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The effects of a cross cultural mentoring program and diversity training on preservice teachers' attitudes and beliefs regarding diverse students

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The effects of a cross cultural mentoring program and diversity training on preservice teachers' attitudes and beliefs regarding diverse students
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THE EFFECTS OF A CROSS CULTURAL MENTORING PROGRAM AND
DIVERSITY TRAINING ON PRESERVICE TEACHERS'
ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS REGARDING DIVERSE STUDENTS














By

MARY ANITA CLARK


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1998














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
With gratitude and appreciation, I would like to acknowledge the people
who have contributed to the completion of my dissertation.
My doctoral committee chairperson, Dr. Joe Wittmer, has provided
leadership, guidance, editing skills, and "timely reassurance" over the course of
the dissertation process. His support and listening ear have been so important

throughout my doctoral program.
Dr. Robert Myrick, a committee member, mentor and supervisor has
given me encouragement, words of wisdom, and confirmation ever since I first
enrolled in the Counselor Education program. His friendship, inspiration and

time have been invaluable to me.
My committee members, Dr. Silvia Rafuls and Dr. Jin-Wen Hsu, have
provided valuable suggestions for the development and completion of this

dissertation. I have truly appreciated their receptivity and their important
contributions.
I would like to thank Dr. Max Parker for his pointers and leads
concerning instruments to be used in my dissertation and people to contact
concerning their use. Some of his research interests are similar to my
dissertation topic, and I acknowledge with gratitude his recommendations.
Dr. Elizabeth Bondy, the Coordinator of Bright Futures, has been a
wonderful friend and mentor. She has embraced my ideas and allowed me to
present my intervention to her preservice teachers. Her sense of humor and fun

ii







have been so important to me through the dissertation process. I look forward

to working with her in the future.
Finally, I would like to thank my family members for their unfailing
support throughout the dissertation process. My husband, John, and son,
Christopher, have shown patience and strong faith in me, and their love has
helped me keep things in perspective when the "going got tough." My parents,
Mary Secrest English and William Hutton English, who have always
encouraged me in my pursuit of education and life goals, would be very proud if
they could have been a part of this process. I acknowledge with love and
gratitude their lifelong support and belief in me.













TABLE OF CONTENTS

page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .......................................... ii
ABSTRACT ..................................................... vi

CHAPTERS
I INTRO DUCTIO N ............................................... 1

Scope of the Problem ......................................... 2
Purpose of the Study .......................................... 5
Statement of the Problem ...................................... 7
Need for the Study ............................................ 11
Theoretical Bases for the Study ................................. 14
Definition of Terms ............................................ 24
Organization of the Remainder of the Dissertation .................

II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................................. 27

Multicultural Education for Preservice Teachers ................... 27
Preservice Teacher Preparation for Diversity ..................... 38
Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs about Diversity .................... 46
Educator Interventions for Positive
Intergroup Relations ............................................ 56
S um m ary ..................................................... 61

III METHODS AND PROCEDURES ................................. 62

Population ..................................................... 62
Relevant Variables .............................................. 66
Instrum ents .................................................... 68
Hypotheses .................................................... 73
Research Design and Data Analysis .............................. 74
Participant Training ............................................ 75
Procedure ..................................................... 78
Sum m ary ...................................................... 78







IV R ES U LTS ................................................ 80

Results of Testing Hypothesis One .......................... 81
Results of Testing Hypothesis Two .......................... 83
Results of Testing Hypothesis Three ......................... 85
Results of Testing Hypothesis Four .......................... 87
Results of Testing Hypothesis Five ........................... .89
S um m ary ................................................. 92

V. SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS,
LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................... 94
S um m ary .................................................. 94
D discussion ................................................. 97
Results of a Post Treatment Questionnaire ..................... 100
Im plications ................................................ 104
Lim stations ................................................. 109
Recom m endations .......................................... 110
Conclusion ................................................. 111

APPENDIC ES ................................................. 113

A SYLLABUS FOR "EXPLORING DIVERSITY" ................... 113

B GUIDELINES FOR BRIGHT FUTURES MENTORS ............ 116

C BRIGHT FUTURES FORMS ................................ 125

D THE FACILITATIVE MODEL:
ESTABLISHING RELATIONSHIPS ......................... 129

E SKILLS PRACTICE ACTIVITY ............................... 131

F TALKING TO YOUNG CHILDREN
(TOPICS AND ACTIVITIES) ............................... 132

G INSTRUMENTS ........................................... 133

H BRIGHT FUTURES QUESTIONNAIRE ....................... 140

I INFORMED CONSENT LETTER ............................. 144

REFERENCES .................................................. 146

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........................................ 157














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE EFFECTS OF A CROSS CULTURAL MENTORING PROGRAM AND
DIVERSITY TRAINING ON PRESERVICE TEACHERS'
ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS REGARDING DIVERSE STUDENTS

By

MARY ANITA CLARK

August, 1998


Chairperson: Dr. P. Joseph Wittmer
Major Department: Counselor Education

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a cross cultural
mentoring program in conjunction with diversity and communications training
on the attitudes of preservice teachers towards racial diversity and multicultural

education. Specifically, changes in preservice teachers' cognitive and affective
attitudes towards racial diversity, their beliefs about minority learners, their
goals of multicultural education, and their attitudes towards teaching as a
career were examined.
A pretest posttest nonequivalent control group design was used with 193
first year preservice teachers enrolled in the College of Education at the
University of Florida, Gainesville, during the fall semester, 1997. The
experimental group consisted of 135 first semester elementary education

vi







majors who participated in the cross cultural mentoring program known as
"Bright Futures." They received diversity/communications skills training in a
required one semester hour preprofessional course entitled, "Exploring
Diversity." Fifty-eight first semester special education/unified early childhood
majors served as the control group and did not participate in the mentoring
project or the diversity/communications training.
Participants in both groups completed all measurement instruments at
the beginning and at the end of the 15 week semester in order to measure
change in attitudes by group on the dependent variables. Data were analyzed
using analysis of covariance for the first four dependent variables and chi-
square tests on the last dependent variable. Five null hypotheses were tested
at the .05 level of significance.
A significant difference (p=.03) was found between the two groups on
adjusted mean posttest scores on cognitive attitudes towards racial diversity.
The experimental group had a higher score, indicating a higher degree of
awareness, receptivity, and sensitivity to the cognitive component of racial
diversity.
No significant differences in adjusted posttest mean scores were found
between groups on affective attitudes towards racial diversity, beliefs about
teaching diverse learners, and attitudes towards teaching as a career. Chi-
square tests on the pretest and posttest administrations of the Goals of
Multicultural Education did not reveal significant differences between groups.
An evaluative questionnaire administered to the experimental group
indicated that the intervention had merit with regard to fostering positive
attitudes towards working with diverse students.











CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The education of minority and/or lower socioeconomic children

continues to be an ongoing concern, not only to educators, but to the American
society in general. Recent demographic projections indicate that this segment
of the population is expected to increase dramatically into the next century
(Gay, 1993; Stoddert, 1993; Breault, 1995). Statistics concerning at risk youth,
increasing violence and criminal activity among juveniles and an increasing
gap between the "haves" and the "have nots" have become important political
and economic issues with regard to the well being of our country. American
students' underachievement academically has also become an urgent
international issue as cross-cultural comparisons have caused us to question

our country's ability to compete on a global scale.
These are pressing issues for our educational system as well as our

society as a whole. Because so many citizens have concerns about the future of
our society, there are a growing number of community projects springing up
around the country to facilitate the education and development of our "at risk"
youth (Campbell-Whatley, Algozzine, & Obiakor, 1997). One such initiative is
mentoring programs for these youth which are emerging from the business
community as well as from educational institutions. They are being developed
in order to establish relationships with young people and to offer assistance
and incentives encouraging them to set and achieve short as well as long term
goals. The popular media is replete with stories of such volunteer efforts
nationwide (Schnurnberger, 1997). In addition, writers in scholarly journals cite
1







2
the importance of resilience and the role of significant adults in the successful
development of young people considered to be "at risk" (Barbarin, 1993;
Connell, Spencer & Aber, 1994).
Picture the following classroom of 26 students (13 girls and 13 boys):
Three are Chinese, two are Korean, one is Arabic, five are from Eastern
European countries, seven are African American, three are Hispanic, and five
are "American born Caucasians." Approximately 75% are on a free or reduced
price lunch. Their academic skills vary widely, partly because of their poor
command of English. Eleven speak a primary language other than English, two
students receive speech therapy, and several have been identified as learning
disabled. A number of the students come from single parent homes. Further,
some of the student population shifts through the year as students and their
families move to other locales. The student intern assigned to this actual
elementary classroom in Gainesville, Florida is blonde haired, blue eyed, and
has not lived outside the state of Florida. Although she has a very positive

attitude toward her teaching career and embraces the ideals of multicultural
education, a large challenge looms ahead for this teacher.

Scope of the Problem
Changing Demographic Patterns of American Students
The changing demographics of the United States are transforming the
country into one in which a majority of its citizens are members of a variety of
minority groups. The Census Bureau projects that by the year 2050, the U.S.
population could increase by one-half, with 47% of the population being non-
white (Gay, 1993). Other projections indicate that within 25 years, only one in
two school children will be Anglo (Breault, 1995). The percentage of students
of color in U. S. schools has increased dramatically in the past quarter of a







3
century and they now compose 30% of the total population in elementary and
secondary schools. The National Center for Educational Statistics (1992)
reported that 15% of public school children are African-American, 10% are
Hispanic, and 3% Asian. Although this trend is not evenly distributed
throughout the country, it has been evidenced in all school districts. In at least
18 states and in Washington, D. C., between 30% and 96% of the public school
students in grades K-12 are children of color (Gay, 1993). In the nation's 15
largest school systems, minority enrollments range from 70%-96% (Olsen,
1988, as cited in Ross & Smith, 1992). By the year 2010, children of color will
constitute the majority in the states of California, Texas, Florida, Arizona, and

New Mexico (Bassey, 1996).
Two major factors contribute to the increasing number of culturally
diverse public school students in our country. The youth of the minority groups
along with their higher birthrates, coupled with increased immigration from non-
white, non-Western countries in Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America, Africa and
the Middle East are drastically changing the population patterns in the United
States. By the beginning of the current decade, proportionately more
Hispanics and African-Americans were 18 years of age or younger than were
Anglos. This statistic has implications for future population growth as well since
a greater proportion of the population of these groups were within prime
childbearing years, and were having larger numbers of children per family unit

(The Condition of Education, 1992).
The socioeconomic status of these minority group members tends to be
lower than average and the poverty level is increasing among today's students.
The U. S. Department of Commerce Bureau of the Census (Statistical Abstract
of the United States, 1996) reports that almost 15 million children---21.2 % of







4
all children under the age of 18--- live below the poverty level. Approximately
5 million of these children are black, representing 43.3 % of that population,

and 4 million are Hispanic, or 41.1% of that group. The percentages of all three
of these groups falling below the poverty level has increased since 1970.
Teacher Demographics
In contrast to above statistics concerning children, teachers in the
United States traditionally have been white, middle class females and current
data reveals little change in these statistics. That is, the ethnic and economic
composition of the nation's teaching force has remained relatively stable.
Teachers are a homogeneous group and are predominantly from middle

socioeconomic European-American descent. Furthermore, they tend to attend
colleges near where they grew up and tend to teach in the same region
(Breault, 1995). That is, there is little mobility in the teaching profession and the
average teacher age is increasing with a current mean age of 42 years.
Teachers in U. S. public elementary and secondary schools in 1993-94
consisted of 73% women and 87% white non-Hispanics (National Center for
Educational Statistics, 1996b).
Ethnic minorities now compose less than 15% of the teaching force and
less than 12% of the administrators in United States schools. Only around 7%
of all K-12 public school teachers are African-American, 4% are Hispanic, and
1.9% are from other minorities (National Center for Educational Statistics,
1996a). The percentages for public school and central office administrators
are very similar (Gay, 1993).
In sum, there is a large contrast between the ethnic and socioeconomic
backgrounds of teachers and the students they teach and the division is







5
growing wider. In larger, urban school systems teachers are more likely to live
outside the district boundaries, giving them even less in common with their

students. Additionally, the gap in educational levels is increasing between
teachers and students. Teachers are achieving higher levels of education with
5 year programs and master's degrees becoming more common, while children

of color and poverty are achieving lower levels of educational attainment (Gay,
1993). The life experiences, values and perspectives of these middle class,
highly educated mid-life teachers from suburban communities are in stark
contrast to those of many of their students who are poor, and represent ethnic

and racial minorities living in urban areas. Experts agree that establishing
meaningful connections between teachers and the students in their classrooms

is essential for the mission of education to be successful. However, the
disparity between students' level of education, ethnic composition and
socioeconomic status, and that of their teachers is making this mission more
and more difficult. This problem is a major focus of this study.

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a cross cultural
mentoring program and accompanying diversity/communications skills training
on the attitudes of preservice teachers towards racial diversity and multicultural

education. Specifically, the researcher, examined the effects of the mentoring
program and skills training on the preservice teachers' cognitive and affective

attitudes and beliefs about minority groups and minority learners, their goals of
multicultural education, and their attitudes towards teaching as a career.
More specifically, the researcher attempted to answer the research
questions as given below.
1. What would be the effect of a mentoring experience with African American







6
public school students in conjunction with exploring diversity/communications

training on the cognitive and affective attitudes of preservice teachers
concerning racial diversity (multiculturalism?)
2. Would a mentoring experience with African American public school students
accompanied by exploring diversity/communications training influence
preservice teachers' stated beliefs about poor and minority learners?
3. What would be the effect of exploring diversity/communications training in

conjunction with a mentoring experience with African American students on
changing the attitudes of preservice teachers towards teaching as a career?
Would this intervention serve to encourage or discourage preservice teachers

from pursuing teaching as a career?
4. Would a mentoring experience with African American students in
conjunction with exploring diversity/communications training change preservice
teachers' perceptions of the goals of multicultural education? That is, would

such an intervention influence the manner in which preservice teachers view
their role in multicultural education?
Counselors and Cultural Diversity

Counselor educators and scholars, in a consultative and training
capacity, can work with counselors, teachers and teacher educators as well as
preservice educators to promote academic, career, and personal-social
development within the context of diverse cultural realities (Lee, 1995).
Experts agree that school counselors and other educators can and should be
leaders and role models for students and others in society with regard to
racial/ethnic tolerance and the reduction and prevention of prejudiced attitudes.
School counselors can have a powerful impact on human relations training in
general, and in race relations specifically. They can work in a number of









capacities including individual and large and small group work as well as
consultation and coordination (Myrick, 1993). With increased multicultural
training these particular specifically trained educators have the potential to
impact the status of race relations significantly (Ponterotto & Pedersen, 1993;
Lee, 1995). In a developmental guidance and counseling program, counselors
as consultants can help teachers and other school personnel reach students as
part of the total educational process (Myrick, 1993; Wittmer, 1992; Lee, 1995).
Thus, through direct as well as indirect services, counselors have the capacity
to effect positive change in the attitudes of children and adults in the schools.

Statement of the Problem
There has been a long history of discrepancy between the academic
achievement of mainstream students and that of ethnic minority students. A
variety of reforms over the past several decades such as preschool
compensatory programs, bilingual education, and remedial education have not
been successful in narrowing this gap (Cummins, 1986 as cited in Nel, 1995).
Although high school dropout rates have decreased dramatically overall during
the past generation, from 27.2% for all races in 1960 to 12.0% for all races in
1995 ( National Center for Educational Statistics, 1996), there are pockets
among the United States population where dropout rates continue to be a huge
concern to educators and society at large. These pockets are usually found in
large, urban areas where crime and poverty are also immense concerns.
African Americans represent the largest culturally diverse group in the
United States, and the statistics indicate a high risk factor for the well being of
the African American youth population. Economic hardships and the
psychological and physiological burden of oppression have disadvantaged this
population, adding significant obstacles to their successful educational, social







8
and personal development. (Campbell-Whatley et al., 1997). At the present
time, the end of affirmative action policies with regard to university admissions
in the states of California and Texas is resulting in drastically reduced numbers
of admissions for black students in law schools. Similar patterns are expected
to emerge when admissions for other graduate programs are announced in the
near future. If other states follow this trend, the "growth of a vibrant minority
middle class could be cruelly reversed" (Gergen, 1997). Thus, even the
opportunities for higher education for minority individuals that have developed
over the past generation may diminish greatly. As of this writing, a high school
student in the state of Mississippi is challenging a suburban public school's
policy of maintaining racially separate student elections ("Student challenges
policy," 1997). The school, since being desegregated in 1970, has
simultaneously had black and white principals, as well as "senior superlatives"
and homecoming queens. A recent Gallup poll (Jerding, 1997) indicates that
although more whites than ever are showing greater racial acceptance, there is
a large gap between blacks and whites in their perceptions of how blacks are
treated. That is, whites are more positive about what has happened to blacks
than are blacks. They perceive fewer race problems, less discrimination and
prejudice, and greater opportunities for blacks than blacks see for themselves.

Specifically, although African American youth accounted for about 15%
of the adolescent population in the late 1980s, they accounted for 50% of
arrests for murder, 25% of arrests for crimes against property and 66% of arrest
of youth for rape (Myers, 1989 as cited in Barbarin, 1993). When compared
with the Anglo-American adolescent male population, African American male
adolescents have been found to be at much greater risk in terms of criminality
and death rates (Campbell-Whatley et al., 1997). Data from the 1985







9
Children's Defense Fund report and the 1985 Urban League's State of Black
Americans Report, indicates that African American children and youths of the
urban underclass have a greater chance of exhibiting a myriad of social and
mental health problems such as poor school performance, school dropout, teen
parenthood, and involvement in gangs, violence, and substance abuse than do
mainstream white youth (Myers, 1989).
Barbarin and Soler (1993), in studying the behavioral, emotional, and
academic adjustment in a national sample of African American children as
perceived by their parents, found that symptoms comprising an agitation
syndrome (restlessness, anxiety, and poor concentration) were most frequently
reported. Irrespective of age, boys were more likely to exhibit adjustment
problems than were girls. When asked to indicate existing problems, parents
described young African American males as often hyperactive and agitated,
unable to sit still, concentrate, control their tempers and avoid arguments. Such
symptoms appeared to remain high among adolescents. Other studies have
demonstrated that African American children from poor communities showed
depression levels equivalent to those for children and adolescents hospitalized
for clinical depression (Barbarin, 1993b). African American children as a group,
and particularly boys, experience discontinuity in educational attainment and
school adjustment usually beginning during the fourth or fifth grade. African
American males who had previously performed at grade level or above,
dropped below grade level in reading and math; girls showed a similar decline
but it occurred much later at around ages 15-16 (Barbarin, 1993a). Results
included underachievement, low self-esteem and morale, loss of vocational
goals, disinterest in education, and an increasingly oppositional attitude









towards the school system. Such problems obviously pose daunting
challenges for educators.
As noted, the contrast between the profile of public school teachers
today and demographics of the student populations in the schools in which they
teach is sharp. Experts today maintain that teacher educators must help
students recognize what teaching such a diverse population involves, help their
students develop positive attitudes and commitment towards teaching, and to
recognize and combat inequities in access to knowledge and power (Ross and
Smith, 1992). Training of future teachers should make teachers more
knowledgeable about others, allow them to understand more about various
cultures in their schools, as well as to assist them in critically examining their
own beliefs, values and prejudices (Barrett, 1993). Further, preservice
teachers should develop skills needed to establish empowering rather than
disabling interactions with their minority students (Nel, 1993).
The concept of teacher as cultural broker is recognized widely in the
teacher education literature. A cultural broker is one who understands and can
negotiate different cultures and thus can facilitate the instructional process
effectively. The necessary skills include acquiring cultural knowledge,
becoming change agents, and translating such knowledge into pedagogical
strategies (Gay, 1993).
The literature on multicultural teacher education includes a small but
increasing number of studies of practices used to prepare preservice teachers
to effectively teach diverse students (Bondy & Davis, 1997). The use of
fieldwork in which preservice teachers are given an opportunity to gain
experience with people and communities different from themselves is a practice
in which there is considerable interest. In a review of "best practices" in teacher







11
preparation for multicultural education, Grant (1994) was able to identify only
44 research studies representing 3.6% of the 1200 institutions of higher

education which train teachers. He concluded:
Preservice programs that have multicultural education infused
throughout, that also include a field experience where student teachers
are immersed, and where they live in a culturally diverse community offer
a strong possibility for successfully preparing teachers to work in urban
schools or to teach students of color. Providing preservice teachers with
experiences in culturally diverse communities is important to help them
understand the total student and to put curriculum and instruction in a
context familiar to students. (p.13)

Although extensive field experiences are being used in some teacher
education programs, little is known about how education students experience
them and even less is known about the long term impact (Bondy & Davis,
1997). Clearly research needs to be conducted that will examine the effects of
particular types of field experiences on preservice teachers' attitudes towards
diverse populations of children, as well as how such experiences affect their
attitudes towards teaching in general. These issues are addressed in the

current study.

Need for the Study
Helping students succeed in school and life in general should be the
number one goal of educators at all levels. Unfortunately, school failure is an
immense problem in our society and it occurs at a higher rate for minority
groups, especially those who are poor. And as previously noted, the disparity
in academic achievement between majority and minority students is well
documented. Minorities are less represented in math and science, achieve at
lower levels in a number of academic areas and are less likely to choose
courses and careers in nontraditional fields. African American and Hispanic







12
students demonstrate lower achievement and higher dropout rates than do
white students (Avery & Walker, 1993).
Teachers often enter the field of education with preconceptions or
negative expectations regarding their future students which according to a
number of researchers might affect the quality of education their students
receive (Wolffe, 1996). Some teachers may not acknowledge or comprehend
that, while minority and poor students may have the potential to succeed in
school, many have not been given opportunities to develop their academic and
social skills. Research has indicated that educators who are not sensitive to the
needs of minority students often are unaware of the cultural conflicts which

cause barriers in the learning processes of these students which may possibly
result in their underachievement (Larke, 1990). Conversely, researchers have
shown that a high correlation exists among educators' sensitivity, knowledge
and application of cultural awareness information and the successful academic
performance of their minority students (Sleeter & Grant, 1994). Stoddert (1993),
in a study on recruiting teachers of nontraditional ages and backgrounds,

found that:
Teachers' dispositions toward the students they are teaching exert a
powerful influence on their teaching practices. Teachers who feel
different from their students and who negatively evaluate that difference
are unlikely to develop or use culturally sensitive curriculum or
instructional practices. In contrast, teachers who feel comfortable in
urban multicultural environments appear to be much more supportive of
and sensitive to the needs of inner-city students. (p. 47)

It is implied in the literature that appropriate training of preservice teachers in
cross cultural experiences can have positive results. Some studies show that
such teachers feel more comfortable discussing racial issues, maintain
associations reflecting racial and ethnic openness, believe they have







13
the necessary training to teach in a culturally diverse setting and are likely to
encourage a variety of viewpoints among their students (Cooper, Beare &
Thurman, 1990; Larke, 1990; Mahan & Stachowski, 1990; as cited in Bassey,
1996). Also, such appropriately trained teachers may be more likely to believe
that minority students have strengths that can be built on by teachers (Larke,
Wiseman & Bradley, 1990).
Other studies indicate that there is often a resistance to change in racial
attitudes on the part of white education students and teachers. Haberman and
Post (1992), in a study of 23 white, female sophomores in teacher education
programs who participated in a summer field experience with low income
minority children, found that students generally use direct experiences to
selectively perceive and reinforce their initial preconceptions. Sleeter (1993), in
a similar line of reasoning, writes of the need of most white teachers to select
information and teaching strategies to add to a framework for understanding
race that they have taken for granted. Although believing that whites are
educable regarding understanding of race, she recognizes the strength of their
resistance to change. Haberman writes:
Without in-depth conferences, discussions, and debriefing of each
student's direct experiences, his/her perceptions will be self-fulfilling.
Positive predispositions will be reinforced through selective perception.
Similarly, negative preconceptions will be supported (p. 30).

Haberman recommends that follow-up studies should focus on treatments used
by teacher educators to intervene and directly influence preservice teachers'
perceptions. Thus, Haberman contends that direct experiences between
preservice teachers and students from differing cultures are not enough to
change attitudes; they must be accompanied by ongoing discussions/dialogues
concerning the preservice teachers' observations.









In summary, the use of early direct experience in the multicultural
education of preservice teachers in an effort to help them develop the
knowledge, attitudes and skills needed to effectively teach the diverse students
in their respective classrooms is well supported in the teacher education
literature. However, there is a paucity of data regarding how preservice
teachers are impacted by such encounters, especially in the long term. Bondy
& Davis (1997), building on a metaphor used by Boyle-Baise & Sleeter (1996)
that field experiences can "plant seeds of awareness that may continue to grow
and develop", state:
We have found that the "planting seeds" metaphor represents well the
functions of an early field experience for preservice teachers who spend
their first semester with children living in local public housing
neighborhoods. Not surprisingly, we also have found that the seeds
planted in the experience are not the same for all of our students. Our
students enter the teacher education program with different personal
histories and dispositions to teaching; that is, they have different
growing conditions. Seeds that will grow under one set of conditions
will not grow under other conditions. These insights have important
implications for teacher educators who are working to prepare
multicultural teachers. (p. 1)

Theoretical Bases for the Study
The Nature and Development of Prejudice
AlIlport (1954, 1979) drew heavily on cognitive development theory and
psychoanalytic theory to explain the nature of prejudice. The word prejudice,
derived from the Latin noun praejudicium, means a precedent or judgment
based on previous decisions and experiences. The word has undergone a
transformation of meaning since classical times. The term in English came to
mean a premature or hasty judgment having an emotional negative overtone
accompanying such unsupported judgment. A more modern interpretation of
the word refers to thinking ill of others without sufficient warrant, and "a feeling,







15
favorable or unfavorable, toward a person or thing, prior to, or not based on
actual experience" (Allport, 1954, 1979).
Two key components are central to understanding prejudice. The first is
the "attitude" component, either positive or negative, which can be connected to
the second component, an erroneous, or overgeneralized belief. Attitudes, at
the roots of erroneous beliefs, are more resistant to change. Individual beliefs
can be altered in the face of factual evidence (Allport, 1954, 1979). Further,
Allport distinguished between prejudice and discrimination. The latter is
manifested in action against the person or group to whom the prejudice is
directed. Thus, two people may have similar prejudices, but one may practice
discrimination while the other may not. Discrimination has more immediate and
serious social consequences than has prejudice.

To combat prejudice, educators need an understanding of when and
how ethnic and racial attitudes develop (Ponterotto & Pedersen, 1993; Sleeter
& Grant, 1994). Racial-ethnic self-recognition generally occurs at 3 or 4 years
of age. From that point until the age of 7 or 8, the child demonstrates an
increasing awareness of one's similarity to one's own group (Aboud, 1987, and
Katz, 1987 as cited in Ponterotto & Pedersen, 1993). Children can perceive
visible differences among people, including skin color, by the age of 3. They
learn language at the same time, including labels and accompanying emotional
overtones. They may learn such labels and overtones without having
constructed a category to which the label applies. Thus, teachers of preschool
children may be struck by the degree to which children play together without
seemingly noticing differences, though a more accurate interpretation may be
that they have not yet learned the meanings society has attached to the
differences they do see (Sleeter & Grant, 1994). As children mature, they will







16
be curious about differences and often will ask questions or make comments
about such disparities. How adults respond to them influences greatly how
children view such differences (Derman-Sparks, 1989 as cited in Sleeter &
Grant, 1994).
By late childhood, children have learned how to overcategorize and
stereotype members of groups different from their own. Finding their own
system of organizing thoughts and perceptions useful, they may make many
generalizations, failing to recognize the limitations and problems involved. As
children mature, they may modify their categories in varying degrees to fit
reality. Younger children are more likely to attribute misfortune to the
environment, while older ones may ascribe blame to individual character
(Ponterotto, 1991). Allport (1954, 1979) noted the paradox that younger
children may talk undemocratically, but behave democratically. Conversely,
adolescents, who have become skillful at imitating adult patterns, may talk
democratically but behave with prejudice.

Allport (1954, 1979), drawing on cognitive development theory, wrote
that it is necessary for people to relate, organize, and simplify phenomena in
order for events to make sense. As people mature and acquire an increasing
range of experience, they attempt to assimilate as much of their new experience
as possible into existing categories. Sometimes they have to accommodate
categories to fit experience. Most people operate under the principle of "least
effort." That is, they will avoid restructuring their thinking and resist change
unless they have to. Most prefer to view exceptions to the rule rather than
restructure their categorical thinking.
One consequence of least effort in group categorizing according to Allport
is "belief in essence," which is a stereotypical idea about a group of people. For









example, "Negro blood," "the logical Frenchman," "the passionate Latin,"
describe every member of a group as endowed with the same traits,
saving people the pains of dealing with them as individuals (Allport, 1954,
1979). That is, stereotyping is a convenient way of describing members of a
group without having the bother of getting to know them individually.

Separatism, the tendency to prefer one's own kind, is common
throughout the United States and the rest of the world. It is often a matter of
ease and convenience, but it is not in and of itself an indication of prejudice.
However, it can lay the ground work for prejudice by leading to ethnocentrism
which constitutes the core or base of prejudicial attitudes and beliefs
(Ponterotto, 1991).
Stereotypes seem to give us a map of reality with guidelines on how to
interpret and act toward people; individuals who do not fit that map may make
us feel uncomfortable. Rather than questioning the stereotypes, we may avoid
or put down the persons who do not fit the stereotype (Sleeter & Grant, 1994).
Experts agree that thinking in terms of stereotypes and categories is natural and
does not by itself lead to prejudice and hostility. Furthermore, not all people
develop prejudice, and some of those that do may act on it while others choose
not to overtly act out their prejudiced feelings. Allport (1954, 1979) wrote that
there are many processes involved in the development of prejudice. The
psychodynamic processes of projection, by which frustration becomes directed
against a group, and identification, in which children affiliate with and accept
their parents beliefs and actions as desirable form the basis for attitudes and
behavior patterns. Cultural traditions, social norms, education, semantic
confusion, ignorance of group differences and other variables also contribute to
an explanation of the development of prejudice.









Researchers throughout the years have pointed to the influence of
various child rearing practices on personality type development with regard to
the formation of prejudice (Sleeter & Grant, 1994). Social learning theory
(Bandura & Walters, 1963) expands on these ideas. Much social behavior is
learned through imitation and reinforcement. Children learn behaviors and
responses by observing others. Further, they develop tendencies to model
what they see by having their actions reinforced by others. Parents provide
particularly powerful models and reinforcers. Clearly, in today's society, other
significant people also serve as role models and reinforcers. Extended family
members, educators, peers, and mentors can provide an important influence in
the lives of young people.
The acting out of prejudiced behavior can be viewed on a continuum
from mild and covert to extremely harsh and overt (Allport, 1954, 1979;
Ponterotto, 1991). The following scale from Allport's seminal work is still
utilized today by multicultural theorists and educators in the description of the
range of activities resulting from prejudiced attitudes and beliefs:
Antilocution is the mildest form of prejudice and is characterized by
prejudicial talk among like-minded individuals. It is a controlled
expression of antagonism that is limited to small circles.
Avoidance occurs when the individual moves beyond just "talking
about" certain groups to conscious efforts to avoid individuals from these
groups. The individual expressing avoidance behavior will tolerate
inconvenience for the sake of avoidance. Such inconvenience is self
directed, and the individual takes no harmful action against the group
being avoided.
During the Discrimination phase, the individual takes active steps to
exclude or deny members of another group entrance or participation in a
desired activity. Discriminatory practices in the past (and currently) have
led to segregation in education, politics, employment, social privileges,
and recreational opportunities.
The fourth phase of prejudice expression is Physical Attack. Under
conditions of heightened emotion, prejudice may lead to acts of violence.
Extermination marks the final state of the continuum, and involves the









systematic and planned destruction of a group of people based on their
group membership. (p. 14-15, Allport; p. 218, Ponterotto, 1991)

While individuals at one stage of Allport's theory may never progress to
another stage, it is clear that increased activity at one stage makes the
transition to a more intense level easier and more likely (Allport, 1954, 1979).
Ponterotto (1991) eliminates the above described Extermination stage in his
model due to the fact of its absence in current United States history.
Allport (1954, 1979), in his contact hypothesis, purported that there
were a number of factors necessary for improvement of intergroup relations
through contact with each other. Merely assembling people without regard for
race, religion or national origin does not in itself destroy stereotypes and
encourage the development of friendly attitudes. That is, the conditions of
contact between different groups of people are the significant variables in
whether contact will result in improved relationships. The primary
considerations include: 1) equal-status contact between individuals from
majority and minority groups 2) sharing of common goals, 3) contact that is
sanctioned by institutional supports and 4) the interdependence of the groups
in achieving the goals. Allport believed that prejudice could be reduced by
incorporating these four principles. Additional contact variables that influence
attitude change include quantitative aspects of contact, such as frequency,
duration, variety and numbers of people involved, and areas of contact such as
casual, residential, occupational, recreational, religious, civic, political, and
goodwill intergroup activities.
White Racial Identity Development
Racial and ethnic identity development has been a vital area of interest in
the cross-cultural counseling literature in recent years (Sue & Sue, 1990).








Early efforts in this research focused on the racial/cultural identity development
of minority individuals. Researchers in this area explored the view that
members of minority groups grow and develop in a stagewise process in
relation to their awareness of themselves and their cultural heritage across
time. That is, how an individual views him or herself is related to his/her
cultural/racial identity (within group differences) as opposed to simply being
linked to minority group membership (Sue & Sue, 1990). This process of
developing racial consciousness culminates in a positive acceptance of one's
race and that of others (Helms, 1990; Ponterotto, 1988). The assumption in the
literature is that developing a healthy racial/ethnic identity is a central
component of one's overall self concept. Appreciation and respect of other
racial/ethnic groups may not be likely if one does not feel good about one's
own group (Ponterotto & Pedersen, 1993).
Racial identity development has been used as a vehicle for
understanding the attitudes of ethnic minority individuals living in an oppressive
white dominated society (Sue & Sue, 1990). Further, because political,
educational, and financial institutions are predominantly controlled by white
people, minority children come into contact repeatedly with the majority

systems. As a result of such exposure, many racial and ethnic minority
members in the United States have developed bicultural identities and skills
(Ponterotto & Casas, 1991).
Although times are obviously changing, the life experiences of many
white people in the past has been very different from that of members of
minority groups. Many whites have not had extensive contact with culturally
diverse groups, and their majority group status may contribute to an







21
unawareness of their own racial/ethnic identity (Rotheram & Phinney, 1987 as
cited in Ponterotto, 1991).
White racial identity theory (Hardiman, 1982; Helms, 1984; 1990;
Ponterotto, 1988, 1991) has been put forth by multicultural specialists as it
relates specifically to counselors. They have postulated that white counselors
can better understand the racial feelings and attitudes of others once they can
understand the development of their own racial identity. This process which
white people in the United States undergo in acknowledging and accepting
their race and its social implications for power, privilege and responsibility for
change has such important implications that Ponterotto and Pedersen (1993)
contend it should be a focus of education in general in addition to counselor
training specifically.
In summary, it has been suggested that the degree to which counselors,
and educators, regardless of race, are effective with those different from
themselves depends on: (a) the awareness that individuals are unique and are
not merely representative of a specific group; (b) the awareness of within group
as well as between group differences; and (c) the awareness of themselves as
racial beings (Helms, 1984; Sue & Sue, 1990).
An all inclusive white racial identity model was put forth by Sabnani,
Ponterotto, and Borodovsky (1991) integrating the three popular white identity
models (Hardiman, 1982; Helms, 1990; and Ponterotto, 1988) in the counseling
literature. This model consists of five stages as described below (Ponterotto,
1991) and was developed for use with white professionals (Ponterotto in
personal telephone conversation, June 4, 1997). These stages roughly
correspond with the stages postulated by Helms (1984, 1990).
Stage 1, Pre-Exposure/Pre-Contact, is characterized by a lack of
awareness of self as a racial being. White counselors in this stage have









not yet begun to explore their own racial identity nor given thought to
their role as white people in an oppressive society.

Stage 2, Conflict, involves an expansion of knowledge with regard to
racial matters stimulated by interactions with minority individuals or by
information gathered elsewhere (e.g., a multicultural symposium,
independent reading). This new knowledge challenges white
counselors to acknowledge their race and examine their own cultural
values. This stage is highlighted by conflict between wanting to conform
to majority-group and wishing to uphold humanistic, egalitarian values.
Key affective components of the Conflict stage are confusion, guilt,
anxiety, anger, and depression.

Stage 3, Pro-Minority/Anti-Racism, serves as one of two outlets used by
white counselors to deal with the emotional upheaval of the previous
state. Counselors may begin to develop a strong pro-minority stance,
and they begin to resist racism. Such a response alleviates the strong
guilt and confusion characteristic of the previous stage.

Stage 4, Retreat into white culture, marks another potential response to
Stage 2 emotions. At this point, white counselors respond to Conflict
stage emotions by withdrawing from interracial situations. This response
may result in white counselors attempting to avoid multicultural
counseling courses/symposia and preferring to work with white clients.

Stage 5, Redefinition and Integration, marks that point when
counselors achieve a healthy balance with regard to racial identity. They
are aware of their whiteness and acknowledge their responsibility in
perpetuating a racist status quo. They also can identify with positive
aspects of white culture and they express interest in learning about other
cultures. (p. 215-216)

White racial identity theory is a means of explaining the apparent failure
of short-term, information-oriented programs to change racial attitudes (Bollin &
Finkel, 1995). Progression through stages of identity is dependent on
interracial interaction and discussion (Ponterotto, 1993). Its developmental
approach is an alternative way of looking at the formation of beliefs and







23
attitudes and is an important factor in the planning of appropriate counseling
and educational interventions.
Flight or Fight Response Theory of Racial Stress
White identity theory is a significant component in understanding racial
tensions in the United States. Ponterotto (1991), introduced the "Flight or Fight
Response Theory of Racial Stress" offering a framework for understanding
increasing race-based conflicts as related to the rapid demographic changes
taking place in our country. Further, Ponterotto integrated this theory with
Allport's(1954, 1979) stages of expressed prejudice, as well as with the stages
of white identity development. Ponterotto's theory predicts that as whites move
closer to becoming the numerical minority, they will become threatened by the
change of demographic status and will either flee from close interracial contact
(if possible) or will react defensively and in a discriminatory fashion toward
minority group members. The fight response can manifest itself in a number of
ways along a continuum, from heightened prejudicial attitudes and increased
ethnic stereotyping to actual physical confrontation, as represented in Allport's
(1954, 1979) scale of expressed prejudice mentioned earlier.
"White flight" to private schools and suburbs was common practice in
past years, but the frequency of such movement has decreased in recent years
due to the increased movement of ethnic minority populations to more varied
geographic regions, as well as the economic cost incurred by private
education. Thus, Ponterotto's theory predicts that more of the "fight" type of
response may occur as these demographic changes continue to progress,
unless effective interventions take place to reduce the racial tension
(Ponterotto, 1991).







24
To summarize, the nature and development of prejudice, underlying
sources of racial tensions, and the importance of the development of healthy
individual racial identities are crucial to developing and implementing effective
multicultural education and prejudice prevention programs in our society today.
These factors provide the theoretical postulates upon which this study is based.

