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The locus of formal decision-making for curriculum and instruction in selected multi-campus community colleges

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The locus of formal decision-making for curriculum and instruction in selected multi-campus community colleges
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Holcombe, Willis Newton, 1945-
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College instruction ( jstor )
Colleges ( jstor )
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Community colleges ( jstor )
Decision making ( jstor )
Directive interviews ( jstor )
Educational administration ( jstor )
Junior colleges ( jstor )
Pedagogy ( jstor )
School campuses ( jstor )
Community colleges -- Curricula ( lcsh )
Decision-making -- School management ( lcsh )
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Thesis -- University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 135-137.
General Note:
Typescript.
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Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
Willis N. Holcombe.

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THE LOCUS OF FORMAL DECISION-MAKING
FOR CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION
IN SELECTED MULTI-CAMPUS COMMUNITY COLLEGES












By

WILLIS N. HOLCOMBE


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR
THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY












UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1974














ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


A study of this kind requires the assistance and support

of many individuals. The writer wishes to express his appre-

ciation to all those who helped make this study possible.

The writer wishes to express his special appreciation to Dr.

James L. Wattenbarger, chairman of the doctoral committee

and director of the thesis.

Special acknowledgement also is due to Drs. Michael Y.

Nunnery and Albert B. Smith for their support and guidance

in the formulation of the study.

The writer wishes to say thank you to his wife, Jo, for

her encouragement, understanding, and assistance in the

completion of the study. Her contribution was evidence of

the love that only a wife can give.

Finally, the writer wishes to thank his parents, Mr. and

Mrs. W.N. Holcombe, for their continued guidance and love

during his formative years.














TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .. ........

LIST OF TABLES ... ........

LIST OF FIGURES ... ........

ABSTRACT .... ...........


..... ... .ii

V

. . . . . . . vi

. . . . . . . vii


Chapter


I INTRODUCTION ....


S . . . . . . ..1


The Problem ..... .........
Definition of Terms ............
Review of Related Literature . .
Procedures .... ............
Organization of the Remainder of
the Research Report ... .......


.. ...... 27


II THE DECISION-MAKING PATTERN OF SOUTHERN
COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT ..........

Environment... ... ..............
Procedures for Decision-Making in
Curriculum and Instruction .........
Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by the Decision Point Analysis
Instrument ..... ..............
Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by Structured Interviews .. ........
General Observations and Summation . .


THE DECISION-MAKING PATTERN OF WESTERN
COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT .. ........


Environment ..... .............
Procedures for Decision-Making in
Curriculum and Instruction ....
Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by the Decision Point Analysis
Instrument ... ............
Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by Structured Interviews .......


. . 29

. 29

* . 34


* . 37

* . 48
52


* . 55

. . 55

. 59


* . 64

* . 75


iii


III









Page


General Observations and Summation .

THE DECISION-MAKING PATTERN OF EASTEI
COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT ........


Environment ..... ..............
Procedures for Decision-Making in
Curriculum and Instruction .........
Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by the Decision Point Analysis
Instrument ...... ..............
Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by Structured Interviews .. ........
General Observations and Summation . .

V COMMALITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN THE
DECISION-MAKING PATTERNS FOR THE THREE
DISTRICTS ....... ..............

Procedures for Decision-Making ........
Role Incumbents as Decision-
Makers ... .... .................
General Observations .... ..........
Summation . . . . . . . .


GENERALIZATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY

Generalizations and Implications
Recommendations for Further Study.


APPENDIX A

APPENDIX B


THE DECISION POINT INSTRUMENT .

STRUCTURED INTERVIEW GUIDE . .


REFERENCES ........ ..................

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............


ZN


106
ill
114


. . . 116

.... 117
.... 121

.... 123

.... 132

.... 135

.... 138


* . .78


* . .80

* . .80

* . .85


. .. 87

. . .98
* . 101



* . 103

* . 103















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page


1 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO CURRICULUM ITEMS
FOR SOUTHERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE 39

2 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO INSTRUCTION ITEMS
FOR SOUTHERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE 41

3 RESPONSES TO ALL ITEMS, RANK ORDER DISTRIBUTION
BY FREQUENCY 44

4 RESPONDENTS PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR OWN INVOLVE-
MENT IN THE PROCESS 47

5 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO CURRICULUM ITEMS
FOR WESTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE 66

6 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO INSTRUCTION ITEMS
FOR WESTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE 68

7 RESPONSES TO ALL ITEMS RANK ORDER DISTRIBUTION
BY FREQUENCY 71

8 RESPONDENTS PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR OWN INVOLVE-
MENT IN THE PROCESS 73

9 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO CURRICULUM ITEMS
FOR EASTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE 89

10 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO INSTRUCTION ITEMS
FOR EASTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE 92

11 RESPONSES TO ALL ITEMS RANK ORDER DISTRIBUTION
BY FREQUENCY 94

12 RESPONDENTS PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR OWN INVOLVE-
MENT IN THE PROCESS 97
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page


1. SIMPLIFIED TABLE OF ORGANIZATION FOR
ACADEMIC AFFAIRS AT SOUTHERN COMMUNITY
COLLEGE 33

2. SIMPLIFIED TABLE OF ORGANIZATION FOR
ACADEMIC AFFAIRS AT WESTERN COMMUNITY
COLLEGE 60

3. SIMPLIFIED TABLE OF ORGANIZATION FOR
ACADEMIC AFFAIRS AT EASTERN COMMUNITY
COLLEGE 84











Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


THE LOCUS OF FORMAL DECISION-MAKING
FOR CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION
IN SELECTED MULTI-CAMPUS COMMUNITY COLLEGES

By

Willis N. Holcombe

August, 1974

Chairman: James L. Wattenbarger
Co-Chairman: Albert B. Smith
Major Department: Educational Administration


The purpose of the study was to investigate the locus of

formal decision-making with regard to sp cific curriculum

and instruction decisions in selected multi-campus community

college districts. The study was designed to respond to three

questions:

1. What are the procedures that exist for making de-
cisions in curriculum and instruction for the
selected multi-campus community colleges?

