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Native West Indian plant use

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Native West Indian plant use
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Newsom, Lee A
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Cassava ( jstor )
Corn ( jstor )
Excavations ( jstor )
Papayas ( jstor )
Plant taxonomy ( jstor )
Seeds ( jstor )
Species ( jstor )
Specimens ( jstor )
Testa ( jstor )
Wood ( jstor )
City of Gainesville ( local )

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NATIVE WEST INDIAN PLANT USE









By

LEE ANN NEWSOM












A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1993
















UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES




































To Woodrow

































Copyright 1993

by

Lee Ann Newsom















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Principal funding for various aspects of this research was provided by the National Science Foundation, grant numbered BNS 8903377, awarded to Dr. Elizabeth S. Wing. Additional funding was provided by the National Science Foundation, grant numbered BNS 8706697, the National Endowment for the Humanities, grant no. R02093585, the Organization of American States, and the National Geographic Society, all awarded to Dr. Kathleen A. Deagan. Additional support was provided by the Anthropological-Archaeological Institute of the Netherlands Antilles of Curacao, Proyecto Maisabel, the Ballaja Archaeological Project, Marisol Melendez, the National Park Service, Garrow and Associates, Inc., and the University of Florida. At the University of Florida, support from the Division of Sponsored Research, the Department of Anthropology, the Department of Botany, and the Florida Museum of Natural History, is also gratefully acknowledged. Receipt of the Dickinson Award in Tropical Agriculture, and several research and teaching assistantships, was indispensable.

The members of my committee provided vital assistance

and contributed to the betterment of my research. First and foremost is Elizabeth Wing, my chair, whose abilities are myriad and who has greatly inspired my research in


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ethnobiology. Liz shares freely of her time, ideas, and expertise, always with gentle words of guidance and encouragement.

My committee also includes Kathleen Deagan, whose enthusiasm is boundless. Kathy has been extremely supportive of paleoethnobotany, and has greatly helped to further the program directed by Elizabeth Wing in ethnobiologjy and environmental archaeology at the Florida Museum of Natural History. Bill Keegan has willingly shared his thoughts about prehistoric economies and human adaptation; I have benefited immensely from our discussions. Michael Moseley pointed the way to South American archaeology and issues centered on the origins of agriculture.

I can not convey enough thanks to the two botanists on my committee. Bill Stern initiated and nurtured my love for wood anatomy and economic botany, very graciously providing complete access to his extensive library. I will always cherish our discussions about the origins of Latin names, including the trick questions, and hearing stories behind some of the "greats" in wood anatomy. Jack Ewel is ever welcoming, frank, a great mentor, and friend. He has been an inspiration, helping me to direct my thinking and approach to my research.

Even though not formally on my committee, Dick Ford, Barbara Purdy, and Margie Scarry may as well have been


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committee members. Throughout my graduate career they have provided guidance, sound advice, and encouragement.

I have greatly enjoyed and benefited from my

interactions with various Caribbean archaeologists. I would like to thank Louis Allaire, Annie Cody, Peter Drewett, Jay Haviser, Marisol Melendez, Bruce Nodine, Kees Schinkel, Carlos Solis Magana, Mike Roca, Peter Siegel, Virgina Rivera, Aad Versteeg, Guy Weaver, Ken Wild, and Sam Wilson, all of whom had the foresight to include paleoethnobotany in their Caribbean research. I appreciate their enthusiastic support of my endeavors. Peter Siegel, in addition, very graciously reviewed and commented on certain of my Caribbean manuscripts. Thanks also to Emily Lundberg, Yvonne Narganes Storde, Jose Oliver, Jim Petersen, Holly Righter, Marcio Veloz Maggiolo, and Dave Waters for their kind words of encouragement.

Ann Cordell, Bill Marquardt, Mike Russo, Donna Ruhl, Sylvia Scudder, and Karen Walker have been especially valuable friends and great sounding boards for ideas. Ann, Donna, and Sylvia, in particular, have been endlessly kind and supportive with ideas, old burnt seeds, xeroxes, road trips, great cooking, and parties. Thanks also to Susan DeFrance, Laura Kozuch, Betsy Reitz, Bruce Smith, Ann Stokes, Corbett Torrence, and Jenna Wallace for their support and friendship. I owe a debt of gratitude to Merald Clark for his fine maps and illustrations, and to Robin Brown for photographs of the maize specimens.


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Finally, I extend my appreciation to friends and family. My parents and sisters have been immensely encouraging and unwavering in their support. My son, Woodrow, has earned this degree along with me: excavating on Grenada, sorting seeds, studying Columbus, and generally experiencing all of the ups and downs. He deserves a great deal of credit for his patience, perseverance, and good humor.







































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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Pace

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ....... ................... iv

LIST OF TABLES ....... ................... xi

LIST OF FIGURES ....... ................... xvi

ABSTRACT ......... ...................... xvii

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION ........ ................ 1

2 BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM FORMULATION .. ..... 8

Culture History .......... ....... 9
Models Centered on the Human Migrations
and Settlement of the Caribbean Islands. 11
The Basis for Previous Inferences
about Plant Use ................ 19
Pertinent Details from Ethnohistoric
Documents about Taino Plants and
Agriculture ..... ............... .. 28
Previous Archaeobotanical Research on
Caribbean Sites ... ............. 30
Research Questions ... ............. 34

3 METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH .. .......... 36

Site Descriptions ... ............. 36
Wanapa, Bonaire ... ............. 36
Pearls, Grenada ... ............. 41
Heywoods, Barbados ... ........... 42
Twenty Hill (PE-19) and Jolly Beach
(MA-3, MA-4), Antigua .. ......... 43
Hichmans' Shell Heap (GE-6), Hichmans'
Site (GE-5), and Indian Castle
(GE-I), Nevis ... ............. 44
Golden Rock, St. Eustatius ....... .. 45
Hope Estate, St. Martin .. ......... 46
Beach Access Site and Trunk Bay, St.
John, United States Virgin Islands . 48



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Calle Cristo, Puerto Rico .. ........ .. 48
Maisabel, Puerto Rico ... .......... 49
El Fresal, Puerto Rico .. ......... 51
El Parking Site (PO-38), Puerto Rico . 52
Barrio Ballaja, San Juan, Puerto Rico . 53
En Bas Saline, Haiti .. .......... o. 54
Isabela, Dominican Republic .. ...... .. 56
Archaeobotancial Methods .. .......... o. 56
Site Comparability ... ........... o. 56
Sample Preparation ... ........... 57
Plant Identification .. .......... ... 61
Comparative Measures .. .......... 64

4 RESULTS OF ARCHAEOBOTANICAL ANALYSES:
LESSER ANTILLES AND BONAIRE ...... .. 69

Windward Islands and Bonaire .. ........ .. 69
Wanapa, Bonaire ... .. ........... 69
Pearls, Grenada ... ............. 78
Heywoods, Barbados ... ........... 88
Leeward Islands .... .............. 90
Twenty Hill (PE-19) and Jolly Beach
(MA-3; MA-4), Antigua .. ......... 90
Hichmans' Shell Heap (GE-6), Nevis . 99
Hichmans' Site (GE-5) and Indian
Castle (GE-l), Nevis .. ......... 104
Golden Rock, St. Eustatius .. ..... o.109
Hope Estate (SM-026), St. Martin .... 122
Beach Access Site, St. John,
United States Virgin Islands ..... ..125
Trunk Bay, St. John, United States
Virgin Islands ... ............ 131
Summary of Results from Lesser Antilles
Sites ....... .................. 135
Plant Foods ..... ....... ..... ...136
Wood Identifications from the
Lesser Antilles ... ........... ...146

5 RESULTS OF ARCHAEOBOTANICAL ANALYSES:
PUERTO RICO ..... ............... 150

Puerto Rico Sites .... ............. 153
Calle Cristo, San Juan, Puerto Rico . o 153
Maisabel, Puerto Rico ... .......... 157
El Fresal, Puerto Rico .. ......... 180
El Parking Site (PO-38), Puerto Rico . 191
Barrio Ballaja, San Juan, Puerto Rico . 201
Summary of Puerto Rico Archaeobotanical
Assemblages .................. 221




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6 RESULTS OF ARCHAEOBOTANICAL ANALYSES:
HISPANIOLA . . . . . . . . 228

Hispaniola . . . . . . . . 230
En Bas Saline, Haiti . . . . . 230 La Isabela, Dominican Republic . . 304
Summary of Plant Data from Hispaniola . 308

7 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION . . . . . 311

Plant Exploitation by Caribbean Indians . 311 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . 333

APPENDICES

A SYSTEMATIC LIST OF PLANT SPECIES IDENTIFIED
IN CARIBBEAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES . . 336

B PLANT IDENTIFICATIONS FROM EN BAS SALINE,
HAITI: SEEDS AND NON-WOOD REMAINS . . 341

C WOOD IDENTIFICATIONS FROM EN BAS SALINE . 360 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . 369

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . . 392









LIST OF TABLES

PaQe

Table 3.1 Caribbean Sites Analyzed for
Archaeobotanical Data ... .......... 39

Table 4.1 Archaeobotanical Samples from the
Wanapa Site, Bonaire .. .......... 72

Table 4.2 Plant Identifications from the
Wanapa Site .... ............... 74

Table 4.3 Plant Identifications from Wanapa,
Bonaire (by count) ... ........... .. 75

Table 4.4 Archaeobotanical Samples from Pearls,
Grenada ...... ................. .. 79

Table 4.5 Plant Identifications from Pearls,
Grenada ...... ................. .. 81

Table 4.6 Plant Identifications from Pearls,
Grenada (by count) ... ........... .. 82

Table 4.7 Sapotaceae seed measurements (mm) . . 87

Table 4.8 Archaeobotanical Samples from Heywoods
Site, Barbados ... ............. 89

Table 4.9 Plant Identifications from Heywoods,
Barbados ..... ................ 91

Table 4.10 Plant Identifications from Heywoods,
Barbados (by count) .. ........... 92

Table 4.11 Archaeobotanical Samples from Twenty
Hill (PE-19) and Jolly Beach (MA-3,
MA-4), Antigua ... ............. 94

Table 4.12 Plant Identifications from Twenty Hill
(PE-19) and Jolly Beach (MA-3,-4),
Antigua ..... ................ 95

Table 4.13 Plant Identifications from Twenty Hill
and Jolly Beach, Antigua (by count) . 96

Table 4.14 Archaeobotanical Samples from Hichmans'
Shell Heap (GE-6), Nevis .... ........ 100

Table 4.15 Plant Identifications from Hichmans'
Shell Heap (GE-6), Nevis .. ........ 102


xi









Table 4.16 Plant Identifications from Hichmans'
Shell Heap (GE-6), Nevis (by count) . 103

Table 4.17 Archaeobotanical Samples from Hichmans'
Site (GE-5) and Indian Castle (GE-i),
Nevis ....... .................. ..106

Table 4.18 Plant Identifications from Hichmans'
Site (GE-5) and Indian Castle (GE-i),
Nevis ....... .................. ..107

Table 4.19 Plant Identifications from Hichmans'
Site (GE-5) and Indian Castle (GE-I),
Nevis (by count) .... ............ 108

Table 4.20 Archaeobotanical Samples from Golden
Rock, St. Eustatius ..... ........... 110

Table 4.21 Plant Identifications from the Golden
Rock Site, St. Eustatius .. ........ 113

Table 4.22 Plant Identifications from Golden Rock
Deposits (by count) ... ........... ..115

Table 4.23 Archaeobotanical Samples from Hope
Estate (SM-026), St. Martin ........ ..123

Table 4.24 Plant Identifications from Hope Estate
(SM-026), St. Martin ... .......... 124

Table 4.25 Plant Identifications from Hope Estate,
St. Martin (by count) ... .......... 126

Table 4.26 Archaeobotanical Samples from Beach
Access Site (Lameshur Bay), St. John 127

Table 4.27 Plant Identifications from the Beach
Access Site, St. John ... .......... 129

Table 4.28 Plant Identifications from the Beach
Access Site, St. John (by count) . . 130

Table 4.29 Archaeobotanical Samples from Trunk
Bay, St. John ..... .............. 132

Table 4.30 Plant Identifications from Trunk Bay,
St. John ...... ................ 133

Table 4.31 Plant Identifications from Trunk Bay,
St. John (by count) ... ........... 134




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Table 4.32 Seeds and Nonwood Plant Remains from
Sites in the Lesser Antilles ...... 137

Table 4.33 Wood Identifications from Sites in
the Lesser Antilles .... .......... 138

Table 5.1 Archaeobotanical Samples from Calle
del Cristo, San Juan, Puerto Rico . . 154

Table 5.2 Plant Identifications from Calle del
Cristo, San Juan, Puerto Rico ....... ..155

Table 5.3 Plant Identifications from Calle del
Cristo (by count) .... ............ 156

Table 5.4 Maisabel, Puerto Rico: Samples
Analyzed for Archaeobotanical Data . 159

Table 5.5 Archaeobotanical Samples from Maisabel,
Puerto Rico ..... ............... ..162

Table 5.6 Plant Identifications from Maisabel,
Puerto Rico ..... ............... ..164

Table 5.7 Plant Identifications from Maisabel,
Puerto Rico (by count) .. ......... 166

Table 5.8 Archaeobotanical Samples from El
Fresal, Puerto Rico ... ........... 181

Table 5.9 Plant Identifications from El Fresal,
Puerto Rico ..... ............... 183

Table 5.10 Plant Identifications from El Fresal
features (by count) ... ........... 188

Table 5.11 Archaeobotanical Samples from El
Parking Site (P0-38), Cerrillos River
Valley, Puerto Rico ... ........... 193

Table 5.12 Plant Identifications from El Parking
Site (P0-38), Cerrillos River Valley,
Puerto Rico ..... ............... 195

Table 5.13 Carica papaya Seed Measurement (mm)
Statistics for Modern Accessions . . 197

Table 5.14 Plant Identifications from El Parking
Site (PO-38) (by count) .. ......... ..200




xiii










Table 5.15 Barrio Ballaja: Samples Analyzed for
Plant Remains ................203

Table 5.16 Overview of Flotation Samples from
Barrio Ballaja...............204

Table 5.17 Plant Identifications from Barrio
Ballaja, Historic San Juan, Puerto Rico .205

Table 5.18 Plant Identifications from HistoricPeriod Samples, Barrio Ballaja (by
count)..................206

Table 5.19 Carica paay seed measurements (mmu),
Ballaja Archaeological Project .......215

Table 5.20 Lycoversicon (tomato) seed measurements
(mm), Ballaja Archaeological Project ..220

Table 5.21 Seeds and Nonwoody Plant Remains from
sites in Puerto Rico ...........222

Table 5.22 Wood Identifications from Sites in
Puerto Rico .................223

Table 6.1 En Bas Saline, Haiti: Samples Analyzed
for Archaeobotanical Data. .........232

Table 6.2 Archaeobotanical Samples from En Bas
Saline, Haiti ................238

Table 6.3 Plant Identifications from En Bas
Saline, Haiti ................249

Table 6.4 Plant Identifications from En Bas
Saline, Seeds and Other Nonwood
Remains (by count).............260
Table 6.5 Wood Identifications from En Bas
Saline (relative frequency). .......264

Table 6.6 Zea mays from En Bas Saline, Haiti . 274

Table 6.7 Zea mays measurements (mm) for En Bas
Saline, Haiti ................278

Table 6.8 Descriptive Data for West Indian Races
of Maize..................282

Table 6.9 General Morphological Characteristics
of Kernels from West Indian Races
of Maize..................284



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Table 6.10 Morphometric Data from Panicoid Grass
Collections, Archaeological and Modern
Populations (mm) .... ............ 298

Table 6.11 Oenothera sp. (Primrose) Seed
Measurements (mm) .... ............ 303

Table 6.12 Archaeobotanical Samples from La
Isabela, Dominican Republic ........ ..305

Table 6.13 Plant Identifications from La Isabela,
Dominican Republic ... ........... 306

Table 6.14 Plant Identifications from La Isabela,
Dominican Republic (by count) ....... .307

Table 7.1 Crop, Homegarden, and Other Plants with
Food or Medicinal Value from Caribbean
Archaeological Sites (presence in
macroremains ..... .............. 313

Table 7.2 Wood Remains from Caribbean
Archaeological Sites ... .......... 318





























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LIST OF FIGURES

Page
Figure 3.1 Location Map of Caribbean Sites
Analyzed for Archaeobotanical Data . 38
Figure 4.1 Locations of Lesser Antilles Sites . 70

Figure 4.2 Sapotaceae Seed Hyla from Pearls
Site.....................86

Figure 5.1 Locations of Puerto Rican Sites . . 152 Figure 5.2 Relative Dimensions of Papaya Seeds ..198 Figure 5.3 Relative Dimensions of Papaya Seeds,
Including Barrio Ballaja Seeds. ......214 Figure 6.1 En Bas Saline Site Map. .........236

Figure 6.2 En Bas Saline Feature 11. .........244

Figure 6.3 En Bas Saline Feature 4-6-8 ........247

Figure 6.4 Trianthema seed from En Bas Saline,
Haiti...................253

Figure 6.5 Pinus sp. wood from En Bas Saline,
Haiti...................258

Figure 6.6 Zea mays kernels from En Bas Saline,
Haiti...................277

Figure 6.7 Zea mays cob fragment from En Bas
Saline, Haiti...............281

Figure 6.8 Carbonized tubers from En Bas
Saline, Haiti...............289

Figure 6.9 Panicoid Grass Seeds from En Bas
Saline, Haiti...............296

Figure 6.10 Qenothera sp. (Primrose) Seeds from
En Bas Saline, Haiti. ..........301










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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


NATIVE WEST INDIAN PLANT USE By

Lee Ann Newsom

August 1993



Chair: Elizabeth S. Wing
Major Department: Anthropology

This is an archaeological study of the plant component of diet and human adaptation in the Caribbean islands. Archaeobotanical data from Caribbean sites, which form the basis of this research, have been largely unstudied to date. Nevertheless, plants play a central role in models that attempt to explain how Ceramic Age migrants from South America adapted to the insular environment.

Nineteen sites were tested archaeologically to provide the first comprehensive view of plant use in the region. The collective archaeobotanical data from Archaic and Ceramic Age occupations form profiles of plant use that correspond with early, later, and the final stages of migration, settlement, and social organization in particular island groups. The results indicate that plant resources were an integral part of prehistoric West Indian economies,

Xvii









and that gardening may have been initiated in the Caribbean Archaic Age. Native plant food resources were used in combination with important homegarden trees that originate in mainland areas. Several of these species appear to have been transported to the islands by Archaic Age people, and the evidence for plant introductions from the Central American/Yucatan region is just as compelling as from South America.

Root-crop horticulture may have been introduced in conjunction with the Saladoid settlement of the Lesser Antilles, even though evidence of domesticated plants is without substantiation by plant remains until relatively late in the sequence of human occupation. The presence of prehistoric maize is confirmed only at En Bas Saline, Haiti, in deposits dating between approximately A.D. 1250 and 1500. Maize cultivation in the West Indies may have been overshadowed by the primary system of root-crop horticulture. The plant remains themselves, combined with the presence of plant-processing artifacts and ethnohistorical observations, are beginning to suggest a uniquely West Indian pattern of plant use.













Xviii















CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

American Indian groups inhabited the Caribbean Islands for several thousand years prior to the fateful entry of Europeans into the region, and during all that time, plant foods and products were essential to their survival and successful adaptation. Plants provided food and medicine, and fuelwood was essential for cooking and heating. The local vegetation was also the source of raw materials for building construction, transportation, weapons, tools, fiber industries, and products such as gums, resins, tannins, paints, and fish poisons.

Few primary data bases exist, however, with which to

profile the plant component of prehistoric economies in the Caribbean. The paucity of data is largely a reflection of the fact that only recently has systematic archaeobotanical research been undertaken in the region. Nonetheless, plants play a central role in models that attempt to explain Caribbean Indian life, and, in particular, how Ceramic Age migrants from northern South America adapted to the drastically different environment of the West Indies.

Early cultures in the Caribbean are typically portrayed as practicing generalist, foraging economies (Armstrong 1980; Davis 1988; Rouse 1992:58; Veloz Maggiolo 1976:2571






2

258). The transition to gardening and the manipulation of local floras, either intentionally or otherwise, have essentially gone without consideration. Gardening and other more deliberate means to procure plant food items are generally thought to be phenomena that coincide with the migration of Amazonian root-crop horticulturists into the Lesser Antilles. The later emergence of complex, socially stratified societies in the Caribbean appears to be linked to the development of subsistence economies based on more intensive forms of plant production, including agriculture (Rouse 1992; Wilson 1990). However, the development of these systems is at best poorly understood.

Changes in subsistence and general economic patterns have long been a preoccupation of Caribbeanist archaeologists. Apparent shifts in emphasis on different food items or categories of foods appear to occur in the archaeological record, based primarily on the presence of zooarchaeological remains and on changes in settlement pattern (cf. Seigel 1990). For example, the "crab-shell" dichotomy (Jones 1985; Keegan 1989) is broadly defined to theoretically indicate a dietary shift on some islands from a diet based on land crabs and terrestrial fauna to one emphasizing marine foods, including shellfish. Changes in plant food production are generally believed to have coincided with the shifts in protein capture and settlement patterns; nevertheless, any shift in the use of plant foods is without direct documentation (i.e., by the identification







3

of archaeobotanical remains). Despite the widely held belief that change occurred in the subsistence realm and that developing economic patterns represent a growing familiarity and adaptedness to the island environment, our understanding of the types of plant foods and the nature of their use is rudimentary.

This research is designed to help remedy this situation and address some of the deficiencies in interpreting Caribbean Indian economies by investigating the types and intensity of plant use in the region. This study incorporates and synthesizes paleoethnobotanical data excavated from 23 archaeological sites that effectively span the full temporal and geographic range of human activity in the region, excluding only the earliest, Lithic Age (Rouse 1989; 1992) occupations. Changes that occur between the earliest Archaic Age and later-aged Taino occupations are examined to address the issue of adaptation to the insular environment and the ease with which colonists might have adjusted to the insular setting. The plant data track the development of a uniquely Caribbean Indian pattern of plant use. Archaeological, archaeobotanical, artifactual, and ecological data are used to address questions about the first appearance of gardening and arboriculture in the region, when dependence on cultivated plants seems to have intensified, and identify source areas for important cultigens and fruit trees.






4

The sites producing archaeobotanical data have

components variously attributable to Archaic and the later Ceramic Age occupations of the Caribbean islands, except that the Lucayan Taino of the Bahamas Island group are not included. The data are necessarily weighted toward the Ceramic Age sites, which tend to have undergone more extensive testing and more often have had paleoethnobotany integrated into the overall plan of research for the site. Moreover, the number of samples and the amount of data collected necessarily varies from one site to the next, and data from the Lesser Antilles sites in particular are minimal. To overcome sampling discrepancies and problems inherent in comparing such vastly differing data sets, the plant remains are examined in a generalized, regional perspective, rather than by a more quantitative approach. The identifications from each archaeological site and subregion are discussed and quantified by individual site, then viewed on a presence/absence basis in regard to the particular subregion, e.g. the northern Lesser Antilles. Particular attention is paid to plants whose presence is documented across spatial and temporal boundaries. There is enough information cumulatively to begin to question the Caribbean migration models and to address assumptions about plant use and Caribbean Indian adaptation.

In combination, the plant data from the Caribbean sites clarify plant use and the dynamic relationships between Indians and their local flora. The collective






5


identifications form profiles of plant use that correspond with early, later, and final stages of migration, settlement and social organization in particular island groups. Thus Archaic Age sites in the Leeward island group provide glimpses of wood selection and evidence that gardening was practiced prior to the migration of Saladoid horticulturists from northern South America. Clearly, fruit-bearing trees, like native mastic-bully, were an important part of early Saladoid subsistence; plant evidence from later Saladoid and Ostionoid sites on Puerto Rico show that gardening and arboriculture became increasingly more important. Finally, Classic Taino sites on Hispaniola provide the first evidence verifying the presence of the root-crop and maize production system described in the historic accounts.

Because this is one of the first archaeological

attempts to detail the nature of plant use by Caribbean Indians, the questions asked are broad and relate to fundamental issues of adaptation and subsistence change. The immediate objective is to contribute to an understanding of plant use in the Caribbean by refining our information about indigenous subsistence economies. This research establishes a foundation for a better-informed understanding of the dynamic relationship between Caribbean Indians, including the Taino who represent the final stages of the migration events, and the island environments they inhabited. The resulting model of plant use provides finer resolution with which to examine the colonization effort in






6


particular, and human adaptation to insular environments in general. In addition to clarifying the role of plant resources to Caribbean Indian existence, broader applications of this study are to island biogeographic theory and the theoretical understanding of the development of complex chiefdoms.

The format of this study is as follows. In Chapter 2 background information critical to an understanding of the general context of this research is presented. First, the sequence and nature of human occupations in the Caribbean region are summarized. Next, briefly outlined are several current models of adaptation and subsistence change, including a discussion of the basis for propositions about the types of and changes in the plants used by various Caribbean peoples. Then, the history of archaeobotanical research on West Indian sites is reviewed and the questions addressed by this study are formulated. In Chapter 3, the sites incorporated in this study are briefly described, with emphasis on the types of depositional contexts from which were recovered the plant remains. Following the site summaries is a brief description of the methods used to analyze and interpret the archaeobotanical data. The results of the archaeobotanical analyses are presented in chapters 4, 5, and 6. First discussed (Chapter 4) are data from the Lesser Antilles sites, beginning with sites located in the southernmost part of the region and ending with the Virgin Islands at the northern extent. By presenting the






7

data from south to north, they appear roughly in the correct temporal and spatial context of the human migrations. The data from five sites in Puerto Rico are analyzed in Chapter 5. Finally, in Chapter 6 is presented the analyses for two sites on Hispaniola. Chapter 7 is a summary of the results of this research, centering on three themes. One is the definition of a uniquely Caribbean pattern of plant use. Second is the advent of gardening in the region and the first appearance of domesticated forms. The last issue is the recognition of a broader pattern of plant use, one that is shared with cultures located in other American lowland tropical areas.

















CHAPTER 2

BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM FORMULATION

The basic chronology of human occupation in the

Caribbean Islands is summarized in this chapter, without entering into too much detail about local or subregional culture series. The general cultural-historical summary is followed by a brief discussion of the various theories and models archaeologists have developed to interpret human existence in the islands from the perspective of food production and human adaptation. Next, the foundations for ideas about important plant foods are reviewed, beginning with certain references in historic documents, then on to what has been inferred from the presence of artifacts associated with food production, osteochemical data from human skeletal material, and, finally, pollen analytical data. These sections are followed by a short summary of details from ethnohistoric documents about particularly important plants, including manioc. Information gleaned from the documents about these plants is potentially significant to the archaeobotanical data presented in later chapters. The chapter concludes with an overview of previous paleoethnobotanical research on sites in the West Indies, setting the stage for my research.


8






9

Culture History

The earliest documented human presence in the Caribbean islands dates to approximately 6000 years ago, comprising what Caribbeanist archaeologists refer to as the "Lithic Age" (Rouse 1989, 1992). The lifestyle of these early Casimiroid people, who originated in Middle America, is only vaguely understood. These early sites are identified primarily on the basis of the exclusive presence of flakedstone tools (Rouse 1992). Later Casimiroid sites on Hispaniola, Cuba, and Puerto Rico are marked by the addition of ground-stone implements, bone and shell artifacts, and a more diverse array of animal food remains. The presence of ground-stone tools marks the beginning of what Caribbeanists refer to as the Archaic Age.

Beginning approximately 4000 years ago another

preceramic group(s) of people migrated into the Caribbean islands from northern South America. These people developed the Ortoiroid series of cultures in the West Indies, which also belong to the Caribbean Archaic Age (Rouse 1992). Thus the earliest Lithic and Archaic Age cultures in the Caribbean migrated from two directions, one from the Yucatan region of Central America and moving as far east as western Puerto Rico, and the other from northern South America, expanding north through the island arc as far as the northern Lesser Antilles and eastern Puerto Rico (Rouse 1992:69). Archaic Age sites in general are marked by a greater diversity of artifact types than that which






10

characterizes sites attributed to the preceding Lithic Age. Flaked-stone and ground-stone implements appear in Archaic Age deposits, as well as bone and shell artifacts. A general consensus among Caribbean archaeologists holds that the human populations comprising the Caribbean Archaic Age were generalist-foragers, who subsisted on a variety of terrestrial and marine fauna, and wild plant foods (Armstrong 1980; Davis 1988; Rouse 1992:58; Veloz Maggiolo 1976:257-258). Davis (1988:181), however, insightfully commented that at least some of the historically known cultivated plants in the West Indies possibly were transported by human groups to the islands prior to the entry of the Ceramic Age horticulturists. The data that will be presented in subsequent chapters suggest that Davis was correct in his assumption.

By at least the middle of the first millennium B.C.,

ceramic-producing horticulturists from lowland South America started to settle in the West Indies (Haviser 1988, 1991b; Siegel 1991a). The first wave of Ceramic Age CedrosanSaladoid people advanced relatively rapidly through the Windward and Leeward islands, temporarily halting their migration in western Puerto Rico. Later, descendents of the original Saladoid migrants moved on to settle Hispaniola and other islands of the Greater Antilles and the Bahamas island group. During this time (after approximately A.D. 500 [Rouse 1992]), the Saladoid culture series developed into what is termed the Ostionoid series in the Leeward Islands









and Greater Antilles (except western Cuba) and the Troumassoid/Suazoid series in the Windward Islands. Each of the later series has local variants and subseries, the description of which is beyond the scope of this discussion.

It is clear from the increasing number, size, and

placement of sites and by changes in the material culture, that Saladoid Indians and their descendents flourished in the insular environment, apparently successfully adapting to the unique climate and array of available resources. By the time Europeans arrived in A.D. 1492, the Taino, who represent the final stage in the continuum of migration and human adaptation in the region, were highly specialized agriculturists and fisher people with a complex and hierarchical social structure (Wilson 1990).

Models Centered on the Human Migrations and Settlement of the Caribbean Islands

The Lithic and Archaic Age people of the Caribbean have been traced to homelands in Central and South America. Beyond the efforts to define their origins, very little research has been undertaken seeking to interpret and explain the reasons behind these early migrations. In contrast, the Ceramic Age migrations have been the focus of quite a few studies, some examining the impetus for the move, others the progress and nature of the migrations through the island system.

The expansion into the Caribbean of ceramic-producing

horticulturists from lowland South America began by at least 400 B.C. (Haviser 1988; Siegel 1991a, b). Archaeological






12


sites along the migration route have the prominent marker of Cedrosan Saladoid ceramics, the first ceramics series to appear in the West Indies (Rouse 1986; Rouse and Allaire 1978). The migrants themselves are referred to as Cedrosan Saladoid, after their distinctive ceramic tradition. Early Saladoid people are generally believed to have practiced a tropical-forest horticultural economy based on root crops and the animal protein procured from rivers and forests (Roosevelt 1980; Rouse 1986, 1989; Wilson 1990). Later Saladoid occupations placed a strong emphasis on marine resources (Haviser 1988). The timing and details of the apparent change in focus from a subsistence strategy based primarily on terrestrial foods to one emphasizing marine and terrestrial resources has been the subject of much debate by Caribbean archaeologists (see below).

A number of models have been proposed to explain the

motivations for movement into the islands, and/or the nature of expansion once it began (e.g., the pace, placement of settlements, resource base). Most researchers are in agreement that human population levels neared saturation in the floodplain of the Orinoco in the first millennium B.C. This population density resulted in fierce competition for scarce resources, specifically, prime alluvium for plant cultivation coupled with access to the abundant aquatic resources of the lowland riverine environment (Roosevelt 1980; Rouse 1986). This pressure of competition hypothetically was the prime motivation behind the radiation






13

of Saladoid people into the West Indies (Keegan n.d.; Siegel 1991a). The pace of migration, at least to as far as Puerto Rico, midway up the island arc, is believed to have been rapid, perhaps taking place within 2-3 generations (Haviser 1988, 1991b; Keegan 1985, 1992, n.d.; Rouse 1986, 1989; Siegel 1991b). By 600 A.D. descendents of the original Saladoid populations had moved throughout Hispaniola and into Jamaica and eastern Cuba; by at least 800 A.D. the migration encompassed central Cuba and the Bahamas (Rouse 1989).

At least two scholars have attempted to go beyond the impetus for the original emigration, to try and explain the process of migration, once underway, in the insular setting. Keegan (1985, 1992) has theorized the population front as proceeding in advance of the point where population pressure would exceed the carrying capacity of individual islands. Thus, as necessary resources became less readily available, Saladoid groups would have shifted settlement to the next available large island to begin exploiting its array of resources. This is one alternative to deal with the problem of economic shortage.

Roe (1989), on the other hand, hypothesized a "push" situation that basically is an extension of the original thrust out into the archipelago--migration fueled by overpopulation and an increasingly inadequate resource base. In Roe's model each successive island was colonized as groups were forced to create new settlements to maintain






14


population levels under the constrictions of the insular environments and under the demands of the primary system of manioc horticulture.

Beyond the motivating dynamics for inter-island

movement and the pace of migration, a number of researchers have attempted to closely examine early and later Saladoid modes of survival at the level of diet and food production using primarily settlement pattern and zooarchaeological data. Most researchers characterize food production in the early stages of settlement on individual islands as an attempt on the part of the colonizers to replicate as closely as possible their mainland existence (Davis 1988; Goodwin 1980; Jones 1985; Petersen and Watters 1991; Roe 1989; Rouse 1989). Therefore, optimal site selection is said to have focused on larger islands with microenvironments suitable for crop production. Manioc and probably other root crops, plus all the accoutrements of cultivation and whatever else it took to replicate subsistence in the homeland, purportedly were carried into the islands at the outset of migration (Jones 1985). What was required to successfully implement this transplantation of the earlier economic system in the vastly different environment of the West Indies however, has not generally been considered.

A construct that is widely known as the "crab/shell

dichotomy" (Goodwin 1980; Keegan 1989) is an expression of this scheme in which there is a focus on interior,






15


terrestrial resources by early Saladoid groups. The crab/shell dichotomy defines an apparently typical progession of settlement pattern and subsistence change in the northern Lesser Antilles and eastern Puerto Rico (Carbone 1980; Davis 1988; DeFrance 1988, 1989; Goodwin 1980; Haviser 1988; Jones 1985; Keegan 1985; Petersen and Watters 1991; Rainey 1935, 1940; cf. Siegel 1991a, b; Wilson 1989). In its most developed formulations (Davis 1988; Goodwin 1980; Jones 1985), the attributes of the complex are as follows. Generally, earlier sites were located in interior settings near water sources and on soils hypothetically better suited to crop production. There was concomitantly a reliance on large, easily procured fauna, especially species of land crab. The archaeological record seems to demonstrate that later sites were removed to the coasts of islands or away from "better" soils and nearer marine resources (cf. Siegel 1991 a, b, c). The locational change hypothetically occurred in conjuction with diminished crop production and depleted populations of terrestrial vertebrate and invertebrate fauna. At the same time, the human population was rapidly increasing as indicated by the correspondingly greater densities of sites with later occupations.

The trend in protein capture described in the

crab/shell construct--from essentially land crabs and land vertebrates like hutia, to marine fish and molluscs--is at least partially correct, having been demonstrated at a






16

number of sites (DeFrance 1988:103; Goodwin 1980; Haviser 1988; Jones 1985; Keegan 1989; Wing 1989). Nevertheless, Wing (personal communication 1991) points out that the shift in emphasis to maritime resources may be more apparent than real. Specifically, greater consumption of marine resources during the later phases of occupation would effect a relative increase in the marine food items recovered and documented from shell midden deposits, but it does not follow that terrestrial resources went less utilized. Similarly, Siegel (1991a, b) points out that the purported accompanying change in settlement placement and density (Goodwin 1980; Wilson 1990) needs to be more firmly documented. To the same point, the hypothesized simultaneous effects during the tenure of the crab/shell dichotomy on plant production systems (Davis 1988; Goodwin 1980), and by extension, the landscape in general, or the interaction with introduced captive animals (Peterson and Watters 1991; Wing 1989), have not been documented and require detailed analyses.

Jones (1985:523-524) made the interesting case that local elimination or depletion of rice rat and land crab populations may have directly resulted from human predation and indirectly from habitat destruction caused by the clearance of woodland for swidden plots. He proceeded to estimate the amount of cleared.acreage needed to produce enough manioc to support the human population (estimated from shell midden materials). Despite this interesting






17


effort to understand the dynamics operating on the subsistence system, Jones did not extend his interpretation to consider the long term effects of a slash and burn system of planting on the local environment in general, or the sustainability of crop production at the aboriginal level of technology.

It is a generally held (but only indirectly documented, see below) assumption of all of the models that the Cedrosan Saladoid colonists entered the island environment with their familiar complement of cultivated plants and the tools of crop production and consumption (Davis 1988; Jones 1985; Rouse 1986, 1989; Wilson 1990). Davis (1988:179), without citing the basis for his information, gives a list of eight cultigens in addition to manioc that purportedly were introduced by Saladoid people. The implication is that the gardening system previously established in lowland South America, which included domesticated plant staples as the primary source of dietary calories, was implemented in the islands.

In spite of whatever forces drove the Saladoid from one island to the next, it is likely that adjustments to the subsistence infrastructure had to be made. In one way or another, economic choices made by the colonists appear to have resulted in an unstable resource base. If the crab/shell dichotomy is at least partially true on some islands, then temporary collapses in protein sources, e.g., the local elimination of land crabs and terrestrial






18


vertebrates, were a problem with which island inhabitants had to contend. Two archaeologists (Davis 1988; Goodwin 1980), as mentioned above, also implicate the problem of localized crop failure as a partial explanation for the apparent shift in Saladoid settlement patterns from inland to coastal locations. However, explanations of the basis for or proofs of crop failure have not advanced beyond conjecture. The insular environment--quite distinct from the lowland tropical American areas where the horticultural system(s) originally was established--may have necessitated modifications to plant cultivation. Presently, the question of how and whether Saladoid colonists could have successfully transported their crop-production system to the insular setting has not been critically addressed. Nor have the actual types of plants and their uses been identified.

More recently, Wing (1989), DeFrance (1989) and Siegel (1991a, b, c) emphasized a more dynamic picture of settlement and adaptation on the part of Cedrosan Saladoid colonists (see also Keegan n.d.). These researchers hypothesize a growing familiarity with the insular environment that began with the initial entry of Saladoid people into the West Indies. In this view, migrants almost immediately began adding marine and other local resources to what was transported of the previously established subsistence system. Siegel (1991a:86) suggests that the Saladoid colonists were "preadapted" to the insular setting by virtue of their earlier familiarity with the aquatic






19


resources of the Orinoco River system and canoe travel. This second view of Saladoid existence emphasizes more immediate and direct adaptation to the insular environment, rather than the narrowly focused and probably unrealistic imposition of a mainland economic system in the island setting. Prior to the initiation of the research developed in this dissertation, inquiry into the flexibility of Saladoid adaptation has been confined to zooarchaeological data.

A final point to be made is that all of the models concerning Saladoid-Taino movement into and around the Caribbean archipelago emphasize the roles, either explicitly or implied, of plant and animal resources as central to human survival. Nonetheless, while the faunal aspect of subsistence is fairly well understood, particularly in regard to the crab/shell dichotomy (DeFrance 1988, 1989; Goodwin 1980; Jones 1985; Petersen and Watters 1991; Wing 1989, 1990; Wing and Reitz 1982; Wing and Scudder 1980, 1983; Wing et al. 1969), plant use by Caribbean Indians is only vaguely outlined.

The Basis for Previous Inferences about Plant Use

Assumptions about plant resources in the migration

models are built primarily on two sources of information: the ethnohistoric record and artifacts believed associated with food production. Pollen data sometimes also are considered, and a few researchers (Keegan 1985; Keegan and DeNiro 1988; Van Klinken 1991) have recently introduced






20


osteochemical techniques into Caribbean dietary reconstructions.

Early historic chronicles describe Caribbean Indian

agriculture and a few other forms of plant use, primarily in reference to the islands of the Greater Antilles (Dunn and Kelly 1988; Las Casas 1971; Oviedo 1959; and see Sauer 1966, and Sturtevant 1969). Much discussion centers on manioc, and additional mention is made of other root crops and maize. The Taino of the Greater Antilles seem to have practiced slash and burn cultivation (Oviedo 1959:13-14; Sauer 1966:51; Sturtevant 1961). In certain areas more labor-intensive forms of agriculture were practiced, including irrigated ditch networks and bench terracing (Krieger 1929; Las Casas 1909, ch.5:15, ch. 60:154; Ortiz Aguilu et al. 1991). While these descriptions of important plants, and how they were used and cultivated, are helpful, it is difficult or impossible to sort out whether individual chroniclers were describing plant production in the islands of the West Indies or on the nearby mainland. Oviedo (1959:14-15), in particular, wrote generally of Indian life in the New World, obscuring differences in plant consumption practices between groups living in the islands and those of the mainland. In addition, the early historic accounts provide no insight into the historical development of plant cultivation systems and how they were adapted to the insular setting.






21

The presence of tools and artifacts used to render plant foods into edible form has been used to infer indirectly the presence of cultivated plants (Davis 1988; Rouse 1986, 1992). Similarly, bone chemistry has been employed to infer diets based on certain cultivated plants (Keegan 1989). Both lines of evidence have the disadvantage, however, of not being able to point with certainty to the actual species used. Preserved plant parts are essential to solve this problem.

Various types of grinding stones have been recovered from Caribbean sites. Mortars and milling equipment are known from at least as early as the preceramic Archaic Age (ca. 4000 B.C.-A.D. 500) (Harris 1973; Rouse 1982; Veloz Maggiolo and Ortega 1976). Thus, many of these tools that often are interpreted as evidence that maize was grown (see, for example, Bullen 1964:22) and consumed predate the entry of maize into the Amazon (Roosevelt 1980; Sanoja and Vargas 1983; van der Merwe et al. 1981) and the movement of South American horticulturists into the archipelago. Moreover, since direct associations between grinding equipment and wild or semi-domesticated panicoid grass have been demonstrated for other regions of tropical America in premaize contexts (Callen 1965, 1967a,b; Farnsworth et al. 1985; C.E. Smith 1967; see also Newsom 1991a; Sanoja 1989), the extrapolation from grinding tools to maize and its introduction into the West Indies is not secure.






22

Likewise, clay griddle fragments are very common

markers of Saladoid age and later sites (beginning in the first millenium B.C.) (Bullen 1964; Davis 1988; Rouse 1986, 1992). Ceramic griddles, as well as small lithic chips that may have functioned as grater-board teeth, routinely are interpreted as evidence that the Saladoid migrants began their occupation of the island environment with manioc cultivation supplying their primary source of dietary calories (see, for example, Allaire 1989; Rouse and Alegria 1990:65). While this association of griddles and grater boards with manioc may be valid, without the direct evidence of preserved plant parts, the possibility that wild indigenous roots and grains were ground, grated and processed into flour for bread or tortillas (DeBoer 1975) is just as likely. Therefore, the hypothesis that Cedrosan Saladoid immigrants entered the island chain with manioc as their primary staple is still in need of clarification.

Keegan and DeNiro (1988; Keegan 1985, 1987) used human bone chemistry as a reflection of diet to examine the relative importance of plant foods in prehistoric West Indian economies. Their stable isotope analysis of one Taino individual from Puerto Rico (A.D. 200-600) and 17 Lucayan Taino from the Bahamas (A.D. 600-1200) resulted in the definition of three basic dietary schemes. Four individuals, including the single Puerto Rican burial and three of the Lucayans, produced isotopic signatures strongly suggestive of a general reliance on C3 pathway foods,






23


probably root crops and terrestrial animal resources (Keegan 1987; Keegan and DeNiro 1988). Eleven Bahamian skeletons

showed that marine-13C-enriched f oods were being integrated with the earlier C3-based diet. Finally, three of the Lucayan Taino (post A.D. 1200) skeletons yielded osteochemical data indicative of a diet derived primarily from plants with the C4 carbon pathway. The latter dietary signature could have resulted from heavy reliance on maize or other C4 plants and/or CAM plants, such as prickly pear cactus, which can mimic maize's isotopic signature (Shoeninger 1990; and see Farnsworth et al. 1985).

Van Klinken's (1991) isotopic analysis of human

skeletal material from four locations in the Caribbean revealed the presence of three basic dietary profiles that are very similar to the patterns identified by Keegan and DeNiro. Ten individuals from Maisabel, Puerto Rico, produced carbon and nitrogen isotope values that corroborate Keegan and DeNiro's (1988) results for the Taino individual from Puerto Rico mentioned above. Specifically, Van Klinken's data indicated a diet that emphasized C3terrestrial foods. A second group of skeletal samples consisted of ten Ceramic Age individuals (A.D. 450-980) from the closely situated islands of St. Eustatius and Saba. The isotopic data from the second sample group showed that terrestrial C3 foods, probably land crabs and root crops, were utilized, but also demonstrate that shallow marine organisms, including shellfish and reef fishes, were






24


regularly consumed. Van Klinken estimated that reef foods comprised between 25% and 31% of the St. Eustatius/Saba diets and that consumption of maize or other C4-pathway plants is not indicated. Similarly, Van Klinken's results for 12 individuals from the Surinam coast suggest that a balance existed in the human diet between terrestrial-C3 foods and items procured from coral reefs and sea-grass meadows. Finally, Van Klinken's fourth skeletal population-including 29 preceramic individuals from Aruba and a group of 11 Ceramic Age skeletons from Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire--produced distinctive isotopic signatures characterized by relatively high delta-13 values (means ranging between -9.4 0/00 and -11 0/00) that approach those of extreme C4 consumers, for example, maize agriculturists. While maize production by Ceramic Age inhabitants of Curacao has been suggested based on the presence of grinding implements (Haviser 1987:52), maize is not considered to have been a part of preceramic diets. Since the isotopic values for the Archaic Age (presumably non-agricultural) skeletons and the ceramic Age individuals from ArubaCuracao-Bonaire are nearly identical and essentially unchanged over the broad time span (ca. two millennia), maize consumption in the Ceramic Age must have been either very limited or is not the reason for the high delta-13 values in either population. Alternatively, Van Klinken suggests that the maize-like isotope ratios probably reflect extensive consumption of shellfish and sea turtles. This






25


alternative to maize consumption is corroborated by the zooarchaeological remains. Thus, while osteochemical data from Caribbean sites are highly enlightening, evidence of plant and animal remains is needed to clarify isotopic signatures and further detail the dietary reconstructions.

Keegan (1985, 1987) also used pollen evidence (see

below) to try and discern more detail about Ceramic Period plant use in the West Indies. At least five palynological studies of prehistoric sites on Hispaniola and Puerto Rico have been completed (Fortuna 1978, n.d.; Garcia Arevalo and Tavares 1978; Higuera-Gundy 1991; Nadal et al. 1991; Rouse and Alegria 1990). Pollen of cultivated and otherwise useful plants were documented in some of the profiles, but the temporal placement for virtually all of the identifications is tenuous and can not be definitively attributed to prehistoric occupations. For example, maize and manioc pollen appear in sediment samples from the Hacienda Grande village site, but the pollen grains appear only in the uppermost, disturbed levels of the excavations (Fortuna n.d.; Rouse and Alegria 1990). Pollen of useful plants is absent in clearly Hacienda Grande-style deposits (Rouse and Alegria 1990:65). Simlarly, Fortuna (1978; Garcia Arevalo and Tavares 1978:34-35) identified guava, papaya, Zamia sp. (la guayica), and tobacco pollen, among others, in samples from the site known as Sanate, eastern Dominican Republic. However, there is no direct association between the reported radiocarbon date of A.D. 1050 (Fortuna






26


1978:125; Garcia Are'valo and Tavares 1978:32) and the pollen samples. A similar assemblage of pollens was identified from La Caleta, Dominican Republic (Fortuna n.d.); unfortunately the temporal placement of the pollens is not verified. At El Jobito, located near Sanate, maize pollen was recovered purportedly dating to ca. A.D. 1020 (Garcia Are'valo and Tavares 1978:36). This identification and relatively early date needs to be corroborated with additional data. Maize pollen was identified in samples from another location on the island (bottom sediments from Lake Miragoane, Haiti [Higuera-Gundy 1991]), dating somewhere between approximately A.D. 1000 and 1500. Sanoja (1989:532) mentions an additional pair of archaeological sites in the Dominican Republic, both with maize pollen reputedly dating to ca. 1450 B.C. To reiterate, this date for maize is early and predates the first millennium B.C. migration (Siegel 1991a, c) of horticultural people into the archipelago. Nevertheless, the dates for early maize in the tropical lowlands continue to be pushed back (Miksicek et al. 1981; Pearsall 1990; Piperno 1989; Rust and Leyden 1990)--as early as 5000 B.C. for Panama--but maize is still considered to be a rather late (ca. first millennium B.C.) introduction into northeastern South America. Thus, although a second millennium B.C. date for maize in the West Indies is not unthinkable, efforts should be made to corroborate this record for the earliest presence of maize in the Greater Antilles with additional radiocarbon dates






27


and pollen data, as well as macrobotanical and phytolith studies. Actual maize macro-remains (cobs and kernels) have not been recovered previous to the investigations at En Bas Saline, Haiti (Chapter 6) and these date to no earlier than A.D. 1250. A previous report of maize kernels (Davis 1988) is incorrect. Large mineralized seed-like specimens from a Saladoid deposit (ca. fifth century A.D.) at the Sugar Factory site on St. Kitts were tentatively identified as maize and subsequently reported as such (Davis 1988; and see Siegel 1991b). In fact, the Sugar Factory specimens are gastroliths from the large land crabs (identified by Dr. E.S. Wing, Florida Museum of Natural History).

Nadal et al. (1991:145) have recovered compelling

evidence for important plants in the pollen data from the site of Manoguayabo, near Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. This is a relatively late site with Chicoid series ceramics (ca. A.D. 1200-1500 [Rouse 1992:107]). The pollen data indicate the presence of manioc, guava, and mombin (Spondias sp.). Macrobotanical remains (tubers, wood) of manioc and guava were recovered from another Chicoid site, En Bas Saline, dating to as early as A.D. 1250 (discussed in Chapter 6).

To summarize, Caribbean archaeologists have developed models that attempt to explain and understand Ceramic Age migrations, and the colonization efforts of Indians from lowland South America. The migration and settlement in the islands by earlier human groups has been documented, but






28


research has not progressed much beyond description of the sites. All of the migration models directly or implicitly invoke the importance of plant resources to the survival of the migrants. Historic documents, artifact assemblages, bone chemistry, and pollen data each have produced tantalizing, but largely ambiguous results as to the exact nature, scale, and timing of plant use. Questions remain concerning why and when the transition from subsistence based on foraging and gardening to a predominance of domesticated plants and field agriculture, as demonstrated by contact-era Taino, occurred. Moreover, the roles of indigenous wild plants, protodomesticates (e.g., primrose, as detailed in Chapters 4 through 7), and housegarden species also need definition.

Pertinent Details from Ethnohistoric Documents
about Taino Plants and Agriculture

Early historic chronicles describe Caribbean Indian

agriculture and plant use primarily in regard to the Taino who inhabited the Greater Antilles. Columbus's diary (Dunn and Kelley 1988) contains references to manioc and possibly also to maize. For example, on 6 November 1492 Columbus wrote: "The earth was very fertile and planted with those manes [manioc, Manihot esculenta] and bean varieties very different from ours, and with that same millet" [possibly maize] (Dunn and Kelley 1988:139). Oviedo (1959:80) related that manioc and Indian corn were important foods, but his statement applies generally to Indian life in the New World,






29


obscuring differences in consumption between the islands of the West Indies and nearby mainland areas.

Infrequent references to maize in historic documents pertaining to the West Indies, in conjunction with the few descriptions of its planting and use, has led to an overall impression that maize played a minor role in Caribbean Indian subsistence (Keegan 1987; Sauer 1966; Sturtevant 1961, 1969). Sauer (1966:9) summarized Taino agriculture as follows: "the main tillage is of starchy root crops which were vegetatively reproduced . Manioc, by all accounts, was the principal staple and bread in the West Indies. Seed crops, including maize, do not seem to have been important to the island cultures.

The Taino of the Greater Antilles seem generally to have practiced slash and burn cultivation (Sauer 1966:51; Sturtevant 1961). Oviedo (1959:13-14) wrote:

The Indians first cut down the cane and trees
where they wish to plant it [corn] . . After
the trees and cane have been felled and the field
grubbed, the land is burned over and the ashes are left as dressing for the soil, and this is
much better than if the land were fertilized.

Small earthen mounds known as I'montones" (Sauer 1966:51-52) were constructed on cleared plots to provide a suitable growing platform, particularly for root crops. The mounds were circular, approximately 30 cm high and a meter in diameter. Manioc, sweet potato, beans, squash, maize, peanuts, and at least five additional rootcrops were cultivated on the mounded plots (Sauer 1966:51-54). The rootcrops are discussed in more detail in Chapter 6.






30

Planted tracts of montones were known as "conucos." Homegarden or "yard plants" (Sauer 1966:56-57) also are listed as having been important to Taino existance, among them are fruit trees, including mamey (Mammea americana), manzanillas (identity unknown, possibly Euphorbiaceae, used as a purgative), and other useful plants, including tobacco, cotton, achiote or anatto (Bixa orellana), calabash (Crescentia cuiete), jagua (Genipa americana, the juice colors the skin black), and cohoba (Piptadenia peregrina, used as a narcotic snuff).

In limited areas more labor-intensive forms of

cultivation were employed, including the use of ditch networks for field irrigation in arid southwestern Haiti (Las Casas 1909 chapter 5:15, chapter 60:154) and bench terraces in Puerto Rico (Ortiz Aguilu et al. 1991). The crops grown by means of these more intensive systems of cultivation are not known with certainty. Previous Archaeobotanical Research on Caribbean Sites

Research with preserved plant material that could

further elucidate plant use in the Caribbean is a recent enterprise in West Indian archaeology, having begun in the early 1980s. Consequently, prior to this study few data beyond what could be gleaned or inferred from historic documents and the presence of artifacts believed associated with food production were available to interpret the interaction between Caribbean Indians and their local flora.






31


Previous archaeobotanical studies of prehistoric West Indian deposits are limited to five sites. Pearsall analyzed material from Krum Bay, St. Thomas (1983), El Bronce, Puerto Rico (1985), and the Three Dog Site, San Salvador, Bahamas (1989a). Krum Bay, the most intensively tested of the five sites, is the only locality from which an appreciable quantity of macrobotanical remains was recovered. All three of the sites analyzed by Pearsall, however, provide good comparative wood data that can be used to examine patterns of tree selection for fuel and construction materials. I analyzed two additional sites on Puerto Rico in 1988 and 1989-1991 (El Fresal and El Parking Site, respectively [Newsom 1988, 1992a]). The preliminary analyses of the two sites have been supplemented with additional data and are incorporated in Chapter 5.

The settlement at Krum Bay (Lundberg 1989) dates to the Archaic Age, specifically the Ortoiroid occupation on the northern Lesser Antilles. A total of 2678 seeds and fragments was recovered (Pearsall 1983), 89% of which (2330 specimens) belong to two genera of the Sapotaceae that bear edible fruit--false mastic (Mastichodendron foetidissimum) and Manilkara sp. The remainder of the seed identifications from Krum Bay are primarily from weedy annuals (e.g., purslane [Portulaca sp.]) representative of ruderal vegetation.

At least 20 types of wood were identified from the Krum Bay deposits. The most ubiquitous are buttonwood






32


(Conocarpus erecta), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), cupey (Clusia rosea), fig (Ficus sp.), cedar or roble (Tabebeuia sp.), and acacia (Acacia sp.).