Definition of Terms
Culture refers to a population of people sharing commonalities, including
ethnographic variables such as ethnicity, nationality, religion, and language, as
well as demographic variables of age, gender, place of residence, and status
variables such as social, economic and educational background and a wide
range of formal or informal memberships and affiliations (Pedersen, 1990).
Discrimination is unequal and unfavorable treatment or actions that, when
directed toward a target group or its members, limits the economic, social, and
political opportunities of that group.
Ethnocentrism is an exaggerated preference for one's own group and
concomitant dislike of other groups (Aboud, 1987).
A facilitative teacher is one who is a high facilitator of personal growth and
achievement and who is recognized as most effective by students, parents and
educators; one who is characterized as being attentive, genuine,
understanding, respectful, knowledgeable, and communicative (Wittmer &
Myrick, 1989).
A mentor as defined in this study is a person who acts as a guide, a coach, a
counselor, and a model in order to promote the good of another person.
Multicultural Education refers to education in which the curriculum is organized
around the contributions and perspectives of different cultural groups; it








includes race, class, gender, and language, and promotes social structural
equality and cultural pluralism (Grant, 1994).
Prejudice is a precedent or judgment based on previous decisions and
experiences; it can have a unipolar component, as in "thinking ill of others
without sufficient warrant"; or it can incorporate a bipolar (negative and
positive) component as in a "feeling, favorable or unfavorable, toward a person

or thing, prior to, or not based on actual experience" (Allport, 1979).
A preservice teacher is a university education major who is preparing/training
to be a teacher.
Racial/ethnic minority groups are those which are classified according to one or
more of the following: biological/heredity factors, those who share a unique
social and cultural heritage, and those whose background reflects a lower
economic, political and social status than does the majority group (Ponterotto &
Pedersen, 1993).
Racism involves a belief system largely based on stereotypes that holds that
some races are inherently superior to others, thus defending certain social
advantages by systematically denying access to opportunities or privileges to
members of racial groups deemed inferior (Axelson, 1993; Ridley, 1995 as cited
in Sandhu & Aspy, 1997).
A stereotype is an exaggerated belief associated with a category whose
function is to justify our conduct in relation to that category (Allport, 1954, 1979).

Organization of the Remainder of the Dissertation
Related literature in the areas of multicultural teacher education,
teachers' beliefs and attitudes towards diversity, and the use of educator
interventions in helping to change attitudes are reviewed in Chapter II. The
population and sample for the study, independent and dependent variables,







26
instruments, research design, hypotheses, and description of the intervention
are presented in Chapter III. The results of the study are reported in Chapter IV.
Chapter V contains a summary of the results, conclusions and interpretations,
limitations, implications and recommendations for further investigation.












CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a cross cultural
mentoring program and accompanying diversity/communications skills training
on the attitudes of preservice teachers towards racial diversity and multicultural
education. Specifically, the researcher examined the effects of the mentoring

program and skills training on the preservice teachers' cognitive and affective
attitudes and beliefs about minority groups and minority learners, their goals of
multicultural education, and their attitudes towards teaching as a career.

Chapter II is a review of the professional literature and focuses on
multicultural education, preservice teacher preparation for diversity, teachers'
attitudes and beliefs about diversity, and educator interventions for positive
intergroup relations.

Multicultural Education for Preservice Teachers
The values, life experiences, and perspectives of middle class,
educated, middle-aged Anglo educators who live in small to mid-size
communities are very different from those of students who are poor, from
undereducated homes, racial and ethnic minorities, living in large urban areas

(Gay, 1993). Establishing meaningful and effective communication between
educators and their diverse students is essential to academic achievement.

Teacher educators contend that it is vital to reach preservice teacher
education students in order to foster in them deep commitments to
multiculturalism (Breault, 1995). Coursework, field work and discussion must

27







28
remain intensive and rigorous over time during their training. Paradoxically,
though teachers should be taught to view and experience their students as
individuals first, rather than members of a specific cultural group,
generalizations about groups are often the manner in which multicultural
concepts are taught. Although clearly not the best approach, this is the way we
often learn about the characteristics of various cultural and ethnic groups today.
Goals of Multicultural Education
The American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE)
has stated that "Multicultural education .. affirms cultural diversity as a
valuable resource that should be preserved and extended" (AACTE, 1989,
p. 1.). The association proposes four goals for multicultural teacher education:

1. teaching values which support cultural diversity
2. encouraging expansion of existing cultures as well as their
incorporation into the mainstream
3. supporting alternative lifestyles
4. encouraging multilinguism and multidialectism.

The AACATE document concludes that multicultural teacher education
must go beyond special sources and direct experiences which are
grafted onto regular programs and "must permeate all areas of the
educational experience provided for prospective teachers" (AACATE,
1989, p.2).

Sleeter & Grant (1988, 1994) in their seminal work on multicultural
education identify a typology of five educational approaches that encompass
race, culture, language, social class, gender and disability. Each approach
has societal and school goals as well as curricular and instructional practices.
1) Teaching the Exceptional and the Culturally Different
focuses on adapting instruction to student differences for the purpose of
helping these students more effectively succeed in the mainstream.
The emphasis is on difference rather than deficiency; cultural
differences should be accepted by the school. This view emerged in
opposition to white educators in the 1960s who saw students of color as









being "culturally deprived." All people are individuals regardless of their
backgrounds.

2) The Human Relations approach, building on the post-World War
II Intercultural Education Movement, argues that love, respect, and more
effective communication should be developed in schools to bring people
who differ closer together. The emphasis is on cooperation and
tolerance.

3) The Single-Group Studies approach, in trying to change
mainstream America rather than trying to fit people into it, focuses
attention on specific groups such as ethnic studies and women's studies
in order to raise consciousness regarding the oppression of such
groups. The goal is to teach children that all cultural groups are equal.

4) The Multicultural Education approach links race, language,
culture, gender, disability, and to a lesser extent, social class, working
toward making the entire school celebrate human diversity and equal
opportunity. It has continued to develop since the early 1970s as some
educators have grown disenchanted with earlier approaches and others
have conceptualized more complete and complex plans for educational
reform. The approach seeks to protect and enhance diverse groups.

5) Education That is Multicultural and Social
Reconstructionist extends the Multicultural Education approach into
the realm of social action. It focuses on challenging social stratification
at least as much as on celebrating human diversity and equal
opportunity. The focus is on equity and justice. (p.34-35)

This typology of approaches to multicultural education can be viewed as
a continuum that represents a pathway toward the ultimate goal of teachers
and other educators empowering minority students (Nel,1993). The first two
goals focus on helping diverse students to better fit into mainstream society.
The third is directed towards recognition of the equality of various ethnic
groups. The last two indicate a desire to change social conditions and
institutions to end the practice of discrimination and prejudice, and to
accommodate and celebrate diversity in and out of our schools (Colville-Hall,
MacDonald, & Smolen, 1995). Further, the types are not mutually exclusive;







30
that is, they represent a continuum of growth in which people become mature
citizens of a diverse, heterogeneous, free society. Haberman and Post (1990)
argue that as people grow and develop they "naturally" become more
amenable to each succeeding position. Goodwin (1994) suggests that where
teachers-in-training place on Sleeter and Grant's hierarchy of
conceptualizations of multicultural education could be interpreted as "different
levels of readiness or development in personal, developmental and intellectual
terms" (p129). In examining Sleeter & Grant's typology, option one appears to
represent the status quo of the way American classroom teachers have, in
general, interacted with minority children over the past twenty years.
Subsequent goals progressively advance toward the point where schools
become active agents in the transformation of society (Nel, 1993). Schools
tend not only to serve society, but to "make" society.
Several studies (Haberman & Post, 1990; Nel, 1993; Colville-Hall et
al.,1995; Greenman & Kimmel, 1995; and Goodwin, 1994) have examined the
perceptions of the goals of multicultural education of preservice and
cooperating teachers using Sleeter and Grant's typology.
Haberman & Post (1990), using a five-item scale corresponding with
Sleeter and Grant's continuum of approaches to multicultural education, asked
cooperating teachers, "If you could only teach one of the goals listed below,
which one would you select?" The goals were presented as follows: 1) All
people are individuals regardless of their background; 2) We all have to learn
to live together in this world; cooperation and tolerance are vital; 3) Every
person came from some ethnic group and all groups are equally fine; 4) The
U.S. is made up of many racial, ethnic and religious groups and each must be
protected and enhanced; 5) We all have a responsibility to change the








discrimination and prejudice in our society against certain groups. They

sampled 227 white cooperating teachers who attended a summer workshop at
the University of Milwaukee at Wisconsin. Over 80% of the respondents
selected items #1 and #2. There were no significant differences found with
regard to gender, teaching level, years of teaching experience or degrees
held. Thus, tolerance for others, and individuals getting along with individuals
were perceived to be the goals of multicultural education in school programs
by the cooperating teachers sampled. Haberman and Post (1990) point out
that the teachers in their study viewed the individual as a person rather than
subgroups as the "building blocks" for teaching about American society.
Nel (1993) carried out a similar study using Sleeter and Grant's (1994)
educational approaches translated into goals. The sample for this study was
280 white, middle-class, predominantly rural, preservice teachers who had not
completed a course in multicultural education. Each respondent was given the
following scenario and asked a question related to the goals of multicultural
education: "You are a teacher in a pluralistic classroom. If you could teach
only one of the goals listed below, which one would you select?" The five
options, paraphrased as in the Haberman and Post (1990) study, represented
a rewording of Sleeter and Grant's multicultural approaches. Two thirds of the
sample selected options one and two previously described, thus viewing
cooperation, tolerance and assimilation of minority groups as the major goals
of multicultural education in the schools. The remainder of respondents were
equally divided in their selections among the last three goals. The author
interpreted her findings as implying that most preservice teachers are willing to
support the status quo in schools regarding minority-school relationships, but
will most probably not be inclined to incorporate minority language and culture









in their classrooms, encourage minority community participation in school

programs, or alter the teacher-minority student relationship as it has existed for
the past generation.
Colville-Hall et al. (1995) report results of using the Sleeter and Grant
measure (1994) in looking at gains in appreciation for and understanding of a

multicultural curriculum in their preservice teachers. Fifty students in two

classes of "Diversity in Learners" were asked to select the best goal of the five
(given above) on the multicultural continuum at the end of the semester. The
course provided an overview of the diverse characteristics of students in

classrooms throughout the United States and included a variety of learning
modalities such as cross-cultural activities, simulations, hands-on experiences,
panel discussions, field experiences and case studies. As in the previously

mentioned studies, the first two goals focused on helping diverse students fit
into mainstream society, the third was directed towards the recognition of
equality of various groups and the last two goals were indicative of a desire to

change social conditions and institutions. Forty one percent (41%) selected
the first three categories and 58% selected the last two categories. The
percentage of preservice students selecting the last two goals was much
higher than the results given in the previous two studies. However, there was

no pretest given and hence no basis for judging change in perception due to
the course was available. The following semester, the same instructor gave a
pre and post course survey and reported that 36.4% selected one of the latter
two choices on the posttest. The study did not report the pretest results, so
again, there was no basis for comparison from the beginning of the semester to
the end.







33
Greenman and Kimmel (1995), in a study comparing three groups of
educators, administered a two-part instrument to ascertain changes in
concepts of culture and multicultural education as a result of multicultural
educational activities. Group 1 consisted of 33 school counselors-in-training,
group 2 included 38 preservice teachers, and group 3 contained 22 inservice
teachers. The majority of the participants were middle class white women,
though there were a few who were from African American, Hispanic, and mixed
ethnic backgrounds. About one quarter of the sample were males. The ages of
the participants ranged from 19-52. The researchers used a modification of
Sleeter and Grant's (1994) typology using 7 categories, rather than the five
used in the previously described studies. The results revealed that the majority
of responses from all groups combined fell in the lower ranked categories of
content oriented and human relations training. The pre-post test differences
were as follows: For the combined groups, 44% demonstrated no change,
43% a change towards the higher numbered goals, and 14% a change toward
the lower numbered goals. Only two respondents in the post test chose the
highest ranked goal of social activism for changing discrimination in society.
The study did not distinguish among group 1, 2 and 3 in its results for the
multicultural goal component.
In a study examining what preservice teachers really think about
multicultural education, Goodwin (1994), administered an open-ended
questionnaire to 80 students who were at the end of their teacher education
programs. The respondents included 41% persons of color and 59%
European Americans. They were asked to articulate the goals of multicultural
education, identify multicultural practices they had witnessed or used in their
field placements, and list questions about and hindrances to multicultural








practices. Again, Sleeter and Grant's (1994) typology was used as a
framework for conceptualizing the results. The subjects were asked "What, in
your opinion, are two of the most important goals multicultural education
should seek to accomplish?" Although there was a wide range and variety of
responses, the vast majority of the respondents viewed the goals of
multicultural education as "Knowing Others," (40%), "Affect" (30%) including
respect, appreciation, open communication, and tolerance, and "The
Individual Child" (16%) which correspond with the first three of the five types
postulated by Grant and Sleeter. Nine percent of the goals were categorized
as "Social Change." Responses to the question on multicultural practices were
similar to the ones concerning the goals. Getting to know others, helping
children to know themselves, and helping children interact pleasantly with
each other were reiterated emphases. The researcher interpreted these
findings to mean that through the sharing of different backgrounds, children
gain diverse perspectives and are given a voice. Fifty percent of the preservice
teachers reported no opportunity to implement multicultural practices, while
24% reported not witnessing any in the classroom in which they interned.
Subjects in the study interpreted multicultural education as education for
people of color; that is, those who are racially and culturally different.
In summary, each of these studies reveal that most preservice teachers
and cooperating teachers surveyed viewed the goals of multicultural education
as conceptualized by Sleeter and Grant (1994) as an aide in assisting the
culturally different to better fit into the mainstream and to emphasize
cooperation and tolerance. Three of the studies, Haberman and Post (1990),
Nel(1993), and Goodwin (1994) did not attempt to implement any intervention
to measure change in their subjects. They were more concerned with








describing the attitudes of preservice and inservice teachers toward
multicultural education. The other two, Colville-Hall et al. (1995) and
Greenman & Kimmel (1995), do describe interventions designed to help
change educator attitudes, but do not report using a pretest posttest design to
measure such a positive change. The results of the last study described above
does not distinguish differences among the groups studied. However the
writers go to great lengths in describing such groups.
White Racial Identity Development and Multicultural Education
A number of educational researchers have written about the importance
of white racial identity development as a useful framework for understanding
racial attitudes and attitude change among educators (Ponterotto and
Pedersen, 1993; Tatum, 1992; Tatum, 1994; Bollin & Finkel, 1995). Helms
(1990) describes the development of a positive white racial identity as
involving the acceptance of one's own whiteness, the cultural implications of
being white, and the abandonment of racism. She asserts that progress
through stages of identity development is highly dependent on life experiences
and that direct contact with people of color is much more likely to bring about
significant growth as compared with simply receiving vicarious information.
Bollin & Finkel (1995) examined stages of racial identity (Helms, 1990) as a
framework for interpreting the apparent failure of university coursework to bring

about positive changes in teachers' attitudes towards working with diverse
students. The only preservice teachers in the study who reached the later
stages of racial identity in which they begin to acknowledge personal
responsibility for change in attitudes were those who had direct sustained
contact with people of color; some of these were experiences in the field while
some were particular events outside their normal university lives. One type of







36
field placement that seemed to prompt remarkable growth in the preservice

students' sense of racial identity was tutoring children of color. Additionally, the
university students in this study kept reflective journals. Random student
interviews revealed the powerful influence of their college professor with regard

to their change in awareness and thinking about race, class and gender. The
authors recommended multiple teaching strategies on the part of college level
teacher educators to include role modeling of a positive racial identity, readings
about diversity accompanied by discussion in an open atmosphere, and
appropriate field experiences accompanied by opportunity for personal
reflection.

Tatum (1992) has advocated sharing the black and white models of
racial identity development with college students she teaches to provide a
useful framework for understanding each others' processes as well as their

own. Believing that students aspiring to be teachers should be empowered as
change agents, she asserts that "heightening students' awareness of racism
without also developing an awareness of the possibility of change is a
prescription for despair" (p.20). Preservice teacher education students are

asked to interview themselves on tape at the beginning of the semester, and
then are asked to listen to the interviews at the end of the semester. Their
understanding of their racial identity development is then expressed in a written
essay. Tatum has found that most teacher education students experience the

opportunity to talk and learn about racial issues and the development of identity
as a transforming process and most are changed by it. Further, she purports
that change goes beyond the classroom boundaries to the influence of friends
as well.









Tatum (1994) carried the racial identity development theory a step
further in her "Model of the White Ally." This model spotlights white antiracist
activists who have resisted the role of oppressor and have been allies to people
of color. Her focus is on the provision of white role models for students trying to
construct a positive white racial identity. The role of the ally is to "speak up
against systems of oppression and to challenge other whites to do the same"
(p.474). The researcher concluded that research projects by her students
resulted in the strengthening of commitment to antiracist action.

In a study examining the relationship between white racial
consciousness development and perceived comfort with black individuals
Claney and Parker (1989) hypothesized that whites' comfort level with blacks
was dependent on the stage of racial consciousness as conceptualized by
Helms (1984). Participants were 339 white undergraduate students who
completed a two-part inventory: part one measured white racial consciousness
development on a five stage scale, and part two measured perceived comfort
level in situations involving black individuals. Results of this study showed a
clear curvilinear relationship between the two measures. That is, white
individuals who had very little contact or no contact with blacks were similarly
comfortable in situations with blacks as were white individuals who had
developed a mature level of racial consciousness. Those who had had some
contact, correlating with the middle stages of racial consciousness, felt less
comfortable with blacks. The researchers concluded
"These findings imply the need for people to gain more than just a little
knowledge and experience with regard to Black individuals, because
insufficient knowledge and contact appear to be correlated with high
levels of prejudice. It could be stated that a little knowledge and
experience (stage three) are more dangerous than no knowledge and
experience (stage one). Individuals who see Black individuals from a
narrow perspective, in limited roles such as maids, musicians, athletes,









militants, and so forth, may develop stereotypic ideas and be limited in
their thinking in relation to black individuals in general." (p.451)

.Preservice Teacher Preparation for Diversity
Professionals write in the teacher education literature of preparing
teachers for cultural diversity recognizing that it is a very complex phenomenon
involving a multifaceted approach. The emphasis, experience and philosophy
may differ greatly from one university teacher preparation program to another.
However, it is important to recognize that there are and will continue to be many
individual differences in attitudes and experiences among preservice teachers,
even though many are seemingly from homogeneous backgrounds.

Some of the experiences which form a part of teacher "multicultural
education" include action research, reflective thinking, field and community
experiences, the use of journals to focus on assigned reading from multicultural
literature as well as to record experiences in the field, and related multicultural

course work. Grant (1994), in a review of the teacher preservice research
literature on multicultural education recommends as "best practices" that

1. multicultural education must be infused throughout the entire
preservice program rather than presented in just one or two courses;

2. instruction about multicultural education needs to take place in many
forms such as readings, preservice experience in multicultural schools,
living in a multicultural community;

3. students need to do projects that require them to critically analyze
race, class and gender issues; and

4. preservice teachers need to be placed with cooperating teachers
who have a thorough knowledge of multicultural education, accept a
multicultural focus as a classroom need, and advocate multicultural
education throughout their teaching.









5) providing preservice teachers with experiences in culturally diverse
communities is important to help them understand the total student.
(p.13).

As noted, this study will focus on a cross cultural mentoring program and
accompanying communications training as interventions that can promote
positive attitudes towards culturally diverse students and multicultural
education. The above described literature supports such a treatment.
The Use of Field Experience With Preservice Teachers

The use of field experiences has become increasingly popular in
teacher education programs in the past decade. The intent of such experiences
is an attempt to provide preservice teachers exposure to students, particularly
those of different cultures, at an earlier stage in their preparation. There are
many more essays, expert opinion, or "think pieces" found in the literature than
actual research studies. Research on the effectiveness of such experiences
has not produced clear cut results with regard to the cultural sensitivity of
preservice teachers toward students with whom they plan to work.

Haberman and Post (1992) set out to examine the assumption that
providing undergraduate education majors with direct experience would make

them more sensitive to minority cultures and low-income children. The subjects
were a group of 23 white, female university sophomores who volunteered to
work for six weeks of half day sessions in public schools in a remedial summer
program. Their involvement included a minimum of 100 hours of direct
experience with low-income, minority children as well as university afternoon
class sessions focused on multicultural education issues. These students were

asked to write what they expected to encounter in these urban classrooms
before the experience, and to write what they actually experienced at the end of







40
the six week period. Eleven different sub-headings were used and a content
analysis of their before and after statements was made. The major finding was
that the preservice students' experiences became a self-fulfilling prophecy; that
direct experience was used to selectively perceive and reinforce initial
preconceptions. In general, those students who expected to find problems did
so and those with positive expectations saw those borne out. The notable
exceptions to this pattern were the lack of parental contact, which the students
did not foresee, and the generally positive acceptance of the university students
by the children they were teaching, which was not expected. Haberman and
Post found that although the majority of the university students made more
negative attributions about pupils at the end of the experience than at the
beginning, they were very accepting of the pupils and gained in self-confidence
in their ability to interact effectively with the low income minority children.

Cross (1993) reported similar impressions to those of Haberman and
Post. Through journal entries and class discussions, she perceived that
preservice teacher education students were drawing conclusions from their
field experiences that confirmed their prejudices and misconceptions about
urban schools and children.

Scott (1995) utilized a field experience in a multicultural laboratory
demonstration school and administered a survey on "Images of Ethnic
Minorities" to her first year education students as part of an introductory

education course. The purpose of this strategy was to sensitize education
students to stereotypes and prejudices against ethnic minorities, to provide
them a learning experience with students in multicultural classrooms, and to
allow them an opportunity to discuss prejudices and stereotypes.









She found that the students who were white did little discriminating
among minorities but tended to group them as one. Further, their responses to
the items which dealt with economic issues indicated that their resistance was
strongest to stereotypes relating to empowerment (i.e., sharing wealth and
political power) rather than to humanistic concerns. She concluded that it is
necessary to get education students to look at themselves, their prejudices, and
stereotypes against people of color before teacher educators deem them
qualified to work in multicultural classrooms. She considered her work a start,
but realized the preservice teachers needed more knowledge, experience and
feedback than could be provided in one course. The field experience and
subsequent survey she administered were done in a parallel fashion as part of
a course; the survey was not intended to measure preservice teachers' attitudes
resulting from the field experience.

In another situation, a Minority Mentorship Project (MMP), a cross-
cultural mentoring program incorporating multicultural education and human
relations training was initiated to educate preservice teachers regarding the
concerns of the diverse student population (Larke, 1990; Larke, Wiseman and
Bradley, 1990). Its purpose was to provide experiences for preservice teachers
to work with minority students, and to provide minority students with educational
and social mentoring support over a three year period of time. Larke et al.
(1990) examined how the MMP, which involved a variety of academic and
social activities as well as family contact, changed the attitudes and perceptions
of preservice teachers towards culturally diverse children. A pre-assessment
and post-assessment instrument, the Perceived Personality Characteristic
Inventory (PPCI) was administered to mentors (n=24) before they met their
sixth grade African American or Mexican American student mentees, and again









a year later. The inventory asked respondents, "What are six personality
characteristics or personality qualities you feel your mentee will possess?"
After one year of participating in the MMP, the mentors were asked to complete
the same form and to answer the same slightly revised question to reflect the
present tense. The results showed that the perceptions and attitudes of the
mentors toward their mentees had shown a positive change; they had moved
from pity and apathy to noting strengths of their public school students. In the
pre-assessment, the majority of the mentors had negative perceptions and/or
poor attitudes about the personalities of their mentees. The researchers
reported 81 percent of the 51 perceived characteristics were negative. Such

characteristics as pupils lacking in self confidence, low self-esteem, having
academic problems and feeling like a failure were mentioned frequently. In
contrast, the post-assessment reflected a personal warmth in the ascribed
characteristics of pupils. Eighty four percent (84%) of these traits were
identified as positive and included such words as friendly, shy, humorous,
honest, willing and responsible. Larke et al. (1990) hypothesized that some of
the negative characteristics listed in the pre-assessment may have been due to
fears of the mentors concerning their effectiveness, and a possible need to
change the mentees in a positive sense. They concluded that the one-to-one
relationships between the mentors and the minority students at their homes,
school and community, counseling which allowed for self review for the
mentors, and multicultural education which increased the mentors' knowledge
of culturally diverse students, helped the preservice teachers develop more
positive attitudes toward cultural groups different than their own.
Wolffe (1996), concerned with negative attitudes of teacher candidates
towards teaching in urban schools, addressed the question, "What effect will a







43
short-term field experience in an urban school have on preservice teachers'
perceptions of this setting?" Eighteen university students were paired for
placements in K-8 classrooms at a magnet school with a student body of
approximately 50% African Americans and 50% Caucasians. Many of the

Caucasian students were from Appalachian backgrounds. The school was
unusual in that all teachers had volunteered to be assigned to this school and
had been trained in a Socratic program of curriculum and instruction with the

philosophy that all students can make substantial academic progress. The
researcher administered an attitude survey which consisted of 10 open ended

questions on topics such as motivation, discipline, adjustments from what one
would do at another school, level of parental support, and grading students.

The survey was given a week prior to the urban school experience and four

days after returning. A control group of 18 students who did not participate in
the field experience followed the same schedule for completing the survey. The
students who were involved in the school visitation were asked to complete a
paper describing what they expected to find when they visited the urban school.
After the trip they were asked to reflect upon and react to their first essay. That
is, qualitative as well as quantitative data was gathered. Results showed a
significant difference in the change of attitudes of the college students involved
in the field trip as compared with those who did not participate. Most students
who had the field experience had a reduced level of lower expectations for
urban schools. However, their expectations were still lower for urban school
students than for students in other settings. The college level students who
remained on campus revealed no significant change in their attitudes. The
qualitative data from the preservice students' essays provided more detail with
regard to the impact of the experience, with large numbers of them writing of







44
their positive impressions of teachers, students, and the school, as well as of
the value of the observation.

A qualitative study on a peer tutoring program, "Bright Futures,"
examined the functions and long term effect of an early field experience on the
tutors by following up five of the university tutors two years following the
experience (Bondy & Davis, 1997). Bright Futures, a collaborative project of the

Gainesville Housing Authority, Gainesville Police Department and the
University of Florida College of Education, was implemented to provide
academic help to youth living in public housing so as to increase the likelihood
of school success and graduation from high school. First semester elementary
teacher education students at the University of Florida have been required to

participate as tutors in order to provide them with some experience with
culturally different children. Several conclusions were drawn from the interview
data: One, the field experience served several functions for students. The field
experience raised multicultural issues and challenged the negative
assumptions held by the tutors, focused their attention on knowing children, and
served as a reference point for future experiences in the teacher education
program. Two, the field experience did not serve the same functions for all
students. Some students who were less committed to, and less secure about
teaching, primarily asked themselves whether or not they wanted to teach,
whereas those who were more committed viewed it as an opportunity to try out

new ideas. Three, students' ways of approaching Bright Futures influenced the
functions that it served for them. Those who operated from an egocentric/self-
absorbed stance focused on their own feelings of comfort, efficacy and
confidence or lack thereof. Those who were characterized as "students-of-the-
experience" approached Bright Futures as an opportunity to learn and try out









their skills. These students were more committed to teaching and more
confident of their career choice and ability. The researchers concluded that
although not all students can be influenced by field experience in the same
ways, teacher educators can "provide the scaffolding to enable more students
to reap the benefits of the experience." (p. 11). Further, they suggest that a goal

for teacher educators should be to help more students assume the "student-of-
the experience" stance. Recommendations to facilitate this approach include
changing the tutor role to that of mentor, providing background on children's
lives, building a repertoire of activities, and sharing research findings with

students. Further, making common student assumptions explicit can help
students recognize, examine, and reconsider ideas they have long taken for
granted.

A quantitative study, focusing on Bright Futures tutors' beliefs about
diverse learners (Bondy, Schmitz, & Johnson, 1993), was conducted during the
first semester of the project's existence. Four groups of students representing

various combinations of tutoring and research coursework were administered a
pre-post beliefs inventory. Results indicated that Group D, those students who

concurrently tutored in public housing and took the research course had
significantly higher posttest scores on the beliefs inventory. The researchers

concluded that tutoring alone, even when it involved direct contact with children
who were different from the tutors did not change tutors' beliefs about the
causes and consequences of children's being culturally different. The
research course appeared to be an important intervention with regard to
helping tutors interpret and process their experiences.

The above studies examining the role of field experience for preservice
teachers represent a broad range of perspectives. Although the use of field







46
work is supported in the literature as being a valuable component of preservice
teacher education, most researchers advocate the use of accompanying
coursework, individual or group conferences, and journal writing to help
students mediate and interpret their experiences and to pose questions about
diverse learners.

Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs About Diversity
Studies have shown that a high correlation exists among educators'
attitudes, beliefs and behaviors toward students of other cultures, knowledge
and application of cultural awareness information, and minority students'
successful academic performance (Banks, 1988, Sleeter & Grant, 1994).
Conversely, teachers unfamiliar with or insensitive to minority students' needs
unconsciously make the learning process more difficult for them (Sleeter &
Grant, 1986, as cited in Deering & Stanutz, 1995). Teaching practices reflect
teachers' beliefs, that in turn, reflect their own experiences and backgrounds
(Cabello & Burnstein, 1995). Although experts agree that teacher attitudes and
beliefs are an important influence on the success of their students, little
research has been done on effective techniques that can be used to change
teachers' racial attitudes and behavior (Banks, 1988).
Research on preservice teachers' beliefs in general has aimed at
increasing the understanding of students' preconceptions prior to entering
teacher education in an effort to assess the impact on, and inform the design, of
university teacher education programs (Rodriguez, 1993). In summarizing
research on teachers' beliefs, Pajares (1992) contends that teachers replace
negative beliefs and assumptions only if the beliefs and assumptions are
challenged and appear unsatisfactory. He posits that beliefs change gradually;
teachers need time to accommodate and assimilate new information, accept







47
and reject ideas, modify belief systems, and adopt new beliefs (Pajares, 1993).
This finding suggests that changing teachers' beliefs and behaviors involves

direct, to the point experiences over time that challenge old beliefs and
convince them to adopt new ones (Cabello & Burnstein, 1995).
In surveys of beliefs and attitudes of preservice teachers toward
students of other cultures, it has been found that the prospective educators
endorse equal treatment for students and believe that teachers can make a
difference by expecting high academic performance of minority children.
However, many majority educators feel unprepared and thus not willing to
teach children with cultural characteristics and needs different from their own
(Avery & Walker, 1993).

In an empirical analysis of a preservice multicultural education model,
Grottkau and Nickolai-Mays (1989) investigated the extent to which exposure
over time to ongoing multicultural experiences can reduce cultural bias among
potential teachers. A pre-post test was given to four groups of preservice senior
level education majors using a revised version of the Social Distance Scale

(Scarboro, 1980). Results indicated that exposure over time to multicultural
experiences contributed to a statistically significant reduction in overall levels of
bias, as well as levels of bias towards specific minority populations among the
subjects. However, one human relations course offered to first year majors did
not result in a significant change in overall or specific bias levels.

In a survey of preservice teachers using the Cultural Diversity
Awareness Inventory (Henry, 1985), designed to measure an individual's
attitudes, beliefs and behavior toward children of culturally diverse
backgrounds, Larke (1990) found that 90% believed that they would be
teaching children who did not share their cultural background, while 43% stated









they would prefer to work with students who shared their cultural background.

Further, 69% agreed they would feel uncomfortable with people who had
different values from their own. However, in this study, preservice teachers

overwhelmingly agreed that they should accommodate for diversity in the
classroom and should provide opportunities for children to share cultural
differences. The researcher purports that discomfort in working with culturally
diverse students can be lessened only through positive contact between would

be teachers and the students and their families. She also recommends
mentoring programs be developed between preservice teachers and culturally
diverse students, that sensitivity levels of teacher educators be raised through
seminars, and earlier field placements and teaching sites be developed which

are reflective of diversity.
Deering and Stanutz (1995) also used Henry's (1991) Cultural Diversity
Awareness Inventory (CDAI) to measure the effect that a pre-teaching field
experience in a multicultural setting had on the cultural sensitivity of a sample of

ten female and six male secondary preservice teachers. Their coursework did
not include a multicultural education course. All subjects took the CDAI prior to
a 10 week (50 hours) field experience in a middle school setting with a
predominantly Hispanic and black student population. The researchers

obtained mixed results. Only 6% of the posttest respondents preferred to work
with students from their same culture. However, a number of the statements
were given neutral responses by the respondents with little change in the
posttest results. The researchers concluded that this one field experience did
not significantly increase the cultural sensitivity of their preservice teacher
sample.







49
Jordan (1995) conducted a qualitative examination of her preservice

students for whom she coordinated a multicultural, field-based program. The
program consisted of two educational foundations courses combined with an
inner-city field experience of one on one and small group tutoring. Preparation

of the students included completing a pre-survey on their concerns about their
forthcoming experience, history of their own school experience, and images
they had of the inner-city schools. They were also asked to investigate their
own cultural identities and to keep a reflective journal throughout the semester.
Additionally the researcher made weekly on site visits. Her analysis of the
initial surveys revealed that the entry beliefs of the education majors included
highly negative images of inner-city schools and communities. Fortunately,

many overcame their initial fears and were relieved that their expectations were
not fulfilled. However, some remained in a stage where they seemed to be
experiencing "culture shock." Jordan's main conclusion was that the students,
most of whom were challenged to think deeply about issues of racism and

multicultural education, experienced a range of reactions and insights, mostly
attributable to their individual developmental levels. That is, some were more
"ready" or "receptive" to a change in attitudes than others. As she stated, "My

expectations of students have become more reality centered and based upon
their individual developmental levels. I no longer attempt to change total
attitudes of all students, just the ones ready for change." (p. 373). As measured
by the students' positive reactions to it, Jordan deemed the multicultural
program a success as preservice teachers have requested student teaching

assignments in inner-city schools and have continued to seek and accept
teaching positions in these schools. Still, there are questions about the degree
of change in attitudes that can be achieved in such a short period of time.







50
In a qualitative study of teachers' beliefs about teaching in culturally
diverse environments, Cabello and Burnstein (1995), presented case studies of
teachers obtaining a master's degree in special education. The teachers, who
represented ethnically diverse backgrounds participated in a program
containing a multicultural curriculum, experiential field component, and
reflective examination of their practices through logs, videotapes and peer
examination. Their data indicated that the practicing teachers underwent a
similar process of transformation. They began with a set of beliefs about
teaching in general and about culturally diverse students based on their own

experiences. As they were exposed to new information about teaching and
diversity, tried out new strategies in the classroom, and reflected on their
learning, they began to experience increased success with their students,
reevaluated some of their beliefs about teaching in culturally diverse situations
and modified some of their initial beliefs. The researchers' findings provide
support for combining theory and practice along with opportunities for reflection
to promote a growing and positive cultural sensitivity in teachers.
Action research has been promoted as a strategy in university level
teacher education programs to help students become aware of their own
values and entertain perspectives other than their own. Glasgow (1994) cited a
case study of a preservice teacher whose perspectives were altered by doing
an action research project in an environment very different from her own
background. This student wrote and implemented a plan for observing and
working in an Amish school, after having observed Amish children in a public
school setting. She conducted a literature review, wrote research questions,
did interviews and collected student artifacts. She gained permission to visit a
one room schoolhouse in the Amish community and was able to participate in







51
the students' learning activities. She kept a reflective journal to record her
feelings and experiences. The researcher concluded that this student changed
her perspectives on another culture by learning more information about the
culture, observing and interacting with the people, and reflecting on her
experience. Moreover, Glasgow inferred that knowledge about a specific
culture is learned, not only cognitively, but effectively through experience.

Case studies of six preservice teachers enrolled in a research course as
well as involved in their first field experience were conducted to assess their
perspectives about problems that confront diverse learners in their classrooms,
their commitment to teaching them, and their beliefs about the causes of failure
for diverse learners (Ross & Smith, 1992). Based on interviews and writing
assignments, two of the university students were classified as having low
commitment to teaching diverse learners, three possessed unrealistic optimism
with regard to teaching diverse learners and one was operating from informed
realism. That is, the latter student was interested in and strongly committed to
teaching in a multicultural setting, acknowledged the subtlety of teacher
attitudes and expectations as well as societal influences on diverse learners.
Thus, the students represented a range of attitudes and responses to teaching
in a multicultural environment. Further, it became clear to Ross and Smith that
some of the students were more open to change in beliefs and attitudes than
others. The researchers concluded that the important issue is not whether a
preservice teacher enters the university experience with unrealistic
expectations, but whether she/he exits with them. They concluded that their
students through their coursework and field experience showed progress and
growth throughout the semester indicating an increase in realism with regard to
teaching diverse learners.









In another study examining preservice teachers' attitudes towards
"different" students, Hlebowitsh & Tellez (1993) asked 235 first semester
education majors to rate their respect for students who varied on the
dimensions of race (black/white), gender, and class (lower/upper/middle). The
preservice teachers had not yet completed any field or classroom experience.
The results of this investigation suggested that preservice teachers show
patterns of greater respect for black, female students of low socioeconomic
status, independent of the type of student described (a leader, an athlete,
studious and quiet). This finding was in contrast to the expectations of the
researchers who concluded that preservice teachers may enter their teacher
education programs with a humanistic drive to view marginalized students
positively.
Swearingen (1996) assigned preservice social studies teachers the task
of designing and teaching a unit involving the issues of tolerance and
intolerance. Each student taught one lesson individually to a class, and a
second lesson was team taught with a partner. Lectures were not permitted.
Methods used included cooperative learning, inquiry, jigsaws and sociodrama.
The lessons were videotaped and later viewed and analyzed by the individual
students who taught the lesson. The university course instructor observed the
change in the students' self perceptions regarding tolerance as reflected in
class discussions and journal entries. Additionally, she noticed a paradigm
shift in that the students began to view themselves as professional role models
with a mission to promote tolerance. Later, as the preservice teachers began
their student teaching experience, the researcher and her colleagues saw a
carryover of the tolerance lessons in these students' planning and weekly
seminar discussions.









Harrington and Hathaway (1995) addressed the use of computer
conferencing as a means to access and transform students' beliefs about their
roles and responsibilities as teachers in a multicultural society. They reasoned
that computer conferencing activities would allow students opportunities to
discuss educational issues with their peers in a nondominated and
nonthreatening way. The 27 students enrolled in the introductory teacher

education course generated the text and participated anonymously. The
instructor did not participate in the conference but did analyze the responses to

a month of discussion focusing on teachers' roles and responsibilities in
relation to multicultural education. The researchers found that through
extended discussions via computer conferencing, students encountered a
variety of perspectives on multicultural education. The preservice teachers

found their views and underlying beliefs challenged, often resulting in more
complex thinking about multicultural issues. The authors posited that computer
conferencing activities were effective in promoting the discussions among the
students reducing any power imbalance that might have been present in a
regular classroom. Additionally, preservice teacher education students
assumed responsibility for their own learning and seemed to challenge and

alter their beliefs in a more positive direction.
Hinchey (1994) demonstrated that a brief, one day visit to a Harlem
school prompted her students to critically examine their implicit beliefs and
change their thinking about urban schools and students. She concluded that it
is essential for teacher educators to provide such experiences for their students,
even if there is not a formal program at the university to provide long term field

placements with diverse students.









Simulation Activities in Changing Beliefs
Various studies have been conducted using prejudice-reduction
simulation (PRS). Additionally, role-playing the part of a minority group
member has become a regular part of many human relations training programs
which attempt to increase the sensitivity of public officials to minority problems
(Oskamp, 1991).
Byrnes and Kiger (1990), assessed the effectiveness of "Blue Eyes-
Brown Eyes, a PRS, as a tool for changing the attitudes of 164 teacher
education students towards African Americans. Subjects in experimental and
control groups completed two racial attitudes instruments at two and nine week
intervals in a semester long education course. Five weeks after the course had

begun, experimental subjects participated in the three hour PRS. Most subjects
reported that the experience had been meaningful for them. The PRS favorably
influenced non Black subjects' attitudes towards Blacks, while lectures and
viewing the PRS on film did not appear to influence the control group
participants' attitudes. Statistical evidence supporting the effectiveness of the
activity for prejudice reduction was moderate. Subjects and the PRS facilitator
reported feeling stress from participating in the PRS experience.

