatment of
the component of body image on the self-concept.
Self-Esteem of Blacks
The majority of the research investigating the self-esteem
of Blacks has been done utilizing elementary black students as
subjects. Thus, it was necessary to include some of the major
studies with this age group in this section.


116'
Fretz, B., & Schmidt, L. Comparison of improvers and non-improvers
in an educational skills course. Journal of Counseling
Psychology, 1967, _14, 176-86.
Geisler, J. The effects of a compensatory education program on
the self-concept and academic achievement of the high school
youth from low income families (Doctoral dissertation,
University of Toledo, 1968). Dissertation Abstracts Interna
tional, 1969, 29, 2520A-2521A.
Georgehoff, P. The effect of the curriculum upon the self-concept
of children in racially integrated fourth grade classrooms.
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American
Educational Research Association, Chicago, February, 1968.
Gergen, K. The social construction of self-knowledge. In
T. Mischel (Ed.), The self: Psychological and philosophical
issues. New Jersey! Rowman & Littlefield, 1977.
Gill, M. Patterns of achievement as related to the perceived
self. Paper read at the American Education Association
meeting, Washington, D.C., February, 1967.
Guggenheim, F. Self-esteem and achievement expectation for
white and Negro children. Curriculum Report. New York:
New York City Board of Education, 1967
Hal pern, F. Self-perception of black children in the civil
rights movement. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry,
1970, 40, 520-26.
Hamachek, D. Encounters with the self. New York: Holt,
Rinehart and Winston, 1978.
Hare, B. Black and white child self-esteem in social sciences:
An overview. Journal of Negro Education, 1977, 46_, 141-56.
Hare, B. Black girls: A comparative analysis of self-perception
and achievement by race, sex, and socioeconomic background.
Report #271, 1979.
Hauser, S. Self-image complexity and identity formation in
adolescence: Longitudinal study. Journal of Youth &
Adolescence, 1976, 5, 161-77.


This is dedicated to my parents,
Mr. & Mrs. Martin and Luressa Armstrong,
for their love, encouragement, and support.


18
Viewed in historical perspective, the direct examination of
black self-esteem is a very recent event and almost all of the
studies before 1960 were descriptive and impressionistic in
nature (Coopersmith, 1975). Wylie's 1961 review of self-concept
did not include one study of black self-concept. Her 1976 work
mentioned twelve studies connected with Blacks out of a total of
1134 studies reviewed (Stone,1981).
The classic study cited by most researchers examining the
self-esteem of Blacks is the study with dolls done by Clark and
Clark (1947). Black children were presented with both black and
white dolls. They were asked to respond to the following requests
by choosing one of the dolls and giving it to the experimenter:
1. Give me the doll that you like to play with--(a) like best.
2. Give me the doll that is a nice doll.
3. Give me the doll that looks bad.
4. Give me the doll that is a nice color.
5. Give me the doll that looks like a white child.
6. Give me the doll that looks like a colored child.
7. Give me the doll that looks like a Negro child.
8. Give me the doll that looks like you.
Requests 5, 6, and 7 were asked to determine the child's knowledge
of racial differences. The results indicated a clearly established
knowledge of racial difference. The responses to request 8, de
signed to determine racial self-identification, revealed that only
66% of the total group identified themselves with the black doll.


72
participants than females, but there were enough to analyze
their scores for significant differences. There were no signif
icant differences between the males and females overall. The
females did tend to have higher scores on all of the instruments
and to have higher GPAs. However, significant differences were
observed between the females in the two kinds of groups for the
SSST and for GPAs. The difference in the scores for the females
was probably the reason for the significant differences for the
groups, since there were no significant differences between the
males in the two different kinds of groups for any of the com
parisons.
A review of the conclusions drawn reveal that although
there is no indication that the level of self-esteem changed
except by the SSST considered independently and by observations
by the researcher, the groups in which self-esteem interventions
were the focus had larger increases in grade point averages.
Another observation of considerable value is that all of the
students appear to have benefited from participation in a
group, irrespective of the type intervention, since al 1 improved
in grade point averages. The fact that retention was higher in
the self-esteem groups than in the study skills groups may also
be an indication of the effectiveness of the group. Only one
student dropped out of one of the self-esteem groups, in opposition
to the five students that did not complete the study skills groups.