Few seed remains were recovered in samples from El

Bronce, Puerto Rico (Pearsall 1985), or from the Three-Dog site, San Salvador (Pearsall 1989a). Eighteen seeds representative of ten individual plant genera or families were identified from El Bronce deposits. The seeds of weedy annuals predominate, none of which is definitively associated with the prehistoric settlement. Flotation samples from the Three Dog site produced 11 fragments of plant remains with a nut-like hard seed coat. Based on the presence of whole specimens recovered with faunal samples that were analyzed at the Florida Museum of Natural History (Newsom and E. Wing, laboratory data), the seed coat fragments probably belong to mastic-bully (Mastichodendron foetidissimum).

Five woods were identified from the Three Dog site:

buttonwood, lignum-vitae (Guaiacum sp.), pepper bush (Croton sp.), yellow torch or West Indian quinine bark (Exostema sp.), and false coca (Erythroxylum sp.). Twenty four different woods were recovered in flotation samples from El Bronce, including four of the same woods from Three Dog site: lignum-vitae, pepper bush, yellow torch, and false coca. Also identified in the El Bronce wood remains were what seem to be two separate species of Annona (pond-apple, soursop), sea grape/pigeon plum (Coccoloba sp.), and a caper






33

(Capparis sp.). Besides possibly having been used as fuel, several of the woody species identified have potential food or medicinal value (Little and Wadsworth 1964:344; Record and Hess 1943).

In addition to the work with systematically recovered plant remains described above, several isolated finds of plant materials and/or identifications from work of a more limited nature have been reported. From old domestic deposits inside a cave in the Dominican Republic, Veloz Maggiolo and Vega (1982) recovered leaf tissue of Zamia debilis, the roots of which may have been an important source of dietary starch (Sturtevant 1969), and seeds of Clusea rosea (an exudate from capsules of this plant reportedly have been used as a glue to set manioc graterboard teeth [Lewenstein and Walker 1984]). In addition, Veloz Maggiolo and Ortega (1976) report their recovery of carbonized hard seed coats, probably from palm seeds, in samples from at least three separate Archaic Age sites in the Dominican Republic.

Limited previous plant data are known from other

islands in the Caribbean. Van der Klift (1985) identified cockspur (Celtis sp.) seeds in midden samples from the Golden Rock site, St. Eustatius, and Cutler (in Rouse and Alegria 1990:23) identified seeds of avocado (Persea americana) and yellow sapote (Lucuma salicifolia = Pouteria salicifolia = Pouteria campechiana [Standley and Williams 1966]) in material excavated in 1948 from the Maria de la






34


Cruz cave in Puerto Rico. Leaf-impressed pot sherds from Pearls, Grenada were donated to the Florida Museum of Natural History in 1985 (L. Wilder collection); the wellpreserved venation and outlines of the leaf margins suggest the Melastomataceae in one case, and possibly Cordia sp. (aloewood, prince-wood; Ehretiaceae) in another.

Research questions

In this chapter background information was presented

that provides the context for this research. In the course of my discussions, six broad questions were developed.

1. What types of plant resources were integrated

into the subsistence patterns of Archaic Age and

later inhabitants in the West Indies and how

were they integrated?

2. If exotic plant resources were imported by

Archaic and/or Ceramic age cultures, what is

the source area(s) for these subsistence items.

3. When and where were gardening and

arboriculture undertaken by Caribbean Indians?

4. What is the nature of the interaction between

Archaic Age inhabitants of the islands and the

Cedrosan Saladoid colonists, and did Archaic Age

people facilitate Saladoid adaptation to the

insular environment?

5. When, in the transition from the Saladoid to the

Ostionoid culture series, did the emphasis in

subsistence systems shift from extensive rootcrop






35


horticulture to more intensive forms of crop

production, including lengthier field preparation,

irrigation, and terracing?

6. How were homegardens integrated with crop

production and the overall subsistence system, and

did the shift to crop production entail additions

or deletions from the original set(s) of plant

(and animal) foods used?

7. Was the increased reliance on cultigens such as

maize and rootcrops accompanied by changes in the

proportions in which other plant resources were

procured?

The results of the research discussed in the following chapters will be used to attempt to answer (or at least lend some insight into) these questions. Archaeological, ecological, and archaeobotanical data are employed in my analyses. The results of this endeavor provide a more informed understanding of the development of Caribbean Indian subsistence and social complexity. Nevertheless, the products of this research have implications for the broader issues raised here and in Chapter 1.

















CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGI CAL APPROACH

The data f or this study were drawn from one site on the island of Bonaire, eleven sites in the Lesser Antilles, five sites on Puerto Rico, and two sites on Hispaniola (Figure

3.1). General information about the sites is presented in Table 3.1 and each is briefly described in the paragraphs that follow. Three additional sites--Macabou (Martinique), Krum Bay (St. Thomas), and El Bronce (Puerto Rico)--are shown on the map (Figure 3.1) because archaeobotanical data from the three are discussed in subsequent chapters, even though they are not part of the analyses incorporated in this dissertation.

Site Descriptions

Wanava. Bonaire

Bonaire is culturally and spatially independent of the other sites in this study (Figure 3.1), being outside, and isolated from, the primary migratory flow of human groups from the Orinoco region into the main Caribbean Island arc. Nonetheless, the Wanapa Site is included in this dissertation because of its pertinence from a general cultural perspective and because the environment and vegetation of the island are similar enough to arid areas of


36


























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40


the Lesser Antilles to provide comparative information on resource use.

Research on the Wanapa site was directed by Jay

Haviser, of the Archeologisch-Antropologisch Instituut Nederlandse Antillen (AAINA), Curagao. The site was excavated as part of a comprehensive survey and assessment of prehistoric cultural resources on Bonaire (Haviser 1991a). Wanapa is the location of a small prehistoric settlement. The site is situated on the southern arm of the island, immediately north of Lac, the largest bay on Bonaire. The terrain is a low limestone terrace, with vegetation having a characteristically dry aspect (Stoffers 1956:18). Annual rainfall is low, averaging 500 mm, with a markedly uneven annual distribution.

Items of material culture from Wanapa have been

assigned to the Dabajuroid series (Haviser 1991a). The archaeological deposits at the site are rather homogeneous, lacking clear evidence of stratification. Thus, according to Haviser, even though the radiocarbon dates range widely (from ca. A.D. 470 to A.D. 1450), a single continuous occupation is suggested. A steady accumulation of refuse was produced by the site's inhabitants, including the remains of plant resources. All plant remains from Wanapa probably represent secondarily deposited materials, such as fuelwood remains and hearth sweepings that were removed from primary contexts and subsequently incorporated in the midden-refuse areas. Nothing that could be definitively






41

identified as a cooking area or hearth was encountered during excavation.

The plant remains were recovered from ten 2 x 2 meter excavation units that were placed in two separate locations at the site. Area A is a general midden or refuse deposit (eight excavation units), and excavation Area B includes the floor of a circular house and an associated concentration of dense midden on its southwestern perimeter. Several archaeobotanical samples were recovered from the houseassociated midden.

Pearls. Grenada

Pearls, on the island of Grenada at the southern end of the Lesser Antilles (Figure 3.1), is the site of a large Cedrosan Saladoid village estimated to have originally covered at least 25 to 100 acres (Bullen 1964:18-22; Cody 1990, 1991; Keegan 1993; Keegan and Cody 1990). The site is located on the northeast coast of the island on a flat plain near the mouth of the Great River. Grenada is a volcanic island with good agricultural soils and abundant rainfall.

Recent test excavations (1988-1990) at Pearls were

conducted by William F. Keegan (Florida Museum of Natural History) and Annie Cody (University of California, Los Angeles). Archaeobotanical samples from Pearls derive from the rather extensive shell midden deposits (Keegan 1993; Keegan and Cody 1990).

An unfortunate circumstance is that the site has suffered much disturbance to what otherwise were well-






42

preserved deposits with good organic preservation. The modern intrusions have resulted not only in the loss of important contextual information, but plant remains were undoubtedly negatively impacted by disruption of the burial environment.

Archaeobotanical samples from Pearls come primarily from two excavation units, designated West 195.5 and West 196, that were placed in an undisturbed area of the site. Both units penetrated intact shell midden with abundant, well-preserved faunal remains. The ceramics and other artifacts from West 195.5 and West 196 are exclusively Saladoid; in particular, ceramic griddle sherds and undecorated pottery were frequent, suggesting that the area was the location of common domestic activities (household deposits unassociated with ceremonial areas of the site). Heywoods, Barbados

Heywoods site is located on the western side of

Barbados, a flat coral island in the southern Windward Islands, and the easternmost of the Caribbean islands. Rainfall on Barbados is ample, at about 1500 mm annually (Mohlenbrock 1988), but the soils are generally poor for plant cultivation.

Shell midden deposits at the Heywoods site accumulated during the Suazoid and earlier Troumassoid occupations of the island (ca. A.D. 600-1400). Excavations at Heywoods were conducted under the direction of Peter Drewett (Institute of Archaeology, University College London,






43


England) in cooperation with the Barbados Museum. The archaeobotanical samples consist of shell midden deposit from general excavation levels (Table 3.1), collected in excavation screens of 1.8 mm (1/16 inch). Twenty Hill (PE-19) and Jolly Beach (MA-3, MA-4). Antigua

Antigua is a sedimentary (as opposed to volcanic) island located midway up the Lesser Antilles, in the southern Leeward islands (Figure 3.1). Two sites on Antigua attributed to the Archaic Age Jolly Beach culture (Ortoiroid culture series, ca. 1000-2000 B.C. [Rouse 1992]) have yielded limited archaeobotanical data. Twenty-four sites attributed to the Jolly Beach culture have currently been documented on Antigua; all are situated along the coast, primarily on the northern half of the island, where, according to Rouse (1992:65) fishing and shellfishing are more readily undertaken.

Recent excavations at the two sites that produced the archaeobotanical samples analyzed below were carried out by Bruce Nodine in conjunction with research directed through Brown University. Radiocarbon dates from the Twenty Hill deposits place the occupation of the site between approximately 500 B.C. and 3000 B.C. (Nodine, personal communication, August 12, 1989). However, inconsistencies in the radiocarbon dates and the presence of deeply buried historic artifacts indicate that the site is disturbed. Nevertheless, Nodine (personal communication, ibid.) feels certain that the carbonized plant specimens discussed in






44


Chapter 4 are indeed associated with the prehistoric occupation. As with Heywoods and Wanapa, samples from the Antigua sites represent general excavation fill (5 cm arbitrary levels) that was sieved through 1/16 inch sceens. Hichmans' Shell Heap (GE-6), Hichmans' Site (GE-5), and Indian Castle (GE-I). Nevis

Shell midden samples from three sites on Nevis were

analyzed for the presence of plant remains. The excavations and research at the sites were part of an intensive settlement survey directed by Samuel M. Wilson, University of Texas, Austin. The current archaeobotanical analysis is limited, with the objective of assessing the potential for paleoethnobotanical research on the island.

Nevis is a volcanic island centrally located in the Leeward island group (Figure 3.1). Rainfall is adequate, ranging from 1000 mm on the windward coast to approximately 2500 mm on Nevis Peak (Wilson n.d.). All three sites are located on the southeast coast of the island, near the most extensive series of coral reefs (Wilson n.d.).

Human groups inhabited Nevis at least as early as the Caribbean Archaic Age, and essentially the whole range of prehistoric human occupation on Nevis is represented by the three sites analyzed for archaeobotanical data. Hichmans' Shell Heap (GE-6) is a preceramic Ortoiroid site dating to the last millennium B.C. (radiocarbon age: 540+60 B.C. (2490+60 B.P., Beta-19328) (Wilson n.d.). Nearby Hichmans' Site (GE-5) represents an early Saladoid people, based on the presence of Zone-Incised-Crosshatched-decorated ceramics






45

(Wilson n.d.). The third site, Indian Castle (GE-l), was occupied during the subsequent Ostionoid period (approximately 600 A.D. to the time of European contact). Indian Castle is the largest Ostionoid site on Nevis; a single radiocarbon date of 670+60 A.D. (1280+60 B.P., Beta19327) was obtained for the site (Wilson n.d.).

Archaeobotanical samples from the Nevis sites are primarily from the refuse deposits; three samples from Indian Castle come from a pit feature and pair of post molds. All samples from the sites were processed by means of water flotation.

Golden Rock, St. Eustatius

Golden Rock is a large early Saladoid settlement (80

cal B.C. to 980 cal A.D.) centrally located on the volcanic island of St. Eustatius (Versteeg and Schinkel 1992). St. Eustatius is near Nevis (Figure 3.1) and has a similar rainfall regime, averaging between 1100 mm and 2000 mm annually. There are no permanent sources of freshwater on St. Eustatius (Boldingh 1909).

Recent excavations at Golden Rock were directed by Aad Versteeg and Kees Schinkel of the Rijks Universiteit, Leiden, with the support of the St. Eustatius Historical Foundation and the AAINA, Curaqao. Careful excavation produced the first complete floorplans of prehistoric houses in the Caribbean Islands. In addition to discerning the outlines and floors of at least five Saladoid houses and other wooden structures, the excavations revealed the






46

presence of associated large midden accumulations and a plaza area.

Plant remains are exceptionally well preserved in the Golden Rock deposits. Carbonized wood from the house posts and archaeobotanical samples from the shell midden deposits provided information about wood use and plant foods (Chapter 4). Materials from this site were recovered by means of dry sieving through fine meshes (see below) and by direct collection of larger-sized wood remains. Hope Estate, St. Martin

Ongoing excavations at Hope Estate are being carried

out under the direction of Jay Haviser (AAINA, Curaqao), and Corinne Hofman and Menno L. P. Hoogland (Rijks Universitat, Leiden), with the support of the Association Archeologique "Hope Estate." St. Martin is partially volcanic, associated with the outer (northeastern) arc of uplifted sedimentary formations in the northern Lesser Antilles. The Hope Estate site is located approximately 2 km inland in a major drainage valley with a semi-permanent flow of fresh water (Haviser 1988). The island receives about 1000 mm of rainfall annually.

Like Hichmans' Site and Golden Rock, Hope Estate is an early Ceramic Age settlement. Radiocarbon dates range from approximately 560-350 B.C. (251040; 3200+55 B.P., University of Pennsylvania) at the earliest, to approximately A.D. 435-460 (151535, 1490+35 B.P., University of Pennsylvania) (Haviser 1988). Haviser (1988)






47


has suggested that three separate prehistoric cultural groups may have occupied the site, the first being an early ceramic-bearing group who produced zoned-punctated and curvilinear-incised ceramics. This first group of people are believed responsible for a small shell midden deposit (designated XXII T20-T21, see Chapter 4) and the earliest portion of a second (Haviser's "primary" midden) shell midden (designated XVII A1-A5). The second possible culture to appear at the site is identified with the Cedrosan Saladoid series; typically red-painted, white-on-red, and red-and-black painted ceramic wares were recovered in association with levels attributed to this second occupation, along with some Huecan-Saladoid decorative elements (Haviser 1988). The second occupation continued to deposit materials on the primary shell midden. Haviser refers to the third cultural unit tentatively recognized for Hope Estate as "modified Saladoid" people; they are believed to have ties to the mainland Barrancoid tradition (Haviser 1988).

Archaeobotanical samples from Hope Estate were obtained from shell midden deposit by stratigraphic excavation using 2.8 mm excavation screens. The samples represent excavation levels, rather than specific features or other more discrete deposits. Currently only two such samples have been completely analyzed (Chapter 4), both come from the earliest occupation of the site (Haviser's Early Ceramic group).






48


Beach Access Site and Trunk Bay. St. John. United States Virgrin Islands

The island of St. John occurs in the Virgin Island

group at the northern and western most extent of the Lesser Antilles. Salvage operations at the Beach Access Site (also known as Lameshur Bay) and at Trunk Bay were conducted by Ken Wild of the National Park Service, Southeast Archaeological Center. The material culture assemblage from the Beach Access Site indicates the presence both of the Archaic Age Ortoiroid and the later Huecan Saladoid culture series. Radiocarbon dates from the site range from approximately 730 B.C. to the first centuries A.D. (Ken Wild, personal communication, 17 December 1992). The Trunk Bay deposits represent a later occupation(s), with the presence of Cedrosan Saladoid and Ostionoid ceramics series.

Limited archaeobotanical analysis of samples from the two prehistoric sites was undertaken. Nevertheless, data useful to this dissertation research were gathered. Samples from the Beach Access Site derive from a pair of burned areas that may have functioned as hearths. Trunk Bay samples come from general or undifferentiated refuse (shell midden) deposits.

Calle Cristo. Puerto Rico

Archaeological research at Calle del Cristo, San Juan, was conducted during 1989-1991 by the Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office under the direction of Carlos Solis Magana and Virginia Rivera. The prehistoric site is located beneath present Calle del Cristo and extends to an






49


area adjacent to Calle Norzagaray. Ceramics and other artifacts indicate that the deposits at Calle del Cristo belong to the period associated with the Cuevas/Cedrosan Saladoid subseries. Several midden strata were analyzed for the possible presence of preserved plant structures. Maisabel, Puerto Rico

Maisabel is located on the north coast of Puerto Rico west of San Juan near the town of Vega Baja (municipality Manati). The site was intensively investigated during the latter part of the 1980s under the auspices of the Centro de Investigaciones Indigenas de Puerto Rico, Inc. and with the direction of Peter Siegel.

Maisabel is a large prehistoric village that appears to have been continuously occupied for an extensive period, spanning at least several centuries. Radiocarbon dates for good cultural contexts from Maisabel range from at least as early as 100 B.C. to approximately A.D. 1100 (see Siegal 1990 for an in depth discussion of radiocarbon calibrations for Maisabel). The coastline forms the northern boundary of the site and a small pond is situated on its southern perimeter; immdediately to the east is a large mangrove swamp, and one kilometer further east is the Rio Cibuco.

Archaeological research demonstrates that Maisabel is structurally and culturally complex. Particularly salient features of the site include a series of five mounded midden areas that encircle a large central plaza and burial area; located between the two largest mounded middens is an area






50


where a substantial Ostionoid structure stood (Siegel 1989; 1990). Burials were also confined within the large Ostionoid building. Mounded Midden 1, from which was analyzed the greatest number of archaeobotanical samples, dates exclusively to a Hacienda Grande-Saladoid occupation. Other samples came from Mounded Midden 2 and the large central plaza and burial area; these portions of the site seem to have been used continuously from Hacienda Grande to Ostionoid times. Immediately south of the plaza/burial area is the large, circular Ostionoid-aged house or ceremonial building; the structure was circumscribed by a curving, discontinuous ditch feature (Siegel 1989, 1990). At least five archaeobotanical samples are associated with the Ostionoid building and ditch feature.

Two types of archaeobotanical sample were recovered from Maisabel deposits. One group of samples consists exclusively of collections of carbonized wood. These represent either concentrations of wood fragments that were collected directly as batch samples as they were observed in situ, the same procedure as was employed for large wood remains from Golden Rock, or wood collected by the excavation screens. Most of these separate wood collections, referred to as "carbon samples", derive from general-level deposit (screened material); seven were recovered directly from features, e.g., hearths, or possible postholes, or other distinctive types of deposit.






51

The second group of samples from Maisabel are

volumetric soil samples. These were processed initially by water flotation. Like the carbon samples described above, some volumetric samples represent general-level deposit while others derive from more specific contexts. Siegel's sampling strategy included the routine collection of ca. 10 liter volumetric samples. Whenever possible, at least one such sample was recovered from each excavation level or context (Siegel 1987), including features and other more specific contexts that may have been enountered within a given 10 cm excavation level. El Fresal, Puerto Rico

El Fresal is an Ostionoid series site located in southcentral Puerto Rico, barrio Cuyon, municipality of Aibonito. Excavations and research on the site were directed in 1988 by Marisol Melendez for the Rural Development Office of the Agriculture Department.

The site is situated approximately 30 kilometers inland at the northern edge of the southern dry coastal region (Ashton 1985), bordering the lower cordillera forest. El Fresal seems to have been the location of a small prehistoric settlement. A single radiocarbon date of A.D. 116060 (790+60 B.P., Beta-26326) is consistent with items of material culture from the site (Melendez 1988); the ceramics and other artifacts are indicative of the Ostionoid series, including the Ostiones and Santa Elena complexes,






52

and also the later Esperanza, Capa, and Boca Chica styles of eastern and western Puerto Rico (Rouse 1992).

Several fairly large hearth-like burned deposits were

excavated by Melendez, and samples from three of the hearthlike deposits were analyzed for plant remains. All such archaeobotanical samples were initially processed by water flotation.

El Parking Site (PO-38), Puerto Rico

Deposits at the El Parking site (PO-38) belong to a late Saladoid, specifically Cuevas, to early Ostionoid occupation located in south-central Puerto Rico in the Cerrillos River Valley (Sector Los Fondos, barrio Maraguez, Municipio Ponce). Excavations at the site were conducted during 1989 and 1991 by Guy G. Weaver of Garrow and Associates, Inc., Memphis, Tennessee.

The El Parking site is situated at the north end of an alluvial terrace at the base of the steep western valley wall, and approximately 15 kilometers north of the southern coast of Puerto Rico (Weaver 1992). Physiographically, the site is situated in a transitional zone between the Cordillera Central and the low Coastal Plain (Weaver 1992).

Old living floors and hearth-like deposits were

uncovered in the course of excavations; several of these features were tested for the presence of archaeobotanical remains. All samples were initially processed by means of water flotation. Features 14, 17, and 34--samples from which are included in the analyses presented in Chapter 5--






53

have corrected radiocarbon ranges (1 sigma) of A.D. 652-851, A.D. 541-666, and A.D. 656-855, respectively. Barrio Ballaj6. San Juan. Puerto Rico

Archaeobotanical samples from nineteenth-century deposits in Old San Juan, barrio Ballaja, contain exceptionally well preserved plant remains. Despite the considerably later age than most of the plant assemblages included in this study, the Ballaja materials are incorporated here due to the fact that several of the plant identifications currently represent the earliest record for the presence in the Caribbean of the particular genera.

Phase II and subsequent investigations in the barrio by the Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office (under the direction of Carlos Solis Magana and Virginia Rivera) established the existence of substantial, intact deposits and features dating primarily to the Eighteenth and Nineteenth centuries. Among the significant cultural deposits were refuse pits, buried barrel wells filled with refuse, former latrines, preserved floors, and architectural remains. Most of these deposits and structures could be associated by documentary evidence with individual households (Solis Magana, personal communication, March 1992).

Portions of ten features that variously originated with nineteeth-century households were analyzed for archaeobotanical data. Among these is Feature 25 which functioned as a latrine for a relatively high status family.






54


Additional archaeobotanical samples derive from Feature 57, a hospital disposal area and latrine. Plant materials from barrio Ballaja were recovered primarily by means of water flotation; archaeobotanical data from the flotation samples are augmented, however, with identifications of plant materials that were captured in excavation screens. En Bas Saline, Haiti

En Bas Saline is located about one kilometer inland

from the beach-side village of Limonade Bord de Mer, Haiti, and about 15 kilometers east of present-day Cap Haitien. Kathleen A. Deagan of the Florida Museum of Natural History at the University of Florida has carried out six field seasons of excavation at the site (1983-1988) in collaboration with the Bureau National D' Ethnologie D' Haiti.

En Bas Saline is believed to have been the town of the Taino cassique Guacanacaric, who provided Columbus with assistance and refuge after the wreck of his flagship, the Santa Maria, in 1492. It was at the town of Guacanacaric that Columbus established the fortification known as La Navidad (Deagan 1986, 1987). Upper levels of the site contain small quantities of European artifacts and fauna (Sus scrofa and Rattus rattus) that together with other data support arguments for its identifification as the town of Guacanacaric.

Radiocarbon dates, pottery thermoluminescence dates,

and the position of the European materials indicate that En






55


Bas Saline was first occupied at about A.D. 1250 (cal AD 1270+-80) and abandoned within a decade of A.D. 1500. The aboriginal materials are exclusively Carrier, a style characteristic of the fully developed Taino Indian culture (Rouse 1986, 1992). The site is an oval-shaped village, described by a wide, raised earthen embankment around its northern perimeter, and a band of concentrated midden debris around the southern half. The center of the site is relatively free of debris and apparently functioned as a plaza. A small raised mound in the center of the plaza area contained the remains of what was a large and substantial structure that burned in the Fourteenth Century. By all ethnohistoric accounts, such structures were occupied by Taino chiefs.

With an area of nearly 200,000 square meters, En Bas

Saline is one of the largest prehistoric towns reported from the Caribbean. Documentary accounts, as well as the site's size, its configuration around a plaza, the central mound and the richly ornate material remains, all suggest that it represents the town of a Taino chief.

Archaeobotanical samples from En Bas Saline were taken from various deposits representative of the full temporal range of occupation at the site. Additional details about the cultural contexts and the nature of the archaeobotanical samples are fully detailed in Chapter 6.






56


La Isabela. Dominican Republic

A limited number of samples were analyzed from La Isabela, the last of the sites incorporated in this dissertation. Isabela, on the north coast of the Dominican Republic, is the location of the colony established in 1494 by Columbus on his second voyage to the West Indies (Deagan 1988). Recent excavations at the site were carried out by Kathleen A. Deagan (Florida Musem of Natural History) and Jose M. Cruxent (Venezuela). Most of the samples from Isabela are from the floor of a single house; two additional samples come from the floor of another structure and from a Spanish burial.

Archaeobotanical Methods

Sample Comparability

Archaeobotanical samples from the various Caribbean sites differ in the ways in which the materials were originally deposited and subsequently recovered by archaeologists (Table 3.1). Moreover, the inherent durability or lack thereof of the various types of plant tissues, along with specific factors of the local preservation environments combine to affect long-term preservation.

This situation makes it difficult to compare sites and individual samples. Nevertheless, to search for patterns of plant use in the Caribbean assemblages, I examined the distribution of seeds, wood, and categories of plants (e.g., ruderals, fruit trees, homegarden species) by sample, by






57


site, and by chronological context. Probably the most notable characteristic of the overall sample assemblage is a lack of consistency from one sample to another in both the types of plants present and the relative abundances of those plants. Some samples had no seeds; others had seeds but no identifiable wood; some yielded isolated specimens of a single seed or wood type; and others had large quantities of wood or of a particular seed type or category (e.g., seeds of ruderals). Still other samples yielded an array of potentially edible or useful plant types. It is possible in this early stage of archaeobotanical research that the general disparity in the distributions of seeds and wood is a result of the lack of redundancy in the data, or an artifact of sampling. Despite these problems and regardless of the vagaries of preservation and the need to analyze more material, it was possible to detect some spatial and temporal patterns within and between subregions. Sample Preparation

Upon excavation archaeobotanical samples were either

sent directly to me for further processing and analysis, or they underwent preliminary separation and sorting by the archaeologists prior to my receiving them. All samples from the Puerto Rico sites were processed by water flotation, and in most cases large wood fragments were extracted in situ. The treatment of samples and materials is less uniform for the Lesser Antilles sites (Table 3.1), samples from some sites having undergone flotation, while those from others






58

were sieved with meshes ranging from 2.3 mm to 0.4 mm. Golden Rock samples were collected either directly, in situ, or fine-sieved through 0.4 mm mesh. Several separation procedures were experimented with in regard to En Bas Saline and Isabella, and dry sieving though fine meshes (4.0 mm to

0.4 mm) appears to have been most appropriate to recover plant remains. Given the overall disparity in sampling and separation procedures among the site assemblages, quantative measures of relative importance, including counts, relative frequencies, and ubiquity (see below) were employed on an individual site basis only. Broader comparisons are based on presence/absence and general spatial and temporal distributions.

Samples from most of the sites were preliminarily

processed, either by flotation or sieving procedures, prior to sending the materials to the laboratory at the Florida Museum of Natural History for analysis. Sites for which the archaeobotanical samples were preprocessed include Wanapa, Heywoods, Hope Estate, the Nevis sites, Beach Access, Trunk Bay, and all the Puerto Rico site assemblages. Samples from Pearls, Twenty Hill, Jolly Beach, Golden Rock, En Bas Saline, and Isabella were bagged upon excavation and not otherwise processed prior to arrival in the laboratory in Gainesville.

The sorting and analysis of preprocessed samples began immediately. Any samples that were forwarded to me unprocessed, that is, without having undergone prior sorting






59


and separation procedures, were first evaluated as to their general condition, soil type, and the durability of the plant materials contained within. This preliminary assessment is necessary to assess the appropriateness of flotation or other types of sample preparation. Initially all samples were weighed and the volume recorded, even if the samples were recovered by standardized volume. Flotation at the Florida Museum was carried out using a SMAP-type flotation machine (Watson 1976) and tap water. In most cases, light and heavy fractions from the flotation procedure were examined and sorted directly, without additional sample preparation. Alternatively, light and heavy fractions from samples that yielded greater quantities of plant remains were sieved through 4 mm, 2 mm, and 1 mm meshes (with bottom pan) to size-grade the materials (partitioning the samples by particle size facilities sorting and analysis).

Samples from some sites, especially those found in more arid environments, were judged unsuitable for water flotation due to the prevalence of wood remains and/or the friability of plant specimens. In any situation, samples with clayey soil matrix were generally always water-floated. Samples that did not undergo flotation were sieved directly through a nested sieve series, resulting in four mesh-size components per field sample: 4 mm, 2 mm, I mm, and 0.4 mm. The mesh sizes are generally consistent with standard archaeobotanical technique (see for example Greig 1989).






60

The sieving alternative to flotation was done either dry or with a fine spray of water depending on the moisture content of a given sample. Moderately moist to wet soil matrix was processed with water; dry to very dry samples were sieved dry. These procedures facilitated sieving and the size partitioning of sample components while maintaining the sample moisture content as near equal as possible, thus avoiding the additional stress upon fragile plant remains of total immersion and subsequent drying (see Vaquer et al. 1986). (Carbonized plant remains from dry or alternately wet/dry deposits quickly fragment along linear planes into numerous pieces when exposed to water, even from percolation across a damp towel (laboratory observations].)

In several cases, e.g., Golden Rock and Maisabel,

carbonized wood specimens were collected directly, without subjecting the specimens to further sample preparation and possible breakage. Archaeobotanical samples that underwent water-sieving or flotation were allowed to dry slowly in a sheltered area prior to analysis.

The sample fractions from the sieving or flotation

procedures were further sorted and categorized with the aid of a dissecting microscope. Materials from the 4 mm and 2 mm size fractions were completely sorted. Residues from the finer sample components (1 mm and 0.4 mm meshes) were scanned under the microscope for seeds and other identifiable plant material, but were not otherwise sorted. The 0.4 fraction proved generally unproductive of useful






61

plant data; generally, only fungi spores (e.g., wood rotting fungi, for example, Polyporous spp.) were observed in this sample fraction. Other than wood charcoal and occasional seeds or fragments, virtually all plant remains from the Caribbean sites were recovered in the 1 mm sieve fraction. Plant Identification

Seeds and non-wood remains

Seed identifications were made with the aid of

pictorial guides (Chase 1964; Landers and Johnson 1976; Martin and Barkley 1973), local floras (Little and Wadsworth 1964; Little, Woodbury, and Wadsworth 1974; Liogier and Martorell 1982), and by reference to specimens in the collections of the Florida Museum of Natural History. Seed measurements were made using a dissecting microscope with either a Manostat manual-dial caliper or a Fowler Ultra-Cal II digetal caliper. Maize remains were measured and analyzed following Bird (1990) and King (1987). Tubers were classified and/or identified on the basis of morphology and anatomy using comparative specimens and literature such as Esau (1977), Hather (1991), Hayward (1938), Jackson and Snowdon (1990), and Onwueme (1978). On occasion, modern seed specimens were carbonized for comparative purposes. Identifications were made to the nearest recognizable taxon. In some cases individual archaeological specimens were described, but not further identified because of insufficient material or the lack of suitable comparative specimens. The category "unidentified soft tissue" refers






62


to burnt, amorphous bits of material that in some cases may represent wood exudate, and in others, unrecognizable fragments of parenchymatous tissue.

Modern seeds were routinely identified to help define the Caribbean weed flora and to anticipate which seed types might be expected to occur in association with human activity. Moreover, the identification of modern specimens is occasionally helpful to interpret the presence in a site of questionably ancient seeds (Miksicek 1987). In other words, if a particular seed type from a given site occurs in both carbonized and in fresh form, it is probable, though not certain, that the charred specimen also is relatively fresh and intrusive into the deposit (and see below). It does not follow, however, that the lack of a corresponding non-carbonized specimen at a site is evidence that a particular carbonized seed or seed type is archaeological. Wood identification

Wood was identified on the basis of three-dimensional anatomy under magnifications ranging between 40x and 100ox. Individual charcoal specimens were prepared for anatomical inspection by fracturing each along three surfaces (cross, radial, and tangential). Following this, the cellular structure of the charred wood fragments was observed and documented with the aid of a dissecting microscope with enhanced magnification (200-80ox). Similarly, waterlogged wood from En Bas Saline was prepared for identification by mounting thin sections onto glass slides, which then were






63

observed using light microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy occasionally was employed for difficult identifications.

Wood identification proceeded with the use of keys to anatomical structure (Newsom, laboratory key for Caribbean woods; Record and Hess 1942-1948; Urling and Smith 1953; Wheeler et al. 1986). Wood types were further narrowed by direct comparison of the cellular structure in carbonized form with the anatomy observed in wood thin-sections from modern specimens housed in the Florida Museum of Natural History. All identifications were pursued to the closest recognizable taxon. Usually this was to the level of genus, since wood anatomy tends to provide insufficient information to perform identification to the level of species.

A dissecting microscope also was used to observe growth rings on wood specimens from the Golden Rock site. Ring width measurements were made on the microscope with a Manostat dyal-type caliper. Angle of growth-ring curvature and stem diameters were estimated with a rim-diameter template (commonly used for ceramics analysis).

Following identification, floras and vegetation studies were consulted for geographic distribution and other ecological and taxonomic details. Among the treatises used were Boldingh's (1909) and Stoffers's (1956) studies of the vegetation of the Netherlands Antilles, along with Broeders' (1967) handbook on the vegetation of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao, and Coomans and Coomans-Eustatia (1988) on St.






64


Martin. Ewel and Whitmore (1973), Little and Wadsworth (1964), Little and Woodbury (1976), Little, Woodbury and Wadsworth (1974, 1976), Liogier and Martorell (1982), and Woodbury and Little (1976) were consulted for the vegetation of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and generally the northern Lesser Antilles. Beard (1942, 1949), Howard (19741989), Holdridge (1947, 1967), and Record and Hess (1943) provide regional perspectives on the native flora. The entire spectrum of plant identifications from this research is listed in Appendix A by taxonomic level. Comparative Measures

Minimum number of wood specimens identified

Previous research has demonstrated that a minimum number of at least 30 fragments of wood identified per sample is necessary before the relative importance of individual wood types in a given provenience can be estimated (Newsom 1991a; Scarry and Newsom 1992; and see below). Ideally, the minimum-identified figure should be determined separately for each site and context under study. Generally, plots of wood (the ordinate) from sites in South Florida and the Caribbean level out and become redundant as to new species added when between 20 and 30 specimens (the abscissa) is reached. However, the relative frequencies of different woods in a given sample tend not to stabilize, and thus do not function as reliable indicators of relative importance, until a count of about 30 to 40 specimens per provenience is established (see Scarry and Newsom 1992).






65


The objective of 30 wood fragments minimum identified was followed here, but many samples did not contain 30 fragments of identifiable wood.

Counts and ratios

Whenever possible seed counts were based on whole specimens; otherwise, fragment counts are reported and indicated as such. Whenever possible, fragments count reports include also an estimated minimum number of specimens, based on the presence of seed placental scars or hila (one per individual seed), is also reported.

In most cases, total seed counts were standardized by

sample volume. The resulting ratio is useful to examine the overall seed densities in site deposits and for comparisons between proveniences. Similarly, wood gram weight per liter of sample is used to compare wood densities from one sample to the next. The ratios valuable also to compare the relative importance of species within and between sites, at least on a rudimentary level. Using volume as the standard, however, necessitates that the ratios are suitable only for sites with good preservation, because poor preservation of organic remains could potentially skew the data. An additional consideration in this regard is that the original, pre-flotation sample volumes are not available for Ballaja or Calle del Cristo. Instead, the sample volumes recorded for these two sites are the light fraction volumes, subsequent to flotation. Thus, in the case of these two sites, the seed counts reported in Chapter 5 are actually






66


measured against the volume or density of carbonized wood remains, which comprise the bulk of the plant materials. Since the amount of wood can vary greatly among samples, depending on the nature of the deposit, preservation, and other factors, these ratios should be regarded judiciously and can not be used in comparison with data from the other sites.

Archaeobotanical ubiguity

ubiquity is a measure used by archaeobotanists to

interpret the relative importance of different plants among inter- and intrasite plant assemblages (Pearsall 1989b; Popper 1988). This method expresses the number of samples in which a given plant identification appears as a percentage of the total number of samples. Each wood type, for example, is scored as being present or absent for each sample provenience regardless of how many individual fragments of the wood occur. By applying the same emphasis on one as on ten fragments, for example, the problem of interpreting species importance in light of differential breakage and preservation is avoided. Wood types or seeds that are more prone to break into numerous pieces may appear deceptively more important in a given sample; archaeological ubiquity overcomes this difficulty of interpretation by directing attention away from actual counts to overall representation at the site or sites.






67


Preservation Biases

Another means by which plant remains from

archaeological sites are considered and classified is in terms of which plant types actually appear in the deposits as the result of past human activities or otherwise occurred at the time the deposits formed, versus those seeds and plant fragments that are modern and of no consequence to archaeological interpretation. Geeal, archaeobotanists working with terrestrial deposits use the condition of carbonization--whether or not a given specimen is carbonized--to help interpret the seed's or wood's validity as an archaeological specimen. An underlying assumption is that only biologically inert carbonized seeds/wood could survive lengthy periods and thus may be attributed to the period of site formation and deposition (Miksicek 1987). Uncarbonized specimens, on the other hand, tend to be classified as recently intrusive into the archaeological sediments and thus not pertinent to archaeololgical interpretation. Nevertheless, this rule must be applied with latitude, particularly for younger deposits such as were tested by the Ballaja Archaeological Project. Furthermore, conditions exist under which non-carbonized seeds and plant parts may endure longer, particularly where anerobic deposition occurs (for example, in the bottom of a well or pond), under extremely arid conditions, and/or where mineralization of seeds is possible.






68


very moist sediments were encountered in the deeper

excavations of latrine deposits at Ballaja and at the water table during excavations at En Bas Saline. In both cases, plant remains were preserved in uncarbonized form by means of waterlogging (anaerobic environment). Seed preservation by mineralization, perhaps in conjunction with soil chemistry and varying moisture conditions (Green 1979), seems also to have occurred at several Caribbean sites. Therefore, in terms of this research, attention was directed not only toward whether or not plant materials were carbonized, but also carefully considered was the general state of preservation and association with other plant materials. Modern, very recently intrusive seeds were subjectively recognized on the basis of how fresh and intact seed coats and other parts appeared, and, on occasion, also by sectioning seeds to inspect for presence and the condition of embryos and other seed contents (which rapidly undergo diagenesis and decay in the burial environment).
















CHAPTER 4

RESULTS OF ARCHAEOBOTANICAL ANALYSES:
LESSER ANTILLES AND BONAIRE

The results of research with collections of plant

remains from archaeological sites in the Lesser Antilles are described in the following sections. Discussed are collections from three sites located in the Windward Island group, including one site on the geographically isolated island of Bonaire, and from nine sites in the Leeward group of the Lesser Antilles (Figure 4.1).

Windward Is lands and Bonaire Wanava. Bonaire

Although Bonaire is outside the general flow of

migratory prehistoric human groups through the islands of the West Indies (Rouse 1986, 1989, 1992), the Dabajuroid Wanapa site is the first of prehistoric settlements located in the small western island group of Curaqao, Bonaire, and Aruba to be subjected to paleoethnobotanical scrutiny. Thus the analyses of plant materials are included here. Moreover, the data are relevant to a general understanding of prehistoric adaptation and human influence in the region.

Because plant remains from the Wanapa Site were

isolated from the archaeological deposits using 2.8 mm-mesh screens, archaeobotanical specimens recovered consist


69







70







Hichmans' Shell Heap /--Hichmans' Site C Indian Castle
(Nevis)

// ATLANTIC
//OCEAN
Krum Bay (St.Thomas) La- BaTwenty Hill
Trunk Bay (Antigua)
Trunk~i Bay- /Jolly Beach

(St.John)


Hope Estate (St.Martin)

Golden Rock (St.Eustatius)

Macabou
(Martinique)



CARIBBEAN SEA
Heywoods (Barbados)



d
o
------Pearls
(Grenada)


Figure 4.1. Locations of Lesser Antilles sites
analyzed for plant remains.






71

exclusively of carbonized wood. Seeds and other non-wood remains are lacking, with the exception of a single modern seed. The lack of ancient seeds among the Wanapa materials is probably because techniques designed to recover small seeds and fragments were not employed at this site.

Of the 45 Wanapa samples analyzed, 34 yielded

identifiable plant material (Table 4.1). Nine woods were identified, including at least six genera: strong bark (Bourreria sp.), boxwood (Bumelia sp.), caper tree (Capparis sp.), geelhout (Casearia sp.), buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus), and lignum-vitae (Guaiacum sp.) (Table 4.2). Two additional wood types are assigned to the families Bignoniaceae and Flacourtiaceae, but could not be otherwise identified. The wood designated cf. Capparis sp. (Table

4.2) possibly represents a separate species of caper tree, but further identification was impeded by poor preservation of the individual specimens. Finally, three additional wood types are recognized and preliminarily described by anatomy (Wanapa types 1-3; Table 4.2), but each is represented by insufficient material with which to proceed further with identification.

Plant identifications for individual proveniences from the Wanapa site are shown in Table 4.3. On a sample by sample basis, species diversity is narrow, with fewer than six wood types appearing in a given sample. Lignum-vitae is prominent among the samples from Wanapa, comprising the bulk (56%) of the identifications. Lignum-vitae is also most








72






















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Table 4.2. Plant identifications from the Wanapa site,
Bonaire.


TAXON COMMON NAME PLANT
PART


Archaeological:

Bignoniaceae, cf.
Tabebuia (chrysantha) cedar (roble amarillo) wood
Bourreria (succulenta) strong bark (roble de guayo) wood Bumelia (obovata) boxwood (lechecillo) wood
Capparis sp. caper tree (palinguan) wood
cf. Capparis sp. caper tree wood
Casearia (tremula) geelhout (cafefllo cimarr6n) wood Conocarpus erectus buttonwood (mangle bot6n) wood Flacourtiaceae, cf.
Xylosma (arnoldii) roseta wood
Guaiacum sp. lignum-vitae (guayacin) wood
Uniden. wood-type 1 Wanapa-l, diffuse porous, vessels solitary, parenchyma diffuse to diffuse-in-agg.* wood Uniden. wood-type 2 Wanapa-2, diffuse porous, vessels solitary and in short radial series, parenchyma paratracheal; cf. Cupania sp. (guara) or Canella (wild cinnamon; barbasco)* wood
Uniden. wood-type 3 Wanapa-3, diffuse porous, vessels solitary and in short radial series, parenchyma paratracheal-sparse* wood

Modern seeds:

Fabaceae-Mimosoideae tamarindo, bayahonda seed




*Wanapa unidentified wood types 1-3 are further described in Newsom 1991b. Specific names in parentheses indicate that they are the probable species based on geographic range or on anatomical characteristics.








75













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frequent in terms of occurrence, having been identified in 28 (84%) of the 33 samples with identifiable wood. Bignoniaceae (probably Tabebuia sp.), caper tree, buttonwood, and strong bark are well represented, with ubiquity values of 51%, 42%, 39%, and 24%, respectively. The seven remaining woods--boxwood, cf. Capparis, geelhout, Flacourtiaceae, and Wanapa types 1-3 (Table 4.2)--are restricted to few proviences (15% or less of the samples), and are represented by minimal material (fewer than ten fragments each).

Pearls, Grenada

Pearls, Grenada, is the first of the Ceramic Age

Saladoid sites that underwent archaeobotanical analysis as part of this research. Six proveniences from Pearls were selected for intensive study, with emphasis on areas of the site that appeared to have suffered minimal damage from looters and other forms of post-depositional disturbance. Particular samples were chosen for analysis based on initial field observations confirming that burnt plant material had survived intact, and on the simultaneous presence of abundant, well preserved bone and shell.

Samples of 3-6 liters from the six proveniences were processed by means of water flotation (Table 4.4). Nylon mesh with 0.5 mm openings was used to capture light fractions, and, in addition, lined the bottom of the heavy fraction in the flotation machine. Data from volumetricflotation samples were supplemented with identificatons of







79






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4 0 r-4 r-4 H r-q r-4 r-4 r-4 r-q r-I r-4






80


plant specimens recovered in situ during excavation, and with a single specimen from the excavation screens (Table

4.4).

Archaeobotanical identifications from Pearls are

exclusively of seeds and endocarp fragments. Carbonized wood is present as well, but all wood fragments are undersized and/or too friable to undergo anatomical analysis.

Five plants were identified from among the various

samples from Pearls (Table 4.5). Two taxa have no direct association with the archaeological deposits. They include a nutmeg (Mvristica fraczrans) seed and 4 tentatively identified specimens of European chick pea (Cicer sp.). The two seed types are indisputably modern, since the five specimens obviously are fresh. But more to the point, both nutmeg and chick pea derive from old World regions (Willis 1973:253, 771) and could not have been present on Grenada in Precolumbian times. Chick pea presently is cultivated directly on portions of the archaeological site, and nutmeg trees grow nearby. Since the chick peas occur in the uppermost levels of test units West-198 and West-233 (Table

4.6), they undoubtedly represent unsuccessful plantings (seeds that did not sprout). Unit C deposits, which yielded the single nutmeg seed, are heavily disturbed throughout.

The status of two cockspur (Celtis iciuanaea) seeds from the Pearls samples is necessarily ambiguous. The seeds do not appear to have undergone carbonization, as might effect their extended preservation, but the seed coats are worn and






81


Table 4.5. Plant identifications from Pearls, Grenada.


TAXON COMMON NAME PLANT
PART


Archaeololgical:

Celtis iquanaea* cockspur (azufaifo) seed
Palmae palm family seed
Mastichodendron mastic-bully,
foetidissimum (tortugo amarillo) seed
Unidentified hardwood wood

Modern seeds:

Fabaceae, cf. Cicer cf. chick pea (Old World) seed Myristica fragrans nutmeg (Old World) seed

*Celtis seeds are mineralized.








82








0
cn cn 0
cv
4-)

CD
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cl) 0
4
m to

0) ril

0) 4


o 0)
4.J 0) 1

0

%D OD N
>4 ON I N C%4
IQ N



co
Ch 1 14,
W
4 r, 4

0
r, Ln
0 1 ,qr + N CN
co LO LO
4

A4

gi 0) co co
r-f 0
0
w ul
4-4 0 >

U) w LO H

0
4-)
(a LO
4 -0 4-)
44 H Cl) m
.H N
4-) a% 0
9: u
4) Lo m ON 4-)
V 0
LO I 0) m
-P r-I co


04
0 in 04 4-)
0 4

(n E-l W
44 0
H z 040 a) (o E-1
E-4 0 En -H (a r.
z H Im 9 41 R w
.0 pq p 4 0 En -q = 0 4J W U 11
m Im 4 H 0 (a (a E-4 V 0 4-4 :1 pq Ix
E-4 H U 3: U Z 44 0 Z 0 z +




Full Text
9
Culture History
The earliest documented human presence in the Caribbean
islands dates to approximately 6000 years ago, comprising
what Caribbeanist archaeologists refer to as the "Lithic
Age (Rouse 1989, 1992). The lifestyle of these early
Casimiroid people, who originated in Middle America, is only
vaguely understood. These early sites are identified
primarily on the basis of the exclusive presence of flaked-
stone tools (Rouse 1992). Later Casimiroid sites on
Hispaniola, Cuba, and Puerto Rico are marked by the addition
of ground-stone implements, bone and shell artifacts, and a
more diverse array of animal food remains. The presence of
ground-stone tools marks the beginning of what Caribbeanists
refer to as the Archaic Age.
Beginning approximately 4000 years ago another
preceramic group(s) of people migrated into the Caribbean
islands from northern South America. These people developed
the Ortoiroid series of cultures in the West Indies, which
also belong to the Caribbean Archaic Age (Rouse 1992). Thus
the earliest Lithic and Archaic Age cultures in the
Caribbean migrated from two directions, one from the Yucatan
region of Central America and moving as far east as western
Puerto Rico, and the other from northern South America,
expanding north through the island arc as far as the
northern Lesser Antilles and eastern Puerto Rico (Rouse
1992:69). Archaic Age sites in general are marked by a
greater diversity of artifact types than that which


Appendix Ccontinued.
Garden E continued
Fea.49
Postm.
Area 3
Lv. 13
#15
ash
MANGROVE ASSOCIATION:
FS7592
FS3911
FS7040
Black mangrove
Buttonwood
cf. Buttonwood (satinwd)
Red mangrove
Red mangrove family
1.00
. 62
. 09
. 05
POSSIBLE HOMEGARDEN:
cf. Genip
cf. Inga/guaba
cf. guava/stopper
Palm
Sapotac., bullet-wood
Sapotac., bustic/caimito
OTHER:
Boxwood
Jagua/W.I. boxwood
cf. Laurel family
Monkey pistol
Pine, Haitian
Poison wood/spicewood
cf. Snake-bark
cf. Stopper
Sweetwood/satinwood
cf. West Indian elm
EBS-10 fig/genip
EBS-15 black torch
Unidentified hardwood
TOTAL WOOD TYPES:
TOTAL NUMBER IDENTIFIED:
.80(.93)
.09
. 14
. 07
115
8 15 21
Area 4
all
FS3865
. 61
. 05
. 05
(.05)
Lv. 1
FS3888
. 62
. 12
Lv. 2
FS6863
. 17
. 17
. 12
Area 6
Lv. 5
FS6880
.53
. 18
. 02
. 04
Lv. 6
FS6882
.46
.31
.23
Lv. 7
FS6884
.52
. 04
. 16
. 17
. 04
. 03
( .01
17
VO
o

00
o
. 01
.06
.06
. 18

o
05
.25
.24
. 04
. 03
5
2
7
7
3
8
18
8
17
49
13
75
367


10
characterizes sites attributed to the preceding Lithic Age.
Flaked-stone and ground-stone implements appear in Archaic
Age deposits, as well as bone and shell artifacts. A
general consensus among Caribbean archaeologists holds that
the human populations comprising the Caribbean Archaic Age
were generalist-foragers, who subsisted on a variety of
terrestrial and marine fauna, and wild plant foods
(Armstrong 1980; Davis 1988; Rouse 1992:58; Veloz Maggiolo
1976:257-258). Davis (1988:181), however, insightfully
commented that at least some of the historically known
cultivated plants in the West Indies possibly were
transported by human groups to the islands prior to the
entry of the Ceramic Age horticulturists. The data that
will be presented in subseguent chapters suggest that Davis
was correct in his assumption.
By at least the middle of the first millennium B.C.,
ceramic-producing horticulturists from lowland South America
started to settle in the West Indies (Haviser 1988, 1991b;
Siegel 1991a). The first wave of Ceramic Age Cedrosan-
Saladoid people advanced relatively rapidly through the
Windward and Leeward islands, temporarily halting their
migration in western Puerto Rico. Later, descendents of the
original Saladoid migrants moved on to settle Hispaniola and
other islands of the Greater Antilles and the Bahamas island
group. During this time (after approximately A.D. 500
[Rouse 1992]), the Saladoid culture series developed into
what is termed the Ostionoid series in the Leeward Islands


230
well, and a rich array of wild plant resources also is
documented by the archaeobotanical research. The next
sections of this study describe the site of En Bas Saline
and the various contexts from which archaeobotanical
specimens were recovered; following that, the plant data are
detailed and examined in view of their significance to the
prehistoric Taino culture.
Hispaniola
En Bas Saline. Haiti
En Bas Saline is a large, oval-shaped town that covers
approximately 200,000 square meters (Deagan 1986, 1987).
The overall chronology of the site, based on radiocarbon and
thermoluminescence dates, is from about A.D. 1250 to about
A.D. 1500 (Alpha 3177-3179; Alpha 1912-1914; Beta 10526-
10528; Beta 18172-18173; Beta 18469 [Deagan 1986; 1987]).
The Taino town is the largest and the latest of the
prehistoric occupations analyzed in this dissertation.
A prominent feature of En Bas Saline was a large
central plaza, in the center of which stood what was
probably the Taino chief's residence atop a small raised
mound. The structure burned to the ground in the Fourteenth
Century, based on a combined corrected B.P. (before present)
date of 600H70 years (cal. A.D. 1350H70), or between A.D.
1280 and 1420. The structure seems to have been rebuilt,
and apparently served as a focal point of activity up to the
time Europeans arrived in 1492. Smaller house-structures
were located about the edges of the plaza. Raised earthen


120
deposited household sweepings, if not material burned in
situ. Note, however, that hearth sample 20H-IV is near
house-structure 4, post 1200; both the post and the hearth
deposit contain exclusively black torch wood. The wood in
the hearth fill conceivably may have been displaced from the
postmold. Thus, the black torch was not necessarily used as
fuel.
The single unidentified wood specimen from the 20F-III
hearth (Table 4.22) represents underdeveloped growth, based
on the presence of pith, relatively acute curvature of the
growth rings, and the presence of less than 4 years' growth
(3 rings total). Together, these characteristics are
suggestive of younger, smaller-diametered material, perhaps
from a shrub or more terminal member of a tree. Smaller,
more manageable "cuts" of wood are often associated with
fuelwood extraction (Eckholm et al. 1984). Pepper bush, the
spindle-tree woods (Table 4.21), and some Rubiaceaeall
listed above as possibly having been used as fuelconform
to general fuelwood specifications, by their profusely
branching habit and primary growth form of shrubs and small
trees (Eckholm et al. 1984; Record and Hess 1943:122-123,
156, 457).
One final point about the Golden Rock woods concerns
the presence of fish poison (Piscidia carthaaenesis) in pit
21H-VII and in the large feature (sample 1081) located
within Structure 1. Sample 21H-VII is from a large pit in
the midden area that underlies a human burial. The wood is


Table 4.11. Archaeobotanical samples from Twenty Hill (PE-19) and
Jolly Beach (MA-3), Antigua. (Most samples were fine-sieved to 0.4 mm;
Unit 1 samples were passed through 1.8 mm mesh during excavation.)
PROVENIENCE CONTEXT SAMPLE SAMPLE SAMPLE WOOD WOOD WOOD TOTAL ARCHAEO.
TYPE VOLUME WEIGHT WEIGHT DEN- NO. SEEDS SEEDS
(ltrs.
Twenty Hill
(Ortoiroid) PE-19:
Column, 0-05 cmbs
midden
sieve
0.30
Column, 5-10 cmbs
midden
sieve
1.70
Column, 10-15 cmbs
midden
sieve
1.80
Column, 15-20 cmbs
midden
sieve
2.00
Column, 20-25 cmbs
midden
sieve
2.80
Column, 25-30 cmbs
midden
sieve
1.80
Column, 30-35 cmbs
midden
sieve
2.20
Column, 35-40 cmbs
midden
sieve
2.00
Column, 40-45 cmbs
midden
sieve
2.00
Column, 45-50 cmbs
midden
sieve
2.40
Unit 1 NE, Level 2
midden
screen
-
Unit 1 NE, Level 4
midden
screen
-
Unit 1 NE, Level 7
TOTALS TWENTY HILL:
Jolly Beach (Casimir
midden
screen
19.00
oid/Ortoiroid):
MA-3 Lv.VII sample
midden
sieve
0.50
MA-3 Lv.VII sample
midden
sieve
0.15
MA-4, sample 3
midden
sieve
0.10
19.75
(grams)
(grams)
SITY
I DEN.
3
0
-
0.68
0.40
0
7
6
-
(trace)
-
0
7
7
-
(trace)
-
0
5
5
-
0.42
0.15
0
13
13
-
(trace)
-
0
3
3
-
(trace)
-
0
17
15
-
0.40
0.20
0
26
26
-
0.41
0.20
0
41
39
-
0.42
0.17
0
29
29
-
(trace)
-
0
63
40
23.61
9.30
-
1
1
1
36.64
36.64

1
0
0
60.25
48.27
2
215
184
(trace)
-
0
0
0
(trace)
-
0
0
0
(trace)

0
1
1
60.25 48.27
2
216
185
SEED
DEN
SITY
3.5
3.9
2.5
4.6
1.7
6.8
13.0
19.5
12.1
10.0
COMBINED SITE TOTALS


213
Ballaja is based on a distorted clay cast of a cob fragment
that is not suitable for metric analysis, which could have
helped disern genetic affinity.
Papaya. Size and the general morphology of the papaya
seeds from Ballaja together suggest a closer affinity with
domesticated forms of papaya than with wild papaya.
However, fruit from cultivars as well as from wild types of
papaya may be represented in the deposits. Metric data for
the Ballaja papaya seeds are shown in Table 5.19. Ballaja
papaya seeds have a broad size range, overlapping
measurements from both wild and domesticated accessions
(Tables 5.13 and 5.19; Figure 5.3). Ballaja papaya seeds
are between 3.50 mm and 6.09 mm long, with widths ranging
from 2.38-4.21 mm (mean length 4.90 mm, standard deviation
0.60; width 3.24 mm, standard deviation 0.44) (Table 5.19).
Part of the greater variability within the Ballaja seed
population, in contrast with the museum papaya accessions
that have smaller standard deviations for seed length and
width (Table 5.13), may be explained by the presence of very
small seeds from Ballaja (smaller than papaya seeds from any
of the modern specimens [Figure 5.3]). The small Ballaja
seeds could represent ingested seeds that eventually were
deposited in the household privys, whereas the collectors of
seeds from modern fruits may have overlooked smaller
specimens, producing a bias toward larger, easily collected
seeds. Thus, in the modern papaya seed accessions, seeds at


229
ceramic griddles, grater-board chips, and grinding
implementsthat generally are believed to have been
associated with plant food production, in particular with
staples such as manioc (Manihot esculenta), are abundantly
represented at the sites discussed previously. Chert
microliths, for example, occur among five of the El Parking
site flotation samples (Chapter 5), and specimens from
Features 11 and 60 at least superficially resemble grater-
board chips (see, for example, DeBoer 1975:fig. 4h-m; Roth
1970). Nevertheless, in the absence of plant remains,
however, lithic chips, griddle sherds, and grinding stones
are insufficient evidence to suggest that crop production
occurred, because it is equally plausible that these tools
rendered wild tubers and grains edible. Furthermore, as
mentioned previously, the pollen and isotopes records
presently are inconclusive as to the presence of plant
domesticates.
Excavations at En Bas Saline are the first in the
Caribbean islands to recover what indisputedly are the
remains of domesticated plants. Maize and manioc tubers
from En Bas Saline provide the first evidence of the
validity of the ethnohistorical record, confirming
statements that these plants were food items in the West
Indies. Moreover, these remains provide initial insights
into the morphological characteristics and types of
prehistoric maize and manioc in the region. Other possible
plant domesticates were recovered from En Bas Saline as


40
the Lesser Antilles to provide comparative information on
resource use.
Research on the Wanapa site was directed by Jay
Haviser, of the Archeologisch-Antropologisch Instituut
Nederlandse Antillen (AAINA), Cura9ao. The site was
excavated as part of a comprehensive survey and assessment
of prehistoric cultural resources on Bonaire (Haviser
1991a). Wanapa is the location of a small prehistoric
settlement. The site is situated on the southern arm of the
island, immediately north of Lac, the largest bay on
Bonaire. The terrain is a low limestone terrace, with
vegetation having a characteristically dry aspect (Stoffers
1956:18). Annual rainfall is low, averaging 500 mm, with a
markedly uneven annual distribution.
Items of material culture from Wanapa have been
assigned to the Dabajuroid series (Haviser 1991a). The
archaeological deposits at the site are rather homogeneous,
lacking clear evidence of stratification. Thus, according
to Haviser, even though the radiocarbon dates range widely
(from ca. A.D. 470 to A.D. 1450), a single continuous
occupation is suggested. A steady accumulation of refuse
was produced by the site's inhabitants, including the
remains of plant resources. All plant remains from Wanapa
probably represent secondarily deposited materials, such as
fuelwood remains and hearth sweepings that were removed from
primary contexts and subseguently incorporated in the
midden-refuse areas. Nothing that could be definitively


66
measured against the volume or density of carbonized wood
remains, which comprise the bulk of the plant materials.
Since the amount of wood can vary greatly among samples,
depending on the nature of the deposit, preservation, and
other factors, these ratios should be regarded judiciously
and can not be used in comparison with data from the other
sites.
Archaeobotanical ubiquity
Ubiquity is a measure used by archaeobotanists to
interpret the relative importance of different plants among
inter- and intrasite plant assemblages (Pearsall 1989b;
Popper 1988). This method expresses the number of samples
in which a given plant identification appears as a
percentage of the total number of samples. Each wood type,
for example, is scored as being present or absent for each
sample provenience regardless of how many individual
fragments of the wood occur. By applying the same emphasis
on one as on ten fragments, for example, the problem of
interpreting species importance in light of differential
breakage and preservation is avoided. Wood types or seeds
that are more prone to break into numerous pieces may appear
deceptively more important in a given sample; archaeological
ubiquity overcomes this difficulty of interpretation by
directing attention away from actual counts to overall
representation at the site or sites.