Weiner and Wright (1973, as cited in Oskamp, 1991) demonstrated that
white children who were given a planned experience of arbitrary discrimination
in their classrooms were more willing to interact with black children.
Additionally, they showed decreased prejudice as compared to a control group
who had not undergone the experience.
In a controlled experimental research study, Cook (1969) utilized black
and white college women in a simulation exercise used as a management
training device. The black women and half of the white women were







55
experimental confederates; the other white women were chosen for their highly
negative attitudes towards blacks. The game required a high degree of
cooperation, close and equal status contact, and a superordinate goal of
winning and earning a bonus. Also, during each of the two-hour sessions,
breaks occurred which provided planned opportunities for informal interracial
contact, personal comments, and discussion of race-related topics. A
comparison of the subjects' racial attitudes before and after the contact
experience showed a significant positive change in racial attitudes by about
40% of the women, whereas only 12% of a control group of prejudiced white
women showed significant favorable attitude change. Furthermore, there was
some evidence that the changes were generalized beyond the experimental

situation.
Rokeach (1971) demonstrated that the exposure of value-attitude-
behavior inconsistencies can produce changes in race-related attitudes and
behaviors. His procedure highlighted inconsistencies among university
students between ratings of two values such as freedom and equality and the
relationships of these values to civil rights attitudes and behavior. Subjects
were shown a table of relative importance of values as ranked by the students;
then inconsistencies were pointed out by the experimenter. Subjects were
given time to compare their individual responses with those in the table. The
researcher found long term behavior change resulting from such experimental
treatment. Experimental subjects were more likely than control subjects to
respond favorably to a NAACP solicitation for membership 15-17 months later,
and to register for courses in ethnic relations 21 months following the treatment.
Later studies have replicated these findings (Rokeach & Grube, 1979). Such
research has supported the unidirectional hypothesis of value change. That is,







56
values can only be modified in a direction that reduces the individual's self-
dissatisfaction and increases consistency with one's self-concept.

Educator Interventions For Positive Intergroup Relations
Experts agree that school counselors and other educators can and
should be leaders and role models for students and others in society with
regard to racial/ethnic tolerance and the reduction and, hopefully some day, the
prevention of prejudiced attitudes. School counselors can have a powerful
impact on human relations training in general, and in race relations specifically.
They can work in a number of capacities including individual and large and
small group work as well as consultation and coordination. With increased
multicultural training these particular specifically trained educators have the
potential to impact the status of race relations significantly (Ponterotto &
Pedersen, 1993).
Traditionally, counselors in schools and other settings have focused on
crisis intervention and remedial efforts at combating racial tensions. Much
preventive work has focused on assisting students and student clients to
anticipate and deter possible problems. In developmental/educative programs,
counselors work with students and clients to make the best of experiences that
will facilitate personal growth (Ponterotto & Pedersen, 1993). Further, such
programs are an integrated part of the total educational process and involve all
school personnel with counselors often serving as consultants to others in the
school setting. Specific interventions such as Peer Facilitators and Teacher
Advisor Programs (TAP) can be organized and implemented by counselors in
an effort to reach the total school population (Myrick, 1993; Wittmer, 1989).
According to Wittmer (1993), and Myrick (1993), a developmental guidance
and counseling program focuses on the needs, interests, and issues







57
related to the various stages of students' developmental growth stages. Eight
goals which characterize developmental guidance and counseling programs
include: understanding the school environment; understanding self and others;
understanding attitudes and behavior; decision making and problem solving;
interpersonal and communication skills; school success skills; career
awareness and educational planning; and community pride and involvement
(Myrick, 1993). These goals clearly encompass and utilize the areas in which
counselor skills are central to effective prejudice prevention programming as
outlined by Ponterotto & Pedersen (1993). They are as follows: facilitating
healthy ethnic identity development; fostering critical thinking skills; promoting
multicultural and nonsexist education; facilitating interracial contact; and
focusing on transforming negative racial attitudes.

Additionally, the facilitativee teacher" (Wittmer & Myrick, 1989) can create
the classroom conditions necessary to foster positive growth and the
communication skills necessary to promote racial harmony. As Wittmer and
Myrick write:

Educators hold the key to the process of reducing or eliminating the
social and emotional barriers that prevent many ethnic minority group
members from becoming productive citizens... (p. 48) Facilitative
teachers avoid bending the child to match the curriculum. Rather, they
cultivate the talents and unique cultural characteristics of children... They
know that the culture can be a predisposition to learning... The facilitative
teacher accepts the child as is and helps that child move on from that
point. (p. 49).

Further, Wittmer and Myrick delineate the characteristics of the
facilitative teacher as being attentive, genuine, understanding, respectful,
knowledgeable, and communicative. These characteristics help to identify
effective teachers who facilitate personal growth and achievement in their
students.







58
Wittmer (1992) writes that having effective communication with a person
from another race or culture requires cognitive empathy in addition to the
facilitative teacher characteristics. That is, knowledge of a person's culture, and

understanding and appreciating that person as a cultural being is also essential
to developing effective rapport and permitting the expression of ideas and
feelings.
Effective communication in the classroom involves facilitative responses
on the part of the teacher. These include focusing on students' feelings,
clarifying and summarizing their responses, asking open-ended questions, and
giving feedback in the form of complimenting and confronting. Further,
acknowledging students for their contributions to class discussion, and using
linking statements that will assist students in finding common ground among

them, will help develop cohesion in the classroom (Wittmer & Myrick, 1989;
Myrick, 1993). These communication skills can be taught and practiced.
School counselors, as consultants and trainers, can help teachers develop
these facilitative skills. Counselors can also serve as coaches as teachers try
out and implement this model in their classrooms. Thus, school counselors can
directly, as well as indirectly, foster the facilitative conditions necessary to
promote racial and ethnic harmony within schools and elsewhere.
In a descriptive study, Shechtman (1994), examined the use of
counseling methods to challenge teacher beliefs regarding classroom diversity.
Specifically, she advocated the application of the use of clarification of ideas
and feelings and the use of bibliotherapy as catalysts in the challenging and
changing of beliefs. Sharing and self disclosure were promoted, constructive
feedback and interpersonal learning encouraged and communication skills
introduced. Using bibliotherapy, a projective intervention, emphasized affective







59
processes. The discussion following the reading helped teachers to express

and clarify their feelings, and contributed to their development of sensitivity,
empathy and understanding of others. The researcher applied these two
modes of intervention to a group of teachers in a continuing education training
program with the goal of training them to use the interventions with their
students. Clarifying processes dealt with three basic values directly relevant to
classroom diversity: freedom, equality, and justice. In group discussions
permitting teachers to compare their beliefs with those of others, teachers
reported becoming more aware of their stereotypic ideas and practices and

changing their resulting behaviors. Results of the study demonstrated that
mainstreamed students improved their behavior in classrooms conducted by
teachers who received training in these methods. The emphasis in this study
was on training teachers in these counseling oriented methods rather than
about the methods.
A number of research projects examining cooperative-learning methods
explicitly use the presence of students of different races and ethnicities to
enhance intergroup relations and learning outcomes (Slavin, 1995). Based on
Allport's contact theory of intergroup relations, these studies have examined
classroom organization in an attempt to see what the optimal conditions are for
meaningful, cooperative contact to take place between students of different
cultural and racial groups. Each of the groups studied was made up of four to
five students of different races, gender, and level of achievement, and each
reflected the composition of the class as a whole. Recognition or evaluation
was based on the degree to which the group could increase the academic
performance of each member. An "all for one, one for all" attitude was
communicated and each member had an equal role. Daily opportunities for







60
intense interpersonal contact were present. Thus, the conditions set forth by
Allport (1954, 1979) in his contact theory were satisfied: cooperation across
racial lines, equal status roles for students of different races, contact across
racial lines that permits students to learn about one another as individuals, and
the communication of unequivocal teacher support for interracial contact.
In a literature review of cooperative learning methods, Slavin (1995)
concludes that in a majority of the studies, when the conditions of contact
theory were fulfilled, some aspect of relationships between students of different
ethnicities improved. Using such methods as Student Teams-Achievement
Division, Teams-Games-Tournament, Team-Assisted Individualization, and
Jigsaws, increases in cross-racial friendships were developed in the
experimental participants more than in the control group subjects. Additionally,
positive effects on cross-racial nominations on sociometric scales were found
and negative nominations were reduced as compared to control group
students. Johnson and Johnson (1981) found more cross-racial interaction
and greater friendship across race lines in cooperative classrooms than in
individualized classes during free time.

The use of group interventions with children in schools presents the
possibility of enhancing students' awareness and understanding of cross-
ethnic peers (Rotheram-Borus, 1993). Meeting in small groups allows students
to identify ethnic differences in social expectations in a warm, supportive
atmosphere. Such interventions can create opportunities for children from
many ethnic groups to increase their understanding of the norms, values, and
social routines of their cross-ethnic peers.









Summary
Although research studies cut across many fields on prejudice and
changing attitudes and reveal a variety of outcomes, most researchers agree
that prejudice continues to be a big problem in our society and needs to be
continually addressed. As our society becomes even more heterogeneous
and the global community more interdependent, the need for concentrated
attention to intergroup relations and effective communication is obvious
(Ponterotto & Pedersen, 1993). Multicultural education, examining and

changing beliefs and attitudes, and implementing effective strategies for
learning in our classrooms are important components in reducing prejudice
and helping to create an educational system and society where all students
can flourish. Educators as active change agents and role models can be
leaders and hold the keys to helping promote positive intergroup relations in
our diverse society (Sandhu & Aspy, 1997).
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a cross cultural
mentoring program and accompanying diversity/communications skills training
on the attitudes of preservice teachers towards racial diversity, multicultural
education and teaching minority learners. This research may have significant
implications for improving attitudes and understanding between educators and
their students. The results of this study may also help assess the utility of
models of multicultural education used in teacher preparation programs.
Further, there may be implications for the role of the school counselor as a
consultant and trainer in communication skills for the promotion of healthy
intergroup relations.














CHAPTER III
METHODS AND PROCEDURES
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a cross cultural
mentoring program and accompanying diversity/communications skills training
on the attitudes of preservice teachers towards racial diversity and multicultural
education. Specifically, the researcher examined the effects of the mentoring
program and skills training on the preservice teachers' cognitive and affective
attitudes and beliefs about minority groups and minority learners, their goals of
multicultural education, and their attitudes towards teaching as a career.

The population, relevant variables, instruments, research design,
hypotheses, description of the intervention, and procedures are described in

this chapter.

Population
Alachua County, Florida, located in the north-central section of the state,
has a population of 198,000 and is considered a center for education, medical
research and treatment, and agriculture. The University of Florida, with more

than 40,000 students, is the financial anchor for the area serving as employer
for approximately 16,000 people as well as providing economic opportunities
for many businesses and service providers (Alachua County Chamber of
Commerce, 1996).
The Alachua County public school system with an enrollment of 27,000
students includes 23 elementary schools, eight middle schools, six high

62







63
schools, two special education centers and a vocational adult education facility.
The student racial makeup for the county schools in August, 1996, was as
follows: White, 54%; Black, 39.8%, Hispanic, 3.4%, Asian, 2.4%, and American
Indian .2%. For the state of Florida the corresponding figures were: White,
55.8%, Black, 26%, Hispanic, 16.3%, Asian, 1.6%, and American Indian, .2%
(Alachua County School Advisory Committee Report, 1996). Thus, students of
color make up a larger proportion of the school population in Alachua County
and in the state of Florida than in the country as a whole where the percentage
of children of color is approximately 30% (Gay, 1993). The percentages of
students receiving a free or reduced price lunch in Alachua County in August,
1996 were: White, 33%, Black, 87.8%, Hispanic, 48.7%, Asian, 43.9%, and
American Indian, 72.7%. The racial composition of the instructional staff in
Alachua County is: White, 84.9%, Black, 13.4%, Hispanic, 1.3%, and Asian,
.4%; 93% of the staff are women and 7% are men (Alachua County School
Advisory Council Report, 1996).

The University of Florida's College of Education has an undergraduate
and graduate student enrollment of approximately 1800 students. Two
undergraduate programs of study with a total enrollment of 800 students are
offered; Elementary Education and Special Education. A Unified Early
Childhood/Special Education specialty is included in the Special Education
program. Secondary education majors are enrolled in the College of Liberal
Arts and Sciences. The College of Education has developed the PROTEACH
(from PROfessional TEACHer) program, a rigorous five year program of
intensive work culminating in a Master of Education degree, in addition to the
bachelor's degree. The admissions requirements for students applying to the









programs in Elementary Education, Special Education and Unified Early

Childhood programs are the same. PROTEACH II, a five year unified
elementary/special education teacher program, will be implemented in the
College of Education by Fall semester, 1999. Thus, the core curriculum offered
to all students in the aforementioned programs as well as the admission
requirements will be the same in the new program.
The racial composition for preservice teachers in Elementary Education
in 1996 at the University of Florida was as follows: White, 85.7%, Hispanic,
6.9%, Black, 4.7%, Asian, 2.1%, American Indian, .2%, and Alien, .3%. Special
Education preservice teachers in 1996 were categorized as follows: White,
81.1%, Hispanic, 9.3%, Black, 4.8%, Asian, 2.1%, American Indian, 1%, and
Alien, 1.7%. In 1996 approximately 89% of both Elementary Education and
Special Education majors were female and 11% were male (1996
demographic data provided by Office of Special Services, College of
Education, University of Florida). These figures include freshman and
sophomores who have declared their majors. However, education majors do
not begin taking courses in the College of Education until their junior year.
Thus, first semester education majors are classified as third year students at the
University of Florida.
The sample for this study consisted of 193 first semester education
majors of junior class standing in the College of Education at the University of
Florida enrolled during Fall Semester, 1997. As beginning students, none had
completed any courses within their major field of study. One hundred thirty five
of these students specializing in elementary education participated as mentors
to individual African American elementary school students who live in housing
projects in Gainesville, Florida. This cross cultural mentoring program known







65
as "Bright Futures," is a collaborative effort of the Gainesville Housing Authority,

the Gainesville Police Department, and the University of Florida's College of
Education. Bright Futures is supported by a grant funded by the United States
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). The main purposes of
Bright Futures are: 1) to develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of public
housing youth so that they may be successful learners in and out of school and
active citizens in the community and 2) to help prospective teachers develop
the cultural sensitivity and intercultural competence needed to become
excellent teachers of the diverse children in their classrooms. That is, this
ongoing project is designed to serve the youth who participate as well as the
preservice teachers/mentors who work with them. All first semester elementary
education majors are required to participate in Bright Futures.
Fifty eight first semester special education/unified early childhood
majors of junior class standing in the University of Florida's College of
Education served as the control group in this study. They did not participate in
the Bright Futures program and did not receive the diversity/communications
skills training provided to the experimental (treatment) group. Because the
participants were not selected at random, the experimental and control groups
were not considered equivalent. Thus, the design of this study is considered
quasi-experimental. However, as has been mentioned earlier, the admissions
standards were the same for both groups, none had taken any courses in their
major field of study and had entered the College of Education with equal status.
The profile of the preservice educators who participated in this study is
congruent with that found in most teacher education programs across the
country with regard to race, gender, and age. The experimental group
consisted of 91% females and 9% males. In comparison, 95% of the control









group were females and 5% were males. The racial composition of the
experimental group was as follows: White, 85%; Hispanic, 10%; Black, 3%,
Asian, 1%; Mixed, 1%. The control group was categorized as: White, 85%;
Hispanic, 12%, and Black, 3%. The age range for the experimental group was
18-48 years, with 90% of the students falling between the ages of 19-22 years,
the traditional university age group. The control group ranged between 19-30
years, with 92% found in the 19-22 year age bracket. Thus, demographically,
the two groups were very similar with regard to race, gender and age.
Informed consent letters, based on project approval by the University of
Florida Institutional Review Board, were signed by the students agreeing to
participate in the study (Appendix I). The researcher asked participants to
respond to several instruments concerning multicultural issues in education
and explained the contents of the informed consent letter. All students (N=231)
present in classes on the days the instruments were administered agreed to
participate in the study. Eighty four percent of the participants (N=193)
completed both the pretest and posttest instruments.

Relevant Variables
The independent and dependent variables included in this study are
described in this section. Four instruments, in addition to a demographic data
questionnaire, were administered both pre-intervention and post-intervention to
all participants. They were (a) The Quick Discrimination Index (QDI) also
known as the Social Attitude Survey, (b) Beliefs about Teaching, (c) Goals of
Multicultural Education and (d) Teacher Attitudes Survey.
Independent Variable
The one independent variable, or treatment, in this study was the Bright
Futures mentoring program involving a one to one pairing of first semester









elementary education preservice teachers and African American elementary
public school students, coinciding with a one semester hour preprofessional
course entitled, "Exploring Diversity" (Appendix A). All mentors were enrolled
in this course and met for an hour once a week for fifteen weeks. The purpose

of the course was to help students explore the concepts of diversity and culture
with regard to their own lives as well as with their work with children and
families. Additionally, mentors were given training in basic communication
skills and problem solving in order to help them establish and develop positive
relationships with their mentees. The "Bright Futures" project coordinator was

the instructor of record for the course and was assisted by the researcher.
The mentors and mentees met together one on one for 20 one hour sessions
over a ten week period. Mentors were given guidelines for developing
relationships with students, responsibilities, content of sessions, themes and

activities, and sample lesson plans (Appendix B and Appendix C). They were
encouraged to help develop their individual mentee's academic and study
skills, serve as positive role models, support and encourage the child's efforts,
and promote positive attitudes toward school, learning and the future. Two
orientation meetings organized by the "Bright Futures" Coordinator, a University
of Florida teacher educator, and the researcher, were held for the preservice
teachers; one prior to the mentoring program's beginning, and the second later
in the semester. Mentors from previous semesters were present at these two
sessions to share experiences and answer questions. The concept of the
"Teacher as Facilitator" (Wittmer & Myrick, 1989) was introduced to the mentors
at the orientations by the researcher. Additionally, three one hour sessions on
interpersonal communications skills were presented to the mentors by the
researcher during the first month of the semester. A one hour session on







68
problem solving was held during the second month of the semester. In sum,
the treatment included; (a) twenty hours of individual mentoring sessions, (b)
four hours of orientation to the Bright Futures program, and (c) fifteen hours of
diversity exploration and personal communications skills training.
Dependent Variables
This investigation focused on five dependent variables: General
(cognitive) attitudes towards racial diversity/multiculturalism, affective attitudes
toward more personal contact (closeness) with racial diversity, beliefs about
diverse learners, attitudes regarding teaching as a career, and perceived goals
for multicultural education in the public schools. Each of the variables was
measured by an appropriate instrument as described below.

Instruments
The instruments measuring the dependent variables included: The
Quick Discrimination Index (QDI) also known as the Social Attitude Survey,
Beliefs about Teaching, a Teacher Attitudes Survey and Goals of Multicultural
Education. All instruments are self-reporting type surveys. (Appendix G)
The Quick Discrimination Index (QDI)
The Quick Discrimination Index (QDI) (Ponterotto, Burkard, Rieger, &
Grieger, 1995) is a 30-item Likert scale self-report measure of racial and gender
attitudes. The QDI measures attitudes toward racial diversity (multiculturalism)
and women's equality and is appropriate for use with late adolescents and
adults. The instrument itself is titled "Social Attitude Survey" so as to control for
some forms of response bias. It can be used across racial/ethnic groups.
The QDI can be scored in two ways; the total score, which measures overall
sensitivity, awareness, and receptivity to cultural diversity and gender equality,
can be tallied, or the three separate subscales (factors) can be scored.









To prevent response bias, a number of QDI items are reverse worded and
therefore must be scored in reverse when tallying scores. The three factors
include (a) general (cognitive) attitudes about racial diversity and
multiculturalism, (b) affective attitudes regarding racial diversity related to one's
personal life, and (c) general attitudes regarding women's equity issues.
Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the QDI support the construct
validity of the three-factor model and scoring separate factors is the preferred
method (Ponterotto et al., 1995).
In three separate but coordinated studies designed to develop and
validate the QDI, the total score and subscale scores were found to be internally
consistent, to be stable over a 15-week test-retest period, and to have
promising indexes of face, content, construct and criterion-related validity
(Ponterotto et al., 1995). Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients for Factors 1,
2, and 3 were .80, .83, and .76 respectively. The QDI total score correlated .83
with Factor 1, .72 with Factor 2 and .74 with Factor 3, all significant at p < .01. In
a 15 week test-retest, mean stability coefficients for the 3 factors were .90, .82,
and .81 respectively (Ponterotto et al., 1995). In initial studies, The QDI has
been found to be relatively free of social desirability contamination as
determined by subscale correlations with the Social Desirability Scale (SDS).
The SDS (Crowne & Marlowe, 1960) measures one's need to seek approval in
a culturally acceptable manner.
This researcher measured Factor 1, General (Cognitive) Attitudes
Toward Racial Diversity/Multiculturalism, and Factor 2, Affective Attitudes
Toward More Personal Contact (Closeness) with Racial Diversity, though the
entire instrument was administered to the participants in the study. The QDI is
included among other viable instruments to be used to measure subtle racial









prejudice in recent texts on prejudice (Sandhu & Aspy, 1997, Ponterotto &
Pedersen, 1991).
Beliefs about Teaching Children
Beliefs About Teaching, an instrument which measures one's beliefs
about teaching minority and at-risk students, was developed by Ross, Johnson
and Smith (1991) and previewed by their faculty and fifth year students for face
and construct validity. The scale currently consists of six items scored by using
a five-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1, agree strongly, to 5, disagree
strongly. Some items are reverse worded and scored to reduce response bias.
Possible scores range from 5 to 30, with lower scores indicating greater control
and influence by schools and teachers on student achievement and higher
scores indicating less control by teachers and schools on student achievement.
The solicitation of comments from preservice teachers concerning these items
can provide more in-depth information concerning their beliefs about teaching
diverse students (Personal conversation with Doreen Ross, June 30, 1997).
Both qualitative and quantitative studies conducted by its authors and their
colleagues have been published using this instrument. The researcher
administered "Beliefs About Teaching" to a group of 40 undergraduate students
to obtain a test-retest reliability measure. The test-retest results over a two
week period yielded a coefficient of .61. This figure is in the lower end of the
moderate range for attitude scales (Borg & Gall, 1989) and may be due to the

small number of items in the scale.
Teacher Attitudes Survey
An 11-item Teacher Attitudes Survey ( Merwin & DiVesta, 1959; Potthoff
& Kline, 1995) which asks participants to respond to items on a 6 point Likert-
type scale was used to collect data regarding attitudes towards teaching as a









career. Scores range from 11 to 66 with higher scores indicating a higher
degree of acceptance of and satisfaction with teaching as a profession.

Merwin and Divesta's (1959) research on attitudes towards teaching as
a career choice was supported by the United States Air Force monitored by the
Office for Social Science Programs, at the Air Force Personnel and Training
Research Center at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas. The premise of their work
was that students undergo a change in attitudes as a result of college
experience. They postulated that the degree of acceptance or rejection of a
career is dependent upon the individual's perceptions that the career facilitates
or hinders the satisfaction of one's most important needs. Potthoff and Kline
(1995) also used the instrument in examining preservice teachers' attitudes
towards teaching as a profession. Their purpose was to measure whether or
not their undergraduate program resulted in any changes in the teacher
education students' attitudes towards their career choice.
The corrected split-half coefficient of equivalence of the instrument was
.71. The coefficient of stability (test-retest reliability) of the scale obtained over
a four month period was .79. (Merwin & DiVesta, 1959). The researcher
performed chronbach alphas on the pretest and posttest administration of the
instrument for the present study. The chronbach alpha for the pretest was .77
and for the posttest was .78, indicating a high internal consistency of the test.
In addition to the above described standardized instruments, the
researcher also administered a "Bright Futures" questionnaire (Appendix H) to
the experimental group at the end of the semester. Although not a part of the
quantitative analysis used to test the hypotheses posed in this study, it provided
information regarding the value of the mentoring experience for the preservice
teachers.









Goals of Multicultural Education
The Goals of Multicultural Education survey consists of five possible
stated goals of multicultural education and represents a rewording of Sleeter
and Grant's (1994) approaches to multicultural education. Preservice teachers
are asked, "If you could only teach one of the goals listed below, which one
would you select?" The following choices are presented to teacher education

students (Haberman & Post, 1990):
1. Children/youth would learn that all people are individuals---distinctive

personalities---regardless of their backgrounds.
2. Children/youth would learn that we all have to learn to live together in this
world regardless of any group differences. Cooperation and tolerance are
vital.
3. Children/youth would learn that every person came from some ethnic group

and all groups are equally fine.
4. Children/youth would learn that the U. S. is made up of many racial, ethnic,
and religious groups and each must be protected and enhanced.
5. Children/youth would learn that we all have a responsibility to change the
discrimination and prejudice in our society against certain groups.
Several researchers, as cited in Chapter II, have used this measurement
to examine teacher education students' conceptions of and appreciation for
multicultural education. Further, using a pre-post test, change in such
conceptions over time can be measured. Goals 1 and 2 of this instrument
focus on helping diverse students fit into mainstream society (accommodation)
as compared to Goals 3-5 which indicate a desire to change societal conditions
to encompass diversity (Colville-Hall et al., 1995). That is, movement from the
lower goals (1 and 2) towards the higher three goals is seen as a shift in







73
thinking from a status quo position towards a more activist stance with regard to
social structural equality and equal opportunity in the school (Nel, 1993).
The researcher administered this instrument to a class of 40 undergraduate
students prior to the beginning of this research to establish test-retest reliability.
The test-retest results over a two week period yielded a coefficient of .67. This
coefficient is in the moderate range for attitude scales (Borg & Gall, 1989) and
may be due to the small number of items in the scale.

Hypotheses
There were five dependent variables investigated in this study: the
preservice teachers' cognitive attitudes towards racial diversity, their affective
attitudes towards racial diversity, their beliefs about diverse learners, their
attitudes towards teaching as a career and their perceived goals for

multicultural education. An appropriate alpha level (a=.05) was used to

determine whether any differences found in the means of the groups measured
were greater than by chance alone. The alpha level represents the risk of
mistakenly rejecting the null hypothesis and thus of committing a Type I error
(Cohen, 1992).

The following five null hypotheses were tested:
1. There will be no difference between the experimental and control groups on
general (cognitive) attitudes towards racial diversity as measured by factor one
of the Quick Discrimination Index.
2. There will be no difference between the experimental and control groups'
affective attitudes towards racial diversity as measured by factor two of the
Quick Discrimination Index.
3. There will be no difference between the experimental and control groups'







74
beliefs about teaching culturally diverse children as measured by the Beliefs
About Teaching instrument.
4. There will be no difference between the experimental and control groups'
attitudes towards teaching as a career as measured by the Teacher Attitudes
Survey.
5. There will be no difference between the experimental and control groups'
perceptions of the goals of multicultural education as measured by the Goals of
Multicultural Education survey.

Research Design and Data Analysis
The hypotheses were tested on the data derived from two groups
representing a nonequivalent control group design (Borg & Gall, 1989). This

design is considered quasi-experimental as subjects were not randomly
assigned to groups. The characteristics of this design are the administration of
a pretest and posttest to both the experimental and control groups as well as
the nonrandom assignment of subjects to groups. The pretest-posttest control
group design attempts to minimize threats to internal validity such as history,
maturation, testing, instrumentation, mortality, selection, and statistical
regression (Borg & Gall, 1989). The specific threats to internal validity that are
controlled for in a nonequivalent control group design are history, maturation,
testing, instrumentation, selection, and mortality (Lehman, 1996).
Four of the hypotheses in this study were tested utilizing an analysis of
covariance (ANCOVA). ANCOVA is a method of data analysis used to control
for any initial differences between groups (Borg & Gall, 1989). Since this
researcher utilized a nonequivalent control group design, ANCOVA was the
most appropriate statistical method to use to analyze the data. This involved









comparing the posttest means on each measure using the corresponding
pretest scores as a covariate. Adjusted posttest means were calculated to
compensate for differences on the pretest.
The purpose of the ANCOVA was to help the researcher decide whether
the observed differences between means may be due to chance or to
systematic differences among treatment populations (Shavelson, 1996).
ANCOVA was performed on the adjusted posttest means from each of the first
four instruments administered to the subjects. That is, there were four separate
ANCOVAS performed; one for each corresponding measurement instrument
administered to the participants.
Because the Goals of Multicultural Education survey uses an ordinal
scale, the chi-square test, a nonparametric test of significance was used to test
hypothesis 5. A chi-square test examines hypotheses on the association
between categorical variables. Goals 1 and 2 of this instrument focus on
helping diverse students fit into mainstream society (accommodation) as
compared to Goals 3-5 which indicate a desire to change societal conditions to
encompass diversity (Colville-Hall et al., 1995). Thus, goals 1 and 2 were
viewed as one category, and similarly, goals 3-5 were viewed as a second
category for the purposes of analyzing the data in this study.

Participant Training
The training procedures conducted with the preservice teacher mentors
to help prepare them for their mentoring experience and to assist them in
developing a positive relationship with their African American elementary
school student mentees are described in this section.
Each mentor was required to purchase a Bright Futures Handbook
explaining the purposes of the program, Bright Futures vocabulary, learning









center locations, directions, guidelines for developing relationships with
students, mentor responsibilities, paperwork responsibilities, content of a
mentoring session, developing activities around a theme, supplies and
resources, and sample lesson plans. Appendices to the handbook provided
additional resources for the mentors. These included a multicultural reading list
geared for elementary school students, D'Nealian handwriting models, various
materials that were on reserve in the University library, the Dolch Basic Sight
Word List, and forms for lesson plans, notes to parents and progress reports for

the mentees.
As noted, the preservice teacher mentors were enrolled in a required
one semester hour course taught by the Bright Futures project coordinator and
assisted by the researcher. Class time and reading assignments were
structured around multicultural issues as related to the Bright Futures mentoring
experience and ongoing support was provided the mentors throughout the
semester. Approximately one fourth (four hours) of the course time was used by
the researcher to provide the mentors with training in basic communications
skills and problem solving in order to help them establish and develop positive,
helping relationships with their African American mentees. Additionally, the
mentors participated in two, two hour orientation sessions designed to
familiarize them with the purpose and specific tasks of the forthcoming
mentoring experience. Their mentoring sessions occurred twice a week for one
hour per session over a ten week period for a total of 20 hours of contact.
Learning centers, located in each of five local housing projects, served as the
sites for the mentoring project and were supervised by site managers. The four
one hour communications skills training sessions were provided to the mentors
by the researcher. The training was conducted prior to the beginning of







77
mentoring with later followup. The Facilitative Model (Wittmer & Myrick, 1989,
Myrick, 1993) was used as the basis for training. This model incorporates core
helping skills and basic interpersonal concepts. Feeling focused responses to
students, summarizing and clarifying, asking open questions, giving
complimentary and confrontive feedback, acknowledging and linking
responses were presented, demonstrated and practiced (Appendices D and E).

The Systematic Problem Solving Model (Myrick, 1993) was also
introduced to the mentors for use with their mentees. The steps are as follows:
(a) What is the problem or situation? (b) What have you tried? (c) What else
could you do? (d) What is your next step? (p. 159-162). Although mentors
were not trained specifically as counselors, this paradigm was considered
helpful in their communication with their mentees. For example, if a mentee
was having difficulty completing school assignments or mentor-mentee
projects, the problem solving model was viewed as a productive method for the
mentor to talk to the mentee about the issue.
Two orientation sessions were conducted for the Bright Futures Mentors;
one occurred before mentoring began while the other was scheduled for the
week during which the mentors held their first meeting with their mentees. The
first orientation session was concerned with the "nuts and bolts" issues of the
mentoring program. That is, the contents of the Bright Futures handbook were
explained, program logistics were presented, and questions were answered.
Additionally, a presentation of "The Teacher as Facilitator" (Wittmer & Myrick,
1989) was given by the researcher including the characteristics of the
Facilitative Teacher, the basic needs of young children and how to
communicate effectively with them. Topics of conversation and activities to
share with the mentees were also presented and discussed (Appendix F).









The second orientation consisted of a panel presentation by former
mentors who shared their mentoring experiences with the new mentors. They
were asked to give examples of activities and projects they had used with their
students, talked about establishing a positive relationship with a mentee of a
different culture/race, and shared their reflections and feelings about their
involvement in the Bright Futures program. Additionally, the former mentors
answered questions and addressed concerns voiced by the mentors
participating in this study.

Procedure
This study was conducted during the 15 week Fall Semester, 1997.
Pretest instruments were administered to the experimental and control groups
during the first week of the semester in classes being taken by all of the
research participants. Thus a potential research problem of pretest sensitization
was minimized. Because the instruments were administered in a class other
than the required "Exploring Diversity" course, the questionnaires were not
associated with the intervention given to the experimental group.
Communications skills training was provided to the experimental group,
the Bright Futures mentors, in the previously described preprofessional course
during weeks three through six. The first orientation meeting was held for all
mentors during week three followed by a second meeting during week six.
Mentoring began at the learning centers during week six and continued for 10
consecutive weeks. Finally, the posttest instruments were administered during
the last week of the semester following the 10 week mentoring period.

Summary
In this chapter the researcher has described the population and sample,
the relevant variables, instrumentation, research design, data analysis, and the







79
hypotheses that were tested. Further, the Bright Futures mentoring program,
training procedures and sequence of events were described. The results of
testing the null hypotheses are presented in Chapter IV.













CHAPTER 1V
RESULTS
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a cross cultural
mentoring program and accompanying diversity/communications skills training

on the attitudes of preservice teachers towards racial diversity and multicultural
education. Specifically, the researcher examined the effects of the mentoring
program and skills training on the preservice teachers' cognitive and affective
attitudes and beliefs about minority groups and minority learners, their goals of
multicultural education, and their attitudes towards teaching as a career.

Data were completed on 193 preservice teachers enrolled in the
College of Education at the University of Florida, Gainesville, during the Fall
Semester, 1997. More specifically, there were 135 first semester elementary
education majors in the experimental group who participated in the cross
cultural mentoring project known as "Bright Futures". They received
diversity/communications skills training in a required preprofessional one
semester hour course entitled "Exploring Diversity". Fifty eight first semester
special education/unified early childhood majors served as the control group for
this study. They did not participate in the mentoring project nor did they receive
the diversity/communications skills training given the experimental group.
Participants in both the experimental and control groups completed all
measurement instruments at the beginning and at the end of the 15 week
semester in order to measure change in attitudes by group on the dependent
variables selected.









Because of the nonequivalent control group design of this study,
analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was the chosen method of data analysis. To
sharpen the assessment of experimental effects by removing the influence of
any preintervention variation, pretest scores were used as covariates in
computing analyses of covariance on the posttest scores for each measure.
Four separate analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were conducted, one
for each of the four dependent variables measured in the first four hypotheses
of this study. The experimental and control groups were examined on the
following variables: cognitive attitudes towards racial diversity, affective
attitudes towards racial diversity, beliefs about diverse learners, and attitudes
towards teaching as a career. Each hypothesis was stated in the null form and
was tested at the .05 level of significance.

"Goals of Multicultural Education," the survey used to measure the
dependent variable in hypothesis five, uses an ordinal scale of measurement.
Thus, the chi-Square test, a nonparametric test of significance, was applied to
the pretest and posttest. Hypothesis five was also tested at the .05 level of
significance.

The Results of Testing Hypothesis One
Hypothesis 1. There will be no difference between the experimental and
control groups on cognitive attitudes towards racial diversity as measured by
factor one of the Quick Discrimination Index (QDI).

Factor one of the QDI measures the cognitive component of attitudes
towards racial diversity and was the survey instrument used in conjunction with
hypothesis one. This instrument measures the beliefs that people hold
concerning the object of an attitude (Ponterotto et al., 1995). The instrument
itself when administered is titled "Social Attitude Survey." According to the









author, this controls for possible response bias which may result from the
connotation of the title "Quick Discrimination Index."

Factor one on the survey consists of nine items using a Likert-type scale
from one, "disagree strongly," to five, "agree strongly," with a possible range of 9
to 45. For example, one item asks for level of agreement to the statement, "I
think white people's racism toward racial minority groups still constitutes a
major problem in America." Another item asks the respondents for their level of

agreement on "I really think affirmative action programs on college campuses
constitute reverse discrimination." Items are framed in both negative and

positive directions. Before data analysis occurred, items written in the negative
were reversed for consistency and ease of interpretation. Higher scores
indicate more awareness, sensitivity, and receptivity to the cognitive component

of racial diversity.
Participants in both the experimental and control groups completed this
survey at the beginning and at the end of the 15 week treatment period in order
to measure change in group attitudes towards cognitive attitudes towards racial
diversity. Means and standard deviations were calculated on the protests and
posttests for both the experimental and control groups. Adjusted means were
computed for use in the final posttest score comparisons.
As illustrated in Table 4-1, members of the control group achieved a
pretest mean score of 30.07 with a standard deviation of 5.36, a posttest mean

score of 30.24 with a standard deviation of 5.98, and a posttest adjusted mean
score of 30.37. The range of scores on factor one for the control group was 20
to 44 on the pretest and 16 to 44 on the posttest. The experimental group
achieved a pretest mean score of 30.27 with a standard deviation of 5.34, a
posttest mean score of 31.56 with a standard deviation of 5.06, and a posttest







83
adjusted mean score of 31.54. The range of scores for the experimental group
was 16 to 44 on the pretest and 15 to 44 on the posttest. Analysis of covariance
yielded a significant difference (F= 4.64, p=.03) between the adjusted mean
posttest scores of the treatment group and the control group, supporting the
notion of a treatment effect. Therefore, the null hypothesis that there would be
no difference in cognitive attitudes towards racial diversity between the two
groups was rejected.


Table 4-1
Pretest-Posttest Mean Scores and Standard Deviations by Group
for Quick Discrimination Index-Factor one
QDI-1 Pretest Mean (s.d.) Posttest Mean (s.d) Ac
Experimental 30.27 (5.34) 31.56 (5.06) 31
(N=135)
Control 30.07 (5.36) 30.24 (5.98) 30
(N=58)


liusted Mean
.54


.37


F=4.64, p=.03


Results of Testing Hypothesis Two
Hypothesis 2. There will be no difference between the experimental and
control groups' affective attitudes towards more personal contact with racial
diversity as measured by factor two of the Quick Discrimination Index.
Factor two of the Quick Discrimination Index (QDI) was used to measure
the affective attitudes towards more personal contact with racial diversity in this
study. The index measures a respondent's feelings stimulated by an attitude
object (Ponterotto et al., 1995). Factor two of the QDI consists of seven items
using a Likert-type scale from one to five with a score range of 7 to 35. Higher









scores indicate more awareness, sensitivity, and receptivity to the affective
component of racial diversity. For example, one requests the respondents'
level of agreement to the statement, "I think it is (or would be) important for my
children to attend schools that are racially mixed." Another item asks for level of
agreement on, "If I were to adopt a child, I would be happy to adopt a child of
any race." As with factor one, items are framed in both positive and negative
directions and those items written in the negative were reverse scored prior to
conducting data analysis. Means and standard deviations were calculated on
the protests and posttests for the experimental and control groups. Adjusted
means were computed to use in the final posttest score comparisons.

In checking the assumption of homogeneity of regression slopes for
ANCOVA, a significant interaction (F=4.73, p=.03) between the pretest and the
treatment was found. Adjusting for pretest differences, the control group in this
study had relatively lower adjusted posttest scores than did the experimental
group on the lower end of the QDI factor 2 range. However, the control group
was found to have relatively higher adjusted posttest scores than did the
experimental group on the higher end of the QDI factor 2 range. According to
Shavelson (1996), when an interaction occurs, attention should focus on this
interaction rather than comparing group means. Because the regression
slopes for the two groups were not homogeneous, it would be inappropriate to
interpret the F statistic and corresponding p value. As shown in Table 4-2,
preservice teachers in the control group achieved a pretest mean score of
24.10 with a standard deviation of 4.56, a posttest mean score of 24.02 with a
standard deviation of 4.85, and a posttest adjusted mean score of 23.81 on
factor two of the QDI. The range of scores for the control group on factor two
was 14 to 35 on the pretest and 13 to 35 on the posttest.