2. What role incumbents make decisions concerning
specified tasks in curriculum and instruction
for the selected multi-campus community colleges?

3. What is the degree of congruence between stated
decision-making procedures in curriculum and in-
struction and perceived decision-making patterns
as identified by the Decision Point Analysis
Instrument?

The data relating to these three questions formed a basis for

developing generalizations relative to evolving practices for

decision-making in curriculum and instruction in these dis-

tricts.


vii










The three districts were selected on the basis of size,

state governance patterns, location, organizational planning

and willingness to participate. Four data collection tech-

niques were used at each of the three institutions. These

techniques included two instruments (the Decision Point

Analysis Instrument and a structured interview guide),a re-

view of documents and records, and general observations.

Field visits were conducted in each district and role incum-

bents were selected at each district. The Decision Point

Analysis Instrument was completed by the selected role incum-

bents in the presence of the researcher. The same people

were also asked to respond to the interview guide. Approxi-

mately fifty percent of the role incumbents who completed the

Decision Point Analysis Instrument were interviewed. In addi-

tion to the two instruments, policy manuals, handbooks, and

other documents were reviewed to reveal stated decision-making

procedures. Also, general observations were recorded at each

district.

The data weredescribed in separate, chapters devoted to

each of the districts, which were identified only by pseudo-

nyms. In these chapters, the stated decision-making structures

were identified. This was followed by the responses to the

Decision Point Analysis Instrument and the structured inter-

views. General Observations, a discussion of congruence be-

tween stated and perceived decision-making patterns, and a

summary concluded each of the three chapters on the districts.


viii










A comparative analysis of the data followed the chapters

on the individual colleges. From the analysis the following

generalizations were formulated:

1. A curriculum and instruction committee had been

established at all three colleges, but it only played a

viable role in the decision-making process when the instruc-

tional divisions, i.e., division chairmen, department chairmen,

and faculty members, were represented.

2. The formal organizational structure for curriculum

and instruction helped to determine the perceptions of the

role incumbents about who was responsible for decision-making.

3. Curriculum decisions were perceived to be more centrally

determined than were instructional decisions.

4. Division and department chairmen were perceived as

strong primary decision-makers.

5. Academic administrators from the district administra-

tive staff were not perceived to be strong decision-makers

for curriculum and instruction.

6. The decision-making pattern for non-credit courses

was different from that for the regular curriculum. The role

incumbent charged with responsibility for community services

and continuing education was the primary decision-maker in

that area.

7. There tended to be more participation in the formula-

tion of curriculum decisions than was evident in instruction

decisions.

8. Role incumbents were reluctant to identify themselves

as primary decision-makers in curriculum items.
ix














CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION


The concept of the public community junior college is no

longer new to American education. The junior college came

into existence just after the turn of the century and has

grown tremendously since that time. The 1973 Directory of

the American Association of Community Junior Colleges reported

that in October, 1972, there were more than 900 public junior

colleges in the United States of America. The combined en-

rollment of these institutions was over 2,700,000 students

[AACJC, 1973, p. 7]

During this expansion period not all of the growth was

in the area of numbers of institutions and students. The

junior college itself has changed over the past 70 years and

especially in the past two decades. One such change is the

evolution of the community college with more than one campus.

This type of institution is relatively new and is still emer-

ging from previously single campus community colleges.

Kintzer, Jensen, and Hansen related that in 1964 there were

only ten multi-junior college districts; in 1967, thirty-one

and in 1968, forty [Kintzer, 1969, p. 2].

Most of the first community colleges to develop into

multi-campus institutions did so without the benefit of clear

cut guidelines for the organization and governance of their










schools. The establishment of a central administration, struc-

turally separate from the individual campuses, posed problems

that have never been encountered before by either the admin-

istration or the faculty. These pioneer institutions were

obliged then to resolve their problems with little or no em-

pirically gained evidence from other community colleges.

Studies need to be done to extract from these colleges

empirical data which may be useful to others. McCluskey,

in his doctoral dissertation, undertook a study of the formal

decision-making for student personnel services in the multi-

campus community college [McCluskey, 1972]. In his study,

McCluskey explored the procedure for and the levels of deci-

sion-making in student personnel services for selected com-

munity colleges.

The study presented here was methodologically similar

to McCluskey's investigation. Although the target of this

study was decision-making in curriculum and instruction, not

student personnel services, the design was much the same.

The present researcher drew heavily on McCluskey's work in

the formulation of the plan for this research. Thus the com-

monalities were by intent, rather than coincidence.



The Problem


Statement of the Problem


The problem was to determine the locus of formal decision-

making with regard to specified tasks in curriculum and










instruction in selected multi-campus community colleges.

Answers to the following questions were sought.

1. What are the procedures that exist'for making
decisions in curriculum and instruction for
the selected multi-campus community colleges?

2. What role incumbents make decisions concerning
specified tasks in curriculum and instruction
for the selected multi-campus community colleges?

3. What is the degree of congruence between stated
decision-making procedures in curriculum and in-
struction and perceived decision-making patterns
as identified by the Decision Point Analysis
Instrument?


Delimitations

The following restrictions were observed in the conduct

of the study:

1. The study of the locus of decision-making
was limited to three multi-campus community
colleges.

2. The study was limited to the decision-making
policies for curriculum and instruction that
prevailed in 1973-1974.

3. The data collection was limited to an exam-
ination of college documents and records,
general observations, responses to the Decision
Point Analysis Instrument, and responses to
the structured personal interview.