Table 5.14. Plant identifications from El Parking Site (PO-38)* (by count)
IDENTIFI- U.l
U. 2 U. 3 U. 7 U
. 13
U. 19
U. 19
U. 2 0
U. 24
U. 26
U. 29
U. 29
PLANT
UBI
CATION: Lv.
Fe.
Lv. Fe. Fe.
Fe.
Fe.
Fe.
Fe.
Fe.
Fe.
Fe.
TOTAL
QUITY
1
1
5 6
7
15
20
55
40
27
34
35
CULTIVATED:
Papaya
1
1
8
Primrose+
1
1
8
WILD EDIBLE:
Goosefoot
2
1
3
16
OTHER:
Acacia
57
4
61
16
Sapotaceae
1
1
1
3
25
cf. Spider
flower
1
1
8
Stargrass
1
1
2
16
Cerrillos-1
1
1
8
Cerrillos-2
1
1
8
Cerrillos-3
1
1
8
Ud. hardwood
3
1
1
1
Unid, seed/
fruit 1
1
8
Unid, soft
tissue
3
TOTAL NO.
WOOD TYPES: 0
1
0 1
3
4
0
1
1
0
2
1
SEED TOTAL: 1
2
0 0
2
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
ARCH. SEEDS: 1
2
0 0
2
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
*Samples with no
identifiable
remains
are excluded
here;
see
Table
5.11.
+Primrose is listed as a cultivated plant because of its possible role as
tended, housegarden species (see text).


58
were sieved with meshes ranging from 2.3 mm to 0.4 mm.
Golden Rock samples were collected either directly, in situ,
or fine-sieved through 0.4 mm mesh. Several separation
procedures were experimented with in regard to En Bas Saline
and Isabella, and dry sieving though fine meshes (4.0 mm to
0.4 mm) appears to have been most appropriate to recover
plant remains. Given the overall disparity in sampling and
separation procedures among the site assemblages, quantative
measures of relative importance, including counts, relative
frequencies, and ubiquity (see below) were employed on an
individual site basis only. Broader comparisons are based
on presence/absence and general spatial and temporal
distributions.
Samples from most of the sites were preliminarily
processed, either by flotation or sieving procedures, prior
to sending the materials to the laboratory at the Florida
Museum of Natural History for analysis. Sites for which the
archaeobotanical samples were preprocessed include Wanapa,
Heywoods, Hope Estate, the Nevis sites, Beach Access, Trunk
Bay, and all the Puerto Rico site assemblages. Samples from
Pearls, Twenty Hill, Jolly Beach, Golden Rock, En Bas
Saline, and Isabella were bagged upon excavation and not
otherwise processed prior to arrival in the laboratory in
Gainesville.
The sorting and analysis of preprocessed samples began
immediately. Any samples that were forwarded to me
unprocessed, that is, without having undergone prior sorting


Figure 6.5. Pinus sp. wood from En Bas Saline:
radial view showing ray tissue with dentate
ray tracheids and pineoid cross-field pitting.


293
the Taino, two of which were domesticated and the third of
which was wild. One of the domesticates is described as
having been red, long, and finger-shaped (e.g. C. anrvuum) ;
the other was round and smaller, like a cherry, and was more
pungent (?C chinensis) (see Pickersgill 1984). The wild
pepper reportedly had small fruit, but unfortunately is not
further described.
Five pepper seeds were recovered from prehistoric
Feature 47A, located in what was the central structure in
the plaza area. One additional pepper seed came from nearby
Area 20 (Table 6.4), which dates to the contact period.
The pepper seeds from En Bas Saline are carbonized and
preserved in such a way that the outermost ring of tissue is
present, but the thinner central portions of the seeds are
burnt away. The diameter of the seed from Area 20 (FS 7035)
is 2.56 mm; four specimens from Feature 47A (FS 7372)
measure 2.73 mm, 2.64 mm, 2.68 mm, and 2.38 mm,
respectively, in diameter. The average diameter of the five
seeds is 2.59 mm, which is smaller than the diameter
estimates for Capsicum sp. seeds from Barrio Ballaja
(described previously in Chapter 4), which are between 3 and
4 mm. The size of the seeds from En Bas Saline compares
closely with an accession of wild Capsicum sp. seeds (C.
annuum) from south Florida, with a mean diameter of 2.90 mm
(range 2.69-3.33 mm). Seed diameters from domesticated
forms of Capsicum consistently exceed 3.5 mm, as was
described above in Chapter 4. Therefore, seed diameter


15
terrestrial resources by early Saladoid groups. The
crab/shell dichotomy defines an apparently typical
progession of settlement pattern and subsistence change in
the northern Lesser Antilles and eastern Puerto Rico
(Carbone 1980; Davis 1988; DeFrance 1988, 1989; Goodwin
1980; Haviser 1988; Jones 1985; Keegan 1985; Petersen and
Watters 1991; Rainey 1935, 1940; cf. Siegel 1991a, b; Wilson
1989). In its most developed formulations (Davis 1988;
Goodwin 1980; Jones 1985), the attributes of the complex are
as follows. Generally, earlier sites were located in
interior settings near water sources and on soils
hypothetically better suited to crop production. There was
concomitantly a reliance on large, easily procured fauna,
especially species of land crab. The archaeological record
seems to demonstrate that later sites were removed to the
coasts of islands or away from "better" soils and nearer
marine resources (cf. Siegel 1991 a, b, c). The locational
change hypothetically occurred in conjuction with diminished
crop production and depleted populations of terrestrial
vertebrate and invertebrate fauna. At the same time, the
human population was rapidly increasing as indicated by the
correspondingly greater densities of sites with later
occupations.
The trend in protein capture described in the
crab/shell constructfrom essentially land crabs and land
vertebrates like hutia, to marine fish and molluscsis at
least partially correct, having been demonstrated at a


376
Hatheway, W.H.
1957 Races of maize in Cuba. National Academy of Sciences,
National Research Council Publication 453. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Haviser, Jay B.
1987 Amerindian Cultural Geography on Curacao. Foundation
for Cultural Cooperation (STICUSA), Amsterdam.
1988 An Archaeological Survey of St. MartinSt. Maarten.
Reports of the Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology
of the Netherlands Antilles No. 7., Curacao.
1991a The First Bonaireans. Reports of the Archaeological-
Anthropological Institute of the Netherlands Antilles,
No. 10, Curacao.
* 1991b Development of a prehistoric interaction sphere in
the northern Lesser Antilles. New West Indian Guide 65
(3 and 4):129-151.
Hayward, Herman E.
1938 The Structure of Economic Plants. The Macmillan
Company, New York.
Heiser, Charles B., Jr.
1969 Systematics and the origin of cultivated plants.
Taxon 18:36-45.
'1990 New perspectives on the origin and evolution of New
World domesticated plants: summary. In New Perspectives
on the Origin and Evolution of New World Domesticated
Plants. Peter K. Bretting (editor), pp. 111-116. Supple
ment to Economic Botany 44(3).
Higuera-Gundy, Antonia
1991 Antillean Veaetational History and Paleoclimate
Reconstructed from the Paleolimnoloaical Record of Lake
Miraqoane. Haiti. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of
Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Hiraoka, Mario
1985 Mestizo subsistence in riparian Amazonia. National
Geographic Research 1(2):236-246.
Holdridge, L.R.
1942 The pine forests of Haiti. Caribbean Forester 4(1):
16-22.
1947 Determination of world plant formations from simple
climatic data. Science 105(2727):367-368.
1967 Life Zone Ecology. Tropical Science Center, San Jose,
Costa Rica, 206 pages.


Figure 6.10. Oenothera sp. (evening primrose) seeds from
En Bas Saline, Haiti (Field Sample 7020)
(Right Photo 26x; Left Photo 65x)


63
observed using light microscopy. Scanning electron
microscopy occasionally was employed for difficult
identifications.
Wood identification proceeded with the use of keys to
anatomical structure (Newsom, laboratory key for Caribbean
woods; Record and Hess 1942-1948; Urling and Smith 1953;
Wheeler et al. 1986). Wood types were further narrowed by
direct comparison of the cellular structure in carbonized
form with the anatomy observed in wood thin-sections from
modern specimens housed in the Florida Museum of Natural
History. All identifications were pursued to the closest
recognizable taxon. Usually this was to the level of genus,
since wood anatomy tends to provide insufficient information
to perform identification to the level of species.
A dissecting microscope also was used to observe growth
rings on wood specimens from the Golden Rock site. Ring
width measurements were made on the microscope with a
Manostat dyal-type caliper. Angle of growth-ring curvature
and stem diameters were estimated with a rim-diameter
template (commonly used for ceramics analysis).
Following identification, floras and vegetation studies
were consulted for geographic distribution and other
ecological and taxonomic details. Among the treatises used
were Boldingh's (1909) and Stoffers's (1956) studies of the
vegetation of the Netherlands Antilles, along with Broeders'
(1967) handbook on the vegetation of Aruba, Bonaire, and
Curacao, and Coomans and Coomans-Eustatia (1988) on St.


Table 4.16. Plant
identifications
from
Hichmans
Shell
Heap
(GE-6),
Nevis
(by count).
IDENTIFICATION:
Flotation
Samples


Con-
Sq.5,
TOTALS
UBI
no. 1
no. 2
no.3 no.4 no.5
no. 6
no. 7 no. 8 no.9 trol,
-If
GE-6
QUITY
no. 10
0-10
CULTIVATED:
Primrose*
1
1
10
WILD EDIBLE:
Bullet-wd./mastic
3
(1)
4
20
OTHER:
Unid, seed
4
1
1
6
MODERN SEEDS:
Aizoaceae
1
1
2
20
Caryophyllaceae
4
1
1
5
5
10
26
60
Cherry family
1
1
1
3
30
Fabaceae-Mimos.
1
1
10
Fabaceae
1
1
10
Grass family
2
2
20
Mallow family
1
1
10
Purslane
111
40
15
43
57
10
3
9
39
36
363
100
Sunflower family
10
10
5
5
10
1
41
60
Unid, seed/fruit
3
3
TOTAL NO.
WOOD TYPES:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SEED TOTAL:
130
41
19
57
68
21
4
20
49
43
1
ARCHAEOLOGICAL
SEED TOTAL:
3
0
4
2
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
Primrose is listed as a cultivated plant because of its possible role as
tended, housegarden species (see text).
a


24
regularly consumed. Van Klinken estimated that reef foods
comprised between 25% and 31% of the St. Eustatius/Saba
diets and that consumption of maize or other C4-pathway
plants is not indicated. Similarly, Van Klinken's results
for 12 individuals from the Surinam coast suggest that a
balance existed in the human diet between terrestrial-C3
foods and items procured from coral reefs and sea-grass
meadows. Finally, Van Klinken's fourth skeletal population-
-including 29 preceramic individuals from Aruba and a group
of 11 Ceramic Age skeletons from Aruba, Curacao, and
Bonaireproduced distinctive isotopic signatures
characterized by relatively high delta-13 values (means
ranging between -9.4 0/00 and -11 0/00) that approach those
of extreme C4 consumers, for example, maize agriculturists.
While maize production by Ceramic Age inhabitants of Curacao
has been suggested based on the presence of grinding
implements (Haviser 1987:52), maize is not considered to
have been a part of preceramic diets. Since the isotopic
values for the Archaic Age (presumably non-agricultural)
skeletons and the Ceramic Age individuals from Aruba-
Curacao-Bonaire are nearly identical and essentially
unchanged over the broad time span (ca. two millennia),
maize consumption in the Ceramic Age must have been either
very limited or is not the reason for the high delta-13
values in either population. Alternatively, Van Klinken
suggests that the maize-like isotope ratios probably reflect
extensive consumption of shellfish and sea turtles. This


CHAPTER 7
SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION
Archaeobotanical data from Caribbean sites currently
are few and limited. The shortcoming, however, is less the
result of poor preservation, as the previous chapters show,
than a reflection of the infancy of paleoethnobotanical
research in the region. This study has pulled together in a
single treatment all of the currently available
macrobotanical data from Caribbean sites. However limited,
these data from the various sites and time periods are
nevertheless the first direct evidence (that is, in the form
of the actual plant remains) profiling the nature of plant
use in the region.
Plant exploitation by Caribbean Indians
The physical evidence of the plant remains themselves,
combined with the presence of plant-processing artifacts and
ethnohistorical observations are beginning to suggest
certain patterns of plant use not only for the Caribbean as
a whole, but also for subregions and the various culture
series. This chapter summarizes the present state of
knowledge from an archaeobotanical perspective, based on the
data presented in the previous chapters.
Three general themes emerge from viewing these
archaeobotanical data in tandem: 1) in broad perspective,
311


Table 6.2continued
PROVENIENCE
SAMPLE
SAMPLE
SAMPLE
LT.FRACT
WOOD
WOOD
WOOD
TOTAL ARCH.
*SEED
TYPE
VOLUME
WEIGHT
WEIGHT
WEIGHT
DEN
NO.
SEEDS SEEDS
DENSITY
(ltrs.)
(grains)
(grains)
(grains)
SITY
I DEN.
-1
-2
Feat.08N Lv.04
FS
3910
carbon

0.91

0.91

1
0
0


Feat.08 Lv.05
FS
3900
carbon
-
0.86
-
0.86
-
3
0
0
-
-
Feat.08N Lv.06
FS
3913
carbon
-
1.90
-
1.90
-
6
0
0
-
-
Feat.4-6-8 base FS 3911 carbo
waterlogged
-
-
15
0
0
-
-
Feat.07 Lv.01
FS
3856
carbon
-
8.39
-
8.39
-
15
0
0
-
-
Feat.07 Lv.02
FS
3857
carbon
-
1.26
-
1.26
-
4
0
0
-
-
Feat.14 Lv.01
FS
6730
f lot
5.00
-
0.34
0.00
-
0
0
0
-
-
Feat.14 Lv.01
FS
6730
carbon
-
4.83
-
1.82
-
0
0
0
-
-
Feat.14 Lv.03
FS
6898
f lot
5.00
-
3.23
0.46
0.1
0
74
34
14.8
6.8
Feat.14 Lv.03
FS
6898
carbon
-
1.60
-
1.60
-
4
0
0
-
-
Feat.14 Lv.03
FS
6903
flot
5.00
-
1.30
0.00
-
0
47
46
9.4
9.2
Feat.14 Lv.05
FS
6991
flot
5.00
-
2.65
0.50
0.1
2
38
34
7.6
6.8
Feat.14A Lv.01
FS
7020
flot
5.00
-
2.68
0.00
-
0
160
159
32.0
31.8
Feat.14A Lv.01
FS
7020
carbon
-
1.51
-
1.51
-
16
0
0
-
-
Feat.l4B Lv.01
FS
7022
flot
5.00
-
0.93
0.50
0.1
5
10
10
2.0
2.0
Feat.14B Lv.02
FS
7044
carbon
-
0.08
-
0.08
-
1
0
0
-
-
Feat.l4C Lv.01
FS
7023
flot
5.00
-
1.15
0.50
0.1
2
3
3
0.6
0.6
Feat.l4C Lv.02
FS
7054
carbon
-
0.26
-
0.26
2
0
0
-
-
Area 06 Un.CIO
FS
3888
carbon
-
3.17
-
3.17
-
8
0
0
-
-
Area 01 Lv.01
FS
6340
flot
5.00
-
0.79
0.00
-
0
1
1
0.2
0.2
Area 01 Lv.01
FS
6340
carbon
-
4.56
-
4.56
-
0
0
0
-
-
Area 01 Hz.Bl
FS
3745
sieve
0.50
3.40
-
0.63
1.3
1
4
4
8.0
8.0
Area 03 Ash
FS
7040
sieve
3.50
639.95
-
3.68
1.1
21
6
3
1.7
0.9
Area 04 FS 3865
carbon
-
5.45
-
5.45
-
18
0
0
-
-
Area 20 Lv.01
FS
7035
sieve
1.75
480.24
-
1.46
0.8
6
6
4
3.4
2.3
Zone 01 Lv.03
FS
3797
carbon
-
1.01
-
1.01
-
2
0
0
-
-
Zone 02 Lv.01
FS
7037
sieve
4.00
191.37
-
0.03
>0.1
0
20
15
5.0
3.8
Feat.16 Lv.03
FS
6789
carbon
-
37.13
-
22.07
-
0
0
0
-
-
Feat.25 Lv.01
FS
7017
flot
5.00
-
6.11
12.12
2.4
0
6
6
1.2
1.2
Feat.25 Lv.01
FS
7017
carbon
-
126.43
-
126.00
1
40
2
2

-


251
Table 6.3continued.
TAXON
COMMON NAME
PLANT
PART
cf. Chenopodiaceae
goosefoot family,
radially ridged
seed
cf. Cyperus sp.
sedge-type seed
seed
Dactyloctenium aeayptium
crowfoot grass (Old World)
seed
Euphorbia nutans
euphorb
seed
Euphorbiaceae, cf.
castor-bean like,
Ricinus (small. 7 mm)
not manioc
seed
Fabaceae
Malvaceae,
legume family
seed
Malva/Sida sp.
mallow family
seed
Mol lucro sp.
carpet weed (alfombra)
seed
Poaceae, panicoid
panicoid qrass(Setaria sp.
) seed
Poaceae
grass family
seed
Portulaca sp.
purslane
seed
Portulacaceae
purslane family
seed
Psidium cruaiava
guava (guayaba)
seed
Solanaceae. cf. Physalis
cf. ground cherry
seed
cf. Urena lobata
bur (cadillo)
fruit
Unidentified seed
crenate surface
?seed
Unidentified seed
yellow, triangular, 1.5mm
seed
Unidentified seed
spherical form
seed
Unidentified fruit
lobed, small
fruit
Representatives of panicoid grass, purslane, and a
small
(ca. 3mm length), wild-type legume seed occur also in the
modern seed assemblage. Thus, the carbonized counterparts
may have no direct association with archaeological corn-
components of the site, but rather, are likewise modern
and recently intrusive.


385
Ranere, A.J.
1976 The preceramic of Panama: the view from the interior.
In Proceedings of the First Puerto Rican Symposium on
Archaeology. Linda Sliker Robinson (editor), pp. 103-
138. Fundacin Arqueolgica, Antropolgica, e Histrica
de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
Record, Samuel J. and Robert W. Hess
1943 Timbers of the New World. Yale University Press,
New Haven.
1942-1948 Keys to American Woods. In Tropical Woods 72:
19-29 (1942), 73:23-42 (1943), 75:8-26 (1943), 76:32-47
(1944), 85:1-19 (1946), 94:29-52 (1948).
' Rehm, Sigmund and Gustav Espig
1991 The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics:
Cultivation. Economic Value, and Utilization. Verlag
Joseph Margraf, Weikersheim, West Germany.
Reitz, Elizabeth J.
1993 Vertebrate fauna from Trants, Montserrat. Paper pre
sented at the 58th Annual Meeting of the Society for
American Archaeology, St. Louis, Missouri.
Rico-Gray, Victor, Jose G. Garcia-Franco, Alexandra Chemas,
Armando Puch, and Paulino Sima
1990 Species composition, similarity, and structure of
Mayan housegardens in Tixpeual and Tixcacaltuyub,
Yucatan, Mexico. Economic Botany 44(4):470-487.
Rindos, D.
1980 Symbiosis, instability, and the origins and spread of
agriculture: a new model. Current Anthropology 21:751-
772.
1984 The Origins of Agriculture: An Evolutionary Per
spective. Academic Press, New York.
Roe, Peter G.
1989 A grammatical analysis of Cedrosan Saladoid vessel
form categories and surface decoration: aesthetic and
technical styles in early Antillean ceramics. In Early
Ceramic Population Lifewavs and Adaptive Strategies in
the Caribbean. Peter E. Siegel (editor), pp. 267-382.
British Archaeological Reports International Series
No. 506. Oxford.
Roosevelt, Anna C.
1980 Parmana: Prehistoric Maize and Manioc Subsistence
along the Amazon and Orinoco. Academic Press, New York.


390
Foundation, no. 2, St. Eustatius; Publication of the
Foundation for Scientific Research in the Caribbean
Region, no. 131, Amsterdam.
Watson, Patty Jo
1976 In pursuit of prehistoric subsistence: A compara
tive account of some contemporary flotation techniques.
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 1:77-100.
1989 Early plant cultivation in the Eastern Woodlands
of North America. In Foraging and Farming: The Evo
lution of Plant Exploitation. David R. Harris and
Gordon C. Hillman (editors), pp. 555-571. Unwin
Hyman, London.
Weaver, Guy
1992 Phase II archaeological data recovery at PO-38,
El Parking Site, Barrio Maraguez, Ponce, Puerto Rico.
Manuscript in possession of author.
Wheeler, E.A., R.G. Pearson, C.A. LaPasha, T. Zack, and W.
Hatley
1986 Computer-Aided Wood Identification. The North Caro
lina Agricultural Research Service, Bulletin 474, North
Carolina State University, Raleigh.
Williams, Maurice and Kathleen Deagan
1986 Preliminary field report on excavations at En Bas
Saline, 1985-1986. Project report on file with the
Department of Anthropology, Florida Museum of Natural
History, Gainesville, and the Bureau National D'
Ethnologie D' Haiti, Port au Prince.
Willis, J.C.
1973 A Dictionary of the Flowering Plants and Ferns.
Eighth Edition, revised by H.K. Airy Shaw. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge.
Wilson, Hugh D. and Charles B. Heiser, Jr.
1979 The origin and evolutionary relationships of
"Huauzontle" (Chenopodium nuttalliae Stafford), domes
ticated chenopod of Mexico. American Journal of Botany
66:198-206.
Wilson, Samuel M.
n.d. The settlement history of Nevis, West Indies. Manu
script in possession of author.
1989 The prehistoric settlement pattern of Nevis, West
Indies. Journal of Field Archaeology 16:427-450.
1990 Hispaniola: Caribbean Chiefdoms at the time of
Columbus. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.


45
(Wilson n.d.). The third site, Indian Castle (GE-1), was
occupied during the subsequent Ostionoid period
(approximately 600 A.D. to the time of European contact).
Indian Castle is the largest Ostionoid site on Nevis; a
single radiocarbon date of 670+60 A.D. (1280+60 B.P., Beta-
19327) was obtained for the site (Wilson n.d.).
Archaeobotanical samples from the Nevis sites are
primarily from the refuse deposits; three samples from
Indian Castle come from a pit feature and pair of post
molds. All samples from the sites were processed by means
of water flotation.
Golden Rock, St. Eustatius
Golden Rock is a large early Saladoid settlement (80
cal B.C. to 980 cal A.D.) centrally located on the volcanic
island of St. Eustatius (Versteeg and Schinkel 1992). St.
Eustatius is near Nevis (Figure 3.1) and has a similar
rainfall regime, averaging between 1100 mm and 2000 mm
annually. There are no permanent sources of freshwater on
St. Eustatius (Boldingh 1909).
Recent excavations at Golden Rock were directed by Aad
Versteeg and Kees Schinkel of the Rijks Universiteit,
Leiden, with the support of the St. Eustatius Historical
Foundation and the AAINA, Curasao. Careful excavation
produced the first complete floorplans of prehistoric houses
in the Caribbean Islands. In addition to discerning the
outlines and floors of at least five Saladoid houses and
other wooden structures, the excavations revealed the


237
sieving procedures. The resultant plant data were
supplemented with identifications of l/4"-sized charcoal
fragments from excavation screens. An overview of the
archaeobotanical samples from En Bas Saline in terms of
their respective gross constituents is presented in Table
6.2.
Most of the archaeobotanical samples derive from
midden-filled pits, hearth-like deposits, and concentrations
of burned materials. Several of these deposits are
structurally complex and require additional descriptive
information to place the results of analyses in context.
Garden Area B features. Feature 31 (including Features
31A, 3IB) and Feature 33 are hearth-like deposits located
within the confines of what appears to have been a small
prehistoric structure on the earthen embankment at the
northern edge of the site. Feature 35 also is a
prehistoric-aged pit. Likewise, postmolds and smaller
features located in Horizon B3 (Table 6.1) are prehistoric.
Feature 24 is a dog burial (Table 6.1) that belongs to the
latest prehistoric occupation of the site or contact period,
based on the possible range in age indicated by radiocarbon
assays from nearby deposits. All together, 24 Garden B
deposits were analyzed for ethnobotanical data, 22 of which
produced identifiable plant remains (Tables 6.1, 6.2).
Features 11 and 15. Garden Area C. Feature 11 is a
large prehistoric pit located in the central plaza that was
filled with burned food remains and other debris (Tables


309
occurred (for example, tannins from the mangrove genera
[Austin and McJunkin 1978; Ayensu 1981]).
Maize remains from En Bas Saline were recovered in
association with carbonized remains from other important
edible species, including tubers that most likely are manioc
and sweet potato (Feature 11). Like maize, neither of these
plants has been previously recovered from a prehistoric
Caribbean site. Also in association with maize remains at
En Bas Saline are carbonized seeds from two presumably
important, but not clearly domesticated plants: Capsicum
pepper (FS 7035, the central burned structure) and Oenothera
sp. (Feature 31, the smaller structure on the northern
embankment). How important pepper and Oenothera were to the
prehistoric inhabitants of the site is not known, but a
relatively dense concentration of Oenothera seeds (244
total) in the early historic Feature 14 located in the
chiefly residence arguably demonstrates that it had a
significant role in the Taino culture.
Together, the plant remains from En Bas Saline document
and underscore the diversity of plant resources used by the
site's Taino inhabitants. Domesticated species were fully
integrated into the subsistence realm at En Bas Saline by
the time the area was first occupied (ca. 1250 A.D.), based
on the plant evidence from the site's oldest strata. The
mix of crop plants and homegarden species at En Bas Saline
is the first archaeobotanical confirmation of the diversity


217
homogeneous population; coefficients of around 8.0 or
greater for seed dimensions are considered high). Even the
coefficients for the individual features that produced a
sufficient number of seeds (Features 25 and 48) are
relatively high, at between 10.25 and 12.95 (Table 5.19).
Consequently, the large coefficients of variation for the
Ballaja seeds appear to reflect the presence of multiple
fruits and perhaps also indicate a certain amount of
variability of fruit size and morphology (compare, for
example, the combined coefficients for the three cultivars
in Table 5.13 [bottom], to wit, 16.76 length and 14.77
width; and see Rehm and Espig 1991). In addition to
verifying that the Ballaj seeds represent a pooled seed
population deriving from five or more individual fruits, the
relatively large coefficients may document to some extent
also the effects of gardening and selection, whether
purposeful or intentional, in a direction away from wild
papaya. More data are needed, however, to examine the
latter situation.
There is, however, at least some indication of genetic
plasticity or a broadened gene pool among the Ballaja papaya
seeds reflected in the surface textures of the seed coats.
Ballaja papaya seeds have well-developed furrowing and
spines, intermediate in texture between seed coats of wild
and those of domesticated forms of papaya. Thus, Ballaja
papaya seeds, by seed coat texture and by size variability,
seem to represent papaya varieties that were either


244
EN BAS SALINE 85, D1000N 977E, NORTH PROFILE
10015N
980E
Figure 6.2.
En Bas Saline Feature 11 (courtesy
Florida Museum of Natural History).


Table 5.8. Overview of archaeobotanical samples from El Fresal, Puerto Rico.
(Seed density-1 is based on the total seed count, including modern seeds;
density-2 is based on the presence of archaeological seeds only.)
PROVENIENCE
SAMPLE
SAMPLE
SAMPLE
LT.FRACT.
WOOD
WOOD
WOOD TOTAL
ARCH.
SEED
CONTEXT
VOLUME
WEIGHT
WEIGHT
WEIGHT
DEN
NO.
SEEDS
SEEDS
DENSITY
(ltrs.)
(grams)
(grams)
(grams)
SITY
I DEN.
-1
-2
B-49, Feat. 3
hearth/
34.00

70.15
8.19
0.2
20
6
0
0.2
-
post
B-91, Feat.38
hearth
20.50

25.35
11.00
0.5
20
22
2
1.1
0.1
B-69,Fea.l8 south
hearth
42.00
58.28
43.85
15.84
0.4
128
60
3.0
1.4
B-68,Fea.l8 north
II
28.50
31.00
23.48
5.96
0.2
736
299
26.0
10.5
B-70,Fea.l8 north
II
26.00
-
62.83
26.60
1.0
20
205
97
8.0
4.0
Fea.18 COMBINED
II
96.50
130.16
48.40
0.5
1069
456
11.1
5.0
TOTALS:
151.00
225.66
67.59
60
1097
458
181


85
seed is identified by its distinctive sapotaceous hilar scar
(Figure 4.2) and by the general morphology of the seed.
Sectioned Mastichodendron seeds are nearly circular in
outline, immediately distal of the seed scar, whereas the
very similar seeds of another native species belonging to a
related genus (Manilkara bidentata) are more angular in
sectional view. From the scars alone, or small fragments of
seed coat, the two genera are very difficult or impossible
to distinguish one from another. Three mastic-bully
specimens from Pearls are nearly whole, making discernible
their general dimensions and morphology, which are compared
with measurements from modern specimens of Mastichodendron
and Manilkara in Table 4.7.
Burnt seed coat fragments of mastic-bully are the most
abundant type of plant remain from Pearls (117 fragments;
100% presence [ubiquity] among the flotation samples).
Fragment counts potentially overestimate presence, and, by
inference, the relative importance of a given plant
resource. To compensate for this problem, mastic-bully
hilar scars were counted as one identification each to
obtain a more realistic estimation of the mininum number of
individuals represented in the samples (shown in Table 4.6
in parentheses beside the raw counts). The revised count
for mastic-bully from Pearls is 13 seeds. This figure seems
low; however, 13+ individuals still is proportionately great
relative to data from the few other Caribbean sites from
which plant remains have been analyzed (see below).


27
and pollen data, as well as macrobotanical and phytolith
studies. Actual maize macro-remains (cobs and kernels) have
not been recovered previous to the investigations at En Bas
Saline, Haiti (Chapter 6) and these date to no earlier than
A.D. 1250. A previous report of maize kernels (Davis 1988)
is incorrect. Large mineralized seed-like specimens from a
Saladoid deposit (ca. fifth century A.D.) at the Sugar
Factory site on St. Kitts were tentatively identified as
maize and subsequently reported as such (Davis 1988; and see
Siegel 1991b). In fact, the Sugar Factory specimens are
gastroliths from the large land crabs (identified by Dr.
E.S. Wing, Florida Museum of Natural History).
Nadal et al. (1991:145) have recovered compelling
evidence for important plants in the pollen data from the
site of Manoguayabo, near Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
This is a relatively late site with Chicoid series ceramics
(ca. A.D. 1200-1500 [Rouse 1992:107]). The pollen data
indicate the presence of manioc, guava, and mombin (Spondias
sp.). Macrobotanical remains (tubers, wood) of manioc and
guava were recovered from another Chicoid site, En Bas
Saline, dating to as early as A.D. 1250 (discussed in
Chapter 6).
To summarize, Caribbean archaeologists have developed
models that attempt to explain and understand Ceramic Age
migrations, and the colonization efforts of Indians from
lowland South America. The migration and settlement in the
islands by earlier human groups has been documented, but


Table 6.14. Plant identifications from La Isabela, Dominican Republic (by count).
(Values in parentheses are tentatively archaeological; + = wood present
in small fragments that were not counted individually or identified.)
IDENTIFICATION:
WILD EDIBLE:
FS 5416 FS 5375 FS 5304 FS 5382 FS 5040 Spanish PLANT
floor montero escudilla floor floor burial TOTAL
Bully-mastic
cf. Bully-mastic
Goosefoot family
OTHER:
Unid, hardwood
Unid, seed frag.
MODERN INCIDENTAL:
cf. Chickweed family 1
cf. Ground Cherry
Mallow family
Mexican poppy
Purslane
Sunflower family
cf. Sunflower family
Unid, spherical seed
Unid, seed
+
2
1
1
1
7* 7*
1 1
(1) 1
+ + +
(1) 1
2 5
1 1
3 1 5
1 1
1 1
1 2
1 1
1 1
1
TOTAL WOOD TYPES:
SEED TOTAL:
ARCHAEO. SEEDS:
0
1 5 10
0 0 (2)
5 0
1 0
*At least seven individuals, exact total uncertain.
307


Appendix Bcontinued
Garden C (continued) Garden E (cont.)
IDENTIFICATION: Feat. 15 continued Feat.l5B Zone 1 Zone 2 Feature 4
Lv.1-3 Lv.4 Lv.5 Ar.2 Ar.6 Lv.2 Lv.01 Lv.5 Lv.6
FS6756 FS6752 FS6770 FS6750 FS6773 FS6302 FS6305 FS3858 FS3862
Unid, s.coat/periderm
Unid, soft tissue
MODERN SEEDS:
Amaranth
cf. Bur
Carpet weed
Crowfoot grass
cf. Cyperus sp.
Euphorbia nutans
Euphorb, cf. Ricinus
cf. Goosefoot family
Grass family
cf. Ground cherry
Guava
Legume family
Mallow family
Mexican poppy
Panicoid grass
Portulacaceae
Purslane
Sunflower family
Unid, spherical seed
Unid, triangular seed
Unid, seed, crenate
Unid, lobed fruit
Unid, seed
10 23 3 7
33 1
1
2
u>
m
SEED TOTAL:
ARCHAEO. SEED TOTAL:
0 0 10
0 0 10
1 45 5 0
1 12 1 0
0
0


104
undisputedly modern (not carbonized, fresh) seed types,
particularly purslane, do. For the present, Oenothera seeds
and Sapotaceae seed coats are classified as archaeological
because of clearer associations of both plants with
archaeological contexts at other sites, including Pearls and
Twenty Hill (and see below), and, secondly, because
Oenothera sp. no longer occurs in the Lesser Antilles
(Richard Howard, New York Botanical Garden, personal
communication, October 1990; Warren Wagner, Smithsonian
Institution, personal communication, 23 May 1991).
Oenothera's prehistoric presence in the Caribbean Islands
may directly result from human activity. Hichman's Shell
Heap provides the earliest record for Oenothera in the
Caribbean region; other archaeological sites described below
document a broader geographic distribution. The economic
potential and apparently once expanded range of Oenothera
are further discussed below.
Hichmans' Site (GE-5) and Indian Castle (GE-1), Nevis
Two Ceramic Age sites were examined for further
evidence of prehistoric plant use on Nevis. Hickmans' Site
(GE-5) is near Hichmans' Shell Heap, but is attributed to a
later, Saladoid occupation (Wilson n.d.). Still later aged
Indian Castle (GE-1), an Elenan Ostionoid site, is also
close to the Hichmans sites, but lies further south along
Nevis's southeastern coast (Wilson n.d.). A pair of samples
from Hichmans' Site and six samples from Indian Castle were
analyzed; half are flotation samples of either two or ten


Table 5.18--continued.
IDENTIFI- Baliaj a
-3, continued.
BAL.-4
BALLAJA-
5:
CATION: Fea.37
Fea.38
Fea
.57
127/107 Unit 1
Feat.82
Fea
.94
PLANT
UBI-
N.C.564
N.C.528
FI.136
NC.621
FI.80 NC.74 3
FI.182
Str. 3
Str. 6
TOTAL QUITY
CULTIVATED:
Chili pepper
1
2
18
Citrus sp.
1
9
Coconut
(2)
2
9
Fig
9
(1)
244
45
Grape
11
18
maize
1
9
Papaya
7
70
45
Soursop
1
1
3
27
Tomato
(2)
46
27
OTHER:
Raspberry
1
1
9
18
cf. Cactus
(8)
8
9
cf. Mastic
1
9
cf. Palm
5
9
Goosefoot
28
28
9
Panicoid grass
1
5
18
Ground cherry
Unid. ##1-5
8
1
7
27
Ud. seed/fruit
1
4
Ud.soft tissue
7
93
50
28
14
246
MODERN SEEDS:
Grass, indet.
1
14
36
Mallow family
1
1
1
3
18
Oxalis sp.
1
9
Portulaca sp.
1
9
Sabal sp.
1
1
9
Wild bean
1
1
9
SEED TOTAL: 1
1
47
4
0 1
1
2
16
ARCH. SEEDS: 0
1
46
1
0 0
0
1
14


Appendix Bcontinued.
IDENTIFICATION:
Unid, s.coat/periderm
Unid, soft tissue
MODERN SEEDS:
Amaranth
cf. Bur
Carpet weed
Crowfoot grass
cf. Cyperus sp.
Euphorbia nutans
Euphorb, cf. Ricinus
cf. Goosefoot family
Grass family
cf. Ground cherry
Guava
Legume family
Mallow family
Mexican poppy
Panicoid grass
Portulacaceae
Purslane
Sunflower family
Unid, spherical seed
Unid, triangular seed
Unid, seed, crenate
Unid, lobed fruit
Unid, seed
SEED TOTAL:
ARCHAEO. SEED TOTAL:
GARDEN B: (continued)
Feat.24
Bur.01 Lv.l Lv.2
FS6989 FS7190 FS7198
2
3 17 84
1 1
1
7 22 14
5 20 12
Feature 31 Fea.31A Fea.3 IB
Lv. 3 Lv. 3 Lv. 4 Lv. 4 Lv.l Lv.l
FS7197 FS7213 FS7211 FS7332 FS7199 FS7202
2
31 2 28 30
1 1
1
3 2
1
2
8
2 1
20
2 4
1
1
15 5
1
8 1
75 9 10 9 4 6
15 7 0 8 3 0
343


391
Wing, Elizabeth S.
1989 Human exploitation of animal resources in the
Caribbean. In Bioqeoqraphv of the West Indies: Past,
Present, and Future. Charles A. Woods (editor), pp. 137-
152. Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, Florida.
1990 Animal remains from the Hacienda Grande site. In
Excavations at the Maria de la Cruz Cave and Hacienda
Grande Village Site, Loiza. Puerto Rico, by Irving
Rouse and Ricardo E. Alegria, pp. 87-101. Yale Uni
versity Publications in Anthropology No. 80. New
Haven.
Wing, Elizabeth S., Charles A. Hoffman, Jr., and Clayton E.
Ray
1969 Vertebrate remains from Indian sites on Antigua, West
Indies. Caribbean Journal of Science 8:123-139.
Wing, Elizabeth S. and Elizabeth J. Reitz
1982 Prehistoric fishing economies of the Caribbean.
Journal of New World Archaeology 5(2):13-32.
Wing, Elizabeth S. and Sylvia J. Scudder
1980 Use of animals by the prehistoric inhabitants on
St. Kitts, West Indies. In Proceedings of the Eighth
International Congress for the Study of the Pre-
Columbian Cultures of the Lesser Antilles. Arizona
State University Anthropological Research Papers 22:
237-245.
1983 The tropical marine edge animal exploitation by
prehistoric people. In Animals and Archaeology: Volume
2. Shell Middens. Fishes, and Birds. J. Clutton-Brock
and C. Grigson (editors), pp. 197-210. British Archaeo
logical Reports International Series 183. Oxford.
Woodbury, Roy 0. and Elbert L. Little, Jr.
1976 Flora of Buck Island Reef National Monument (U.S.
Virgin Islands). Forest Service Research Paper ITF-19.
Institute of Tropical Forestry, Rio Piedras, Puerto
Rico (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service).
Zucchi, Alberta, Kay Tarble, and Eduardo Vaz
1984 The ceramic sequence and new TL and C-14 dates for
the Aguerito Site of the middle Orinoco, Venezuela.
Journal of Field Archaeology 11:155-180.


183
Table 5.9. Plant identifications from El Fresal, Puerto
Rico.
TAXON COMMON NAME PLANT
PART
Archaeological:
Chenopodiaceae goosefoot family seed
cf. Ficus sp. fig (jagey) wood
Hypoxis sp. yellow stargrass (coqui) seed
Oenothera sp. evening primrose seed
Passiflora sp.* maypop (parcha) seed
Rubus sp. raspberry (rosa minadora) seed
Sapotaceae cf. Pouteria bully-tree (jcana) wood
cf. Sapotaceae sapote family wood
Uniden. wood-type 1 wide rays, pore density low wood
Uniden. wood-type 2 vasicen.-confluent parench.,
rays strongly heterocellular wood
Uniden. wood-type 3 pore density high,
parenchyma sparse wood
Uniden. wood-type 4 wide rays, confluent
parenchyma wood
Uniden. wood-type 5 parenchyma diffuse-in-aggreg. wood
Uniden. wood-type 6 pores solitary, density high,
parenchyma weakly paratrach. wood
Uniden. wood-type 7 pores small-diam., frequent wood
Uniden. wood-type 8 wide rays, reticulate
parenchyma wood
Uniden. wood-type 9 pores med.-large, radial ser.
of 2-4, paren, paratracheal
in wide bands, rays narrow wood
Uniden. wood-type 10 pores medium diam., solitary,
paren, diffuse-in-aggregates wood
Uniden. wood-type 11 pore diam. small, wide rays wood
Uniden. seed fragment small, carbonized seed
Uniden. dicotyledonous small herb stem
Modern seeds:
Asteraceae sunflower family seed
cf. Atriplex sp. atriplex (garbancillo) seed
Capsicum sp. chili pepper (pimiento) seed
cf. Cerastium sp. chickweed seed
Cyperaceae, type 1 sedge family seed
Cyperaceae, type 2 sedge family seed
Cyperaceae, type 3 sedge family seed
Eleusine indica goosegrass (grama de caballo) seed
Euphorbia sp. spurge (maravilla) seed
Fabaceae, cf. Cassia bean family seed
Malvaceae, cf. Sida broomweed (escoba) seed


APPENDIX C
WOOD IDENTIFICATIONS FROM EN BAS SALINE


383
Oviedo, Gonzalo Fernandez de
1959 [1526] Natural History of the West Indies. Trans
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Padoch, Christine and Wil de Jong
1991 The house gardens of Santa Rosa: diversity and
variability in an Amazonian agricultural system.
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1989b Paleoethnobotanv: A Handbook of Procedures.
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1990 Issues in the analysis and interpretation of
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sented at the conference "Corn and Culture in
the Prehistoric New World." University of Minne
sota, Minneapolis, 11-13 May.
Petersen, James B. and David R. Watters
1991 Archaeological testing at the early Saladoid Trants
Site, Montserrat, West Indies. Paper presented at the
Fourteenth International Congress for Caribbean Archae
ology, Barbados.
Phillips, E.W.J.
1941 The identification of coniferous woods by their
microscopic structure. The Journal of the Linnean
Society of London 52(343):259-320.
Pickersgill, Barbara
1984 Migrations of chili peppers, Capsicum spp., in the
Americas. In Pre-Columbian Plant Migrations. Doris Stone
(editor), pp. 106-123. Papers of the Peabody Museum of


101
preserved material from one, 1.5 mm-screened excavation-unit
level also underwent examination in conjuction with faunal
analysis carried out at the Florida Museum of Natural
History.
Wood remains are few (Table 4.14) and not generally
identifiable. Two seed types are likely associated with the
prehistoric deposits (Table 4.15); they are evening primrose
(Oenothera sp.) and Sapotaceae seed coat. The latter is
same as was recovered from Pearls and from Twenty Hill.
Modern seeds are particularly frequent among the midden
samples, with 455 individuals identified (Tables 4.14 and
4.16). Most of these seeds belong to a single genus,
purslane (Pprtulaca sp.) (363 seeds total; Table 4.16).
Purslane is very common in open, disturbed-ground
environments of the Caribbean; the seeds are very small
(approximately 0.5-1.0 mm) and readily disperse into
archaeological deposits while excavation units are open
(see, for example, Miksicek 1987). The same is true of
virtually all of the other seed types from Hichmans' Shell
Heap (Table 4.15 and 4.16), most of which are less than 2 mm
in diameter.
The single Oenothera seed (1.72 mm long by 0.60 mm
wide) and the small Sapotaceae seed coats might also be
modern; they could have been carbonized with recent ground
cover, rather than by prehistoric activities (Miksicek
1987). Nevertheless, these two seed types do not appear in
the control sample (Table 4.16), while at least four of the


Table 5.21. Seeds and nonwoody plant remains from sites in Puerto Rico.*
SCIENTIFIC/COMMON NAME
ARCHAIC CUEVAS to OSTIONOID COMPONETS
Maria de Maisabel Calle El El El
La Cruz (general) Cristo Fresal Parking Bronce Ballaja
x
HIS- # SITES
TORIC PLANT
x
x
X
Annona (soursop)
Capsicum (pimiento)
Carica papaya (papaya) x
Chenopodium (goosefoot) x
Chenopodiaceae, x x x
(goosefoot family)
Citrus (orange/grapefruit)+
cf. Cleome (spider flower) x
cf. Cocos nucifera (coconut) x
Convovulaceae(morning glory) x
cf. Desmodium (wild legume) x
Ficus (carica) (Europ. fig) + x
Hypoxis (stargrass) x x
Lycopersicon (tomato) x
Malvastrum (false mallow) x
cf. Mastichodendron foet. x
(mastic-bully)
Oenothera (primrose) x x
cf. Palmae (palm family) (petiole)
Passiflora (maypop)
Persea amer. (wild avocado)
Physalis (ground cherry)
Poaceae (grass family)
Pouteria campechiana,
(yellow sapote)
Rubus (wild raspberry) x
Trianthema portulacastrum x
Vitis (European grape)+
cf. Cactaceae (fruit/pad)
cf. Zea mays (maize cob)
*Modern seeds excluded. El Bronce data are from Pearsall (1985). + = Old World origin
(seed) (seed)
x
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
OCCURS
1
1
2
1
3
222


Table 4.17. Archaeobotanical samples from Hichmans' Site (GE-5) and Indian Castle (GE-1),
(All but samples from general excavation levels were processed by water
flotation; specimens from the general
1.5 mm mesh screens.)
SITE/
SAMPLE
SAMPLE
SAMPLE
LT.FRACT
PROVENIENCE
CONTEXT
VOLUME
WEIGHT
WEIGHT
Saladoid:
GE-5 Flot.
(Lab. no.
1,
15)
midden
(ltrs)
10.00
(grams)
(grams)
84.96
Sguare 55, -
30-40 cm
15,
midden
-
-
-
Ostionoid:
GE-1 Flot.
1
refuse pit
2.00
465.00
1.33
GE-1 Flot.
2
post mold
2.00
605.00
2.30
GE-1 Flot.
3
post mold
2.00
965.00
3.76
Sguare 3A-N,
0-10 cm
midden
_
_
Square 3B-N,
0-10 cm
midden
_
_
Square 3B-N,
10-20 cm
midden
COMBINED
SITE TOTALS: 16.00 2035.00 92.35
excavations were collected with
WOOD
WOOD
WOOD
TOTAL ARCHAEO.
SEED
WEIGHT
DEN
NO.
SEEDS
SEEDS
DEN
(grams)
SITY
I DEN.
SITY
0.40
0.04
1
61
(1)
0.10
(trace)
-
1
0
0
-
0.33
0.16
2
0
0
0.39
0.19
1
0
0
-
0.43
0.21
1
0
0

(trace)
-
1
1
1
-
(trace)
-
2
0
0
-
(trace)
-
1
0
0
-
1.55
10
62
1(2)


48
Beach Access Site and Trunk Bay, St. John. United States
Virgin Islands
The island of St. John occurs in the Virgin Island
group at the northern and western most extent of the Lesser
Antilles. Salvage operations at the Beach Access Site (also
known as Lameshur Bay) and at Trunk Bay were conducted by
Ken Wild of the National Park Service, Southeast
Archaeological Center. The material culture assemblage from
the Beach Access Site indicates the presence both of the
Archaic Age Ortoiroid and the later Huecan Saladoid culture
series. Radiocarbon dates from the site range from
approximately 730 B.C. to the first centuries A.D. (Ken
Wild, personal communication, 17 December 1992). The Trunk
Bay deposits represent a later occupation(s), with the
presence of Cedrosan Saladoid and Ostionoid ceramics series.
Limited archaeobotanical analysis of samples from the
two prehistoric sites was undertaken. Nevertheless, data
useful to this dissertation research were gathered. Samples
from the Beach Access Site derive from a pair of burned
areas that may have functioned as hearths. Trunk Bay
samples come from general or undifferentiated refuse (shell
midden) deposits.
Calle Cristo, Puerto Rico
Archaeological research at Calle del Cristo, San Juan,
was conducted during 1989-1991 by the Puerto Rico State
Historic Preservation Office under the direction of Carlos
Solis Magana and Virginia Rivera. The prehistoric site is
located beneath present Calle del Cristo and extends to an


98
(Celtis icruanaea. also recovered from the deposits at
Pearls), sapota family (Sapotaceae), satinwood/wild lime
(Zanthoxvlum sp.), and at least six types of unquestionably
modern seed. Cockspur seed coat fragments and a few whole
specimens are ubiquitous, appearing in nearly every level
from Twenty Hill (Table 4.13). All cockspur specimens from
Twenty Hill are mineralized, just as are those from Pearls.
It is very difficult to distinguish very small seed-coat
fragments of cockspur from two other, unrelated genera that
have similar seeds: nance or guana berry (Bvrsonima spp.)
and inkberry (Scaevola plumieri); these might also be
represented among the seed coat fragments from Twenty Hill,
but for the present all specimens are grouped as cockspur.
Unlike the specimens recovered from the Pearls site,
Sapotaceae seed coat fragments from Twenty Hill lack hilar
scars. However, surface texture, shape, and thickness
indicate that the Twenty Hill seed coats are similar, or
identical, to the mastic-bully specimens described above
from Pearls. Unfortunately, identification to genus is
precluded by the small size of the seed coat fragments from
Twenty Hill. Thus the Sapotaceae seed coat fragments are
designated Manilkara/Mastichodendron in Tables 4.12 and 4.13
to reflect that either or both genera are possibly
represented in the archaeological contexts.
Fourteen percent of the seed identifications from
Twenty Hill are modern specimens (31 total). The bulk of
these seeds (77%) derive from a single excavation level
A


129
Table 4.27. Plant identifications from the Beach Access
Site (Lameshur Bay), St. John.
TAXON COMMON NAME PLANT
PART
Archaeological:
Conocarpus erectus buttonwood (mangle botn) wood
Zanthoxylum sp. satinwood (aceitillo) wood