The experimental group had a mean pretest score of 23.79 with a
standard deviation of 5.44, a posttest mean score of 23.70 with a standard

deviation of 4.89, and a posttest adjusted mean score of 23.76. The range of
scores for the experimental group was 11 to 35 on the pretest and 12 to 35 on
the posttest. Both groups showed a slight decrease in their respective mean
scores over the course of the fifteen week period.


Table 4-2
Pretest-Posttest Mean Scores and Standard Deviations by Group
for Quick Discrimination Index-Factor two
QDI-2 Pretest Mean (s.d.) Posttest Mean (s.d.) Ac
Experimental 23.79 (5.44) 23.70 (4.89) 23.
(N=135)
Control 24.10 (4.56) 24.02 (4.85) 23.
(N=58)


ljusted Mean

76


81


Results of Testing Hypothesis Three
Hypothesis 3. There will be no difference between the experimental and
control groups' beliefs about teaching culturally diverse children as measured
by the Beliefs About Teaching instrument.
Beliefs About Teaching is an instrument which measures one's beliefs
about teaching minority and at-risk students and was administered to all the
participants in this study. The scale consists of six items scored by using a
Likert-type scale ranging from 1, agree strongly, to 5, disagree strongly. For
example, one item asks for level of agreement to the statement, "An important
job for teachers working with diverse children is to make up for the deficits in the
children's academic background." Another item asks the respondent his/her







86
rate of agreement to "In our system of equal educational opportunity, any child
who applies himself/herself has a good chance of succeeding in school."
Possible scores range from 5 to 30, with lower scores indicating greater
influence and responsibility of schools and teachers on student achievement.
Some items on the Beliefs About Teaching instrument are reverse worded and
scored to reduce response bias and such scoring was done prior to analyzing
the data. Means and standard deviations were calculated on the protests and
posttests for the experimental and control groups. Adjusted means were
computed to use in the final posttest score comparisons.
As illustrated in Table 4-3, students in the control group achieved a
pretest mean score of 13.55 with a standard deviation of 2.50, a posttest mean
score of 14.41 with a standard deviation of 2.28, and a posttest adjusted mean
score of 14.58. The range of scores for the control group was 6 to 20 on the
pretest and 10 to 20 on the posttest. The experimental group attained a pretest
mean score of 14.47 with a standard deviation of 2.64, a posttest mean score of
14.62 with a standard deviation of 2.30, and a posttest adjusted mean score of
14.51. The range of scores was 6 to 22 on the pretest and 9 to 23 on the
posttest. Analysis of covariance did not yield a significant difference (F=.20,

2=.65) between the adjusted mean posttest scores of the experimental and the
control groups. Therefore, the null hypothesis that there would be no difference
in attitudes towards teaching culturally diverse children between the two groups
participating in this study was not rejected.









Table 4-3
Pretest-Posttest Mean Scores and Standard Deviations
by Group for Beliefs About Teaching

BAT Pretest Mean (s.d.) Posttest Mean (s.d.) Adjusted Mean
Experimental 14.47 (2.64) 14.62 (2.30) 14.51
(N=135)
Control 13.55(2.50) 14.41 (2.28) 14.58
(N=58)


F=.20, p=.65




The Results of Testing Hypothesis Four
Hypothesis 4. There will be no difference between the experimental and
control groups' attitudes towards teaching as a career as measured by the
Teacher Attitudes Survey.

The Teacher Attitudes Survey measures respondents' attitudes towards
teaching as a choice of profession and was used in conjunction with hypothesis
four. More specifically, this survey instrument, when used in repeated
measures, detects a respondent's change in attitude over time. It should be
acknowledged that, simply as a result of university experience, preservice
teachers may modify their feelings about teaching as a career choice (Merwin &
Divesta, 1959; Potthoff & Kline, 1995).
The Teacher Attitudes Survey consists of 11 items which asked the
respondents for their degree of agreement on a Likert-type scale from one to six
with "one" corresponding with "strongly disagree" and "six" indicating "strongly







88
agree." The total score ranges between 11 and 66. Higher scores indicate a
higher degree of acceptance of, and satisfaction with, teaching as a profession.
For example, one item asks for the respondent's level of agreement with the
statement, "Teaching is about the best job I can think of..." Another item states,
"There are more advantages than disadvantages to teaching as a career."

Some items on this survey are framed in a positive direction while others
are framed negatively to avoid response bias. Those written in the negative
frame were reverse scored by the researcher prior to totaling the numbers and

analyzing the data. Means and standard deviations were calculated on the
protests and posttests for the experimental and control groups. Adjusted means
were computed to use in the final posttest score comparisons.

As illustrated in Table 4-4, preservice teachers in the control group
achieved a pretest mean score of 54.40 with a standard deviation of 5.49, a
posttest mean score of 53.55 with a standard deviation of 5.56, and a posttest
adjusted mean score of 53.61. The range of scores for the control group was
43 to 63 on the pretest and 39 to 64 on the posttest. The experimental group
attained a pretest mean score of 54.05 with a standard deviation of 6.07, a
posttest mean score of 52.67 with a standard deviation of 6.44, and a posttest
adjusted mean of 52.91. The range for the pretest was 19 to 66 and for the
posttest was 24 to 64. Both groups showed a slight decrease in their mean
score over the course of the semester. Analysis of covariance did not yield a
significant difference (F=.68, p=.41) between the posttest adjusted mean scores
of the experimental and control groups and hypothesis four could not be
rejected.









Table 4-4
Pretest-Posttest Mean Scores and Standard Deviations
by Group for Teacher Attitudes Survey

TAS Pretest Mean (s. d) Posttest Mean (s. d.) Adjusted Mean
Experimental 54.05 (6.07) 52.67 (6.44) 52.91
(N=135)
Control 54.40(5.49) 53.55 (5.56) 53.61
(N=58)


F=68, L=.41


Results of Testing Hypothesis Five
Hypothesis 5. There will be no difference between the experimental and
control groups' perceptions of the goals of multicultural education as measured

by the Goals of Multicultural Education survey.
The Goals of Multicultural Education survey was given to both the
experimental and control group participants. The survey consists of five
possible stated goals of multicultural education and represents a rewording of
Sleeter and Grant's (1994) approaches to multicultural education. The
participating preservice teachers were asked, "If you could only teach one of
the goals listed below, which one would you select?" The following choices are
presented in the survey: (Haberman & Post, 1990)
1. Children/youth would learn that all people are individuals---distinctive
personalities---regardless of their backgrounds.
2. Children/youth would learn that we all have to learn to live together in this
world regardless of any group differences. Cooperation and tolerance are

vital.







90
3. Children/youth would learn that every person came from some ethnic group
and all groups are equally fine.
4. Children/youth would learn that the U. S. is made up of many racial, ethnic,
and religious groups and each must be protected and enhanced.
5. Children/youth would learn that we all have a responsibility to change the

discrimination and prejudice in our society against certain groups.
Several researchers, as cited in Chapter II, have used this survey to
examine teacher education students' perceptions of, and appreciation for, the
purposes of multicultural education. Further, using a pre-post test, change in
such perceptions over time can be measured. Goals 1 and 2 of this instrument
focus on helping diverse students fit into mainstream society (accommodation)
as compared to Goals 3-5 which measures one's desire to change societal
conditions to encompass diversity (Colville-Hall et al., 1995). That is,
movement from the lower goals (1 and 2) towards the higher three goals is
viewed as a shift in thinking from a status quo position towards a more activist

stance with regard to social structural equality and equal opportunity in school
(Nel, 1993).
As noted, because the Goals of Multicultural Education uses an ordinal
scale of measurement, the chi-square test, a nonparametric test of significance,
was applied to the pretest and posttest of both groups participating in this study.
Chi-square tests are used with frequency data and test the null hypothesis that
two variables are independent of one another in a given population
(Shavelson, 1996).
Numbers of those preservice teachers in each of the experimental and
control groups who selected the category of goals 1 and 2 were grouped
together (category 1) as were the number of preservice teachers in each of the








experimental and control groups who selected the category of goals 3-5
(category 2). The hypothesis was tested at the .05 level of significance.
As is shown in Table 4-5, 39 participants in the control group (67.24%)
selected the lower level goals 1 and 2 while 19 (32.76%) selected the higher
level goals 3-5 on the pretest. Ninety seven (71.85%) of the participants in the
experimental group chose goals 1 and 2, while 38 (28.15%) chose goals 3-5.

Chi-square analysis did not yield a significant difference (X2= .41, 2=.52)

between the two groups on the pretest.
As displayed in Table 4-6, on the posttest, 39 members of the control
group (67.24%) selected goals 1 or 2, while 19 (32.76%) selected goals 3, 4 or
5. Seventy two (53.33%) members of the experimental group chose goals 1 or
2, while 63 (46.67%) chose goals 3, 4 or 5. Chi-square analysis did not reveal

a significant relationship (X2 = 3.21, p =.07) between the experimental and

control groups' scores on the posttest. Therefore, the null hypothesis that there
would be no difference in the perceptions of the goal of multicultural education
between the two groups participating in this study was not rejected.
Although the results of the chi-square test did not reveal significant
differences between the experimental and control groups on either the pretest
or posttest, it is interesting to observe the shift in the experimental group from
prettest to posttest from goals 1-2 to goals 3-5. While the control group was
unchanged in numbers from the pretest condition to the posttest, the
experimental group experienced a positive shift of 25 students from the lower
level goals to the higher level goals from the pretest to the posttest. Further, the

p value decreased from .52 in the pretest to .07 in the posttest, approaching the
.05 level of significance set for the analysis.









Table 4-5.
Pretest Numbers of Participants by Group and Category
for Goals of Multicultural Education (GME)
GME Goals 1-2 (Category 1) Goals 3-5 (Category 2)
Control 39 19
(N=58) (67.24%) (32.76%)
Experimental 97 38
(N=135) (71.85%) (28.15%)


X2=.41, P=.52


Table 4-6
Posttest Numbers of Participants by Group and Category
for Goals of Multicultural Education (GME)
GME Goals 1-2 (Category 1) Goals 3-5 (Category 2)
Control 39 19
(N=58) (67.24%) (32.76%)
Experimental 72 63
(N=135) (53.33%) (46.67%)


X2=3.21, P=.07


Summary
The analysis of the data on the Quick Discrimination Index-Factor one,
concerning cognitive attitudes towards racial diversity, revealed a significant
difference in the adjusted mean posttest scores of the experimental and control
groups participating in this study. The experimental group had a higher score,









indicating a higher degree of awareness, receptivity and sensitivity to the
cognitive component of racial diversity. Hypothesis one was rejected.
In checking the assumption of the homogeneity of regression slopes
between the experimental and control groups for the Quick Discrimination
Index-Factor two, a significant interaction was found. Adjusting for pretest
differences, the control group had relatively lower adjusted posttest scores than
did the experimental group on the lower end of the scale, but higher adjusted
posttest scores on the higher end of the scale. Thus attention was focused on
this interaction. It was not appropriate to interpret the F statistic and
accompanying p value.
No significant differences were found between groups on adjusted
posttest means on either the Beliefs About Teaching or Teacher Attitude
Surveys and hypotheses three and four were not rejected.

Chi-square tests on both the pretest and posttest administrations of the
Goals of Multicultural Education revealed no significant differences between
groups and selection of the goals. However, although there was no change in
the control groups' goals from pretest to posttest, there was a shift of twenty five
students in the experimental group from the lower level goals to the higher level
goals, indicating a change of perception in the positive direction for that number

of students.
Discussion of conclusions, implications, recommendations and
limitations of the study are presented in Chapter V.




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THE EFFECTS OF A CROSS CULTURAL MENTORING PROGRAM AND
DIVERSITY TRAINING ON PRESERVICE TEACHERS'
ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS REGARDING DIVERSE STUDENTS
By
MARY ANITA CLARK
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1998

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
With gratitude and appreciation, I would like to acknowledge the people
who have contributed to the completion of my dissertation.
My doctoral committee chairperson, Dr. Joe Wittmer, has provided
leadership, guidance, editing skills, and “timely reassurance” over the course of
the dissertation process. His support and listening ear have been so important
throughout my doctoral program.
Dr. Robert Myrick, a committee member, mentor and supervisor has
given me encouragement, words of wisdom, and confirmation ever since I first
enrolled in the Counselor Education program. His friendship, inspiration and
time have been invaluable to me.
My committee members, Dr. Silvia Rafuls and Dr. Jin-Wen Hsu, have
provided valuable suggestions for the development and completion of this
dissertation. I have truly appreciated their receptivity and their important
contributions.
I would like to thank Dr. Max Parker for his pointers and leads
concerning instruments to be used in my dissertation and people to contact
concerning their use. Some of his research interests are similar to my
dissertation topic, and I acknowledge with gratitude his recommendations.
Dr. Elizabeth Bondy, the Coordinator of Bright Futures, has been a
wonderful friend and mentor. She has embraced my ideas and allowed me to
present my intervention to her preservice teachers. Her sense of humor and fun
ii

have been so important to me through the dissertation process. I look forward
to working with her in the future.
Finally, I would like to thank my family members for their unfailing
support throughout the dissertation process. My husband, John, and son,
Christopher, have shown patience and strong faith in me, and their love has
helped me keep things in perspective when the "going got tough.” My parents,
Mary Secrest English and William Hutton English, who have always
encouraged me in my pursuit of education and life goals, would be very proud if
they could have been a part of this process. I acknowledge with love and
gratitude their lifelong support and belief in me.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii
ABSTRACT vi
CHAPTERS
I INTRODUCTION 1
Scope of the Problem 2
Purpose of the Study 5
Statement of the Problem 7
Need for the Study 11
Theoretical Bases for the Study 14
Definition of Terms 24
Organization of the Remainder of the Dissertation
II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 27
Multicultural Education for Preservice Teachers 27
Preservice Teacher Preparation for Diversity 38
Teachers’ Attitudes and Beliefs about Diversity 46
Educator Interventions for Positive
Intergroup Relations 56
Summary 61
III METHODS AND PROCEDURES 62
Population 62
Relevant Variables 66
Instruments 68
Hypotheses 73
Research Design and Data Analysis 74
Participant Training 75
Procedure 78
Summary 78
IV

IV RESULTS
80
Results of Testing Hypothesis One 81
Results of Testing Hypothesis Two 83
Results of Testing Hypothesis Three 85
Results of Testing Hypothesis Four 87
Results of Testing Hypothesis Five 89
Summary 92
V. SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS,
LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 94
Summary 94
Discussion 97
Results of a Post Treatment Questionnaire 100
Implications 104
Limitations 109
Recommendations 110
Conclusion 111
APPENDICES 113
A SYLLABUS FOR “EXPLORING DIVERSITY” 113
B GUIDELINES FOR BRIGHT FUTURES MENTORS 116
C BRIGHT FUTURES FORMS 125
D THE FACILITATIVE MODEL:
ESTABLISHING RELATIONSHIPS 129
E SKILLS PRACTICE ACTIVITY 131
F TALKING TO YOUNG CHILDREN
(TOPICS AND ACTIVITIES) 132
G INSTRUMENTS 133
H BRIGHT FUTURES QUESTIONNAIRE 140
I INFORMED CONSENT LETTER 144
REFERENCES 146
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 157
v

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE EFFECTS OF A CROSS CULTURAL MENTORING PROGRAM AND
DIVERSITY TRAINING ON PRESERVICE TEACHERS’
ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS REGARDING DIVERSE STUDENTS
By
MARY ANITA CLARK
August, 1998
Chairperson: Dr. P. Joseph Wittmer
Major Department: Counselor Education
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a cross cultural
mentoring program in conjunction with diversity and communications training
on the attitudes of preservice teachers towards racial diversity and multicultural
education. Specifically, changes in preservice teachers’ cognitive and affective
attitudes towards racial diversity, their beliefs about minority learners, their
goals of multicultural education, and their attitudes towards teaching as a
career were examined.
A pretest posttest nonequivalent control group design was used with 193
first year preservice teachers enrolled in the College of Education at the
University of Florida, Gainesville, during the fall semester, 1997. The
experimental group consisted of 135 first semester elementary education
VI

majors who participated in the cross cultural mentoring program known as
“Bright Futures.” They received diversity/communications skills training in a
required one semester hour preprofessional course entitled, “Exploring
Diversity.” Fifty-eight first semester special education/unified early childhood
majors served as the control group and did not participate in the mentoring
project or the diversity/communications training.
Participants in both groups completed all measurement instruments at
the beginning and at the end of the 15 week semester in order to measure
change in attitudes by group on the dependent variables. Data were analyzed
using analysis of covariance for the first four dependent variables and chi-
square tests on the last dependent variable. Five null hypotheses were tested
at the .05 level of significance.
A significant difference (p=.03) was found between the two groups on
adjusted mean posttest scores on cognitive attitudes towards racial diversity.
The experimental group had a higher score, indicating a higher degree of
awareness, receptivity, and sensitivity to the cognitive component of racial
diversity.
No significant differences in adjusted posttest mean scores were found
between groups on affective attitudes towards racial diversity, beliefs about
teaching diverse learners, and attitudes towards teaching as a career. Chi-
square tests on the pretest and posttest administrations of the Goals of
Multicultural Education did not reveal significant differences between groups.
An evaluative questionnaire administered to the experimental group
indicated that the intervention had merit with regard to fostering positive
attitudes towards working with diverse students.
vii

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The education of minority and/or lower socioeconomic children
continues to be an ongoing concern, not only to educators, but to the American
society in general. Recent demographic projections indicate that this segment
of the population is expected to increase dramatically into the next century
(Gay, 1993; Stoddert, 1993; Breault, 1995). Statistics concerning at risk youth,
increasing violence and criminal activity among juveniles and an increasing
gap between the “haves” and the “have nots" have become important political
and economic issues with regard to the well being of our country. American
students’ underachievement academically has also become an urgent
international issue as cross-cultural comparisons have caused us to question
our country’s ability to compete on a global scale.
These are pressing issues for our educational system as well as our
society as a whole. Because so many citizens have concerns about the future of
our society, there are a growing number of community projects springing up
around the country to facilitate the education and development of our “at risk"
youth (Campbell-Whatley, Algozzine, & Obiakor, 1997). One such initiative is
mentoring programs for these youth which are emerging from the business
community as well as from educational institutions. They are being developed
in order to establish relationships with young people and to offer assistance
and incentives encouraging them to set and achieve short as well as long term
goals . The popular media is replete with stories of such volunteer efforts
nationwide (Schnurnberger, 1997). In addition, writers in scholarly journals cite
1

2
the importance of resilience and the role of significant adults in the successful
development of young people considered to be “at risk" (Barbarin, 1993;
Connell, Spencer & Aber, 1994).
Picture the following classroom of 26 students (13 girls and 13 boys):
Three are Chinese, two are Korean, one is Arabic, five are from Eastern
European countries, seven are African American, three are Hispanic, and five
are “American born Caucasians.” Approximately 75% are on a free or reduced
price lunch. Their academic skills vary widely, partly because of their poor
command of English. Eleven speak a primary language other than English, two
students receive speech therapy, and several have been identified as learning
disabled. A number of the students come from single parent homes. Further,
some of the student population shifts through the year as students and their
families move to other locales. The student intern assigned to this actual
elementary classroom in Gainesville, Florida is blonde haired, blue eyed, and
has not lived outside the state of Florida. Although she has a very positive
attitude toward her teaching career and embraces the ideals of multicultural
education, a large challenge looms ahead for this teacher.
Scope of the Problem
Changing Demographic Patterns of American Students
The changing demographics of the United States are transforming the
country into one in which a majority of its citizens are members of a variety of
minority groups. The Census Bureau projects that by the year 2050, the U.S.
population could increase by one-half, with 47% of the population being non¬
white (Gay, 1993). Other projections indicate that within 25 years, only one in
two school children will be Anglo (Breault, 1995). The percentage of students
of color in U. S. schools has increased dramatically in the past quarter of a

3
century and they now compose 30% of the total population in elementary and
secondary schools. The National Center for Educational Statistics (1992)
reported that 15% of public school children are African-American, 10% are
Hispanic, and 3% Asian. Although this trend is not evenly distributed
throughout the country, it has been evidenced in all school districts. In at least
18 states and in Washington, D. C., between 30% and 96% of the public school
students in grades K-12 are children of color (Gay, 1993). In the nation's 15
largest school systems, minority enrollments range from 70%-96% (Olsen,
1988, as cited in Ross & Smith, 1992). By the year 2010, children of color will
constitute the majority in the states of California, Texas, Florida, Arizona, and
New Mexico (Bassey, 1996).
Two major factors contribute to the increasing number of culturally
diverse public school students in our country. The youth of the minority groups
along with their higher birthrates, coupled with increased immigration from non¬
white, non-Western countries in Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America, Africa and
the Middle East are drastically changing the population patterns in the United
States. By the beginning of the current decade, proportionately more
Hispanics and African-Americans were 18 years of age or younger than were
Anglos. This statistic has implications for future population growth as well since
a greater proportion of the population of these groups were within prime
childbearing years, and were having larger numbers of children per family unit
(The Condition of Education, 1992).
The socioeconomic status of these minority group members tends to be
lower than average and the poverty level is increasing among today's students.
The U. S. Department of Commerce Bureau of the Census (Statistical Abstract
of the United States, 1996) reports that almost 15 million children—21.2 % of

4
all children under the age of 18— live below the poverty level. Approximately
5 million of these children are black, representing 43.3 % of that population,
and 4 million are Hispanic, or 41.1% of that group. The percentages of all three
of these groups falling below the poverty level has increased since 1970.
Teacher Demographics
In contrast to above statistics concerning children, teachers in the
United States traditionally have been white, middle class females and current
data reveals little change in these statistics. That is, the ethnic and economic
composition of the nation's teaching force has remained relatively stable.
Teachers are a homogeneous group and are predominantly from middle
socioeconomic European-American descent. Furthermore, they tend to attend
colleges near where they grew up and tend to teach in the same region
(Breault, 1995). That is, there is little mobility in the teaching profession and the
average teacher age is increasing with a current mean age of 42 years.
Teachers in U. S. public elementary and secondary schools in 1993-94
consisted of 73% women and 87% white non-Hispanics (National Center for
Educational Statistics, 1996b).
Ethnic minorities now compose less than 15% of the teaching force and
less than 12% of the administrators in United States schools. Only around 7%
of all K-12 public school teachers are African-American, 4% are Hispanic, and
1.9% are from other minorities (National Center for Educational Statistics,
1996a). The percentages for public school and central office administrators
are very similar (Gay, 1993).
In sum, there is a large contrast between the ethnic and socioeconomic
backgrounds of teachers and the students they teach and the division is

5
growing wider. In larger, urban school systems teachers are more likely to live
outside the district boundaries, giving them even less in common with their
students. Additionally, the gap in educational levels is increasing between
teachers and students. Teachers are achieving higher levels of education with
5 year programs and master’s degrees becoming more common, while children
of color and poverty are achieving lower levels of educational attainment (Gay,
1993). The life experiences, values and perspectives of these middle class,
highly educated mid-life teachers from suburban communities are in stark
contrast to those of many of their students who are poor, and represent ethnic
and racial minorities living in urban areas. Experts agree that establishing
meaningful connections between teachers and the students in their classrooms
is essential for the mission of education to be successful. However, the
disparity between students’ level of education, ethnic composition and
socioeconomic status, and that of their teachers is making this mission more
and more difficult. This problem is a major focus of this study.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a cross cultural
mentoring program and accompanying diversity/communications skills training
on the attitudes of preservice teachers towards racial diversity and multicultural
education. Specifically, the researcher, examined the effects of the mentoring
program and skills training on the preservice teachers’ cognitive and affective
attitudes and beliefs about minority groups and minority learners, their goals of
multicultural education, and their attitudes towards teaching as a career.
More specifically, the researcher attempted to answer the research
questions as given below.
1. What would be the effect of a mentoring experience with African American

6
public school students in conjunction with exploring diversity/communications
training on the cognitive and affective attitudes of preservice teachers
concerning racial diversity (multiculturalism?)
2. Would a mentoring experience with African American public school students
accompanied by exploring diversity/communications training influence
preservice teachers’ stated beliefs about poor and minority learners?
3. What would be the effect of exploring diversity/communications training in
conjunction with a mentoring experience with African American students on
changing the attitudes of preservice teachers towards teaching as a career?
Would this intervention serve to encourage or discourage preservice teachers
from pursuing teaching as a career?
4. Would a mentoring experience with African American students in
conjunction with exploring diversity/communications training change preservice
teachers’ perceptions of the goals of multicultural education? That is, would
such an intervention influence the manner in which preservice teachers view
their role in multicultural education?
Counselors and Cultural Diversity
Counselor educators and scholars, in a consultative and training
capacity, can work with counselors, teachers and teacher educators as well as
preservice educators to promote academic, career, and personal-social
development within the context of diverse cultural realities (Lee, 1995).
Experts agree that school counselors and other educators can and should be
leaders and role models for students and others in society with regard to
racial/ethnic tolerance and the reduction and prevention of prejudiced attitudes.
School counselors can have a powerful impact on human relations training in
general, and in race relations specifically. They can work in a number of

7
capacities including individual and large and small group work as well as
consultation and coordination (Myrick, 1993). With increased multicultural
training these particular specifically trained educators have the potential to
impact the status of race relations significantly (Ponterotto & Pedersen, 1993;
Lee, 1995). In a developmental guidance and counseling program, counselors
as consultants can help teachers and other school personnel reach students as
part of the total educational process (Myrick, 1993; Wittmer, 1992; Lee, 1995).
Thus, through direct as well as indirect services, counselors have the capacity
to effect positive change in the attitudes of children and adults in the schools.
Statement of the Problem
There has been a long history of discrepancy between the academic
achievement of mainstream students and that of ethnic minority students. A
variety of reforms over the past several decades such as preschool
compensatory programs, bilingual education, and remedial education have not
been successful in narrowing this gap (Cummins, 1986 as cited in Nel, 1995).
Although high school dropout rates have decreased dramatically overall during
the past generation, from 27.2% for all races in 1960 to 12.0% for all races in
1995 ( National Center for Educational Statistics, 1996), there are pockets
among the United States population where dropout rates continue to be a huge
concern to educators and society at large. These pockets are usually found in
large, urban areas where crime and poverty are also immense concerns.
African Americans represent the largest culturally diverse group in the
United States, and the statistics indicate a high risk factor for the well being of
the African American youth population. Economic hardships and the
psychological and physiological burden of oppression have disadvantaged this
population, adding significant obstacles to their successful educational, social

8
and personal development. (Campbell-Whatley et al., 1997). At the present
time, the end of affirmative action policies with regard to university admissions
in the states of California and Texas is resulting in drastically reduced numbers
of admissions for black students in law schools. Similar patterns are expected
to emerge when admissions for other graduate programs are announced in the
near future. If other states follow this trend, the “growth of a vibrant minority
middle class could be cruelly reversed” (Gergen,1997). Thus, even the
opportunities for higher education for minority individuals that have developed
over the past generation may diminish greatly. As of this writing, a high school
student in the state of Mississippi is challenging a suburban public school’s
policy of maintaining racially separate student elections (’’Student challenges
policy,” 1997). The school, since being desegregated in 1970, has
simultaneously had black and white principals, as well as “senior superlatives"
and homecoming queens. A recent Gallup poll (Jerding, 1997) indicates that
although more whites than ever are showing greater racial acceptance, there is
a large gap between blacks and whites in their perceptions of how blacks are
treated. That is, whites are more positive about what has happened to blacks
than are blacks. They perceive fewer race problems, less discrimination and
prejudice, and greater opportunities for blacks than blacks see for themselves.
Specifically, although African American youth accounted for about 15%
of the adolescent population in the late 1980s, they accounted for 50% of
arrests for murder, 25% of arrests for crimes against property and 66% of arrest
of youth for rape (Myers, 1989 as cited in Barbarin, 1993). When compared
with the Anglo-American adolescent male population, African American male
adolescents have been found to be at much greater risk in terms of criminality
and death rates (Campbell-Whatley et al., 1997). Data from the 1985

9
Children’s Defense Fund report and the 1985 Urban League’s State of Black
Americans Report, indicates that African American children and youths of the
urban underclass have a greater chance of exhibiting a myriad of social and
mental health problems such as poor school performance, school dropout, teen
parenthood, and involvement in gangs, violence, and substance abuse than do
mainstream white youth (Myers, 1989).
Barbarin and Soler (1993), in studying the behavioral, emotional, and
academic adjustment in a national sample of African American children as
perceived by their parents, found that symptoms comprising an agitation
syndrome (restlessness, anxiety, and poor concentration) were most frequently
reported. Irrespective of age, boys were more likely to exhibit adjustment
problems than were girls. When asked to indicate existing problems, parents
described young African American males as often hyperactive and agitated,
unable to sit still, concentrate, control their tempers and avoid arguments. Such
symptoms appeared to remain high among adolescents. Other studies have
demonstrated that African American children from poor communities showed
depression levels equivalent to those for children and adolescents hospitalized
for clinical depression (Barbarin, 1993b). African American children as a group,
and particularly boys, experience discontinuity in educational attainment and
school adjustment usually beginning during the fourth or fifth grade. African
American males who had previously performed at grade level or above,
dropped below grade level in reading and math; girls showed a similar decline
but it occurred much later at around ages 15-16 (Barbarin, 1993a). Results
included underachievement, low self-esteem and morale, loss of vocational
goals, disinterest in education, and an increasingly oppositional attitude

10
towards the school system. Such problems obviously pose daunting
challenges for educators.
As noted, the contrast between the profile of public school teachers
today and demographics of the student populations in the schools in which they
teach is sharp. Experts today maintain that teacher educators must help
students recognize what teaching such a diverse population involves, help their
students develop positive attitudes and commitment towards teaching, and to
recognize and combat inequities in access to knowledge and power (Ross and
Smith, 1992). Training of future teachers should make teachers more
knowledgeable about others, allow them to understand more about various
cultures in their schools, as well as to assist them in critically examining their
own beliefs, values and prejudices (Barrett, 1993). Further, preservice
teachers should develop skills needed to establish empowering rather than
disabling interactions with their minority students (Nel, 1993).
The concept of teacher as cultural broker is recognized widely in the
teacher education literature. A cultural broker is one who understands and can
negotiate different cultures and thus can facilitate the instructional process
effectively. The necessary skills include acquiring cultural knowledge,
becoming change agents, and translating such knowledge into pedagogical
strategies (Gay, 1993).
The literature on multicultural teacher education includes a small but
increasing number of studies of practices used to prepare preservice teachers
to effectively teach diverse students (Bondy & Davis, 1997). The use of
fieldwork in which preservice teachers are given an opportunity to gain
experience with people and communities different from themselves is a practice
in which there is considerable interest. In a review of “best practices" in teacher

11
preparation for multicultural education, Grant (1994) was able to identify only
44 research studies representing 3.6% of the 1200 institutions of higher
education which train teachers. He concluded:
Preservice programs that have multicultural education infused
throughout, that also include a field experience where student teachers
are immersed, and where they live in a culturally diverse community offer
a strong possibility for successfully preparing teachers to work in urban
schools or to teach students of color. Providing preservice teachers with
experiences in culturally diverse communities is important to help them
understand the total student and to put curriculum and instruction in a
context familiar to students, (p.13)
Although extensive field experiences are being used in some teacher
education programs, little is known about how education students experience
them and even less is known about the long term impact (Bondy & Davis,
1997). Clearly research needs to be conducted that will examine the effects of
particular types of field experiences on preservice teachers’ attitudes towards
diverse populations of children, as well as how such experiences affect their
attitudes towards teaching in general. These issues are addressed in the
current study.
Need for the Study
Helping students succeed in school and life in general should be the
number one goal of educators at all levels. Unfortunately, school failure is an
immense problem in our society and it occurs at a higher rate for minority
groups, especially those who are poor. And as previously noted, the disparity
in academic achievement between majority and minority students is well
documented. Minorities are less represented in math and science, achieve at
lower levels in a number of academic areas and are less likely to choose
courses and careers in nontraditional fields. African American and Hispanic

12
students demonstrate lower achievement and higher dropout rates than do
white students (Avery & Walker, 1993).
Teachers often enter the field of education with preconceptions or
negative expectations regarding their future students which according to a
number of researchers might affect the quality of education their students
receive (Wolffe, 1996). Some teachers may not acknowledge or comprehend
that, while minority and poor students may have the potential to succeed in
school, many have not been given opportunities to develop their academic and
social skills. Research has indicated that educators who are not sensitive to the
needs of minority students often are unaware of the cultural conflicts which
cause barriers in the learning processes of these students which may possibly
result in their underachievement (Larke, 1990). Conversely, researchers have
shown that a high correlation exists among educators’ sensitivity, knowledge
and application of cultural awareness information and the successful academic
performance of their minority students (Sleeter & Grant, 1994). Stoddert (1993),
in a study on recruiting teachers of nontraditional ages and backgrounds,
found that:
Teachers’ dispositions toward the students they are teaching exert a
powerful influence on their teaching practices. Teachers who feel
different from their students and who negatively evaluate that difference
are unlikely to develop or use culturally sensitive curriculum or
instructional practices. In contrast, teachers who feel comfortable in
urban multicultural environments appear to be much more supportive of
and sensitive to the needs of inner-city students, (p. 47)
It is implied in the literature that appropriate training of preservice teachers in
cross cultural experiences can have positive results. Some studies show that
such teachers feel more comfortable discussing racial issues, maintain
associations reflecting racial and ethnic openness, believe they have

13
the necessary training to teach in a culturally diverse setting and are likely to
encourage a variety of viewpoints among their students (Cooper, Beare &
Thurman, 1990; Larke, 1990; Mahan & Stachowski, 1990; as cited in Bassey,
1996). Also, such appropriately trained teachers may be more likely to believe
that minority students have strengths that can be built on by teachers (Larke,
Wiseman & Bradley, 1990).
Other studies indicate that there is often a resistance to change in racial
attitudes on the part of white education students and teachers. Haberman and
Post (1992), in a study of 23 white, female sophomores in teacher education
programs who participated in a summer field experience with low income
minority children, found that students generally use direct experiences to
selectively perceive and reinforce their initial preconceptions. Sleeter (1993), in
a similar line of reasoning, writes of the need of most white teachers to select
information and teaching strategies to add to a framework for understanding
race that they have taken for granted. Although believing that whites are
educable regarding understanding of race, she recognizes the strength of their
resistance to change. Haberman writes:
Without in-depth conferences, discussions, and debriefing of each
student’s direct experiences, his/her perceptions will be self-fulfilling.
Positive predispositions will be reinforced through selective perception.
Similarly, negative preconceptions will be supported (p. 30).
Haberman recommends that follow-up studies should focus on treatments used
by teacher educators to intervene and directly influence preservice teachers’
perceptions. Thus, Haberman contends that direct experiences between
preservice teachers and students from differing cultures are not enough to
change attitudes; they must be accompanied by ongoing discussions/dialogues
concerning the preservice teachers’ observations.

14
In summary, the use of early direct experience in the multicultural
education of preservice teachers in an effort to help them develop the
knowledge, attitudes and skills needed to effectively teach the diverse students
in their respective classrooms is well supported in the teacher education
literature. However, there is a paucity of data regarding how preservice
teachers are impacted by such encounters, especially in the long term. Bondy
& Davis (1997), building on a metaphor used by Boyle-Baise & Sleeter (1996)
that field experiences can “plant seeds of awareness that may continue to grow
and develop", state:
We have found that the “planting seeds” metaphor represents well the
functions of an early field experience for preservice teachers who spend
their first semester with children living in local public housing
neighborhoods. Not surprisingly, we also have found that the seeds
planted in the experience are not the same for all of our students. Our
students enter the teacher education program with different personal
histories and dispositions to teaching; that is, they have different
growing conditions. Seeds that will grow under one set of conditions
will not grow under other conditions. These insights have important
implications for teacher educators who are working to prepare
multicultural teachers, (p. 1)
Theoretical Bases for the Study
The Nature and Development of Prejudice
Allport (1954, 1979) drew heavily on cognitive development theory and
psychoanalytic theory to explain the nature of prejudice. The word prejudice,
derived from the Latin noun praejudicium, means a precedent or judgment
based on previous decisions and experiences. The word has undergone a
transformation of meaning since classical times. The term in English came to
mean a premature or hasty judgment having an emotional negative overtone
accompanying such unsupported judgment. A more modern interpretation of
the word refers to thinking ill of others without sufficient warrant, and “a feeling,

15
favorable or unfavorable, toward a person or thing, prior to, or not based on
actual experience” (Allport, 1954, 1979).
Two key components are central to understanding prejudice. The first is
the “attitude” component, either positive or negative, which can be connected to
the second component, an erroneous, or overgeneralized belief. Attitudes, at
the roots of erroneous beliefs, are more resistant to change. Individual beliefs
can be altered in the face of factual evidence (Allport, 1954, 1979). Further,
Allport distinguished between prejudice and discrimination. The latter is
manifested in action against the person or group to whom the prejudice is
directed. Thus, two people may have similar prejudices, but one may practice
discrimination while the other may not. Discrimination has more immediate and
serious social consequences than has prejudice.
To combat prejudice, educators need an understanding of when and
how ethnic and racial attitudes develop (Ponterotto & Pedersen, 1993; Sleeter
& Grant, 1994). Racial-ethnic self-recognition generally occurs at 3 or 4 years
of age. From that point until the age of 7 or 8, the child demonstrates an
increasing awareness of one’s similarity to one’s own group (Aboud, 1987, and
Katz, 1987 as cited in Ponterotto & Pedersen, 1993). Children can perceive
visible differences among people, including skin color, by the age of 3. They
learn language at the same time, including labels and accompanying emotional
overtones. They may learn such labels and overtones without having
constructed a category to which the label applies. Thus, teachers of preschool
children may be struck by the degree to which children play together without
seemingly noticing differences, though a more accurate interpretation may be
that they have not yet learned the meanings society has attached to the
differences they do see (Sleeter & Grant, 1994). As children mature, they will

16
be curious about differences and often will ask questions or make comments
about such disparities. How adults respond to them influences greatly how
children view such differences (Derman-Sparks, 1989 as cited in Sleeter &
Grant, 1994).
By late childhood, children have learned how to overcategorize and
stereotype members of groups different from their own. Finding their own
system of organizing thoughts and perceptions useful, they may make many
generalizations, failing to recognize the limitations and problems involved. As
children mature, they may modify their categories in varying degrees to fit
reality. Younger children are more likely to attribute misfortune to the
environment, while older ones may ascribe blame to individual character
(Ponterotto, 1991). Allport (1954, 1979) noted the paradox that younger
children may talk undemocratically, but behave democratically. Conversely,
adolescents, who have become skillful at imitating adult patterns, may talk
democratically but behave with prejudice.
Allport (1954, 1979), drawing on cognitive development theory, wrote
that it is necessary for people to relate, organize, and simplify phenomena in
order for events to make sense. As people mature and acquire an increasing
range of experience, they attempt to assimilate as much of their new experience
as possible into existing categories. Sometimes they have to accommodate
categories to fit experience. Most people operate under the principle of “least
effort.” That is, they will avoid restructuring their thinking and resist change
unless they have to. Most prefer to view exceptions to the rule rather than
restructure their categorical thinking.
One consequence of least effort in group categorizing according to Allport
is “belief in essence,” which is a stereotypical idea about a group of people. For

17
example, “Negro blood,” “the logical Frenchman,” “the passionate Latin,”
describe every member of a group as endowed with the same traits,
saving people the pains of dealing with them as individuals (Allport, 1954,
1979). That is, stereotyping is a convenient way of describing members of a
group without having the bother of getting to know them individually.
Separatism, the tendency to prefer one’s own kind, is common
throughout the United States and the rest of the world. It is often a matter of
ease and convenience, but it is not in and of itself an indication of prejudice.
However, it can lay the ground work for prejudice by leading to ethnocentrism
which constitutes the core or base of prejudicial attitudes and beliefs
(Ponterotto, 1991).
Stereotypes seem to give us a map of reality with guidelines on how to
interpret and act toward people; individuals who do not fit that map may make
us feel uncomfortable. Rather than questioning the stereotypes, we may avoid
or put down the persons who do not fit the stereotype (Sleeter & Grant, 1994).
Experts agree that thinking in terms of stereotypes and categories is natural and
does not by itself lead to prejudice and hostility. Furthermore, not all people
develop prejudice, and some of those that do may act on it while others choose
not to overtly act out their prejudiced feelings. Allport (1954, 1979) wrote that
there are many processes involved in the development of prejudice. The
psychodynamic processes of projection, by which frustration becomes directed
against a group, and identification, in which children affiliate with and accept
their parents beliefs and actions as desirable form the basis for attitudes and
behavior patterns. Cultural traditions, social norms, education, semantic
confusion, ignorance of group differences and other variables also contribute to
an explanation of the development of prejudice.