4. Only the following role incumbents at each
college were asked to respond to the Decision
Point Analysis Instrument and the structured
personal interview:

a. President/chief administrator for the
entire college,

b. Vice-President for Academic Affairs/chief
administrator for academic affairs for the
entire college,

c. Campus Dean/chief campus administrator for
each campus,










d. Campus Director for Academic Affairs/chief
campus administrator for academic affairs
on each campus,

e. Eight division/department chairmen, repre-
senting all campuses and selected on the
basis of a willingness to participate.

f. Eight faculty members, representing all cam-
puses and selected on the basis of a willing-
ness to participate.

5. The following role incumbents participated in
the study by completing the Decision Point
Analysis Instrument.

a. Southern Community College (20 total):

1) President
2) Dean of Academic Affairs
3) Dean of Instruction (2)
4) Department Chairmen (8)
5) Faculty (8)

b. Western Community College (22 total):

1) Chancellor
2) Director of Curriculum Review and Evaluation
3) President (2)
4) Dean of Instruction (2)
5) Division Chairmen (4)
6) Department Chairmen (4)
7) Faculty (8)

c. Eastern Community College (22 total):

1) President
2) Dean for Instructional Services
3) Provost (4)
4) Division Chairmen (8)
5) Faculty (8)

6. Not all of the participants in the study were in-
terviewed. Because of time and scheduling limi-
tations only the following number of interviews
were conducted:

a. Southern Community College--10 interviews

b. Western Community College--12 interviews


c. Eastern Community College--9 interviews





5




7. The scope of this study was confined to formal
decision-making arrangements only and did not
attempt to investigate informal structures.
The importance of the informal decision-making
structure, as identified by Kimbrough (1964)
was recognized, but was not at issue in this
study.

8. The study focused only on decision-making af-
fecting the curriculum and instruction items
presented in the Decision Point Analysis Instru-
ment.


Limitations


1. The study was limited because of its ex post
facto character, namely,
a. The inability to manipulate independent
variables,

b. The lack of power to randomize,

c. The risk of improper interpretation [Kerlinger,
1964, p. 371],

2. Any generalizations drawn apply only to the three
community colleges studied, and any inferences
drawn to multi-campus institutions in general are
purely speculative.

3. Although the two basic instruments used in this
study have a history of use, enough modification
was made to limit their validity to face validity.

4. The identity of the individuals and institutions
remains confidential. A general description
of the social milieu and other pertinent items
of information about the institutions was pre-
sented as a background for the study.


Justification for the Study


With the growing demand for its educational services as

evidenced by the increasing numbers of students attending the

community colleges, the community college must respond and










provide facilities and programs to the public. One type of

response that colleges are turning to is a movement toward

multi-campus operation. The administrators and other offi-

cials of these colleges need information to help them make

responsible decisions about the organization of the multi-

campus. This study was an attempt to provide information on

current practices in multi-campus community colleges. The

following statement signifies a need for more research on

multi-campus administration:

If the junior college movement is to retain
in the years ahead the vigor for which it
has been noted in the past, important deci-
sions will have to be made about the future
organization and administration of two or more
campuses. [Kintzer, 1969, p. 2]

The results of this research added to the empirically based

knowledge of the multi-campus community college by providing

more information on decision-making patterns.

A simple question stated by Murray Block in his research

on multi-campus administration led to futher justification for

this study. He posed the question: "Should curriculum and

instruction masters be localized or centralized?" [Block,

1970,p.24]. In large part, the research was organized to react

to that question. The degree of centralization or decentra-

lization depends almost entirely on the levels and procedures

of decision-making found in the institution.

This was the second in a series of planned research pro-

jects at the University of Florida concerning the administra-

tive problems presented by the multi-campus community college.










McCluskey's doctoral dissertation was the first study and

dealt with the area of student personnel services. There is

a need for further studies dealing with the other areas of

administration to provide a comprehensive empirical descrip-

tion of the ways that junior community colleges are operating

in the multi-campus setting.



Definition of Terms


Community College--A public, two-year college which of-

fers programs and/or courses limited to the first two years

of post-high school education, including the university parallel

program and at least one of the following: occupational edu-

cation or continuing education. For the purposes of this

study, community college is synonymous with "junior college"

and "community junior college."

Curriculum--The courses and programs of instruction of-

fered at the community college.

Instruction--The methods and materials used by faculty

in their teaching of the curriculum.

Locus--The role incumbent (position) that has the effec-

tive responsibility for the decision-making process in speci-

fic task areas of curriculum and instruction.

Multi-Campus--A community college organizational pattern

utilizing the following: one district, a single college, two

or more campuses, where a central administration directs many

of the internal operations of the college.










Primary Decision-Maker--The role incumbent who was mainly

responsible for the making of a particular decision. Opera-

tionally the primary decision-maker was identified by responses

to part "A" of each decision item in the Decision Point Anal-

ysis instrument.

Role Incumbent--The individual that occupies one of the

official college positions identified in this study.

Multi-Unit--A general term describing a district operating

two or more community college sites under one governing board.

It is a more inclusive term than multi-campus in that it en-

compasses both multi-college and multi-campus districts.



Review of Related Literature


The review of related literature for this study is pre-

sented in three separate sections. The first section is a

review of research and literature on multi-unit community col-

lege districts. The second section consists of literature

pertaining to decision-making theory and practice. Curriculum

and instruction literature pertinent to this study is pre-

sented in the third section.


Review of Research and Literature on Multi-Unit Districts

This section is divided into two parts: the research

studies and the other literature pertinent to multi-unit junior

colleges. The research information is presented first and

is arranged in chronological order.