99
(Level 2, 5-10 cm below surface). The proportion of modern
seeds rises to 82% of the total assemblage if mineralized
and otherwise questionably ancient specimens (marked by an
asterisk in Table 4.12) are grouped as modern, rather than
archaeological seeds. So conspicuous a presence of modern,
intrusive seeds renders all identifications from Twenty Hill
suspect, in particular, those from Level 2. With this
caveat in mind, apparently mineralized satinwood
(Zanthoxvlum sp.) seeds may be best regarded as modern or
relatively recent, since they occur exclusively in Level 2
of the Twenty Hill excavations. Bullet-wood/mastic and
cockspur seeds are more securely associated with the
archaeological components of Twenty Hill since the specimens
are concentrated in more deeply buried portions of the site
(Table 4.13), in which were discerned no indication of post-
depositional disturbance. Furthermore bullet-wood/mastic
and cockspur are well represented among the samples from
Twenty Hill and occur relatively consistently (77% and 46%
ubiquity; Table 4.13).
Hichmans' Shell Heap (GE-6). Nevis
Hichmans' Shell Heap (GE-6) on the island of Nevis is a
relatively small, Ortoiroid-aged refuse deposit. Ten 20-
liter flotation samples from Hichmans' Shell Heap were
analyzed for archaeobotanical information, including one
off-site sample (no. 10, Table 4.14) designed to assist
interpretion and control for the possible presence of modern
seeds among the archaeological samples. In addition,



Table 4.22. Plant identifications from Golden Rock deposits (by count).
(Values in parentheses are tentative identifications; x = van der Klift's
identifications.)
IDENTIFICATION:
STRUCTURE 1
STRUCURE 4 POSTS
STRUCTURE 5
POSTS
MIDDEN:
1022
1081 1084
135 186
191 210
1200
1703 1704 1707
1711 1997
so
SP
4H-
posth.
pit posth.
li
IV
III
WILD EDIBLE:
Cockspur
(Celtis)*
2
11
20
OTHER:
Bay cedar
Black torch
Bustic
Celastraceae
Fish poison
1
10
2 1
60
10
5
Lignum-vitae
Pepper bush
Rubiaceae
1
20 1
10
Satinwood
33
46
15
8
Wild lime
1
2
Seed type 1
Seed type 2
1
MODERN SEEDS:
Legume family
TOTAL NO.
WOOD TYPES: 1 2 21121111121
SEED TOTAL: 3 11 20
ARCHAEO. SEEDS: 3 11 20
*Celtis seeds were recovered in 9 additional samples analyzed by Van der Klift,
(see Table 4.20) .
115


Table 4.1continued
PROVENIENCI
?
-SAMPLE-
WOOD
WOOD
WOOD
TOTAL
area/unit/level
CONTEXT
VOLUME
WEIGHT
WEIGHT
DENSITY
NO.
SEEDS
(ltrs.)
(grams
(grams)
IDEN.
112/110
lv. 5
midden
200

0.24
<0.1
1
0
B 90/124
lv. 1
midden
200
-
0
-
0
1
90/124
lv. 2
midden
200
-
0.83
<0.1
6
0
90/124
lv. 3
midden
200
-
5.09
<0.1
25
0
90/124
lv. 4
midden
200
-
3.14
<0.1
23
0
B 90/120
lv. 1
midden
200
-
0
-
0
0
90/120
lv. 2
midden
200
-
0.70
<0.1
2
0
90/120
lv. 3
midden
200
-
0.28
<0.1
3
0
90/120
lv. 4
midden
200
-
1.86
<0.1
9
0
B 88/124
lv. 1
midden
200
-
0.65
<0.1
1
0
88/124
lv. 2
midden
200
-
1.35
<0.1
7
0
88/124
lv. 3
midden
200
-
10.39
0.1
30
0
88/124
lv. 4
midden
200
-
7.27
<0.1
24
0
B 88/120
lv. 1
midden
200
-
0
-
0
0
88/120
lv. 2
midden
200
-
0.44
<0.1
2
0
88/120
lv. 3
midden
200
-
1.20
<0.1
3
0
88/120
lv. 4
midden
200
-
0.85
<0.1
10
0
TOTALS:
79.55
312
1


373
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301


51
The second group of samples from Maisabel are
volumetric soil samples. These were processed initially by
water flotation. Like the carbon samples described above,
some volumetric samples represent general-level deposit
while others derive from more specific contexts. Siegel's
sampling strategy included the routine collection of ca. 10
liter volumetric samples. Whenever possible, at least one
such sample was recovered from each excavation level or
context (Siegel 1987) including features and other more
specific contexts that may have been enountered within a
given 10 cm excavation level.
El Fresal, Puerto Rico
El Fresal is an Ostionoid series site located in south-
central Puerto Rico, barrio Cuyon, municipality of Aibonito.
Excavations and research on the site were directed in 1988
by Marisol Melendez for the Rural Development Office of the
Agriculture Department.
The site is situated approximately 30 kilometers inland
at the northern edge of the southern dry coastal region
(Ashton 1985), bordering the lower cordillera forest. El
Fresal seems to have been the location of a small
prehistoric settlement. A single radiocarbon date of A.D.
1160+60 (790+60 B.P., Beta-26326) is consistent with items
of material culture from the site (Melendez 1988); the
ceramics and other artifacts are indicative of the Ostionoid
series, including the Ostiones and Santa Elena complexes,


275
Table 6.6continued.
Provenience Date Notes
FEATURE 31, level 2 (prehist.)
(small structure)
(FS 7198)
1 kernel fragment;
1 ?kernel fragment
FEATURE 33A, level 1 (prehist.)
(small structure)
(FS 7216)
2 cupule fragments;
3 ?cupule
FEATURE 24 dog burial (late preh. 1 cupule
(FS 6989) or contact)
AREA 1, Garden E
(FS 3745)
historic 2 cupule fragments;
1 fragment monocot
stem (? maize stalk)


Table 5.22. Wood identifications from sites in Puerto Rico. (Numbers are site ubiquity;
El Fresal identifications are shown by presence [x] only, because the samples
are few. El Bronce data are adapted from Pearsall [1985]; + = exotic.)
SCIENTIFIC/COMMON NAME
ARCHAIC CERAMIC AGE SITES
Maria de Maisabel Calle El El El
La Cruz (combined) Cristo Fresal Parking Bronce
Acacia (acacia/aroma)
Andira inermis (moca)
Annona (pond-apple/soursop)
Bignoniac. (cedar or calabash)
Boraginaceae (borage family)
Capparis (caper tree)
Cassine (marble-tree)
Coccoloba (sea grape)
Combretaceae (e.g. buttonwood)
Croton (pepper bush)
Erythroxylon (false cocaine)
Exostema (W.I. quinine bark)
cf. Fabaceae (tree legume)
cf. Ficus (wild fig)
Guaiacum (lignum-vitae)
Inga (guaba)
Montezuma (maga)
Palmae (palm trunk)
Pouteria (bully-tree/jacana)
cf. Psidium (guava/guayaba)
Sapotaceae (sapote family)
cf. Sterculia (panama-tree)+
Tecoma stans (roble amarillo)
El Bronce types C, K, L, M/N,
R, Q, S, V, X, and Y
El Fresal types 1 through 11
El Parking types 1-3
Maisabel-1 (wild fig)
TOTAL NO. WOOD TYPES:
6
6
6
25
56
6
6
6
8
x
25 (x)
(x)
x
2 14
16
4
2
28
12
32
32
70
70
2
30
9
9
2
25
12
X
8
5 24
# SITES
PLANT
OCCURS
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
1
2
1
1
N3
N3
LO


42
preserved deposits with good organic preservation. The
modern intrusions have resulted not only in the loss of
important contextual information, but plant remains were
undoubtedly negatively impacted by disruption of the burial
environment.
Archaeobotanical samples from Pearls come primarily
from two excavation units, designated West 195.5 and West
196, that were placed in an undisturbed area of the site.
Both units penetrated intact shell midden with abundant,
well-preserved faunal remains. The ceramics and other
artifacts from West 195.5 and West 196 are exclusively
Saladoid; in particular, ceramic griddle sherds and
undecorated pottery were frequent, suggesting that the area
was the location of common domestic activities (household
deposits unassociated with ceremonial areas of the site).
Hevwoods. Barbados
Heywoods site is located on the western side of
Barbados, a flat coral island in the southern Windward
Islands, and the easternmost of the Caribbean islands.
Rainfall on Barbados is ample, at about 1500 mm annually
(Mohlenbrock 1988), but the soils are generally poor for
plant cultivation.
Shell midden deposits at the Heywoods site accumulated
during the Suazoid and earlier Troumassoid occupations of
the island (ca. A.D. 600-1400). Excavations at Heywoods
were conducted under the direction of Peter Drewett
(Institute of Archaeology, University College London,


208
and fruit trees, including soursop (Annona sp.), papaya
(Carica papaya), citrus (Citrus sp.)/ fig (Ficus sp.,
probably F. carica), tomato (Lvcopersicon lvcopercicum),
European grape (Vitis vinifera), and possibly also maize
(Zea mays). Pepper/pimiento seeds (Capsicum annuum-
chinense-frutescens complex) also were recovered. Citrus,
the fig, and European grape are Old World plants that would
not have been available to prehistoric people in Puerto Rico
and will not be further discussed here (see Newsom 1992b for
more detail).
The native American garden plantssoursop, pepper,
papaya, tomato, and maize (the latter is a tentative
identification)are important identifications in terms of
the developing understanding of plant use in the Caribbean
and particularly in Puerto Rico. Currently, lacking
confirmation of their presence at prehistoric sites, the
Ballaja identifications represent the first and earliest
record for the archaeological presence in Puerto Rico of
soursop, pepper/pimiento, tomato, and possibly maize.
Furthermore, soursop and tomato are identified for the first
time for the West Indies region as a whole. Pepper, papaya,
maize, and others in the list of plant identifications
(Table 5.17) have been recovered either from prehistoric
sites on Puerto Rico or on other islands.
Papaya is documented prehistorically with the Ostiones
culture-complex, based on its identification at the El
Parking Site in Feature 34 (described above), which has a


Table 6.5continued.
IDENTIFICATION: historic:
Area 20
Zone 1
Zone 2
Feat.4
Feat.6
Feat.6
Feat.8 P.M.15
Ar. 4
UBI-
Lv. 1
Lv. 3
Lv. 1
8 lvls
5 lvls
Lv. 10
5 lvls FS3911
3865
QUITY
MANGROVE ASSOCIATION:
FS7035
FS3797
FS7037
pit
4_6_8


Black mangrove
. 32
.48
. 15
. 61
81
Buttonwood
. 12
. 10
1.00
.25
.05
67
cf. Buttonwood
. 22
. 11
.20
. 05
14
Red mangrove
. 04
. 14
. 05
(.05)
57
Red mangrove family
<.01
5
POSSIBLE HOMEGARDEN:
cf. Genip
9
cf. Inga/guaba
<.01
. 03
24
Myrtle family
9
Palm
1.00
. 07
33
Sapotac., bullet-wood
<.01
9
Sapotac., bustic/cai.
1.00
24
OTHER:
Boxwood
. 02
. 17
9
Jagau/W.I. boxwood
<.01
.01
9
cf. Laurel family
. 02
.01
5
Monkey pistol
. 01
. 10
14
Pine, Haitian
. 05
19
Poison wood/spicewood
.80(.93)
5
cf. Snake-bark
. 02
19
cf. Stopper
9
Sweetwood/satinwood
5
cf. West Indian elm
5
En Bas Saline-10
. 02
9
En Bas Saline-15
5
Unid, liana-like wood
5
Unidentified hardwood
1.00
. 10
. 11
.20 .07
.05
TOTAL WOOD TYPES:
1
1
1
14
7
1
6 1
5
TOTAL NO. IDENTIFIED:
6
2
1
399
79
1
20 15
18


70
Figure 4.1. Locations of Lesser Antilles sites
analyzed for plant remains.


372
1991 Description of exotic stone artifacts through the
Lesser Antilles: Their implications for prehistoric
interaction and exchange. Paper presented at the 14th
International Congress for Caribbean Archaeology, Bar
bados.
Coomans, H.E. and M. Coomans-Eustatia
1988 Flowers from St. Martin: The 19th Century Water
colours of West Indian Plants Painted by Hendrik van
Riiqersma. De Walburg Pers, Bloemendaal, Holland.
Core, H.A., W.A. Cote, and A.C. Day
1979 Wood: Structure and Identification. Second Edition.
Syracuse University Press, New York.
vCovich, A.P. and N.H. Nickerson
1966 Studies of cultivated plants in dwelling clearings,
Darien, Panama. Economic Botany 20:285-301.
Cowan, C. Wesley and Bruce D. Smith
1992 New perspectives on a free-living gourd in eastern
North America. Paper presented at the 15th Annual
Conference of the Society of Ethnobiology, Smithsonian
Institution, Washington, D.C.
Crosby, Alfred W., Jr.
1972 The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural
Consequences of 1492. Greenwood Press, Westport,
Connecticut.
Cusick, James G.
1989 Culture change and Pottery Change in a Taino Village.
Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
Davis, David D.
1988 Coastal biogeography and human subsistence: examples
from the West Indies. Archaeology of Eastern North
America 16:177-185.
Deagan, Kathleen A.
1986 Initial encounters: Arawak responses to European con
tact at the En Bas Saline site, Haiti. In Columbus and
his World, Proceedings of the First San Salvador Confer
ence D.T. Gerace (editor), pp. 341-359. College Center
of the Finger Lakes, San Salvador, Bahamas.
1987 La Navidad, 1492, searching for Columbus's lost
colony: La Navidad, 1492. National Geographic 172(5):
672-675.
1988The archaeology of the Spanish contact period in the
Caribbean. Journal of World Prehistory 2(2):187-233.


164
Table 5.6. Plant identifications from Maisabel, Puerto
Rico.
TAXON COMMON NAME PLANT
PART
Archaeological:
Bignoniaceae,
bignonia family, white
Tabebuia or Cresentia
cedar or calabash tree
wood
Cassine xvlocaroa
marble-tree (guayarote)
wood
cf. Inga sp.
guaba
wood
Montezuma crrandiflora
maga, maga wood
wood
Palmae
palm family
petiole
Pouteria sp.
bully-tree (jcana, zapote)
wood
cf. Psidium sp.
guava (guayaba)
wood
cf. Sterculia aoetala*
panama-tree (anacagita)
wood
Trianthema
trianthema (verdolaga de
oortulacastrum
hoja ancha)
seed
semi-ring porous
hardwood, e.a. Ficus
Maisabel-1 (fig [jagello])
wood
Unidentified hardwood
wood
Unid, seed/fruit
seed
Modern seeds:
Aizoaceae
seed
Bidens sp.
beggar-ticks (alfilerillo)
seed
Desmodium sp.
trefoil (zarzabacoa)
fruit
Fabaceae
bean family, cf. Cassia so.
seed
Malvaceae
mallow family, e.q. Sida
seed
Palmae
palm family
seed
Poaceae, awned
grass family
seed
Poaceae, plumed
grass family
seed
Poaceae, panicoid
grass familv. e.q. Pasoalum
seed
Poaceae, panicoid
grass family, e.q. Setaria
seed
Unid, modern
seed
native of northern South America (Liogier and Martorell
1982)


384
Archaeology and Ethnology Volume 76. Harvard University
Press, Cambridge.
1989 Cytological and genetical evidence on the domesti
cation and diffusion of crops within the Americas.
In Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploi
tation. David R. Harris and Gordon C. Hillman (editors),
pp. 426-439. Unwin Hyman, London.
Piperno, Dolores R.
1989 Non-affluent foragers: resource availability,
seasonal shortages, and the emergence of agriculture in
Panamanian tropical forests. In Foraging and Farming:
The Evolution of Plant Exploitation. David R. Harris and
Gordon C. Hillman (editors), pp. 538-554. Unwin Hyman,
London.
* Popenoe, W.
1939 Manual of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits. The
Macmillian Company, New York.
Popper, V.S.
1988 Selecting quantitative measurements in paleoethno-
botany. In Current Paleoethnobotanv. C.A. Hastorf and
V.S. Popper (editors), pp. 53-71. University of Chicago
Press, Chicago.
Posey, D.A.
1984 A Preliminary report on diversified management of
tropical forest by the Kayapo Indians of the Brazilian
Amazon. In Ethnobotanv in the Neotropics. G.T. Prance
and J.A. Kallunki (editors), pp. 112-126. The New York
Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.
Prance, Ghillean T.
1984 The pejibaye, Guilielma gasipaes (HBK) Bailey, and
the papaya, Carica papaya L. In Pre-Columbian Plant
Migration. Doris Stone (editor), pp. 85-104. Papers of
the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Volume
76, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Prasada Rao, K.E., J.J. de Wet, D.E. Brink, and M.H.
Mengesha
1987 Infraspecific variation and systematics of culti
vated Setaria itlica, foxtail millet (Poaceae).
Economic Botany 41(1):108-116.
Rainey, F.G.
1935 A new prehistoric culture in Puerto Rico. Proceedings
of the National Academy of Science 21:12-16.
1940 Porto Rican Archaeology. Scientific Survey of Porto
Rico and the Virgin Islands, Vol. XVIII-Part 1. The
New York Academy of Sciences, New York.


105
liters, and half are samples from the general excavation
levels (Table 4.17).
Wood remains from Hichmans' Site and Indian Castle are
somewhat better preserved than are those from Hichmans'
Shell Heap (GE-6). This resulted in the identification or
description of ten wood specimens and five types (Tables
4.17 and 4.18). Five fragments of lignum-vitae (Guaiacum
sp.) were identified; the same wood is present in 84%
percent of the proveniences analyzed from the Wanapa Site on
Bonaire. The four other types of wood, one from Hichmans'
Site (strong bark, Bourreria sp.), and three from Indian
Castle (Indian Castle woods 1-3) occur as single
identifications each (Table 4.19). Indian Castle type-1 is
similar to a wood (fish poison, Piscida carthaqenesis) from
the Golden Rock Site on St. Eustatius (described below);
Indian Castle-2 may be black mangrove (Avicennia qerminans);
and Indian Castle-3 may be a member of the spurge family
(Euphorbiaceae). The three provisionally described woods
from Indian Castle are not suitable for more definitive
identification in the absence of additional archaeological
specimens of the same types.
One cockspur (Celtis iguanaea) seed was recovered in
the Indian Castle samples. While the seed is apparently
mineralized, like those from Pearls, Twenty Hill, and
Hickmans' Shell Heap, its presence in surface deposit (0-10
cm below surface) at Indian Castle suggests cockspur may be
modern. Likweise, no certain archaeological seeds were


Table 6.12. Archaeobotanical samples from La Isabela, Dominican Republic.
(Two seeds from FS 5304 are not definitively archaeological, being
only lightly carbonized and thus, of uncertain status.)
PROVENIENCE CONTEXT SAMPLE SAMPLE LT.FRACT. WOOD WOOD WOOD TOTAL ARCH. SEED
VOLUME WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT DEN- NO. SEEDS SEEDS DEN-
(ltrs.) (grams) (grams) (grams) SITY IDEN. SITY
E08/LHN Un.09 Area 1, floor 1.50 588.00 0.00 - 10-
Lv.3 Nth 1/2 FS 5416
E16/LIN Un.02 1.97- montero 1.10 1098.00 0.48 0.4 0 50-
2.15 cm FS 5375
E16/LIN Un.02 Feat.1, escudilla 0.60 651.00
Lv.2 1.95-2.00 cm,
FS 5304
0.11 0.2 0 10 (2) 3.3
Lo
O
Ln
E16/LIN Un.02 Feat.1, floor
Lv.3-4 2.04-2.27 cm,
FS 5382
E16/LIN Un.14 Feat.1, floor 7.60 8031.00
Lv.4 2.27-2.34 cm,
FS 5040
Spanish burial+ burial
0.79 0 5 1
1.41 0.18 000
0.00 0
+
TOTALS: 2.79 21 3
+Seeds collected from sediments surrounding human burial; a small sample was furnished,
courtesy F.L. Calderon, exact number of specimens is not certain.


88
Thicker (than mastic) hard seed coat fragments (average
thickness 2.74 mm, range 2.60-2.90 mm, n = 6) also occur in
the archaeobotanical samples from Pearls. The fragments are
small. Nonetheless, the surface texture and presence on
several specimens of circular, ca. 1-2 mm diameter,
indentations or holes identifies the fragments with the palm
family (Palmae or Arecaceae; Tables 4.5, 4.6), exclusive of
the genera Sabal. Cocos (e.g., coconut [C. nuciferal). and
Scheelea. A characteristic of some types of palm seed, e.g.
Butia spp., is the presence in the seed coat of three
closely grouped openings of ca. 1-4 mm diameter. The
particular type of palm represented by the seed fragments
from Pearls is not certain. The fragments are too small to
permit estimation of angle of curvature and thereby attempt
to reconstruct the original dimensions of the seeds.
Hevwoods, Barbados
Twelve proveniences from the Heywoods site underwent
archaeobotanical analysis. Eight samples belong to a late
Prehistoric Suazoid component of the site, and four samples
are associated with an earlier Troumassoid occupation (Table
4.8). Like Wanapa, Heywoods archaeobotanical samples
consist of plant materials that were captured in excavation
screens, and carbonized remains are exclusively wood. The
mesh size used to sieve the Heywoods samples is relatively
fine (1.8mm = 1/16 inch), but small seeds and plant
fragments could pass through the mesh, which may partially
account for the paucity of seeds in the samples.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Wpl'V.S. i t \
LM
uo
WingChair
Anthropology
El(ijiabeth
Professor
S
of
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Kathleen A. Deagan V~
Professor of Anthropology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
^ / X /
^J6hn J. Ewel
' Professor of Botany
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Associate Professor
of Anthropology

William F.


Appendix Ccontinued
Garden E
continued
Fea.14C
Feat
.25
Fea.47A
Lv. 2
lv. 1
Lv. 2
Lv. 1
Lv. 3
Lv. 6
PM-10
Lv. 9
Lv. 11
FS7054
FS7017
FS7047
FS7372
FS7469
FS7497
FS7588
FS7585
FS7589
MANGROVE ASSOCIATION:
Black mangrove
.50
.58
.83
.77
. 60
.30
1.00
. 36
.74
Buttonwood
.28
. 17
. 07
.23
.27
. 52
. 05
cf. Buttonwood (satinwd)
Red mangrove
Red mangrove family
. 50
. 13
. 10
.27
. 12
.21
POSSIBLE HOMEGARDEN:
cf. Genip
cf. Inga/guaba
. 05
.03
cf. guava/stopper
Palm
. 02
. 03
.07
Sapotac., bullet-wood
Sapotac., bustic/caimito
. 02
.03
OTHER:
Boxwood
Jagau/W.I. boxwood
cf. Laurel family
Monkey pistol
Pine, Haitian
Poison wood/spicewood
cf. Snake-bark
. 03
. 03
cf. Stopper
Sweetwood/satinwood
cf. West Indian elm
EBS-10 fig/genip
EBS-15 black torch
Unidentified hardwood
. 05
. 03
TOTAL WOOD TYPES:
2
6
2
4
4
7
1
3
3
TOTAL NUMBER IDENTIFIED:
2
40
6
30
30
30
30
25
19
366


Table 5.16. Overview of flotation samples from Barrio Ballaj.
(Seed density-1 is based on the total seed count, including modern
intrusive seeds; Density-2 is based on the presence of archaeological
seeds only.)
AREA
PROVENIENCE
SAMP.
FLOT.
SAMPLE
LT.FRACT.
WOOD
WOOD
TOTAL
ARCH.
SEED
NO.
NO.
VOLUME
WEIGHT
WEIGHT
NO.
SEEDS
SEEDS
DENSITY
(ltrs.)
(grams)
(grams)
I DEN.
-1
-2
1
Feat.18
249
54
0.25
80.74
77.57
3
5
3
20.0
12.0
1
Feat.35 Stra.III
518
120
0.10
35.82
35.80
2
0
20.0
-
1
Feat.35 Lv.5
531
123
0.07
21.00
20.85
4
4
57.1
57.1
1
Feat.48 Stra.I
592
131
0.23
69.05
63.61
118
108
513.0
469.6
1
Feat.48 Stra.II
604
132
0.13
40.80
40.80
1
132
128
1015.4
984.6
3
N127/E107 Lv.20-40
339
80
0.07
19.99
18.38
0
0


3
Feat.25 Stra.I
405
96
1.50
512.95
512.95
19
19
12.7
12.7
3
Feat.25 Stra.III
417
101
0.04
7.44
6.71
124
124
3100.0
3100.0
3
Feat.25 Stra.IV
414
99
0.05
19.76
15.73
0
0
-
-
3
Feat.25 Stra.IV
416
100
0.05
13.38
12.85
13
12
260.0
240.0
3
Feat.57 Stra.III
622
136
0.60
370.00
11.71
8
47
46
78.3
76.7
5
Feat.82 Stra.II
968
182
0.13
38.00
33.58
1
0
7.7

5
Feat.94 Stra.III
1056
198
0.50
190.76
190.76
2
1
4.0
2.0
5
Feat.94 Stra.VI
1068
198
0.20
63.58
61.61
2
16
14
80.0
70.0
TOTALS: 3.91 1483.27 1102.91 14 483 459


Table 6.2continued
PROVENIENCE SAMPLE SAMPLE SAMPLE
TYPE VOLUME WEIGHT
(ltrs.) (grains)
Feat.15B Ar.06
GARDEN E:
FS
6773
carbon
~
3.38
Feat.04B Lv.03
FS
3851
carbon
-
5.78
Feat.04
Lv. 05
FS
3858
sieve
0.50
3.46
Feat.04
Lv. 05
FS
3858
carbon
-
3.92
Feat.04
Lv. 05
FS
3858
carbon
-
93.61
Feat.04
Lv. 06
FS
3862
sieve
0.50
3.49
Feat.04
Lv. 06
FS
3862
carbon
-
109.44
Feat.04
Lv. 07
FS
3864
sieve
0.50
4.09
Feat.04
Lv. 07
FS
3864
carbon
-
5.12
Feat.04
Lv. 07
FS
3864
carbon
-
80.08
Feat.04
Lv. 08
FS
3866
carbon
-
101.00
Feat.04
Lv. 08
FS
3881
sieve
0.50
2.31
Feat.04
Lv. 08
FS
3881
carbon
-
42.00
Feat.04
Lv. 10
FS
3883
carbon
-
8.34
Feat.04
Lv. 11
FS
3885
sieve
0.50
3.43
Feat.04
Lv. 11
FS
3885
carbon
-
1.93
Feat.04
Lv. 12
FS
3886
sieve
0.50
3.18
Feat.04
Lv. 12
FS
3886
carbon
-
1.89
Feat.04
Lv. 12
FS
3886
carbon
-
14.30
Feat.06
Lv.03
FS
3840
carbon
-
3.40
Feat.06
Lv. 04
FS
3860
carbon
-
0.58
Feat.06
Lv. 04
FS
3860
carbon
-
14.05
Feat.06
Lv .06
FS
3867
carbon
-
7.07
Feat.06
Lv. 07
FS
3868
carbon
-
0.40
Feat.06
Lv. 08
FS
3882
carbon
-
7.23
Feat.06
Lv. 10
FS
3890
carbon
-
19.81
Feat.08
Lv. 02
FS
3892
carbon
-
(trace)
Feat.08
Lv.03
FS
3897
carbon
-
3.16
Feat.08
Lv. 04
FS
3898
carbon
-
1.19
jT FRACT
WOOD
WOOD
WOOD
TOTAL ARCH.
*SEED
WEIGHT
WEIGHT
DEN
NO.
SEEDS SEEDS
DENSITY
(grams)
(grams)
SITY
IDEN.
-1
-2
-
0.00
-
0
0
0
-
-

5.78

38
0
0


-
2.61
5.2
0
0
0
-
-
-
3.92
-
0
0
0
-
-
-
93.61
-
89
0
0
-
-
-
1.12
2.2
0
0
0
-
-
-
109.44
-
95
0
0
-
-
-
3.55
7.1
0
0
0
-
-
-
5.12
-
0
0
0
-
-
-
80.08
-
88
0
0
-
-
-
101.00
-
0
0
0
-
-
-
0.72
1.4
0
4
1
8.0
2 (
-
42.00
-
45
0
0
-
-
-
8.34
-
32
0
0
-
-
-
0.88
1.8
0
18
1
36.0
2 (
-
1.93
-
0
0
0
-
-
-
1.64
3.3
0
0
0
-
-
-
1.89
-
0
0
0
-
-
-
14.30
-
9
0
0
-
-
-
3.40
-
3
0
0
-
-
-
0.58
-
0
0
0
-
-
-
14.05
-
27
0
0
-
-
-
7.07
-
12
0
0
-
-
-
0.40
-
1
0
0
-
-
-
7.23
-
1
0
0
-
-
-
19.81
-
38
0
0
-
-
-
(trace)
-
2
0
0
-
-
-
3.16
-
6
0
0
-
-
-
1.19
-
3
0
0
-
-
240


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Michael E. Moseley
Professor of Anthropology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
William L. 'tern/'
Professor of Botany
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of the Department of Anthropology in the College of Liberal
Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate School and was
accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
August 1993
Dean, Graduate School


Table 6.
LOCATION
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Garden E
Lcontinued.
EXCAVATION
HORIZON PROVENIENCE
SAMPLE SAMPLE
SAMPLE
UNIT
CONTEXT NUMBER
TYPE
944.ON
1017E
B1
Feature
08N
Level
06
pit 4-6-8
3913
carbon
944.ON
1017E
B1
Feature
4-6-
-8 base
posthole
3911
carbon
combined
units
CIO
B1
Feature
07
Level
01
pit
3856
carbon
combined
units
CIO
B1
Feature
07
Level
02
pit
3857
carbon
943.5N
1000E
Sq.7
B1
Feature
14
Level
01
large pit
6730
flot,carbon
941.5N
1000E
B1
Feature
14
Level
03
large pit
6898
flot,carbon
941.5N
1000E
B1
Feature
14
Level
03
large pit
6903
f lot
941.5N
1000E
B1
Feature
14
Level
05
large pit
6991
f lot
941.5N
1000E
B1
Feature
14A
Lev. 1
El/2
large pit
7020
flot,carbon
941.5N
1000E
B1
Feature
14B
Lev. 1
El/2
large pit
7022
f lot
941.5N
1000E
B1
Feature
14B
Lev. 2
El/2
large pit
7044
carbon
941.5N
1000E
B1
Feature
14C
Lev. 2
El/2
large pit
7023
f lot
941.5N
1000E
B1
Feature
14C
Lev. 2
El/2
large pit
7054
carbon
combined
unit CIO
B1
Feature
20 Area 6
Lv. 1
pit
3888
carbon
943.5N
987E Sq.01
B1
Area 01
Level 01
midden
6340
flot,carbon
943.5N
987E Sq.01
B1
Area 01
midden
3745
sieve
941.5N
1003E
B1
Area 03
ash
concentr.
ash
7040
sieve
combined
unit CIO
B1
Area 04
ash/midden
3865
carbon
941.5N
1003E
B1
Area 20
Level 01
midden
7035
sieve
942.ON
1017E
Sq. C
B1
Zone 01
Level 03
midden
3797
carbon
943.5N
997E
?B1
Zone 02
Level 01
plaza/midden
7037
sieve
943.5N
1000E
Sq.7
B2
Feature
16
Level
03
pit
6789
carbon
941.5N
1003E
B2
Feature
25
Level
01
wall trench
7017
flot,carbon
941.5N
1003E
B2
Feature
25
Level
02
wall trench
7047
carbon
941.5N
1003E
B2
Feature
26
Level
04
wall trench
7123
carbon
939.5N
998.5E
B2
Feature
47A
Level
01
midden/pit
7372
sieve
941.5N
1009E
B2
Feature
49
Level
02
huge posthole
7465
carbon
941.5N
1009E
B2
Feature
49
Level
03
huge posthole
7469
carbon
941.5N
1009E
B2
Feature
49
Level
05
huge posthole
7487
carbon
941.5N
1009E
B2
Feature
49
Level
06
huge posthole
7497
carbon
941.5N
1009E
B2
Feature
49 :
Lv.7 PPM-10
possible post
7588
carbon
941.5N
1009E
B2
Feature
49
Level
09
huge posthole
7585
carbon
234


203
Table 5.15. Barrio Ballaj: samples analyzed for plant
remains.
Area/Provience
Sample Sample Flot.
context number number/
fraction
1
Area Norte Fea.
18
house
refuse
249
054/light
1
Fea.35
Strat.III 107-185cm
house
refuse
518
120/light
1
Fea.35
level 5
185-197cm
house
refuse
531
123/light
1
Fea.48
Strat. I
113-161cm
house
refuse
592
131/light
1
Fea.48
Strat.II
113-166cm
house
refuse
604
132/light
3
N127/E107 Strat.I 20-40cm
house
refuse
339
080/light
3
Fea.25
Strat.
I
latrine
405
096/light
3
Fea.25
Strat.
III
II
417
101/light
3
Fea.25
Strat.
III
II
412
- /screen
3
Fea.25
Strat.
III
II
624
138/heavy
3
Fea.25
Strat.
IV
II
413
- /screen
3
Fea.25
Strat.
IV
II
413
- /lab
3
Fea.25
Strat.
IV
II
414
099/light
3
Fea.25
Strat.
IV
II
416
100/light
3
Fea.37
Strat.
II 63-83 cm
house
refuse
564
- /lab
3
Fea.38
Strat.
II
house
refuse
528
122/lab
3
Fea.57
Strat.
III
hospital dump
621
- /lab
3
Fea.57
Strat.
III
II
621
- /carbon
3
Fea.57
Strat.
III
II
621
- /screen
3
Fea.57
Strat.
III
II
622
136/light
4
Unit 1
Strat.
III
house
refuse
743
- /lab
5
Fea.82
Strat.
II 86-lllcm
house
refuse
968
182/light
5
Fea.94
Strat.
III
house
refuse
1056
198/light
5
Fea.94
Strat.
VI
house
refuse
1068
198/light
Notes: Light and heavy fractions refer to the two sample
components that result from sample preparation by water
flotation. Samples designated "screen" are plant remains
extracted from l/4"-l/16" screened faunal samples during
zooarchaeological analysis at Florida Museum of Natural
History; carbon sample N.C.621 is l/4"-screened material.
Samples designated "lab" are individual specimens that were
forwarded to the FlaMNH as they were encountered
during laboratory operations in San Juan.


143
Widespread use and potential importance of Sapotaceae fruits
Two, possibly three, types of Sapotaceae fruit are
represented in the Lesser Antillean sites. Mastichodendron
foetidissimum (mastic-bully) was positively identified in
midden samples from Krum Bay, St. Thomas, and from Pearls,
Grenada, Ortoiroid and Cedrosan-Saladoid sites, respectively
(Table 4.32). Similar or identical fragments of hard seed
coat were recovered from two additional Ortoiroid sites:
Twenty Hill, Antigua, and Hichmans' Shell Heap, Nevis. The
seed coat fragments from the latter two sites are too small
to determine whether they belong to Mastichodendron or to a
related tree, Manilkara bidentata (bullet-wood [ausubo]),
that has very similar seeds. Both trees are native to the
region and widespread (Little and Wadsworth 1964:444, 454;
Loigier and Martorell 1989); quite possibly both are
represented in the seed fragments from the four sites.
Seeds from what clearly is a distinct species of
Manilkara were identified by Pearsall (1983) in her analysis
of plant remains from Krum Bay. Two whole Manilkara seeds
from Krum Bay exhibit very linear, narrow hilums (see Figure
Cl in Pearsall 1983) that are readily distinguished from the
ovoid hilums of Mastichodendron and Manilkara bidentata. At
least one additional native species of Manilkara occurs in
the Virgin Islands: M. pleeana (zapote de costa) (Liogier
and Martorell 1982:135). Another species, sapodilla
(Manilkara zapota), is native to southern Mexico and Central
America, but it has been long grown in the West Indies,


299
Table 6.10continued.
n=
Mean
Length
Stan.
dev.
Mean
Width
Stan
dev.
15.
same as no.14 with
glumes, carbonized
13
2.57
. 13
1.40
. 14
16.
same as no.14 with
glumes removed
15
1.82
. 14
1.13
.08
17.
Panicum ramosum+
(commercial seeds)
15
3.19
. 11
1.86
.08
18.
same as no.17 with
glumes, carbonized
7
3.11
. 12
1.90
. 11
19.
same as no.17 with
glumes removed
7
2.00
.04
1.71
. 05
*Horr's Island (Newsom 1991); Tehuacan seeds from
Coxcatlan and San Marcos caves (Smith 1967:236). Seeds
from En Bas Saline and Horr's Island (Florida), with
the exception of two mineralized seeds in the latter
collection, are carbonized; specimens from the Tehuacan
caves are desiccated.
+Commerical seeds are from Forestry Suppliers, Inc. All
other modern seeds are from spontaneous populations;
no. 4 is from a mowed city lot.


284
Table 6.9. General morphological characteristics of
kernels from West Indian races of maize.
Cuban Flint
Kernels are short, varying from flat-topped to
slightly pointed. Kernels (pericarp) are colorless
(white); endosperm is intense orange-yellow.
Haitian Yellow
Kernels are about as wide as long; they are widest at
midpoint and are strongly pointed. Grains vary from flint
to somewhat dented, usually with a slight capping deposit
of soft starch. Kernels color is bronze to red; endosperm
yellow to white.
Coastal Tropical Flint
Kernels tend to be only slightly longer than wide and
weakly pointed; not a true flint as kernels tend to have a
small but distinct capping of soft starch at the apex of
the kernel. Kernel color lacking or occasionally with
reddish tinge; endosperm color deep yellow.
Chandelle
Kernels of a semi-flint form are long and narrow;
widest about two-thirds from the base to the tip of the
kernel, and slightly pointed. Most grains are capped with
a small deposit of soft starch. Kernels belonging to a
dent form are not pointed and contain a higher proportion
of soft starch. Kernel color generally lacking (white),
sometimes reddish; endosperm yellow.
Tusn
Kernels are not pointed and are conspicuously capped
with a deposit of soft starch. Kernel color lacking
(white); endosperm yellow to orange.
Early Caribbean
Kernels are semi-flint, about as wide as long, and
are frequently crescent-shaped. Little denting is
present, despite the presence of a small deposit of soft
starch at the distal end of the kernel. Kernel color
generally red or reddish; endosperm yellow.
Source: Brown (1953); Brown and Goodman (1977).


209
radiocarbon date of cal. A.D. 656-855 (Weaver 1992). Papaya
seems to have originated in Central America, later spreading
under cultivation into Amazonia and other areas. Aside from
the two sites in Puerto Rico, papaya has not otherwise been
identified from archaeological sites in the Caribbean.
Capsicum pepper seeds were recovered from late
prehistoric and Contact Period deposits at En Bas Saline,
Haiti (discussed below). Domesticated Capsicum (annuum)
pepper, as well as European grape and other provisions, were
recovered from the wreckage of a ship (Nuestra Seora de
Atocha) that was lost in 1622 shortly after it left the port
of Havana, Cuba (Newsom and D. Hall, letter to C. Malcolm,
29 December 1987). The situation of domestication for
Capsicum spp. is complex, with multiple domestications
involving several species (Heiser 1969, 1990; Rindos 1980;
and see Pickersgill 1984). According to Pickersgill
(1984:106-123), wild Capsicum frutescens (aji/bird pepper)
may have been domesticated in the Caribbean region, but not
necessarily the Antilles. Domesticated and apparently wild
or feral C. annuum and C. frutescens presently occur widely
in the Caribbean region, including the Greater Antilles;
domesticated C. chnense also is reported for the West
Indies and adjacent regions (Liogier and Martorell 1982:158;
Pickersgill 1984:109). Presently, it is impossible to
distinguish which among these species the Baliaja pepper
seeds represent.


6 RESULTS OF ARCHAEOBOTANICAL ANALYSES:
HISPANIOLA 228
Hispaniola 230
En Bas Saline, Haiti 230
La Isabela, Dominican Republic 304
Summary of Plant Data from Hispaniola . 308
7 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION 311
Plant Exploitation by Caribbean Indians . 311
Concluding Remarks 333
APPENDICES
A SYSTEMATIC LIST OF PLANT SPECIES IDENTIFIED
IN CARIBBEAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES .... 336
B PLANT IDENTIFICATIONS FROM EN BAS SALINE,
HAITI: SEEDS AND NON-WOOD REMAINS .... 341
C WOOD IDENTIFICATIONS FROM EN BAS SALINE . 360
BIBLIOGRAPHY 369
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 392
X


12
sites along the migration route have the prominent marker of
Cedrosan Saladoid ceramics, the first ceramics series to
appear in the West Indies (Rouse 1986; Rouse and Allaire
1978) The migrants themselves are referred to as Cedrosan
Saladoid, after their distinctive ceramic tradition. Early
Saladoid people are generally believed to have practiced a
tropical-forest horticultural economy based on root crops
and the animal protein procured from rivers and forests
(Roosevelt 1980; Rouse 1986, 1989; Wilson 1990). Later
Saladoid occupations placed a strong emphasis on marine
resources (Haviser 1988). The timing and details of the
apparent change in focus from a subsistence strategy based
primarily on terrestrial foods to one emphasizing marine and
terrestrial resources has been the subject of much debate by
Caribbean archaeologists (see below).
A number of models have been proposed to explain the
motivations for movement into the islands, and/or the nature
of expansion once it began (e.g., the pace, placement of
settlements, resource base). Most researchers are in
agreement that human population levels neared saturation in
the floodplain of the Orinoco in the first millennium B.C.
This population density resulted in fierce competition for
scarce resources, specifically, prime alluvium for plant
cultivation coupled with access to the abundant aquatic
resources of the lowland riverine environment (Roosevelt
1980; Rouse 1986). This pressure of competition
hypothetically was the prime motivation behind the radiation


246
440+-60 B.P., or approximately A.D. 1510+-60, uncorrected;
the calibrated date is A.D. 1410+-60.
Feature 14 (and 14A-C; Table 6.1) is from a very large,
burned post apparently located at the edge of the large
central structure thought to be the chief's residence, and
belonging to the Contact Period. Its fill contained a small
fragment of glass. Feature 16 is associated with Feature
14. Samples from Feature 25 and Areas 1, 3, 4, and 20
(Table 6.1, samples 6340, 3745, 7040, 3865, and 7035)
represent ash and midden concentrations from the central
structure that date to the late prehistoric or shortly after
the time of European contact (1440+-70, 1410+-10 A.D;
domesticated pigSus scrofawas identified in the faunal
analysis of the Area 1 sample [FS 3745]).
Sample 7037 (Zone 2, Level 1) is from the central plaza
area. Bone from domesticated pig was recovered with this
sample and early European artifacts were encountered in the
same general stratum, thus assigning the sample to the
Contact Period. Features 4, 6, and 8 are also located in
the central plaza area. The individually designated
features are distinguished by soil color and position, but
in fact they derive from a single large, well-like pit
(Table 6.1, Garden E samples 3840-3913; Figure 6.3). The
large feature dates to the contact period based on
radiocarbon determinations and the presence of introduced
pig (Sus scrofa) and rat (Rattus rattus) (radiocarbon date
from sample 3885 [Table 6.1], level 11 of Feature 4: 430+-80


198
frequency
length
+ wild/feral cultivars D PO-38
Figure 5.2. Papaya (Carica papaya) seed dimensions
(in millimeters).


Table 4.32. Seeds and nonwood plant remains from sites in the Lesser Antilles.*
SCIENTIFIC/ PRECRAMIC
COMMON NAME
Twen Jol.
Hill Bea.
SEED TYPES:
Cockspur X
cf. silk-cotton
Manchioneel
Manilkara(sapod.)
Mastichodendron
(mastic-bully)
Sapotaceae, cf. X
mastic-bully
Primrose
Palm family
Trianthema
Golden Rock typ.l
Golden Rock typ.2
MISCELLANEOUS:
Dicotyl. herb/vine
Parenchym. tissue,
possibly tuber
Pulverized tissue,
possibly cassava
CERAMIC AGE SITES:
Hich. Krum Wan- Pea-Hey- Hich
Shell Bay+ apa rls wood Site
X
X
X
X X
X X
X
(X) X
X
Ind. Gold Hope Bea. Trunk NO.
Cas. Rock Est. Acc. Bay SITES
XX X 5
X 1
1
1
2
3
1
2
1
X 1
X 1
X 1
X 1
X 1
OJ
*Modern seeds excluded. Note that the category Sapotaceae consists of fragments of
Manilkara and/or Mastichodendron seed coat that are too small to distinguish as separate
genera. Additional seeds from Krum Bay, e.g., mallow and grass families (Pearsall 1989),
are not included because of their prevalence in uncarbonized form at several sites,
including those listed above (thus the seeds may have been relatively recently carbonized,
or otherwise, may be indicental to the prehistoric occupations.
+Adapted from Pearsall 1989 (note that Krum Bay Mastichodendron originally was
identified by C.E. Smith as Sterculia).


380
Litzenberger, Samuel C.
n.d. Guide for Field Crops in the Tropics and the Sub
tropics Office of Agriculture, Technical Assistance
Bureau, Agency for International Development, Washing
ton, D.C.
Lundberg, Emily R.
1989 Preceramic Procurement Patterns at Krum Bav. Virgin
Islands. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of
Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
Maat, George G.M. and Liesbeth Smits
1992 The physical-anthropological remains from Golden
Rock. In The Archaeology of St. Eustatius: the Golden
Rock Site. Aad H. Versteeg and Kees Schinkel (editors),
pp. 237-247. Publication of the St. Eustatius Historical
Foundation, no. 2 (St. Eustatius) and the Foundation for
Scientific Research in the Caribbean Region, no. 131
(Amsterdam).
Manglesdorf, P.C.
1974 Corn, its Origin. Evolution and Improvement. Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Martin, A.C. and W.D. Barkley
1973 Seed Identification Manual. The University of Cal
ifornia Press, Berkeley.
Martin, Franklin W., Carl W. Campbell, and Ruth M. Ruberte
1987 Perennial Edible Fruits of the Tropics: an Inventory.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook No.
642. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Melendez, Marisol J.
1988 Mitigacin Arqueolgica Franja del Yacimiento Area B,
Proyecto El Fresal (Finca Sucn. Suarez), Barrio Cuyon,
Aibonito, Puerto Rico. Report prepared for the Programa
de Fincas Familiares Titulo VI, U.S. Department of Agri
culture, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico.
Merwe, Nicholas J. van der, Anna C. Roosevelt, and J.C.
Vogel
1981 Isotopic evidence for prehistoric subsistence
change at Parmana, Venezuela. Nature 292:536-538.
Miksicek, Charles H.
1987 Formation processes of the archaeobotanical record.
In Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, Volume
10. Academic Press, New York.
Miksicek, Charles H., Robert McK. Bird, Barbara Pickersgill,
Sara Donaghey, Juliette Cartwright, and Norman Hammond
1981 Preclassic lowland maize from Cuello, Belize. Nature
289:56-59.


337
Appendix Acontinued.
Capparidaceae
Caooaris so.
Caricaceae
Carica oaoava
Caryophyllaceae
cf. Cerastium so.*
cf. Celastraceae
Cassine xvlocaroa
Chenopodiaceae
cf. Atriolex so.*
cf. Suaeda so.
Cleomaceae
cf. Cleome so.
Combretaceae
Conocamus erectus
Cucurbitaceae
cf. Momordica charantia
Cyperaceae*
Ehretiaceae
Bourreria (succulenta)
Euphorbiaceae
cf. Croton so.
Drvoetes sd.
Euohorbia nutans*
Euohorbia so.*
Hippomane mancinella
Hura crepitans
cf. Manihot esculenta
cf. Ricinus communis* (Old World)
Fabaceae
Acacia (farnesiana)
cf. Caesalinia sd.
cf. Cassia sd.*
Desmodium sd.*
cf. Inaa sd.
Mimosoideae*
Piscidia carthaaenensis = P. Discioula
Fagaceae
Ouercus sp. (timber import)


134
Table 4.31. Plant identifications from Trunk Bay,
St. John (by count).
IDENTIFICATION:
Unit 1
Unit 1
TAXON
WILD EDIBLE:
Lv.5 #77
Lv.6 #80
TOTALS
Cockspur
5
4
9
OTHER:
cf.Bignoniac. (wood)
5
3
8
Kapok
1
1
Trunk Bay-1 (wood)
1
1
Trunk Bay-2 (wood)
1
1
Trunk Bay-3 (wood)
1
1
Uniden. starch tissue
2
2
TOTAL WOOD TYPES:
3
2
SEED TOTAL:
1
5
ARCHAEO. SEEDS:
1
5


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
NATIVE WEST INDIAN PLANT USE
By
Lee Ann Newsom
August 1993
Chair: Elizabeth S. Wing
Major Department: Anthropology
This is an archaeological study of the plant component
of diet and human adaptation in the Caribbean islands.
Archaeobotanical data from Caribbean sites, which form the
basis of this research, have been largely unstudied to date.
Nevertheless, plants play a central role in models that
attempt to explain how Ceramic Age migrants from South
America adapted to the insular environment.
Nineteen sites were tested archaeologically to provide
the first comprehensive view of plant use in the region.
The collective archaeobotanical data from Archaic and
Ceramic Age occupations form profiles of plant use that
correspond with early, later, and the final stages of
migration, settlement, and social organization in particular
island groups. The results indicate that plant resources
were an integral part of prehistoric West Indian economies,
xvii


68
Very moist sediments were encountered in the deeper
excavations of latrine deposits at Ballaja and at the water
table during excavations at En Bas Saline. In both cases,
plant remains were preserved in uncarbonized form by means
of waterlogging (anaerobic environment). Seed preservation
by mineralization, perhaps in conjunction with soil
chemistry and varying moisture conditions (Green 1979),
seems also to have occurred at several Caribbean sites.
Therefore, in terms of this research, attention was directed
not only toward whether or not plant materials were
carbonized, but also carefully considered was the general
state of preservation and association with other plant
materials. Modern, very recently intrusive seeds were
subjectively recognized on the basis of how fresh and intact
seed coats and other parts appeared, and, on occasion, also
by sectioning seeds to inspect for presence and the
condition of embryos and other seed contents (which rapidly
undergo diagenesis and decay in the burial environment).


298
Table 6.10. Morphometric data from Panicoid grass
collections, archaeological* and modern+ populations (mm) .
n=
Mean
Length
Stan.
dev.
Mean
Width
Stan
dev.
1.
EN BAS SALINE*
(glumes absent)
12
1.48
.22
1.08
. 16
2 .
Horr's Isl., Fla.*
(glumes absent)
45
1.52
.22
1.23
. 13
3.
Tehuacan, Mexico*
(with glumes)
-
2.00
-
1.2-1.
5
4.
Setaria sd.+
(Gainesville, Fla.)
20
2.27
. 13
1.16
.09
5.
same as no.4 with
glumes, carbonized
12
2.08
.08
1.02
. 13
6.
Setaria viridis+
(commercial seeds)
15
2.14
. 09
1.31
. 06
7.
same as no.6 with
glumes, carbonized
7
2.16
.27
1.46
. 16
8.
same as no.6 with
glumes removed
4
1.59
.07
1.15
. 05
9.
S. macrosoerma+
(Vero Beach, Fla.)
20
3.06
. 11
1.36
. 07
10.
same as no.9 with
glumes, carbonized
8
2.88
. 10
1.38
.07
11.
same as no.9 with
glumes removed
6
1.90
. 15
1.19
. 08
12.
S. macrosoerma+
(Sanibel Isl.,Fla.)
12
2.96
. 13
1.29
. 11
13.
same as no.12 with
glumes, carbonized
8
2.70
. 18
1.18
. 07
14.
S. faberi+
(commercial seeds)
15
2.69
. 13
1.35
. 10


282
Table 6.8. Descriptive data for West Indian races of
maize (mean measurments in millimeters).
RACE*
CF
HY
CTF
Ch
TU
EC
Ear length
17.4
18.4
21.0
19.6
21.6
18.0
Cob diameter:
basal
48.0
46.5
46.8
31.8
54.4
43.8
mid-ear
44.2
40.2
45.6
33.2
51.9
40.7
shank
16.7
18.2
18.1
9.8
18.6
14.8
Row number:
range
12-16
8-14
12-18
12-16
12-16
8-14
mean
14.2
11.1
14.7
12.5
13.4
11.6
Kernel:
width
8.8
9.4
8.7
7.0
10.0
9.4
length
9.4
9.4
9.2
10.7
11.8
9.4
*CF = Cuban Flint; HY = Haitian Yellow; CTF = Coastal
Tropical Flint; Ch = Chandelle; Tu = Tusn; EC = Early
Caribbean; St. Croix race excluded, as a recent hybrid.
Maize measurements are adapted from Brown (1953).