18
Researchers throughout the years have pointed to the influence of
various child rearing practices on personality type development with regard to
the formation of prejudice (Sleeter & Grant, 1994). Social learning theory
(Bandura & Walters, 1963) expands on these ideas. Much social behavior is
learned through imitation and reinforcement. Children learn behaviors and
responses by observing others. Further, they develop tendencies to model
what they see by having their actions reinforced by others. Parents provide
particularly powerful models and reinforcers. Clearly, in today’s society, other
significant people also serve as role models and reinforcers. Extended family
members, educators, peers, and mentors can provide an important influence in
the lives of young people.
The acting out of prejudiced behavior can be viewed on a continuum
from mild and covert to extremely harsh and overt (Allport, 1954, 1979;
Ponterotto, 1991). The following scale from Allport’s seminal work is still
utilized today by multicultural theorists and educators in the description of the
range of activities resulting from prejudiced attitudes and beliefs:
Antilocution is the mildest form of prejudice and is characterized by
prejudicial talk among like-minded individuals. It is a controlled
expression of antagonism that is limited to small circles.
Avoidance occurs when the individual moves beyond just “talking
about” certain groups to conscious efforts to avoid individuals from these
groups. The individual expressing avoidance behavior will tolerate
inconvenience for the sake of avoidance. Such inconvenience is self
directed, and the individual takes no harmful action against the group
being avoided.
During the Discrimination phase, the individual takes active steps to
exclude or deny members of another group entrance or participation in a
desired activity. Discriminatory practices in the past (and currently) have
led to segregation in education, politics, employment, social privileges,
and recreational opportunities.
The fourth phase of prejudice expression is Physical Attack. Under
conditions of heightened emotion, prejudice may lead to acts of violence.
Extermination marks the final state of the continuum, and involves the

19
systematic and planned destruction of a group of people based on their
group membership, (p. 14-15, Allport; p. 218, Ponterotto, 1991)
While individuals at one stage of Allport’s theory may never progress to
another stage, it is clear that increased activity at one stage makes the
transition to a more intense level easier and more likely (Allport, 1954, 1979).
Ponterotto (1991) eliminates the above described Extermination stage in his
model due to the fact of its absence in current United States history .
Allport (1954, 1979), in his contact hypothesis, purported that there
were a number of factors necessary for improvement of intergroup relations
through contact with each other. Merely assembling people without regard for
race, religion or national origin does not in itself destroy stereotypes and
encourage the development of friendly attitudes. That is, the conditions of
contact between different groups of people are the significant variables in
whether contact will result in improved relationships. The primary
considerations include: 1) equal-status contact between individuals from
majority and minority groups 2) sharing of common goals, 3) contact that is
sanctioned by institutional supports and 4) the interdependence of the groups
in achieving the goals. Allport believed that prejudice could be reduced by
incorporating these four principles. Additional contact variables that influence
attitude change include quantitative aspects of contact, such as frequency,
duration, variety and numbers of people involved, and areas of contact such as
casual, residential, occupational, recreational, religious, civic, political, and
goodwill intergroup activities.
White Racial Identity Development
Racial and ethnic identity development has been a vital area of interest in
the cross-cultural counseling literature in recent years (Sue & Sue, 1990).

20
Early efforts in this research focused on the racial/cultural identity development
of minority individuals. Researchers in this area explored the view that
members of minority groups grow and develop in a stagewise process in
relation to their awareness of themselves and their cultural heritage across
time. That is, how an individual views him or herself is related to his/her
cultural/racial identity (within group differences) as opposed to simply being
linked to minority group membership (Sue & Sue, 1990). This process of
developing racial consciousness culminates in a positive acceptance of one's
race and that of others (Helms, 1990; Ponterotto, 1988). The assumption in the
literature is that developing a healthy racial/ethnic identity is a central
component of one’s overall self concept. Appreciation and respect of other
racial/ethnic groups may not be likely if one does not feel good about one’s
own group (Ponterotto & Pedersen, 1993).
Racial identity development has been used as a vehicle for
understanding the attitudes of ethnic minority individuals living in an oppressive
white dominated society (Sue & Sue, 1990). Further, because political,
educational, and financial institutions are predominantly controlled by white
people, minority children come into contact repeatedly with the majority
systems. As a result of such exposure, many racial and ethnic minority
members in the United States have developed bicultural identities and skills
(Ponterotto & Casas, 1991).
Although times are obviously changing, the life experiences of many
white people in the past has been very different from that of members of
minority groups. Many whites have not had extensive contact with culturally
diverse groups, and their majority group status may contribute to an

21
unawareness of their own racial/ethnic identity (Rotheram & Phinney, 1987 as
cited in Ponterotto, 1991).
White racial identity theory (Hardiman, 1982; Helms, 1984; 1990;
Ponterotto, 1988, 1991) has been put forth by multicultural specialists as it
relates specifically to counselors. They have postulated that white counselors
can better understand the racial feelings and attitudes of others once they can
understand the development of their own racial identity. This process which
white people in the United States undergo in acknowledging and accepting
their race and its social implications for power, privilege and responsibility for
change has such important implications that Ponterotto and Pedersen (1993)
contend it should be a focus of education in general in addition to counselor
training specifically.
In summary, it has been suggested that the degree to which counselors,
and educators, regardless of race, are effective with those different from
themselves depends on: (a) the awareness that individuals are unique and are
not merely representative of a specific group; (b) the awareness of within group
as well as between group differences; and (c) the awareness of themselves as
racial beings (Helms, 1984; Sue & Sue, 1990).
An all inclusive white racial identity model was put forth by Sabnani,
Ponterotto, and Borodovsky (1991) integrating the three popular white identity
models (Hardiman, 1982; Helms, 1990; and Ponterotto, 1988) in the counseling
literature. This model consists of five stages as described below (Ponterotto,
1991) and was developed for use with white professionals (Ponterotto in
personal telephone conversation, June 4, 1997). These stages roughly
correspond with the stages postulated by Helms (1984, 1990).
Stage 1, Pre-Exposure/Pre-Contact, is characterized by a lack of
awareness of self as a racial being. White counselors in this stage have

22
not yet begun to explore their own racial identity nor given thought to
their role as white people in an oppressive society.
Stage 2, Conflict, involves an expansion of knowledge with regard to
racial matters stimulated by interactions with minority individuals or by
information gathered elsewhere (e.g., a multicultural symposium,
independent reading). This new knowledge challenges white
counselors to acknowledge their race and examine their own cultural
values. This stage is highlighted by conflict between wanting to conform
to majority-group and wishing to uphold humanistic, egalitarian values.
Key affective components of the Conflict stage are confusion, guilt,
anxiety, anger, and depression.
Stage 3, Pro-Minority/Anti-Racism, serves as one of two outlets used by
white counselors to deal with the emotional upheaval of the previous
state. Counselors may begin to develop a strong pro-minority stance,
and they begin to resist racism. Such a response alleviates the strong
guilt and confusion characteristic of the previous stage.
Stage 4, Retreat into white culture, marks another potential response to
Stage 2 emotions. At this point, white counselors respond to Conflict
stage emotions by withdrawing from interracial situations. This response
may result in white counselors attempting to avoid multicultural
counseling courses/symposia and preferring to work with white clients.
Stage 5, Redefinition and Integration, marks that point when
counselors achieve a healthy balance with regard to racial identity. They
are aware of their whiteness and acknowledge their responsibility in
perpetuating a racist status quo. They also can identify with positive
aspects of white culture and they express interest in learning about other
cultures, (p. 215-216)
White racial identity theory is a means of explaining the apparent failure
of short-term, information-oriented programs to change racial attitudes (Bollin &
Finkel, 1995). Progression through stages of identity is dependent on
interracial interaction and discussion (Ponterotto, 1993). Its developmental
approach is an alternative way of looking at the formation of beliefs and

23
attitudes and is an important factor in the planning of appropriate counseling
and educational interventions.
Flight or Fight Response Theory of Racial Stress
White identity theory is a significant component in understanding racial
tensions in the United States. Ponterotto (1991), introduced the “Flight or Fight
Response Theory of Racial Stress” offering a framework for understanding
increasing race-based conflicts as related to the rapid demographic changes
taking place in our country. Further, Ponterotto integrated this theory with
Allport's(1954, 1979) stages of expressed prejudice, as well as with the stages
of white identity development. Ponterotto’s theory predicts that as whites move
closer to becoming the numerical minority, they will become threatened by the
change of demographic status and will either flee from close interracial contact
(if possible) or will react defensively and in a discriminatory fashion toward
minority group members. The fight response can manifest itself in a number of
ways along a continuum, from heightened prejudicial attitudes and increased
ethnic stereotyping to actual physical confrontation, as represented in Allport’s
(1954, 1979) scale of expressed prejudice mentioned earlier.
“White flight” to private schools and suburbs was common practice in
past years, but the frequency of such movement has decreased in recent years
due to the increased movement of ethnic minority populations to more varied
geographic regions, as well as the economic cost incurred by private
education. Thus, Ponterotto’s theory predicts that more of the “fight" type of
response may occur as these demographic changes continue to progress,
unless effective interventions take place to reduce the racial tension
(Ponterotto, 1991).

24
To summarize, the nature and development of prejudice, underlying
sources of racial tensions, and the importance of the development of healthy
individual racial identities are crucial to developing and implementing effective
multicultural education and prejudice prevention programs in our society today.
These factors provide the theoretical postulates upon which this study is based.
Definition of Terms
Culture refers to a population of people sharing commonalities, including
ethnographic variables such as ethnicity, nationality, religion, and language, as
well as demographic variables of age, gender, place of residence, and status
variables such as social, economic and educational background and a wide
range of formal or informal memberships and affiliations (Pedersen, 1990).
Discrimination is unequal and unfavorable treatment or actions that, when
directed toward a target group or its members, limits the economic, social, and
political opportunities of that group.
Ethnocentrism is an exaggerated preference for one’s own group and
concomitant dislike of other groups (Aboud, 1987).
A fácilitative teacher is one who is a high facilitator of personal growth and
achievement and who is recognized as most effective by students, parents and
educators; one who is characterized as being attentive, genuine,
understanding, respectful, knowledgeable, and communicative (Wittmer &
Myrick, 1989).
A mentor as defined in this study is a person who acts as a guide, a coach, a
counselor, and a model in order to promote the good of another person.
Multicultural Education refers to education in which the curriculum is organized
around the contributions and perspectives of different cultural groups; it

25
includes race, class, gender, and language, and promotes social structural
equality and cultural pluralism (Grant, 1994).
Prejudice is a precedent or judgment based on previous decisions and
experiences; it can have a unipolar component, as in “thinking ill of others
without sufficient warrant”; or it can incorporate a bipolar (negative and
positive) component as in a “feeling, favorable or unfavorable, toward a person
or thing, prior to, or not based on actual experience” (Allport, 1979).
A preservice teacher is a university education major who is preparing/training
to be a teacher.
Racial/ethnic minority groups are those which are classified according to one or
more of the following; biological/heredity factors, those who share a unique
social and cultural heritage, and those whose background reflects a lower
economic, political and social status than does the majority group (Ponterotto &
Pedersen, 1993).
Racism involves a belief system largely based on stereotypes that holds that
some races are inherently superior to others, thus defending certain social
advantages by systematically denying access to opportunities or privileges to
members of racial groups deemed inferior (Axelson, 1993; Ridley, 1995 as cited
in Sandhu & Aspy, 1997).
A stereotype is an exaggerated belief associated with a category whose
function is to justify our conduct in relation to that category (Allport, 1954, 1979).
Organization of the Remainder of the Dissertation
Related literature in the areas of multicultural teacher education,
teachers’ beliefs and attitudes towards diversity, and the use of educator
interventions in helping to change attitudes are reviewed in Chapter II. The
population and sample for the study, independent and dependent variables,

26
instruments, research design, hypotheses, and description of the intervention
are presented in Chapter III. The results of the study are reported in Chapter IV.
Chapter V contains a summary of the results, conclusions and interpretations,
limitations, implications and recommendations for further investigation.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a cross cultural
mentoring program and accompanying diversity/communications skills training
on the attitudes of preservice teachers towards racial diversity and multicultural
education. Specifically, the researcher examined the effects of the mentoring
program and skills training on the preservice teachers’ cognitive and affective
attitudes and beliefs about minority groups and minority learners, their goals of
multicultural education, and their attitudes towards teaching as a career.
Chapter II is a review of the professional literature and focuses on
multicultural education, preservice teacher preparation for diversity, teachers’
attitudes and beliefs about diversity, and educator interventions for positive
intergroup relations.
Multicultural Education for Preservice Teachers
The values, life experiences, and perspectives of middle class,
educated, middle-aged Anglo educators who live in small to mid-size
communities are very different from those of students who are poor, from
undereducated homes, racial and ethnic minorities, living in large urban areas
(Gay, 1993). Establishing meaningful and effective communication between
educators and their diverse students is essential to academic achievement.
Teacher educators contend that it is vital to reach preservice teacher
education students in order to foster in them deep commitments to
multiculturalism (Breault, 1995). Coursework, field work and discussion must
27

28
remain intensive and rigorous over time during their training. Paradoxically,
though teachers should be taught to view and experience their students as
individuals first, rather than members of a specific cultural group,
generalizations about groups are often the manner in which multicultural
concepts are taught. Although clearly not the best approach, this is the way we
often learn about the characteristics of various cultural and ethnic groups today.
Goals of Multicultural Education
The American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE)
has stated that “Multicultural education . . . affirms cultural diversity as a
valuable resource that should be preserved and extended” (AACTE, 1989,
p. 1.). The association proposes four goals for multicultural teacher education:
1. teaching values which support cultural diversity
2. encouraging expansion of existing cultures as well as their
incorporation into the mainstream
3. supporting alternative lifestyles
4. encouraging multilinguism and multidialectism.
The AACATE document concludes that multicultural teacher education
must go beyond special sources and direct experiences which are
grafted onto regular programs and “must permeate all areas of the
educational experience provided for prospective teachers” (AACATE,
1989, p.2).
Sleeter & Grant (1988, 1994) in their seminal work on multicultural
education identify a typology of five educational approaches that encompass
race, culture, language, social class, gender and disability. Each approach
has societal and school goals as well as curricular and instructional practices.
1) Teaching the Exceptional and the Culturally Different
focuses on adapting instruction to student differences for the purpose of
helping these students more effectively succeed in the mainstream.
The emphasis is on difference rather than deficiency; cultural
differences should be accepted by the school. This view emerged in
opposition to white educators in the 1960s who saw students of color as

29
being “culturally deprived.” All people are individuals regardless of their
backgrounds.
2) The Human Relations approach, building on the post-World War
II Intercultural Education Movement, argues that love, respect, and more
effective communication should be developed in schools to bring people
who differ closer together. The emphasis is on cooperation and
tolerance.
3) The Single-Group Studies approach, in trying to change
mainstream America rather than trying to fit people into it, focuses
attention on specific groups such as ethnic studies and women’s studies
in order to raise consciousness regarding the oppression of such
groups. The goal is to teach children that all cultural groups are equal.
4) The Multicultural Education approach links race, language,
culture, gender, disability, and to a lesser extent, social class, working
toward making the entire school celebrate human diversity and equal
opportunity. It has continued to develop since the early 1970s as some
educators have grown disenchanted with earlier approaches and others
have conceptualized more complete and complex plans for educational
reform. The approach seeks to protect and enhance diverse groups.
5) Education That is Multicultural and Social
Reconstructionist extends the Multicultural Education approach into
the realm of social action. It focuses on challenging social stratification
at least as much as on celebrating human diversity and equal
opportunity. The focus is on equity and justice, (p.34-35)
This typology of approaches to multicultural education can be viewed as
a continuum that represents a pathway toward the ultimate goal of teachers
and other educators empowering minority students (Nel, 1993). The first two
goals focus on helping diverse students to better fit into mainstream society.
The third is directed towards recognition of the equality of various ethnic
groups. The last two indicate a desire to change social conditions and
institutions to end the practice of discrimination and prejudice, and to
accommodate and celebrate diversity in and out of our schools (Colville-Hall,
MacDonald, & Smolen, 1995). Further, the types are not mutually exclusive;

30
that is, they represent a continuum of growth in which people become mature
citizens of a diverse, heterogeneous, free society. Haberman and Post (1990)
argue that as people grow and develop they “naturally" become more
amenable to each succeeding position. Goodwin (1994) suggests that where
teachers-in-training place on Sleeter and Grant’s hierarchy of
conceptualizations of multicultural education could be interpreted as “different
levels of readiness or development in personal, developmental and intellectual
terms” (p129). In examining Sleeter & Grant’s typology, option one appears to
represent the status quo of the way American classroom teachers have, in
general, interacted with minority children over the past twenty years.
Subsequent goals progressively advance toward the point where schools
become active agents in the transformation of society (Nel, 1993). Schools
tend not only to serve society, but to “make" society.
Several studies (Haberman & Post, 1990; Nel, 1993; Colville-Hall et
al.,1995; Greenman & Kimmel, 1995; and Goodwin, 1994) have examined the
perceptions of the goals of multicultural education of preservice and
cooperating teachers using Sleeter and Grant’s typology.
Haberman & Post (1990), using a five-item scale corresponding with
Sleeter and Grant’s continuum of approaches to multicultural education, asked
cooperating teachers, “If you could only teach one of the goals listed below,
which one would you select?” The goals were presented as follows: 1) All
people are individuals regardless of their background; 2) We all have to learn
to live together in this world; cooperation and tolerance are vital; 3) Every
person came from some ethnic group and all groups are equally fine; 4) The
U.S. is made up of many racial, ethnic and religious groups and each must be
protected and enhanced; 5) We all have a responsibility to change the

31
discrimination and prejudice in our society against certain groups. They
sampled 227 white cooperating teachers who attended a summer workshop at
the University of Milwaukee at Wisconsin. Over 80% of the respondents
selected items #1 and #2. There were no significant differences found with
regard to gender, teaching level, years of teaching experience or degrees
held. Thus, tolerance for others, and individuals getting along with individuals
were perceived to be the goals of multicultural education in school programs
by the cooperating teachers sampled. Haberman and Post (1990) point out
that the teachers in their study viewed the individual as a person rather than
subgroups as the “building blocks" for teaching about American society.
Nel (1993) carried out a similar study using Sleeter and Grant’s (1994)
educational approaches translated into goals. The sample for this study was
280 white, middle-class, predominantly rural, preservice teachers who had not
completed a course in multicultural education. Each respondent was given the
following scenario and asked a question related to the goals of multicultural
education: “You are a teacher in a pluralistic classroom. If you could teach
only one of the goals listed below, which one would you select?” The five
options, paraphrased as in the Haberman and Post (1990) study, represented
a rewording of Sleeter and Grant’s multicultural approaches. Two thirds of the
sample selected options one and two previously described, thus viewing
cooperation, tolerance and assimilation of minority groups as the major goals
of multicultural education in the schools. The remainder of respondents were
equally divided in their selections among the last three goals. The author
interpreted her findings as implying that most preservice teachers are willing to
support the status quo in schools regarding minority-school relationships, but
will most probably not be inclined to incorporate minority language and culture

32
in their classrooms, encourage minority community participation in school
programs, or alter the teacher-minority student relationship as it has existed for
the past generation.
Colville-Hall et al. (1995) report results of using the Sleeter and Grant
measure (1994) in looking at gains in appreciation for and understanding of a
multicultural curriculum in their preservice teachers. Fifty students in two
classes of “Diversity in Learners" were asked to select the best goal of the five
(given above) on the multicultural continuum at the end of the semester. The
course provided an overview of the diverse characteristics of students in
classrooms throughout the United States and included a variety of learning
modalities such as cross-cultural activities, simulations, hands-on experiences,
panel discussions, field experiences and case studies. As in the previously
mentioned studies, the first two goals focused on helping diverse students fit
into mainstream society, the third was directed towards the recognition of
equality of various groups and the last two goals were indicative of a desire to
change social conditions and institutions. Forty one percent (41%) selected
the first three categories and 58% selected the last two categories. The
percentage of preservice students selecting the last two goals was much
higher than the results given in the previous two studies. However, there was
no pretest given and hence no basis for judging change in perception due to
the course was available. The following semester, the same instructor gave a
pre and post course survey and reported that 36.4% selected one of the latter
two choices on the posttest. The study did not report the pretest results, so
again, there was no basis for comparison from the beginning of the semester to
the end.

33
Greenman and Kimmel (1995), in a study comparing three groups of
educators, administered a two-part instrument to ascertain changes in
concepts of culture and multicultural education as a result of multicultural
educational activities. Group 1 consisted of 33 school counselors-in-training,
group 2 included 38 preservice teachers, and group 3 contained 22 inservice
teachers. The majority of the participants were middle class white women,
though there were a few who were from African American, Hispanic, and mixed
ethnic backgrounds. About one quarter of the sample were males. The ages of
the participants ranged from 19-52. The researchers used a modification of
Sleeter and Grant’s (1994) typology using 7 categories, rather than the five
used in the previously described studies. The results revealed that the majority
of responses from all groups combined fell in the lower ranked categories of
content oriented and human relations training. The pre-post test differences
were as follows: For the combined groups, 44% demonstrated no change,
43% a change towards the higher numbered goals, and 14% a change toward
the lower numbered goals. Only two respondents in the post test chose the
highest ranked goal of social activism for changing discrimination in society.
The study did not distinguish among group 1, 2 and 3 in its results for the
multicultural goal component.
In a study examining what preservice teachers really think about
multicultural education, Goodwin (1994), administered an open-ended
questionnaire to 80 students who were at the end of their teacher education
programs. The respondents included 41% persons of color and 59%
European Americans. They were asked to articulate the goals of multicultural
education, identify multicultural practices they had witnessed or used in their
field placements, and list questions about and hindrances to multicultural

34
practices. Again, Sleeter and Grant’s (1994) typology was used as a
framework for conceptualizing the results. The subjects were asked “What, in
your opinion, are two of the most important goals multicultural education
should seek to accomplish?" Although there was a wide range and variety of
responses, the vast majority of the respondents viewed the goals of
multicultural education as “Knowing Others," (40%), “Affect” (30%) including
respect, appreciation, open communication, and tolerance, and “The
Individual Child” (16%) which correspond with the first three of the five types
postulated by Grant and Sleeter. Nine percent of the goals were categorized
as "Social Change.” Responses to the question on multicultural practices were
similar to the ones concerning the goals. Getting to know others, helping
children to know themselves, and helping children interact pleasantly with
each other were reiterated emphases. The researcher interpreted these
findings to mean that through the sharing of different backgrounds, children
gain diverse perspectives and are given a voice. Fifty percent of the preservice
teachers reported no opportunity to implement multicultural practices, while
24% reported not witnessing any in the classroom in which they interned.
Subjects in the study interpreted multicultural education as education for
people of color; that is, those who are racially and culturally different.
In summary, each of these studies reveal that most preservice teachers
and cooperating teachers surveyed viewed the goals of multicultural education
as conceptualized by Sleeter and Grant (1994) as an aide in assisting the
culturally different to better fit into the mainstream and to emphasize
cooperation and tolerance. Three of the studies, Haberman and Post (1990),
Nel(1993), and Goodwin (1994) did not attempt to implement any intervention
to measure change in their subjects. They were more concerned with

35
describing the attitudes of preservice and inservice teachers toward
multicultural education. The other two, Colville-Hall et al. (1995) and
Greenman & Kimmel (1995), do describe interventions designed to help
change educator attitudes, but do not report using a pretest posttest design to
measure such a positive change. The results of the last study described above
does not distinguish differences among the groups studied. However the
writers go to great lengths in describing such groups.
White Racial Identity Development and Multicultural Education
A number of educational researchers have written about the importance
of white racial identity development as a useful framework for understanding
racial attitudes and attitude change among educators (Ponterotto and
Pedersen, 1993; Tatum, 1992; Tatum, 1994; Bollin & Finkel, 1995). Helms
(1990) describes the development of a positive white racial identity as
involving the acceptance of one’s own whiteness, the cultural implications of
being white, and the abandonment of racism. She asserts that progress
through stages of identity development is highly dependent on life experiences
and that direct contact with people of color is much more likely to bring about
significant growth as compared with simply receiving vicarious information.
Bollin & Finkel (1995) examined stages of racial identity (Helms, 1990) as a
framework for interpreting the apparent failure of university coursework to bring
about positive changes in teachers’ attitudes towards working with diverse
students. The only preservice teachers in the study who reached the later
stages of racial identity in which they begin to acknowledge personal
responsibility for change in attitudes were those who had direct sustained
contact with people of color; some of these were experiences in the field while
some were particular events outside their normal university lives. One type of

36
field placement that seemed to prompt remarkable growth In the preservice
students’ sense of racial identity was tutoring children of color. Additionally, the
university students in this study kept reflective journals. Random student
interviews revealed the powerful influence of their college professor with regard
to their change in awareness and thinking about race, class and gender. The
authors recommended multiple teaching strategies on the part of college level
teacher educators to include role modeling of a positive racial identity, readings
about diversity accompanied by discussion in an open atmosphere, and
appropriate field experiences accompanied by opportunity for personal
reflection.
Tatum (1992) has advocated sharing the black and white models of
racial identity development with college students she teaches to provide a
useful framework for understanding each others’ processes as well as their
own. Believing that students aspiring to be teachers should be empowered as
change agents, she asserts that “heightening students’ awareness of racism
without also developing an awareness of the possibility of change is a
prescription for despair” (p.20). Preservice teacher education students are
asked to interview themselves on tape at the beginning of the semester, and
then are asked to listen to the interviews at the end of the semester. Their
understanding of their racial identity development is then expressed in a written
essay. Tatum has found that most teacher education students experience the
opportunity to talk and learn about racial issues and the development of identity
as a transforming process and most are changed by it. Further, she purports
that change goes beyond the classroom boundaries to the influence of friends
as well.

37
Tatum (1994) carried the racial identity development theory a step
further in her “Model of the White Ally.” This model spotlights white antiracist
activists who have resisted the role of oppressor and have been allies to people
of color. Her focus is on the provision of white role models for students trying to
construct a positive white racial identity. The role of the ally is to “speak up
against systems of oppression and to challenge other whites to do the same”
(p.474). The researcher concluded that research projects by her students
resulted in the strengthening of commitment to antiracist action.
In a study examining the relationship between white racial
consciousness development and perceived comfort with black individuals
Claney and Parker (1989) hypothesized that whites’ comfort level with blacks
was dependent on the stage of racial consciousness as conceptualized by
Helms (1984). Participants were 339 white undergraduate students who
completed a two-part inventory: part one measured white racial consciousness
development on a five stage scale, and part two measured perceived comfort
level in situations involving black individuals. Results of this study showed a
clear curvilinear relationship between the two measures. That is, white
individuals who had very little contact or no contact with blacks were similarly
comfortable in situations with blacks as were white individuals who had
developed a mature level of racial consciousness. Those who had had some
contact, correlating with the middle stages of racial consciousness, felt less
comfortable with blacks. The researchers concluded
“These findings imply the need for people to gain more than just a little
knowledge and experience with regard to Black individuals, because
insufficient knowledge and contact appear to be correlated with high
levels of prejudice. It could be stated that a little knowledge and
experience (stage three) are more dangerous than no knowledge and
experience (stage one). Individuals who see Black individuals from a
narrow perspective, in limited roles such as maids, musicians, athletes,

38
militants, and so forth, may develop stereotypic ideas and be limited in
their thinking in relation to black individuals in general.” (p.451)
.Preservice Teacher Preparation for Diversity
Professionals write in the teacher education literature of preparing
teachers for cultural diversity recognizing that it is a very complex phenomenon
involving a multifaceted approach. The emphasis, experience and philosophy
may differ greatly from one university teacher preparation program to another.
However, it is important to recognize that there are and will continue to be many
individual differences in attitudes and experiences among preservice teachers,
even though many are seemingly from homogeneous backgrounds.
Some of the experiences which form a part of teacher “multicultural
education" include action research, reflective thinking, field and community
experiences, the use of journals to focus on assigned reading from multicultural
literature as well as to record experiences in the field, and related multicultural
course work. Grant (1994), in a review of the teacher preservice research
literature on multicultural education recommends as “best practices" that
1. multicultural education must be infused throughout the entire
preservice program rather than presented in just one or two courses;
2. instruction about multicultural education needs to take place in many
forms such as readings, preservice experience in multicultural schools,
living in a multicultural community;
3. students need to do projects that require them to critically analyze
race, class and gender issues; and
4. preservice teachers need to be placed with cooperating teachers
who have a thorough knowledge of multicultural education, accept a
multicultural focus as a classroom need, and advocate multicultural
education throughout their teaching.

39
5) providing preservice teachers with experiences in culturally diverse
communities is important to help them understand the total student.
(P 13).
As noted, this study will focus on a cross cultural mentoring program and
accompanying communications training as interventions that can promote
positive attitudes towards culturally diverse students and multicultural
education. The above described literature supports such a treatment.
The Use of Field Experience With Preservice Teachers
The use of field experiences has become increasingly popular in
teacher education programs in the past decade. The intent of such experiences
is an attempt to provide preservice teachers exposure to students, particularly
those of different cultures, at an earlier stage in their preparation. There are
many more essays, expert opinion, or “think pieces" found in the literature than
actual research studies. Research on the effectiveness of such experiences
has not produced clear cut results with regard to the cultural sensitivity of
preservice teachers toward students with whom they plan to work.
Haberman and Post (1992) set out to examine the assumption that
providing undergraduate education majors with direct experience would make
them more sensitive to minority cultures and low-income children. The subjects
were a group of 23 white, female university sophomores who volunteered to
work for six weeks of half day sessions in public schools in a remedial summer
program. Their involvement included a minimum of 100 hours of direct
experience with low-income, minority children as well as university afternoon
class sessions focused on multicultural education issues. These students were
asked to write what they expected to encounter in these urban classrooms
before the experience, and to write what they actually experienced at the end of

40
the six week period. Eleven different sub-headings were used and a content
analysis of their before and after statements was made. The major finding was
that the preservice students’ experiences became a self-fulfilling prophecy; that
direct experience was used to selectively perceive and reinforce initial
preconceptions. In general, those students who expected to find problems did
so and those with positive expectations saw those borne out. The notable
exceptions to this pattern were the lack of parental contact, which the students
did not foresee, and the generally positive acceptance of the university students
by the children they were teaching, which was not expected. Haberman and
Post found that although the majority of the university students made more
negative attributions about pupils at the end of the experience than at the
beginning, they were very accepting of the pupils and gained in self-confidence
in their ability to interact effectively with the low income minority children.
Cross (1993) reported similar impressions to those of Haberman and
Post. Through journal entries and class discussions, she perceived that
preservice teacher education students were drawing conclusions from their
field experiences that confirmed their prejudices and misconceptions about
urban schools and children.
Scott (1995) utilized a field experience in a multicultural laboratory
demonstration school and administered a survey on “Images of Ethnic
Minorities” to her first year education students as part of an introductory
education course. The purpose of this strategy was to sensitize education
students to stereotypes and prejudices against ethnic minorities, to provide
them a learning experience with students in multicultural classrooms, and to
allow them an opportunity to discuss prejudices and stereotypes.

41
She found that the students who were white did little discriminating
among minorities but tended to group them as one. Further, their responses to
the items which dealt with economic issues indicated that their resistance was
strongest to stereotypes relating to empowerment (i.e., sharing wealth and
political power) rather than to humanistic concerns. She concluded that it is
necessary to get education students to look at themselves, their prejudices, and
stereotypes against people of color before teacher educators deem them
qualified to work in multicultural classrooms. She considered her work a start,
but realized the preservice teachers needed more knowledge, experience and
feedback than could be provided in one course. The field experience and
subsequent survey she administered were done in a parallel fashion as part of
a course; the survey was not intended to measure preservice teachers’ attitudes
resulting from the field experience.
In another situation, a Minority Mentorship Project (MMP), a cross-
cultural mentoring program incorporating multicultural education and human
relations training was initiated to educate preservice teachers regarding the
concerns of the diverse student population (Larke, 1990; Larke, Wiseman and
Bradley, 1990). Its purpose was to provide experiences for preservice teachers
to work with minority students, and to provide minority students with educational
and social mentoring support over a three year period of time. Larke et al.
(1990) examined how the MMP, which involved a variety of academic and
social activities as well as family contact, changed the attitudes and perceptions
of preservice teachers towards culturally diverse children. A pre-assessment
and post-assessment instrument, the Perceived Personality Characteristic
Inventory (PPCI) was administered to mentors (n=24) before they met their
sixth grade African American or Mexican American student mentees, and again

42
a year later. The inventory asked respondents, “What are six personality
characteristics or personality qualities you feel your mentee will possess?"
After one year of participating in the MMP, the mentors were asked to complete
the same form and to answer the same slightly revised question to reflect the
present tense. The results showed that the perceptions and attitudes of the
mentors toward their mentees had shown a positive change; they had moved
from pity and apathy to noting strengths of their public school students. In the
pre-assessment, the majority of the mentors had negative perceptions and/or
poor attitudes about the personalities of their mentees. The researchers
reported 81 percent of the 51 perceived characteristics were negative. Such
characteristics as pupils lacking in self confidence, low self-esteem, having
academic problems and feeling like a failure were mentioned frequently. In
contrast, the post-assessment reflected a personal warmth in the ascribed
characteristics of pupils. Eighty four percent (84%) of these traits were
identified as positive and included such words as friendly, shy, humorous,
honest, willing and responsible. Larke et al. (1990) hypothesized that some of
the negative characteristics listed in the pre-assessment may have been due to
fears of the mentors concerning their effectiveness, and a possible need to
change the mentees in a positive sense. They concluded that the one-to-one
relationships between the mentors and the minority students at their homes,
school and community, counseling which allowed for self review for the
mentors, and multicultural education which increased the mentors’ knowledge
of culturally diverse students, helped the preservice teachers develop more
positive attitudes toward cultural groups different than their own.
Wolffe (1996), concerned with negative attitudes of teacher candidates
towards teaching in urban schools, addressed the question, “What effect will a

43
short-term field experience in an urban school have on preservice teachers’
perceptions of this setting?” Eighteen university students were paired for
placements in K-8 classrooms at a magnet school with a student body of
approximately 50% African Americans and 50% Caucasians. Many of the
Caucasian students were from Appalachian backgrounds. The school was
unusual in that all teachers had volunteered to be assigned to this school and
had been trained in a Socratic program of curriculum and instruction with the
philosophy that all students can make substantial academic progress. The
researcher administered an attitude survey which consisted of 10 open ended
questions on topics such as motivation, discipline, adjustments from what one
would do at another school, level of parental support, and grading students.
The survey was given a week prior to the urban school experience and four
days after returning. A control group of 18 students who did not participate in
the field experience followed the same schedule for completing the survey. The
students who were involved in the school visitation were asked to complete a
paper describing what they expected to find when they visited the urban school.
After the trip they were asked to reflect upon and react to their first essay. That
is, qualitative as well as quantitative data was gathered. Results showed a
significant difference in the change of attitudes of the college students involved
in the field trip as compared with those who did not participate. Most students
who had the field experience had a reduced level of lower expectations for
urban schools. However, their expectations were still lower for urban school
students than for students in other settings. The college level students who
remained on campus revealed no significant change in their attitudes. The
qualitative data from the preservice students’ essays provided more detail with
regard to the impact of the experience, with large numbers of them writing of

44
their positive impressions of teachers, students, and the school, as well as of
the value of the observation.
A qualitative study on a peer tutoring program, “Bright Futures,"
examined the functions and long term effect of an early field experience on the
tutors by following up five of the university tutors two years following the
experience (Bondy & Davis, 1997). Bright Futures, a collaborative project of the
Gainesville Flousing Authority, Gainesville Police Department and the
University of Florida College of Education, was implemented to provide
academic help to youth living in public housing so as to increase the likelihood
of school success and graduation from high school. First semester elementary
teacher education students at the University of Florida have been required to
participate as tutors in order to provide them with some experience with
culturally different children. Several conclusions were drawn from the interview
data: One, the field experience served several functions for students. The field
experience raised multicultural issues and challenged the negative
assumptions held by the tutors, focused their attention on knowing children, and
served as a reference point for future experiences in the teacher education
program. Two, the field experience did not serve the same functions for all
students. Some students who were less committed to, and less secure about
teaching, primarily asked themselves whether or not they wanted to teach,
whereas those who were more committed viewed it as an opportunity to try out
new ideas. Three, students’ ways of approaching Bright Futures influenced the
functions that it served for them. Those who operated from an egocentric/self-
absorbed stance focused on their own feelings of comfort, efficacy and
confidence or lack thereof. Those who were characterized as “students-of-the-
experience” approached Bright Futures as an opportunity to learn and try out

45
their skills. These students were more committed to teaching and more
confident of their career choice and ability. The researchers concluded that
although not all students can be influenced by field experience in the same
ways, teacher educators can “provide the scaffolding to enable more students
to reap the benefits of the experience.” (p. 11). Further, they suggest that a goal
for teacher educators should be to help more students assume the “student-of-
the experience" stance. Recommendations to facilitate this approach include
changing the tutor role to that of mentor, providing background on children’s
lives, building a repertoire of activities, and sharing research findings with
students. Further, making common student assumptions explicit can help
students recognize, examine, and reconsider ideas they have long taken for
granted.
A quantitative study, focusing on Bright Futures tutors’ beliefs about
diverse learners (Bondy, Schmitz, & Johnson, 1993), was conducted during the
first semester of the project's existence. Four groups of students representing
various combinations of tutoring and research coursework were administered a
pre-post beliefs inventory. Results indicated that Group D, those students who
concurrently tutored in public housing and took the research course had
significantly higher posttest scores on the beliefs inventory. The researchers
concluded that tutoring alone, even when it involved direct contact with children
who were different from the tutors did not change tutors’ beliefs about the
causes and consequences of children’s being culturally different. The
research course appeared to be an important intervention with regard to
helping tutors interpret and process their experiences.
The above studies examining the role of field experience for preservice
teachers represent a broad range of perspectives. Although the use of field

46
work is supported in the literature as being a valuable component of preservice
teacher education, most researchers advocate the use of accompanying
coursework, individual or group conferences, and journal writing to help
students mediate and interpret their experiences and to pose questions about
diverse learners.
Teachers’ Attitudes and Beliefs About Diversity
Studies have shown that a high correlation exists among educators’
attitudes, beliefs and behaviors toward students of other cultures, knowledge
and application of cultural awareness information, and minority students’
successful academic performance (Banks, 1988, Sleeter & Grant, 1994).
Conversely, teachers unfamiliar with or insensitive to minority students’ needs
unconsciously make the learning process more difficult for them (Sleeter &
Grant, 1986, as cited in Deering & Stanutz, 1995). Teaching practices reflect
teachers’ beliefs, that in turn, reflect their own experiences and backgrounds
(Cabello & Burnstein, 1995). Although experts agree that teacher attitudes and
beliefs are an important influence on the success of their students, little
research has been done on effective techniques that can be used to change
teachers’ racial attitudes and behavior (Banks, 1988).
Research on preservice teachers’ beliefs in general has aimed at
increasing the understanding of students’ preconceptions prior to entering
teacher education in an effort to assess the impact on, and inform the design, of
university teacher education programs (Rodriguez, 1993). In summarizing
research on teachers’ beliefs, Pajares (1992) contends that teachers replace
negative beliefs and assumptions only if the beliefs and assumptions are
challenged and appear unsatisfactory. He posits that beliefs change gradually;
teachers need time to accommodate and assimilate new information, accept

47
and reject ideas, modify belief systems, and adopt new beliefs (Pajares, 1993).
This finding suggests that changing teachers’ beliefs and behaviors involves
direct, to the point experiences over time that challenge old beliefs and
convince them to adopt new ones (Cabello & Burnstein, 1995).
In surveys of beliefs and attitudes of preservice teachers toward
students of other cultures, it has been found that the prospective educators
endorse equal treatment for students and believe that teachers can make a
difference by expecting high academic performance of minority children.
However, many majority educators feel unprepared and thus not willing to
teach children with cultural characteristics and needs different from their own
(Avery & Walker, 1993).
In an empirical analysis of a preservice multicultural education model,
Grottkau and Nickolai-Mays (1989) investigated the extent to which exposure
over time to ongoing multicultural experiences can reduce cultural bias among
potential teachers. A pre-post test was given to four groups of preservice senior
level education majors using a revised version of the Social Distance Scale
(Scarboro, 1980). Results indicated that exposure over time to multicultural
experiences contributed to a statistically significant reduction in overall levels of
bias, as well as levels of bias towards specific minority populations among the
subjects. However, one human relations course offered to first year majors did
not result in a significant change in overall or specific bias levels.
In a survey of preservice teachers using the Cultural Diversity
Awareness Inventory (Henry, 1985), designed to measure an individual’s
attitudes, beliefs and behavior toward children of culturally diverse
backgrounds, Larke (1990) found that 90% believed that they would be
teaching children who did not share their cultural background, while 43% stated

48
they would prefer to work with students who shared their cultural background.
Further, 69% agreed they would feel uncomfortable with people who had
different values from their own. However, in this study, preservice teachers
overwhelmingly agreed that they should accommodate for diversity in the
classroom and should provide opportunities for children to share cultural
differences. The researcher purports that discomfort in working with culturally
diverse students can be lessened only through positive contact between would
be teachers and the students and their families. She also recommends
mentoring programs be developed between preservice teachers and culturally
diverse students, that sensitivity levels of teacher educators be raised through
seminars, and earlier field placements and teaching sites be developed which
are reflective of diversity.
Deering and Stanutz (1995) also used Henry’s (1991) Cultural Diversity
Awareness Inventory (CDAI) to measure the effect that a pre-teaching field
experience in a multicultural setting had on the cultural sensitivity of a sample of
ten female and six male secondary preservice teachers. Their coursework did
not include a multicultural education course. All subjects took the CDAI prior to
a 10 week (50 hours) field experience in a middle school setting with a
predominantly Hispanic and black student population. The researchers
obtained mixed results. Only 6% of the posttest respondents preferred to work
with students from their same culture. However, a number of the statements
were given neutral responses by the respondents with little change in the
posttest results. The researchers concluded that this one field experience did
not significantly increase the cultural sensitivity of their preservice teacher
sample.