The first study noted herein was a survey of ten urban










multi-campus junior colleges [Jensen, 1965]. One purpose of

the investigation was to identify the principal reasons for

the emergence of the multi-campus organization. The main

reasons were:

1. To compensate for district geographical size
which prohibited one campus from servicing
the district adequately.

2. To equalize educational opportunities through
effective accessibility of the college to the
residents of the district.

3. To meet the differing educational needs of the
various communities located within the district.

4. To accommodate applicants after the district's
only campus had reached its maximum capacity.

5. To keep each campus to a reasonable and func-
tional size. [Jensen, 1965, p.8]

By talking with college officials, studying official

documents, and learning the history of each district, Jensen

was able to determine other characteristics of multi-unit

junior colleges. Of the ten participating districts, two

were multi-college districts, five were multi-campus districts

and three were multi-program districts. The distinctive de-

finitions that Jensen derived for these different types of

multi-unit college districts have become standard terminology

in the literature and are:

1. Multi-College District--operates two or more in-
dividual comprehensive colleges.

2. Multi-Campus District--operates a single legal in-
stitution with two or more comprehensive campuses.

3. Multi-Program District--similar in organization
to multi-campus districts except that each branch
offers a different educational program--for ex-
ample, a technical and vocational program on one
campus, and arts and sciences on another. [Jensen,
1965, p.9]










Jensen also found that campus administrators, faculty,

and students favored the multi-college plan because they felt

it offered the most autonomy of the three patterns. There

was unanimous agreement on three organizational issues:

student personnel services should be a campus function, staff

personnel policies should be district-wide, and business

affairs should be handled on the district level.

Milton Jones published a document in 1968 that attempted

to pull together the information available about existing

multi-unit models with the purpose of identifying trends in

organizational structure [Jones, 1968, p. 8]. The most per-

tinent finding by Jones was that he identified a continuum

of centralized-decentralized authority related to the various

types of multi-unit organization. He concluded that author-

ity in the multi-college district was more decentralized;

i.e., there was more autonomy at the campus level than in

the multi-campus model [Jones, 1968, p. 33].

Bogart conducted a case study of Tarrant County Junior

College District for the purpose of establishing a set of

multi-campus development guidelines [Bogart, 1968]. His

sources of data were published documents, letters, news items,

and personal interviews. Bogart found only minor differences

between guidelines considered in developing single and multi-

campus junior colleges.

The most extensive study reviewed was done with forty-

five multi-unit junior college districts as participants

[Kintzer, Jensen, Hansen, 1969]. These districts covered










seventeen states and a wide diversity of demographic charac-

teristics. Two items of that study are pertinent to this

review. Kintzer and associates concluded that there was

no best pattern of organization extant, but that some general

guidelines could be stated. Some of these are:

1. that a chancellor represent the board of trus-
tees and be responsible for general administra-
tion of the entire district,

2. that someone at the central office be responsible
for:
a. business affairs
b. instructional programs
c. business, technical, and vocational education,

3. that the central office be located completely
away from all campuses and, if possible, cen-
trally within the district,

4. that each campus have as much autonomy as possible,

5. that experimentation on the campus level be en-
couraged and supported,

6. that each campus be allowed to hire its own per-
sonnel. [Kintzer, 1969, pp. 51-54]

In addition to the positive aspects of the multi-unit or-

ganizational structures, the Kintzer study group chronicled

what they found to be disadvantages of these structures.

Some of these are:

1. may not be sufficiently sensitive to the various
service areas within the district,

2. not as well suited to innovative change as is the
simpler one-unit college district,

3. may find it more difficult for the community to
identify with the institution,

4. will find that central office personnel tend to be
too directive,

5. will find that both building costs and, at least
initially, operating costs are greater,










6. may find that competition among the campuses
is excessive and destructive,

7. will likely have one campus oriented more towards
"blue collar" educational programs and the other
towards "white collar" programs with probable
unfortunate social consequences. [Kintzer, 1969,
p. 301

Ramstad studied nine of the eleven multi-college districts

in California to determine what their general practices and

problems were [Ramstad, 1970]. He was concerned with five

general topics: planning, construction, operation, coordina-

tion, and the district office. He found many commonalities

among districts, but could not identify a pattern to the dis-

trict operations. Ramstad concluded his study by stating

that the junior college districts had not shared their ex-

periences and that this was a loss of valuable information

that could have helped the colleges avoid some of their com-

mon developmental problems [Ramstad, 1970, p. 30].

VanTrease conducted a survey of chief campus administra-

tors and chief district administrators of multi-campus dis-

tricts [VanTrease, 1972]. The purpose of the study was to

determine whether there was a difference in the perceptions

of the two groups of administrators regarding the degree of

delegated authority existing in their schools. VanTrease

found that there was a significant difference (.05 level) in

nearly all specified areas. He recommended improved communi-

cation between the central office and the campuses.

In addition to the research done on multi-campus junior

colleges, several articles of interest have been written.

Sammartino concluded an article on multi-campus colleges by











writing, "All a college can do is to examine the different

ways it has been done at other places and then decide on its

own solution" [1963, p. 52].

The literature provided some examples of the different

ways it has been done and some of the problems encountered.

Masiko [19661, Erickson [1964], and Coultas [1964] wrote

descriptions of the development of urban multi-campus community

colleges. Out of descriptions like these comes information

that can be useful to developing multi-campus situations.

Erickson, in writing about the Chicago City Junior College,

expressed very succinctly the primary challenge that faces

multi-campus administrative structures. "The goal . is

to foster the creativity and flexibility of each campus,

establishing unity in the multi-campus college without rigid

conformity" [Erickson, 1964, p. 19]. All of these articles

enumerated the difficulties encountered in their respective

multi-campus colleges, and most of them are the same ones

identified by Kintzer, Jensen, and Hansen in the study dis-

cussed previously.