Table 6.2--continued.
PROVENIENCE
SAMPLE
SAMPLE
SAMPLE
LT.FRACT
WOOD
WOOD
WOOD
TOTAL ARCH.
*SEED
TYPE
VOLUME
WEIGHT
WEIGHT
WEIGHT
DEN
NO.
SEEDS SEEDS
DENSITY
(ltrs.)
(grams)
(grams)
(grams)
SITY
I DEN.
"I
-2
Area 03A Lv.l
FS
7334
f lot
5.00

1.97
1.97
0.4
0
1
0
0.2
Area 03A Lv.l
FS
7334
carbon
-
0.60
-
0.60
-
9
0
0


Area 03B Lv.l
FS
7335
f lot
5.00
-
2.19
2.10
0.4
0
31
4
6.2
0.8
Area 03B Lv.l
FS
7335
carbon
-
3.45
-
3.45
-
5
0
0


Area 04
Lv. 01
FS
7331
f lot
5.00
-
0.52
(trace)
-
0
9
9
1.8
l.G
Area 04
Lv. 04
FS
7512
f lot
5.00
-
0.62
0.62
0.1
0
9
5
1.8
1.0
Area 04
Lv. 04
FS
7512
carbon
-
2.44

2.44

8
0
0


GARDEN '
C:
Zone 1
Lv. 02
FS i
6302
f lot
5.00
-
1.33
(trace)

0
45
12
9.0
2.4
Zone 2
Lv. 01
FS i
6305
f lot
5.00
-
0.24
(trace)

0
5
1
1.0
0.2
Feat.10
Lv. 01
FS
6306
f lot
5.00
-
2.51
(trace)

0
0
0


Feat.11
Lv. 02
FS
6310
carbon
-
22.18
-
8.45

0
0
0


Feat.11
Lv. 03
FS
6312
carbon
-
60.49
-
12.90

0
5
5


Feat.11
Lv. 04
FS
6313
carbon
-
80.12
-
35.53

0
10
10


Feat.11
Lv. 05
FS
6316
f lot
5.00
-
4.23
0.00

0
4
4
0.8
0.8
Feat.11
Lv. 05
FS
6316
carbon
-
51.13
-
6.74

0
19
19


Feat.11
Lv. 06
FS
6318
carbon
-
46.87
-
7.91
-
0
7
7


Feat.11
Lv. 07
FS
6320
carbon
-
46.76
-
20.00

0
0
0


Feat.11
Lv. 08
FS
6324
carbon
-
6.35

1.45

0
0
0


Feat.11
(all)
FS
6317
carbon
-
46.41
-
9.58
-
0
1
1


Feat.11
PPM-6
FS
6851
carbon
-
5.20
-
5.20

0
0
0


Feat.15
Lv. 01
FS
6746
carbon
-
9.07
-
4.81
-
0
0
0


Feat.15
Lv. 02
FS
6748
carbon
-
7.92
-
3.90
-
0
0
0


Feat.15
Lv. 03
FS
6751
carbon
-
11.25
-
8.85
-
0
0
0

-
Feat.15
Lv.1-3
FS
6756
carbon
-
7.95
-
6.33

0
0
0


Feat.15
Lv. 04
FS
6752
carbon
-
73.26
-
47.03

40
0
0


Feat.15
Lv. 05
FS
6770
carbon
-
14.21
-
1.51

0
1
1


Feat.15
Ar.02
FS
6750
f lot
5.00
-
2.11
3.02
0.6
0
0
0


Feat.15
Ar. 02
FS
6750
carbon
-
41.00
-
17.88
-
0
0
0


Feat.15B Ar.06
FS
6773
f lot
5.00
-
0.49
1.35
0.3
0
1
1
0.2
0.2
239


Appendix Bcontinued.
IDENTIFICATION:
CULTIVATED:
cf. Guava
Maize/Indian corn
cf. Manioc/cassava
Palm, seed coat
Palm, fibrous tissue
Pepper/pimiento
Primrose
cf. Soursop
cf. Sapotaceae seed coat
OTHER:
Amaranthac./Chenopodiac.
Goosefoot family
cf. Inga/guaba
Nightshade family
Panicoid grass
Purslane
Trianthema
cf. Grass family
Legume, wild
Mallow family
cf. Myrtaceae
cf. Palmae seed/bud
Yellow stargrass
Unid, seed-type 1
Unid, seed-type 2
Unid, seed-type 3
Unid, seed-type 4
Unid, seed-type 5
Unid, seed/fruit frag.
Garden E continued
Zone 2 Zone 3
Lv. 1 Lv. 5 Lv. 5
FS7037 FS7010 FS7374
(2)
1
1
3
1
PLANT PLANT
TOTAL UBIQUITY
2
59
827++
2
++
6
251
1
5
5
6
13
2
21
46
42
3
6
2
1
4
2
1
2
5
1
4
5.7
34.3
37.1
5.7
2.9
5.7
28.6
2.9
5.7
14.3
14.3
17.1
5.7
11.4
17.1
22.9
2.9
14.3
2.9
2.9
5.7
2.9
2.9
5.7
2.9
2.9
8.8
358


312
the existance of a uniquely West Indian pattern of plant use
is beginning to emerge, one that from the outset combines
native and imported species; 2) definite patterns can be
defined relating as to the timing and scale of plant
introductions and by inference, to the first appearances in
the region of gardening, arboriculture, and more intensive
forms of plant production (e.g., crop production); finally,
3) the plant data are useful to illuminate the issue of
associations and contact with mainland areas of Central and
South America through the identification of source areas for
particular cultivated and domesticated taxa. Each of these
general themes are discussed below.
An emerging profile of plant use in the Caribbean
The replication of species presence from site to site,
spanning spatial and temporal boundaries, suggests the
existence of an established and long-term pattern of plant
use. All together more than seventy types of plants have
been recovered from Caribbean archaeological deposits.
Seeds belonging to four archaeological taxaSapotaceae,
palm, evening primrose (Oenothera sp.), and trianthemaare
widely distributed, appearing at sites located throughout
the island system in deposits representative of nearly the
full range of human occupation (Table 7.1). In particular,
sapotaceous seed coatsseveral of which were identified as
mastic-bully (Mastichodendron foetidissimum)appear in
association with preceramic-Archaic Age sites, as well as
Ceramic Age sites in the Lesser Antilles. The seed coats


18
vertebrates, were a problem with which island inhabitants
had to contend. Two archaeologists (Davis 1988; Goodwin
1980), as mentioned above, also implicate the problem of
localized crop failure as a partial explanation for the
apparent shift in Saladoid settlement patterns from inland
to coastal locations. However, explanations of the basis
for or proofs of crop failure have not advanced beyond
conjecture. The insular environmentquite distinct from
the lowland tropical American areas where the horticultural
system(s) originally was establishedmay have necessitated
modifications to plant cultivation. Presently, the question
of how and whether Saladoid colonists could have
successfully transported their crop-production system to the
insular setting has not been critically addressed. Nor have
the actual types of plants and their uses been identified.
More recently, Wing (1989), DeFrance (1989) and Siegel
(1991a, b, c) emphasized a more dynamic picture of
settlement and adaptation on the part of Cedrosan Saladoid
colonists (see also Keegan n.d.). These researchers
hypothesize a growing familiarity with the insular
environment that began with the initial entry of Saladoid
people into the West Indies. In this view, migrants almost
immediately began adding marine and other local resources to
what was transported of the previously established
subsistence system. Siegel (1991a:86) suggests that the
Saladoid colonists were "preadapted" to the insular setting
by virtue of their earlier familiarity with the aquatic


243
6.1, 6.2). Feature 15 (and 15B; Table 6.1) is a similar
feature, and is temporally and spatially associated with
Feature 11. Both features may have functioned as communal
hearths, perhaps involved in ceremonial activities at the
site. The pits are roughly rectangular, relatively
straight-sided, and flat-bottomed; Feature 11 measured
approximately 1 m deep and 1.5 m across (Figure 6.2;
Williams and Deagan 1986). Four possible postmolds occur at
the corners of Feature 15. Both features were densely
filled with plant-food remains, ash, shells, coral,
foodbone, clay griddle fragments, and pottery, including in
Feature 11 the remains of more than 140 ceramic vessels
(Cusick 1989). The diverse array of materials, along with
the centralized location, form the basis for the assumption
that Features 11 and 15 were important to ritual feasting
activities.
Features 11 and 15 occurred in one of the lowest
stratigraphic levels at the site. Feature 11 has a combined
corrected age of 600 +/-70 B.P., or between AD 1280 and 1420
(based on ceramic thermoluminescence and charcoal
radiocarbon dates [Alpha 3177-3179; Alpha 1912-1914; Beta
10526-10528; Beta 18172-18173; Beta 18469]). Nine
archaeobotanical samples come from Feature 11 (Table 6.1).
An additional eight samples were removed from associated
Feature 15 and 15B deposits. Aside from these, three
additional Garden C contexts were analyzed (Tables 6.1,


277
0 mm 5
Figure 6.6. Zea mays kernels from En Bas Saline,
Field Sample 6316 (left is popcorn
type, right is flour type).


62
to burnt, amorphous bits of material that in some cases may
represent wood exudate, and in others, unrecognizable
fragments of parenchymatous tissue.
Modern seeds were routinely identified to help define
the Caribbean weed flora and to anticipate which seed types
might be expected to occur in association with human
activity. Moreover, the identification of modern specimens
is occasionally helpful to interpret the presence in a site
of questionably ancient seeds (Miksicek 1987). In other
words, if a particular seed type from a given site occurs in
both carbonized and in fresh form, it is probable, though
not certain, that the charred specimen also is relatively
fresh and intrusive into the deposit (and see below). It
does not follow, however, that the lack of a corresponding
non-carbonized specimen at a site is evidence that a
particular carbonized seed or seed type is archaeological.
Wood identification
Wood was identified on the basis of three-dimensional
anatomy under magnifications ranging between 40x and lOOOx.
Individual charcoal specimens were prepared for anatomical
inspection by fracturing each along three surfaces (cross,
radial, and tangential). Following this, the cellular
structure of the charred wood fragments was observed and
documented with the aid of a dissecting microscope with
enhanced magnification (200-800X). Similarly, waterlogged
wood from En Bas Saline was prepared for identification by
mounting thin sections onto glass slides, which then were


Appendix Bcontinued.
IDENTIFICATION:
Garden E continued
Feat. 49 continued Area 1 Area 1 Area 3 Area 6
Lv.5 Lv.6 Lv.9 Lv.ll Lv.l ash FS3746
CULTIVATED: FS7487
cf. Guava
Maize/Indian corn
cf. Manioc/cassava 17
Palm, seed coat
Palm, fibrous tissue
Pepper/pimiento
Primrose
cf. Soursop
cf. Sapotaceae seed coat
OTHER:
FS7497 FS7585 FS7589 FS6340 FS3745 FS7040
(7) 3 (2)
2(2) 2(1)
1
6
Amaranthac./Chenopodiac.
Goosefoot family
cf. Inga/guaba 1
Nightshade family
Panicoid grass
Purslane
Trianthema
cf. Grass family
Legume, wild
Mallow family
cf. Myrtaceae
cf. Palmae seed/bud
Yellow stargrass
Unid, seed-type 1
Unid, seed-type 2
Unid, seed-type 3
Unid, seed-type 4
Unid, seed-type 5
Unid, seed/fruit frag.
Area 20
Lv.l
FS7035
1(2)
1
1
2
1
356


Table 5.7continued
IDENTIFI
CATION:
CULTIVATED:
cf. Guava
cf. Panama-tree
WILD EDIBLE:
Bully-tree
Palm (frond)
Trianthema
OTHER:
Bignoniaceae
cf. Guaba
Maga
Marble-tree
?Fig (wood)
Unid, hardwood
Unid, seed/pit
Ud. soft tissue
MODERN SEEDS:
Azioaceae
Beggar-ticks
Grass, awned
Grass, plumed
cf. Paspalum
cf. Setaria
Mallow family
Trefoil
Unid, modern
# WOOD TYPES:
SEED TOTAL:
ARCHAEO. SEEDS:
top top top
--S038/W18
50-60 60-70 80-90
F#346 F#351 F#364
112
1 1
3 1
16 4
4 1
3
1
1
3
112
4 12 10
0 1 1
top
40-50
F#336
1
2
1
5
1
6
1
21
1+
36
2
MIDDEN 3 MOUNDED-MIDDEN 1:
N112/W88 N092/W13 -N096/W13-
90-100 40-50 40-50 50-60 0-20 40-50
#588 #10 #112 #116 F#85 F#55
4
2
1
1111
6
2
2 1
2
1 11111
4 ---21
0 ---00
168


61
plant data; generally, only fungi spores (e.g., wood rotting
fungi, for example, Polyporous spp.) were observed in this
sample fraction. Other than wood charcoal and occasional
seeds or fragments, virtually all plant remains from the
Caribbean sites were recovered in the 1 mm sieve fraction.
Plant Identification
Seeds and non-wood remains
Seed identifications were made with the aid of
pictorial guides (Chase 1964; Landers and Johnson 1976;
Martin and Barkley 1973), local floras (Little and Wadsworth
1964; Little, Woodbury, and Wadsworth 1974; Liogier and
Martorell 1982), and by reference to specimens in the
collections of the Florida Museum of Natural History. Seed
measurements were made using a dissecting microscope with
either a Manostat manual-dial caliper or a Fowler Ultra-Cal
II digetal caliper. Maize remains were measured and
analyzed following Bird (1990) and King (1987). Tubers were
classified and/or identified on the basis of morphology and
anatomy using comparative specimens and literature such as
Esau (1977), Hather (1991), Hayward (1938), Jackson and
Snowdon (1990), and Onwueme (1978). On occasion, modern
seed specimens were carbonized for comparative purposes.
Identifications were made to the nearest recognizable taxon.
In some cases individual archaeological specimens were
described, but not further identified because of
insufficient material or the lack of suitable comparative
specimens. The category "unidentified soft tissue" refers


147
Similarly, lignum-vitae wood dominates the record from
Dabajuroid Wanapa (Bonaire).
Correspondence of two additional species occurs between
the Wanapa Site and the Ceramic Age sites: one is strong
bark fBourreria sp.), found at three sites, and the other is
buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus), found at two sites (Table
4.33). Likewise, four wood types are shared between Wanapa
and preceramic Krum Bay. Use of the same woods across time
and cultural boundaries is undoubtedly related to vegetation
similarities and limited possibilities for species selection
on the smaller, relatively arid islands.
Satinwood (Zanthoxvlum spp.) is the second most
frequently occurring wood overall. It was recovered from
four sites, including Macabou, Martinique (mentioned briefly
above). Following satinwood and appearing at three sites
each are strong bark (Bourreria sp.) and black mangrove
(Avicennia qerminans) (including Indian Castle-2 and Trunk
Bay-3). The remainder of the identifications are documented
from only one or two sites.
The Golden Rock investigations provided the first
opportunity to examine whether Saladoid people attempted to
match specific woods with specific purposes or functions.
Three woods from Golden Rock seem to have been used
exclusively as the primary structural members for the
Saladoid buildings: satinwood, tentatively identified black
torch (Erithalis fruticosa), and a sapotaceous wood,
probably bustic (Dipholis sp.). Lignum-vitae and bay cedar


176
the single fragment of hardwood that was recovered is not
identifiable. Nine seeds are present, but all are modern
and intrusive (Table 5.7).
Ostionoid-aqed contexts from Maisabel
Only two definitively later Ceramic Age Ostionoid
contexts have currently been examined for plant remains.
One of these is Feature 38 from the Mounded-Midden-2 area,
and the other is the ditch-feature (four individual samples;
Table 5.4) that appears to have surrounded the Ostionoid
house. Combined, there is little to discuss from these
samples since they produced few identifiable archaeological
specimens (Tables 5.6 and 5.7). Bully-tree wood is present
(Feature 38), apparently the same as appears in the earlier-
aged contexts described above. Other plant materials from
the Ostionoid samples include four small fragments of
unidentifiable hardwood (not necessarily of the same type),
a single fragment of palm frond, perhaps house thatch, and
an abundance of modern seeds (Table 5.7).
Samples from areas with variously aged deposits
Last to be discussed are samples that could not be
definitively assigned to a particular cultural complex
because of the juxtaposition of features and cultural
materials variously attributed to Hacienda Grande, Cuevas,
Monserrate, and Santa Elena styles. Carbon Samples 326
through 334 (Tables 5.4 and 5.7) are from the macroblock
house area, but are not necessarily Ostionoid in cultural
affiliation. Flotation Samples 311 to 364 (Tables 5.4, 5.7)


187
part of Puerto Rico's flora. The seeds may still belong to
Suaeda sp., paralleling the situation with primrose of a
once more extensive geographic distribution, but other
genera need to be considered. For the present purposes, and
in lieu of suitable comparative specimens with which to
compare other genera, the seeds from both sites are
classified to the family Chenopodiaceae.
Three types of wood are identified from the El Fresal
features; 11 others have been classified by their anatomy,
but not further identified. Present among the samples is a
wood belonging to the sapota family (Sapotaceae) that
conforms closely with bully-tree (Pouteria sp.). This wood
is very similar or the same as the wood specimens that were
recovered from the Calle Cristo and Maisabel sites. A
second type of Sapotaceae wood may also be present (cf.
Sapotaceae, Table 5.9). Native wild fig (Ficus sp.) is
provisionally identified among the wood remains, also
mirroring the Maisabel site.
Plant identifications from El Fresal are listed by
their respective proveniences in Table 5.10. Feature 3 is
the most diverse of the three contexts studied in terms of
wood, with 11 plant types recorded. Seeds, however, are
absent. An unidentified fragment of woody-annual (herb)
stem that may have served as tinder is present also in
Feature 3 (Table 5.10). Feature 38 produced six types of
wood and a single identifiable (stargrass) seed. In
contrast to the first two features, seeds are a conspicuous


Appendix Bcontinued.
Garden
IDENTIFICATION:
Lv. 7
CULTIVATED: FS3864
cf. Guava
Maize/Indian corn
cf. Manioc/cassava
Palm, seed coat
Palm, fibrous tissue
Pepper/pimiento
Primrose
cf. Soursop
cf. Sapotaceae seed coat
OTHER:
Amaranthac./Chenopodiac.
Goosefoot family
cf. Inga/guaba
Nightshade family
Panicoid grass
Purslane
Trianthema
cf. Grass family
Legume, wild
Mallow family
cf. Myrtaceae
cf. Palmae seed/bud
Yellow stargrass
Unid, seed-type 1
Unid, seed-type 2
Unid, seed-type 3
Unid, seed-type 4
Unid, seed-type 5
Unid, seed/fruit frag.
continued
Feature 4
Lv.8 Lv.8
FS3866 FS3881
(2)
1
Lv. 11
FS3885
Feature 14
Lv.12 Lv.l Lv.3 Lv.3 Lv.5
FS3886 FS6730 FS6898 FS6903 FS6991
1
(1)
(3)
14
35
33
1
3
(1)
18
1
2
1
3
1
352


Figure 6.8. Carbonized tubers from En Bas Saline,
(lower right is from Field Sample 6317
all others are from Field Sample 3746)


184
Table 5.9continued.
TAXON COMMON NAME PLANT
PART
Oxalis sp. sorrel (trebolillo) seed
Poaceae, indeterminate grass family seed
Poaceae cf. Bouteloua mesquite-grass (yerba
mesquite) seed
Poaceae cf. Cvnodon sp. bermuda grass (pepe ortiz) seed
Poaceae cf. Paspalum grass seed
Poaceae, Panicoid millet grass (arrocillo) seed
Portulaca sp. purslane (verdolaga) seed
Solanaceae cf. Phvsalis ground cherry (alquequenje) seed
Solanaceae cf. Solanum nightshade (yerba mora) seed
* seed may be modern.
Wood identification was not the focus of this analysis.
Thus, several types have undergone preliminary descriptive
analysis, but have not been further identified.


Table 6.1. En Bas Saline, Haiti: samples analyzed for archaeobotanical data.
LOCATION
EXCAVATION
HORIZON PROVENIENCE
SAMPLE SAMPLE
SAMPLE
UNIT
CONTEXT NUMBER
TYPE
Garden
B
941.5N
1003E
B2
Feature
24 dog burial
burial
6989
f lot
Garden
B
1101.ON
97 0E
B3
Feature
31
Level
01
pit
7190
flot,carbon
Garden
B
1101.ON
920E
B3
Feature
31
Level
02
pit
7198
flot,carbon
Garden
B
1098.ON
970E
B3
Feature
31
Level
03
pit
7197
f lot
Garden
B
1101.ON
977E
B3
Feature
31
Level
03
pit
7213
flot,carbon
Garden
B
1101.ON
920E
B3
Feature
31
Level
04
pit
7211
f lot
Garden
B
1101.ON
920E
B3
Feature
31
Level
04
pit
7332
flot,carbon
Garden
B
1101.ON
970E
B3
Feature
31A
Level
01
pit
7199
flot,carbon
Garden
B
1098.ON
970E
B3
Feature
3 IB
Level
01
pit
7202
flot
Garden
B
1101.ON
970E
B3
Feature
33
Level
01
pit
7192
flot
Garden
B
1101.ON
97 0E
B3
Feature
33
Level
03
pit
7215
flot
Garden
B
1101.ON
97 0E
B3
Feature
33
Level
04
pit
7214
flot,carbon
Garden
B
1101.ON
970E
B3
Feature
33A
Level
01
pit
7216
flot
Garden
B
1101.ON
970E
B3
Feature
35
Level
02
pit
7422
flot
Garden
B
1101.ON
970E
B3
possible
postmold-
-1
posthole fill
7527
flot
Garden
B
1098.ON
970E
B3
possible
postmold-
-3
posthole fill
7443
flot
Garden
B
1101.ON
970E
B3
possible
postmold-
-6
posthole fill
7530
flot
Garden
B
1095.ON
970E
B3
Area 01
Level 01
feature-stain
7065
flot
Garden
B
1101.ON
97 0E
B3
Area 01
Level 01
feature-stain
7191
flot,carbon
Garden
B
1095.ON
970E
B3
Area 01
Level 02
feature-stain
7072
flot,carbon
Garden
B
1101.ON
97 0E
B3
Area 03A
. Level 01
feature-stain
7334
flot,carbon
Garden
B
1101.ON
970E
B3
Area 03B
i Level 01
feature-stain
7335
flot,carbon
Garden
B
1105.ON
970E
B3
Area 04
Level 01
feature-stain
7331
flot
Garden
B
1105.ON
970E
B3
Area 04
Level 04
feature-stain
7512
flot,carbon
Garden
C
1000.ON
977E
Sq.
B
A
Zone 01
Lev
. 2 NW
& SE
general soil
6302
flot
Garden
C
1000.ON
977E
Sq.
B
B1
Zone 02
Level 01 SW
general soil
6305
flot
Garden
C
1000.ON
977E
Sq.
B
B3
Feature
10
Level
01
pit
6306
flot
Garden
c
1000.ON
977E
Sq.
B
B3
Feature
11
Level
02
hearth-pit
6310
carbon
Garden
c
1000.ON
977E
Sq.
B
B3
Feature
11
Level
03
hearth-pit
6312
carbon
Garden
c
1000.ON
977E
Sq.
B
B3
Feature
11
Level
04
hearth-pit
6313
carbon
Garden
c
1000.ON
977E
Sq.
B
B3
Feature
11
Level
05
hearth-pit
6316
flot,carbon
Garden
c
1000.ON
977E
Sq.
B
B3
Feature
11
Level
06
hearth-pit
6318
carbon
232


Table 4.3. Plant identifications from Wanapa, Bonaire* (by count).
IDENTIFICATION
116/110-
116/108-
-114/112-
H4/H0-
Lv. 1 Lv. 2 Lv. 3 Lv. 4
Lv. 5 Lv. 2 Lv. 3
Lv. 4
Lv. 5
Lv. 3
Lv. 4
Lv. 2 Lv. 3
Lv. 4
LV. 5
(POSSIBLE)
EDIBLE:
Geelhout
1
2
3
Strong bark
1
1
2
OTHER:
Boxwood
Buttonwood
1 3
2
3
4
Caper tree-1
cf.Caper tree-2
1
4
3
1
1
cf. Cedar
2 3
1
1
2
2
1
1 2
Flacourtiaceae
2
4
1
Lignum-vitae
Wanapa-1
Wanapa-2
3 11
15
115
16
8
3
1
4
1
Wanapa-3
Unid, hardwood
1
MODERN:
Legume seed
TOTAL NO.
WOOD TYPES:
13 3
4
4 12
4
3
3
3
1 2
4
3
SEED TOTAL:
0 0 0
0
0 0 0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
*Samples with no identifiable plant material are excluded here; see Table 4.1.
Values in parentheses are tentative identifications.


225
identified in 1963 (Rouse and Alegria 1990:22-23), should be
reevaluated against the full array of species presently
considered native to Puerto Rico and other Caribbean
islands. It is probable that both native and introduced
species of Pouteria were exploited by prehistoric
inhabitants of Puerto Rico. The possibility of Archaic Age
plant introductions is further supported by the apparently
introduced Manilkara at Krum Bay, and the possibly
introduced status of Oenothera which first appears at
Hichmans' Shell Heap. Pouteria campechiana fruit is eaten
fresh and in beverages; it is high in niacin, vitamins A and
C, proteins, carbohydrates (Martin et al. 1978:61; Popenoe
1939) .
Another important plant identification from the Archaic
deposits in Maria de la Cruz cave is avocado. Specifically,
carbonized seeds of a purportedly wild form were recovered
with the 1948 excavation of the site (Rouse and Alegria
1990:22-23). Avocado is believed to have originated in
Mexico (Ford 1984:180; Liogier and Martorell 1982:52: Martin
et al. 1987:31). Therefore, wild avocado, like the three
plants mentioned above, may first have been transported into
the Caribbean islands by Archaic Age groups. However, just
as was discussed earlier regarding wild papaya at the El
Parking site, until more evidence is gathered introduction
by drift or faunal dispersers is just as likely a
possibility to account for avocado's early presence in
Puerto Rico. That the seeds (avocado and papaya) seem to be


CHAPTER 6
RESULTS OF ARCHAEOBOTANICAL ANALYSES: HISPANIOLA
Two sites on the island of Hispaniola were examined in
the course of this study. En Bas Saline is a large Chican
Ostionoid site (Carrier complex) on the north coast of
Haiti. In addition to approximately 200 years of
prehistoric Taino occupation, En Bas Saline is probably the
location where Columbus established the fortification La
Navidad in 1492 (Deagan 1986, 1987; Krieger 1929:476). The
site was abandoned shortly following European contact.
The second site discussed in this results section is La
Isabela, situated on the north coast of the Dominican
Republic. La Isabela also is tied to Columbus; it is the
place of the failed Spanish settlement initiated by Columbus
in January 1494 (Deagan 1992; Krieger 1929:474-475). Unlike
En Bas Saline, plant samples from Isabela are few and
botanical preservation is very limited. Nevertheless, at
least one of the species identified from Isabela is
pertinent to this research and adds to the overall
interpretation of plant use in the Caribbean islands.
There currently exists no direct evidence for the
prehistoric presence of fully domesticated plants in Puerto
Rico, or from any of the other aboriginal occupations
discussed thus far. Nonetheless, artifactsfor example,
228


212
also, introduced forms, or free-ranging wild taxa. This is
an important distinction because domesticated plants, on the
one hand, and wild plants, on the other, imply vastly
different approaches to diet and food production (more
intensive care and manipulation, versus casual,
opportunistic fruit collection). Furthermore, even though
the seeds much post-date the Tainos of Puerto Rico, we need
to begin to document when domesticated forms actually
appeared among the respective island cultures to fully
address human adaptation and changing perspectives on land
use and food production. Eventually, gaps in information
and the documentation of ethnobotanical details between
historic and prehistoric records should be filled as more
data are gathered from Puerto Rico and other Caribbean
islands.
Papaya, pepper, and maize were present in the Caribbean
prior to European contact, as stated previously. The papaya
seed from Feature 34 of the El Parking site does not differ
morpologically from a wild form of papaya. Similarly,
morphometric data can clarify whether the Baliaja papaya and
pepper specimens came from domesticated or from wild forms
of the potential housegarden plants. In addition to the
more intensive morphometric analyses of papaya and pepper
seeds, measurements of Baliaja seeds belonging to the two
newly identified (for the Caribbean) plantssoursop and
tomatoare reported below for future comparative purposes.
Unfortunately, the tentative maize identification from


Table 5.11. Archaeobotanical samples from El Parking Site (PO-38),
Cerrillos River Valley, Puerto Rico. (Sample from Unit 30,
Feature 52 is light fraction only.)
PROVENIENCE
CONTEXT
SAMPLE
VOLUME
(ltrs.)
SAMPLE
WEIGHT
(grams)
LT.FRACT.
WEIGHT
(grams)
WOOD
WEIGHT
(grams)
WOOD
DEN
SITY
WOOD
NO.
I DEN.
TOTAL ARCH.
SEEDS SEEDS
SEED
DEN
SITY
Unit
01,
level
01
general
1.00
(trace)




1
1
1.0
Unit
01,
level
02
general
1.00
(trace)
-
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
02,
Feat.
01
feature
6.00
7.03
7.03
7.03
1.2
57
2
2
0.3
Unit
02 ,
level
04
general
1.00
(trace)
-
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
03 ,
Feat.
04
feature
1.00
(trace)
-
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
03,
lvls.
1-6
general
9.00
(trace)
-
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
04 ,
lvls.
1-4
general
4.00
(trace)
-
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
05,
lvls.
1-5
general
5.00
(trace)
-
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
06,
lvls.
1-4
general
4.00
(trace)
-
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
07,
Feat.
06
feature
5.00
(trace)
-
(trace)
-
4
0
0
-
Unit
08,
lvls.
1-7
general
7.00
(trace)
-
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
09,
lvls.
1-3
general
3.00
(trace)
-
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
11/
lvls.
1-2
general
2.00
(trace)
-
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
13,
Feat.
17
pit
4.00
8.50
0.87
7.63
1.9
3
2
2
0.5
Unit
13 ,
Feat.
47
pit
4.00
0.58
0.58
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
13,
Feat.
48
hearth
4.00
0.24
0.24
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
15,
Feat.
12
hearth
4.00
0.15
0.15
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
17 ,
Feat.
14
post/pit
4.00
0.11
0.11
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
18 ,
Feat.
45
hearth
4.00
0.23
0.23
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
18,
Feat.
46
hearth
4.00
0.16
0.16
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
19,
Feat.
15
hearth
4.00
0.07
0.07
(trace)
-
1
0
0
-
Unit
19,
Feat.
20
postmold
4.00
0.07
0.07
-
-
-
1
1
0.2
Unit
20,
Feat.
53
post
4.00
0.25
0.25
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
20,
Feat.
55
post/pit
4.00
0.47
0.47
(trace)
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
20,
Feat.
56
post/pit
4.00
0.22
0.22
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
21,
Feat.
60
pit
4.00
0.11
0.11
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
24 ,
Feat.
40
post/pit
4.00
3.66
1.25
2.41
0.6
0
0
0
-
193


81
Table 4.5. Plant identifications from Pearls, Grenada.
TAXON
COMMON NAME
PLANT
PART
Archaeololgical:
Celtis icjuanaea*
Palmae
Mastichodendron
foetidissimum
Unidentified hardwood
cockspur (azufaifo)
palm family
mastic-bully,
(tortugo amarillo)
seed
seed
seed
wood
Modern seeds:
Fabaceae, cf. Cicer
Mvristica fraarans
cf. chick pea (Old World)
nutmeg (Old World)
seed
seed
*Celtis seeds are mineralized.


324
of cultigens in the Caribbean islands. Five palynological
studies of prehistoric sites on Hispaniola and Puerto Rico
have been completed (Fortuna 1978, n.d.; Garcia Arevalo and
Tavares 1978; Higuera-Gundy 1991; Nadal et al. 1991; Rouse
and Alegria 1990); even though pollens of cultivated and
otherwise useful plants were documented in some of the
profiles, the temporal placement for each of the
identifications is tenuous, as discussed in Chapter 1.
Historic records mention at least seven types of root
crop that were regularly cultivated by the Taino at the time
Europeans arrived. Manioc (Manihot esculenta) and sweet
potato (Ipomoea batata) were the most important plant
staples in the Caribbean islands, with manioc ("yuca")
functioning as the primary crop. The Taino referred to
sugary sweet potatoes as "batata"; less sweet forms were
called "aje" (or "age") (Sauer 1966:54). Las Casas's
description of manioc planting and use (Apologtica. Chapter
10 [in Sauer 1966:53]) implies that bitter manioc cultivars
were grown, based on the information that the first crop of
tubers was available one to one and a half years after
planting (typically the case with bitter forms of manioc),
and that the tubers were prepared by grating, juicing, and
baking the pulp (to eliminate toxins). The tubers from
sweet or non-bitter manioc cultivars can be harvested for
consumption within approximately six months of planting.
These are thought by Sauer (1966:54) also to have been
produced by the Taino.


Appendix Bcontinued
Garden E (continued)
IDENTIFICATION: Feat. 4 9 continued Area 1 Area 1 Area 3 Area 6
Lv.5 Lv.6 Lv.9 Lv.ll Lv.l ash FS3746
FS7487 FS7497 FS7585 FS7589 FS6340 FS3745 FS7040
Unid, s.coat/periderm
Unid, soft tissue 1 24 10
MODERN SEEDS:
Amaranth
cf. Bur
Carpet weed
Crowfoot grass
cf. Cyperus sp.
Euphorbia nutans
Euphorb, cf. Ricinus
cf. Goosefoot family
Grass family
cf. Ground cherry
Guava
Legume family
Mallow family
Mexican poppy
Panicoid grass 1
Portulacaceae
Purslane
Sunflower family
Unid, spherical seed
Unid, triangular seed
Unid, seed, crenate
Unid, lobed fruit
Unid, seed
SEED TOTAL:
ARCHAEO. SEED TOTAL:
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
14 6 0
14 5 0
Area 20
Lv.l
FS7035
2
29
6
6


Finally, I extend my appreciation to friends and
family. My parents and sisters have been immensely
encouraging and unwavering in their support. My son,
Woodrow, has earned this degree along with me: excavating on
Grenada, sorting seeds, studying Columbus, and generally
experiencing all of the ups and downs. He deserves a great
deal of credit for his patience, perseverance, and good
humor.


182
with indirect evidence from certain of the wood
identifications described below, may be interpreted as
possible subsistence items.
Plant identifications from the three El Fresal features
are shown in Table 5.9. Plants grouped as archaeological
types include at least 19 different types. A diverse
assemblage of modern seeds was recovered with the samples;
none of these seeds occurs also in carbonized form.
Archaeological seeds include goosefoot family
(Chenopodiaceae), stargrass (Hypoxis sp.), evening primrose
(Oenothera sp.), maypop (Passiflora sp.), and wild raspberry
(Rubus sp.). Three of these are problematical, to varying
degrees. The single maypop (Passiflora sp.) seed is
possibly mineralized and may be older than the seeds
classified as modern. However, unless and until additional
evidence is gathered, including the recovery of more maypop
specimens, the seed may be better grouped with the modern
seed types.
Similarly, the raspberry seeds seem to have been
preserved in the deposits through mineralization, but it is
difficult to say whether they are truely contemporaneous
with prehistoric activities at the site. The situation with
this type of seed (raspberry), given that it possesses a
hard, boney seed coat, is basically the same as that
described for the cockspur (Celtis sp.) seeds from the
Lesser Antilles sites described in Chapter 4. Likewise,
conditions (i.e., the clayey, in this case, deposits and the


Table 7.1. Crop, homegarden, and other plants with food or medicinal value from Caribb
sites (presence in macroremains; tentative identifications in parentheses).
LESSER
ANTILLES
PUERTO RICO
PUERTO RICO
HISPAN
BAHAMAS/
CROP SPECIES:
SOUTHERN
NORTHERN
(prehistoric)
(historic)
IOLA
SO. FLORIDA
Maize, flour type *
(BB)
EBS
Maize, popcorn *
EBS
Manioc *
EBS
?cassava bread
(TB)
EBS
cf. Sweet potato *
EBS
Unid, starchy tissue
(HE)
EBS
HOMEGARDEN TREES:
Avocado (wild) *
MC
Bully-tree/jacana
M, CC, (EF)
Calabash tree
(M), (EB)
Genip/quenepa
(EBS)
Genipa/j agua
(EBS)
Guava
(M)
(EBS)
Inga/guaba
M
EBS
Palm family
HW, P
(KB)
EB
BB
EBS
SF
Panama tree *
(M)
Papaya *
EP
BB
SF
Sapodilla
KB
Soursop (*)
(EB)
BB
(EBS)
Star-apple/caimito
(EBS)
Yellow sapote *
MC
HOMEGARDEN HERBS:
Pepper/pimiento (*)
BB
EBS
SF
Primrose
HS
EL, EP
EBS
Tomato *
BB
OTHER FOOD/MEDICINAL:
Bullet-wood/ausubo
Clusia/cupey
(EBS)
313


CHAPTER 5
RESULTS OF ARCHAEOBOTANICAL ANALYSES: PUERTO RICO
Plant remains from the Greater Antilles are in general
more abundant, and represent more species, than the sites in
the Lesser Antilles. Consequently, archaeobotanical
research on Greater Antilles sites is presented separately.
The results of research with archaeobotanical collections
from five sites on Puerto Rico are presented in this
chapter, and the next chapter covers two sites on
Hispaniola.
Two of the data sets from Puerto Rico are fairly
extensive, while the other three sites are represented by
few samples and/or few identifications. To compensate for
the unevenness between sites, the data are considered
broadly, documenting where and at what age the various
plants appear. More sophisticated, quantative analyses must
await additional data collection. The present synthesis is
a gross, sub-regional perspective on plant use that
undoubtedly will undergo revision as more data are gathered,
but which serves as the first formulation of Ceramic-Age
plant use in the Greater Antilles. Furthermore, these data
together with the information presented in Chapter 6 provide
the first verifications of the types of plants and
150


13
of Saladoid people into the West Indies (Keegan n.d.; Siegel
1991a). The pace of migration, at least to as far as Puerto
Rico, midway up the island arc, is believed to have been
rapid, perhaps taking place within 2-3 generations (Haviser
1988, 1991b; Keegan 1985, 1992, n.d.; Rouse 1986, 1989;
Siegel 1991b). By 600 A.D. descendents of the original
Saladoid populations had moved throughout Hispaniola and
into Jamaica and eastern Cuba; by at least 800 A.D. the
migration encompassed central Cuba and the Bahamas (Rouse
1989) .
At least two scholars have attempted to go beyond the
impetus for the original emigration, to try and explain the
process of migration, once underway, in the insular setting.
Keegan (1985, 1992) has theorized the population front as
proceeding in advance of the point where population pressure
would exceed the carrying capacity of individual islands.
Thus, as necessary resources became less readily available,
Saladoid groups would have shifted settlement to the next
available large island to begin exploiting its array of
resources. This is one alternative to deal with the problem
of economic shortage.
Roe (1989), on the other hand, hypothesized a "push"
situation that basically is an extension of the original
thrust out into the archipelagomigration fueled by
overpopulation and an increasingly inadequate resource base.
In Roe's model each successive island was colonized as
groups were forced to create new settlements to maintain


269
Similarly, Oenothera is fairly conspicuous among the
site deposits tested, with 251 seeds appearing across 24% of
the contexts analyzed. Oenothera seeds are particularly
abundant in the post-contact period Feature 14 (244 seeds;
Table 6.4). En Bas Saline provides the best evidence for
Oenothera's presence at the sites analyzed thus far from the
Caribbean islands. As previously stated, the genus no
longer occurs on Hispaniola, or on Puerto Rico and the
Lesser Antilles.
Likewise, trianthema has its greatest representation in
the samples from En Bas Saline (27% ubiquity; Table 6.4).
Otherwise, trianthema has been documented from Krum Bay, St.
Thomas (seven proveniences, 28 seeds [Pearsall 1983]), and
from Maisabel, Puerto Rico (one seed). At Krum Bay
uncarbonized trianthema seeds also were recovered, but with
two exceptions the 28 carbonized seeds came from relatively
deeply buried deposits and all are considered relevant to
the archaeological occupation (Pearsall 1983). At En Bas
Saline, trianthema, like Oenothera, is most conspicuous in
the contact-period Feature 14 (18 seeds; Table 6.4).
From the frequencies and ubiquity values at the end of
Table 6.4 it is clear that edible plants, including
homegarden types, are more abundantly represented in the
archaeological deposits at En Bas Saline than are non-edible
species. Non-edible types are present in much lower numbers
and appear in fewer proveniences (Table 6.4). This strongly
suggests that the remains of the edible plants in En Bas


310
and complexity of Taino plant production systems described
in the ethnohistoric accounts.


379
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1984 The obsidian chip/manioc grating hypothesis and the
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1964 Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
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326
relatively slowly, beginning with the combination-tuber
cropping by Saladoid (? and Archaic) people, and developing
locally into agricultural systems that incorporated maize,
and in some cases also, more labor-intensive forms of
agriculture including bench terraces in Puerto Rico (Ortiz
Aguilu et al. 1991) and irrigated ditch networks on
Hispaniola (Krieger 1929:488; Las Casas 1909, ch.5:15, ch.
60:154). Why maize may have been less important in the West
Indies than on the nearby mainland (Las Casas 1971; Sauer
1966; Sturtevant 1961) is still unclear, although parallels
in both South and North America offer important hypotheses
to account for the situation.
Maize may have entered the West Indies at a relatively
late date. The plant does not appear to have become a major
staple in northern Amazonia until well after the first
Cedrosan Saladoid horticulturists began their migration into
the Caribbean islands (Pearsall 1990; Roosevelt 1980; Rouse
1986; Sanoja and Vargas 1983; van der Merwe et al. 1981;
Zucchi et al. 1984). The insular environment may have been
even less conducive five centuries ago to the production of
early varieties of maize (Litzenberger n.d.); corn is not a
staple crop among subsistence farmers in the Greater
Antilles today, nor is it a significant part of the
Caribbean diet.
Given these factors, it is possible that maize simply
was overshadowed by the primary system of root cropping and
arboriculture that seems to have become established quite


2
258). The transition to gardening and the manipulation of
local floras, either intentionally or otherwise, have
essentially gone without consideration. Gardening and other
more deliberate means to procure plant food items are
generally thought to be phenomena that coincide with the
migration of Amazonian root-crop horticulturists into the
Lesser Antilles. The later emergence of complex, socially
stratified societies in the Caribbean appears to be linked
to the development of subsistence economies based on more
intensive forms of plant production, including agriculture
(Rouse 1992; Wilson 1990). However, the development of
these systems is at best poorly understood.
Changes in subsistence and general economic patterns
have long been a preoccupation of Caribbeanist
archaeologists. Apparent shifts in emphasis on different
food items or categories of foods appear to occur in the
archaeological record, based primarily on the presence of
zooarchaeological remains and on changes in settlement
pattern (cf. Seigel 1990). For example, the "crab-shell
dichotomy (Jones 1985; Keegan 1989) is broadly defined to
theoretically indicate a dietary shift on some islands from
a diet based on land crabs and terrestrial fauna to one
emphasizing marine foods, including shellfish. Changes in
plant food production are generally believed to have
coincided with the shifts in protein capture and settlement
patterns; nevertheless, any shift in the use of plant foods
is without direct documentation (i.e., by the identification


52
and also the later Esperanza, Capa, and Boca Chica styles of
eastern and western Puerto Rico (Rouse 1992).
Several fairly large hearth-like burned deposits were
excavated by Melendez, and samples from three of the hearth
like deposits were analyzed for plant remains. All such
archaeobotanical samples were initially processed by water
flotation.
El Parking Site (PO-38). Puerto Rico
Deposits at the El Parking site (PO-38) belong to a
late Saladoid, specifically Cuevas, to early Ostionoid
occupation located in south-central Puerto Rico in the
Cerrillos River Valley (Sector Los Fondos, barrio Maraguez,
Municipio Ponce). Excavations at the site were conducted
during 1989 and 1991 by Guy G. Weaver of Garrow and
Associates, Inc., Memphis, Tennessee.
The El Parking site is situated at the north end of an
alluvial terrace at the base of the steep western valley
wall, and approximately 15 kilometers north of the southern
coast of Puerto Rico (Weaver 1992). Physiographically, the
site is situated in a transitional zone between the
Cordillera Central and the low Coastal Plain (Weaver 1992).
Old living floors and hearth-like deposits were
uncovered in the course of excavations; several of these
features were tested for the presence of archaeobotanical
remains. All samples were initially processed by means of
water flotation. Features 14, 17, and 34samples from
which are included in the analyses presented in Chapter 5


CHAPTER 4
RESULTS OF ARCHAEOBOTANICAL ANALYSES:
LESSER ANTILLES AND BONAIRE
The results of research with collections of plant
remains from archaeological sites in the Lesser Antilles are
described in the following sections. Discussed are
collections from three sites located in the Windward Island
group, including one site on the geographically isolated
island of Bonaire, and from nine sites in the Leeward group
of the Lesser Antilles (Figure 4.1).
Windward Islands and Bonaire
Wanapa. Bonaire
Although Bonaire is outside the general flow of
migratory prehistoric human groups through the islands of
the West Indies (Rouse 1986, 1989, 1992), the Dabajuroid
Wanapa site is the first of prehistoric settlements located
in the small western island group of Curasao, Bonaire, and
Aruba to be subjected to paleoethnobotanical scrutiny. Thus
the analyses of plant materials are included here.
Moreover, the data are relevant to a general understanding
of prehistoric adaptation and human influence in the region.
Because plant remains from the Wanapa Site were
isolated from the archaeological deposits using 2.8 mm-mesh
screens, archaeobotanical specimens recovered consist
69


292
shape, and texture (archaeological specimens from Peru were
examined during a visit to Dr. Ugent's lab, Southern
Illinois University, March 1993). One feature possibly
lacking on the En Bas Saline specimens that is well
preserved on the Peruvian sweet potato remains is the
presence of shoot primordia ('eyes") However, circular
depressions on the surfaces of a few specimens from En Bas
Saline (Figure 6.8, center-bottom) may be the remants of
burned primordia.
Other types of tuber aside from manioc and sweet potato
may be among the fragmentary remains from En Bas Saline,
since the Taino are known to have cultivated as many as six
additional rootcrops. According to Sauer (1966:53) and
Sturtevant (1961, 1969) minor rootcrops in the Caribbean
included arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), yautia (Xanthosoma
spp.), guinea arrowroot (Calathea allouia), yam or aja
(Dioscorea trfida), and edible canna (Canna edulis).
Sturtevant (1969:189-192) has suggested that native Zamia
sp. also was incorporated into the Taino rootcropping
system, based on Las Casas7 description of the plant
"guayaga" and its use. The possible presence of these
additional rootcrops at En Bas Saline necessarily will go
undetected until additional archaeological specimens and/or
adequate comparative materials are available.
Capsicum pepper. Another important component of Taino
gardens was pepper plant(s). Las Casas (in Sauer 1966:57)
related that three types of pepper were regularly used by


125
wood, judging by the wide lumens and comparatively thin
walls of fibers which comprise most of the surface area of
the wood, is very tentatively identified as kapok or silk
cotton (Ceiba pentandra). (Insufficient archaeological
specimens are currently present with which to further the
identificaton.) Finally, the Hope Estate remains include
two small fragments of what appear to be soft parenchymatous
tissue, perhaps the remains of starchy tuber or another form
of storage tissue (such as endosperm).
Table 4.25 shows how the Hope Estate archaeobotanical
identifications partition among the pair of proveniences
that underwent analysis. Lignum-vitae occurs in both
samples; it is the sole species recovered from Level 3a.
Mirroring Wanapa, Hichmans' Site, Indian Castle, and Golden
Rock, lignum-vitae is most abundant of the Hope Estate
identifications (18 fragments total). The six other woods
from Hope Estate are represented by less material (Table
4.25). Based on the present data, it is impossible to judge
whether the lower freguencies of the other taxa are a
reflection of relative importance, or, alternatively, of
preservation biases and/or the differential effects of
carbonization.
Beach Access Site. St. John, Virgin Islands
As with Hope Estate, only two samples were analyzed
from the Beach Access Site (also known as Lameschur Bay),
St. John (Table 4.26). The site has preceramic Archaic
(Ortoiroid), as well as Saladoid (Huecan) components.



PAGE 1

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271
possible homegarden species represented at the site, with
the provisional identification cf. genip and with the type
bustic/camito. Three wood types, to the extent the
identifications are correct, apparently also are present
among the seed remains, including palm, cf. guaba, and cf.
guava.
Table 6.5 shows the distributions of the various wood
types across the site. One or more mangrove species are
present in nearly every context sampled. Mangrove wood
appears as frequently in prehistoric- as in historic-aged
deposits. Black mangrove is most conspicuous of the wood
types, occurring in 81% of the contexts sampled. Buttonwood
is nearly as frequent, appearing in 67% of the samples (cf.
buttonwood specimens are nearly identical, but differ by
virtue of the vascular rays which are weakly, rather than
strongly heterocellular, but not necessarily indicative of a
distinct wood type). Red mangrove appears in slightly more
than half the samples analyzed (Table 6.5).
Palm wood is fourth in frequency of occurrence at En
Bas Saline, followed by cf. guaba and bustic/caimito. All
other wood types occur in four or fewer proveniences. Five
of the woods (bullet-wood, jagua/West Indian boxwood,
sweetwood/satinwood, cf. West Indian elm, and EBS-10)
apparently occur exclusively in latest prehistoric to
contact-period samples; the woods cf. laurel family and
poison-wood/spicewood have been identified only from
historic Feature 4-6-8.


Table 4.8. Archaeobotanical samples from Heywoods Site, Barbados.
(Wood and seed concentrations [density] are not available because the
original samples volumes were not recorded prior to sieving procedures.)
PROVENIENCE
CONTEXT
SAMPLE
SAMPLE
LT.FRACT.
WOOD
WOOD
WOOD
TOTAL
ARCH.
VOLUME
WEIGHT
WEIGHT
WEIGHT
DENSITY
NO.
SEEDS
SEEDS
(ltrs.)
(grams)
(grams)
(grams)
IDEN.
Suazoid:
HW/14/4
midden
-
11.94

11.94

1
0
0
HW/16/4
midden
-
0.20
-
0.20

1
0
0
HW/21/1
midden
-
(trace)
-
(trace)

2
0
0
HW/23/2
midden
-
0.59

0.50

0
0
0
HW/32/3
midden
-
0.60
-
0.60

3
0
0
HW/34/6
midden
-
1.83
-
(trace)

0
3
0
HW/35/7
midden
-
0.96

0.96

1
0
0
HW/36/2
midden

2.59
-
2.59
-
1
0
0
TOTALS Suazoid:
18.71
16.79
9
3
0
Troumassoid:
HW/25/7
midden
-
0.67

0.67

1
0
0
HW/39/5
midden
-
0.48
-
0.48

2
0
0
HW/39/6
midden
-
0.57

0.57

0
0
0
HW/39/7
midden

0.40
0.40
-
1
0
0
TOTALS,
Troumassoid:
2.12
2.12
4
0
0


377
Honychurch, Penelope N.
1986 Caribbean Wild Plants and their Uses. Macmillan
Publishers, Ltd., London.
Howard, Richard
1974-1989 Flora of the Lesser Antilles. Arnold Arboretum,
Harvard University. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Jackson, Betty P. and Derek W. Snowdon
1990 Atlas of Microscopy of Medicinal Plants and Culinary
Herbs and Spices. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Johnson, A.
1983 Machiguenga gardens. In Adaptive Responses of Native
Amazonians. R.B. Hames and W.T. Vickers, editors, pp.
29-63. Academic Press, New York.
Jones, Alick R.
1985 Dietary change and human population at Indian Creek,
Antigua. American Antiquity 50(3):518-536.
Keegan, William F.
n.d. The Caribbean (including northern South America and
eastern Central America). The Cambridge Historical.
Geographical, and Cultural Encyclopedia of Human Nutri
tion. three volumes. Cambridge University Press (in
review).
1985 Dynamic Horticulturalists: Population Expansion in
the Prehistoric Bahamas. Ph.D. dissertation, Department
of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles.
1987 Diffusion of maize from South America: the Antillean
connection reconstructed. In Emergent Horticultural
Economies of the Eastern Woodlands. William F. Keegan
(editor), pp. 329-344. Occasional Paper no. 7, Center
for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois
University, Carbondale.
1989 Transition from a terrestrial to a maritime economy:
a new view of the crab/shell dichotomy. In Early Ceramic
Population Lifewavs and Adaptive Strategies in the
Caribbean. Peter E. Siegel (editor), pp. 119-128. BAR
International Series 506. Oxford.
1992 The People who Discovered Columbus: the Prehistory of
the Bahamas. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.
1993 Archaic and Saladoid diets in the West Indies: too
little land and too much sea. Paper presented at the
58th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeo-
ology, St. Louis, Missouri.


118
thesis. The researchers' careful definition and excavation
of structural (i.e. buildings) and depositional contexts,
including hearths, pit-like features, and postholes at
Golden Rock greatly facilitates functional interpretations
of the carbonized wood remains.
Three Golden Rock woods are associated with postholes
that appear to form circular house-structure outlines, and
almost certainly served as post supports for the Saladoid
buildings (Structures 1, 4, and 5). These woods are
satinwood (two posts from Structure 4; perhaps two others,
one from Structure 5, and the other from Structure 1), cf.
black torch (two probable posts, Structure 4), and cf.
bustic (one post each from Structure 4 and from Structure
5). Besides the apparent positioning of these woods in the
circular arrangements of postpipes, additional corroborative
evidence for the post/structural function of satinwood,
black torch, and bustic comes from intrasample matching
patterns of growth rings (general agreement of ring widths
and spacing). Growth ring agreement is a strong indication
that the fragments likely derive from a single, original
bole or section of wood (Newsom 1992c). Moreover, post
samples are characterized by very narrow species diversity
(no more than two, but typically a single type of wood) (see
Table 4.22, post samples; and see Newsom 1992c for
additional detail). Together these data indicate that the
wood specimens are in primary position, not secondarily


Table 6.4continued.
GARDEN E prehist.:
Feat.26 Feat.47A Feat.49
Lv.4 Lv.l all lvls
IDENTIFICATION:
CULTIVATED:
cf. Guava
Maize/Indian corn
cf. Manioc tuber
Palm hard seed coat
Palm, fibrous tissue
Pepper/pimiento
Primrose
cf. Soursop
cf. Sapotaceae seed
WILD EDIBLE:
Amaranth./Chenopod.
Goosefoot family
cf. Inga/guaba
Nightshade family
Panicoid grass
Purslane
Trianthema
cf. Grass family
Legume, wild (seed)
Legume, wild (fruit)
Mallow family
cf. Myrtaceae
Yellow stargrass
Unid, seed-type 1
Unid, seed-type 2
Unid, seed-type 3
Unid, seed-type 4
Unid, seed-type 5
Unid, soft tissue
ARCHAEO. SEED TOTAL:
(3) 29(40)
5
1
1
1
1
1
17 12
0 11 1
oj o
late preh./contact:
Zone 3 Area 6 Feat.14 & Feat.16 Feat.25
Lv.5 FS3746 14A/B/C Lv.3 Lv.l
2
1(1)
(2) 6 1(9)
3(1)
(3)
244
2
1 1
3
1(1)
18
1
3
2
1
23 3 7
0 285 0 6
262


122
Hope Estate fSM-026). St. Martin
Archaeobotanical samples from Hope Estate are
attributed to another, but earlier (Cedrosan), Saladoid
settlement (Haviser 1988) Currently, only two Hope Estate
samples have been completely analyzed (Table 4.23). Even
so, significant data were produced. The samples come from
one-meter-square units that were excavated by 10-cm levels
and with regard to the natural and cultural stratigraphy.
All material from each excavation level was sieved through
2.8 mm mesh, the same procedure as was employed for the
Wanapa Site. Sample XVII-Area 3-Level 6 was taken from
intact midden; Sample XXII-T10-Level 3a came from an area of
redeposited (secondary) midden (Jay Haviser, pers. com.).
Eight types of plants were identified from the Hope
Estate samples to various taxonomic levels (Table 4.24).
Strong bark (Bpurreria sp.), lignum-vitae (Guaiacum sp.),
and satinwood (Zanthoxvlum sp.) were positively identified.
Each of these three woods was recorded for at least one of
the archaeological sites mentioned previously: strong bark
at Wanapa, and possibly also Hichmans' Site (GE-5) ; lignum-
vitae at Wanapa, Hichmans' Site, Indian Castle, and Golden
Rock, and; satinwood at Golden Rock. Fish poison (Piscida
carthaqenesis) was identified in two samples from Golden
Rock and is provisionally identified in the Hope Estate
material.
A wood that resembles gray nickers (Caesalpinia sp.)
occurs in one Hope Estate sample. A relatively low-density


71
exclusively of carbonized wood. Seeds and other non-wood
remains are lacking, with the exception of a single modern
seed. The lack of ancient seeds among the Wanapa materials
is probably because techniques designed to recover small
seeds and fragments were not employed at this site.
Of the 45 Wanapa samples analyzed, 34 yielded
identifiable plant material (Table 4.1). Nine woods were
identified, including at least six genera: strong bark
(Bourreria sp.), boxwood (Bumelia sp.), caper tree (Capparis
sp.), geelhout (Casearia sp.), buttonwood (Conocarpus
erectus), and lignum-vitae (Guaiacum sp.) (Table 4.2). Two
additional wood types are assigned to the families
Bignoniaceae and Flacourtiaceae, but could not be otherwise
identified. The wood designated cf. Capparis sp. (Table
4.2) possibly represents a separate species of caper tree,
but further identification was impeded by poor preservation
of the individual specimens. Finally, three additional wood
types are recognized and preliminarily described by anatomy
(Wanapa types 1-3; Table 4.2), but each is represented by
insufficient material with which to proceed further with
identification.
Plant identifications for individual proveniences from
the Wanapa site are shown in Table 4.3. On a sample by
sample basis, species diversity is narrow, with fewer than
six wood types appearing in a given sample. Lignum-vitae is
prominent among the samples from Wanapa, comprising the bulk
(56%) of the identifications. Lignum-vitae is also most


Appendix Bcontinued.
Garden
IDENTIFICATION:
Lv.7
FS3864
Unid, s.coat/periderm
Unid, soft tissue
MODERN SEEDS:
Amaranth
cf. Bur
Carpet weed
Crowfoot grass
cf. Cyperus sp.
Euphorbia nutans
Euphorb, cf. Ricinus
cf. Goosefoot family
Grass family
cf. Ground cherry
Guava
Legume family
Mallow family
Mexican poppy
Panicoid grass
Portulacaceae
Purslane
Sunflower family
Unid, spherical seed
Unid, triangular seed
Unid, seed, crenate
Unid, lobed fruit
Unid, seed
(continued)
Feature 4
Lv.8 Lv.8
FS3866 FS3881
SEED TOTAL:
ARCHAEO. SEED TOTAL:
0
0
0
0
4
1
Feature 14
Lv.ll Lv.12 Lv.l Lv.3 Lv.3 Lv.5
FS3885 FS3886 FS6730 FS6898 FS6903 FS6991
15
2
2
1
10
4 1
1
2
1
1
1
19
1
1
3
111
1
74
34
19
2
0
0
0
0
47
46
38
34
353


249
Table 6.3. Plant identifications from En Bas Saline, Haiti.
TAXON COMMON NAME PLANT
PART
Archaeological:
Domesticated species:
cf. Manihot esculenta
Zea mays
cf. Zea mays
manioc, cassava (yuca) tuber
maize (maz, malojo) kernel, cob
monocotyledonous tissue stem
Possible housegarden species:
cf. Annona sp.
Capsicum sp.
Fabaceae, cf. Inga sp.
cf. Melicoccus biiugatus
Oenothera sp.
Palmae
cf. Palmae
cf. Psidium quajava
Sapotaceae, Dipholis/
Chrvsophvllum-type
Sapotaceae,
Manilkara-type
cf. Sapotaceae
soursop (guanbana)
pepper, pimiento (aj)
tree-legume (guaba)
genip (Quenepa)
evening primrose
palm family
palm family
guava (guayaba)
sapote family, bustic
or star-apple (caimito)
seed
seed
seed, wood
wood
seed
wood, fiber
fruit, bud
seed
wood
bullet-wood (ausubo) type wood
sapote family seed
Wild edible plants:
Amaranth/Chenopodiaceae
Chenopodiaceae
Poaceae, panicoid*
Portulaca spp.*
Solanaceae (Solarium sp.)
Trianthema
portulacastrum
amaranth/chenopod families
goosefoot family
grass (e.g. Setaria sp.)
purslane (don diego)
nightshade family
trianthema,
(verdolaga de hoja ancha)
seed
seed
seed
seed
seed
seed
Othr:
Avicennia aerminans
black mangrove
wood
Bumelia sp.
boxwood (lechecillo)
wood
cf. Colubrina so.
snake-bark (sanguinaria)
wood
ConocarDus erectus
Conocarpus/
buttonwood (mangle botn)
wood
Zanthoxylum-type
buttonwood/satinwood type
wood
cf. Eugenia sp.
stopper (anguila)
wood


302
Figure 6.10 shows three of the Oenothera seeds from
Feature 14A; the two elongate specimens are more typical of
the entire assemblage, most specimens being about a third as
wide as they are long. The same is true of the Oenthera
seeds from Nevis and Puerto Rico. Oenothera seeds from En
Bas Saline average 1.58 mm long by 0.93 mm wide (Table
6.11). Currently, comparative data are too limited to
attempt to assess whether the archaeological populations
might represent domesticated plants or some stage of
incipient domestication. Dr. Wagner noted that generally
the En Bas Saline seeds are relatively small, but that some
shrinkage may have occurred in conjunction with
carbonization. To the extent the archaeological specimens
compare and overlap with the range of measurements from the
single modern, wild seed population described in Table 6.11,
there is nothing to indicate that the En Bas Saline seeds
came from anything other than wild plants. Seed size in
itself, however, does not negate the possibility that
Oenothera plants were components of homegardens or the
general horticultural system at En Bas Saline. The effect
on the plants of an association with humans may not be
apparent in the seeds themselves, or manipulation may not
have been of enough intensity to result in a change in seed
size (Rindos 1984).
Before going on in the final sections of this chapter
to summarize En Bas Saline, archaeobotanical data from the
early contact site of La Isabela are briefly described in


17
effort to understand the dynamics operating on the
subsistence system, Jones did not extend his interpretation
to consider the long term effects of a slash and burn system
of planting on the local environment in general, or the
sustainability of crop production at the aboriginal level of
technology.
It is a generally held (but only indirectly documented,
see below) assumption of all of the models that the Cedrosan
Saladoid colonists entered the island environment with their
familiar complement of cultivated plants and the tools of
crop production and consumption (Davis 1988; Jones 1985;
Rouse 1986, 1989; Wilson 1990). Davis (1988:179), without
citing the basis for his information, gives a list of eight
cultigens in addition to manioc that purportedly were
introduced by Saladoid people. The implication is that the
gardening system previously established in lowland South
America, which included domesticated plant staples as the
primary source of dietary calories, was implemented in the
islands.
In spite of whatever forces drove the Saladoid from one
island to the next, it is likely that adjustments to the
subsistence infrastructure had to be made. In one way or
another, economic choices made by the colonists appear to
have resulted in an unstable resource base. If the
crab/shell dichotomy is at least partially true on some
islands, then temporary collapses in protein sources, e.g.,
the local elimination of land crabs and terrestrial


64
Martin. Ewel and Whitmore (1973), Little and Wadsworth
(1964), Little and Woodbury (1976), Little, Woodbury and
Wadsworth (1974, 1976), Liogier and Martorell (1982), and
Woodbury and Little (1976) were consulted for the vegetation
of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and generally the
northern Lesser Antilles. Beard (1942, 1949), Howard (1974-
1989), Holdridge (1947, 1967), and Record and Hess (1943)
provide regional perspectives on the native flora. The
entire spectrum of plant identifications from this research
is listed in Appendix A by taxonomic level.
Comparative Measures
Minimum number of wood specimens identified
Previous research has demonstrated that a minimum
number of at least 30 fragments of wood identified per
sample is necessary before the relative importance of
individual wood types in a given provenience can be
estimated (Newsom 1991a; Scarry and Newsom 1992; and see
below). Ideally, the minimum-identified figure should be
determined separately for each site and context under study.
Generally, plots of wood (the ordinate) from sites in South
Florida and the Caribbean level out and become redundant as
to new species added when between 20 and 30 specimens (the
abscissa) is reached. However, the relative freguencies of
different woods in a given sample tend not to stabilize, and
thus do not function as reliable indicators of relative
importance, until a count of about 30 to 40 specimens per
provenience is established (see Scarry and Newsom 1992).