49
Jordan (1995) conducted a qualitative examination of her preservice
students for whom she coordinated a multicultural, field-based program. The
program consisted of two educational foundations courses combined with an
inner-city field experience of one on one and small group tutoring. Preparation
of the students included completing a pre-survey on their concerns about their
forthcoming experience, history of their own school experience, and images
they had of the inner-city schools. They were also asked to investigate their
own cultural identities and to keep a reflective journal throughout the semester.
Additionally the researcher made weekly on site visits. Her analysis of the
initial surveys revealed that the entry beliefs of the education majors included
highly negative images of inner-city schools and communities. Fortunately,
many overcame their initial fears and were relieved that their expectations were
not fulfilled. However, some remained in a stage where they seemed to be
experiencing “culture shock." Jordan's main conclusion was that the students,
most of whom were challenged to think deeply about issues of racism and
multicultural education, experienced a range of reactions and insights, mostly
attributable to their individual developmental levels. That is, some were more
“ready" or “receptive” to a change in attitudes than others. As she stated, “My
expectations of students have become more reality centered and based upon
their individual developmental levels. I no longer attempt to change total
attitudes of all students, just the ones ready for change.” (p. 373). As measured
by the students’ positive reactions to it, Jordan deemed the multicultural
program a success as preservice teachers have requested student teaching
assignments in inner-city schools and have continued to seek and accept
teaching positions in these schools. Still, there are questions about the degree
of change in attitudes that can be achieved in such a short period of time.

50
In a qualitative study of teachers’ beliefs about teaching in culturally
diverse environments, Cabello and Burnstein (1995), presented case studies of
teachers obtaining a master’s degree in special education. The teachers, who
represented ethnically diverse backgrounds participated in a program
containing a multicultural curriculum, experiential field component, and
reflective examination of their practices through logs, videotapes and peer
examination. Their data indicated that the practicing teachers underwent a
similar process of transformation. They began with a set of beliefs about
teaching in general and about culturally diverse students based on their own
experiences. As they were exposed to new information about teaching and
diversity, tried out new strategies in the classroom, and reflected on their
learning, they began to experience increased success with their students,
reevaluated some of their beliefs about teaching in culturally diverse situations
and modified some of their initial beliefs. The researchers’ findings provide
support for combining theory and practice along with opportunities for reflection
to promote a growing and positive cultural sensitivity in teachers.
Action research has been promoted as a strategy in university level
teacher education programs to help students become aware of their own
values and entertain perspectives other than their own. Glasgow (1994) cited a
case study of a preservice teacher whose perspectives were altered by doing
an action research project in an environment very different from her own
background. This student wrote and implemented a plan for observing and
working in an Amish school, after having observed Amish children in a public
school setting. She conducted a literature review, wrote research questions,
did interviews and collected student artifacts. She gained permission to visit a
one room schoolhouse in the Amish community and was able to participate in

51
the students’ learning activities. She kept a reflective journal to record her
feelings and experiences. The researcher concluded that this student changed
her perspectives on another culture by learning more information about the
culture, observing and interacting with the people, and reflecting on her
experience. Moreover, Glasgow inferred that knowledge about a specific
culture is learned, not only cognitively, but affectively through experience.
Case studies of six preservice teachers enrolled in a research course as
well as involved in their first field experience were conducted to assess their
perspectives about problems that confront diverse learners in their classrooms,
their commitment to teaching them, and their beliefs about the causes of failure
for diverse learners (Ross & Smith, 1992). Based on interviews and writing
assignments, two of the university students were classified as having low
commitment to teaching diverse learners, three possessed unrealistic optimism
with regard to teaching diverse learners and one was operating from informed
realism. That is, the latter student was interested in and strongly committed to
teaching in a multicultural setting, acknowledged the subtlety of teacher
attitudes and expectations as well as societal influences on diverse learners.
Thus, the students represented a range of attitudes and responses to teaching
in a multicultural environment. Further, it became clear to Ross and Smith that
some of the students were more open to change in beliefs and attitudes than
others. The researchers concluded that the important issue is not whether a
preservice teacher enters the university experience with unrealistic
expectations, but whether she/he exits with them. They concluded that their
students through their coursework and field experience showed progress and
growth throughout the semester indicating an increase in realism with regard to
teaching diverse learners.

52
In another study examining preservice teachers’ attitudes towards
“different" students, Hlebowitsh & Tellez (1993) asked 235 first semester
education majors to rate their respect for students who varied on the
dimensions of race (black/white), gender, and class (lower/upper/middle). The
preservice teachers had not yet completed any field or classroom experience.
The results of this investigation suggested that preservice teachers show
patterns of greater respect for black, female students of low socioeconomic
status, independent of the type of student described (a leader, an athlete,
studious and quiet). This finding was in contrast to the expectations of the
researchers who concluded that preservice teachers may enter their teacher
education programs with a humanistic drive to view marginalized students
positively.
Swearingen (1996) assigned preservice social studies teachers the task
of designing and teaching a unit involving the issues of tolerance and
intolerance. Each student taught one lesson individually to a class, and a
second lesson was team taught with a partner. Lectures were not permitted.
Methods used included cooperative learning, inquiry, jigsaws and sociodrama.
The lessons were videotaped and later viewed and analyzed by the individual
students who taught the lesson. The university course instructor observed the
change in the students’ self perceptions regarding tolerance as reflected in
class discussions and journal entries. Additionally, she noticed a paradigm
shift in that the students began to view themselves as professional role models
with a mission to promote tolerance. Later, as the preservice teachers began
their student teaching experience, the researcher and her colleagues saw a
carryover of the tolerance lessons in these students’ planning and weekly
seminar discussions.

53
Harrington and Hathaway (1995) addressed the use of computer
conferencing as a means to access and transform students' beliefs about their
roles and responsibilities as teachers in a multicultural society. They reasoned
that computer conferencing activities would allow students opportunities to
discuss educational issues with their peers in a nondominated and
nonthreatening way. The 27 students enrolled in the introductory teacher
education course generated the text and participated anonymously. The
instructor did not participate in the conference but did analyze the responses to
a month of discussion focusing on teachers’ roles and responsibilities in
relation to multicultural education. The researchers found that through
extended discussions via computer conferencing, students encountered a
variety of perspectives on multicultural education. The preservice teachers
found their views and underlying beliefs challenged, often resulting in more
complex thinking about multicultural issues. The authors posited that computer
conferencing activities were effective in promoting the discussions among the
students reducing any power imbalance that might have been present in a
regular classroom. Additionally, preservice teacher education students
assumed responsibility for their own learning and seemed to challenge and
alter their beliefs in a more positive direction.
Hinchey (1994) demonstrated that a brief, one day visit to a Harlem
school prompted her students to critically examine their implicit beliefs and
change their thinking about urban schools and students. She concluded that it
is essential for teacher educators to provide such experiences for their students,
even if there is not a formal program at the university to provide long term field
placements with diverse students.

54
Simulation Activities in Changing Beliefs
Various studies have been conducted using prejudice-reduction
simulation (PRS). Additionally, role-playing the part of a minority group
member has become a regular part of many human relations training programs
which attempt to increase the sensitivity of public officials to minority problems
(Oskamp, 1991).
Byrnes and Kiger (1990), assessed the effectiveness of “Blue Eyes-
Brown Eyes, a PRS, as a tool for changing the attitudes of 164 teacher
education students towards African Americans. Subjects in experimental and
control groups completed two racial attitudes instruments at two and nine week
intervals in a semester long education course. Five weeks after the course had
begun, experimental subjects participated in the three hour PRS. Most subjects
reported that the experience had been meaningful for them. The PRS favorably
influenced non Black subjects’ attitudes towards Blacks, while lectures and
viewing the PRS on film did not appear to influence the control group
participants' attitudes. Statistical evidence supporting the effectiveness of the
activity for prejudice reduction was moderate. Subjects and the PRS facilitator
reported feeling stress from participating in the PRS experience.
Weiner and Wright (1973, as cited in Oskamp, 1991) demonstrated that
white children who were given a planned experience of arbitrary discrimination
in their classrooms were more willing to interact with black children.
Additionally, they showed decreased prejudice as compared to a control group
who had not undergone the experience.
In a controlled experimental research study, Cook (1969) utilized black
and white college women in a simulation exercise used as a management
training device. The black women and half of the white women were

55
experimental confederates; the other white women were chosen for their highly
negative attitudes towards blacks. The game required a high degree of
cooperation, close and equal status contact, and a superordinate goal of
winning and earning a bonus. Also, during each of the two-hour sessions,
breaks occurred which provided planned opportunities for informal interracial
contact, personal comments, and discussion of race-related topics. A
comparison of the subjects’ racial attitudes before and after the contact
experience showed a significant positive change in racial attitudes by about
40% of the women, whereas only 12% of a control group of prejudiced white
women showed significant favorable attitude change. Furthermore, there was
some evidence that the changes were generalized beyond the experimental
situation.
Rokeach (1971) demonstrated that the exposure of value-attitude-
behavior inconsistencies can produce changes in race-related attitudes and
behaviors. His procedure highlighted inconsistencies among university
students between ratings of two values such as freedom and equality and the
relationships of these values to civil rights attitudes and behavior. Subjects
were shown a table of relative importance of values as ranked by the students;
then inconsistencies were pointed out by the experimenter. Subjects were
given time to compare their individual responses with those in the table. The
researcher found long term behavior change resulting from such experimental
treatment. Experimental subjects were more likely than control subjects to
respond favorably to a NAACP solicitation for membership 15-17 months later,
and to register for courses in ethnic relations 21 months following the treatment.
Later studies have replicated these findings (Rokeach & Grube, 1979). Such
research has supported the unidirectional hypothesis of value change. That is,

56
values can only be modified in a direction that reduces the Individual’s self¬
dissatisfaction and increases consistency with one’s self-concept.
Educator Interventions For Positive Interqroup Relations
Experts agree that school counselors and other educators can and
should be leaders and role models for students and others in society with
regard to racial/ethnic tolerance and the reduction and, hopefully some day, the
prevention of prejudiced attitudes. School counselors can have a powerful
impact on human relations training in general, and in race relations specifically.
They can work in a number of capacities including individual and large and
small group work as well as consultation and coordination. With increased
multicultural training these particular specifically trained educators have the
potential to impact the status of race relations significantly (Ponterotto &
Pedersen, 1993).
Traditionally, counselors in schools and other settings have focused on
crisis intervention and remedial efforts at combating racial tensions. Much
preventive work has focused on assisting students and student clients to
anticipate and deter possible problems. In developmental/educative programs,
counselors work with students and clients to make the best of experiences that
will facilitate personal growth (Ponterotto & Pedersen, 1993). Further, such
programs are an integrated part of the total educational process and involve all
school personnel with counselors often serving as consultants to others in the
school setting. Specific interventions such as Peer Facilitators and Teacher
Advisor Programs (TAP) can be organized and implemented by counselors in
an effort to reach the total school population (Myrick, 1993; Wittmer, 1989).
According to Wittmer (1993), and Myrick (1993), a developmental guidance
and counseling program focuses on the needs, interests, and issues

57
related to the various stages of students’ developmental growth stages. Eight
goals which characterize developmental guidance and counseling programs
include: understanding the school environment; understanding self and others;
understanding attitudes and behavior; decision making and problem solving;
interpersonal and communication skills; school success skills; career
awareness and educational planning; and community pride and involvement
(Myrick, 1993). These goals clearly encompass and utilize the areas in which
counselor skills are central to effective prejudice prevention programming as
outlined by Ponterotto & Pedersen (1993). They are as follows: facilitating
healthy ethnic identity development; fostering critical thinking skills; promoting
multicultural and nonsexist education; facilitating interracial contact; and
focusing on transforming negative racial attitudes.
Additionally, the “facilitative teacher” (Wittmer & Myrick, 1989) can create
the classroom conditions necessary to foster positive growth and the
communication skills necessary to promote racial harmony. As Wittmer and
Myrick write:
Educators hold the key to the process of reducing or eliminating the
social and emotional barriers that prevent many ethnic minority group
members from becoming productive citizens... (p. 48) Facilitative
teachers avoid bending the child to match the curriculum. Rather, they
cultivate the talents and unique cultural characteristics of children... They
know that the culture can be a predisposition to learning... The facilitative
teacher accepts the child as is and helps that child move on from that
point, (p. 49).
Further, Wittmer and Myrick delineate the characteristics of the
facilitative teacher as being attentive, genuine, understanding, respectful,
knowledgeable, and communicative. These characteristics help to identify
effective teachers who facilitate personal growth and achievement in their
students.

58
Wittmer (1992) writes that having effective communication with a person
from another race or culture requires cognitive empathy in addition to the
facilitative teacher characteristics. That is, knowledge of a person’s culture, and
understanding and appreciating that person as a cultural being is also essential
to developing effective rapport and permitting the expression of ideas and
feelings.
Effective communication in the classroom involves facilitative responses
on the part of the teacher. These include focusing on students’ feelings,
clarifying and summarizing their responses, asking open-ended questions, and
giving feedback in the form of complimenting and confronting. Further,
acknowledging students for their contributions to class discussion, and using
linking statements that will assist students in finding common ground among
them, will help develop cohesion in the classroom (Wittmer & Myrick, 1989;
Myrick, 1993). These communication skills can be taught and practiced.
School counselors, as consultants and trainers, can help teachers develop
these facilitative skills. Counselors can also serve as coaches as teachers try
out and implement this model in their classrooms. Thus, school counselors can
directly, as well as indirectly, foster the facilitative conditions necessary to
promote racial and ethnic harmony within schools and elsewhere.
In a descriptive study, Shechtman (1994), examined the use of
counseling methods to challenge teacher beliefs regarding classroom diversity.
Specifically, she advocated the application of the use of clarification of ideas
and feelings and the use of bibliotherapy as catalysts in the challenging and
changing of beliefs. Sharing and self disclosure were promoted, constructive
feedback and interpersonal learning encouraged and communication skills
introduced. Using bibliotherapy, a projective intervention, emphasized affective

59
processes. The discussion following the reading helped teachers to express
and clarify their feelings, and contributed to their development of sensitivity,
empathy and understanding of others. The researcher applied these two
modes of intervention to a group of teachers in a continuing education training
program with the goal of training them to use the interventions with their
students. Clarifying processes dealt with three basic values directly relevant to
classroom diversity: freedom, equality, and justice. In group discussions
permitting teachers to compare their beliefs with those of others, teachers
reported becoming more aware of their stereotypic ideas and practices and
changing their resulting behaviors. Results of the study demonstrated that
mainstreamed students improved their behavior in classrooms conducted by
teachers who received training in these methods. The emphasis in this study
was on training teachers in these counseling oriented methods rather than
about the methods.
A number of research projects examining cooperative-learning methods
explicitly use the presence of students of different races and ethnicities to
enhance intergroup relations and learning outcomes (Slavin, 1995). Based on
Allport’s contact theory of intergroup relations, these studies have examined
classroom organization in an attempt to see what the optimal conditions are for
meaningful, cooperative contact to take place between students of different
cultural and racial groups. Each of the groups studied was made up of four to
five students of different races, gender, and level of achievement, and each
reflected the composition of the class as a whole. Recognition or evaluation
was based on the degree to which the group could increase the academic
performance of each member. An “all for one, one for all” attitude was
communicated and each member had an equal role. Daily opportunities for

60
intense interpersonal contact were present. Thus, the conditions set forth by
Allport (1954, 1979) in his contact theory were satisfied: cooperation across
racial lines, equal status roles for students of different races, contact across
racial lines that permits students to learn about one another as individuals, and
the communication of unequivocal teacher support for interracial contact.
In a literature review of cooperative learning methods, Slavin (1995)
concludes that in a majority of the studies, when the conditions of contact
theory were fulfilled, some aspect of relationships between students of different
ethnicities improved. Using such methods as Student Teams-Achievement
Division, Teams-Games-Tournament, Team-Assisted Individualization, and
Jigsaws, increases in cross-racial friendships were developed in the
experimental participants more than in the control group subjects. Additionally,
positive effects on cross-racial nominations on sociometric scales were found
and negative nominations were reduced as compared to control group
students. Johnson and Johnson (1981) found more cross-racial interaction
and greater friendship across race lines in cooperative classrooms than in
individualized classes during free time.
The use of group interventions with children in schools presents the
possibility of enhancing students' awareness and understanding of cross¬
ethnic peers (Rotheram-Borus, 1993). Meeting in small groups allows students
to identify ethnic differences in social expectations in a warm, supportive
atmosphere. Such interventions can create opportunities for children from
many ethnic groups to increase their understanding of the norms, values, and
social routines of their cross-ethnic peers.

61
Summary
Although research studies cut across many fields on prejudice and
changing attitudes and reveal a variety of outcomes, most researchers agree
that prejudice continues to be a big problem in our society and needs to be
continually addressed. As our society becomes even more heterogeneous
and the global community more interdependent, the need for concentrated
attention to intergroup relations and effective communication is obvious
(Ponterotto & Pedersen, 1993). Multicultural education, examining and
changing beliefs and attitudes, and implementing effective strategies for
learning in our classrooms are important components in reducing prejudice
and helping to create an educational system and society where all students
can flourish. Educators as active change agents and role models can be
leaders and hold the keys to helping promote positive intergroup relations in
our diverse society (Sandhu & Aspy, 1997).
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a cross cultural
mentoring program and accompanying diversity/communications skills training
on the attitudes of preservice teachers towards racial diversity, multicultural
education and teaching minority learners. This research may have significant
implications for improving attitudes and understanding between educators and
their students. The results of this study may also help assess the utility of
models of multicultural education used in teacher preparation programs.
Further, there may be implications for the role of the school counselor as a
consultant and trainer in communication skills for the promotion of healthy
intergroup relations.

CHAPTER III
METHODS AND PROCEDURES
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a cross cultural
mentoring program and accompanying diversity/communications skills training
on the attitudes of preservice teachers towards racial diversity and multicultural
education. Specifically, the researcher examined the effects of the mentoring
program and skills training on the preservice teachers’ cognitive and affective
attitudes and beliefs about minority groups and minority learners, their goals of
multicultural education, and their attitudes towards teaching as a career.
The population, relevant variables, instruments, research design,
hypotheses, description of the intervention, and procedures are described in
this chapter.
Population
Alachua County, Florida, located in the north-central section of the state,
has a population of 198,000 and is considered a center for education, medical
research and treatment, and agriculture. The University of Florida, with more
than 40,000 students, is the financial anchor for the area serving as employer
for approximately 16,000 people as well as providing economic opportunities
for many businesses and service providers (Alachua County Chamber of
Commerce, 1996).
The Alachua County public school system with an enrollment of 27,000
students includes 23 elementary schools, eight middle schools, six high
62

63
schools, two special education centers and a vocational adult education facility.
The student racial makeup for the county schools in August, 1996, was as
follows: White, 54%; Black, 39.8%, Hispanic, 3.4%, Asian, 2.4%, and American
Indian .2%. For the state of Florida the corresponding figures were: White,
55.8%, Black, 26%, Hispanic, 16.3%, Asian, 1.6%, and American Indian, .2%
(Alachua County School Advisory Committee Report, 1996). Thus, students of
color make up a larger proportion of the school population in Alachua County
and in the state of Florida than in the country as a whole where the percentage
of children of color is approximately 30% (Gay, 1993). The percentages of
students receiving a free or reduced price lunch in Alachua County in August,
1996 were: White, 33%, Black, 87.8%, Hispanic, 48.7%, Asian, 43.9%, and
American Indian, 72.7%. The racial composition of the instructional staff in
Alachua County is: White, 84.9%, Black, 13.4%, Hispanic, 1.3%, and Asian,
.4%; 93% of the staff are women and 7% are men (Alachua County School
Advisory Council Report, 1996).
The University of Florida’s College of Education has an undergraduate
and graduate student enrollment of approximately 1800 students. Two
undergraduate programs of study with a total enrollment of 800 students are
offered; Elementary Education and Special Education. A Unified Early
Childhood/Special Education specialty is included in the Special Education
program. Secondary education majors are enrolled in the College of Liberal
Arts and Sciences. The College of Education has developed the PROTEACH
(from PROfessional TEACHer) program, a rigorous five year program of
intensive work culminating in a Master of Education degree, in addition to the
bachelor’s degree. The admissions requirements for students applying to the

64
programs in Elementary Education, Special Education and Unified Early
Childhood programs are the same. PROTEACH II, a five year unified
elementary/special education teacher program, will be implemented in the
College of Education by Fall semester, 1999. Thus, the core curriculum offered
to all students in the aforementioned programs as well as the admission
requirements will be the same in the new program.
The racial composition for preservice teachers in Elementary Education
in 1996 at the University of Florida was as follows: White, 85.7%, Hispanic,
6.9%, Black, 4.7%, Asian, 2.1%, American Indian, .2%, and Alien, .3%. Special
Education preservice teachers in 1996 were categorized as follows: White,
81.1%, Hispanic, 9.3%, Black, 4.8%, Asian, 2.1%, American Indian, 1%, and
Alien, 1.7%. In 1996 approximately 89% of both Elementary Education and
Special Education majors were female and 11% were male (1996
demographic data provided by Office of Special Services, College of
Education, University of Florida). These figures include freshman and
sophomores who have declared their majors. However, education majors do
not begin taking courses in the College of Education until their junior year.
Thus, first semester education majors are classified as third year students at the
University of Florida.
The sample for this study consisted of 193 first semester education
majors of junior class standing in the College of Education at the University of
Florida enrolled during Fall Semester, 1997. As beginning students, none had
completed any courses within their major field of study. One hundred thirty five
of these students specializing in elementary education participated as mentors
to individual African American elementary school students who live in housing
projects in Gainesville, Florida. This cross cultural mentoring program known

65
as “Bright Futures,” is a collaborative effort of the Gainesville Housing Authority,
the Gainesville Police Department, and the University of Florida’s College of
Education. Bright Futures is supported by a grant funded by the United States
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). The main purposes of
Bright Futures are: 1) to develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of public
housing youth so that they may be successful learners in and out of school and
active citizens in the community and 2) to help prospective teachers develop
the cultural sensitivity and intercultural competence needed to become
excellent teachers of the diverse children in their classrooms. That is, this
ongoing project is designed to serve the youth who participate as well as the
preservice teachers/mentors who work with them. All first semester elementary
education majors are required to participate in Bright Futures.
Fifty eight first semester special education/unified early childhood
majors of junior class standing in the University of Florida’s College of
Education served as the control group in this study. They did not participate in
the Bright Futures program and did not receive the diversity/comm unications
skills training provided to the experimental (treatment) group. Because the
participants were not selected at random, the experimental and control groups
were not considered equivalent. Thus, the design of this study is considered
quasi-experimental. However, as has been mentioned earlier, the admissions
standards were the same for both groups, none had taken any courses in their
major field of study and had entered the College of Education with equal status.
The profile of the preservice educators who participated in this study is
congruent with that found in most teacher education programs across the
country with regard to race, gender, and age. The experimental group
consisted of 91% females and 9% males. In comparison, 95% of the control

66
group were females and 5% were males. The racial composition of the
experimental group was as follows: White, 85%; Hispanic, 10%; Black, 3%,
Asian, 1%; Mixed, 1%. The control group was categorized as: White, 85%;
Hispanic, 12%, and Black, 3%. The age range for the experimental group was
18-48 years, with 90% of the students falling between the ages of 19-22 years,
the traditional university age group. The control group ranged between 19-30
years, with 92% found in the 19-22 year age bracket. Thus, demographically,
the two groups were very similar with regard to race, gender and age.
Informed consent letters, based on project approval by the University of
Florida Institutional Review Board, were signed by the students agreeing to
participate in the study (Appendix I). The researcher asked participants to
respond to several instruments concerning multicultural issues in education
and explained the contents of the informed consent letter. All students (N=231)
present in classes on the days the instruments were administered agreed to
participate in the study. Eighty four percent of the participants (N=193)
completed both the pretest and posttest instruments.
Relevant Variables
The independent and dependent variables included in this study are
described in this section. Four instruments, in addition to a demographic data
questionnaire, were administered both pre-intervention and post-intervention to
all participants. They were (a) The Quick Discrimination Index (QDI) also
known as the Social Attitude Survey, (b) Beliefs about Teaching, (c) Goals of
Multicultural Education and (d) Teacher Attitudes Survey.
Independent Variable
The one independent variable, or treatment, in this study was the Bright
Futures mentoring program involving a one to one pairing of first semester

67
elementary education preservice teachers and African American elementary
public school students, coinciding with a one semester hour preprofessional
course entitled, “Exploring Diversity" (Appendix A). All mentors were enrolled
in this course and met for an hour once a week for fifteen weeks. The purpose
of the course was to help students explore the concepts of diversity and culture
with regard to their own lives as well as with their work with children and
families. Additionally, mentors were given training in basic communication
skills and problem solving in order to help them establish and develop positive
relationships with their mentees. The “Bright Futures" project coordinator was
the instructor of record for the course and was assisted by the researcher.
The mentors and mentees met together one on one for 20 one hour sessions
over a ten week period. Mentors were given guidelines for developing
relationships with students, responsibilities, content of sessions, themes and
activities, and sample lesson plans (Appendix B and Appendix C). They were
encouraged to help develop their individual mentee’s academic and study
skills, serve as positive role models, support and encourage the child’s efforts,
and promote positive attitudes toward school, learning and the future. Two
orientation meetings organized by the “Bright Futures” Coordinator, a University
of Florida teacher educator, and the researcher, were held for the preservice
teachers; one prior to the mentoring program’s beginning, and the second later
in the semester. Mentors from previous semesters were present at these two
sessions to share experiences and answer questions. The concept of the
“Teacher as Facilitator” (Wittmer & Myrick, 1989) was introduced to the mentors
at the orientations by the researcher. Additionally, three one hour sessions on
interpersonal communications skills were presented to the mentors by the
researcher during the first month of the semester. A one hour session on

68
problem solving was held during the second month of the semester. In sum,
the treatment included; (a) twenty hours of individual mentoring sessions, (b)
four hours of orientation to the Bright Futures program, and (c) fifteen hours of
diversity exploration and personal communications skills training.
Dependent Variables
This investigation focused on five dependent variables: General
(cognitive) attitudes towards racial diversity/multiculturalism, affective attitudes
toward more personal contact (closeness) with racial diversity, beliefs about
diverse learners, attitudes regarding teaching as a career, and perceived goals
for multicultural education in the public schools. Each of the variables was
measured by an appropriate instrument as described below.
Instruments
The instruments measuring the dependent variables included: The
Quick Discrimination Index (QDI) also known as the Social Attitude Survey,
Beliefs about Teaching, a Teacher Attitudes Survey and Goals of Multicultural
Education. All instruments are self-reporting type surveys. (Appendix G)
The Quick Discrimination Index (QDI)
The Quick Discrimination Index (QDI) (Ponterotto, Burkard, Rieger, &
Grieger, 1995) is a 30-item Likert scale self-report measure of racial and gender
attitudes. The QDI measures attitudes toward racial diversity (multiculturalism)
and women’s equality and is appropriate for use with late adolescents and
adults. The instrument itself is titled “Social Attitude Survey” so as to control for
some forms of response bias. It can be used across racial/ethnic groups.
The QDI can be scored in two ways; the total score, which measures overall
sensitivity, awareness, and receptivity to cultural diversity and gender equality,
can be tallied, or the three separate subscales (factors) can be scored.

69
To prevent response bias, a number of QDI items are reverse worded and
therefore must be scored in reverse when tallying scores. The three factors
include (a) general (cognitive) attitudes about racial diversity and
multiculturalism, (b) affective attitudes regarding racial diversity related to one’s
personal life, and (c) general attitudes regarding women’s equity issues.
Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the QDI support the construct
validity of the three-factor model and scoring separate factors is the preferred
method (Ponterotto et al., 1995).
In three separate but coordinated studies designed to develop and
validate the QDI, the total score and subscale scores were found to be internally
consistent, to be stable over a 15-week test-retest period, and to have
promising indexes of face, content, construct and criterion-related validity
(Ponterotto et al., 1995). Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients for Factors 1,
2, and 3 were .80, .83, and .76 respectively. The QDI total score correlated .83
with Factor 1, .72 with Factor 2 and .74 with Factor 3, all significant at p < .01. In
a 15 week test-retest, mean stability coefficients for the 3 factors were .90, .82,
and .81 respectively (Ponterotto et al., 1995). In initial studies, The QDI has
been found to be relatively free of social desirability contamination as
determined by subscale correlations with the Social Desirability Scale (SDS).
The SDS (Crowne & Marlowe, 1960) measures one’s need to seek approval in
a culturally acceptable manner.
This researcher measured Factor 1, General (Cognitive) Attitudes
Toward Racial Diversity/Multiculturalism, and Factor 2, Affective Attitudes
Toward More Personal Contact (Closeness) with Racial Diversity, though the
entire instrument was administered to the participants in the study. The QDI is
included among other viable instruments to be used to measure subtle racial

70
prejudice in recent texts on prejudice (Sandhu & Aspy, 1997, Ponterotto &
Pedersen, 1991).
Beliefs about Teaching Children
Beliefs About Teaching, an instrument which measures one’s beliefs
about teaching minority and at-risk students, was developed by Ross, Johnson
and Smith (1991) and previewed by their faculty and fifth year students for face
and construct validity. The scale currently consists of six items scored by using
a five-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1, agree strongly, to 5, disagree
strongly. Some items are reverse worded and scored to reduce response bias.
Possible scores range from 5 to 30, with lower scores indicating greater control
and influence by schools and teachers on student achievement and higher
scores indicating less control by teachers and schools on student achievement.
The solicitation of comments from preservice teachers concerning these items
can provide more in-depth information concerning their beliefs about teaching
diverse students (Personal conversation with Doreen Ross, June 30, 1997).
Both qualitative and quantitative studies conducted by its authors and their
colleagues have been published using this instrument. The researcher
administered “Beliefs About Teaching” to a group of 40 undergraduate students
to obtain a test-retest reliability measure. The test-retest results over a two
week period yielded a coefficient of .61. This figure is in the lower end of the
moderate range for attitude scales (Borg & Gall, 1989) and may be due to the
small number of items in the scale.
Teacher Attitudes Survey
An 11-item Teacher Attitudes Survey ( Merwin & DiVesta, 1959; Potthoff
& Kline, 1995) which asks participants to respond to items on a 6 point Likert-
type scale was used to collect data regarding attitudes towards teaching as a

71
career. Scores range from 11 to 66 with higher scores indicating a higher
degree of acceptance of and satisfaction with teaching as a profession.
Merwin and Divesta’s (1959) research on attitudes towards teaching as
a career choice was supported by the United States Air Force monitored by the
Office for Social Science Programs, at the Air Force Personnel and Training
Research Center at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas. The premise of their work
was that students undergo a change in attitudes as a result of college
experience. They postulated that the degree of acceptance or rejection of a
career is dependent upon the individual’s perceptions that the career facilitates
or hinders the satisfaction of one’s most important needs. Potthoff and Kline
(1995) also used the instrument in examining preservice teachers’ attitudes
towards teaching as a profession. Their purpose was to measure whether or
not their undergraduate program resulted in any changes in the teacher
education students’ attitudes towards their career choice.
The corrected split-half coefficient of equivalence of the instrument was
.71. The coefficient of stability (test-retest reliability) of the scale obtained over
a four month period was .79. (Merwin & DiVesta, 1959). The researcher
performed chronbach alphas on the pretest and posttest administration of the
instrument for the present study. The chronbach alpha for the pretest was .77
and for the posttest was .78, indicating a high internal consistency of the test.
In addition to the above described standardized instruments, the
researcher also administered a “Bright Futures” questionnaire (Appendix H) to
the experimental group at the end of the semester. Although not a part of the
quantitative analysis used to test the hypotheses posed in this study, it provided
information regarding the value of the mentoring experience for the preservice
teachers.

72
Goals of Multicultural Education
The Goals of Multicultural Education survey consists of five possible
stated goals of multicultural education and represents a rewording of Sleeter
and Grant’s (1994) approaches to multicultural education. Preservice teachers
are asked, “If you could only teach one of the goals listed below, which one
would you select?" The following choices are presented to teacher education
students (Haberman & Post, 1990):
1. Children/youth would learn that all people are individuals—distinctive
personalities—regardless of their backgrounds.
2. Children/youth would learn that we all have to learn to live together in this
world regardless of any group differences. Cooperation and tolerance are
vital.
3. Children/youth would learn that every person came from some ethnic group
and all groups are equally fine.
4. Children/youth would learn that the U. S. is made up of many racial, ethnic,
and religious groups and each must be protected and enhanced.
5. Children/youth would learn that we all have a responsibility to change the
discrimination and prejudice in our society against certain groups.
Several researchers, as cited in Chapter II, have used this measurement
to examine teacher education students' conceptions of and appreciation for
multicultural education. Further, using a pre-post test, change in such
conceptions over time can be measured. Goals 1 and 2 of this instrument
focus on helping diverse students fit into mainstream society (accommodation)
as compared to Goals 3-5 which indicate a desire to change societal conditions
to encompass diversity (Colville-Hall et al., 1995). That is, movement from the
lower goals (1 and 2) towards the higher three goals is seen as a shift in

73
thinking from a status quo position towards a more activist stance with regard to
social structural equality and equal opportunity in the school (Nel, 1993).
The researcher administered this instrument to a class of 40 undergraduate
students prior to the beginning of this research to establish test-retest reliability.
The test-retest results over a two week period yielded a coefficient of .67. This
coefficient is in the moderate range for attitude scales (Borg & Gall, 1989) and
may be due to the small number of items in the scale.
Hypotheses
There were five dependent variables investigated in this study: the
preservice teachers’ cognitive attitudes towards racial diversity, their affective
attitudes towards racial diversity, their beliefs about diverse learners, their
attitudes towards teaching as a career and their perceived goals for
multicultural education. An appropriate alpha level ( a=.05) was used to
determine whether any differences found in the means of the groups measured
were greater than by chance alone. The alpha level represents the risk of
mistakenly rejecting the null hypothesis and thus of committing a Type I error
(Cohen, 1992).
The following five null hypotheses were tested:
1. There will be no difference between the experimental and control groups on
general (cognitive) attitudes towards racial diversity as measured by factor one
of the Quick Discrimination Index.
2. There will be no difference between the experimental and control groups'
affective attitudes towards racial diversity as measured by factor two of the
Quick Discrimination Index.
3. There will be no difference between the experimental and control groups’

74
beliefs about teaching culturally diverse children as measured by the Beliefs
About Teaching instrument.
4. There will be no difference between the experimental and control groups'
attitudes towards teaching as a career as measured by the Teacher Attitudes
Survey.
5. There will be no difference between the experimental and control groups’
perceptions of the goals of multicultural education as measured by the Goals of
Multicultural Education survey.
Research Design and Data Analysis
The hypotheses were tested on the data derived from two groups
representing a nonequivalent control group design (Borg & Gall, 1989). This
design is considered quasi-experimental as subjects were not randomly
assigned to groups. The characteristics of this design are the administration of
a pretest and posttest to both the experimental and control groups as well as
the nonrandom assignment of subjects to groups. The pretest-posttest control
group design attempts to minimize threats to internal validity such as history,
maturation, testing, instrumentation, mortality, selection, and statistical
regression (Borg & Gall, 1989). The specific threats to internal validity that are
controlled for in a nonequivalent control group design are history, maturation,
testing, instrumentation, selection, and mortality (Lehman, 1996).
Four of the hypotheses in this study were tested utilizing an analysis of
covariance (ANCOVA). ANCOVA is a method of data analysis used to control
for any initial differences between groups (Borg & Gall, 1989). Since this
researcher utilized a nonequivalent control group design, ANCOVA was the
most appropriate statistical method to use to analyze the data. This involved

75
comparing the posttest means on each measure using the corresponding
pretest scores as a covariate. Adjusted posttest means were calculated to
compensate for differences on the pretest.
The purpose of the ANCOVA was to help the researcher decide whether
the observed differences between means may be due to chance or to
systematic differences among treatment populations (Shavelson, 1996).
ANCOVA was performed on the adjusted posttest means from each of the first
four instruments administered to the subjects. That is, there were four separate
ANCOVAS performed; one for each corresponding measurement instrument
administered to the participants.
Because the Goals of Multicultural Education survey uses an ordinal
scale, the chi-square test, a nonparametric test of significance was used to test
hypothesis 5. A chi-square test examines hypotheses on the association
between categorical variables. Goals 1 and 2 of this instrument focus on
helping diverse students fit into mainstream society (accommodation) as
compared to Goals 3-5 which indicate a desire to change societal conditions to
encompass diversity (Colville-Hall et al., 1995). Thus, goals 1 and 2 were
viewed as one category, and similarly, goals 3-5 were viewed as a second
category for the purposes of analyzing the data in this study.
Participant Training
The training procedures conducted with the preservice teacher mentors
to help prepare them for their mentoring experience and to assist them in
developing a positive relationship with their African American elementary
school student mentees are described in this section.
Each mentor was required to purchase a Bright Futures Handbook
explaining the purposes of the program, Bright Futures vocabulary, learning

76
center locations, directions, guidelines for developing relationships with
students, mentor responsibilities, paperwork responsibilities, content of a
mentoring session, developing activities around a theme, supplies and
resources, and sample lesson plans. Appendices to the handbook provided
additional resources for the mentors. These included a multicultural reading list
geared for elementary school students, D’Nealian handwriting models, various
materials that were on reserve in the University library, the Dolch Basic Sight
Word List, and forms for lesson plans, notes to parents and progress reports for
the mentees.
As noted, the preservice teacher mentors were enrolled in a required
one semester hour course taught by the Bright Futures project coordinator and
assisted by the researcher. Class time and reading assignments were
structured around multicultural issues as related to the Bright Futures mentoring
experience and ongoing support was provided the mentors throughout the
semester. Approximately one fourth (four hours) of the course time was used by
the researcher to provide the mentors with training in basic communications
skills and problem solving in order to help them establish and develop positive,
helping relationships with their African American mentees. Additionally, the
mentors participated in two, two hour orientation sessions designed to
familiarize them with the purpose and specific tasks of the forthcoming
mentoring experience. Their mentoring sessions occurred twice a week for one
hour per session over a ten week period for a total of 20 hours of contact.
Learning centers, located in each of five local housing projects, served as the
sites for the mentoring project and were supervised by site managers. The four
one hour communications skills training sessions were provided to the mentors
by the researcher. The training was conducted prior to the beginning of

77
mentoring with later followup. The Facilitative Model (Wittmer & Myrick, 1989,
Myrick, 1993) was used as the basis for training. This model incorporates core
helping skills and basic interpersonal concepts. Feeling focused responses to
students, summarizing and clarifying, asking open questions, giving
complimentary and confrontive feedback, acknowledging and linking
responses were presented, demonstrated and practiced (Appendices D and E).
The Systematic Problem Solving Model (Myrick, 1993) was also
introduced to the mentors for use with their mentees. The steps are as follows:
(a) What is the problem or situation? (b) What have you tried? (c) What else
could you do? (d) What is your next step? (p. 159-162). Although mentors
were not trained specifically as counselors, this paradigm was considered
helpful in their communication with their mentees. For example, if a mentee
was having difficulty completing school assignments or mentor-mentee
projects, the problem solving model was viewed as a productive method for the
mentor to talk to the mentee about the issue.
Two orientation sessions were conducted for the Bright Futures Mentors;
one occurred before mentoring began while the other was scheduled for the
week during which the mentors held their first meeting with their mentees. The
first orientation session was concerned with the “nuts and bolts" issues of the
mentoring program. That is, the contents of the Bright Futures handbook were
explained, program logistics were presented, and questions were answered.
Additionally, a presentation of “The Teacher as Facilitator” (Wittmer & Myrick,
1989) was given by the researcher including the characteristics of the
Facilitative Teacher, the basic needs of young children and how to
communicate effectively with them. Topics of conversation and activities to
share with the mentees were also presented and discussed (Appendix F).