Rushing [1970] indicated, in his discussion of Tarrant

County Junior College, that the multi-campus situations vary

so much from state to state and situation to situation that

essentially each college faces unique problems. Some general

guidelines can be applied to all cases, but the unique-

ness of a given situation may call for new solutions and

create new problems.

At TCJC, learning is not an activity limited
to students. The college staff is constantly










learning ways of managing a multi-campus insti-
tution. With each new answer, there also arises
at least one new question. [Rushing, 1970, p.
16]

Wynn [1972] and Block [1970] identified many of the ques-

tions that administrators and faculty must answer in order to

be able to live and work together. Block's contention was

that the way the fundamental questions of the organization

are answered will largely determine the degree to which

power is centralized or decentralized in the organization.

In actual practice, Block stated that the multi-unit community

college districts have such varied patterns that one is

led to conclude that there are no standard answers [Block,

1970, p. 24]. Wynn submitted that in a multi-campus situa-

tion the responsibility falls at the district level and there-

fore most of the authority should be located at the same

level [Wynn, 1972, p. 44]. He supported a strongly centra-

lized multi-campus organization.

At the other end of the continuum was Morrissey [19671,

who argued that multi-unit districts should be multi-college

and thus be more decentralized.

I recommend that in complex community college sys-
tems each college established be called a college,
with the privilege of naming the school reserved for
the college professionals and interested citizens
of the region to be served. The word "campus" calls
forth the mummified ghosts of higher educational mis-
takes; the wotnk "college" describes what the insti-
tution is in fact. [Morrissey, 1967, p. 40]

From the research studies and articles on multi-unit

community colleges, a few general statements can be made.

1. Multi-unit colleges are not all the same and do
not always face the same problems.










2. The guidelines for multi-unit community colleges
are, at best, a general case that must be modi-
fied to fit specific institutional needs.

3. Controversy exists as to how centralized or de-
centralized authority should be in multi-unit
junior colleges.

4. Despite the problems of multi-unit organization,
the number of multi-unit junior colleges has
increased significantly in the past two decades.


Review of Research and Literature on Decision-Making

Decision-making only recently became a popular topic for

research. Daniel Griffiths reported in 1969,

From 1956 through 1962 an average of only one
dissertation a year was written using decision-
making as a basis. However, an average of six
per year were completed from 1963 through 1966.
[Griffiths, 1969, p. 19]

Dissertation Abstracts, for the first six months of 1974, listed

more than six studies a month dealing with educational deci-

sion-making alone. Along with the many research projects on

decision-making came a great deal of diversity in methodology

and research objectives. Rather than recount the findings

of studies which did not specifically relate to this study,

this review focused only on salient information.

Ernest Dale was one of the organization theorists of

the 1950s who discussed the meaning of decision-making in

terms of centralization or decentralization. His frame of

reference was the business organization, but the following

principles apply as well to educational organizations.

Another type of decentralization--and that with
which we shall be primarily concerned here--refers
to the nature of the company's management. More










precisely, it implies the delegation of responsi-
bility and authority from higher management to
subordinates down the line. We may say that the
degree of managerial decentralization in a company
is the greater:
1. the greater the number of decisions made
lower down the management hierarchy,
2. the more important the decisions made lower
down the management hierarchy,
3. the more functions affected by decisions
made at lower levels,
4. the less checking required on the decision.
Decentralization is greatest when no check at all
must be made; less when superiors have to be in-
formed of the decision after it has been made; still
less if superiors have to be consulted before the
decision is made. [Dale, 1952, pp. 106-107]

Kimbrough has explored the influence of the informal power

structure on decision-making at nearly all levels of educa-

tional organizations [Kimbrough, 1964]. Investigations such

as this exposed the complex matrix that can be underneath a

seemingly routine bit of organizational behavior. The Getzels-

Guba model for social systems interaction has provided a con-

venient theoretical base for studies that are concerned with

the organizational (normative dimension)characteristics of

observable decision-making behavior [Fogarty and Gregg, 1966,

pp. 62-63].

Glen Eye and his associates developed the Decision Point

Analysis Instrument as a means to translate the theoretical

concern into applied research. The following statement by

Eye provided the link necessary for the development of the

technique.

According to this theory, administration may be
examined from three stances. Structurally, admini-
stration may be considered as a hierarchy of super-
ordinate-subordinate relationships within this
social system. Functionally, within this hierarchy
of relationships is the locus for allocating and










integrating roles in order to achieve the goals of
this system. Operationally, administrative pro-
cesses take place in environments characterized
by person-to-person relationships. Thus, any given
superordinate-subordinate relationship within the
administrative structure is enacted in two dynamic
and separate personal situations, one embedded in
the other. This relationship is perceived and
organized by each incumbent in terms of his needs
and goals, skills and experiences. The two sit-
uations are related to the extent that the indivi-
duals' perceptions are mutual.
Theoretically, the central question and primary
antecedent variable thus becomes, "To what extent
do complementary role incumbents in a given social
system tend to agree or disagree in their percep-
tions of their respective roles?" [Eye, 1966, p. 41

Eye studied school administrators and teachers concerning

the responsibilities for decision-making. The Decision Point

Analysis Instrument was developed to determine who made a

decision, who participated in that decision, and what the

nature of the respondents' participation was. The instrument

consisted of twenty-five decision items pertaining to pupil

personnel, staff personnel, curriculum, business management,

and school-community relations [Eye, 1966, p. 24]. The instru-

ment contained an introductory page, a background data page,

and the decision items. The researchers gave brief introduc-

tions and explanations before the respondents proceeded through

the items. Among the conclusions Eye drew from his research

the following statements were found.

1. The Decision Point Analysis Instrument was shown
to be a useful device for the assessment and the
quantification of these perceptions of the locus
of decision-making responsibilities.