30
Planted tracts of montones were known as "conucos."
Homegarden or "yard plants" (Sauer 1966:56-57) also are
listed as having been important to Taino existance, among
them are fruit trees, including mamey (Mammea americana),
manzanillas (identity unknown, possibly Euphorbiaceae, used
as a purgative), and other useful plants, including tobacco
cotton, achiote or anatto (Bixa orellana), calabash
(Crescentia cuiete), jagua Genipa americana. the juice
colors the skin black), and cohoba (Piptadenia peregrina.
used as a narcotic snuff).
In limited areas more labor-intensive forms of
cultivation were employed, including the use of ditch
networks for field irrigation in arid southwestern Haiti
(Las Casas 1909 chapter 5:15, chapter 60:154) and bench
terraces in Puerto Rico (Ortiz Aguilu et al. 1991). The
crops grown by means of these more intensive systems of
cultivation are not known with certainty.
Previous Archaeobotanical Research on Caribbean Sites
Research with preserved plant material that could
further elucidate plant use in the Caribbean is a recent
enterprise in West Indian archaeology, having begun in the
early 1980s. Consequently, prior to this study few data
beyond what could be gleaned or inferred from historic
documents and the presence of artifacts believed associated
with food production were available to interpret the
interaction between Caribbean Indians and their local flora,


Appendix Bcontinued.
IDENTIFICATION:
Garden E (continued)
Fea.l4A Fea.l4B Fea.l4C
Lv.l Lv.l Lv.l
FS7020 FS7022 FS7023
Unid, s.coat/periderm
Unid, soft tissue
MODERN SEEDS:
Amaranth
cf. Bur
Carpet weed
Crowfoot grass
cf. Cyperus sp.
Euphorbia nutans
Euphorb, cf. Ricinus
cf. Goosefoot family
Grass family
cf. Ground cherry
Guava
Legume family
Mallow family
Mexican poppy
Panicoid grass
Portulacaceae
Purslane
Sunflower family
Unid, spherical seed
Unid, triangular seed
Unid, seed, crenate
Unid, lobed fruit
Unid, seed
6 3 1
1
1
SEED TOTAL:
ARCHAEO. SEED TOTAL:
160 10 3
158 10 3
r> n
Feat. 16 Fea.25 Fea.26 Fea.47A Feature 49
Lv.3 lv.l Lv.4 Lv.l Lv.2 Lv.3
FS6789 FS7017 FS7123 FS7372 7465 7469
3 7
15 11
1
0 6 0 11 0 2
0 6 0 11 0 1
355


382
(editor), pp. 591-644. Monograph Number 4 (in prep.),
Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
1991b Paleoethnobotanical analysis of midden remains from
the Wanapa Site (B-016), Bonaire, West Indies. In The
First Bonarians by Jay B. Haviser, Jr. Institute of
Archaeology and Anthropology, Netherlands Antilles,
Curacao.
1992a Archaeobotanical analysis of flotation samples from
site PO-38, Cerrillos River Valley, Puerto Rico. In
Phase II Archaeological Data Recovery at PO-38, El
Parking Site, Barrio Maraquez, Ponce. Puerto Rico.
by Guy Weaver. Reported submitted to the Jacksonville
District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
1992b Archaeobotanical analysis of historic and pre
historic contexts from Barrio Ballaja, San Juan, Puerto
Rico. Report submitted to the Ballaja Archaeological
Project, Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office,
San Juan.
1992c Wood exploitation at Golden Rock (GR-1). In The
Archaeology of St. Eustatius: the Golden Rock Site.
Aad H. Versteeg and Kees Schinkel (editors), pp. 213-
227. Publication of the St. Eustatius Historical Found
ation, no. 2 (St. Eustatius) and the Foundation for
Scientific Research in the Caribbean Region, no. 131
(Amsterdam).
Niez, Vera K.
1984 Household Gardens: Theoretical Considerations on an
Old Survival Strategy. Potatoes in Food Systems Research
Series, Report no. 1. International Potato Center, Lima,
Peru.
Onwueme, I.C.
1978 The Tropical Tuber Crops: Yams, Cassava. Sweet
Potato, Cocovams. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Ortega, E. and J. Guerrero
1981 Cuatro Nuevos Sitios Paleoarcaicos en las Isla de
Santo Domingo. Ediciones Museo del Hombre Dominicano,
Santo Domingo.
Ortiz Aguilu, J.J., J. Rivera Melendez, A. Principe Jacome,
M. Melendez Maiz, and M. Lavergne Colberg
1991 Intensive agriculture in Pre-Columbian West Indies:
the case for terraces. Paper presented at the XIVth
International Congress for Caribbean Archaeology,
Barbados.


Figure 3.1: Location Map of Caribbean Sites analyzed for
Archaeobotanical Data.
Sites from South to North: 1 = Wanapa, Bonaire;
2 = Pearls, Grenada; 3 = Heywoods, Barbados; 4 =
Macabou, Martinique, 5 = Jolly Beach, Antigua,
6 = Twenty Hill, Antigua; 7 = Indian Castle, Nevis;
8 = Hichmans' Site, Nevis; 9 = Hichmans' Shell Heap,
Nevis; 10 = Golden Rock, St. Eustatius; 11 = Hope
Estate, St. Martin; 12 = Beach Access Site (Lameshur
Bay), St. John (U.S. Virgin Islands); 13 = Trunk
Bay, St. John (U.S. Virgin Islands); 14 = Krum Bay,
St. Thomas (U.S. Virgin Islands; 15 = Calle Cristo,
San Juan, Puerto Rico; 16 = Maisabel, Puerto Rico;
17 = El Fresal, Puerto Rico; 18 = El Parking Site,
Puerto Rico; 19 = Barrio Ballaj, San Juan, Puerto
Rico; 20 = El Bronce, Puerto Rico; 21 = En Bas Saline,
Haiti; 22 = La Isabela, Dominican Republic.


Appendix Bcontinued.
IDENTIFICATION:
Unid, s.coat/periderm
Unid, soft tissue
MODERN SEEDS:
Amaranth
cf. Bur
Carpet weed
Crowfoot grass
cf. Cyperus sp.
Euphorbia nutans
Euphorb, cf. Ricinus
cf. Goosefoot family
Grass family
cf. Ground cherry
Guava
Legume family
Mallow family
Mexican poppy
Panicoid grass
Portulacaceae
Purslane
Sunflower family
Unid, spherical seed
Unid, triangular seed
Unid, seed, crenate
Unid, lobed fruit
Unid, seed
SEED TOTAL:
ARCHAEO. SEED TOTAL:
Garden E (continued)
Zone 2 Zone 3
Lv. 1 Lv. 5 Lv. 5
FS7037 FS7010 FS7374
11 2
4
9
1
20 0
6 0
o o
PLANT PLANT
TOTAL UBIQUITY
2
2.9
1
2.9
14
8.8
8
11.4
1
2.9
9
11.4
1
2.9
65
20.0
1
2.9
1
2.9
1
2.9
2
2.9
9
5.7
14
8.8
36
22.9
20
2.9
41
25.7
3
8.6
2
5.7
81
11.4
5
8.6
1
2.9
359


175
the Haciende Grande deposits at Maisabel are either native
or highly likely to derive from native, as opposed to
imported, species (for example, exotic species of Inga sp.
listed for Puerto Rico [Liogier and Martorell 1982:58] were
imported and planted primarily for shade in coffee
plantations, a relatively recent enterprise).
The possible presence of Panama-tree (Sterculia
aptala) at Maisabel is especially noteworthy. Panama-tree
is a member of the chocolate family (Sterculiaceae). It is
closely related to cacao (Theobroma cacao] and to
guacima/West Indian elm (Guazuma ulmifolia], both of which
are cultivated in Central and South America (Hiraoka 1985;
Lazos Chavero and Alvarez-Buylla Roces 1988; Posey 1984).
The seeds of Panama-tree are edible when ground; they can be
made into a beverage, and, when roasted, the seeds are
reported to taste like peanuts (Little and Wadsworth
1964:340; Martin et al., 1987:122). Sterculia aptala is
considered native to northern South America (Little and
Wadsworth 1946:340; Loigier and Martorell 1982:108). Thus,
panama-tree may have been first carried into the Caribbean
archipelago by Saladoid migrants. Unfortunately for now the
identification of Panama-tree is provisional. When the
archaeobotanical analysis is expanded to include additional
samples, the tree's presence at the site may be affirmed.
Cuevas sample
One sample from the cemetery at Maisabel is associated
with the Cuevas complex, as mentioned above. Unfortunately,


329
species represented in the Caribbean sites may be native,
for example, Inga sp. (guaba) or Pouteria sp. wood from
Maisabel. Nevertheless, the use of closely related species
in mainland areas suggests a tradition of use that was
extended in the island environment to similar resources for
which general familiarity was gained on the mainland.
Others of the plant identifications, for example, avocado,
clearly represent imported plants, deriving from other areas
of the American tropics (Table 7.1). Sapodilla (Krum Bay,
tentative identification), avocado, and yellow sapote (the
latter two from the Maria de la Cruz cave) all are native to
Mexico/Central America. They possibly were transported to
the Greater Antilles and Virgin Islands by Casimiroid
people, who are believed to have migrated from Yucatan
(Krieger 1929:485; Rouse 1991, 1992:71). Other plant
introductions probably came from the south in conjunction
with Ortoiroid and later Saladoid migrations (Rouse 1991,
1992). Use by Saladoid people and their decendents of the
same or similar plant assemblages as characterized mainland
food production could be construed as supportive of the
hypotheses by Roe (1989) and others (Davis 1988; Goodwin
1980; Jones 1985; Peterson and Watters 1991; Rouse 1989; and
see review by Keegan 1985, n.d.) that portray the Saladoid
in an attempt to replicate their mainland existence in the
insular setting.
Panicoid grasses and other small grains, e.g.
trianthema and goosefoot (Chenopodiaceae) (Table 7.1),


Table 7.2continued.
LESSER
ANTILLES
PUERTO RICO
HISPANIOLA
SOUTHERN
NORTHERN
(prehistoric)
(En Bas Saline
cf. Eugenia (Stopper/anguila)
EBS
Exostema (West Ind. Quinine)
EB
Fabaceae (cf. Acacia)
KB
Fabaceae (cf. Leucaena)
KB
cf. Fabaceae (tree legume)
EB
Ficus (wild fig)
KB
(M), (EF)
Flacourtiaceae (cf. Roseta)
W
Genipa/Gossyp. (jagua/boxwood)
EBS
Guaiacum (Lignum-vitae)
W
HiS, IC,
EB
cf. Guazuma (West Indian elm)
EBS
Hippomane (Manchioneel)
HW
Hura crepitans (Monkey pistol)
EBS
Inga (Guaba)
M
EBS
cf. Lauraceae (Laurel family)
EBS
Licaria-type (Sweetwood)
EBS
cf. Meliaceae (Mahogany)
HW
cf. Melicoccus (genip/quenepa)
EBS
Metopium/Ocotea (poison/spicewd)
EBS
Montezuma (maga)
M
Myrtaceae (cf. Stopper)
HW
Myrtaceae (Guava or stopper)
EBS
Palm family
HW
EB
EBS
Pinus sp. (Caribbean pine)
EBS
Piper (Higuillo)
KB
Piscidia (Fish poison)
GR, (HE)
Pouteria (Bully-tree/jacana)
M, CC, (EF)
cf. Psidium (guava/guayaba)
M
Rubiaceae (Madder fam.)
GR
Sapotaceae (Sapote family)
(EF), EP
Sapotaceae (star-apple type)
EBS
Sapotaceae (bullet-wood type)
EBS
cf. Sterculia (Panama-tree)*
M
319


158
later Ostionoid subseries (including Santa Elena and
Esperanza complexes [Chapter 3]) (Siegel 1989, 1990).
Archaeobotanical analysis of Maisabel deposits
currently extends to 45 samples representing 40 proveniences
(Table 5.4). Twenty-one samples come from Mounded Midden 1,
which is associated entirely with the Hacienda Grande
complex (Siegel 1990). Two samples, Carbon numbers 100 and
131 (Table 5.4), were recovered from beneath Mounded Midden
1. These apparently predate the Saladoid occupation of
Maisabel based on the lack of associated cultural material
and on the radiocarbon dates, all being older than
approximately 2200 years before present (see end notes for
Table 5.4; and see Siegel 1990). The rest of the samples
come from areas of the site, e.g., the central cemetary
(Chapter 3), that were continuously used from Hacienda
Grande to Ostionoid times. Thus, it is difficult to assign
the individual samples to particular temporal and cultural
series due to the admixture of cultural materials
representative of different phases of occupation. For
example, Carbon Sample 253 from the Mound 2 area is assigned
to the Hacienda Grande complex based on the associated
ceramics; likewise, Carbon Sample 228 is an Ostionoid pit,
judging by the Ostiones-style ceramics (Table 5.4), but
other Mound 2 contexts are not clearly or definitively tied
to either of the culture series. Four flotation samples
derive from the large ditch feature that encircled an
Ostionoid-aged house-structure (Chapter 3). Finally,


APPENDIX A
SYSTEMATIC LIST OF PLANT SPECIES
IDENTIFIED IN CARIBBEAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES
GYMNOSPERMS
Pinaceae
Picea sp. (timber import)
Pinus sp., section Diploxylon
ANGIOSPERMS
Aizoaceae
Molluqo sp.*
Trianthema portulacastrum
Amaranthaceae
Amaranthus sp.*
Anacardiaceae
cf. Comocladia sp.
cf. Metopium sp.
Annonaceae
Annona (muricata)
Arecaceae = Palmae
cf. Cocos nucfera
Sabal sp.
Asteraceae = Compositae
Bidens sp.*
Avicenniaceae
Avicennia qerminans
Bignoniaceae
cf. Biqnonia sp.
Crescentia sp.
Tabebuia sp.
cf. Bombacaceae
cf. Ceiba sp.
cf. Cactaceae
cf. Opuntia sp.
336


33
(Capparis sp.). Besides possibly having been used as fuel,
several of the woody species identified have potential food
or medicinal value (Little and Wadsworth 1964:344; Record
and Hess 1943) .
In addition to the work with systematically recovered
plant remains described above, several isolated finds of
plant materials and/or identifications from work of a more
limited nature have been reported. From old domestic
deposits inside a cave in the Dominican Republic, Veloz
Maggiolo and Vega (1982) recovered leaf tissue of Zamia
debilis. the roots of which may have been an important
source of dietary starch (Sturtevant 1969), and seeds of
Clusea rosea (an exudate from capsules of this plant
reportedly have been used as a glue to set manioc grater-
board teeth [Lewenstein and Walker 1984]). In addition,
Veloz Maggiolo and Ortega (1976) report their recovery of
carbonized hard seed coats, probably from palm seeds, in
samples from at least three separate Archaic Age sites in
the Dominican Republic.
Limited previous plant data are known from other
islands in the Caribbean. Van der Klift (1985) identified
cockspur (Celtis sp.) seeds in midden samples from the
Golden Rock site, St. Eustatius, and Cutler (in Rouse and
Alegria 1990:23) identified seeds of avocado (Persea
americana) and yellow sapote (Lucuma salicifolia = Pouteria
salicifolia = Pouteria campechiana [Standley and Williams
1966]) in material excavated in 1948 from the Maria de la


279
Two peg-shaped kernels from the Feature 11-communal
hearth were examined by Dr. Galinat who concluded that they
represent a popcorn type of maize (Figure 6.6). At least
two additional kernels from the feature belong, according to
Dr. Galinat, to a second type of maize, specifically, a
floury-endospermed race (the crescent-shaped kernel
morphotype). This type of maize may have been grown to
produce grain suitable for grinding into meal and flour,
although other uses (see below) are indiciated by the
ethnohistoric record. At least one additional specimen of
the flour-type of kernel was recovered from a separate
provenience, specifically, Feature 25 (FS 7017, the large
burned structure on the central mound) (Table 6.6). The
third potential kernel morphotypethe large, angular
specimen (Table 6.7)also was recovered from Feature 25.
All kernel specimens from En Bas Saline are relatively
smooth surfaced (non-dent). However, two kernels from
Feature 11one is the peg-shaped type (FS 6312) and the
other is one of the crescent-shaped kernels (floury
endospermed type) (FS 6316)have slightly depressed,
circular roughened areas on their upper-most surface. The
differently textured area may represent spalling of the
testa from carbonization. Alternatively, the roughened area
at the kernel peaks may represent the small capping of soft
starchy deposit that generally characterizes kernels from
West Indian races of maize (Brown 1953:149). The maize
kernel specimens from En Bas Saline are small and at least


Appendix B. Plant identifications from En Bas Saline: Seeds and other nonwood
remains (by count; ++ = abundant, but not individually counted).
GARDEN B:
IDENTIFICATION: Feat. 24 Feature 31
Bur. 01 Lv. 1 Lv. 2 Lv. 3 Lv. 3 Lv. 4 Lv. 4
CULTIVATED: FS6989
cf. Guava
Maize/Indian corn 1
cf. Manioc/cassava tuber
Palm, seed coat
Palm, fibrous tissue
Pepper/pimiento
Primrose
cf. Soursop
cf. Sapotaceae seed coat
OTHER:
FS7190 FS7198 FS7197 FS7213 FS7211 FS7332
1
2
(1) (1)+ (2)
1 (1)
3
Amaranthac./Chenopodiac. 1
Goosefoot family
cf. Inga/guaba
Nightshade family
Panicoid grass
Purslane 1
Trianthema 1
cf. Grass family
Legume, wild
Mallow family
cf. Myrtaceae
cf. Palmae seed/bud
Yellow stargrass
Unid, seed-type 1
Unid, seed-type 2
Unid, seed-type 3
Unid, seed-type 4
Unid, seed-type 5
Unid, seed/fruit frag.
1
14
3
1
1
5
1 1
1 1
7
1
Fea.31A
Lv. 1
FS7199
3
Fea.3 IB
Lv. 1
FS7202
342


Table 4.6. Plant identifications from Pearls, Grenada (by count).
IDENTIFI
195.5
195.5
196
196
196
196
196
196
196
198
233
CATION:
83-93
93-103
40-50
50-60
60-70
70-83
70-83
83-93
93-103
0-10
0-10
WILD EDIBLE:
Cockspur
1
1
Mastic-bully
21(2)
20(1)
1
14(1)
48(5)
10(1)
2(2)
1
Palmae
4
10
4
4
4
4
OTHER:
Ud. hardwood
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
MODERN SEEDS:
cf. chick pea
Nutmeg
1
3
SEED TOTAL:
26
31
1
18
52
14
2
1
4
1
3
ARCH. SEEDS:
26
31
1
18
52
14
2
1
4
0
0
+ = present, but not counted individually; numbers in parentheses are scar counts.


315
also were recovered from prehistoric and Contact period
deposits at En Bas Saline, Haiti, from a Spanish burial at
Isabela, Dominican Republic, and from eighteenth-century
domestic deposits at Barrio Ballaja, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
In still broader perspective, Mastichodendron seed fragments
also have been identified from site deposits in the Bahamas
(Luden's Cave and the Three Dog Site [Newsom laboratory data
from faunal samples analyzed by Elizabeth Wing] and in South
Florida [Scarry et al. 1989; Scarry and Newsom 1992]). Thus
mastic-bully fruit currently is the most extensively
documented plant-food resource in the Caribbean, spanning
cultural, temporal, and geographic boundaries.
Palm family (Palmae) hard seed coat fragments are
nearly as ubiquitous among Caribbean sites as are
sapotaceous (mastic-bully) seed coats. Both the mastic-
bully and palm fruits were probably gathered as fresh-fruit
resources that were abundantly and reliably available to the
various human groups of the islands.
Oenothera and trianthema seeds are temporally and
spatially distributed in much the same way as Sapotaceae and
Palmae seed coats. That is, seeds of the two plants have
been recovered from sites in the Lesser Antilles, on Puerto
Rico, and on Hispaniola (Table 7.1). Specifically,
Oenothera and trianthema are documented from Archaic Age
(Hichmans' Shell Heap, Nevis; Krum Bay, St. Thomas [Table
4.32) through Ceramic Age (Maisabel, El Fresal, and El
Parking sites, Puerto Rico; En Bas Saline, Haiti), and in


Table 6.5continued
IDENTIFICATION:
Area 6
Area 6
Feat.7
Feat.14
Feat.14A
Feat.14B Feat.14C
Fea.25
Ar. 3
Lv. 6
Lv. 7
2 lvls
2 lvls
Lv. 1
2 lvls
2 lvls
2 lvls
ash
MANGROVE ASSOC.:
FS6882
FS6884
FS7020
7040
Black mangrove
.46
. 52
. 68
.50
.94
1.00
. 25
. 61
. 62
Buttonwood
.31
. 04
. 16
(.16)
. 25
.26
.09
cf. Buttonwood
.23
. 16
. 05
Red mangrove
Red mangrove family
POSSIBLE HOMEGARDEN:
. 16
.06
.25
. 05
cf. Genip
cf. Inga/guaba
. 16
.04
Myrtle family
Palm
. 03
.25
. 02
Sapotac., bullet-wood
Sapotac., bustic/cai.
OTHER:
Boxwood
(.01)
. 02
Jagau/W.I. boxwood
cf. Laurel family
Monkey pistol
Pine, Haitian
Poison wood/spicewood
. 01
. 05
cf. Snake-bark
cf. Stopper
. 18
. 09
Sweetwood/satinwood
cf. West Indian elm
. 04
. 14
En Bas Saline-10
En Bas Saline-15
. 01
Unid, liana-like wood
Unidentified hardwood
. 03
. 05
TOTAL WOOD TYPES:
3
8
4
4
2
1
4
6
5
TOTAL NO. IDENTIFIED:
13
75
19
6
16
6
4
46
21


141
problems, and for ritual purposes. Although Moerman's data
pertain to North American Indians, particularly southwestern
groups like the Navaho and Zuni, similar uses of Oenothera
plants may have occurred among Caribbean people. Oenothera
is not among the numerous medicinal plants used or known to
indigenous cultures from northwest Amazonia documented by
Shultes and Raffauf (1990), by Ayala Flores (1984), or by
Austin and Bourne (1992).
Oenothera in broader perspective
Oenothera sp. (Table 4.32) is an especially interesting
identification not only because of its potential as a food
and medicine, but because the plant's modern, apparently
restricted, range contrasts with what seems to have been a
much broader range in the past. Not only do species of
Oenothera no longer occur in the West Indies aside from
portions of Cuba, but the plant may never have occurred
elsewhere in the Caribbean outside of human-modified
settings, such as prehistoric homegardens (Covich and
Nickerson 1966). Only one Oenothera seed was recovered in
samples from the Lesser Antilles and it is associated with
Archaic Age culture (i.e. Ortoiroid people living on the
eastern coast of Nevis [Hichmans' Shell Heap, GE-6]).
Evidence for prehistoric Oenothera is more compelling from
deposits in the Greater Antilles (Chapter 5). The Hichmans'
Oenothera seed is possible evidence that Archaic people
gardened and/or tended the plants. There are many examples
of gardening and incipient domestication of certain plants


144
primarily for its large fruit (Johnson 1983; Liogier and
Martorell 1982; Little and Wadsworth 1964:446; Martin et al.
1987; Mortensen and Bullard 1968). Sapodilla seeds possess
a linear scar like the Krum Bay specimens. Nevertheless,
without specimens of native M. pleeana with which to compare
the archaeological material, the possibility must be left
open that the seeds from Krum Bay are from a native
Caribbean species. If, however, the Krum Bay seeds are
shown to be Manilkara zapota. then they represent the
earliest record in the Caribbean for a well-known, tropical
American homegarden tree species (Berg 1984:147; Rico-Gray
et al. 1990). Furthermore, the identification of sapodilla
would comprise the first tentative confirmation of
hypotheses that human migrants into the Caribbean
archipelago transported and successfully established
familiar plant resources in the new setting (Chapter 1),
albeit at an earlier timethe Preceramicrather than in
the Ceramic Age as has been inferred by archaeologists.
Note also that mastic-bully (Mastichodendron foetidissimun
and cockspur (Celtis iguanaea) likewise are recorded as
homegarden tree species among the Maya of the Yucatan (Rico-
Gray et al. 1990:483, 485). Unlike sapodilla, these two
trees are generally regarded as native to the circum-
Caribbean region, including the West Indies but not South
America (Record and Hess 1943:507).


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
American Indian groups inhabited the Caribbean Islands
for several thousand years prior to the fateful entry of
Europeans into the region, and during all that time, plant
foods and products were essential to their survival and
successful adaptation. Plants provided food and medicine,
and fuelwood was essential for cooking and heating. The
local vegetation was also the source of raw materials for
building construction, transportation, weapons, tools, fiber
industries, and products such as gums, resins, tannins,
paints, and fish poisons.
Few primary data bases exist, however, with which to
profile the plant component of prehistoric economies in the
Caribbean. The paucity of data is largely a reflection of
the fact that only recently has systematic archaeobotanical
research been undertaken in the region. Nonetheless, plants
play a central role in models that attempt to explain
Caribbean Indian life, and, in particular, how Ceramic Age
migrants from northern South America adapted to the
drastically different environment of the West Indies.
Early cultures in the Caribbean are typically portrayed
as practicing generalist, foraging economies (Armstrong
1980; Davis 1988; Rouse 1992:58; Veloz Maggiolo 1976:257-
1


28
research has not progressed much beyond description of the
sites. All of the migration models directly or implicitly
invoke the importance of plant resources to the survival of
the migrants. Historic documents, artifact assemblages,
bone chemistry, and pollen data each have produced
tantalizing, but largely ambiguous results as to the exact
nature, scale, and timing of plant use. Questions remain
concerning why and when the transition from subsistence
based on foraging and gardening to a predominance of
domesticated plants and field agriculture, as demonstrated
by contact-era Taino, occurred. Moreover, the roles of
indigenous wild plants, protodomesticates (e.g., primrose,
as detailed in Chapters 4 through 7), and housegarden
species also need definition.
Pertinent Details from Ethnohistoric Documents
about Taino Plants and Agriculture
Early historic chronicles describe Caribbean Indian
agriculture and plant use primarily in regard to the Taino
who inhabited the Greater Antilles. Columbus's diary (Dunn
and Kelley 1988) contains references to manioc and possibly
also to maize. For example, on 6 November 1492 Columbus
wrote: "The earth was very fertile and planted with those
manes [manioc, Manihot esculenta1 and bean varieties very
different from ours, and with that same millet" [possibly
maize] (Dunn and Kelley 1988:139). Oviedo (1959:80) related
that manioc and Indian corn were important foods, but his
statement applies generally to Indian life in the New World,


43
England) in cooperation with the Barbados Museum. The
archaeobotanical samples consist of shell midden deposit
from general excavation levels (Table 3.1), collected in
excavation screens of 1.8 mm (1/16 inch).
Twenty Hill (PE-19) and Jolly Beach (MA-3, MA-4), Antigua
Antigua is a sedimentary (as opposed to volcanic)
island located midway up the Lesser Antilles, in the
southern Leeward islands (Figure 3.1). Two sites on Antigua
attributed to the Archaic Age Jolly Beach culture (Ortoiroid
culture series, ca. 1000-2000 B.C. [Rouse 1992]) have
yielded limited archaeobotanical data. Twenty-four sites
attributed to the Jolly Beach culture have currently been
documented on Antigua; all are situated along the coast,
primarily on the northern half of the island, where,
according to Rouse (1992:65) fishing and shellfishing are
more readily undertaken.
Recent excavations at the two sites that produced the
archaeobotanical samples analyzed below were carried out by
Bruce Nodine in conjunction with research directed through
Brown University. Radiocarbon dates from the Twenty Hill
deposits place the occupation of the site between
approximately 500 B.C. and 3000 B.C. (Nodine, personal
communication, August 12, 1989). However, inconsistencies
in the radiocarbon dates and the presence of deeply buried
historic artifacts indicate that the site is disturbed.
Nevertheless, Nodine (personal communication, ibid.) feels
certain that the carbonized plant specimens discussed in


Table 4.1. Archaeobotanical samples from the Wanapa Site, Bonaire.
(No clearly archaeological seeds were recovered.)
PROVENIENCE
-SAMPLE-
WOOD
WOOD
WOOD
TOTAL
area/unit/
level
CONTEXT
VOLUME
(ltrs.)
WEIGHT
(grams
WEIGHT
(grams)
DENSITY
NO.
I DEN.
SEEDS
A 116/110
lv. 1
midden
200

0.18
<0.1
2
0
116/110
lv.2
midden
200
-
1.33
<0.1
8
0
116/110
lv. 3
midden
200
-
2.24
<0.1
13
0
116/110
lv. 4
midden
200
-
5.44
<0.1
21
0
116/110
lv. 5
midden
200
-
0.63
<0.1
4
0
A 116/108
lv. 1
midden
200
-
0
-
0
0
116/108
lv. 2
midden
200
-
0.68
<0.1
1
0
116/108
lv. 3
midden
200
-
1.74
<0.1
8
0
116/108
lv. 4
midden
200
-
6.79
<0.1
21
0
116/108
lv. 5
midden
200
-
1.89
<0.1
12
0
A 114/112
lv. 1
midden
200
-
0
-
0
0
114/112
lv.2
midden
200
-
0
-
0
0
114/112
lv. 3
midden
200
-
4.40
<0.1
8
0
114/112
lv. 4
midden
200
-
0.92
<0.1
3
0
A 114/110
lv. 1
midden
200
-
0.29
<0.1
0
0
114/110
lv.2
midden
200
-
0.45
<0.1
1
0
114/110
lv. 3
midden
200
-
1.34
<0.1
5
0
114/110
lv. 4
midden
200
-
5.04
<0.1
12
0
114/110
lv. 5
midden
200
-
4.06
<0.1
6
0
A 112/112
lv. 1
midden
200
-
0
-
0
0
112/112
lv.2
midden
200
-
0.57
<0.1
1
0
112/112
lv. 3
midden
200
-
2.90
<0.1
18
0
112/112
lv. 4
midden
200
-
1.40
<0.1
7
0
112/112
lv. 5
midden
200
-
0
-
0
0
A 112/110
lv. 1
midden
200
-
0
-
0
0
112/110
lv. 2
midden
200
-
0
-
0
0
112/110
lv. 3
midden
200
-
0
-
0
0
112/110
lv. 4
midden
200
-
2.97
<0.1
15
0


245
6.2), one of which (Feature 10) contained no recognizable
plant remains.
Garden Area E deposits. Sixty two samples from Garden
E (which contained the raised mound in the central area)
were analyzed for the presence of preserved botanical
specimens. Several samples of plant remains derive from
prehistoric floor and wall deposits belonging to the large,
centrally located structure (possible chief's residence)
that burned in the Fourteenth Century. Among the samples
from the central structure are those from Features 26, 47A,
and 49 (Tables 6.1, 6.2). Charcoal from Feature 26-Level 4
(FS 7123) produced a radiocarbon date of 720+-50 B.P. (Beta-
46759) or approximately A.D. 1230+-50. Feature 49 included
the remains of what appears to have been an extremely large
burned post (FS 7588); sample 7487 from Level 5 of Feature
49 has a radiocarbon date of 630+-60 (ca. A.D. 1320+-60
[Beta-46763]). Sample 3888, designated Area 6 from within
Feature 20 (Table 6.1), is another possible post from the
burned structure; it has a radiocarbon date of 640+-60 B.P.
(Beta-10527), or 1310+-60 A.D. (cal. 1255-1405 A.D., 1
sigma).
Additional Area 6 samples are numbers 6863-6884 in
Tables 6.1 and 6.2. By carbon-14 determination, these
samples demonstrate the continued use of the central mounded
area, following the fourteenth-century conflagration.
Sample 6882 (Area 6, Level 6) produced a radiocarbon date of


29
obscuring differences in consumption between the islands of
the West Indies and nearby mainland areas.
Infrequent references to maize in historic documents
pertaining to the West Indies, in conjunction with the few
descriptions of its planting and use, has led to an overall
impression that maize played a minor role in Caribbean
Indian subsistence (Keegan 1987; Sauer 1966; Sturtevant
1961, 1969). Sauer (1966:9) summarized Taino agriculture as
follows: "the main tillage is of starchy root crops which
were vegetatively reproduced ..." Manioc, by all
accounts, was the principal staple and bread in the West
Indies. Seed crops, including maize, do not seem to have
been important to the island cultures.
The Taino of the Greater Antilles seem generally to
have practiced slash and burn cultivation (Sauer 1966:51;
Sturtevant 1961). Oviedo (1959:13-14) wrote:
The Indians first cut down the cane and trees
where they wish to plant it [corn].... After
the trees and cane have been felled and the field
grubbed, the land is burned over and the ashes
are left as dressing for the soil, and this is
much better than if the land were fertilized.
Small earthen mounds known as "montones" (Sauer 1966:51-52)
were constructed on cleared plots to provide a suitable
growing platform, particularly for root crops. The mounds
were circular, approximately 30 cm high and a meter in
diameter. Manioc, sweet potato, beans, squash, maize,
peanuts, and at least five additional rootcrops were
cultivated on the mounded plots (Sauer 1966:51-54). The
rootcrops are discussed in more detail in Chapter 6.


172
and Treacy 1987) is an important consideration. Wild
species of both genera occur in the Caribbean, Puerto Rico,
and other areas of the neotropics (Liogier and Martorell
1982; Record and Hess 1943; Little and Wadsworth 1964;
Little, Woodbury, and Wadsworth 1974). Unfortunately it is
not possible to distinguish by wood anatomy whether the
bully-tree and guava-type specimens from Maisabel deposits
came from native or exotic species. The latter is less
likely given that the woods were recovered from deposits
that apparently formed prior to the development of the
settlement at Maisabel, and presumably also the importation
of plants by Saladoid people. However, the possibility
exists that cultivated or otherwise valued plants were
earlier transported during the Lithic and Archaic Age
migrations to Puerto Rico by Casimiroid and Ortoiroid
people, or by birds or other natural means. Thus, the true
nature of the guava-type wood and earliest bulley-tree
specimens at Maisabel remains uncertain until more data are
gathered. For now these taxa may best be considered native,
wild species.
A few additional points concerning guava and bully-tree
need to be made. Two of the three species of guava (Psidium
spp.) listed for Puerto Rico are considered endemic (Liogier
and Martorell 1982:125): P. insulanum to East Point and
Vieques Island, and P. sintenisii (considered rare) to high-
elevation mountain forests in the eastern and western
portions of the island (ibid.; Little, Woodbury, and


102
Table 4.15. Plant identifications from Hichmans' shell heap
(GE-6), Nevis.
TAXON
COMMON NAME
PLANT PART
Archaeological:
Oenothera sp.
Sapotaceae,
evening primrose
seed
cf. Manilkara
bullet-wood (ausubo) or
or Mastichodendron
mastic-bully (tortugo
amarillo)
seed
Unidentified seed
fragmentary
seed
Modern seeds:
cf. Aizoaceae
seed
Asteraceae
sunflower family
seed
Caryophyllaceae
chick weed family
seed
Fabaceae
legume family
seed
Fabaceae-Mimosoideae
tamarindo, bayahonda
seed
Malvaceae, cf. Sida
mallow family
seed
Poaceae
grass family
seed
Portulaca sp.
purslane (verdolaga)
seed
cf. Rosaceae
cherry family
pit


59
and separation procedures, were first evaluated as to their
general condition, soil type, and the durability of the
plant materials contained within. This preliminary
assessment is necessary to assess the appropriateness of
flotation or other types of sample preparation. Initially
all samples were weighed and the volume recorded, even if
the samples were recovered by standardized volume.
Flotation at the Florida Museum was carried out using a
SMAP-type flotation machine (Watson 1976) and tap water. In
most cases, light and heavy fractions from the flotation
procedure were examined and sorted directly, without
additional sample preparation. Alternatively, light and
heavy fractions from samples that yielded greater quantities
of plant remains were sieved through 4 mm, 2 mm, and 1 mm
meshes (with bottom pan) to size-grade the materials
(partitioning the samples by particle size facilites sorting
and analysis).
Samples from some sites, especially those found in more
arid environments, were judged unsuitable for water
flotation due to the prevalence of wood remains and/or the
friability of plant specimens. In any situation, samples
with clayey soil matrix were generally always water-floated.
Samples that did not undergo flotation were sieved directly
through a nested sieve series, resulting in four mesh-size
components per field sample: 4 mm, 2 mm, 1 mm, and 0.4 mm.
The mesh sizes are generally consistent with standard
archaeobotanical technique (see for example Greig 1989).


290
believed to have been disposed of by the inhabitants of
various sites due to their small size. Other specimens from
the Casma collection appear to represent inedible, woody
end-sections that were cut away and cast into hearth fires
(ibid.).
The tuber fragments from En Bas Saline can be further
described by their external appearance and by anatomy, based
on the better-preserved specimens. For the most part,
internal structure is lost or greatly distorted by the
carbonization process. A few specimens, however, exhibit
what appears to be a periderm, or cortical tissue, and,
interior of that, a prominent region of starchy
parenchymatous tissue. In some cases, there apparently is
present also a central vascular region, such as is
characteristic of manioc (Manihot spp.) (Onwueme 1978:113).
Other specimens seem to exhibit the dispersed
vascularization of other tuber types, including sweet potato
(Ipomoea batatas) (Esau 1977:250-253; Hayward 1938:498-500;
Onwueme 1978). However, distortion renders this latter
observation uncertain and inconclusive; it has not been
possible to discern any evidence of anamolous secondary
growth, such as generally also characterizes sweet potato
tubers (Esau 1977:250-253; Hayward 1938:498-500).
Nevertheless, by external morphology (see below) sweet
potato probably is present. Diagnostic starch granules
(Jackson and Snowdon 1990:226-227), which occasionally are
preserved in archaeological specimens (Ugent et al. 1986),


221
identified among the samples from Barrio Baliaja; six of
these plantssoursop, (chili) pepper, papaya, tomato, and
maizeare among the most widely cultivated of indigenous
American plants.
Summary of Puerto Rico Archaeobotanical Assemblages
More than forty types of plants are identified from
among the archaeological assemblages of plant remains from
Puerto Rico. Seeds and other non-wood identifications from
the Puerto Rican sites are summarized in Table 5.21, and
wood identifications are listed in Table 5.22. El Bronce
plant data are from Pearsall (1985). The seed
identifications from the Maria de la Cruz cave are by Cutler
(in Rouse and Alegria 1990:22; note that Cutler's Lucuma
salicifolia = Pouteria campechiana [Flora of Guatemala.
Standley and William, 1966]).
Corroborative evidence for the use of certain plants
was obtained from several of the sites. Pouteria sp., e.g.,
bulley-tree, is prominant among these, appearing at four of
the six prehistoric sites (Tables 4.21 and 4.22).
Identifications that are consistent with the data gathered
from prehistoric sites in the Lesser Antilles (Chapter 4)
include Oenothera. trianthema, mastic-bully, and palm seeds.
While these are most likely representative of wild forms,
any or all of these potential plant food resources may have
been protected and/or grown by the various sites'
inhabitants. There are few wood identifications in common
with the Lesser Antillean sites; shared identifications are


Table 5.15 Barrio Baliaja: Samples Analyzed for
Plant Remains 203
Table 5.16 Overview of Flotation Samples from
Barrio Ballaja 204
Table 5.17 Plant Identifications from Barrio
Ballaja, Historic San Juan, Puerto Rico 205
Table 5.18 Plant Identifications from Historic-
Period Samples, Barrio Ballaja (by
count) 206
Table 5.19 Carica papaya seed measurements (mm),
Ballaja Archaeological Project 215
Table 5.20 Lvcopersicon (tomato) seed measurements
(mm), Ballaja Archaeological Project . 220
Table 5.21 Seeds and Nonwoody Plant Remains from
Sites in Puerto Rico 222
Table 5.22 Wood Identifications from Sites in
Puerto Rico 223
Table 6.1 En Bas Saline, Haiti: Samples Analyzed
for Archaeobotanical Data 232
Table 6.2 Archaeobotanical Samples from En Bas
Saline, Haiti 238
Table 6.3 Plant Identifications from En Bas
Saline, Haiti 249
Table 6.4 Plant Identifications from En Bas
Saline, Seeds and Other Nonwood
Remains (by count) 260
Table 6.5 Wood Identifications from En Bas
Saline (relative frequency) 264
Table 6.6 Zea mays from En Bas Saline, Haiti . 274
Table 6.7 Zea mays measurements (mm) for En Bas
Saline, Haiti 278
Table 6.8 Descriptive Data for West Indian Races
of Maize 282
Table 6.9 General Morphological Characteristics
of Kernels from West Indian Races
of Maize 284
xiv


Appendix Ccontinued.
Garden E continued
Fea.8 Fea.8N Fea.8
Lv. 5 Lv. 6 Lv. 8
FS3900 FS3913 FS3898
MANGROVE ASSOCIATION:
Black mangrove .33 .17
Buttonwood .66
cf. Buttonwood (satinwd)
Red mangrove .33
Red mangrove family
POSSIBLE HOMEGARDEN:
cf. Genip
cf. Inga/guaba
cf. guava/stopper
Palm
Sapotac., bullet-wood
Sapotac., bustic/caimito
OTHER:
Boxwood
Jagau/W.I. boxwood
cf. Laurel family
Monkey pistol
Pine, Haitian
Poison wood/spicewood
cf. Snake-bark
cf. Stopper
Sweetwood/satinwood
cf. West Indian elm
EBS-10 fig/genip
EBS-15 black torch
Unidentified hardwood .33
TOTAL WOOD TYPES: 2
TOTAL NUMBER IDENTIFIED: 3
. 66
.33
17
2
6
(N CO
Fea.14 Fea.l4A Fea.l4B Fea.l4C
Lv. 3 Lv. 5 Lv. 1 Lv. 1 Lv. 2 Lv. 1
FS6898 FS6991 FS7020 FS7022 FS7044 FS7023
.25 1.00 .94 1.00 1.00
(.25) .50
.25 .06
.25
. 50
4 12 112
4 2 16 5 1 2
365


103
Table 4.16 Plant Identifications from Hichmans'
Shell Heap (GE-6), Nevis (by count) . .
Table 4.17 Archaeobotanical Samples from Hichmans'
Site (GE-5) and Indian Castle (GE-1),
Nevis 106
Table 4.18 Plant Identifications from Hichmans'
Site (GE-5) and Indian Castle (GE-1),
Nevis 107
Table 4.19 Plant Identifications from Hichmans'
Site (GE-5) and Indian Castle (GE-1),
Nevis (by count) 108
Table 4.20 Archaeobotanical Samples from Golden
Rock, St. Eustatius 110
Table 4.21 Plant Identifications from the Golden
Rock Site, St. Eustatius 113
Table 4.22 Plant Identifications from Golden Rock
Deposits (by count) 115
Table 4.23 Archaeobotanical Samples from Hope
Estate (SM-026), St. Martin 123
Table 4.24 Plant Identifications from Hope Estate
(SM-026), St. Martin 124
Table 4.25 Plant Identifications from Hope Estate,
St. Martin (by count) 12 6
Table 4.26 Archaeobotanical Samples from Beach
Access Site (Lameshur Bay), St. John . 127
Table 4.27 Plant Identifications from the Beach
Access Site, St. John 129
Table 4.28 Plant Identifications from the Beach
Access Site, St. John (by count) .... 130
Table 4.29 Archaeobotanical Samples from Trunk
Bay, St. John 132
Table 4.30 Plant Identifications from Trunk Bay,
St. John 133
Table 4.31 Plant Identifications from Trunk Bay,
St. John (by count) 134
X


84
their extended preservation, but the seed coats are worn and
more or less mineralized, suggestive of older age. In lieu
of direct dates by Carbon-14 of the seeds themselves, the
association of cockspur with the archaeological occupation
at Pearls is uncertain. Nevertheless, the particular
proveniences from which the cockspur seeds were recovered
suggest the seeds may indeed be contemporaneous with the
prehistoric deposits. The cockspur seeds came from an area
of the site that appears to be relatively intact (W. Keegan,
personal communication, May 1989), and the samples
themselves (Table 4.6) lack modern seeds or other modern
materials, such as glass or metal. Moreover, the two
samples contained abundant, well-preserved faunal remains
and Cedrosan Saladoid-subseries ceramics. In addition, the
cockspur-bearing samples produced carbonized plant remains
(see below) that are more reliably attributable to
prehistoric activity at the site by virtue of their
fragmented and carbonized condition, potential economic
value, and association with archaeological sites throughout
the region (further discussed below). The presence of
mineralized cockspur seeds at several other sites in the
Lesser Antilles (described below) further justifies
considering cockspur samples from Pearls as contemporaneous
with the archaeological remains, at least until demonstrated
otherwise.
Mastic-bully (Mastichodendron foetidissimum) is
conspicuous in Pearls samples (Table 4.6). This type of


31
Previous archaeobotanical studies of prehistoric West
Indian deposits are limited to five sites. Pearsall
analyzed material from Krum Bay, St. Thomas (1983), El
Bronce, Puerto Rico (1985), and the Three Dog Site, San
Salvador, Bahamas (1989a). Krum Bay, the most intensively
tested of the five sites, is the only locality from which an
appreciable quantity of macrobotanical remains was
recovered. All three of the sites analyzed by Pearsall,
however, provide good comparative wood data that can be used
to examine patterns of tree selection for fuel and
construction materials. I analyzed two additional sites on
Puerto Rico in 1988 and 1989-1991 (El Fresal and El Parking
Site, respectively [Newsom 1988, 1992a]). The preliminary
analyses of the two sites have been supplemented with
additional data and are incorporated in Chapter 5.
The settlement at Krum Bay (Lundberg 1989) dates to the
Archaic Age, specifically the Ortoiroid occupation on the
northern Lesser Antilles. A total of 2678 seeds and
fragments was recovered (Pearsall 1983), 89% of which (2330
specimens) belong to two genera of the Sapotaceae that bear
edible fruitfalse mastic (Mastichodendron foetidissimum)
and Manilkara sp. The remainder of the seed identifications
from Krum Bay are primarily from weedy annuals (e.g.,
purslane [Portulaca sp.]) representative of ruderal
vegetation.
At least 20 types of wood were identified from the Krum
Bay deposits. The most ubiquitous are buttonwood


199
being 3.05 mm long by 2.26 mm wide. Adjusting upward by 4%
to take into account shrinkage from carbonization gives
revised measurements for the El Parking seed of 3.17 mm for
length and 2.35 mm for width (the 4% estimate was calculated
after carbonizing 30 seeds from cultivar no. 3 [Table 5.13]
and measuring the dimensional change). The adjusted
dimensions are still smaller than measurements from any of
the museum accessions, at probable indication that the El
Parking Site seed represents a wild form of papaya. There
is nothing to suggest that the El Parking Site seed is
immature and correspondingly undersized.
Seed coat texture is another feature that distinguishes
wild from domesticated forms of papaya. Seeds of
domesticated papaya are deeply furrowed and have abundant,
salient spines. In contrast, wild papaya seed coats have
shallow furrows, and the spines are lacking or weakly
developed. The El Parking Site seed, in addition to its
small size, conforms with wild papaya by its relatively
smooth, shallowly furrowed seed coat that lacks spines.
The distributions of the archaeobotanical plant types
are listed by provenience in Table 5.14. The papaya seed
was recovered from Feature 34, along with Sapotaceae wood
and an unidentified type of wood (Cerrillos-3). Oenothera,
another possible plant introduction, occurs in Feature 1, in
addition to the single cf. spider flower seed and abundant
acacia wood. Otherwise, acacia wood occurs in Feature 6.
The goosefoot-family seed was recovered with Feature 7,


202
5.15. Most of the samples represent household refuse.
Greater detail for the flotation samples, from which most of
the data were recovered, is provided in Table 5.16.
Ethnobotanical research on Barrio Baliaja was directed
toward dietary and general subsistence data. Hence, the
analyses of the variously aged sites and components
emphasized seeds and other non-wood remains. Wood
identification was limited to a search for imported species
associated with the lumber industry (see Newsom 1992b);
otherwise wood identification was reserved for future study.
Preservation of Ballaj contexts is exceptional. Many
specimens exist in semi-waterlogged or mineralized form;
other plant remains are carbonized (Newsom 1992b). Seeds
are relatively abundant, including 459 archaeological
specimens (Table 5.16). The complete list of Ballaj plant
identifications is shown in Table 5.17. The frequencies and
distributions of the various taxa are shown in Table 5.18.
Values in parentheses in Table 5.18 are tentative
identifications, and those marked by "x" signify present,
but not individually counted. Asterisked samples in Table
5.18 represent miscellaneous collections of plant materials
from 1/4-1/16" excavation screens and/or specimens
encountered and isolated in the course of laboratory
operations in San Juan.
Several domesticated and/or important garden and
orchard species are identified among the Ballaj samples
(Table 5.17). Noteworthy is the presence of plant staples


67
Preservation Biases
Another means by which plant remains from
archaeological sites are considered and classified is in
terms of which plant types actually appear in the deposits
as the result of past human activities or otherwise occurred
at the time the deposits formed, versus those seeds and
plant fragments that are modern and of no consequence to
archaeological interpretation. Generally, archaeobotanists
working with terrestrial deposits use the condition of
carbonizationwhether or not a given specimen is
carbonizedto help interpret the seed's or wood's validity
as an archaeological specimen. An underlying assumption is
that only biologically inert carbonized seeds/wood could
survive lengthy periods and thus may be attributed to the
period of site formation and deposition (Miksicek 1987) .
Uncarbonized specimens, on the other hand, tend to be
classified as recently intrusive into the archaeological
sediments and thus not pertinent to archaeololgical
interpretation. Nevertheless, this rule must be applied
with latitude, particularly for younger deposits such as
were tested by the Baliaja Archaeological Project.
Furthermore, conditions exist under which non-carbonized
seeds and plant parts may endure longer, particularly where
anerobic deposition occurs (for example, in the bottom of a
well or pond), under extremely arid conditions, and/or where
mineralization of seeds is possible.