Chapter
Page
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Results 52
Discussion 54
V. CONCLUSIONS
Conclusions 67
Limitations 73
Recommendations and Implications 74
APPENDIX A Informed Consent Form 76
APPENDIX B Self-Social Symbols Task 78
APPENDIX C Self-Esteem Inventory 89
APPENDIX D Instructions for Photo Essay 92
APPENDIX E Course Evaluations 93
APPENDIX F Treatment Procedures 98
BIBLIOGRAPHY Ill
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 122


19
Approximately two-thirds of the subjects indicated by their
responses to requests 1 and 2 that they liked the white doll "best,"
and that the white doll is a "nice" doll. Fifty-nine percent of
these children indicated that the colored doll "looks bad." Only
38 percent of the children thought that the black doll had a
"nice color." Clark and Clark (1980) repeated this study over
twenty years after the original study and obtained similar results.
Researchers interpreted the results of Clarks' study as an
indication of self-hate. The black child's preference for white
dolls was viewed not only as a preference for whites but also as
an emphatic rejection of their own racial group. Clark (1955)
points out that a child cannot learn what racial group he/she belongs
to without being involved in the larger pattern of emotions and
conflicts which are a part of realizing what the society thinks
about his/her race.
Kardiner and Ovesey (1964) also investigated self-hatred in
Blacks. They utilized Rorschachs, psychoanalytic interviews, and
the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) to explore self-perceptions
of Blacks. Their results indicated a large amount of self-hatred
in the group. The assumption in most of these studies is that
the Black who feels disdain or hatred for his/her own racial group
expresses, at some level, disdain and hatred for him/herself.
Most recent research has produced conflicting results regarding
the self-perceptions of Blacks. Hraba and Grant (1979) reported
a willingness on the part of black children to identify with their


40
empirical grounds, the behaviors were assumed to be an external
manifestation of the person's prevailing self-appraisal" (Cooper-
smith, 1967). In the initial use of the Behavior Rating form,
two raters were used for each child to test crossrater reliability.
Test-retest reliability was also done before it was assumed that
the test was valid. The correlation between the two was .73.
The SEI is applicable for this study because the items included
measure all three of the elements of self-esteem identified for
investigation. There is only one item that addresses body image
specifically. Self-competence and social/personal acceptability
are the primary foci of the instrument. (See Appendix C for
copy of instrument.)
Photographic Essay. Ziller and Combs (1977), Amerikaner,
Schauble, and Ziller (1980), Ziller and Lewis (1981), and Ziller,
Vera, and Santoya (in press) have developed a method of utilizing
a photographic essay describing "Who Am I?" to evaluate the level
of self-esteem and/or self-concept. Several advantages have been
found in using this approach. "Respondents are able to represent
themselves in any framework that they please; the approach is
simple; and, there is a quality of rich revealingness about the
self-representation" (Ziller et a!., in press). In addition, the
photographic, non-verbal approach requires gross information re
duction, is phenomenological, and may be the preferred representa
tional system for subjects with communication handicaps.


96
4. Self-esteem components Mean
Black Rhapsody tape 3.24
Dr. Foreman's presentation on
black history 3.29
Being black on a white campus
discussion 3.67
Charles English's presentation
(black graduate student) 3.17
Dr. Rosie Bingham's presentation
(black psychologist) 3.87
Sharing of photo essays 3.50
5. Study skills components
Test-taking skills 3.24
Time management 3.43
Note taking skills 2.71
Outlining 3.10
Relaxation technique for test anxiety 3.44
6.What would you like to see added to the course?
Showing a film on Blacks 2 (#
More group discussion 1
More topics for group discussion 1
More people participating in group
discussion 1
More guest speakers 1
More cultural events 1
More feedback from group 1
Outside activities 1
responses)


47
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
Group
Pretests
Treatment
Posttests
Self-Esteem Group A
Ti
XA
T2
Self-Esteem Group B
Ti
XA
T2
Study Skills Group A
Ti
XB
T2
Study Skills Group B
T1
XB
T2
Randomized Experimental Groups Pretest--Posttest
Figure 1


44
approach was utilized in both groups. Topics were introduced by
the group leader, but the group participants were encouraged to
actively participate in the discussion in both types of groups.
The self-esteem groups focused on elevating the level of
self-esteem of the group members. Topics of discussion for these
groups included Black history, physical characteristics of Blacks,
being black on a white campus, sharing of photo essays developed
by the group members, and visits with black role models on campus.
Three black role models were invited to talk with the group. A
black female psychologist from the counseling center met for one
session with each of the groups. A black male professor who directs
the Afro-American Studies Department also met for one session with
each of the self-esteem groups. A black male graduate student did
likewise. These three persons were chosen because they represent
different levels of success. The students can foresee being a
graduate student in the nearer future than the other positions.
The researcher also felt that it was important to include a suc
cessful black female. All three were asked to share their personal
experiences with barriers to succeeding in college and how they
overcame these.
The study skills groups focused on the traditional topics
that are usually covered by "special programs" for disadvantaged
students. Study habits and techniques, time management, note-taking
and outlining skills, test-taking skills, library skills, and the
academic regulations of the institution were covered by this group.