2. School systems characterized more than others by
a greater extent of staff participation or in-
volvement in curricular planning and development
ranked higher in curricular-plan productivity
than did school systems not so characterized.










3. School systems characterized more than others
by greater productivity of curricular plans,
also ranked higher in the extent to which their
teachers implemented these curricular plans in
the classroom. [Eye, 1966, pp. 201-206]

Fogarty and Gregg adapted the Decision Point Analysis

Instrument for use in their study designed to test the rela-

tionship between personal characteristics of superintendents

and the centralization of decision-making [Fogarty and Gregg,

1066, p. 62]. In discussing the implications of this type of

research, Fogarty and Gregg made these observations:

Further research on the advisability of relying
on the perceptions of professional staff members re-
garding the loci of decision-points in school sys-
tems should be undertaken. It can be argued that
perceptions of the individuals inhabiting an insti-
tution should be as accurate and as free of bias
as any other method of obtaining information con-
cerning the way the institution operates. This
argument can be tested empirically to determine if
the perceptual approach yields results comparable
to those obtained, for example, by means of direct
observation by personnel from outside the institu-
tion. [Fogarty and Gregg, 1966, p. 70]

More recently, John McCluskey used a modified Decision

Point Analysis Instrument to determine the locus of deci-

sion-making for student personnel services in selected multi-

campus community colleges [McCluskey, 19721. Although the

format was very similar to the original, McCluskey changed

the task areas and the decision items to accomplish his re-

search objective. In addition to the instrument McCluskey

used a structured interview guide as a data gathering tool.

In his section on recommendations to related studies, McCluskey

indicated that studies were needed in other areas of multi-

campus decision-making in order to get a better perspective










of the total decision-making pattern. This study was a direct

outgrowth of McCluskey's research and recommendation.

The level of decision-making was much more of a concern

in multi-campus institutions than it was in the single cam-

pus school. Because of physical limitations as well as the

complexities of the organizational structure, the need for

decision-making policies was felt by several multi-campus

institutions. Some of these institutions published position

papers on this subject. Such a document was published by

Macomb County Community College in its 1973-74 policy manual.

The following is an excerpt from the policy manual.

The working basis for the division of responsi-
bilities is to assign the authority and the obli-
gation to make decisions to that level which is
judged to be best able and/or most efficient in
performing the task. Normally this is judged to be
the level closest to all of the facts required for
a reasonable decision and which therefore utilizes
the shortest lines of communication. Where there
is doubt about the level which would insure the
greatest efficiency, preference is given to the campus.
Where uniformity is essential, in most instances a
district administrator should be assigned the re-
sponsibility. [Policy Manual, 1973-74, 2410.111

More specifically some of the items that were listed as campus

functions were course content and organization, transfer cur-

riculums, faculty committees, and textbook selection. Among

the coordinated functions--that is, cross-campus decisions--

were course numbering and titles, occupational and terminal

curriculums, and graduation requirements.

Miami-Dade Junior College also addressed itself to this

concern. It listed the following among its district-wide

decisions: (1) change in course title, (2) creation of new










courses, (3) creation of new programs, and (4) change in

course description [Decision-Guidelines, 1973, pp. 1-8].

The following were campus decisions: (1) creation of a

continuing education course, (2) instructional experimentation,

(3) introduction of new instructional technology, (4) evalua-

tion of instruction, and (5) adoption of textbooks [Decision-

Guidelines, 1973, pp. 11-14].

From the review of the literature related to decision-

making this study gained much of its structure. The theore-

tical base, the Decision Point Analysis Instrument, and some

of the decision items for the survey came from the sources

mentioned above.


Review of the Literature Used to Formulate the Curriculum and
Instruction Decision Items

When the Decision Point Analysis Instrument was first

used, the focus of attention was not limited to curriculum

and instruction. Glen Eye's decision items came from other

areas of decision-making as well. Thus in the preparation of

the instrument for this study, the decision items themselves

had to be formulated. Three basic criteria provided the

parameters for the items. First, the items were to be deci-

sions that would be common to the community colleges studied.

Secondly, they were to be simply stated and easy to understand.

Thirdly, there were to be the same number of curriculum items

as there were instruction items to facilitate the comparative

aspect of the analysis.

Policy manuals were obtained from several multi-campus










community colleges to help build a list of potential items.

The documents from Miami-Dade Junior College and Macomb County

Community College mentioned above were typical of the kind

reviewed. In addition, some previous research projects helped

provide information relating to the decision items. Willis

LaVire's doctoral dissertation listed critical tasks that

should be performed in instruction and curriculum development

[LaVire, 1961, p. 9]. A.M. Jensen's study of the adminis-

tration of multi-campus junior colleges provided not only

decision items, but some data on how role incumbents responded

to the items during his study. For example, Jensen reported

the following responses to the task of textbook selection:

In two multibranch districts this was a central
office decision. Only five of the districts, multi-
branch and multiprogram, made it necessary to send
the choices of textbooks on to the central office
for approval.
In all ten districts, administrators at the cen-
tral office and at individual campuses stated that
the faculty should play the key role in choosing
textbooks. However, the majority of them believed
that all teachers on one campus should use the
same textbook for a single course. [Jensen, 1965,
pp. 11-12]

More recently Raymond Yell conducted a study of decision-

making in Texas' community colleges. He formulated a ques-

tionnaire asking for perceptions as to who made the decisions

in the institutions. He then compared the perceptions of ad-

ministrators, faculty members, and student leaders. One of

his findings was a significant difference in the perceptions

of the administrators and faculty regarding the decision to

change instructional methods and materials [Yell, 1973].










The total list of possible decision items was separated

into two categories, curriculum and instruction. After the

inappropriate items were eliminated, five items remained in

each category.