5
identifications form profiles of plant use that correspond
with early, later, and final stages of migration, settlement
and social organization in particular island groups. Thus
Archaic Age sites in the Leeward island group provide
glimpses of wood selection and evidence that gardening was
practiced prior to the migration of Saladoid horticulturists
from northern South America. Clearly, fruit-bearing trees,
like native mastic-bully, were an important part of early
Saladoid subsistence; plant evidence from later Saladoid and
Ostionoid sites on Puerto Rico show that gardening and
arboriculture became increasingly more important. Finally,
Classic Taino sites on Hispaniola provide the first evidence
verifying the presence of the root-crop and maize production
system described in the historic accounts.
Because this is one of the first archaeological
attempts to detail the nature of plant use by Caribbean
Indians, the questions asked are broad and relate to
fundamental issues of adaptation and subsistence change.
The immediate objective is to contribute to an understanding
of plant use in the Caribbean by refining our information
about indigenous subsistence economies. This research
establishes a foundation for a better-informed understanding
of the dynamic relationship between Caribbean Indians,
including the Taino who represent the final stages of the
migration events, and the island environments they
inhabited. The resulting model of plant use provides finer
resolution with which to examine the colonization effort in


60
The sieving alternative to flotation was done either
dry or with a fine spray of water depending on the moisture
content of a given sample. Moderately moist to wet soil
matrix was processed with water; dry to very dry samples
were sieved dry. These procedures facilitated sieving and
the size partitioning of sample components while maintaining
the sample moisture content as near egual as possible, thus
avoiding the additional stress upon fragile plant remains of
total immersion and subsequent drying (see Vaquer et al.
1986). (Carbonized plant remains from dry or alternately
wet/dry deposits quickly fragment along linear planes into
numerous pieces when exposed to water, even from percolation
across a damp towel [laboratory observations].)
In several cases, e.g., Golden Rock and Maisabel,
carbonized wood specimens were collected directly, without
subjecting the specimens to further sample preparation and
possible breakage. Archaeobotanical samples that underwent
water-sieving or flotation were allowed to dry slowly in a
sheltered area prior to analysis.
The sample fractions from the sieving or flotation
procedures were further sorted and categorized with the aid
of a dissecting microscope. Materials from the 4 mm and 2
mm size fractions were completely sorted. Residues from the
finer sample components (1 mm and 0.4 mm meshes) were
scanned under the microscope for seeds and other
identifiable plant material, but were not otherwise sorted.
The 0.4 fraction proved generally unproductive of useful


273
widespread use. Finally, Oenothera is among the group of
plants from En Bas Saline examined in greater detail because
of its interesting range extension and potential economic
value.
Maize. Maize specimens were recovered from ten
distinct deposits at En Bas Saline, spanning the full
temporal sequence of site occupation (ca. A.D. 1250 to ca.
A.D. 1510). All together, 16 archaeobotanical samples (22%
of the flotation/fine-sieve samples) produced maize remnants
(some of these are multiple samples from the same deposits;
Appendix B). Table 6.6 summarizes the maize from En Bas
Saline by context and by the particular category of maize
specimen.
Included in the maize assemblage are 8 whole or nearly
complete kernels, 1 cob fragment, 28 separated cupules, and
20 additional tentatively identified specimens of kernel and
cupule fragment (Table 6.6). All specimens are thoroughly
carbonized.
All of the maize from En Bas Saline came from discrete
structural deposits or pits. Maize-bearing contexts include
the large prehistoric feasting pits in the plaza area
(Features 11 and 15), the prehistoric structure on the
raised earthwork encircling the northern portion of the site
(Garden B, Features 31 and 33), the large chiefly
structure/mounded area in the central plaza (Features 14,
25; Areas 1, 3, 20), and the Garden B dog burial (Feature
24) (Table 6.6). In contrast, no maize was encountered in


201
along with Sapotaceae wood and Cerrillos wood types 1 and 2.
Sapotaceae wood is the most ubiquitous type, occurring in
three proveniences (25% ubiquity; Table 5.14).
Barrio Ballaj, San Juan, Puerto Rico
Excavations in historic Barrio Ballaj of nineteenth-
century dwellings and one institutional complex (see Chapter
3) produced a wealth of preserved plant material. A
complete discussion of the archaeobotanical analysis of
Ballaj deposits is beyond the scope of this thesis, given
the late age and that the deposits were produced by people
of ethnic origins besides Caribbean Indians. Full details
of the Ballaj analysis are presented Newsom 1992b.
Nevertheless, certain of the Ballaj identifications are
pertinent to the prehistoric sites and to a general
understanding the ethnobotany of the island. If anything,
the Ballaj study and similar analyses of post-contact
material extend into the historic period our perspective on
plant use in the Caribbean islands. Moreover, the research
provides another context, ethnobotany, with which to
interpret cultural dynamics in and between the pre- and
post-contact eras.
Results of the Ballaj archaeobotanical analysis are
briefly summarized below. Plant identifications that help
to elucidate the general reconstruction of Taino plant use
are discussed in more detail.
An overview of the types of Ballaj contexts that
underwent archaeobotanical analysis is presented in Table


Table 6.4continued.
IDENTIFICATION: GARDEN C prehist.
Area 3A Area 3B Area 4 Feat. 10 Feat. 11
CULTIVATED: Lv.l
cf. Guava
Maize/Indian corn
cf. Manioc tuber
Palm hard seed coat
Palm, fibrous tissue
Pepper/pimiento
Primrose
cf. Soursop
cf. Sapotaceae seed
WILD EDIBLE:
Amaranth./Chenopod.
Goosefoot family
cf. Inga/guaba
Nightshade family
Panicoid grass
Purslane
Trianthema
cf. Grass family
Legume, wild (seed)
Legume, wild (fruit)
Mallow family
cf. Myrtaceae
Yellow stargrass
Unid, seed-type 1
Unid, seed-type 2
Unid, seed-type 3
Unid, seed-type 4
Unid, seed-type 5
Unid, soft tissue 2
ARCHAEO. SEED TOTAL: 0
Lv.l Lv.2,4 Lv.l all lvls.
23(10)
(1) 720
(1)
1
2
5
1
3
2
5 12 2 379
1 14 0 46
historic:
Feat.15 Zone 1 Zone 2
& 15A/B Lv.2 Lv.l
1
14(33)
1
1
9
2
46
2 12 1
261


CHAPTER 2
BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM FORMULATION
The basic chronology of human occupation in the
Caribbean Islands is summarized in this chapter, without
entering into too much detail about local or subregional
culture series. The general cultural-historical summary is
followed by a brief discussion of the various theories and
models archaeologists have developed to interpret human
existence in the islands from the perspective of food
production and human adaptation. Next, the foundations for
ideas about important plant foods are reviewed, beginning
with certain references in historic documents, then on to
what has been inferred from the presence of artifacts
associated with food production, osteochemical data from
human skeletal material, and, finally, pollen analytical
data. These sections are followed by a short summary of
details from ethnohistoric documents about particularly
important plants, including manioc. Information gleaned
from the documents about these plants is potentially
significant to the archaeobotanical data presented in later
chapters. The chapter concludes with an overview of
previous paleoethnobotanical research on sites in the West
Indies, setting the stage for my research.
8


226
from wild forms, however, is not necessarily inconsistent
with an association with human groups.
A distinctive feature of the Puerto Rico
archaeobotanical assemblages that contrasts with the Lesser
Antillean collections reviewed earlier is the conspicuous
presence of plants that may have existed under cultivation,
as opposed to strictly wild forms. Several important
American homegarden species were identified in the
archaeobotanical samples from Puerto Rico, including
soursop, pepper/pimiento, papaya, tomato, palm family,
avocado, and bully-tree/sapote. There is provisional
evidence for a few additional homegarden trees, including
guaba, guava, and Panama-tree (Tables 5.21 and 5.22).
Currently, pepper and tomato are known only from historic
period contexts excavated by the Barrio Baliaja Project.
Soursop was possibly present and utilized prehistorically,
based on wood specimens from El Bronce (Table 5.22). The
rest of the plants are defintively associated with
prehistoric deposits. Papaya, wild avocado, bully-tree, and
yellow sapote (Tables 5.21 and 5.22) from the Puerto Rican
sites provide the first archaeobotanical records for the
presence of these plants in the Caribbean; all but bully-
tree derive from other areas of the American tropics.
Provisionally identified Panama-tree (Table 5.22) adds
another to this list of potential prehistoric plant imports.
The analysis of botanical remains from archaeological
sites in Puerto Rico has provided a body of evidence


Table 5.5. Archaeobotanical samples from Maisabel, Puerto Rico.
PROVENIENCE
SAMP.
SAMPLE
SAMPLE
SAMPLE
LT.FRACT.
WOOD
WOOD
TOTAL
ARCH.
SEED
(coordinates/depth)
NO.
TYPE
VOLUME
(ltrs.)
WEIGHT
(grams)
WEIGHT
(grams)
WEIGHT
(grams)
NO.
I DEN.
SEEDS
SEEDS
DEN
SITY
N042/W14,
Fea.101 ditch
749
float
10.0

(trace)
(trace)
1
26
0

N042/W18,
Fea.101 ditch
742
float
10.0
-
(trace)
(trace)
-
4
0
-
N043/W08,
Fea.101 ditch
770
float
10.0
-
(trace)
(trace)
-
14
0
-
N043/W10,
Fea.101 ditch
763
float
10.0
-
(trace)
(trace)
-
2
0
-
N042/E02,
Area A, 60-70
334
carbon
-
181.0
-
(trace)
6
0
0
-
N036/W10,
Fea.95, 60-70
326
carbon
0.15
136.5
-
28.5
20
0
0
-
N036/W10,
Fea.95, 70-80
330
carbon
-
535.0
-
48.0
20
0
0
-
N036/W10,
Fea.95, 70-80
332
carbon
-
534.5
-
103.0
20
0
0
-
N042/W10,
Fea.162, 24 cm
321
carbon
0.04
33.2
-
(trace)
10
0
0
-
N042/W10,
Fea.163, 70-80
325
carbon
0.65
36.0
-
35.4
20
0
0
-
N042/W10,
lv. 80-90
327
carbon
-
536.5
-
15.0
20
0
0
-
N042/W12,
lv. 50-80
333
carbon
-
(trace)
-
(trace)
1
0
0
-
N032/E32,
lv. 30-40
353
float
10.0
-
(trace)
(trace)
-
9
0
-
N002/W07,
Fea.38, 74-79
228
carbon
1.2
1116.0
-
204.7
30
0
0
-
N002/W09,
lv. 60-70
253
carbon
0.20
150.0
-
(trace)
30
0
0
-
S038/W18,
lv. 20-30
311
float
10.0
-
(trace)
(trace)
-
10
2
0.2
S038/W18,
lv. 30-40
321
float
9.0
-
(trace)
(trace)
-
10
0
-
S038/W18,
lv. 40-50
336
float
11.0
-
(trace)
(trace)
-
36
2
0.2
S038/W18,
lv. 50-60
346
float
11.0
-
(trace)
(trace)
-
4
0
-
S038/W18,
lv. 60-70
351
float
9.0
-
(trace)
(trace)
-
12
1
0.1
S038/W18,
lv. 80-90
364
float
9.0
-
(trace)
(trace)
-
10
1
0.1
N112/W88,
Fea.104, 90-100
588
float
11.0
-
(trace)
(trace)
-
4
0
-
N092/W13,
lv. 40-50
107
carbon
0.05
69.5
-
(trace)
4
0
0
-
N092/W13,
lv. 40-50
112
carbon
0.02
49.1
-
1.7
3
1
0
-
N092/W13,
lv. 50-60
116
carbon
0.05
85.0
-
(trace)
1
0
0
-
N096/W13,
lv. 0-20
85
float
3.0
-
(trace)
(trace)
-
2
0
-
N096/W13,
lv. 20-30
68
float
3.0
-
(trace)
(trace)
-
0
0
-
N096/W13,
lv. 40-50
55
float
3.5
-
(trace)
(trace)
-
1
0
-
N096/W13,
lv. 50-60
77
float
4.0
-
(trace)
(trace)
-
8
0
-


3
of archaeobotanical remains). Despite the widely held
belief that change occurred in the subsistence realm and
that developing economic patterns represent a growing
familiarity and adaptedness to the island environment, our
understanding of the types of plant foods and the nature of
their use is rudimentary.
This research is designed to help remedy this situation
and address some of the deficiencies in interpreting
Caribbean Indian economies by investigating the types and
intensity of plant use in the region. This study
incorporates and synthesizes paleoethnobotanical data
excavated from 23 archaeological sites that effectively span
the full temporal and geographic range of human activity in
the region, excluding only the earliest, Lithic Age (Rouse
1989; 1992) occupations. Changes that occur between the
earliest Archaic Age and later-aged Taino occupations are
examined to address the issue of adaptation to the insular
environment and the ease with which colonists might have
adjusted to the insular setting. The plant data track the
development of a uniquely Caribbean Indian pattern of plant
use. Archaeological, archaeobotanical, artifactual, and
ecological data are used to address questions about the
first appearance of gardening and arboriculture in the
region, when dependence on cultivated plants seems to have
intensified, and identify source areas for important
cultigens and fruit trees.


CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH
The data for this study were drawn from one site on the
island of Bonaire, eleven sites in the Lesser Antilles, five
sites on Puerto Rico, and two sites on Hispaniola (Figure
3.1). General information about the sites is presented in
Table 3.1 and each is briefly described in the paragraphs
that follow. Three additional sitesMacabou (Martinique),
Krum Bay (St. Thomas), and El Bronce (Puerto Rico)are
shown on the map (Figure 3.1) because archaeobotanical data
from the three are discussed in subsequent chapters, even
though they are not part of the analyses incorporated in
this dissertation.
Site Descriptions
Wanapa, Bonaire
Bonaire is culturally and spatially independent of the
other sites in this study (Figure 3.1), being outside, and
isolated from, the primary migratory flow of human groups
from the Orinoco region into the main Caribbean Island arc.
Nonetheless, the Wanapa Site is included in this
dissertation because of its pertinence from a general
cultural perspective and because the environment and
vegetation of the island are similar enough to arid areas of
36


93
remnants of earlier, Archaic Age Ortoiroid occupations, as
described in Chapter 3.
Thirteen samples were analyzed from Twenty Hill (PE-
19) and three samples from Jolly Beach (MA-3; MA-4) (Table
4.11). Most of the remains were collected as volumetric
samples that were dry sieved through small-sized mesh (4.0-
0.42 mm) to remove soil particles. Three samples of
coarser-sieved (1.8mm = 1/16") material from the excavation
screens supplement the volumetric samples.
Table 4.12 lists the types of plants recovered from the
Twenty Hill and Jolly Beach excavations. Wood remains
survived poorly; only two fragments are adequate for
anatomical characterization, neither of which came from
Jolly Beach. One wood is tentatively identified as bustic
(Dipholis sp.), a member of the sapota family (Sapotaceae).
The second wood fragment (Twenty Hill type-1) is too poorly
preserved to fully detail its anatomical structure; it
possibly belongs to the bay family (Lauraceae).
A single seedMexican poppy (Argemone mexicana)was
recovered in the samples from Jolly Beach. The seed is
carbonized, hence its inclusion among the archaeological
remains listed in Table 4.12. However, in the absence of
supportive evidence to the contrary, it is probable that the
small (1 mm diameter) seed is modern (having possibly blown
or fallen into the excavation).
Seed identifications from Twenty Hill are more numerous
and diverse (Table 4.12 and 4.13). They include cockspur


130
Table 4.28. Plant identifications from Beach Access Site,
St. John (by count).
IDENTIFICATION:
Feat.15
Feat.18
TAXON
FS 223
FS 220
TOTAL;
Buttonwood (wood)
13
13
Satinwood (wood)
4
10
14
TOTAL WOOD TYPES:
2
1
SEED TOTAL:
0
0


26
1978:125; Garca Arvalo and Tavares 1978:32) and the pollen
samples. A similar assemblage of pollens was identified
from La Caleta, Dominican Republic (Fortuna n.d.);
unfortunately the temporal placement of the pollens is not
verified. At El Jobito, located near Sanate, maize pollen
was recovered purportedly dating to ca. A.D. 1020 (Garcia
Arevalo and Tavares 1978:36). This identification and
relatively early date needs to be corroborated with
additional data. Maize pollen was identified in samples
from another location on the island (bottom sediments from
Lake Miragoane, Haiti [Higuera-Gundy 1991]), dating
somewhere between approximately A.D. 1000 and 1500. Sanoja
(1989:532) mentions an additional pair of archaeological
sites in the Dominican Republic, both with maize pollen
reputedly dating to ca. 1450 B.C. To reiterate, this date
for maize is early and predates the first millennium B.C.
migration (Siegel 1991a, c) of horticultural people into the
archipelago. Nevertheless, the dates for early maize in the
tropical lowlands continue to be pushed back (Miksicek et
al. 1981; Pearsall 1990; Piperno 1989; Rust and Leyden
1990)as early as 5000 B.C. for Panamabut maize is still
considered to be a rather late (ca. first millennium B.C.)
introduction into northeastern South America. Thus,
although a second millennium B.C. date for maize in the West
Indies is not unthinkable, efforts should be made to
corroborate this record for the earliest presence of maize
in the Greater Antilles with additional radiocarbon dates


95
Table 4.12. Plant identifications from Twenty Hill (PE-19),
and Jolly Beach (MA-3, -4), Antigua.
TAXON COMMON NAME PLANT
PART
Archaeological:
Argemone mexicana* Mexican poppy (cardo santo) seed
Celtis iquanaea* cockspur (azufaifo) seed
cf. Dioholis sp. bustic (sanguinaria) wood
Sapotaceae,
cf. Manilkara bullet-wood (ausubo) or
or Mastichodendron mastic-bully (tortugo
amarillo) seed
Zanthoxvlum sp.* satinwood (espinosa) seed
Uniden. wood type-1 Twenty Hill-1, unilaterally
paratracheal parenchyma, rays
biseriate, intervessel pits
small to fine
Unidentified seed
wood
seed
Modern seeds:
Fabaceae-Mimosoideae
tamarindo, bayahonda
seed
Malvaceae, cf. Sida
cf. Momordica
mallow family
seed
charantia
balsam apple (cundeamor)
seed
Passiflora so.
passion flower (parcha)
seed
Setaria sp.
foxtail millet (arrocillo)
seed
Unidentified weed
seed
*Celtis and Zanthoxvlum appear mineralized, but could
possibly be modern, rather than archaeological, in nature.
Likewise, a single Arqemone is carbonized, but may also
be modern.


316
post-contact deposits (En Bas Saline) (Table 7.1). Both
plants have potential value as food and for medicinal
purposes. Oenothera possibly was introduced into the
Caribbean islands by Archaic Age people, based on its
earliest known presence at Hichmens' Shell Heap, Nevis
(Chapter 4); the basis for Oenothera's present restriction
in geographic range is not clear and requires more research.
The best evidence thus far for deliberate use of Oenothera.
rather than presence (in site deposits) by natural dispersal
of nearby weed seeds, is in the concentration of Oenothera
seeds (244 total) from Feature 14 at En Bas Saline.
Potentially important is the fact that Feature 14 is
associated with the chiefly residence. Additional
supportive evidence for Oenothera use is the co-occurrence
of Oenothera seeds with maize and/or manioc tubersplant
remains that unquestionably represent food resourcesin
four out of seven occurrences of Oenothera at the site
(Table 6.4). However tantalizing is the evidence thus far
presented of range extensions and association with features
and known food plants, it is abundantly clear that more data
are needed to better understand the presence of Oenothera in
Caribbean archaeological contexts, and to clarify the basis
for its previously broader geographic distribution.
Other wild plant foods from Caribbean site deposits
seem to have had more restricted distributions and use, and
thus far are recorded only for certain time periods or
island groups. For example, cockspur seeds were identified


6
particular, and human adaptation to insular environments in
general. In addition to clarifying the role of plant
resources to Caribbean Indian existence, broader
applications of this study are to island biogeographic
theory and the theoretical understanding of the development
of complex chiefdoms.
The format of this study is as follows. In Chapter 2
background information critical to an understanding of the
general context of this research is presented. First, the
sequence and nature of human occupations in the Caribbean
region are summarized. Next, briefly outlined are several
current models of adaptation and subsistence change,
including a discussion of the basis for propositions about
the types of and changes in the plants used by various
Caribbean peoples. Then, the history of archaeobotanical
research on West Indian sites is reviewed and the questions
addressed by this study are formulated. In Chapter 3, the
sites incorporated in this study are briefly described, with
emphasis on the types of depositional contexts from which
were recovered the plant remains. Following the site
summaries is a brief description of the methods used to
analyze and interpret the archaeobotanical data. The
results of the archaeobotanical analyses are presented in
chapters 4, 5, and 6. First discussed (Chapter 4) are data
from the Lesser Antilles sites, beginning with sites located
in the southernmost part of the region and ending with the
Virgin Islands at the northern extent. By presenting the


331
grass seeds into an edible form became the template upon
which maize was later substituted. Southeastern
archaeologists extend this hypothesis further. As Smith
(1986:51) states, exploitation of starchy seed bearing
plants "provided a preadaptive context, and partial
explanation of, the shift to maize-dominated agricultural
systems . [in the Southeast]." It is interesting to
consider in this regard the numerous grinding stones
associated with preceramic Caribbean sites (Moore 1982;
Rouse 1982; Harris 1973; Veloz-Maggiolo 1976). With more
data it may be possible to show that a pre-maize seed
grinding/milling system similar to that which occurred in
the Tehuacan Valley was early in place in the Caribbean.
There is no reason to assume that this technology had to
wait for the migration of Saladoid people into the
Caribbean, since Lithic and Archaic Age people were fully
capable of such a level of technology and plant production.
To this point it should be noted that wild grasses can be
quite productive. Harlan (1989), for example, has found
that yields from wild grain can equal and sometimes better
those produced by subsistence farming and may also be more
nutritious. Moreover, the archaeobotanical evidence from
Archaic Age sites, meager as it is, suggests from the
presence of avocado, yellow sapote, and perhaps also,
sapodilla and Oenothera. that tending fruit trees and other
valuable plants was a pattern already in existence during
the earlier part of human occupation in the Caribbean


20
osteochemical techniques into Caribbean dietary
reconstructions.
Early historic chronicles describe Caribbean Indian
agriculture and a few other forms of plant use, primarily in
reference to the islands of the Greater Antilles (Dunn and
Kelly 1988; Las Casas 1971; Oviedo 1959; and see Sauer 1966,
and Sturtevant 1969). Much discussion centers on manioc,
and additional mention is made of other root crops and
maize. The Taino of the Greater Antilles seem to have
practiced slash and burn cultivation (Oviedo 1959:13-14;
Sauer 1966:51; Sturtevant 1961). In certain areas more
labor-intensive forms of agriculture were practiced,
including irrigated ditch networks and bench terracing
(Krieger 1929; Las Casas 1909, ch.5:15, ch. 60:154; Ortiz
Aguilu et al. 1991). While these descriptions of important
plants, and how they were used and cultivated, are helpful,
it is difficult or impossible to sort out whether individual
chroniclers were describing plant production in the islands
of the West Indies or on the nearby mainland. Oviedo
(1959:14-15), in particular, wrote generally of Indian life
in the New World, obscuring differences in plant consumption
practices between groups living in the islands and those of
the mainland. In addition, the early historic accounts
provide no insight into the historical development of plant
cultivation systems and how they were adapted to the insular
setting.


386
Roth, Walter Edmund
1970 An Introductory Study of the Arts, Crafts, and
Customs of the Guiana Indians. Johnson Reprint Corpor
ation, New York.
Rouse, Irving
1982 The Olsen Collection from lie a Vache, Haiti. The
Florida Anthropologist 35(4):169-185.
1986 Migrations in Prehistory: Inferring Population
Movements from Cultural Remains. Yale University Press,
New Haven.
1989 Peopling and repeopling of the West Indies. In
Biogeographv of the West Indies: Past, Present, and
Future. Charles A. Woods (editor), pp. 119-135. Sandhill
Crane Press, Gainesville, Florida.
1991 Ancestries of the Tainos: Amazonian or circum-
Caribbean. In Proceedings of the Thirteenth Inter
national Congress for Caribbean Archaeology, pp.
682-702. Archaeological-Anthropological Institute of
the Netherlands Antilles, Curacao.
1992 The Tainos: Rise and Decline of the People who
Greeted Columbus. Yale University Press, New Haven.
Rouse, Irving and Ricardo E. Alegria
1990 Excavations at Maria de la Cruz Cave and Hacienda
Grande Village Site. Loiza. Puerto Rico. Yale University
Publications in Anthropology no. 80, Yale University
Press, New Haven.
Rouse, Irving and L. Allaire
1978 Caribbean. In Chronologies in New World Archaeology.
R.E. Taylor and C. Meighan (editors), pp. 431-481.
Academic Press, New York.
Rust, W.F. and B.W. Leyden
1990 Evidence of maize use at early and middle Preclassic
La Venta Olmec sites. Paper presented at the conference
"Corn and Culture in the Prehistoric New World." Uni
versity of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 11-13 May.
Sanoja, Mario
1989 From foraging to food production in northeastern
Venezuela and the Caribbean. In Foraging and Farming,
the Evolution of Plant Exploitation. David R. Harris
and Gordon C. Hillman (editors), pp. 532-537. Unwin
Hyman, London.
Sanoja, Mario and I. Vargas
1983 New light on the prehistory of eastern Venezuela.
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Brown, William L. and Major M. Goodman
1977 Races of corn. In Corn and Corn Improvement. George
F. Sprague (editor), pp. 49-88. American Society of
Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1964 The Archaeology of Grenada, West Indies. Contri
butions of the Florida State Museum: Social Sciences
Number 11. University of Florida, Gainesville.
* Callaghan, Richard T.
1990 Mainland Origins of the Preceramic Cultures of the
Greater Antilles. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of
Anthropology, University of Calgary, Canada.
Callen, E.O.
1965 Food habits of some Pre-Columbian Mexican Indians.
Economic Botany 19(4):335-343.
1967a The first New World cereals. American Antiquity
32:535-538.
1967b Analysis of Tehuacan coprolites. In Prehistory of
the Tehuacan Valiev. Volume 1: Environment and Sub
sistence. D.S. Byers (editor), pp. 261-289. University
of Texas Press, Austin.
Carbone, Victor A.
1980 Puerto Rican prehistory: an outline. In A Cultural
Resources Reconnaissance of Five Projects in Puerto
Rico. Ernest W. Seckinger, Jr. (editor), pp. 1-68.
Submitted to the Jacksonville District, U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers.
Carr, M.E., B.S. Phillips, and M.O. Bagby
1985 Xerophytic species evaluated for renewal energy
resources. Economic Botany 39(4):505-513.
Chase, A.
1964 First Book of Grasses: The Structure of Grasses
Explained for Beginners, Third Edition. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Chazdon, R.L.
1978 Ecological aspects of the distribution of C4 grasses
in selected habitats of Costa Rica. Biotropica 10(4):
265-269.
Cody, Annie
1990 Specialization, interaction, and exchange: A per
spective from the Saladoid site of Pearls, Grenada, West
Indies. Paper presented at the 55th annual meeting of
the Society for American Archaeology.


374
Eckholm, Erik, Gerald Foley, Geoffrey Barnard, and Lloyd
Timberlake
1984 Fuelwood: The Energy Crisis that Won't go Avav.
International Institute for Environment and Development
(Earthscan), London.
Esau, Katherine
1977 Anatomy of Seed Plants. Second Edition. John Wiley
and Sons, New York.
Ewel, John J. and J.L. Whitmore
1973 The ecological life zones of Puerto Rico and the U.S.
Virgin Islands. Forest Service Research Paper ITF-18.
Institute of Tropical Forestry, Rio Piedras, Puerto
Rico (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service).
Facciola, S.
1990 Cornucopia, a Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong
Publications, Vista, California.
Farnsworth, P., J.E. Brady, M.J. DeNiro, and R. MacNeish
1985 A re-evaluation of the isotopic and archaeological
reconstructions of diet in the Tehuacan Valley. Amer
ican Antiquity 50(1):102-116.
Ford, Richard I.
1984 Prehistoric phytogeography of economic plants in
Latin America. In Pre-Columbian Plant Migration.
Doris Stone (editor), pp. 175-183.
Fortuna, Luis
1978 Anlisis polinico de Sanate Abajo. Boletn del
Museo del Hombre Dominicano 10:125-130.
n.d. Pollen analysis of La Caleta, Santo Domingo and
the Hacienda Grande Site, Puerto Rico. Manuscript
on file with the Environmental Archaeology Laboratory,
Department of Anthropology, Florida Museum of Natural
History.
Fritz, Gayle
1984 Identification of cultigen amaranth and chenopod
from rock shelter sites in northwest Arkansas. American
Antiquity 49:558-572.
1986 Starchy grain crops in the eastern U.S.: evidence
from the desiccated Ozark plant remains. Paper presented
at the 51st Annual Meeting of the Society for American
Archaeology, New Orleans.
1987 The trajectory of knotweed domestication in pre
historic eastern North America. Paper presented at the
10th Annual Conference of the Society of Ethnobiology,
Gainesville, Florida.


107
Table 4.18. Plant identifications from Hichmans' site
(GE-5), and Indian Castle (GE-1), Nevis.
TAXON COMMON NAME PLANT PART
Archaeological:
cf. Bourreria so.
strong bark (roble de guayo)
wood
Celtis iauanaea*
cockspur (azufaifo)
seed
Guaiacum sp.
lignum vitae (guayacn)
wood
HioDomane mancinella*
manchineel (manzanillo)
seed
Uniden. wood type-1
Indian Castle-1, confluent
parenchyma = 1/2 ground mass
wood
Uniden. wood type-2
Indian Castle-2, pores in
long radial series (chains),
oossiblv Avicennia (black
mangrove)
wood
Uniden. wood type-3
Indian Castle-3, pores
solitary, axial parenchyma
abundant, diffuse-in-
Unidentified hardwood
aggregates
wood
Modern seeds:
Caryophyllaceae
chick weed family
seed
Euphorbiaceae
spurge family
seed
Euphorbia nutans
nodding spurge
seed
Fabaceae cf.Desmodium
trefoil (zarzabacoa)
fruit
Malvaceae, cf. Sida
mallow family
seed
Poaceae
grass family
seed
Portulaca sp.
purslane (verdolaga)
seed
*Celtis is mineralized; manchineel fragments appear
somewhat mineralized, but may be modern.


142
by "Archaic" people at a similar level of cultural
development in the Eastern Woodlands of North America (see,
for example, B.D. Smith 1992) and in the American tropics
(e.g., Callen 1965, 1967a, 1967b; Pickersgill 1989; Piperno
1989) .
Alternatively, Oenothera may have been part of the
naturally occurring vegetation of the West Indies, perhaps
part of the ruderal flora that grew around human dwellings.
Thus, Oenothera may have been initially collected in the
wild, and possibly later became associated with household
settings and/or homegardens (Covich and Nickerson 1966;
Rindos 1984). At some point the plants may have been
specifically protected, tended, and even propagated by
Caribbean Indians. If Oenothera's continued existence on
the various islands became dependent upon Caribbean Indians,
then the plant may have disappeared from the region in
conjunction with the loss of Native American culture that
followed European contact. Nevertheless, current evidence
is far too meager to suggest that Oenothera sp. was
domesticated by (and, therefore, partially or wholly
dependent upon) Taino people or their predecessors. An
alternative hypothesis for the apparent eradication of
primrose species from the Caribbean is that the plants
disappeared in conjunction with extensive habitat
destruction that has taken place over the past five
centuries.


Table 7.2continued.
cf. Suriana (Bay cedar)
Tecoma stans (Roble amarillo)
Zanthoxylum (Satinwood)
Zanthoxylum (Wild lime)
LESSER ANTILLES PUERTO RICO
SOUTHERN NORTHERN (prehistoric)
GR
MM GR, HE, BA
GR
EB
HISPANIOLA
(En Bas Saline)
Derives from other areas of the American tropics.
Site notations:
Southern Lesser Antilles sites: W = Wanapa, P = Pearls, HW = Heywoods, MM =
Macabou, Martinique. Northern Lesser Antilles sites: JB = Jolly Beach, TW = Twenty
Hill, HS = Hichmans' Shell, HiS = Hichmans' Site, IC = Indian Castle, GR = Golden
Rock, HE = Hope Estate, TB = Trunk Bay, BA = Beach Access Site, KB = Krum Bay
Puerto Rico site: M = Maisabel, CC = Calle Cristo, EB = El Bronce, EF = El Fresal,
EP = El Parking Site
320


148
(Suriana martima) may also have served as posts or as other
forms of construction material.
Five probable fuelwoods are identified from Golden
Rock, including lignum-vitae, Celastraceae, fish poison
(Piscida carthaoenensis). pepper bush (Croton sp.), and
Rubiaceae. Many of the species identified from the other
sites (Table 4.33) probably also represent fuelwood. Fish
poison potentially also was used to capture small fish and
perhaps in ritual activity, as was discussed above in the
section on Golden Rock. Rico-Gray et. al. (1990:479) found
that fish poison is one of the primary constituents of Mayan
homegardens, but did not explain the reason for fish
poison's ubiquity or the nature of its use in the Mayan
communities.
Further generalizations about wood selection and
possible species preferences based on the present data from
the Lesser Antilles would be too speculative, particularly
since several of the sites are represented by too few
samples and/or too few identifications. Nevertheless, a
couple of additional points regarding the overall
assemblages can be made. Some patterns of plant
exploitation seem to transcend temporal and cultural
boundaries. The edible fruits of at least three wild native
treesmastic-bully, cockspur, and at least one type of
palmwere exploited by Archaic Age groups. Use of the same
three fruits seems to carry through into the Ceramic Age.
It is impossible to know, based on our present data, whether


296
500


276
samples from the zonal sheet deposits that represent gradual
refuse accumulation at the site. It should be noted,
however, that few such samples were analyzed.
More than half of the maize specimens from En Bas
Salineincluding the only cob fragmentcame from Feature
11 (Table 6.6). All but three (Features 24, 31, and 33) of
the remaining samples came from floor and wall deposits in
the large, burned structure on the central mound
Morphological analysis of the maize specimens provides
some insight into the types of maize grown by the Taino who
occupied En Bas Saline. Preliminary racial classifications
based on grain morphology and cob characters were verified
in May 1990 by Dr. Walton Galinat, an expert on maize and
maize evolution, who briefly examined the kernels and cob
fragment. Variation in kernel morphology demonstrates that
at least two types of maize were present at the site. The
kernels partition by size, shape, and texture into two,
possibly three, groups: the first is comprised of flat-
topped, somewhat cylindrical, or peg-shaped kernels (Figure
6.6); a second group consists of short, crescent-shaped
kernels (Figure 6.6); and a third possible morphology is
recognized based on the presence of a single, relatively
large kernel (Table 6.7) that is generally crescent-shaped,
but taller and more angular in outline than the other
crescent-shaped specimens. From the archaeology it is clear
that all three maize kernel morphotypes were present at En
Bas Saline prior to historic contact (Table 6.6).


339
Appendix A
-continued.
Setaria sd.*
Zea mays
Portulacaceae
Portulaca sp.*
Rhamnaceae
cf. Colubrina sp.
Rhizophoraceae
Rhizophora mangle
Rosaceae
Rubus SD.
Rubiaceae
cf. Erithalis fruticosa
cf. Genipa americana
Rutaceae
Citrus sd. fold Worldl
Zanthoxvlum sd.
Sapindaceae
cf. Melicoccus biiugatus
Sapotaceae
Bumelia fobovata)
cf. ChrvsoDhvllum sd.
Dioholis sd.
Manilkara sd.
Mastichodendron foetidissimum
Pouteria sd. = Lucuma sd.
Pouteria camoechiana = Lucuma salicifolia
Solanaceae
Capsicum sd.
Lvcooersicon lvcooercicum
Phvsalis sd.
Solanum sp.
Sterculiaceae
cf. Guazuma ulmifolia
Surianaceae
Sterculia aptala
cf. Suriana maritima
Ulmaceae
Celtis iguanaea
Ulmaceae


Table 4.22continued
IDENTIFI- MIDDEN SAMPLES continued
-HEARTHS- PIT
CATION: 4 i-
4K-
4M-
4N-
4P- 4P-
7011
7i- 9P-
18i
19P-
19P-
2OF- 20H- 21H-
PLANT
UBI
III
III
IV
III
III IV
/III
III III
VI
III
IV
III IV VII
TOTAL
QUITY
WILD EDIBLE:
Cockspur
(Celtis)* 3
5
40
12
16
3 2
X
X
114*
67*
OTHER:
Bay cedar
5
5
Black torch
10
73
21
Bustic
20
10
Celastraceae
1
1
5
Fish poison
20
21
10
Lignum-vitae
7
2
1
42
37
Pepper bush
1
(3)
4
10
Rubiaceae
6
2
8
10
Satinwood
102
21
Wild lime
3
10
Seed type 1
1
2
4
17
Seed type 2
1
1
5
MODERN SEEDS:
Legume fam.
1
1
2
11
TOTAL NO.
WOOD TYPES:
1
4
3
(1) 1 1
SEED TOTAL: 3
5
42
12
18 0
2
3 2
ARCH. SEEDS: 3
5
41
12
17 0
2
3 2


Table 4.7. Sapotaceae seed measurements (mm). Pineland and Miami are comparative
specimens from living trees. Pineland-1 are old, dry seeds that were
collected from the ground in leaf litter; Pineland-2 are fresh
specimens from the same tree.
SAMPLE
NUMBER
SEED
SEED
SEED*
SEED*
HILUM
MEASURED
LENGTH
DIAMETER
WIDTH
THICKNESS
LENGTH
WIDTH
Mastichodendron sp.:
Pearls, W.196 60-70
1
17.50
13.37
-


7.08
Pearls, W.196 60-70
1
-

-

8.90
6.55
Pearls, W.196 60-70
1
-
-
-
-
7.63
5.50
Pearls, W.196 70-80
1
19.00
-
-
-
11.68
8.20
Mastichodendron
foetidissimum:
Pineland, Florida-1
1
11.85
10.25
5.60
4.00
Pineland, Florida-1
1




8.68
6.55
Pineland, Florida-1
1
12.95
9.55




Pineland, Florida-1
1
13.85
10.60
-
-
-
-
Pineland, Florida-2
11
15.47
11.64
-
-
4.51
3.25
Manilkara bidentata:
Miami, Florida
6
18.06
-
12.07
9.07
5.75
3.03
Manilkara zapota:
Miami, Florida
1
18.75
-
11.50
5.71
18.64
2.09
Miami, Florida
1
23.34
-
13.20
7.54
11.57
2.42
Miami, Florida
1
23.96
-
14.16
6.56
12.92
1.81
*Seed length and width reported for angular specimens; seed diameter is
instead reported for specimens with circular cross-section.
Pineland and Miami, Florida are comparative specimens from living trees. Pineland-1
are old seeds from the leaf litter; Pineland-2 are fresh specimens from the same tree.


Table 5.7. Plant identifications from Maisabel deposits (by count).
MACROBLOCK:
IDENTIFI- Ditch with Ostin. House
CATION: N042/W14 N042/W18 N043/W08 N043/W10 N042/E02
Fea.101 Fea.101 Fea.101 Fea.101 Area A
CULTIVATED: F#749 F#742 F#770 F#763 #334
cf. Guava
cf. Panama-tree
WILD EDIBLE:
Bully-tree
Palm (frond) 1
Trianthema
OTHER:
Bignoniaceae
cf. Guaba
Maga
Marble-tree
?Fig (wood)
Unid, hardwood 111
Unid, seed/pit
Ud. soft tissue
6
1
MODERN SEEDS:
Azioaceae
Beggar-ticks
Grass, awned 12
Grass, plumed
cf. Paspalum
cf. Setaria
Mallow family 7
Trefoil 1
Unid, modern 6
# WOOD TYPES: 1
SEED TOTAL: 26
ARCHAEO. SEEDS: 0
1
1
2
1
4
0
14 2
111
14 2 -
0 0-
N036/W10 N04 2/W10
Fea.95 Fea.95 Fea.95 Fea.162
#326 #330 #332 #321
20 20 20
10
1
1
1
1
166


47
has suggested that three separate prehistoric cultural
groups may have occupied the site, the first being an early
ceramic-bearing group who produced zoned-punctated and
curvilinear-incised ceramics. This first group of people
are believed responsible for a small shell midden deposit
(designated XXII T20-T21, see Chapter 4) and the earliest
portion of a second (Haviser's "primary" midden) shell
midden (designated XVII A1-A5). The second possible culture
to appear at the site is identified with the Cedrosan
Saladoid series; typically red-painted, white-on-red, and
red-and-black painted ceramic wares were recovered in
association with levels attributed to this second
occupation, along with some Huecan-Saladoid decorative
elements (Haviser 1988). The second occupation continued to
deposit materials on the primary shell midden. Haviser
refers to the third cultural unit tentatively recognized for
Hope Estate as "modified Saladoid" people; they are believed
to have ties to the mainland Barrancoid tradition (Haviser
1988) .
Archaeobotanical samples from Hope Estate were
obtained from shell midden deposit by stratigraphic
excavation using 2.8 mm excavation screens. The samples
represent excavation levels, rather than specific features
or other more discrete deposits. Currently only two such
samples have been completely analyzed (Chapter 4), both come
from the earliest occupation of the site (Haviser's Early
Ceramic group).


Table 5.19. Carica papaya seed measurements (mm), Ballaj Archaeological Project.
Provenience
Length
Width
W/L
Feat.48,
Flot.
131:
4.72
2.89
0.61
n=5
5.34
3.52
0.66
4.21
2.90
0.69
4.53
3.38
0.75
4.54
2.76
0.61
Feat.48,
Flot.
132 :
5.90
3.53
0.60
n=17
5.20
3.94
0.76
5.83
4.17
0.72
6.02
3.96
0.66
5.62
3.95
0.70
5.51
4.21
0.76
6.09
4.11
0.67
5.79
4.07
0.70
5.84
3.81
0.65
5.12
3.66
0.71
5.39
3.43
0.64
5.49
3.20
0.58
5.05
3.51
0.70
4.99
2.86
0.57
4.52
3.66
0.81
4.56
3.01
0.66
4.48
3.09
0.69
Feat.18,
Flot.
54 :
4.12
2.64
0.64
Feat.35,
Flot.
123:
4.55
3.43
0.75
Feat.94,
Flot.
198:
4.36
3.00
0.69
'T
II
C
5.62
3.32
0.59
4.10
2.97
0.72
4.39
2.89
0.66
Combined
Mean:
4.90
3.24
0.67
Stan, deviation

0.60
0.44
0.08
Coeffic.
variation:
12.16
13.48
12.28
Length
Width
W/L
Feat.25, Flot. 101:
5.67
2.82
0.50
n=ll
4.96
3.26
0.66
4.93
2.85
1.00
5.05
3.33
0.66
5.38
2.92
0.54
5.18
3.30
0.64
4.94
3.46
0.70
4.38
2.38
0.54
4.70
2.98
0.63
4.18
2.47
0.59
5.56
3.43
0.62
Feat.25, Flot. 96:
4.15
2.93
0.71
n=17
5.17
3.48
0.67
4.17
2.73
0.65
4.20
3.19
0.76
5.19
3.46
0.67
3.87
2.94
0.76
5.50
3.45
0.63
5.01
3.30
0.66
4.65
2.64
0.57
3.50
3.09
0.88
5.02
3.32
0.66
4.32
3.13
0.72
4.64
2.71
0.58
4.38
3.08
0.70
4.63
2.64
0.57
4.66
3.37
0.72
4.77
3.14
0.66
Feat. 48 mean
5.22
3.53
Coeff.var.
10.87
12.95
Feat. 25 mean
4.74
3.06
Coeff.var.
10.93
10.25
215


Table 4.3continued.
IDENTIFICATION 112/112 112/110-
Lv. 2 Lv 3 Lv. 4 Lv 4 Lv. 5
(POSSIBLE)
EDIBLE:
Geelhout
Strong bark 1
OTHER:
Boxwood
Buttonwood
Caper Tree-1
cf. Caper tree-2
cf. Cedar
Flacourtiaceae
Lignum-vitae
Wanapa-1
Wanapa-2
Wanapa-3
Unid, hardwood
MODERN:
Legume seed
TOTAL NO.
WOOD TYPES: 155
SEED TOTAL: 000
1
1
14
2 1
0 0
90/124 90/120
Lv. 1 Lv. 2 Lv. 3 Lv. 4 Lv. 2 Lv. 3 Lv. 4
(2)
2
1
2
3 6
2 5
1 2
1
3 13 12 2
1
1 4
o
3 6 5
0 0 0
0
1
2
0
2
0
4
0


Table 5.11continued
PROVENIENCE
CONTEXT
SAMPLE
SAMPLE
LT.FRACT.
WOOD
WOOD
WOOD
TOTAL
ARCH.
SEED
VOLUME
WEIGHT
WEIGHT
WEIGHT
DEN
NO.
SEEDS
SEEDS
DEN
(ltrs.)
(grams)
(grams)
(grams)
SITY
I DEN.
SITY
Unit
25,
Feat.
42
pit
4.00
0.53
0.53



0
0

Unit
26,
Feat.
27
post/pit
4.00
0.11
0.11
-
-
-
1
1
0.2
Unit
29,
Feat.
33
post/pit
4.00
0.28
0.28
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
29,
Feat.
34
post
4.00
0.09
0.09
0.18
<0.1
2
1
1
0.2
Unit
29,
Feat.
35
post
4.00
0.45
0.15
0.30
0.1
0
1
1
0.2
Unit
30,
Feat.
52
post/pit
4.00
0.48
0.48
-
-
-
0
0
-
Unit
32,
Feat.
11
hearth
4.00
0.05
0.05
-
-
-
0
0
-
Trench 5
Feat.
07
feature
2.00
(trace)
-
-
-
-
0
0
-
TOTALS:
84.00
23.84
13.50
17.55
67
9
9
194


255
wild plants identified from En Bas Saline is stargrass
(Hvpoxis sp.). Stargrass, like some of the others mentioned
above, also appeared in the prehistoric plant assemblages
from Puerto Rico, however. Stargrass has no recorded
economic value.
Possible fuelwoods from En Bas Saline include 21
different types (Table 6.3) (Little 1983; National Academy
of Sciences 1980, 1983). Three prominent mangrove species
of the Caribbean basin are represented, including Avicennia
germinans (black mangrove), Rhizophora mangle (red
mangrove), and Conocarpus erectus (buttonwood). Other types
of angiospermous wood include, Bumelia sp. (boxwood), cf.
Colubrina sp. (snake-bark), cf. Eugenia sp. (stopper),
Genipa/Gossvpiospermum-type (jagua/West Indian boxwood), cf.
Guazuma ulmifolia (West Indian elm), Hura crepitans (monkey
pistol), cf. Lauraceae (laurel family), Licaria/Zanthoxvlum-
type (sweetwood/satinwood), Metopium/Ocotea-tvpe (poison
wood/spicewood), Myrtaceae (myrtle family), the two
Sapotaceae types that were mentioned above, cf. Inga sp.
(guaba), and cf. Melicoccus (genip). Two additional
hardwoods have been described by anatomy (En Bas Saline
types 10 and 15; Table 6.3), but are not completely
identified due to their inadeguate representation in site
deposits.
A single conifer, pine (Pinus sp.; Table 6.3), was
recovered from the proveniences sampled at En Bas Saline.
Conifers are not typically found in Caribbean


304
the next few paragraphs. The contexts examined from Isabela
date exclusively to the early contact period, as such they
are roughly contemporaneous with the latest occupation at En
Bas Saline.
La Isabela. Dominican Republic
La Isabela is the site of the earliest Spanish
settlement in the New World (Deagan 1992; Veloz Maggiolo and
Ortega 1992). A few feature samples from the site were
examined for potential evidence of food-plant remains,
primarily to assess the nature of plant preservation in
conjuction with an overall plan of excavation and research
at the site.
Table 6.12 shows the plant samples from Isabela. Even
though the samples are few and plant remains sparse, several
plants were identified (Table 6.13). Two seed types
goosefoot family and mastic-bullyoccur in carbonized form;
nevertheless, the goosefoot-type seed seems only to be
lightly burnt and so may not be contemporaneous with the
archaeological occupation. At least seven other seed types
were recovered, but all are clearly modern and presumably
intrusive (Table 6.13).
Table 6.14 shows the distribution of the plants from La
Isabela. The most interesting of the identifications is
mastic-bully, the hard seed coat fragments of which were
recovered from two proviences: floor deposts from a
structure (FS 5040) and in the burial fill surrounding the
remains of a Spanish individual (at least seven seeds).


325
Additional Taino root crops, according to Oviedo
(1959), included "yautia" (Xanthosoma iacauinii). "araru" or
arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), "ileren" (Calathea
allouia), "yampee" (Dioscorea trfida) (note that Dioscorea
may be an early introduction from Africa, rather than a
native root crop), and an edible-rooted form of Canna sp.
Veloz Maggiolo (personal communication) has suggested that
Zamia sp. also was a key element in the Taino root-cropping
system. Any or all of these tuber crops, in addition to
manioc, could have been associated with the food-processing
equipment that is recovered from the Caribbean sites. Thus,
until and in lieu of the actual plant remains, it is
difficult to establish how and when these additional tuber
crops were integrated into indigenous systems of food
production.
Thus, while the combined data confirm early historic
descriptions of gardening and crop production in the
Caribbean, our understanding of the evolution and
development of plant-food production is still incomplete.
The evidence suggests that gardening and extensive forms of
plant-food production were long established, beginning in
the Archaic Age. Elaboration and diversification of the
plant-subsistence realm, including in some areas the
addition of maize agriculture, seem to be developments that
occurred with the later-ceramic Ostionoid occupations on
Puerto Rico and Hispaniola. The transition to more
intensive forms of crop/plant production may have progressed


21
The presence of tools and artifacts used to render
plant foods into edible form has been used to infer
indirectly the presence of cultivated plants (Davis 1988;
Rouse 1986, 1992). Similarly, bone chemistry has been
employed to infer diets based on certain cultivated plants
(Keegan 1989). Both lines of evidence have the
disadvantage, however, of not being able to point with
certainty to the actual species used. Preserved plant parts
are essential to solve this problem.
Various types of grinding stones have been recovered
from Caribbean sites. Mortars and milling equipment are
known from at least as early as the preceramic Archaic Age
(ca. 4000 B.C.-A.D. 500) (Harris 1973; Rouse 1982; Veloz
Maggiolo and Ortega 1976). Thus, many of these tools that
often are interpreted as evidence that maize was grown (see,
for example, Bullen 1964:22) and consumed predate the entry
of maize into the Amazon (Roosevelt 1980; Sanoja and Vargas
1983; van der Merwe et al. 1981) and the movement of South
American horticulturists into the archipelago. Moreover,
since direct associations between grinding equipment and
wild or semi-domesticated panicoid grass have been
demonstrated for other regions of tropical America in pre
maize contexts (Callen 1965, 1967a,b; Farnsworth et al.
1985; C.E. Smith 1967; see also Newsom 1991a; Sanoja 1989),
the extrapolation from grinding tools to maize and its
introduction into the West Indies is not secure.


80
plant specimens recovered in situ during excavation, and
with a single specimen from the excavation screens (Table
4.4) .
Archaeobotanical identifications from Pearls are
exclusively of seeds and endocarp fragments. Carbonized
wood is present as well, but all wood fragments are under
sized and/or too friable to undergo anatomical analysis.
Five plants were identified from among the various
samples from Pearls (Table 4.5). Two taxa have no direct
association with the archaeological deposits. They include
a nutmeg (Mvristica fraqrans) seed and 4 tentatively
identified specimens of European chick pea (Cicer sp.). The
two seed types are indisputably modern, since the five
specimens obviously are fresh. But more to the point, both
nutmeg and chick pea derive from Old World regions (Willis
1973:253, 771) and could not have been present on Grenada in
Precolumbian times. Chick pea presently is cultivated
directly on portions of the archaeological site, and nutmeg
trees grow nearby. Since the chick peas occur in the
uppermost levels of test units West-198 and West-233 (Table
4.6), they undoubtedly represent unsuccessful plantings
(seeds that did not sprout). Unit C deposits, which yielded
the single nutmeg seed, are heavily disturbed throughout.
The status of two cockspur (Celtis iguanaea) seeds from
the Pearls samples is necessarily ambiguous. The seeds do
not appear to have undergone carbonization, as might effect
their extended preservation, but the seed coats are worn and


19
resources of the Orinoco River system and canoe travel.
This second view of Saladoid existence emphasizes more
immediate and direct adaptation to the insular environment,
rather than the narrowly focused and probably unrealistic
imposition of a mainland economic system in the island
setting. Prior to the initiation of the research developed
in this dissertation, inquiry into the flexibility of
Saladoid adaptation has been confined to zooarchaeological
data.
A final point to be made is that all of the models
concerning Saladoid-Taino movement into and around the
Caribbean archipelago emphasize the roles, either explicitly
or implied, of plant and animal resources as central to
human survival. Nonetheless, while the faunal aspect of
subsistence is fairly well understood, particularly in
regard to the crab/shell dichotomy (DeFrance 1988, 1989;
Goodwin 1980; Jones 1985; Petersen and Watters 1991; Wing
1989, 1990; Wing and Reitz 1982; Wing and Scudder 1980,
1983; Wing et al. 1969), plant use by Caribbean Indians is
only vaguely outlined.
The Basis for Previous Inferences about Plant Use
Assumptions about plant resources in the migration
models are built primarily on two sources of information:
the ethnohistoric record and artifacts believed associated
with food production. Pollen data sometimes also are
considered, and a few researchers (Keegan 1985; Keegan and
DeNiro 1988; Van Klinken 1991) have recently introduced


323
knowledge of productive soil types, hastening the adaptation
of Saladoid people to the insular environment.
The earliest appearances and the locations of
domesticated plants in the Caribbean islands needs to be
established. The current data demonstrate little more than
that domesticated species were present shortly prior to
European contact (based on the discovery of maize and tuber
remains at En Bas Saline, Haiti). Currently, approximately
A.D. 1250 is the earliest date associated with domesticated
plant remains at En Bas Saline.
Even though actual remains from domesticated plants
have been recovered only from a single site and in
relatively late deposits, artifactual evidence suggests
crops possibly were more widely distributed and were
introduced much earlier. The presence at numerous sites
throughout the region of griddle fragments and grater-board
teethboth of which were very likely associated with
cassava productionsuggests that manioc, at least, was
introduced as early as the middle of the first millennium
B.C. with the Cedrosan Saladoid migration (Rouse 1992).
Other plant processing tools, milling equipment in
particular, appear as early as the Caribbean Archaic (Harris
1973, 1976; Moore 1982; Rouse 1982, 1992; Veloz Maggiolo and
Ortega 1976), but they do not necessarily imply the presence
of domesticated plants.
Currently pollen analytical data are too few and
ambiguous to shed additional light on the timing and spread


153
(Siegel 1990), has an early, Hacienda-Grande-Saladoid
component; however, the related Cuevas subseries was
identified at Calle Cristo (Newsom 1992b), Maisabel (Siegel
1989), and at the El Parking Site (PO-38) (Weaver 1992).
Ostionoid culture is documented at all but Calle Cristo of
the prehistoric sites, including the latest Esperanza, Capa,
and Boca Chica subseries at at least one site (Melendez
1988). Unfortunately, materials associated with the
earliest occupants of the Greater Antillesthe
Lithic/Archaic Age and the Casimiroid culture series
(Callaghan 1990; Rouse 1992)are not represented among the
samples analyzed by me.
Puerto Rico Sites
Calle Cristo. San Juan, Puerto Rico
Eight samples from a small Saladoid-Cuevas site under
Calle del Cristo, San Juan, were analyzed for evidence of
prehistoric plant use (Table 5.1). All samples were
processed by means of water flotation with fine-meshed
screens. Unfortunately wood and seed remains are few. Four
specimens of wood were found suitable for anatomical
inspection. Thirteen seeds were recovered (Table 5.1), but
all appear to be modern.
Table 5.2 lists the plant identifications from Calle
del Cristo and Table 5.3 shows their distribution among the
samples. One wood type (four specimens) can be reliably
attributed to the archaeological occupation: the wood is
bulley-tree (Pputeria sp. = Lucuma sp.). Preliminary


280
superficially similar to archaeological specimens, including
popcorn, from northern South America (Pearsall 1990;
Roosevelt 1980) and Belize (Miksicek et al. 1981).
The En Bas Saline cob fragment is small, possessing but
a single complete alicole that is bordered by two partially
intact alicoles of the same rank (Figure 6.7). Glumes are
present, but the distal portions are broken away. Only a
small portion of the cob's rachis tissue survived the
ravages of time. Nevertheless, it was possible to record a
few cob measurements (Table 6.7). Additional metric data
from loose cupules (n=4) supplement those from the cob
section (Table 6.7). The cob and cupule measurements seem
to indicate a relatively small-cobbed race of maize,
consistent with the generally fine scale of the kernels from
the same deposit.
It is difficult or impossible to determine the exact
races and appearance of the archaeological maize from En Bas
Saline, based on the small sample from the site. Seven
extant races of maize are known from the Caribbean Islands
(Bretting et al. 1987; Brown 1953, 1960; Brown and Goodman
1977; Hatheway 1957): Cuban Flint, Haitian Yellow, Coastal
Tropical Flint, Chandelle, Tusn, Early Caribbean, and St.
Croix. St. Croix, a recently derived hybrid between West
Indian maize and maize from the southeastern United States,
is not further considered here. Published comparative
metric data from the other six West Indian races are
presented in Table 6.8.