TABLE 5
Analysis of Covariance
by Sex
Females
Males
Adjusted
Assessment
Group
Mean*
F-value
Significant**
Mean
F-value
Significant**
SSST
Self-esteem
29.83
23.08
29.69
2.66
Study skills
29.32
yes
28.41
no
SEI
Self-esteem
35.04
.79
no
34.58
1.05
no
Study skills
35.48
33.39
PE
Self-esteem
5.34
0.0
no
4.5
.49
no
Study skills
4.73
5.27
Sum of
Self-esteem
70.21
.02
68.77
S-E scores
Study skills
69.53
no
67.07
3.6
no
GPA
Self-esteem
2.72
4.98
2.26
.07
Study skills
2.44
yes
2.26
no
* Post-test mean after adjustment for pretest scores
** For one degree of freedom at .05 level of confidence
O'
O


22
taught a unit on the history of the black American. Both Hal pern
(1970) and Lessing (1969) found positive correlations between
students involved in civil rights movements and/or black power
movements and positive self-concepts.
Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement
A wealth of information is available on the positive relation
ship between self-concept and academic achievement of students in
general. Less research has been done on self-esteem and its
relationship to academic performance. Even less has been done
on the self-esteem of Blacks in relation to academic performance.
This section will include both of the latter categories.
Zarb (1981) points out that past research has found that
academic variables (IQ, achievement and aptitude scores) may
account for only 25-50 percent of the variance in academic achieve
ment. Zarb looked at six non-academic variables in 10th grade,
low-income, urban students. The variables were study habits,
self-concept in relation to peers, acceptance of the educational
system, self-concept in relation to family, general achievement,
and academic self-concept. He did a stepwise regression analysis
with grade point average as the criterion variable. The results
indicated that academic self-concept and study habits are signifi
cant predictors of GPA.
Coopersmith (1967) ordered the reported GPAs of 69 students
into categories of high (A, B+), medium (B, B-, C+), and low (C,
C-, D), and compared these to the subjects' scores on the Self-


the study skills group were taught note-taking, outlining, test
taking, and time management skills, discussed good study habits,
and practiced a relaxation technique for test-anxiety. They also
participated in assertiveness training.
Three instruments were used as a pretest and posttest to
assess the level of self-esteem of each participant: the
Self-Social Symbols Task by Ziller, Long, and Henderson, the
Self-Esteem Inventory by Coopersmith, and a photographic essay
developed by each student to describe "Who am I?"
The results revealed a significant difference between the
groups for the scores on the Self-Social Symbols Task and for
the change in grade point averages. However, the correlation
between the total score for the three self-esteem evaluations and
grade point averages was very low. There were also significant
differences found between the females in the two different kinds
of groups for the Self-Social Symbols Task and for grade point
averages. No differences were found for the males. There was a
significant increase in grade point averages for all of the par
ticipants. These results appear to indicate that both types of
group intervention may have been facilitative in improving the
grade point averages of the student participants.
x


31
The circles below stand for people. Mark each circle with
the letter standing for one of the people in the list. Do this
in any way you like, but use each person only once and do not
omit anyone.
Y Yourself C a cruel person
S your sister or someone who W someone who has learned a lot
is most like a sister L a lucky person
F a fireman


16
battery of items to assess level of self-esteem after several
minutes of exposure to the silent newcomer. The changes in the
level of self-esteem for the subjects were significant. Those
that were exposed to the disheveled bumpkin increased in the
level of self-evaluation; those exposed to the impressive individual
dropped sharply in their level of evaluation. Gergen points out
that although there was no direct communication with the other
person, the social milieu had a direct effect on the individual's
personal perception of self.
Theorists from a number of areas, i.e., Freud and Erikson
(Psychoanalytic theory), McCandles (Social Learning theory), and
Lerner (Dynamic Interactional theory), have stressed the relation
ship between one's view of one's body and its effect on the indi
vidual's self-esteem. Padin, Learner, and Spiro (1981) conducted
a study with 56 male and 96 female students at Penn State to
examine the relationship of perceived physical attractiveness and
physical effectiveness to the level of self-esteem. They used
three scales developed by Learner to assess this relationship.
The first scale asked the subjects to judge the physical attractive
ness of 28 of their body parts. The second scale asked them to
judge the physical effectiveness of these same body parts. The
third scale measured self-esteem. A series of characteristics
were presented in bipolar continuums, such as mature to immature
and capable to not capable, and the student was asked to select
which word on the continuum was most like them. The findings