Curriculum items:

1. the decision to create a new credit course

2. the decision to create a new program

3. the decision to create a new non-credit course

4. the decision to change a course description

5. the decision to change the general education
requirements

Instruction items:

1. the decision to change the instruction mode
for a course

2. the decision to introduce new instructional
technology

3. the decision to evaluate the instruction in
a course or program

4. the decision to begin an instructional in-
novation or experiment in a course or program
5. the decision concerning the adoption or
change of a textbook

The ten decision items were assembled, and an introduc-

tory page and a background data page were added to complete

the instrument. When complete this instrument differed from

the original in several ways.

1. There were ten items instead of the twenty-five
in the original.

2. The items were limited to curriculum and instruction.

3. Fewer items of background data were solicited.










4. Two responses, one for "committee" and one for a
"don't know" response, were added.

5. The tabs that the respondents marked were elimin-
ated; the response area was placed directly be-
neath each decision item.



Procedures


The procedures section is divided into three parts. The

first part covers the selection of the sample. Next an ex-

planation of the components of the instruments and the data

collection process is presented. The final part deals with

the treatment of the data after collection.


Selection of the Sample

This study was a survey type study encompassing informa-

tion gained from three separate multi-campus community colleges.

On the population of public multi-campus community colleges

in the United States the following criteria were imposed.

1. The community/junior college had been in exis-
tence as a multi-campus institution for at least
one year at the time of the study.

2. Only one of the three selected community colleges
came from any one state.

3. Each of the campuses of the selected institutions
had at least 3000 students (head count).

4. Central administrative personnel were a separate
entity from the administrative staffs for the
campuses.

From the population of colleges who met the criteria,

three were selected on the basis of their willingness to

participate and their location. As a condition of the study,










the identity of each of the institutions participating in the

study remained confidential. Thus, the pseudonyms: Southern

Community College, Western Community College, and Eastern

Community College were used.

Within the community colleges selected, people who held

the following positions were selected as participants:

a. President/chief administrator for the entire college,

b. Vice-President for Academic Affairs/chief admin-
istrator for academic affairs for the entire college,

c. Campus Dean/chief campus administrator for each
campus,

d. Campus Director for Academic Affairs/chief campus
administrator for academic affairs on each campus,
e. Eight division/department chairmen, representing
all campuses,

f. Eight faculty members, representing all campuses.

The department chairmen and faculty members were selected

on the basis of availability and willingness to participate

in the study. The identities of the individuals chosen for

the study remained confidential.


Instrumentation and Data Collection

The Decision Point Analysis Instrument, Appendix A, con-

sists of three parts:

1. The cover sheet--this contains the purpose of the
study, the statement of confidentiality and general
instructions for filling out the instrument.

2. The background data sheet--this information was
used in categorizing and analyzing the responses
to the decision items.

3. The body of the instrument--this contains the deci-
sion items and the blanks for the responses.










The second instrument devised for the study was the

structured interview guide, Appendix B. The questions included

in this guide were designed to elicit additional perceptions

of the decision-making patterns of the district. Each role

incumbent who filled out the Decision Point Analysis Instru-

ment was asked for an interview. However, not all of these

participants were interviewed. Time constraints and scheduling

difficulties were the main reasons why some role incumbents

were not interviewed. The following role incumbents were

interviewed:

1. Southern Community College (10 total):

a. Dean of Instruction 2
b. Dean o2 Academic Affairs 1
c. Department Chairman 4
d. Faculty 4

2. Western Communtiy College (12 total):

a. Chancellor 1
b. Dean for Curriculum Review and Evaluation 1
c. President 2
d. Dean of Instruction 2
e. Division Chairman 2
f. Department Chairman 2
g. Faculty 2

3. Eastern Community College (9 total):

a. President 1
b. Provost 4
c. Division Chairman 2
d. Faculty 2

The interview guide served as a common point of departure

for the sessions. Despite the fact that all the participants

who completed the Decision Point Analysis Instrument were not

interviewed, some useful data were collected during the inter-

view sessions.










In addition to the use of two instruments, data were collected

at the selected community colleges through two other means.

First, documents and records (e.g., policy manuals, faculty

handbooks, appropriate committee reports, organizational charts

and the like) were examined and analyzed to obtain a firm

understanding of established procedures for decision-making.

General observations also were recorded during informal inter-

actions with faculty, staff, and students of the community

colleges. These observations were indicative of interpersonal

relationships, attitudes, and knowledge of decision-making

by the respondents.

The field visits were four days lonc for each selected

community college. During the visits interviews were held,

and at the beginning of each interview the Decision Point

Analysis Instrument was completed by the respondent. Filling

the instrument out with the researcher present had two advan-

tages. First, if the respondent needed to ask a question,

he could get a reply before he marked his response. This

tended to eliminate much of the misinterpretation of semantics

that is usually present in questionnaire research. Secondly,

by collecting the instrument at the close of the interview,

the researcher achieved a 100 percent return rate with all

items complete. This would have been virtually impossible to

accomplish through a mail-out program. Between interviews,

manuals and other printed material were read to establish the

procedures for decision-making. All during the visit general

impressions were being gathered to help round out the view of

the college.










Data Treatment

Examination of college documents and records, structured

interviews with role incumbents, and general observations

provided the information for determining the established pro-

cedures and policies for decision-making in each of the dis-

tricts. This information is presented first in the chapter

on each college. Next the data collected from the responses

to the Decision Point Analysis Instrument are interpreted.

This is accomplished through a series of frequency distribu-

tion tables which pool the perceptions of the respondents as

to decision-making structure. These distributions reflect the

number of times a particular role incumbent was selected as

either primarily responsible for making the decision or as

having participated in making the decision. Also data as to

the respondent's perception of his own involvement in the

making of decisions are presented.