78
The second orientation consisted of a panel presentation by former
mentors who shared their mentoring experiences with the new mentors. They
were asked to give examples of activities and projects they had used with their
students, talked about establishing a positive relationship with a mentee of a
different culture/race, and shared their reflections and feelings about their
involvement in the Bright Futures program. Additionally, the former mentors
answered questions and addressed concerns voiced by the mentors
participating in this study.
Procedure
This study was conducted during the 15 week Fall Semester, 1997.
Pretest instruments were administered to the experimental and control groups
during the first week of the semester in classes being taken by all of the
research participants. Thus a potential research problem of pretest sensitization
was minimized. Because the instruments were administered in a class other
than the required “Exploring Diversity” course, the questionnaires were not
associated with the intervention given to the experimental group.
Communications skills training was provided to the experimental group,
the Bright Futures mentors, in the previously described preprofessional course
during weeks three through six. The first orientation meeting was held for all
mentors during week three followed by a second meeting during week six.
Mentoring began at the learning centers during week six and continued for 10
consecutive weeks. Finally, the posttest instruments were administered during
the last week of the semester following the 10 week mentoring period.
Summary
In this chapter the researcher has described the population and sample,
the relevant variables, instrumentation, research design, data analysis, and the

79
hypotheses that were tested. Further, the Bright Futures mentoring program,
training procedures and sequence of events were described. The results of
testing the null hypotheses are presented in Chapter IV.

CHAPTER 1V
RESULTS
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a cross cultural
mentoring program and accompanying diversity/communications skills training
on the attitudes of preservice teachers towards racial diversity and multicultural
education. Specifically, the researcher examined the effects of the mentoring
program and skills training on the preservice teachers’ cognitive and affective
attitudes and beliefs about minority groups and minority learners, their goals of
multicultural education, and their attitudes towards teaching as a career.
Data were completed on 193 preservice teachers enrolled in the
College of Education at the University of Florida, Gainesville, during the Fall
Semester, 1997. More specifically, there were 135 first semester elementary
education majors in the experimental group who participated in the cross
cultural mentoring project known as “Bright Futures”. They received
diversity/communications skills training in a required preprofessional one
semester hour course entitled “Exploring Diversity”. Fifty eight first semester
special education/unified early childhood majors served as the control group for
this study. They did not participate in the mentoring project nor did they receive
the diversity/communications skills training given the experimental group.
Participants in both the experimental and control groups completed all
measurement instruments at the beginning and at the end of the 15 week
semester in order to measure change in attitudes by group on the dependent
variables selected.
80

81
Because of the nonequivalent control group design of this study,
analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was the chosen method of data analysis. To
sharpen the assessment of experimental effects by removing the influence of
any preintervention variation, pretest scores were used as covariates in
computing analyses of covariance on the posttest scores for each measure.
Four separate analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were conducted, one
for each of the four dependent variables measured in the first four hypotheses
of this study. The experimental and control groups were examined on the
following variables: cognitive attitudes towards racial diversity, affective
attitudes towards racial diversity, beliefs about diverse learners, and attitudes
towards teaching as a career. Each hypothesis was stated in the null form and
was tested at the .05 level of significance.
“Goals of Multicultural Education,” the survey used to measure the
dependent variable in hypothesis five, uses an ordinal scale of measurement.
Thus, the chi-Square test, a nonparametric test of significance, was applied to
the pretest and posttest. Hypothesis five was also tested at the .05 level of
significance.
The Results of Testing Hypothesis One
Hypothesis 1. There will be no difference between the experimental and
control groups on cognitive attitudes towards racial diversity as measured by
factor one of the Quick Discrimination Index (QDI).
Factor one of the QDI measures the cognitive component of attitudes
towards racial diversity and was the survey instrument used in conjunction with
hypothesis one. This instrument measures the beliefs that people hold
concerning the object of an attitude (Ponterotto et al., 1995). The instrument
itself when administered is titled “Social Attitude Survey.” According to the

82
author, this controls for possible response bias which may result from the
connotation of the title “Quick Discrimination Index."
Factor one on the survey consists of nine items using a Likert-type scale
from one, “disagree strongly,” to five, “agree strongly," with a possible range of 9
to 45. For example, one item asks for level of agreement to the statement, “I
think white people's racism toward racial minority groups still constitutes a
major problem in America.” Another item asks the respondents for their level of
agreement on “I really think affirmative action programs on college campuses
constitute reverse discrimination." Items are framed in both negative and
positive directions. Before data analysis occurred, items written in the negative
were reversed for consistency and ease of interpretation. Higher scores
indicate more awareness, sensitivity, and receptivity to the cognitive component
of racial diversity.
Participants in both the experimental and control groups completed this
survey at the beginning and at the end of the 15 week treatment period in order
to measure change in group attitudes towards cognitive attitudes towards racial
diversity. Means and standard deviations were calculated on the pretests and
posttests for both the experimental and control groups. Adjusted means were
computed for use in the final posttest score comparisons.
As illustrated in Table 4-1, members of the control group achieved a
pretest mean score of 30.07 with a standard deviation of 5.36, a posttest mean
score of 30.24 with a standard deviation of 5.98, and a posttest adjusted mean
score of 30.37. The range of scores on factor one for the control group was 20
to 44 on the pretest and 16 to 44 on the posttest. The experimental group
achieved a pretest mean score of 30.27 with a standard deviation of 5.34, a
posttest mean score of 31.56 with a standard deviation of 5.06, and a posttest

83
adjusted mean score of 31.54. The range of scores for the experimental group
was 16 to 44 on the pretest and 15 to 44 on the posttest. Analysis of covariance
yielded a significant difference (F= 4.64, p-03) between the adjusted mean
posttest scores of the treatment group and the control group, supporting the
notion of a treatment effect. Therefore, the null hypothesis that there would be
no difference in cognitive attitudes towards racial diversity between the two
groups was rejected.
Table 4-1
Pretest-Posttest Mean Scores and Standard Deviations bv Group
for Quick Discrimination Index-Factor one
QDI-1
Pretest Mean (s.d.)
Posttest Mean (s.d)
Adjusted Mean
Experimental
(N=135)
30.27 (5.34)
31.56 (5.06)
31.54
Control
(N=58)
30.07 (5.36)
30.24 (5.98)
30.37
F=4.64, p=.03
Results of Testing Hypothesis Two
Hypothesis 2. There will be no difference between the experimental and
control groups’ affective attitudes towards more personal contact with racial
diversity as measured by factor two of the Quick Discrimination Index.
Factor two of the Quick Discrimination Index (QDI) was used to measure
the affective attitudes towards more personal contact with racial diversity in this
study. The index measures a respondent’s feelings stimulated by an attitude
object (Ponterotto et al., 1995). Factor two of the QDI consists of seven items
using a Likert-type scale from one to five with a score range of 7 to 35. Higher

84
scores indicate more awareness, sensitivity, and receptivity to the affective
component of racial diversity. For example, one requests the respondents’
level of agreement to the statement, “I think it is (or would be) important for my
children to attend schools that are racially mixed.” Another item asks for level of
agreement on, “If I were to adopt a child, I would be happy to adopt a child of
any race.” As with factor one, items are framed in both positive and negative
directions and those items written in the negative were reverse scored prior to
conducting data analysis. Means and standard deviations were calculated on
the pretests and posttests for the experimental and control groups. Adjusted
means were computed to use in the final posttest score comparisons.
In checking the assumption of homogeneity of regression slopes for
ANCOVA, a significant interaction (F=4.73, p=.03) between the pretest and the
treatment was found. Adjusting for pretest differences, the control group in this
study had relatively lower adjusted posttest scores than did the experimental
group on the lower end of the QDI factor 2 range. However, the control group
was found to have relatively higher adjusted posttest scores than did the
experimental group on the higher end of the QDI factor 2 range. According to
Shavelson (1996), when an interaction occurs, attention should focus on this
interaction rather than comparing group means. Because the regression
slopes for the two groups were not homogeneous, it would be inappropriate to
interpret the F statistic and corresponding p value. As shown in Table 4-2,
preservice teachers in the control group achieved a pretest mean score of
24.10 with a standard deviation of 4.56, a posttest mean score of 24.02 with a
standard deviation of 4.85, and a posttest adjusted mean score of 23.81 on
factor two of the QDI. The range of scores for the control group on factor two
was 14 to 35 on the pretest and 13 to 35 on the posttest.

85
The experimental group had a mean pretest score of 23.79 with a
standard deviation of 5.44, a posttest mean score of 23.70 with a standard
deviation of 4.89, and a posttest adjusted mean score of 23.76. The range of
scores for the experimental group was 11 to 35 on the pretest and 12 to 35 on
the posttest. Both groups showed a slight decrease in their respective mean
scores over the course of the fifteen week period.
Table 4-2
Pretest-Posttest Mean Scores and Standard Deviations bv Group
for Quick Discrimination Index-Factor two
QDI-2
Pretest Mean (s.á.)
Posttest Mean (s.d.)
Adjusted Mean
Experimental
(N=135)
23.79 (5.44)
23.70 (4.89)
23.76
Control
(N=58)
24.10 (4.56)
24.02 (4.85)
23.81
Results of Testing Hypothesis Three
Hypothesis 3. There will be no difference between the experimental and
control groups’ beliefs about teaching culturally diverse children as measured
by the Beliefs About Teaching instrument.
Beliefs About Teaching is an instrument which measures one’s beliefs
about teaching minority and at-risk students and was administered to all the
participants in this study. The scale consists of six items scored by using a
Likert-type scale ranging from 1, agree strongly, to 5, disagree strongly. For
example, one item asks for level of agreement to the statement, “An important
job for teachers working with diverse children is to make up for the deficits in the
children’s academic background." Another item asks the respondent his/her

86
rate of agreement to “In our system of equal educational opportunity, any child
who applies himself/herself has a good chance of succeeding in school.”
Possible scores range from 5 to 30, with lower scores indicating greater
influence and responsibility of schools and teachers on student achievement.
Some items on the Beliefs About Teaching instrument are reverse worded and
scored to reduce response bias and such scoring was done prior to analyzing
the data. Means and standard deviations were calculated on the pretests and
posttests for the experimental and control groups. Adjusted means were
computed to use in the final posttest score comparisons.
As illustrated in Table 4-3, students in the control group achieved a
pretest mean score of 13.55 with a standard deviation of 2.50, a posttest mean
score of 14.41 with a standard deviation of 2.28, and a posttest adjusted mean
score of 14.58. The range of scores for the control group was 6 to 20 on the
pretest and 10 to 20 on the posttest. The experimental group attained a pretest
mean score of 14.47 with a standard deviation of 2.64, a posttest mean score of
14.62 with a standard deviation of 2.30, and a posttest adjusted mean score of
14.51. The range of scores was 6 to 22 on the pretest and 9 to 23 on the
posttest. Analysis of covariance did not yield a significant difference (F=.20,
£=.65) between the adjusted mean posttest scores of the experimental and the
control groups. Therefore, the null hypothesis that there would be no difference
in attitudes towards teaching culturally diverse children between the two groups
participating in this study was not rejected.

87
Table 4-3
Pretest-Posttest Mean Scores and Standard Deviations
by Group for Beliefs About Teaching
BAT Pretest Mean (s.d.) Posttest Mean (s.d.) Adjusted Mean
Experimental 14.47(2.64) 14.62(2.30) 14.51
(N=135)
Control 13.55(2.50) 14.41 (2.28) 14.58
(N=58)
F=.20, £=.65
The Results of Testing Hypothesis Four
Hypothesis 4. There will be no difference between the experimental and
control groups’ attitudes towards teaching as a career as measured by the
Teacher Attitudes Survey.
The Teacher Attitudes Survey measures respondents’ attitudes towards
teaching as a choice of profession and was used in conjunction with hypothesis
four. More specifically, this survey instrument, when used in repeated
measures, detects a respondent’s change in attitude over time. It should be
acknowledged that, simply as a result of university experience, preservice
teachers may modify their feelings about teaching as a career choice (Merwin &
Divesta, 1959; Potthoff & Kline, 1995).
The Teacher Attitudes Survey consists of 11 items which asked the
respondents for their degree of agreement on a Likert-type scale from one to six
with “one” corresponding with “strongly disagree” and “six” indicating “strongly

88
agree." The total score ranges between 11 and 66. Higher scores indicate a
higher degree of acceptance of, and satisfaction with, teaching as a profession.
For example, one item asks for the respondent’s level of agreement with the
statement, “Teaching is about the best job I can think of...” Another item states,
“There are more advantages than disadvantages to teaching as a career.”
Some items on this survey are framed in a positive direction while others
are framed negatively to avoid response bias. Those written in the negative
frame were reverse scored by the researcher prior to totaling the numbers and
analyzing the data. Means and standard deviations were calculated on the
pretests and posttests for the experimental and control groups. Adjusted means
were computed to use in the final posttest score comparisons.
As illustrated in Table 4-4, preservice teachers in the control group
achieved a pretest mean score of 54.40 with a standard deviation of 5.49, a
posttest mean score of 53.55 with a standard deviation of 5.56, and a posttest
adjusted mean score of 53.61. The range of scores for the control group was
43 to 63 on the pretest and 39 to 64 on the posttest. The experimental group
attained a pretest mean score of 54.05 with a standard deviation of 6.07, a
posttest mean score of 52.67 with a standard deviation of 6.44, and a posttest
adjusted mean of 52.91. The range for the pretest was 19 to 66 and for the
posttest was 24 to 64. Both groups showed a slight decrease in their mean
score over the course of the semester. Analysis of covariance did not yield a
significant difference (F=.68, p=.41) between the posttest adjusted mean scores
of the experimental and control groups and hypothesis four could not be
rejected.

89
Table 4-4
Pretest-Posttest Mean Scores and Standard Deviations
by Group for Teacher Attitudes Survey
TAS
Pretest Mean (s. dl
Posttest Mean (s. d.)
Adjusted Mean
Experimental
(N=135)
54.05 (6.07)
52.67 (6.44)
52.91
Control
(N=58)
54.40(5.49)
53.55 (5.56)
53.61
F=.68, g=41
Results of Testing Hypothesis Five
Hypothesis 5. There will be no difference between the experimental and
control groups’ perceptions of the goals of multicultural education as measured
by the Goals of Multicultural Education survey.
The Goals of Multicultural Education survey was given to both the
experimental and control group participants. The survey consists of five
possible stated goals of multicultural education and represents a rewording of
Sleeter and Grant’s (1994) approaches to multicultural education. The
participating preservice teachers were asked, “If you could only teach one of
the goals listed below, which one would you select?” The following choices are
presented in the survey: (Haberman & Post, 1990)
1. Children/youth would learn that all people are individuals—distinctive
personalities—regardless of their backgrounds.
2. Children/youth would learn that we all have to learn to live together in this
world regardless of any group differences. Cooperation and tolerance are
vital.

90
3. Children/youth would learn that every person came from some ethnic group
and all groups are equally fine.
4. Children/youth would learn that the U. S. is made up of many racial, ethnic,
and religious groups and each must be protected and enhanced.
5. Children/youth would learn that we all have a responsibility to change the
discrimination and prejudice in our society against certain groups.
Several researchers, as cited in Chapter II, have used this survey to
examine teacher education students’ perceptions of, and appreciation for, the
purposes of multicultural education. Further, using a pre-post test, change in
such perceptions over time can be measured. Goals 1 and 2 of this instrument
focus on helping diverse students fit into mainstream society (accommodation)
as compared to Goals 3-5 which measures one’s desire to change societal
conditions to encompass diversity (Colville-Hall et al., 1995). That is,
movement from the lower goals (1 and 2) towards the higher three goals is
viewed as a shift in thinking from a status quo position towards a more activist
stance with regard to social structural equality and equal opportunity in school
(Nel, 1993).
As noted, because the Goals of Multicultural Education uses an ordinal
scale of measurement, the chi-square test, a nonparametric test of significance,
was applied to the pretest and posttest of both groups participating in this study.
Chi-square tests are used with frequency data and test the null hypothesis that
two variables are independent of one another in a given population
(Shavelson, 1996).
Numbers of those preservice teachers in each of the experimental and
control groups who selected the category of goals 1 and 2 were grouped
together (category 1) as were the number of preservice teachers in each of the

91
experimental and control groups who selected the category of goals 3-5
(category 2). The hypothesis was tested at the .05 level of significance.
As is shown in Table 4-5, 39 participants in the control group (67.24%)
selected the lower level goals 1 and 2 while 19 (32.76%) selected the higher
level goals 3-5 on the pretest. Ninety seven (71.85%) of the participants in the
experimental group chose goals 1 and 2, while 38 (28.15%) chose goals 3-5.
Chi-square analysis did not yield a significant difference (X2= .41, p=.52)
between the two groups on the pretest.
As displayed in Table 4-6, on the posttest, 39 members of the control
group (67.24%) selected goals 1 or 2, while 19 (32.76%) selected goals 3, 4 or
5. Seventy two (53.33%) members of the experimental group chose goals 1 or
2, while 63 (46.67%) chose goals 3, 4 or 5. Chi-square analysis did not reveal
a significant relationship (X2 = 3.21, p =.07) between the experimental and
control groups’ scores on the posttest. Therefore, the null hypothesis that there
would be no difference in the perceptions of the goal of multicultural education
between the two groups participating in this study was not rejected.
Although the results of the chi-square test did not reveal significant
differences between the experimental and control groups on either the pretest
or posttest, it is interesting to observe the shift in the experimental group from
prettest to posttest from goals 1 -2 to goals 3-5. While the control group was
unchanged in numbers from the pretest condition to the posttest, the
experimental group experienced a positive shift of 25 students from the lower
level goals to the higher level goals from the pretest to the posttest. Further, the
P value decreased from .52 in the pretest to .07 in the posttest, approaching the
.05 level of significance set for the analysis.

92
Table 4-5.
Pretest Numbers of Participants bv Group and Category
for Goals of Multicultural Education (GME1
GME
Goals 1-2 (Cateaorv 1)
Goals 3-5 (Cateaorv 21
Control
39
19
(N=58)
(67.24%)
(32.76%)
Experimental
97
38
(N=135)
(71.85%)
(28.15%)
X2=41,e=52
Table 4-6
Posttest Numbers of Participants bv Group
and Cateaorv
for Goals of Multicultural Education (GME)
GME
Goals 1-2 (Cateaorv 11
Goals 3-5 (Cateaorv 21
Control
39
19
(N=58)
(67.24%)
(32.76%)
Experimental
72
63
(N=135)
(53.33%)
(46.67%)
X2=3.21,b=.07
Summary
The analysis of the data on the Quick Discrimination Index-Factor one,
concerning cognitive attitudes towards racial diversity, revealed a significant
difference in the adjusted mean posttest scores of the experimental and control
groups participating in this study. The experimental group had a higher score,

93
indicating a higher degree of awareness, receptivity and sensitivity to the
cognitive component of racial diversity. Hypothesis one was rejected.
In checking the assumption of the homogeneity of regression slopes
between the experimental and control groups for the Quick Discrimination
Index-Factor two, a significant interaction was found. Adjusting for pretest
differences, the control group had relatively lower adjusted posttest scores than
did the experimental group on the lower end of the scale, but higher adjusted
posttest scores on the higher end of the scale. Thus attention was focused on
this interaction. It was not appropriate to interpret the F statistic and
accompanying p value.
No significant differences were found between groups on adjusted
posttest means on either the Beliefs About Teaching or Teacher Attitude
Surveys and hypotheses three and four were not rejected.
Chi-square tests on both the pretest and posttest administrations of the
Goals of Multicultural Education revealed no significant differences between
groups and selection of the goals. However, although there was no change in
the control groups’ goals from pretest to posttest, there was a shift of twenty five
students in the experimental group from the lower level goals to the higher level
goals, indicating a change of perception in the positive direction for that number
of students.
Discussion of conclusions, implications, recommendations and
limitations of the study are presented in Chapter V.

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS, LIMITATIONS,
RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
Summary
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a cross cultural
mentoring program and accompanying diversity/communications skills training
on the attitudes of preservice teachers towards racial diversity and multicultural
education. Specifically, the researcher examined the effects of the mentoring
program and skills training on the preservice teachers’ cognitive and affective
attitudes and beliefs about minority groups and minority learners, their goals of
multicultural education, and their attitudes towards teaching as a career.
One hundred and ninety three preservice teachers in the College of
Education at the University of Florida, Gainesville, completed all necessary
pretests and posttests for data analysis during Fall Semester, 1997.
There were 135 first semester elementary education majors in the
experimental group who participated in the cross cultural school-based
mentoring program known as “Bright Futures." This program, a collaborative
effort of the Gainesville Housing Authority, the Gainesville Police Department,
and the University of Florida's College of Education, has been supported by a
grant funded by the United States Department of Housing and Urban
Development (HUD) over the past several years. Ninety one percent of the
experimental group was female while nine percent was male. The racial
94

95
makeup of this group was 85% White, 10% Hispanic, 3% Black, 1% Asian, and
1% Mixed.
In addition to the 20 hours of mentoring experience, the “Bright Futures”
preservice teachers received diversity/communications skills training in a
required, preprofessional one semester hour course entitled “Exploring
Diversity.” The major course objectives were to learn (a) the meaning and
significance of culture; (b) to view events from multiple perspectives and
withhold judgment of people; (c) about their own assumptions and
stereotypes; and (d) to develop supportive relationships with people who are
different from themselves.
Fifty eight first semester special education/unified early childhood
majors served as the control group for this study. They did not participate in the
mentoring project and did not receive the diversity/communications skills
training given the experimental group. Ninety five percent of the control group
were female and five percent were male. The racial makeup of this group was
85% White, 12% Hispanic, and 3% Black.
The treatment intervention took place during a fifteen week period
during the Fall Semester, 1997. The “Exploring Diversity” course met weekly
for an hour per class for a total of 15 hours of contact. Further, two orientation
sessions were held outside of class time for a total of four hours to provide
t
guidelines for the mentoring program, to answer questions and to introduce the
“Teacher as a Facilitator” skills model to the experimental group. The
participants’ mentoring sessions with African American elementary level
students took place twice weekly for an hour per meeting. They began during
week five of the semester and continued for a total of ten weeks.

96
Participants in both the experimental and control groups completed all
measurement instruments at the beginning and at the end of the fifteen week
semester in order to measure change in group attitudes on the five dependent
variables. The five dependent variables were cognitive attitudes towards racial
diversity, affective attitudes towards racial diversity, beliefs about teaching poor
and minority children, attitudes towards teaching as a career, and perceptions
of the goals of multicultural education.
The design of the study was a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control
group design. A separate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to
analyze the data for each of the first four hypotheses. Pretest scores were
used as covariates in computing ANCOVAS on the posttest scores for each
measure. Chi-square tests were used for analyzing the categorical data for
hypothesis five. Each of the five hypotheses was stated in the null form and
was tested at the .05 level of significance.
The instruments used to measure the five dependent variables included
the Quick Discrimination Index (Factors one and two), Beliefs About Teaching,
Teacher Attitudes Scale, and Goals of Multicultural Education.
The analysis of the data on the Quick Discrimination Index-Factor one,
concerning cognitive attitudes towards racial diversity, revealed a significant
difference in the adjusted mean posttest scores of the experimental and control
groups participating in this study. The experimental group had a higher score,
indicating a higher degree of awareness, receptivity and sensitivity to the
cognitive component of racial diversity (see Table 4-1, Chapter Four).
Hypothesis one was rejected.
In checking the assumption of the homogeneity of regression slopes
between the experimental and control groups for the Quick Discrimination

97
Index-Factor two, affective attitudes towards racial diversity, a significant
interaction was found. Adjusting for pretest differences, the control group had
relatively lower adjusted posttest scores than did the experimental group on the
lower end of the scale, but higher adjusted posttest scores on the higher end of
the scale. Thus attention was focused on this interaction. It was not
appropriate to interpret the F statistic and accompanying p value. Both groups
had slight decreases on their posttest adjusted mean scores (see Table 4-2,
Chapter Four).
No significant differences were found between groups on adjusted
posttest means on the Beliefs About Teaching Survey and hypothesis three
was not rejected (see Table 4-3, Chapter Four).
Data analysis did not reveal significant differences between the two
groups on the Teacher Attitudes Survey and hypothesis four was not rejected
(see Table 4-4, Chapter Four).
The chi-square test conducted on both the pretest and posttest
administrations of the Goals of Multicultural Education revealed no significant
differences between groups and selection of the goals. Although there was no
change in the control group from pretest to posttest selection of goals, there was
a shift of twenty five students in the experimental group from the lower level
goals to the higher level goals, indicating a change of perception in the positive
direction for that number of students (see Tables 4-5 and 4-6, Chapter Four).
Discussion
The experimental and control groups were very similar with regard to
race/ethnicity, gender and age. Both groups closely mirrored the population of
teacher education programs found across the United States. The differences

98
in their pretest mean scores on the various measurement instruments were
small and were controlled for by the data analysis.
No significant differences were found between group posttest adjusted
mean scores on two of the dependent variables. That is, the participating
preservice teachers' beliefs about teaching diverse children and their attitudes
towards teaching as a profession did not change significantly over the course
of the semester and were not different from the control group. The Teacher
Attitudes Survey, which measures respondents’ attitudes towards teaching as
a profession, revealed no significant differences between the experimental and
control groups on posttest adjusted mean scores. Both groups showed a slight
decline in mean scores from the pretest to the posttest. Results of previous
studies (Merwin & Divesta, 1959; Potthoff & Kline, 1995) have also shown a
decline in preservice teachers’ scores revealing a slightly less positive attitude
toward teaching as a career after having had some university experiences
relating to teaching. It may be that taking courses, direct involvement with
children and experiencing some of the pressures associated with teaching
served as a “reality check” for these teachers in training as reflected in their
posttest scores. It would seem that preservice teachers who are just entering
their major would be expected to be very positive about their career choice as
demonstrated by the high pretest scores.
There was a statistically significant difference between the experimental
and control groups in this study on cognitive attitudes towards racial diversity.
A treatment effect was found with the experimental group scoring higher on the
posttest, indicating a greater degree of awareness, receptivity and sensitivity to
the cognitive component of racial diversity. The intervention of mentoring and

99
diversity/communications skills training appeared to have had a positive effect
on the cognitive attitudes of the preservice teachers participating in this study.
The posttest adjusted mean scores of the affective attitudes towards
more personal contact with racial diversity actually decreased slightly for both
groups. It appears that among the participants of this study, affective attitudes,
which reflect one's emotions, are more immutable to change than are cognitive
attitudes, which are an expression of one’s thinking. As discussed previously,
attitudes and beliefs change gradually; teachers need time to accommodate
and assimilate new information, accept and reject ideas, modify belief systems
and adopt new beliefs (Pajares, 1993). The span of a fifteen week semester
may have been too short a time period to experience measurable, significant
changes in the affective attitudes of the preservice teachers in this study.
Although no statistically significant differences were found between the
experimental and control group with regard to the categories of goals of
multicultural education in the pretest condition and in the posttest condition,
twenty five preservice teachers in the experimental group did shift from the
lower level goals in the pretest to the higher level goals in the posttest. The
control group was unchanged in numbers in the lower and higher categories
from the pretest to the posttest. Further, the £ value decreased from £=.42 in
the pretest t o p=.07 in the posttest, thus showing a change which approached
statistical significance at the .05 level.
Of practical significance is the positive change that occurred for a
moderate number of preservice teachers in the treatment group participating in
this study. The goals of multicultural education can also represent a cognitive
measure of attitudes towards racial diversity; that is, ways of thinking with
regard to responsibilities of educators as a group towards children. Such

100
goals are not as persona! or intimate as are some of the affective measures
which ask for attitudes towards such issues as interracial friendship and
marriage. Further, it is possible to consider that as a result of discussion of and
reflection on issues of diversity in education, as well as contact with diverse
children, some of the preservice teachers shifted their thinking from a status
quo position to that of a more activist stance with regard to social structural
equality and equal opportunity in the school. Previous studies (Haberman &
Post, 1990; Nel, 1993; Goodwin, 1994) have found that the majority of
preservice teachers choose the lower level goals of multicultural education
when asked which typology they would select to teach, but the researchers did
not report posttest comparisons following their interventions.
Results of a Post Treatment Questionnaire
A “Bright Futures Questionnaire," utilizing a Likert-type scale of one,
strongly disagree, to five, strongly agree, was administered to the experimental
group during the last week of the semester (Appendix H). Although not a
component of the primary data used in this study, the purpose of the
questionnaire was to obtain feedback from preservice teacher participants in
the Bright Futures Mentoring project regarding their mentoring experiences,
their relationships with their mentees, and of the value of the program to them.
Space for comments was also given.
Further, ten questions were included that asked respondents to rate
their feelings and beliefs at the beginning of the semester and at its conclusion
concerning teaching culturally diverse children. The perceived changes in
feelings and beliefs of the participants over the duration of the semester was
examined by the researcher on those items. One hundred twenty four Bright

101
Futures preservice teachers responded to the questionnaire, representing 93%
of the experimental group.
Ninety two percent of the participants agreed or strongly agreed with the
statement, “I was comfortable with my mentee,” while 77% agreed or strongly
agreed that “It was easy to establish rapport with my mentee." Eighty-seven
percent rated a four or five to the statement, “I enjoyed the time I spent with my
mentee," and approximately the same number (86%) felt they “communicated
well” with each other. Further, a large majority (81%) agreed or strongly agree
that the activities they did together were worthwhile, and 73% percent showed
their level of agreement to be a four or five to “My mentee showed interest and
motivation in working with me.” Clearly, a large percentage of the preservice
teachers had a positive experience with their mentees.
However, there were a small number who did not feel successful and
did not feel they benefited from their participation in Bright Futures. Further,
comments that were made on the questionnaires portrayed a spectrum of
responses. Even those preservice teachers participating in this study who
rated items positively, showed that they had experienced a range of emotions
and reactions to their relationships with their mentees. For example, one
mentor wrote, “I feel I got past all my negative stereotypes and was able to
make a genuine relationship with my mentee I got to see the actual person
and all of his strengths. But I felt torn between what I wanted to accomplish and
what my mentee’s mother wanted to accomplish. I don’t feel I made everyone
happy.” Another mentor who gave high ratings on the questionnaire
elaborated by saying, “It is a worthwhile experience that everyone will
remember.... I’m going to miss Melissa....I have learned that it isn’t as easy as I
thought to teach and I will have to work a little harder at it...”

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When questioned about the benefits of being a Bright Futures mentor,
one responded, “I have learned the importance of patience and caring.”
Another said, “I learned how important it is to have a relationship with your
students. I was able to establish a relationship with my mentee. We worked
well together and accomplished a lot. I now realize how important it is for me to
be prepared to work with diversity in my classroom.” And yet others had less
positive things to say. “It made me frustrated, often, even angry once. I don’t
feel like I learned much.” And, “I know that I have a lot to learn about teaching."
Yet such reactions are probably very similar to the range of joys and
frustrations that many teachers feel in their day to day work with children.
The questionnaire also included a retrospective measure to examine the
Bright Futures mentors’ perceptions of their feelings and beliefs by
remembering back to the beginning of the semester, as well as the present,
regarding teaching culturally diverse children. That is, a “then” and “now"
measure, a five point Likert-type scale was used for level of agreement to the
statements ranging from one, strongly disagree to five, strongly agree, with
higher scores indicating more positive feelings. Several items were reverse
worded* to avoid response bias. With those statements, a decrease in the
mean score indicates a positive change.
A substantial positive change was shown for the mean scores for four of
the ten items. Following are the statements with the accompanying beginning
of the semester mean scores, followed by the end of the semester mean
scores.
2. I believe I will teach in a classroom with culturally diverse children.
(4.04, 4.70)

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5. I look forward to teaching children who are a different race or ethnic group
from my own. (3.40, 3.96)
6. I believe I will be able to help poor and minority children achieve academic
success. (3.60, 4.25).
8. I believe establishing a positive relationship between teacher and student is
the key to school success. (4.08, 4.77).
The following items showed a moderate positive change in perception of
the respondents’ feelings over the semester.
*7. I am uncomfortable with children who do not share my values (2.74, 2.40)
10. lam excited about my future teaching career. (4.43, 4.78)
Just one item showed a moderate negative change in feelings/beliefs by
the Bright Futures mentors. However, the statement reflects more of an area of
concern and awareness than a negative belief.
*9. I worry about being able to help all kinds of students learn effectively.
(3.44, 3.77)
Several items reflected virtually no change in feelings/beliefs by the
preservice teacher mentors over the course of the semester.
1. I feel drawn to teaching as a career. (4.4, 4.31)
3. I believe teaching will be a long term career for me. (4.23, 4.25)
*4. I prefer to work with students who share my culture. (2.82, 2.68)
In summary, in the analysis of the supplementary questionnaire, most of
the mentors showed a positive change in their feelings towards teaching
diverse children over the course of the semester, in being able to help them
achieve success, and in the importance of establishing positive relationships
between teacher and student. Getting to know an individual child in a

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mentoring relationship over the course of a semester seemed to give the
preservice teachers in this study a reference point with regard to what teaching
children may be like for them in the future.
Implications
Theory
Allport (1954, 1979) in his contact hypothesis, theorized that there are a
number of factors necessary for the improvement of intergroup relations
through direct contact with each other. That is, the conditions of contact
between different groups of people are the significant variables in whether
contact will result in improved relationships. Merely assembling people
together without regard for the conditions does not in itself destroy stereotypes
or encourage the development of more positive attitudes between groups.
Allport’s four primary variables which he hypothesized would moderate conflict
and make people aware of their common humanity were: (a) equal status
contact between individuals from majority and minority groups; (b) sharing of
common goals; (c) contact that is sanctioned by institutional supports; and (d)
the interdependence of the groups in achieving goals. Additional contact
variables that influence attitude change include quantitative aspects of contact,
such as frequency, duration, variety, and number of people involved, and areas
of contact such as casual, residential, occupational, recreational, religious,
civic, political, and goodwill intergroup activities.
Some but not all of Allport’s conditions were met in this study. The
preservice teacher mentors shared common goals with their mentees and their
contact was sanctioned by the College of Education and the Bright Futures
Mentoring Project. There was not equal status between the mentors and the
mentees because of their age differences; although mentors were not

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professional teachers, they were guides or role models rather than peers. The
mentors and mentees did share some common goals concerning the activities
and projects in which they were jointly involved. Bright Futures involved
individual rather than group relationships. However, group perceptions could
be formed by individual mentors since the mentoring sessions were held at
learning centers located off campus in the housing projects. All of the mentees
were from low-income African American families.
Social psychologists have continued to study and research the contact
hypothesis theory over the past forty years with mixed results. The theory is a
statistical generalization, examining different attitudinal effects on the average
(Forbes, 1997). The hypothesis is concerned with distinguishing situations of
contact between groups assuming that contact has different effects in different
situations. Thus, contact may have beneficial effects on the attitudes of
individuals and yet not have similar effects on the relations among groups
(Forbes, 1997; Hewstone & Brown, 1986).
The results of this study did reveal a statistically significant change in the
cognitive attitudes of the Bright Futures preservice teachers towards racial
diversity. The results support the notion that direct contact with children of a
different background in a mentoring relationship along with
diversity/communications training can help change attitudes towards that group
in a positive direction; that is, the experimental group as shown by their ratings
on the Quick Discrimination Index, factor one, increased their sensitivity,
awareness, and receptivity to the cognitive component of racial diversity. The
Goals of Multicultural Education, another measure of the way one thinks about
racial diversity also showed some positive change among the experimental
group participants. Although the results of this measure were not statistically

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significant, there was a change in the positive direction from lower level goals
to higher level goals for twenty five students in the treatment group over the
course of the semester. There was no change in the control group.
The results of data analysis in this study did not show any difference in
the affective attitudes towards racial diversity by the experimental group; in
fact, there was a very slight decrease in scores on the QDI, factor 2. The results
seem to imply that affective attitudes, or how one feels about more intimate
relationships, may appear more difficult to change than cognitive attitudes.
Hewstone and Brown (1986) purport that attitude change is often limited to the
specific situation which produced it. For example, contact at work may not
generalize beyond that setting. Preservice teachers working as mentors to
school age children may change the way they think about those individual
children and their racial group, but may not change or generalize their feelings
about that group outside the mentoring relationship. Further, there was a wide
range of individual responses to the Bright Futures intervention within the
group of preservice teachers in this study. Some mentors had much more
positive feelings about their relationship and sense of productivity with their
mentee than did others.
In summary, Allport states in his contact hypothesis that relations
between members of different ethnic/racial groups will improve following direct
interpersonal interaction. Contact alone between members of different groups
is not sufficient to produce outgroup acceptance (Haberman & Post, 1992;
Miller & Harrington, 1990). Contingencies which can contribute to such
acceptance include direct interpersonal interaction, disconfirmation of
stereotypes and the normative support of legislators, educators and parents
(Cook, 1978).