65
Null Hypothesis #8. There is no relationship between the
change in level of self-esteem and the change in grade point
averages for the participants in the groups.
A Pearson product moment correlation was calculated to
determine if there is a relationship between the difference in
the sum of the scores on the pretests and posttests for level
of self-esteem and the difference in the grade point averages for
the semester prior to participation in one of the groups and for
the term during which participation took place. The correlation
coefficient obtained was equal to .13. This low correlation
between the two differences necessitates an acceptance of the
null hypothesis. There is no significant relationship between
a change in self-esteem and a change in grade point average.
A compilation of the course evaluations produced the follow
ing assessment by the participants in the groups.
1. The group discussions were liked most by the majority
of the participants (54 percent).
2. The fact that the course was only offered for one
credit hour was reported most often as the thing they liked least
about the course (19 percent). However, 42 percent of the parti
cipants did not respond to this question.
3. Group discussions were ranked highest from the components
common to both groups (x = 3.88 on a 4 point scale).
4. Relaxation techniques for dealing with test-anxiety
were ranked highest for components offered only in the study skills
groups (x = 3.44).


3
the main variables appear similar for the two terms. These
variables are (1) the attitudes of the individual toward him
or herself, (2) the responses of others, (3) the perception of
these responses, and (4) the behavior which the self-concept
elicits.
Others make a clear distinction between the two terms
(Beane & Lipka, 1980; Coopersmith, 1967; Frerichs, 1971; Johnsen
& Medley, 1978; Rosenberg, 1965). The general consensus of the
authors that differentiate between the two terms appears to be
that self-concept is a descriptive perception while self-esteem
is an evaluative perception. Beane and Lipka (1980) identify
self-concept and self-esteem as two distinct, but related,
constructs within the self-perception. The self-concept is
comprised of perceptions one has of oneself in terms of personal
attributes and the various roles which are played or fulfilled
by the individual. It is judgemental only in that one may assign
some qualitative assessment to the role performance, i.e., an
unsuccessful student or a good playmate. Self-esteem is the
valuative assessment one makes regarding personal satisfaction
with role(s) and/or quality of performance. These decisions
are based on personal values. For example, being a "poor game
player" may have a different value for different individuals.
Beane and Lipka also delineate different evaluative termi
nology for the two perceptions. Self-concepts may be described
as clear or confused, complete or incomplete, or general or


95
TALLY OF COURSE EVALUATIONS
1. What did you like most about the course?
Responses:
Group discussion
54% (
Developed interpersonal communication
15%
Developed self-understanding
15%
Organization of the course
4%
Developed self-confidence
4%
Assertiveness training
4%
Black students on a white campus
4%
What did you like least about the course?
Responses:
No response
42%
Only offered for one credit hour
19%
Temperature of room
11%
Time class met
11%
Size of room
8%
Lack of films
8%
Components
common to both groups
Mean
Size of group
3.73
Group discussions
3.88
Guest speakers
3.31
Assertiveness training
3.52
responses)


1CÂ¥
Study Skills Group
Sessions #1 and #2 Same as Self-Esteem Group.
Session #3 Time management: a videotape provided by the
Learning Skills Center was shown. Discussion evolved around time
management in general.
Session #4 Planning your study schedule: students were
given a homework assignment during the prior session to keep a
schedule of all of their activities from the last group meeting
until this one. With these, each person assessed their study
needs and developed a study plan.
Session #5 and #6 Discussion evolved around good and bad
study habits and how to bring about behavioral change. Homework
assignment to improve one aspect of study habits through a change
in behavior was reported on at the second of these sessions.
Sessions #7 and #8 Notetaking skills were discussed. Actual
experiential learning of notetaking was done in the group. Groups
competed against each other (subgroups of the larger group) to
see who took the best notes. Passages were read from interesting


88
64.
mi 1 d
65.
miserable
66.
modest
67.
neat
68.
old
69.
patient
70.
peaceful
71.
perfect
72.
pieasant
73.
polite
74.
poor
75.
popular
76.
proud
77.
quiet
78.
quick
79.
responsible
80.
rough
81.
rude
82.
sad
83.
selfish
84.
sensible
85.
serious
86.
sharp
87.
silly
88.
slow
89.
smal 1
90.
smart
91.
soft
92.
special
93.
strange
94.
stupid
95.
strong
96.
sweet
97.
terrible
98.
ugly
99.
unhappy
100.
unusual
101.
useful
102.
valuable
103.
warm
104.
weak
105.
wi 1 d
106.
wise
107.
wonderful
108.
wrong
109.
young