335
far from defined. This study and work by Pearsall have
begun to outline the timing and tradjectory of the plant
aspect of Caribbean subsistence. To develop further our
understanding of plant use in the West Indies reguires more
thorough coverage of individual sites and time periods,
including greater volumes and numbers of samples, and an
emphasis on site-specific contexts, e.g. features and
hearths, rather than, for example, general level deposit or
column samples through shell middens.


Table 5.4continued.
LOCATION
PROVENIENCE
CULTURAL
AFFILIATION
SAMPLE
SAMPLE
(unit/feat./depth)
(subseries/complex)
CONTEXT
NO.
TYPE
Mound.
Mid. 1
N096/W13,
lv. 60-70
Hacienda
Grande
gen.lev.
80
float
Mound.
Mid. 1
N096/W13,
lv. 70-80
Hacienda
Grande
gen.lev.
91
float
Mound.
Mid. 1
N096/W13,
lv. 80-90
Hacienda
Grande
gen.lev.
88
float
Mound.
Mid. 1
N096/W13,
lv. 90-100
Hacienda
Grande
gen.lev.
95
float
Mound.
Mid. 1
N096/W13,
lv. 100-110
Hacienda
Grande
gen.lev.
70
float
Mound.
Mid. 1
N096/W13,
lv. 110-120
Hacienda
Grande
gen.lev.
92
float
Mound.
Mid. 1
N096/W13,
lv. 120-130
Hacienda
Grande
gen.lev.
84
float
Mound.
Mid. 1
N096/W13,
lv. 140-150
Hacienda
Grande
gen.lev.
60
float
Mound.
Mid. 1
N096/W13,
lv. 150-160
Hacienda
Grande
gen.lev.
75
float
Mound.
Mid. 1
N098/W13,
lv. 30-40
Hacienda
Grande
gen.lev.
62
float
Mound.
Mid. 1
N098/W13,
lv. 150-160
Hacienda
Grande
gen.lev.
93
carbon
Mound.
Mid. 1
N100/W13,
Feat.12, 140-150
Hacienda
Grande
**
feature
95
carbon
Mound.
Mid. 1
N102/W13,
lv. 130-140
Hacienda
Grande
gen.lev.
87
carbon
Mound.
Mid. 1
N106/W12,
lv. 30-40
Hacienda
Grande
gen.lev.
129
carbon
Mound.
Mid. 1
N090/W13,
lv. 150-160
pre-occupation
**
gen.lev.
131
carbon
Mound.
Mid. 1
N100/W13,
lv. 150-160
pre-occupation
**
gen.lev.
100
carbon
**Radiocarbon dates: Sample 228 = 1240+/-80 (1-14748); Feature 95 samples = 1260+/-60,
1150+/70, 1300+/-70, 1440+/-70 (Beta-17638 to -17641); Carbon Samp. 131 = 2810+/-70
(Beta-14998), 3340+/-90 (1-14745); Carbon Samp. 100 = 2300+/-80 (Beta-14996), 2270+/-80
(1-14744); Carbon Samp. 94 (same Feature 12 as Carbon Samp. 95) = 1960+/-90 (Beta-14381).
(Radiocarbon years before present; all dates uncorrected, see Siegel [1990] for
calibrations.)
160


Table 4.33. Wood identifications from sites in the Lesser Antilles.
(Numbers are site ubiquity; sites with few samples have identifications
marked by presence/absence [x].)
SCIENTIFIC/ PRECRAMIC:
CERAMIC AGE SITES:
COMMON NAME
Twen
Jol. Hich.
Krum
Wan-
Pea
Hey-
Mac- Hich.
Ind.
Gold
Hope Bea.
Hill
Bea. Shell
Bay
apa
rls
wood
abou Site
Cas.
Rock
Est. Acc.
Black mangrove
Bignoniac./cedar
cf. Bignoniaceae
cf. Black torch
39
51
17
X
21
Bombac./Malvac.
Bourreria
24
8
(X)
X
Boxwood
6
Buttonwood
39
39
X
cf. Caesalpinia
Capparis
16
42
X
cf. Capparis sp.
6
3
Casearia
cf. Celastraceae
61
15
5
Clusia (Cupey)
26
Croton
3
(10)
cf. Dipholis 8
Drypetes
Fabaceae (Acacia)
29
8
10
Fabaceae(Leucae.)
16
Ficus (wild fig)
Fish poison
Flacourtiaceae
6
15
10
(X)
Lignum-vitae
84
X
X
37
X
Manchioneel 25
cf. Meliaceae 16
138


121
not necessarily associated with the skeletal material, since
the burial appears to intrude into the pit. The wood
fragments from the pit were tentatively matched as from one
original piece by shared longitudinal tissue distortion,
such as occurs at a fork or knot, or in roey-grained wood
(Core et al. 1979:22-23). Remarkably, the fish poison
specimen from the Structure 1 pit exhibits the same type of
structural-anatomical distortion and could have come from
the same tree or section of stem/branch; if the Structure 1
specimen was mixed among the fish poison fragments from 21H-
VII, it would be nearly impossible to distinguish which was
which. Also noteworthy, this second occurrence of fish
poison likewise is roughly associated with human skeletal
material (one fragment of cranium) (Schinkel 1992). Perhaps
originally, both individuals (they are separate individuals
[Maat and Smits 1992]) were interred in the large pit of
structure 1. Subsequently, the skeletal material, as well
as carbonized fragments of fish poison, were exhumed and
reburied in the midden, leaving behind the isolated
fragments of bone and fish poison wood in Structure 1. The
fish poison tree has been used as a sedative and for
medicinal purposes (Ayensu 1981:144), as well as a fish
stupifier (Record and Hess 1943:308). It is reasonable to
assume that there may have been a direct assocation between
the burials at Golden Rock and the presence of fish poison
wood, particularly if the tree was ritually significant to
the site's inhabitants.


333
archaeobotanically reconstructed diet for Tehuacan, Mexico
(Callen 1967a, b; Farnsworth et al. 1985); panicoids and
other locally available C-4 herbs should be considered in
continuing research on dietary reconstructions for Caribbean
areas.
Concluding remarks
The growing body of evidence that includes the
macrobotanical remains discussed herein, dessicated Zamia
sp. leaves in cave deposits (Veloz and Vega 1982) recent
pollen studies (Fortuna 1978 and n.d.; Garcia Arevalo and
Tavares 1978; Higuera-Gundy 1991; Nadal 1991), and bone-
chemistry data (Keegan 1987, 1993; Van Klinken 1991), is
increasingly refining our understanding of the botanical
aspect of food production in the Caribbean. Taino people
and their Saladoid predecessers relied on manioc and other
root crops, and seem to have placed relatively little
emphasis on maize. This is corroborated at En Bas Saline by
the food preparation-related material assemblage, which
contains abundant items associated with manioc/tuber
processing; clay griddles, coral graters, and small stone
"teeth" from wooden graters are common in all periods. The
concomitant absence of recognizable grinding stones or
mortars at En Bas Saline indicates that maize and grains, if
used commonly, were not grown to full maturity, dried and
ground in any known contemporary fashion (an essential step
in rendering maize a storable food staple). Conversely, the
presence of weedy, edible taxa and native, as well as


180
may have existed as part of a housegardening system. The
tree species were potentially important sources of fresh
fruit for food and for medicinal purposes. Aside from their
valuable fruit, any of the woods from among the Maisabel
deposits may have been used for fuel and for other purposes.
El Fresal. Puerto Rico
El Fresal is an Ostionoid site located in south-central
Puerto Rico (Figure 5.1; Melendez 1988). Ceramics recovered
from the site include sherds belonging to the Ostiones and
to the Santa Elena complexes, as well as to the later
Esperanza, Capa, and Boca Chica styles. Three features that
are probable hearths or cooking areas were analyzed for
associated plant materials. One of the burned deposits,
Feature 3, was dated by the radiocarbon method, producing a
date of 790+/-60 B.P. (1160+/-60 A.D. [Beta-26326]; Melendez
1988) .
Data summarizing the archaeobotanical samples from El
Fresal are presented in Table 5.8. Wood remains are
relatively abundant and well preserved. However, time and
funding constraints dictated that the analysis emphasize
potential subsistence data. To this end, seeds and soft-
tissue fragments were thoroughly investigated, while wood
remains were classified by anatomy, but in most cases are
not otherwise identified. Nevertheless, 20 fragments of
wood per provenience were examined and are classified and/or
identified. Seeds were recovered in samples from two of the
features. A few of the seed types from El Fresal, along


133
Table 4.30. Plant identifications from Trunk Bay,
St. John, United States Virgin Islands.
TAXON COMMON NAME PLANT
PART
Archaeological:
cf. Bignoniaceae
cf. Ceiba pentandra
Celtis iguanaea*
Uniden. wood-type 1
Uniden. wood-type 2
Uniden. wood-type 3
Unid. ?pulverized
tissue
bignonia family wood
kapok, silk-cotton tree seed
cockspur (azufaifo) seed
Trunk Bay-1, very small-
diametered vessels
(ca. <50 urn); axial
parenchyma confluent-banded,
ca. 1/2 of ground mass wood
Trunk Bay-2, vessels
solitary, frequent; axial
parenchyma sparse, apo-
tracheal, rays uniseriate wood
Trunk Bay-3, vessels small-
diametered, prominently in
chains, possibly Avicennia
(black mangrove) wood
?burnt cassava cake (starch)
*Celtis seeds are mineralized.


178
Maisabe1 summary
Eleven archaeological plant types were identified in
samples from Peter Siegel's excavations at Maisabel.
Combined, the wood species diversity for Maisabel contexts
is low, with no more than two types identified per
provenience. The exception is Carbon Sample 253, which
produced five different wood types that may be remnants of
fuelwood. The limited species diversity characteristic of
the remaining samples (all but Sample 364 having a single
wood type) is reminiscent of the situation that was
documented for the Golden Rock site described in Chapter 4.
This suggests that much of the Maisabel wood may be what is
left of house posts and building materials. If this is
true, then bully-tree seems to have been preferentially used
for construction, considering that it is the only wood in
over half (56%) of the carbon samples (Table 5.7). Record
and Hess (1943:501) report that Pouteria sp. timber is
suitable for durable construction and that the heartwood is
highly resistant to decay. Since individual wood specimens
from Maisabel are large and well preserved they may
accommodate growth ring analysis of the type carried out
with the Golden Rock specimens. This might help to show
whether the bully-tree wood served as posts and house
supports. The growth rings produced by bully-tree are not
as easily discerned as, for example, lignum-vitae from
Golden Rock, but this type of analysis is worth an attempt,
once the research on Maisabel is resumed.


228
Bas Saline (i.e. principally the chief's domicile)a
village that is demonstrably the focal point of a Taino
chiefdomprovides a basis for hypothesizing that restricted
elite access to maize may have operated in the prehistoric
Caribbean, even after the emergence of complex
sociopolitical formations.
Restricted access to maize by privileged (i.e. chiefly)
social segments has been suggested as a factor in the
introduction of maize into the southeastern United States
(B.D. Smith 1990). Although maize was present in the
southeastern region between about A.D. 200 and A.D. 800 (a
time of multiple seed crop-based food production [see, for
example, B.D. Smith 1989, 1990]), it did not become the
primary crop staple until sometime after A.D. 800, and may
have served as a controlled ceremonial crop during the
earlier period (B.D. Smith 1989, 1990).
Plant origins and contacts with mainland areas
The presence in Caribbean archaeological deposits of
economic species that are known to have been and still are
important elsewhere in the Neotropics is noteworthy. This
indicates a broader pattern of plant use and a continuity
with traditions from mainland tropical America. Plants of
this nature include manioc, maize, sweet potato,
pepper/pimiento, tomato, avocado, bully-tree, calabash tree,
guava, guaba, genip, jagua, palm fruit, Panama tree, papaya,
panicoid grass, sapodilla, soursop, star-apple (caimito),
and yellow sapote (Table 7.1). In some cases the actual


Copyright 1993
by
Lee Ann Newsom


APPENDIX B
PLANT IDENTIFICATIONS FROM EN BAS SALINE
SEEDS AND OTHER NONWOOD REMAINS


and that gardening may have been initiated in the Caribbean
Archaic Age. Native plant food resources were used in
combination with important homegarden trees that originate
in mainland areas. Several of these species appear to have
been transported to the islands by Archaic Age people, and
the evidence for plant introductions from the Central
American/Yucatan region is just as compelling as from South
America.
Root-crop horticulture may have been introduced in
conjunction with the Saladoid settlement of the Lesser
Antilles, even though evidence of domesticated plants is
without substantiation by plant remains until relatively
late in the seguence of human occupation. The presence of
prehistoric maize is confirmed only at En Bas Saline, Haiti
in deposits dating between approximately A.D. 1250 and 1500
Maize cultivation in the West Indies may have been
overshadowed by the primary system of root-crop
horticulture. The plant remains themselves, combined with
the presence of plant-processing artifacts and
ethnohistorical observations, are beginning to suggest a
uniquely West Indian pattern of plant use.
xviii


165
including a wood belonging to the Bignoniaceae that closely
compares with two genera (Tabebuia sp. and Cresentia sp.)/
marble-tree (Cassine xvlocarpa), maga (Montezuma
grandiflora). and bully-tree (Pouteria sp.)* Pouteria sp.
was identified also in the Calle Cristo samples, described
above. Three wood taxa from Maisabel samples are
provisional identifications. The tentative types include a
tree-legume, probably Inga sp., guava (Psidium sp.), and
panama-tree (Sterculia aptala). The eighth wood from
Maisabel is temporarily designated Maisabel-1 (Table 5.6).
Maisabel-1 is anatomically similar to fig (Ficus spp.), but
based on the present sample can not be definitively
distinguished from other woods with strongly confluent-
banded parenchyma.
Table 5.7 shows the Maisable plant identifications by
their respective proveniences. The category "unidentified
soft tissue" includes all carbonized, non-woody tissue, some
of which is possibly starch extruded from seeds or tubers,
or wood exudate. Samples designated "F#" in Table 5.7 are
flotation samples; samples with no identifiable plant
remains are excluded from the table and are not included in
the ubiguity values. Note also that ubiguity is figured
separately for carbon and for flotation samples from
Maisabel, because of differential sample treatment and
processing (as described above).
Bully-tree wood is ubiquitous in Maisabel deposits,
with 215 fragments identified (74% of the total) and


161
Flotation Sample 353 (Table 5.4) from the central cemetery
is associated with the Cuevas complex based on ceramic
typology; the cemetery as a whole seems to have been used
from the Hacienda Grande through the Santa Elena
occupations.
Wood remains from Maisabel are exceptionally well
preserved, but did not survive flotation in identifiable
condition. Therefore, wood identification focused on the
carbon samples, which did not undergo similar moisture
stress and the resultant fragmentation. All together, 290
individual fragments of wood have been identified (Table
5.5). Archaeological seeds and other non-wood remains are
few and sparsely distributed among the samples analyzed thus
far.
Ten different plants are identified from the
excavations at Maisabel (Table 5.6). Non-wood remains
include palm petiole (the stem portion of the frond) and
several types of seeds. Only one of the positively
identified seeds may be contemporaneous with the
archaeological occupation of the site: trianthema
(Trianthema portulacastrum) (Table 5.6), the same as was
recovered from the Krum Bay excavations described earlier in
Chapter 4 (Table 4.32). Modern-intrusive seeds are fairly
abundant in the flotation samples, but trianthema is not
among the non-carbonized specimens.
The bulk of prehistoric plant remains from Maisabel is
wood. At least eight wood types are present (Table 5.6),


LIST OF FIGURES
Page
Figure 3.1 Location Map of Caribbean Sites
Analyzed for Archaeobotanical Data ... 38
Figure 4.1 Locations of Lesser Antilles Sites ... 70
Figure 4.2 Sapotaceae Seed Hyla from Pearls
Site 86
Figure 5.1 Locations of Puerto Rican Sites .... 152
Figure 5.2 Relative Dimensions of Papaya Seeds . 198
Figure 5.3 Relative Dimensions of Papaya Seeds,
Including Barrio Ballaja Seeds 214
Figure 6.1 En Bas Saline Site Map 236
Figure 6.2 En Bas Saline Feature 11 244
Figure 6.3 En Bas Saline Feature 4-6-8 247
Figure 6.4 Trianthema seed from En Bas Saline,
Haiti 253
Figure 6.5 Pinus sp. wood from En Bas Saline,
Haiti 258
Figure 6.6 Zea mays kernels from En Bas Saline,
Haiti 277
Figure 6.7 Zea mays cob fragment from En Bas
Saline, Haiti 281
Figure 6.8 Carbonized tubers from En Bas
Saline, Haiti 289
Figure 6.9 Panicoid Grass Seeds from En Bas
Saline, Haiti 296
Figure 6.10 Oenothera sp. (Primrose) Seeds from
En Bas Saline, Haiti 301
xvi


224
limited to caper tree, pepper bush, lignum-vitae, palm wood,
and possibly a few others (Tables 4.33 and 5.22).
The apparently pre-Saladoid occurrences of Pouteria
(bully-tree) at Maisabel are likely representative of the
widespread native species Pouteria multiflora. Assuming the
relatively deeply buried Pouteria wood in the sub-mound
contexts from Maisabel is in fact present by natural
deposition, then imported species such as P. sapota
(zapote/mamey rojo) are excluded from consideration, at
least in the early stages of midden accumulation. That is,
unless zapote or something similar was not transported to
the Caribbean Islands in conjunction with the even eariler
Casimiroid migration. This possibility was suggested
earlier in the discussion of Maisabel samples.
Thus, the guestion remains whether some or all of the
Pouteria sp. wood from sites in Puerto Rico is from native
or from one or more introduced species. Shedding some light
on the question, seeds of Pouteria campechiana (yellow
sapote) were identified from Archaic-age deposits in the
Maria de La Cruz Cave near the northeast coast of Puerto
Rico (Rouse and Alegria 1990:22; Table 5.21). This species
is not listed among those Pouteria considered native to
Puerto Rico (Liogier and Martorell 1982:136; Little and
Wadsworth 1964; Little et al. 1974). However, Martin et al.
(1987:61) assign the origin of P. campechiana loosely to
Central America and the West Indies. Before much is made of
this possible plant introduction, the seeds, which were


Figure 6.9. Panicoid grass seeds from En Bas Saline.
Right Photo: grain from Field Sample 7197, with
partial preservation of glumes (upper left corner
in photo (48x)
Left Photo: grain from Field Sample 7215 (51x)


57
site, and by chronological context. Probably the most
notable characteristic of the overall sample assemblage is a
lack of consistency from one sample to another in both the
types of plants present and the relative abundances of those
plants. Some samples had no seeds; others had seeds but no
identifiable wood; some yielded isolated specimens of a
single seed or wood type; and others had large quantities of
wood or of a particular seed type or category (e.g., seeds
of ruderals). Still other samples yielded an array of
potentially edible or useful plant types. It is possible in
this early stage of archaeobotanical research that the
general disparity in the distributions of seeds and wood is
a result of the lack of redundancy in the data, or an
artifact of sampling. Despite these problems and regardless
of the vagaries of preservation and the need to analyze more
material, it was possible to detect some spatial and
temporal patterns within and between subregions.
Sample Preparation
Upon excavation archaeobotanical samples were either
sent directly to me for further processing and analysis, or
they underwent preliminary separation and sorting by the
archaeologists prior to my receiving them. All samples from
the Puerto Rico sites were processed by water flotation, and
in most cases large wood fragments were extracted in situ.
The treatment of samples and materials is less uniform for
the Lesser Antilles sites (Table 3.1), samples from some
sites having undergone flotation, while those from others


Table 5.1. Archaeobotanical samples from Calle del Cristo, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
(Flotation samples 177 and 178 include both light and heavy fractions;
other samples are exclusively light fractions.)
PROVENIENCE
CONTEXT
SAMPLE
SAMPLE
SAMPLE
LT.FRACT.
WOOD
WOOD
TOTAL ARCH.
SEED
NO./FLOT.
VOLUME*
WEIGHT
WEIGHT
WEIGHT
NO.
SEEDS SEEDS
DEN
(ltrs.)
(grams)
(grams)
(grams)
I DEN.
SITY
N147/E153
55-65cm
midden
828
170
0.01
4.11
4.11
1.02
0
0
0
-
N144/E147
Stra.II
midden
908
171
0.05
26.11
26.11
3.60
0
0
0
-
N146/E147
Stra.Ill
midden
917
173
0.06
23.65
23.65
5.65
0
0
0
-
N144/E149
Stra.Ill
midden
921
175
0.11
34.47
34.47
2.52
0
0
0
-
N146/E149
Stra.Ill
midden
928
177H
0.52
437.16
8.50
1.34
0
0
0
-
N144/E151
Stra.Ill
midden
935
180
0.10
40.12
40.12
10.80
2
0
0
-
N146/E149
Stra.IV
midden
930
178-H
0.42
304.23
4.53
(trace)
0
13
0
31
N144/E151
Stra.IV
midden
937
818
0.01
2.08
2.08
0.83
2
0
0

TOTALS:
1.27
871.93
143.57
25.76
4
13
0
*Sample volume is, in this case, the light and/or heavy fraction volumes because the
original pre-flotation whole-sample volumes are not available. The same applies
to sample weights.
154


270
Saline deposits are indeed present as a result of direct
associations with the site's inhabitants, rather than merely
existing as opportunistic weeds that grew in the vicinity of
the hearths and other contexts by which they could have
become accidentally carbonized. Conversely, the minor
representation of non-edible species (each appearing in but
a single or no more than two proveniences) suggests that
their presence is inconsequential to economic activities at
the site. Thus stargrass and possibly also unknown seed
types 1-4 are probably irrelevant to the archaeological
occupation. Unknown number 5, however, may have had some
economic value, based on its greater site representation
(10% ubiquity). Unknown number 5 actually may not be a seed
type, since all the specimens lack seed coats. Rather, this
category of plant material is very similar to what was
tentatively identified as fragments of cassava bread from
deposits at Trunk Bay, St. John. Based on the present
evidence, therefore, and combining clearly and apparently
used plants, at least fourteen types of edible or otherwise
useful plants are represented in the seed/non-wood remains
from En Bas Saline.
Wood remains from En Bas Saline are only minimally
discussed here to stay more narrowly focused on subsistence
and economy, reserving more detailed analyses of wood
products and wood explotation for subsequent writings. As
described above, at least 20 different types of wood were
recovered. The wood identifications add to the list of


291
have not survived the carbonization process for the
specimens from En Bas Saline.
Externally, based on the few examples with intact
periderm, the presence of longitudinal ridges or fissures on
some specimens was noted, and in a few cases also,
transversely oriented (parallel to the ridges) cork cells
(or cortical parenchyma) are clearly evident. This periderm
structure compares well with comparative specimens of manioc
tuber; mature sweet potato also exhibits transversely
oriented parenchyma, but the longitudinal ridges are less
developed. Other tuber specimens from En Bas Saline are
smoother-surfaced, like sweet potato, but this state may be
more superficial than real, possibly having resulted from
the loss of external tissues during carbonization.
Combining the evidence of size and general appearance,
together with external and internal structure, indicates
that at least two types of tuber are present. One type
possesses rougher, corky external tissues and a central
vascular strand. These features compare especially well
with manioc. In addition, relatively large fragments (ca.
2-3 cm diameter) of flattened, apparently pulvarized
materialin particular from FS 6317, Feature 11are
possibly burnt cassava bread. The other tuber type has
dispersed vascularization and somewhat smoother outer
tissues. Specimens of this second type (Figure 6.7, center-
bottom) are nearly identical with dessicated specimens of
archaeological sweet potato from Peru, in terms of size,


Appendix Bcontinued.
IDENTIFICATION:
Garden B continued
Area 1 Area 1 Area 3A
Area 3B
Area 4
GARDEN
Feat.10
C:
Feature 11-
Lv. 1 Lv.2
Lv. 1
Lv. 1
Lv. 1
Lv. 4
Lv. 1
Lv. 2
Lv. 3
CULTIVATED:
FS7191 FS7072
FS7334
FS7335
FS7331
FS7512
FS6306
FS6310
FS6312
cf. Guava
Maize/Indian corn
cf. Manioc/cassava
Palm, seed coat
Palm, fibrous tissue
Pepper/pimiento
Primrose
cf. Soursop
(1)
1
16
2
144
cf. Sapotaceae seed coat
OTHER:
Amaranthac./Chenopodiac.
Goosefoot family 1 1
cf. Inga/guaba
Nightshade family
Panicoid grass
Purslane 4 5
Trianthema 1
cf. Grass family 3
Legume, wild
Mallow family
cf. Myrtaceae
cf. Palmae seed/bud
Yellow stargrass 2
Unid, seed-type 1
Unid, seed-type 2
Unid, seed-type 3
Unid, seed-type 4
Unid, seed-type 5
Unid, seed/fruit frag.
1
3
346


25
alternative to maize consumption is corroborated by the
zooarchaeological remains. Thus, while osteochemical data
from Caribbean sites are highly enlightening, evidence of
plant and animal remains is needed to clarify isotopic
signatures and further detail the dietary reconstructions.
Keegan (1985, 1987) also used pollen evidence (see
below) to try and discern more detail about Ceramic Period
plant use in the West Indies. At least five palynological
studies of prehistoric sites on Hispaniola and Puerto Rico
have been completed (Fortuna 1978, n.d.; Garcia Arevalo and
Tavares 1978; Higuera-Gundy 1991; Nadal et al. 1991; Rouse
and Alegria 1990). Pollen of cultivated and otherwise
useful plants were documented in some of the profiles, but
the temporal placement for virtually all of the
identifications is tenuous and can not be definitively
attributed to prehistoric occupations. For example, maize
and manioc pollen appear in sediment samples from the
Hacienda Grande village site, but the pollen grains appear
only in the uppermost, disturbed levels of the excavations
(Fortuna n.d.; Rouse and Alegria 1990). Pollen of useful
plants is absent in clearly Hacienda Grande-style deposits
(Rouse and Alegria 1990:65). Simlarly, Fortuna (1978;
Garca Arevalo and Tavares 1978:34-35) identified guava,
papaya, Zamia sp. (la guayica), and tobacco pollen, among
others, in samples from the site known as Sanate, eastern
Dominican Republic. However, there is no direct association
between the reported radiocarbon date of A.D. 1050 (Fortuna


117
approximates the more localized wild lime (Z.
martinicensis).
Two additional Golden Rock woods are tentatively
identified at least to genus: pepper bush (Croton sp.) and
bay cedar (Suriana maritima) (Table 4.21). Four more woods
are identified or provisionally identified to family,
including two woods in the madder family (Rubiaceae), one of
which possibly is black torch (Erithalis fruticosa), one
wood in the sapota family (Sapotaceae), probably bustic
(Dipholis sp.), and one wood that may be a member of the
spindle-tree family (Celastraceae).
Lignum-vitae is most ubiquitous of the Golden Rock
woods, just as it was at Wanapa, Bonaire, Hichmans' site
(GE-5), and Indian Castle, Nevis. It occurred in 37% of the
samples with identifiable remains (Table 4.22). Following
lignum-vitae in terms of frequency of representation, are
(cf.) black torch and the satinwood-like form of Zanthoxvlum
sp. (both 21% ubiquity); next is the wild lime-like
Zanthoxvlum sp. (17% ubiquity). The balance of the Golden
Rock woods have ubiquity values of 10% or less (Table 4.22).
Investigations at the Golden Rock site, conducted by
Aad Versteeg and Kees Schinkel of the Instutuut voor
Prehistorie, University of Leiden (Schinkel 1992; Versteeg
1990), included exhaustive measures to isolate and define
the specific contexts from which specimens were recovered.
This work has culminated in insights about the form and
nature of the site that are particularly useful to this


Appendix Bcontinued.
IDENTIFICATION: Garden B (continued)
Feature 33 Feat.33A Feat.35 Post- Post- Post- Area 1
Lv.l Lv.3 Lv.4 Lv.l Lv.2 mold-1 mold-3 mold-6 lv.l
FS7192 FS7215 FS7214 FS7216 FS7422 FS7527 FS7443 FS7530 FS7065
Unid, s.coat/periderm
Unid, soft tissue 12 10
MODERN SEEDS:
Amaranth
cf. Bur
Carpet weed
Crowfoot grass
cf. Cyperus sp.
Euphorbia nutans
Euphorb, cf. Ricinus
cf. Goosefoot family 4
Grass family
cf. Ground cherry
Guava
Legume family
Mallow family
Mexican poppy
Panicoid grass
Portulacaceae
Purslane
Sunflower family
Unid, spherical seed
Unid, triangular seed
Unid, seed, crenate
Unid, lobed fruit
Unid, seed
52 6 7
5
3
3
1
13 6
1
SEED TOTAL: 4 18 24 18 13 0 62 0 11
ARCHAEO. SEED TOTAL: 4 18 20 18 2 0 0 0 1
345


140
with economic potential, if at some point the identification
is verified with additional, better-preserved specimens.
Cockspur, mastic-bully, species of Manilkara, and several
types of palm provide abundant fruit that is edible fresh or
may be preserved through dessication or fermentation (Balick
1984; Honychurch 1986:124; Little and Wadsworth 1964:34-40,
445-446, 454; Morton 1977; Rehm and Espig 1991:89-93, 231,
371) .
Potherbs are represented by trianthema and Oenothera
sp. (evening primrose) (Table 4.32). In both cases the
whole plant is edible, including the small, dry seeds.
Trianthema seeds are relatively high in protein (32.9% [Carr
et al., 1985:510]). Evidence for trianthema's possible use
by prehistoric human groups is stronger for sites in the
Greater Antilles, discussed in Chapter 5.
Oenothera seeds have a high oil content (Carr et al.,
1985:507-508) and are a rich source of tryptophan, a mildly
sedative amino acid that probably is present in all higher
plants (Duke 1992:7, 138-139). In addition, the seeds of at
least one species are a major source of the nutrient gamma-
linolenic-acid (GLA) (ibid.). To benefit from these
compounds the seeds must be chewed and digested.
Aside from the seeds, the entire Oenothera plant is
edible. The tap roots can be consumed raw or cooked (Duke
1992:138-139; Facciola 1990:144). Moerman (1986:309-311)
lists ethnographic examples of various Oenothera species
used in health care, from stomach to determatological


218
domesticated and/or were somewhere in the process of
domestication. It is very likely that both wild and
domesticated papaya are represented among the samples,
particularly considering the range in seed size, with
smaller individuals possibly having come from wild fruit.
Moreover, the Baliaja seed population, deriving almost
certainly from gardens and residential areas, predictably
reflects greater genetic variability than would exist
exclusively in the wild state. Particularly considering the
greater opportunities for freguent hybridization as papaya
varieties from different regions were imported and grown
together (Anderson 1969; Harlan 1975; Rehm and Espig 1991;
Rindos 1980).
Pepper. Unlike papaya, measurements of pepper
(Capsicum sp.) seeds from Ballaj were difficult to produce
because the seeds are few and none are whole. Diameter
estimates from the seed fragments are between 3 and 4 mm.
By comparison, wild Capsicum annuum (bird pepper) seeds from
south Florida (n=12) have a mean diameter of 2.90 mm, with a
range of 2.69-3.33 mm. Seed diameter measurements from two
accessions (seeds measured: n=10; n=30) of domesticated
chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) consistently exceed 3.5 mm
(mean 4.12 mm, range 3.81-4.57 mm; mean 4.19 mm, range 3.86-
4.57 mm). Additional seed measurements (n=30) from what is
believed to be a C. chnense x C. annuum hybrid (Norris
Williams, personal communication, February 1993) grown in
Florida tend also to exceed 3.5 mm (mean 3.7 mm; range 3.37-


Table 4.10. Plant identifications from Heywoods Site, Barbados (by count).
(All archaeological identifications are wood remains; values in
parentheses are tentative identifications.)
IDENTIFICATION:
WILD EDIBLE:
Palmae
Suazoid: Troumassoid: PLANT UBI-
14/4 16/4 21/1 23/2 32/3 34/6 35/7 36/2 25/7 39/5 39/6 39/7 TOTAL QUITY
1 18.3
OTHER:
cf. Bignoniaceae
Bombacaceae/
Malvaceae
Guiana plum
Manchioneel (1)
cf. Meliaceae 1
Myrtaceae
Heywoods type-1 1
Uniden. hardwood
1
1 (1)
2 16.7
1 8.3
3
1
1
1
1
1
(1)
1
1 8.3
5 25.0
2 16.7
1 8.3
1 8.3
MODERN SEEDS:
Mexican poppy
TOTAL NO.
WOOD TYPES:
SEED TOTAL:
ARCHAEO. SEEDS:
2 12 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
3
11111
0 3 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
2
0
0
3 8.3
1 1
0 0
0 0


50
where a substantial Ostionoid structure stood (Siegel 1989;
1990). Burials were also confined within the large
Ostionoid building. Mounded Midden 1, from which was
analyzed the greatest number of archaeobotanical samples,
dates exclusively to a Hacienda Grande-Saladoid occupation.
Other samples came from Mounded Midden 2 and the large
central plaza and burial area; these portions of the site
seem to have been used continuously from Hacienda Grande to
Ostionoid times. Immediately south of the plaza/burial area
is the large, circular Ostionoid-aged house or ceremonial
building; the structure was circumscribed by a curving,
discontinuous ditch feature (Siegel 1989, 1990). At least
five archaeobotanical samples are associated with the
Ostionoid building and ditch feature.
Two types of archaeobotanical sample were recovered
from Maisabel deposits. One group of samples consists
exclusively of collections of carbonized wood. These
represent either concentrations of wood fragments that were
collected directly as batch samples as they were observed in
situ, the same procedure as was employed for large wood
remains from Golden Rock, or wood collected by the
excavation screens. Most of these separate wood
collections, referred to as "carbon samples", derive from
general-level deposit (screened material); seven were
recovered directly from features, e.g., hearths, or possible
postholes, or other distinctive types of deposit.


44
Chapter 4 are indeed associated with the prehistoric
occupation. As with Heywoods and Wanapa, samples from the
Antigua sites represent general excavation fill (5 cm
arbitrary levels) that was sieved through 1/16 inch sceens.
Hichmans' Shell Heap (GE-6). Hichmans' Site (GE-5), and
Indian Castle GE-1), Nevis
Shell midden samples from three sites on Nevis were
analyzed for the presence of plant remains. The excavations
and research at the sites were part of an intensive
settlement survey directed by Samuel M. Wilson, University
of Texas, Austin. The current archaeobotanical analysis is
limited, with the objective of assessing the potential for
paleoethnobotanical research on the island.
Nevis is a volcanic island centrally located in the
Leeward island group (Figure 3.1). Rainfall is adequate,
ranging from 1000 mm on the windward coast to approximately
2500 mm on Nevis Peak (Wilson n.d.). All three sites are
located on the southeast coast of the island, near the most
extensive series of coral reefs (Wilson n.d.).
Human groups inhabited Nevis at least as early as the
Caribbean Archaic Age, and essentially the whole range of
prehistoric human occupation on Nevis is represented by the
three sites analyzed for archaeobotanical data. Hichmans'
Shell Heap (GE-6) is a preceramic Ortoiroid site dating to
the last millennium B.C. (radiocarbon age: 540+60 B.C.
(2490+60 B.P., Beta-19328) (Wilson n.d.). Nearby Hichmans'
Site (GE-5) represents an early Saladoid people, based on
the presence of Zone-Incised-Crosshatched-decorated ceramics


Table 4.20continued
PROVENIENCE
SAMPLE
SAMPLE
SAMPLE
WOOD
WOOD
WOOD
TOTAL ARCHAEO.
SEED
CONTEXT*
VOLUME
WEIGHT
WEIGHT
DEN
NO.
SEEDS
SEEDS
DEN
(ltrs.)
(grams)
(grams)
SITY
I DEN.
SITY
SEED
ANALYSES:
Midden,
3-0-11
refuse
10
-
-
-
-
3
3
0.3
Midden,
3-P-IV
refuse
10
-
-
-
-
11
11
1.1
Midden,
4-H-III
refuse
10
-
-
-
-
20
20
2.0
Midden,
4-1III
refuse
10
-
-
-
-
3
3
0.3
Midden,
4-K-III
refuse
10
-
-
-
-
5
5
0.5
Midden,
4-M-IV
refuse
10
-
-
-
-
42
41
4.1
Midden,
4-N-III
refuse
10
-
1.49
-
-
12
12
1.2
Midden,
4-P-III
refuse
10
-
-
-
-
18
17
1.7
Midden,
4-P-IV
refuse
10
-
-
-
-
0
0
-
Midden,
5-I/J-III
refuse
1-6
-
-
-
-
X
X
-
Midden,
5-B-IV
refuse
1-6
-
-
-
-
X
X
-
Midden,
7-0-II/III
refuse
10
-
-
-
-
2
2
0.2
Midden,
7-I-III
refuse
10
-
-
-
-
3
3
0.3
Midden,
7-P-III
refuse
10
-
-
-
-
X
X
-
Midden,
7-F-VI
refuse
1-6
-
-
-
-
X
X
-
Midden,
7-P-VI
refuse
10
-
-
-
-
X
X
-
Midden,
9-P-II
refuse
10
-
-
-
-
X
X
-
Midden,
9-P-III
refuse
10
-
-
-
-
X
X
-
Midden,
9-P-III
refuse
10
-
-
-
-
2
2
0.1
Midden,
9-P-IV
refuse
10
-
-
-
-
X
X
-
Midden,
15-P-III
refuse
10
-
-
-
-
X
X
-
Midden,
15-P-IV
refuse
10
-
-
-
-
X
X
-
Midden,
19-P-III
refuse
10
-
(above)
(above)(above)
X
X
-
Midden,
19-P-IV
refuse
10

(above)
(above)(above)
X
X

TOTALS:
737.00
873.31
280
120
118
fill = wood from post-hole fill; pipe = wood collected from within the confines of
a postpipe; refuse = secondarily deposited materials; hearth, pit = primary or otherwise
not clearly redeposited hearth or refuse deposit. Sample weights not available.


Table 6.7. Zea mays measurements* (mm) for En Bas Saline, Haiti. (Measurement D1
is distance form the base to the widest part of the kernel [King 1987].)
SPECIMEN
CONDITION
COB ALI-
CUPULE
LOWER SPIKE-
length COLE
thick-
W.E.
W.I.
W.W. L.E. L.I. depth
GLUME LET
COB:
length
ness
width thick.
6317 cob
3 alicoles,
8.95 3.60
1.30
6.05
4.25
1.12 2.15 1.55 1.00
3.40 1.10+-
fragment
1 is intact
CUPULES:
6316 #1
wing +- broken
2.45
8.0+
6.50
2.50
6316 #2
wing + broken
1.75
6.9+
5.80
1.50
7040 #1
nearly complete
1.65
5.15
3.15
7040 #2
nearly complete
2.10
5.10
3.30
Kernel W.M.
W.P.
W.D.
Thick.
KERNEL:
height
mid
sect .
D1
6312 pop
nearly complete,
split in two
6.80 6.20
4.20
6.10
4.05
5.30
6312 flour
upper portion
6.80
-
-
4.85
-
6316 pop
nearly complete
6.90 5.40
4.90
5.00
5.10
5.35
6316 flour
nearly complete
4.20 7.25

5.70
1.90
7017 flour
upper half
7.40
-
-
6.35
-
7017 ?flour
nearly complete
7.90+ 6.90
-
-
4.45
4.30
*L.E. = length, exterior; L.
I. = length,
interior;
W.D. =
width, distal; W.E.
= width
exterior; W.M. = width, midsection; W.P. = width, proximal; W.W. = width, wing.
278


152
Figure 5.1. Locations of Puerto Rican sites
analyzed for plant remains.


Table 6.10 Morphometric Data from Panicoid Grass
Collections, Archaeological and Modern
Populations (mm) 298
Table 6.11 Oenothera sp. (Primrose) Seed
Measurements (mm) 303
Table 6.12 Archaeobotanical Samples from La
Isabela, Dominican Republic 305
Table 6.13 Plant Identifications from La Isabela,
Dominican Republic 306
Table 6.14 Plant Identifications from La Isabela,
Dominican Republic (by count) 307
Table 7.1 Crop, Homegarden, and Other Plants with
Food or Medicinal Value from Caribbean
Archaeological Sites (presence in
macroremains 313
Table 7.2 Wood Remains from Caribbean
Archaeological Sites 318
XV


131
in the Lesser Antilles, all of which belong to the Ceramic
Age.
Trunk Bay, St. John. U.S. Virgin Islands
Two samples from Saladoid/Ostionoid Trunk bay were
analyzed for evidence of prehistoric associations between
plants and the human inhabitants of the site. The materials
(Table 4.29) derive from general midden deposit; botanical
specimens were analyzed in conjunction with faunal analyses
that were undertaken at the Florida Museum of Natural
History. Both samples were sieved through 1/16-inch mesh.
Four types of wood were recovered, including one wood
that appears to belong to the bignonia family (Bignoniaceae)
(Table 4.30). Three additional woods are represented by
single fragments each, none of which is sufficient to
produce definitive identifications. Trunk Bay-3 is possibly
black mangrove (Avicennia germinans).
Two types of seed were recovered. Cockspur (Celtis
iguanaea), the same as was documented from four sites
mentioned above, is present in both samples (Table 4.31).
The other seed type from Trunk Bay (one specimen) has been
tentatively identified as kapok a/k/a silk-cotton tree
(Ceiba pentandra). The latter is carbonized, while all
cockspur seeds are apparently mineralized. Noteworthy from
Level 6 are two small fragments of thoroughly burnt,
flattened, parenchymatous tissue that lacks definable
cellular structure. Under microscopic examination the
tissue gives the impression of having been pulverized and


378
Keegan, William F. and Annie Cody
1990 Two-month Grenada project: Prehistoric peoples of
Pearls, an archaeological project. Research proposal to
the Foundation for Field Research, Alpine, California.
Keegan, William F. and Michael DeNiro
1988 Stable carbon- and nitrogen-isotope ratios of bone
collagen used to study coral-reef and terrestrial com
ponents of prehistoric Bahamian diet. American Antiquity
53 (2):320-336.
King, Francis B.
1985 Early cultivated cucurbits in eastern North
America. In Prehistoric Food Production in North
America. Richard I. Ford (editor), pp. 73-98. Museum
of Anthropology, Anthropological Paper No. 75. Uni
versity of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
1987 Prehistoric Maize in Eastern North America: An
Evolutionary Evaluation. Ph.D. dissertation,
Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana-
Champaign.
Klift, Heleen van der
1985 Animal and plant remains from the Golden Rock Site on
St. Eustatius. Manuscript on file with the Environmental
Archaeology Laboratory, Department of Anthropology,
Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville.
-Klinken, G.J. van
1991 Dating and dietary reconstruction by isotopic
analysis of amino acids in fossil bone collagenwith
special reference to the Caribbean. Publications of the
Foundation for Scientific Research in the Caribbean
Region 128. Amsterdam.
Krieger, Herbert W.
1929 The aborigines of the ancient island of Hispaniola.
In Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smith
sonian Institution. Government Printing Office, Washing
ton, D.C.
Landers, J.L. and A.S. Johnson
1976 Bobwhite and Quail Food Habits in the Southeastern
United States, with a Seed Key to Important Foods.
Miscellaneous Publications. Tall Timbers Research
Station. Tallahassee, Florida.
Las Casas, Fray Bartolom de
1909 [sixteenth century] Apologtica Historia de las
Indias. M. Serrano y Sanz (editor). Historiadores de
Indias, Volume 1, Nueva Biblioteca de Autores Espaoles
13, Madrid.


297
Grain size measurements for the grass seed specimens
from En Bas Saline in comparison to morphometric data from
modern specimens is shown in Table 6.10. These comparative
data place the En Bas Saline seeds within the size range of
wild grasses (Table 6.10), even considering a shrinkage
factor estimated at around 10% due to carbonization
(laboratory data; Table 6.10). Even though Callen
(1967a:535) did not document the seed size increase for
Setaria specimens from Tamaulipas, Mexico, which would give
size estimates of wild versus domesticated seeds in a
prehistoric assemblage, it seems likely that the En Bas
Saline grass seeds were collected from wild populations.
More data and additional quantitative comparisons need to be
made, however, to confirm this observation.
Oenothera seeds. Seeds from Feature 14A (FS 7020;
Figure 6.10) were examined by Dr. Warren Wagner (Smithsonian
Institution), who confirmed their identification as
Oenothera sp. (section Oenothera. subsection Raimannia.
possibly 0. humifusa, a coastal species [personal
communication, 23 May 1991]). Dr. Wagner verified that the
genus has never been collected from Haiti, but has been
collected from nearby Cuba. The presence of Oenothera seeds
in archaeological deposits from two additional Caribbean
islandsNevis (Chapter 4) and Puerto Rico (Chapter 5)
further documents a previously expanded geographic range for
the genus Oenothera. As noted above, the extended range may
have been directly influenced by prehistoric human groups.


227
suggesting that prehistoric human adaptation in Puerto Rico
included gardening and perhaps also limited arboriculture.
Moreover, the evidence strongly suggests that gardening
practices and the importation of exotic species was
initiated during the Archaic Age.
Unequivocably domesticated plant species are not
identified among the archaeobotanical assemblages reviewed
here from Puerto Rico, even though artifacts believed
associated with plant staples like manioc (see Chapter 1)
commonly occur in the Ceramic Age deposits. Direct evidence
for domesticated plants currently is lacking from Puerto
Rican sites. From an archaeobotanical perspective the
absence of plant remains does not, however, necessarily
preclude the possibility that domesticated plants,
particularly those that are difficult to trace (e.g.,
manioc), were part of the diet of the inhabitants of the
various sites. Thus far, maize, manioc, and other purported
Taino crops, if they were indeed components of prehistoric
subsistence in Puerto Rico, have eluded detection by
archaeobotanical analysis.


Appendix Bcontinued.
Garden C continued
IDENTIFICATION:
Feat. 11
continued
Feature 15-
Lv.4
Lv. 5
Lv. 6
Lv. 7
Lv. 8
all lv
Lv. 1
Lv. 2
Lv. 3
CULTIVATED:
FS6313
FS6316
FS6318
FS6320
FS6324
FS6317
FS6746
FS6748
FS6751
cf. Guava
Maize/Indian corn
3(3)
14(3)
3(4)
1
cf. Manioc/cassava
Palm, seed coat
49
157
(1)
164
92
30
68
(1)
(3)
(3)
Palm, fibrous tissue
++
Pepper/pimiento
Primrose
cf. Soursop
cf. Sapotaceae seed coat 1 1
OTHER:
Amaranthac./Chenopodiac.
Goosefoot family
cf. Inga/guaba 1
Nightshade family
Panicoid grass
Purslane
Trianthema
cf. Grass family
Legume, wild
Mallow family
cf. Myrtaceae
cf. Palmae seed/bud
Yellow stargrass
Unid, seed-type 1
Unid, seed-type 2
Unid, seed-type 3
Unid, seed-type 4
Unid, seed-type 5
Unid, seed/fruit frag.
3
3
348


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES xi
LIST OF FIGURES xvi
ABSTRACT xvii
CHAPTERS
1 INTRODUCTION 1
2 BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM FORMULATION 8
Culture History 9
Models Centered on the Human Migrations
and Settlement of the Caribbean Islands. 11
The Basis for Previous Inferences
about Plant Use 19
Pertinent Details from Ethnohistoric
Documents about Taino Plants and
Agriculture 28
Previous Archaeobotanical Research on
Caribbean Sites 30
Research Questions 34
3 METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH 36
Site Descriptions 3 6
Wanapa, Bonaire 36
Pearls, Grenada 41
Heywoods, Barbados 42
Twenty Hill (PE-19) and Jolly Beach
(MA-3, MA-4), Antigua 43
Hichmans' Shell Heap (GE-6), Hichmans'
Site (GE-5), and Indian Castle
(GE-1), Nevis 44
Golden Rock, St. Eustatius 45
Hope Estate, St. Martin 4 6
Beach Access Site and Trunk Bay, St.
John, United States Virgin Islands . 48
viii


177
are from Mounded Midden 2 that dates from Cuevas to Santa
Elena times. Finally, Flotation Sample 588 comes from
Midden 3 that has Hacienda Grande, Cuevas, and possibly also
Monserrate diagnostics.
The contents of the samples from the various locations
noted above are briefly summarized here. Bully-tree and
maga wood appear in the macroblock samples, with the former
particularly conspicuous (Table 5.7; six out of eight
samples from the general macroblock contexts). Seeds are
absent from among the macroblock samples, aside from the
modern specimens noted above that were recovered from the
Ostionoid-aged ditch and house complex (Table 5.7).
The flotation samples from Mounded Midden 2 (samples
311-364 in Table 5.7) did not produce identifiable wood, but
two types of carbonized seed are present. Flotation Sample
311 contained the only trianthema seed thus far documented
for Maisabel. An unidentified seed or fruit pit was
recovered from a slightly deeper (10 cm) level (Flotation
Sample 336) of the same excavation unit as the trianthema
seed, and an additional specimen (in five fragments)
apparently of the same seed type appeared in Sample 351 from
near the bottom of the excavation unit (Table 5.7). This
seed/pit type is possibly manchioneel (Hippomane
mancinella), with its prominent spines eroded or burnt away.
Flotation Sample 364 contained a single unidentified seed
coat fragment (Table 5.7).


214
O 2 4 6 8 10
length
+ wild/feral cultivare D P0-38 0 Ballaja
Figure 5.3. Papaya (Carica papaya) seed dimensions
(in millimeters).


114
conspicuous in Golden Rock material, appearing in 22 (73%)
of the 30 midden samples studied. Cockspur is the only type
of seed identified in the work by Van Der Klift (1985). As
with Twenty Hill, cockspur is the most frequent seed type
from Golden Rock (at least 114 individuals; Table 4.22).
The other two possibly archaeological seed types from
Golden Rock (Table 4.21) have not yet been identified. The
second Unidentified-type 2 may be an insect gall,
incidental to the prehistoric occupation of the site.
Golden Rock wood remains
Ten woods were recovered in the Golden Rock samples,
four of which are identified to genus or species: lignum-
vitae (Guaiacum sp.), fish poison a/k/a Jamaica dogwood
(Piscida carthagenesis), and two types of satinwood/wild
lime (Zanthoxvlum spp.). The two forms of Zanthoxvlum are
distinctive by wood anatomy. Nevertheless, rather than
being representative of interspecific variation, the
anatomical differences between the two wood types could have
been ecologically and/or functionally induced (Newsom
1992c). The second form of Zanthoxvlum exhibits weaker
development of pore groups and paratracheal parenchyma; it
also possesses slightly wider rays, on average. For the
purposes of this analysis, the two types of Zanthoxvlum sp.
are regarded as separate woods: one that compares
exceptionally well with a species commonly known as
satinwood (Z. flavum), and another whose anatomy closely


173
Wadsworth 1974:682). The respective ranges of these two
species are exclusive of the north-coastal region where
Maisabel is located. Therefore, unless the endemic Psidium
spp. once had broader ranges that included the northern
coastal plain or they were specifically transported by
humans, it is probable that the wood from Maisabel belongs
to the species P. quajava (assuming that the genus
identification proves correct). Psidium quaiava is
considered native to the Caribbean and the adjacent mainland
(Martin et al., 1987:42; Mortensen and Bullard 1968:36; Rehm
and Espig 1991:194), and varieties of this guava species are
cultivated throughout the tropics (Martin et al., 1987;
Mortensen and Bullard 1968; Popenoe 1939; Rehm and Espig
1991). Similarly, native Pouteria multiflora (bully-
tree/ jacana) is a common component of lower and middle
elevation wet and moist forests (Ashton 1985:99; Loigier and
Martorell 1982:136); this species could well be the wood
recovered in the Maisabel samples.
Hacienda Grande deposits from Maisabel
Hacienda Grande deposits from Mounded Middens 1 and 2
contain at least eight archaeological plant types. Hacienda
Grande samples from Mounded Midden 1 include Carbon Sample
107 and all subsequently listed samples in Table 5.7, except
for numbers 100 and 131 from the sub-mound strata that were
discussed above; Carbon Sample 253 from Mounded Midden 2 is
Hacienda Grande aged. A single carbonized seed fragment was
recovered from among these samples (in the residuum of


34
Cruz cave in Puerto Rico. Leaf-impressed pot sherds from
Pearls, Grenada were donated to the Florida Museum of
Natural History in 1985 (L. Wilder collection); the well-
preserved venation and outlines of the leaf margins suggest
the Melastomataceae in one case, and possibly Cordia sp.
(aloewood, prince-wood; Ehretiaceae) in another.
Research Questions
In this chapter background information was presented
that provides the context for this research. In the course
of my discussions, six broad questions were developed.
1. What types of plant resources were integrated
into the subsistence patterns of Archaic Age and
later inhabitants in the West Indies and how
were they integrated?
2. If exotic plant resources were imported by
Archaic and/or Ceramic age cultures, what is
the source area(s) for these subsistence items.
3. When and where were gardening and
arboriculture undertaken by Caribbean Indians?
4. What is the nature of the interaction between
Archaic Age inhabitants of the islands and the
Cedrosan Saladoid colonists, and did Archaic Age
people facilitate Saladoid adaptation to the
insular environment?
5. When, in the transition from the Saladoid to the
Ostionoid culture series, did the emphasis in
subsistence systems shift from extensive rootcrop


179
Bully-tree also was identified from the Calle Cristo
site, described above. Calle Cristo is located just east of
Maisabel (Figure 5.1) and is at least partially
contemporaneous. Bully-tree may have been a homegarden
species or otherwise tended tree. Nevertheless, with native
Pouteria multiflora relatively abundant in the wild (Loigier
and Martorell 1982:136; Little and Wadsworth 1964:452), the
specimens from both sites may have existed as components of
the natural vegetation.
Other possible protected or housegarden trees
provisionally identified from Maisabel include calabash tree
(Bignoniaceae; Table 5.6), guaba, guava, and panama-tree
(Niez 1984; Padoch and deJong 1991; Record and Hess
1943:282). These trees have a wide range of economic
possibilities. Calabash is grown primarily for its hard-
shelled fruit; the inner lining of guaba pods is edible and
the wood of at least one native species of Inga sp. is
valued for fuel and other purposes (Record and Hess
1943:253); guava fruit, like bully-tree, can be prepared and
consumed in a variety of ways; finally, Panama-tree seeds
are edible.
Trianthema seeds and greens, palm fruit, and wild figs
may also have been food items for the inhabitants of
Maisabel, based on the limited evidence for their presence
at the site. Thus, all together, eight possible plant foods
were recovered from Maisabel. None of these are
domesticated plants, but a few, Panama-tree in particular,
A


247
977N
1017E
944N
1027EI
|¡jg§g§
wSmKM
FEATURE 4
FEATURE 6
INFANT BURIAL
FEATURE 8
POSTMOLO
1 METER
EN BAS SALINE 84, FEATURES 4, 6 & 8, NORTH PROFILE
FEATURE 6
. En Bas Saline Feature 4-68 (courtesy
Florida Museum of Natural History).
Figure 6.3


219
3.97 mm). Thus, while the estimated pepper seed diameters
for Ballaja do not necessarily preclude wild Capsicum as the
basis for the identification, the apparent diameters
approaching 4 mm indicate that domesticated chili pepper is
almost certainly present among the arch