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Practice
The responses to Bright Futures questionnaires administered during the
last week of the semester indicated that the mentoring experience was a
positive one for a large majority of the participating preservice teachers.
Moreover, most felt that they had established rapport and communicated well
with the mentee with whom they had worked during the semester. Additionally,
as noted, there was some cognitive attitude change towards racial diversity
over the course of the semester. However, there was a range of individual
responses indicating that the experience was not the same for all of the
participants. Several African American preservice teachers commented that
the children in the Bright Futures mentoring program could not be considered a
“diverse" group. More specifically, they perceived the children as representing
African Americans of low socioeconomic status, rather than a range of diverse
racial and ethnic groups. Further, the reading of Jonathan Kozol’s Amazing
Grace as a class assignment, which describes the author’s observations and
insights into poor black communities attempting to survive in the Bronx,
reinforced their feelings concerning that perception of diversity.
The personalization model of the contact hypothesis (Brewer, 1996) is
concerned with the idea that contact will be most effective if interactions are
highly personalized rather than category-based. That is, in situations where
status differences make participants continually aware of category membership,
even if the contact is pleasant and free of contact, is likely to reinforce group
biases. Brewer suggests that intergroup interactions should be structured to
promote opportunities to get to know members of another group(s) as
individuals. The contact situation draws attention to the individual level and
replaces category identity as the most useful basis for classifying participants.

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In the current study, preservice teachers were encouraged to see their mentees
as individuals with accompanying talents and strengths, but, at the same time,
the group of mentees was described to them as lower income African American
children. Although the children were “different" in background from the majority
of the mentors, they may have been perceived as one group, rather than
representing a variety of ethnic and racial populations.
Training
Although schools alone cannot solve the problems of racial discord,
educators can help improve relations and reduce conflict among students of
various races and ethnic backgrounds (O’Neil, 1993). Schools and
universities can and do play a major role in stimulating cross-ethnic contact
between students. In a study of Dutch adolescents in four secondary schools,
the amount of contact with ethnic minorities had a significant effect on ingroup
formation and preference (Masson & Verkuyten, 1993). More frequent cross¬
ethnic contact was associated with less ingroup formation and preference. The
results of the study lend support to the idea that institutional support and
contact can help improve relationships between groups. It seems important for
teacher and counselor educators to stress such contact with their students
through their teaching techniques as well as the practical experiences they
provide for preservice teachers and counselors-in-training. The results of this
study seem to imply that such educators should place emphasis on interaction
between groups in ways that can reduce category salience, enhance
personalization, and foster acceptance of uniqueness (Miller & Harrington,
1990). Specifically, counselors trained in interpersonal communication,
conflict resolution, behavior and attitude change, and human development can
play a strategic and central role in promoting meaningful interracial contact,

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and attitude modification (Ponterotto, 1991). Moreover, counselors as change
agents and advocates for children, can work with teachers and other school
personnel to foster such goals.
Clearly, attitudes about racial groups once formed are difficult to change.
Working with preservice teachers to be aware of and sensitive to their own
racial attitudes, prejudices, and stereotypes is one step in helping them work
with the diverse group of children they will encounter in the schools.
Preservice teachers’ reflections on their own feelings and reactions to
situations they encounter is essential to the process of developing their
personal philosophy of educating children and their goals of multicultural
education. Further, techniques and strategies in the classroom which foster
cooperation, and accept and embrace diversity, can be taught and promoted.
Cooperative learning techniques which explicitly use the presence of students
of different races and ethnicities to enhance intergroup relations and learning
outcomes have shown promise in improving some aspects of relationships
between students (Slavin, 1995)
Limitations
This study had the following limitations:
1. The experimental and control groups participating in this study were not
randomly selected. That is, the two groups were determined by their chosen
area of specialization within the College of Education. The groups appeared to
be relatively equal with regard to race, gender, age and enrollment code (first
semester education majors). The numbers in each group were unequal. The
method of data analysis did control for unequal numbers and any pretest
differences.

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2. The period of time over which change was measured was 15 weeks.
Attitudes towards racial diversity can be quite stable and may require a longer
period of time for significant changes to occur.
3. The intervention included the mentoring program as well as the
diversity/communications skills training. It was not possible to further delineate
the independent variable to determine which component may have had more
influence on the change of cognitive attitudes towards racial diversity.
4. The amount of time devoted to communication skills training with the
participants was limited to approximately four hours. More time allotted to such
training could have been beneficial to the preservice teachers and might have
altered the results of the study.
5. The measurement instruments used in this study were self reporting attitude
scales. A difficulty with such instruments is that the researcher can never be
sure of the degree to which the subject’s responses reflect his or her true
attitudes.
Recommendations
The following recommendations are made based on this investigation:
1. The communications skills training provided to the experimental group
should be increased in the amount of time allotted. Further, it should be done
in smaller groups of preservice teachers. The preprofessional class was very
large (N=165) and consequently was taught in a lecture format. There was
little opportunity for class interaction between the instructors and the
experimental group participants. It is further recommended that all preservice
teachers should be required to take an Interpersonal Communications course
as a part of their program of studies.
2. A follow up study with this group of preservice teachers with regard to

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their attitudes towards racial diversity and teaching children from a variety of
cultures during the remaining time of their enrollment in the teacher training
program should be conducted. The same attitude scales used in this study
could be administered again at the end of each semester until graduation and
a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) could be conducted.
Thus, any changes in attitudes towards racial diversity, the goals of
multicultural education, and teaching as a profession could be measured as a
function of time and experience in their teacher education program.
3. Student mentees should also be surveyed pre and post intervention as to
their attitudes towards the cognitive and affective components of racial
diversity. It would be important to use a measurement instrument appropriate
for elementary school age children.
4. Research on mentoring programs which include a wider variety of ethnic
and racial group members should be conducted so that "diversity" is more truly
represented to preservice teachers.
5. More research should be conducted to develop appropriate reliable and
valid instruments to measure specific attitudes of educators as well as children
towards racial and ethnic diversity.
Conclusion
The mixed results of this study illustrate the complexity and range of
attitudes towards racial diversity by teachers in training. The reality is that
many of them will be teaching students who possess a wide range of abilities
and who come from a variety of cultures and socioeconomic levels. It is vital
that teachers be prepared for such a challenge and that they be encouraged to
not only accept but to embrace diversity among their students. Essential to this
mission is a sensitivity to how students’ cultures interact with school institutions

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to influence their self-concepts, persistence and achievement, as well as the
knowledge and skills that will enable educators to live out their own
multicultural understandings (Pedersen and Carey, 1993).
School counselors can play a central and evolving role in the
multicultural training and development of educators as well as K-12 students
with regard to a variety of interventions (Pedersen and Carey, 1993).
Involvement in mentoring programs, small and large group counseling,
working with school personnel and the community to promote diversity issues,
and collaboration with university educators are some important ways in which
counselors can effect positive change as we approach the twenty first century.
School counselors and counselor educators can help teacher and
counselor trainees recognize what teaching a diverse population involves,
encourage them to become more knowledgeable about other cultures, and
assist them in examining their own beliefs, values and prejudices (Lee, 1995).
Further, by teaching communication skills and emphasizing the valuing of
differences to preservice educators, they can, in turn, learn to teach children
how to convey caring and respect for one another. Ultimately the skills that
university level educators teach their students need to be taught to all people.
The school counselor, serving as a consultant and collaborator with teachers,
parents, administrators and the community can be in a pivotal position to teach
and promote such skills (Ponterotto and Pedersen, 1993, Lee, 1995).

APPENDIX A
SYLLABUS FOR “EXPLORING DIVERSITY”
Overview of the Course
Most students enter teacher education programs assuming that they will teach
students like themselves in settings similar to those in which they were raised.
This means that the majority of students entering teacher education (though not
all, of course) expect that they will teach predominantly white, middle class
children in suburban neighborhoods. Demographers tell us that while the
population of teachers is becoming increasingly white, middle class, and
female, the population of students is rapidly diversifying. Public school
classrooms are increasingly populated by students of color, from a variety of
ethnic, language and racial backgrounds, many of whom live in poverty.
Is this necessarily a problem? No, not necessarily. But a growing number of
research studies document weaknesses and inequities in the education
provided by teachers to students of different backgrounds of their own.
Although most teachers do not intentionally provide ineffective curriculum and
instruction to “minority" students, the data demonstrate that this is a common
occurrence.
The purpose of this course is to help you explore the concepts of culture and
diversity and the meaning they have in your life and in your work with children
and families. The course was developed in coordination with the Bright Futures
Mentoring Project.
Major Course Objectives
Students will learn:
1. the meaning and significance of culture
2. to view events from multiple perspectives and withhold judgment of people
3. about their own assumptions and stereotypes
4. to develop supportive relationships with people who are different from
themselves
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Texts
There are two texts required for this course: Amazing Grace (Jonathan Kozol)
and To Hold Us Together: Seven Conversations for Multicultural
Understanding (Linda Crawford)
Schedule
DATE
August 28
September 4
September 10
September 11
September 18
September 25
October 1
October 2
October 9
October 16
October 23
October 30
ASSIGNMENT/ACTIVITY
Course Overview
Amazing Grace: chapters 1 and 2, Discussion/ Journals
Orientation 1: (two hours) "The Teacher as Facilitator":
Establishing Rapport with Young Children; Feeling
Words Vocabulary
Bright Futures: Follow up to Orientation I: Working with
Diverse Populations: Activities to Use in Getting to Know
Your Mentee
Amazing Grace: Chapters 3 and 4: Discussion/Journals
Bright Futures: “The Facilitate Model”: Communication
Skills Training (Listening Skills: Feeling Focused
Responses, Clarifying and Summarizing
Orientation 2 (two hours): Getting Started: What to do the
First Week and Beyond: Panel discussion/Questions
and Answers; Review of Handbook, Role of the
Mentor
Bright Futures: “The Facilitative Model”: Communications
Skills Training (How and What Questions, Feedback
Model, Acknowledging and Unking Responses)
Amazing Grace: Chapters 5 and 6: Discussion/Journals
Amazing Grace: Epilogue: Discussion
Amazing Grace: Test
Bright Futures: “Problem Solving Model”

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November 6
To Hold Us Toaether: Conversation 1. “Learnina About
Another Culture”; Conversation 2, “The Us/Them
Paradigm; Conversation 3, “Culture Shapes Us”;
Journals
November 13
To Hold Us Toaether: Conversation 4. “Each Deoends
on the Other”; Conversation 5, “ The Cost”; Conversation
6, “A World in Flux"; Journals
November 20
To Hold Us Toaether: Conversation 7. “The Courage
to Take a Stand”; Journals
November 27
Thanksgiving
December 4
Summarv: What have we learned? Course wrap up
December 15
Test: To Hold Us Toaether

APPENDIX B
GUIDELINES FOR BRIGHT FUTURES MENTORS
PURPOSES OF BRIGHT FUTURES
Bright Futures is designed to serve the youth who participate as well as
the future teachers who work with them. The main purposes of Bright Futures
are: 1) to develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of public housing youth
so they may be successful learners in and out of school and active citizens in
the community and 2) to help prospective teachers develop the cultural
sensitivity and intercultural competence needed to become excellent teachers
of the diverse children in their classrooms.
Why do elementary education students need this experience? The
student population in schools is rapidly becoming more racially and ethnically
diverse. By the year 2000, one out of every three students will be Hispanic,
African American, or Asian. In addition, ethnic and racial minority children are
much more likely to live in poverty than white children. It is essential that
teachers be prepared to work well with students who may be different from
themselves. Bright Futures is an opportunity to become familiar with a
youngster, a family, and a community with which you may until now have had
little contact.
BRIGHT FUTURES VOCABULARY
Mentor: First semester elementary education student: a person who acts as a
guide, a coach, a counselor, and a model to promote the growth of another.
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Students: Four-18 year old public housing residents whose parents sign them
up to participate
Teachers: Experienced elementary school teachers. They will be at the
learning center for 6 hours each week. Their role is to assist you as you plan for
and work with your student. They will give you feedback on the lesson plans
you prepare. PLEASE ASK YOUR TEACHER FOR HELP!
Site Managers: These people are responsible for opening and locking the site,
maintaining order there, keeping supplies organized, helping to get students to
the site on time, and keeping the site as QUIET as possible. The site manager
is familiar with the children and their families. GET TO KNOW YOUR SITE
MANAGER!
GPP: This stands for Gainesville Police Department. You may see police
officers in and around your learning center. This is because there are
Community Oriented Police teams (COP teams) located in a number of
Gainesville neighborhoods. The purpose of the COP teams is to become a part
of the neighborhoods so as to be able to work with residents to improve their
communities. Several GPD personnel are actively involved with Bright Futures.
GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING RELATIONSHIPS WITH STUDENTS
The heart of good teaching is the ability to develop relationships with
students, although mentoring will look different from pair to pair, all mentors
should focus on building a helping relationship with their students.
Sometimes relationships develop quickly. Sometimes they take more
time and effort. Mentors can feel discouraged when the relationship has not
“clicked." Here are some things you can do to help you understand your
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1. Study the student: closely watch the student in and out of the mentoring
setting. Observe what the student does and says. You will gain a lot of
information about him and insight into his personality. You will care more about
the child when you “know” the child better.
2. Wonder whv: Ask yourself, "Why is she doing that?” “What’s making her do
that?” “How does this behavior serve her?” These questions are especially
important when you feel annoyed by a student’s behavior. Instead of judging
the child (“She’s rude,” “She’s spoiled,” “She can’t sit still”), wonder why she
acts as she does. Instead of seeing a child as “damaged goods,” wonder what
role you might be able to play in a relationship with her. When you wonder
why, you are likely to feel a sense of empathy and responsibility for the child.
3. Stay alert: Pay attention! A child may reveal aspects of himself to you when
you least expect it. Look for clues to his personality, strengths, interests, values,
hopes, and dreams.
4. Use resources: Sometimes it helps to voice your concerns and confusions
to someone. Make use of people who you believe can help you understand
and work with your student. BEWARE of people who can bring you down!
Don’t get trapped in a negative attitude. If you find yourself complaining and
whining, go to someone who can redirect you.
5. Have fun: Having fun together is a great way to build connections. Laughter
can help cement a relationship. There are times to be serious, but you should
also plan to have fun, to laugh, and to be silly.
ADDITIONAL HELPFUL STRATEGIES
1. Be enthusiastic: Smile a lot, be cheerful and optimistic and be your
student’s personal cheerleader.

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2. Reinforce desirable behavior: Use specific praise (avoid extrinsic rewards),
use smiles and pats on the back, and help the student see what he/she did that
led to the desired outcome.
3. Communicate expectations: Specify the academic and social behavior you
expect of your student, use clear and precise language, and be friendly but firm.
4. Involve vour student in planning sessions: Negotiate plans with him/her,
balance challenging activities with “quick success" kinds of activities, balance
paper-and-pencil activities with other materials, and use the student’s interests,
strengths, and weaknesses to guide planning.
5. Be a role model: Demonstrate the cognitive, social, and personal behaviors
and attitudes you want the student to develop. (This can be hard to do when
you feel frustrated; keep reminding yourself that you are the child's mentor. It’s
your responsibility to do your very best with him/her, even when you feel
discouraged, irritated, or angry.)
MENTOR RESPONSIBILITIES
1. Attend all scheduled sessions (it’s very hard on the kids when their mentors
don’t come); call your STUDENT and the SITE ahead of time if you can’t make
it; reschedule to make up time you have missed (you are not required to make
up hours when your student is absent).
2. Check file box for vour student’s folder; note the particular areas in which
the student needs help. If you do not find a folder, check back regularly! As
soon as information comes in from the child's teacher, we will start a folder for
the child.
3. Be actively engaged with vour student throughout the hour-long session:
This means that you have to come PREPARED! Plan activities ahead of time.

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4. Always have something (book, magazine, sports section, cereal box, etc.) on
hand to read with vour student. Choose material that is interesting to the child.
Give him/her choices.
5. Complete a project with vour child that the two of you can present at the end
of term party. The project should be something that you and the student have
done together over time (e.g., a game you designed, a book you wrote, a
puppet you made, a garden you grew, a model you built).
6. Refrain from giving vour student “gifts” of any kind. This includes candy and
other food. If an activity requires that you provide food or other materials, such
as a cooking activity or a fractions activity using a candy bar, this is fine! We
have found that gifts create a lot of tension at the learning site. In addition,
many of the parents frown on gifts. You can develop a great relationship with
your student and have productive sessions WITHOUT BRINGING HIM/HER
GIFTS.
7. Ask for help when you are unsure of what to do. The teachers and site
managers are there to help you! Also, your course instructors know that you are
a Bright Futures mentor and are happy to help.
8. Field Trip Policy: Mentors may not take students away from the learning
center during Bright Futures hours (Monday-Thursday, 3-6 PM). If mentors wish
to take students on a field trip during NON-BRIGHT FUTURES HOURS, mentors
must have written permission from parents/guardians. Permission slips are
available at the learning centers.
PAPERWORK RESPONSIBILITIES
1- LESSON PLANS: Prepare a lesson plan for each WEEK (two days) of
mentoring, including the first week. The purpose of completing lesson plans is
to introduce you to the process of assessing a student's needs, planning

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activities to address one or more of those needs, assessing the impact of your
plans on the student, and planning for the next encounter with the student.
Complete your plan for the week BEFORE THE SESSION using the form in this
handbook. Put the form in the IN box at the learning center on the first day of
mentoring each week; pick it up from the OUT box. (KEEP A COPY OF YOUR
PLAN!) Your teacher will give you feedback on your lesson plans. Mentors find
this feedback very helpful as they learn to plan sessions for their students.
2. NOTES HOME: Write a note home to your student’s parent/guardian
WEEKLY, telling what you’ve been working on and how the child is doing. If
you are having some difficulty working with a child and are not sure how to
communicate this to the parent, talk with your teacher/and or site manager
about it. They can help you decide what to write or say to the parent.
3. PROGRESS REPORTS: Send this to the child’s home two times: During
the week of October 21 and during the last week of the program. You can either
give it to the child to take home, mail it, or take it to the home.
4. CONTRACT: Complete this form and turn it in to the teacher at your site
during the week of October 21.
5. SUMMARY OF BRIGHT FUTURES ACTIVITY: Complete this form at the end
of the semester and turn it in to the Bright Futures Coordinator. The form will be
placed in your student’s folder so that the next mentor will know what you did
with the student.
CONTENT OF A MENTORING SESSION
When you think about how to plan for your student, you should remember
the purposes of Bright Futures: to help public housing youth develop the
knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to be successful learners in and out
of school and active citizens in the community: and to help prospective

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teachers develop cultural sensitivity and intercultural competence. In short, our
hope is that both you and your student will experience important kinds of
growth during your Bright Futures experience! You are not expected to be
doing any one particular kind of activity with your student. As long as what you
are doing is related to the two purposes of Bright Futures, you’re doing the right
thing!
Here are some things you might do during a mentoring session: chat, read,
write, draw, subtract, build, cut, paste, paint, sew, imagine, sing, play a game,
list, count, practice, spell, remember, guess, cook, invent, listen, tell a story,
measure, pretend, dramatize, act, brainstorm, solve problems, make decisions,
plan, ask, multiply, create, explain, demonstrate, observe, study...
Some of you will do homework with your students. Some of them will bring
homework on a regular basis, some will bring it occasionally, and some will
never bring homework. It is important to help students understand their
homework and to complete it accurately. However, DO NOT RELY ON YOUR
STUDENT TO BRING HOMEWORK. You must come prepared to conduct a
productive session whether your student brings homework or not.
Here are some other things to consider as you plan your sessions:
-Many of the children have felt like failures in school.
-All children are curious about something!
-All children have strengths and interests.
-Most children and adults will resist doing the same thing for an hour, or day
after day.
These points suggest that you should strive to make your sessions fun,
interesting, and varied. Try to use your student’s strengths and interests as you
plan. Also, draw on your own strengths and interests. If you’re enthusiastic

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about something, you are likely to win over the student. Many mentors find that
when they negotiate plans with their students (i.e., SHARE POWER), the
students are enthusiastic and cooperative.
Often mentors who successfully build a helping relationship and enjoy the
mentoring experience do so by:
-listening closely to their students
-taking the student’s perspective (to understand how the student views things)
-sharing control of the session with the student
-’’sticking it out”, even when they feel discouraged
-withholding judgment of the student and his/her family (try to understand a
perspective that might be different from your own)
-asking for help from other tutors, teachers, site managers, college instructors
-planning a variety of activities for the student, but “letting go” when necessary
-feeling responsible for “making it work" with the student
GETTING MENTORING UNDERWAY: The first week
Think about what you want to accomplish during the first couple of
mentoring sessions: 1) to develop a positive, trusting relationship with your
student; 2) to determine the student’s interests and strengths; and 3) to
determine some areas in which the student needs your help.
What can you do to serve these three purposes?
1- USE THE PERSONAL FACT SHEET to help you learn about your mentee.
You can use it to help get a conversation going; you could use it as part of a
writing activity ("Let's make a list of the things you’d find in a perfect school-
now choose a few of these and write about what the perfect school would be
like”); you could make two copies of it and fill it out at the same time as your
student-then you can talk about it; you could use it to stimulate a drawing

124
activity-fold a piece of paper into quarters and draw a picture of yourself doing
something you like to do in each of the quarters.
2. BRING A GAME TO PLAY WITH YOUR STUDENT. It can be easier to make
conversation when you’re playing a game together. Cards? Checkers?
Chess? Monopoly? Scrabble? Guess Who? Boggle?
3. BRING A PHOTO ALBUM OR A BOX with some items that represent you.
Then you can share these with your student, and encourage him or her to talk
about himself/herself. You might ask, “If you were going to put together a box
like this, what would you put in it? Why?”
4. SHARE A SPECIAL TALENT OR HOBBY. Bring something you enjoy to
show your student or let the student do it with you.
5. GO TO THE LIBRARY AND FIND BOOKS that might be of interest to your
student. (Ask the librarian for help!) Have the student look at the books, chat
about them, read from one of them. Find out what subjects interest him or her
and what his or her reading skills are like. Be sure to ask about the content of
what has been read, to see how well the student has understood it.
6. TALK WITH THE STUDENT ABOUT SCHOOL. What is easy? What is
difficult? What is fun? Not fun? Ask the student about the things he or she has
studied in school-dinosaurs? weather? birds? insects? the human body?
What kind of math is he/she doing? What are the student’s perceptions of the
areas in which he or she need the most help?
?• MAKE SOMETHING WITH THE STUDENT, (treasure box, puppets, collage,
book, snack)
8- STOP! LOOK! LISTEN! Observe and listen carefully to your student.

APPENDIX C
BRIGHT FUTURES FORMS
LESSON PLAN
BRIGHT FUTURES
DATE
STUDENT’S NAME AND GRADE
SITE
MENTOR’S NAME
List what you hope to accomplish this week (what are your purposes?):
ACTIVITY ONE:
Purpose:
Steps:
ACTIVITY TWO:
Purpose:
Steps:
ACTIVITY THREE:
Purpose:
Steps:
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126
MENTORING CONTRACT
BRIGHT FUTURES
Directions: Turn this in to the teacher at your learning center during the week of
October 21.
MENTOR:
STUDENT/GRADE:
SITE:
DATE:
1.List the three or four areas you will work on during the mentoring sessions.
2.Describe one project that you will do with your student and present during
the end of mentoring celebration.
3.Provide a brief sketch of a typical mentoring session by listing the events in
the order in which they typically occur. Provide a brief explanation of why you
have chosen to conduct mentoring this way.

NOTE TO PARENT/GUARDIAN
BRIGHT FUTURES
STUDENT:
MENTOR:
DATE:
THINGS WE HAVE DONE THIS WEEK IN BRIGHT FUTURES
COMMENTS:

128
PROGRESS REPORT
BRIGHT FUTURES
STUDENT:
MENTOR:
SITE:
FOR THE PERIOD: TO
POOR
POOR
SOMETIMES
FAIR
DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITIES:
ATTENDANCE
EFFORT
ON TIME
CONDUCT .
PERFECT
PERFECT
ALWAYS
EXCELLENT
GOOD
GOOD
USUALLY
GOOD
COMMENTS:
MENTOR’S SIGNATURE
DATE

APPENDIX D
THE FACILITATIVE MODEL: ESTABLISHING RELATIONSHIPS
I. Facilitative Teacher Characteristics
-Caring
-Understanding
-T rustworthy
-Friendly
-Respectful
-Accepting
-Knowledgeable
-Open to diversity
II. High Facilitative Responses
A. Feeling focused: Ask yourself what the child is feeling
(pleasant/unpleasant) and then say something to help the child feel
understood.
Examples: “You wish we could continue on with our time together.” Or:
“You seem to have mixed feelings about your work. Part of you
wants to get it done, and another part would rather go out and
play and put it off.”
B. Clarifying and Summarizing: Try to capture the man idea or event
that is going on; focuses conversation.
Examples: “It sounds like ” “In other words...,”
“You seem to be saying,” “Let me see if I understand..."
C. Open Questions (How or What)
Questions which try to encourage more conversation and obtain more
detail about what is going on (Avoid questions beginning with “why")
Examples: “What is it about homework that keeps you from getting it
done? What makes it hard to get along with so and so? What is it about
school you like best?”
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130
D. Feedback
State the behavior, how it makes you feel and what it makes you
want to do.
Examples: “When you don’t show up for our meeting I feel disappointed
and it makes me want to find out what happened.”
“When you turn in your work on time I feel happy and proud of you and it
makes me want to give you a hug.”
E. Simple Acknowledgement
Helps move the conversation along
Examples: “Thank you for telling me that.” “ OK,” “Right,” etc.
F. Linking
Finding something you (or others) have in common
Examples: “You and I both like to do...”
“I remember enjoying too.”
“You and your friend seem to like to handle things the
same way."
Problem Solving Model
1. What is the situation?
2. What have you already tried?
3. What else could you do? (Brainstorm solutions)
4. What is your next step? (Be specific about time, place, etc.)

APPENDIX E
SKILLS PRACTICE ACTIVITY
Directions: Interview your partner, using feeling focused responses, clarifying
and summarizing and open questions. Then switch roles.
1. What name do you like to be called? Any special nickname? Where did
your name originate?
2. Where are you from? How many places have you lived? Where do you
hope to live after college?
3. What led you to choose Elementary Education as a field?
4. Tell me what you envision your lifestyle to be like in 10 years. What will it
take to get there?
5. What strengths do you bring to Bright Futures?
6. What concerns do you have about starting your experience as a mentor in
Bright Futures?
131

APPENDIX F
TALKING TO YOUNG CHILDREN (TOPICS AND ACTIVITIES)
1. What are your favorite...(sports, colors, foods, movies/TV, books, activities,
heroes, etc.)
2. What do you like about school? What would you change if you could?
Interview sheet is great! Then let the child interview you! Don’t be afraid to
share some things about yourself. (But the focus should be on the child)
3. Have the child tell his/her favorite joke. Let children tell stories about
themselves. You can set up the theme; an embarrassing moment, a nickname,
a time you got the giggles and couldn’t stop laughing; Humor is important!
4. Use drawings (Draw a picture of themselves, families, friends, pets, etc.)
5. Have mentee talk about what he/she wants to be when they grow up. Who
are their heroes? (Famous and not so famous)
6. Use books on work, jobs, school, dilemmas; How do you get there? (Study
skills, attendance, getting along with others, etc.)
7. Children’s Random Acts of Kindness (a book, but also articles, newspapers
and magazines can be used for discussion) What has someone done for you?
What have you done for someone else that was kind?
8. Try to discover what the mentee’s talents are; then let him/her demonstrate
and develop them.
9. Use a variety of media; puppets, music, paper and markers, games and
dice, creative dramatics, and books.
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APPENDIX G
INSTRUMENTS
1. Code # (Last 4 digits of your social security number)
2. Major
3. Race/Ethnicity
4. Gender
5. Enrollment code (3ED, 6 ED, etc.)
6. Age
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134
SOCIAL ATTITUDE SURVEY
Please respond to all items in the survey. Remember there are no right or
wrong answers. The survey is completely anonymous, do not put your name
on the survey. Please circle the appropriate number to the right.
1. Ido think it is more appropriate
for the mother of a newborn
baby, rather than the father,
to stay home with the baby
(not work) during the first year.
2. It is as easy for women to succeed
in business as it is for men.
3. I really think affirmative action
programs on campus constitute
reverse discrimination.
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree
Unsure
Agree
Strongly
Agree
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
4. I feel I could develop an intimate 1
relationship with someone from a
different race.
5. All Americans should learn to 1
speak two languages.
6. It upsets (or angers) me that a woman 1
has never been president of the
United States.
7. Generally speaking, men work 1
harder than women.
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
8. My friendship network is 1 2 3 4 5
racially mixed.
9. I am against affirmative action
programs in business. 1 2 3 4 5

135
Strongly Agree Unsure Agree Strongly
Disagree Agree
10. Generally, men seem less concerned 1 2 3 4 5
with building relationships than
women.
11. I would feel O. K. about my son 1 2 3 4 5
or daughter dating someone from
a different race.
12. It upsets (or angers) me that a 1 2 3 4 5
racial minority person has never
been President of the United States.
13. In the past few years there has been 1 2 3 4 5
too much attention directed toward
multicultural or minority issues in education.
14. I think feminist perspectives should be 1 2 3 4 5
an integral part of the higher education
curriculum.
15. Most of my close friends are from 1 2 3 4 5
my own racial group.
16. I feel somewhat secure that a man 1 2 3 4 5
rather than a woman is currently
President of the United States.
17. I think that it is (or would be) important 1 2 3 4 5
for my children to attend schools that
are racially mixed.
18. In the past few years there has been 1 2 3 4 5
too much attention directed toward
multicultural or minority issues in business.
19. Overall, I think racial minorities in 1 2 3 4 5
America complain too much about
racial discrimination.

Strongly Disagree
Disagree
20. I feel (or would feel) very comfortable 1 2
having a woman as my primary
physician.
21. I think the President of the United 1 2
States should make a concerted
effort to appoint more women and
racial minorities to the Supreme Court.
22. I think white people’s racism toward 1 2
racial minority groups still constitutes
a major problem in America.
23. I think the school system, from elementary 1 2
school through college, should encourage
minority and immigrant children to learn
and fully adopt traditional American values.
24. If I were to adopt a child, I would be 1 2
happy to adopt a child of any race.
25. I think there is as much female physical 1 2
violence towards men as there is male
physical violence toward women.
26. I think the school system, from elementary 1 2
school through college, should promote
values representative of diverse cultures.
27. I believe that reading the autobiography 1 2
of Malcolm X would be of value.
28. I would enjoy living in a neighborhood 1 2
consisting of a racially diverse population
(i.e., Asians, blacks, Hispanics, Whites)
29. I think it is better if people marry within 1 2
their own race.
30. Women make too big a deal out of 1 2
sexual harassment issues in the
workplace.

137
GOALS OF MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION
If you could only teach one of the goals listed below, which one would
you select? Place an X by your choice.
1. Children/youth would learn that all people are individuals—
distinctive personalities—regardless of their backgrounds.
2. Children/youth would learn that we all have to learn to live together
in this world regardless of any group differences. Cooperation and
tolerance are vital.
3. Children/youth would learn that every person came from some
ethnic group and all groups are equally fine.
4. Children/youth would learn that the U. S. is made up of many
racial, ethnic, and religious groups and each must be protected
and enhanced.
5. Children/youth would learn that we all have a responsibility to
change the discrimination and prejudice in our society against
certain groups.

138
BELIEFS ABOUT TEACHING
Please rate your agreement with the following statements on a scale
of 1 to 5.
1 Agree Strongly
2 Agree
3 Neutral (neither agree nor disagree)
4 Disagree
5 Disagree Strongly
1. The family background of students is so important to student success
that teachers often cannot have an impact on minority students.
2. In our system of equal educational opportunity, any child who applies
himself/herself has a good chance of succeeding in school.
3. One of the difficulties facing teachers who work with minority children
is that their parents often don’t care about how their children are
doing in school.
4. Combating the unequal status of minority groups is a responsibility
of public schools.
5. An important job for teachers working with culturally diverse children
is to make up for deficits in the children’s academic background.
6. Special school programs such as Head Start can make a positive
difference in the academic success of minority students.

139
TEACHER ATTITUDES SURVEY
Please complete the following survey by circling the number which best
indicates how you feel at the present time about the item.
Strongly
Disagree
Strongly
Agree
1. Teaching is about the best job
I can think of
2 3 4 5 6
2. There are a lot of advantages to
teaching 1 2 3
3.1 don’t care for the work of a teacher 1 2 3
4. Teaching would be a wonderful
occupation for anyone 1 2 3
5. Teaching may be all right for some
people but not for me 12 3
6. I am not convinced of the
importance of a teaching career 1 2 3
7. Teaching as a career, is not worth
the sacrifice of going to college,
the long hours of work, and
the low pay 1 2 3
4 5
4 5
4 5
4 5
4 5
4 5
6
6
6
6
6
6
8. I enjoy teaching 1
9. Teaching is as good a job as any 1
10. There are more advantages than
disadvantages to teaching
as a career 1
11.1 would be willing to take any job
related to teaching 1
2 3 4 5 6
2 3 4 5 6
2 3 4 5 6
2 3 4 5 6

APPENDIX H
BRIGHT FUTURES QUESTIONNAIRE
Please think back on your experience as a Bright Futures mentor
during this semester. Rate yourself on each statement on a scale
of 1 to 5 with 1 meaning strongly disagree and 5 meaning strongly
agree Any additional comments you would like to make to explain
your responses would be appreciated.
1 2 3 4 5
Strongly disagree Disagree Unsure Agree Strongly Agree
1. I was comfortable with my mentee.
2. It was easy to establish rapport with my mentee.
3. I enjoyed the time I spent with my mentee.
4. My mentee and I communicated well with each other.
5. I think it was important to have additional contact with my mentee
outside the learning center during the semester.
Explain:
6. I was worried about ending the Bright Futures experience with
my mentee.
7. My mentee showed interest and motivation in working with me.
8. The activities we did together were worthwhile.
140

141
9.The materials/supplies available to me were adequate.
If not, what was missing?
10. The amount of time my mentee and I had together seemed about right,
too little too much
11. The neighborhood/learning center felt safe and comfortable to be in.
12. I felt successful as a mentor.
Explain.
13. I have benefited from being a Bright Futures mentor.
Explain.
14.The purpose of the Bright Futures experience has been clear to me.
Explain:
15.I received adequate support during the Bright Futures experience.
Explain:
16.I would recommend the Bright Futures experience for all future
teachers.
Explain:

17. The best part of the Bright Futures experience for me was
18. The worst part of the Bright Futures experience for me was
Additional Comments:

143
Please use the rating scale to complete the questions below. In
the first blank after each question place a number that describes
your feeling/belief at the beginning of the semester. In the second
blank place a number that describes your feeling/belief now, (the
end of the semester)
1 2 3 4 5
Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree
beginning now
of semester
1. I feel drawn to teaching as a career.
2. I believe I will teach in a classroom with
culturally diverse children.
3. I believe teaching will be a long term
career for me.
4. I prefer to work with students who share
my culture.
5. I look forward to teaching children who are
a different race or ethnic group from my own.
6. I believe I will be able to help poor and
minority children achieve academic success.
7. I am uncomfortable with children who do not
share my values.
8. I believe establishing a positive relationship
between teacher and student is the key to
school success.
9. I worry about being able to help all kinds
of students learn effectively.
10.lam excited about my future teaching career.

APPENDIX I
INFORMED CONSENT LETTER
Dear Student:
September, 1997
I am a Ph.D. candidate and Teaching Assistant in the College of Education
here at the University of Florida. I am conducting a study on multicultural
education for teachers in training under the supervision of Dr. Joe Wittmer. This
is to request that you respond to several instruments concerning multicultural
issues in education. This task will take approximately 20 minutes and will be
done in class. I will also be requesting that you respond to several instruments
at the conclusion of the semester. Participation/nonparticipation in this study will
not affect your grade in this course.
Please do not place your name on any of these documents; only group data
will be tabulated. A key code will be utilized to match the various instruments. I
will be the only person with access to the key code and it will be destroyed after
the completion of data collection. Your responses to the instruments will be
confidential to the extent of the law. You are not required to answer any
questions that you do not wish to answer. I want to use the data to benefit the
education and training of future teachers and may also use the group data to
report results to professional audiences. By signing this letter, you are giving
me permission to collect the data mentioned above and to report the results at
conferences and in published monographs and reports.
There are no perceived risks for your participation in the study. Your
participation is very important and will add to the knowledge base on
multicultural education. I will be happy to provide you with a summary of the
results of my study when completed. You are free to withdraw your consent to
participate and to discontinue participation in the study at any time without
consequence. There is no compensation for participating in this study.
Please sign and return one copy of this letter with the completed instruments to
your instructor if you agree to participate. A second copy is for your records. If
you have any questions about the study or the procedures for data collection,
please contact Mary Ann Clark (392-0731, ex. 230). If you have any questions
144

145
about the rights of research participants, you can contact the University of
Florida Institutional Review Board Office, PO Box 112250, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611; phone: 392-0433.
Sincerely,
Mary Ann Clark, Principal Investigator
I have read the procedure described above for the study of multicultural education for teachers
in training. I volunteer to participate in the procedure, and I have received a copy of this
description.
Signature or participant
Date

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Mary Anita Clark (Mary Ann) was born in Rochester, New York, in June,
1949, the daughter of William Hutton English and Mary Secrest English, and
the oldest of four children. Mary Ann attended high school in Rochester and
then entered Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, where
she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Psychology in June, 1970.
She then entered the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill where she
received her M. Ed. in Guidance and Counseling in 1971.
Mary Ann taught psychology and served as a counselor at Peace
College in Raleigh, North Carolina from 1971-1973. Her next job was in
Charles County, Maryland, where she was a high school guidance counselor in
a school of 1800 students. During this period she also helped establish an
evening high school in the county, and worked as a counselor for the Teenage
Parenting Program, a state funded project for adolescent mothers and their
families.
In 1981, Mary Ann relocated to England where she was offered a
position as an elementary counselor for the Department of Defense
Dependents Schools (DODDS) on a United States military base near Oxford.
For the next 13 years she held a variety of positions in school counseling and
administration at several bases throughout England. Her last job with DODDS,
from 1989-1994, was at London Central High School, a school for American
students in grades 7-12 whose parents were based in remote locations around
the world.
157

158
In 1990, Mary Ann married John Clark in Cambridge, England. They
have a son, Christopher John Clark, born in February, 1993.
Mary Ann and her family returned to the United States in 1994 where
she began her doctoral studies at the University of Florida in the school
counseling track of the department of Counselor Education. She received her
Ed. S. in 1995. After completing her Ph.D., Mary Ann will begin work as a
faculty member in the Department of Educational Leadership and Counseling
at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia.

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of-Doctor of Philosophy.
Ulj$új44Jkl
P. 2psepbmittmer, Chaff
Distinguished Service Professor of
Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. /
Robert D. Myric#'
Professor of Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of poctor of Philosophy.
Silvia Rafuls
Assistant Professor of
Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Jip^wen Y. Hsu
^¿sistant Professor of
Foundations of Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
August, 1998
Dean, Graduate School

1780
1991
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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08557 2542




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