The decision itenLs are discussed individually as well

as being grouped. The curriculum items and the instruction

items are analyzed as groups and then are pooled into a fre-

quency table for all of the items. The final analysis done

on the data is a determination of the degree of congruence

existent between the stated procedures for decision-making

and the perceived patterns identified during the study.



Organization of the Remainder of the Research Report


The three community college districts studied are presented










separately in Chapters II, III, and IV. Each college is

described relative to its surrounding district, pertinent

historical data, organizational features, and decision-making

patterns. Analysis and discussion of the patterns identified

through the use of the Decision Point Analysis Instrument,

interviews, and general observations follow. A summary is

provided at the end of each of these chapters.

Chapter V provides a comparative analysis of the decision-

making patterns of the three multi-campus community college

districts. Similarities and differences have been high-

lighted in an effort to determine if a pattern of decision-

making emerges for all three institutions.

The final chapter provides a series of generalizations

and implications that emerged from the investigation. Lastly,

the recommendations for further related research are offered.















CHAPTER II


THE DECISION-MAKING PATTERN OF
SOUTHERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT


This chapter is a description of the decision-making pat-

tern for curriculum and instruction in the first of three

districts examined. The district and college are described

first in a section on the local environment. The procedures

for decision-making in curriculum and instruction are then

discussed. Next, the decision-making patterns identified by

the Decision Point Analysis Instrument are presented. The

information gained from the structured interviews then are

presented. General observations and a summation conclude

the chapter.



Environment


The Community

Southern Community College serves a single county area

of approximately 280 square miles. The total population of

the county was estimated at 648,741 on April 1, 1973. This

represented a 24.2 percent increase since the 1970 census.

There were twenty-four incorporated municipalities, which

accounted for 73 percent of the total population. The unincor-

porated areas of the county had 27 percent of the population

or a total of 170,238 people.










Two of the incorporated areas contained 64 percent of the

incorporated population. The larger of these was a sizable

urban area with a population of 241,420. This city was the

focal point of the county in nearly all facets of government,

economy, and activity. The growth rate of this urban area

from 1970 to 1973 was 11.6 percent. The other large incor-

porated area grew more rapidly during the same period, 28.4

percent, but still had a population of only 66,855. This

municipality did not have the urban characteristics of the

main city in the south end of the county. Rather it was the

largest of a group of fast-growing municipalities in the

north-central part of the county. Collectively these incor-

porated areas had a growth rate of slightly over 38 percent for

the period 1970-73. The projections carried out by the

county planning board indicated that the county could expect

to grow more, especially in the smaller incorporated areas

and in the unincorporated areas. At the time of the study,

Southern Community College had its two campuses located in

the two large population centers. The central administrative

facility was located between the two campuses on a main

thoroughfare. Under normal traffic conditions it took ap-

proximately twenty minutes to travel from the central admin-

istration site to either of the campuses.


History and Development

Southern Community College was founded in 1927 as a

private, non-profit corporation. During the first year there










were fourteen members on the faculty and eighty-seven students

enrolled. The college was fully accredited in 1931. In

1938 a building campaign was conducted resulting in the erec-

tion of the first permanent building on the present south

campus location. During 1948 the college converted from

private to public school status, becoming part of the county

school system. The north campus was opened to provide for

the rapidly expanding population of the upper county in 1965.

The central administration complex was completed in 1968.

Apart from the two campuses, the college operated one center

to offer further educational service to the people of the

north county area. Growth at this center was projected to be

slow because it was fairly close to another public community

college in a neighboring district. At the time of the study,

there were no definite plans to enlarge the center to campus

status or to build another campus.

Southern has enjoyed excellent growth in terms of enroll-

ment. The south campus had a fall, 1973, headcount enroll-

ment of 5679 students. This represented 58 percent of the

college's total fall enrollment. The north campus had 3686

students, which was approximately 38 percent of the total

9759 for the whole college. Enrollment at the center was 394

students or 4 percent of the college total. The enrollment

projections completed by the college indicated that the

north campus could expect its share of the enrollment to in-

crease slightly in the next five years. The south campus

was expected to have stable enrollment for the same period










of time. The total college annual enrollment projection for

1979-80 was approximately 10,500 students.


Pattern of Governance

Southern Community College was part of a statewide sys-

tem of public comprehensive community colleges. It was

governed by a seven-member district board of trustees. The

President of the college served as the secretary to the board.

The District Board was charged with full responsibility for

the governance and operation of the district. The role of

the state agencies, the State Board of Education, and the

Division of Community Colleges was largely one of coordina-

tion and planning.


Organization

Southern Community College was a multi-campus institu-

tion which stressed its unity as a single college. The faculty

handbook stated that the same general policies and philoso-

phies of operation, as well as the same procedural methods,

applied to all campuses equally. The organizational chart

for the college indicated that there were four major internal

divisions: academic affairs, administrative affairs, business

affairs, and student affairs. Both campuses had similar or-

ganizational plans with only minor differences keeping them

from being identical. Figure 1 represents a simplified view

of the organizational line relationships for the college.

Staff positions and personnel who occupied assistant posi-

tions have been left out of the chart. The administrative
















































FIGURE 1.


SIMPLIFIED TABLE OF ORGANIZATION FOR ACADEMIC AFFAIRS
AT SOUTHERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE










structures of the other major divisions were not shown in

detail so that the academic positions could be better high-

lighted.



Procedures for Decision-Making in
Curriculum and Instruction


The college procedures manual described three committees

which could be instrumental in the decision-making process

for curriculum and instruction. The committees were formed

to provide wider participation in the decision-making process.

These committees were the Council of Academic Deans, the Cur-

riculum and Instruction Committee, and the Course Study Com-

mittee.

The Council of Academic Deans was composed of the Deans

of Instruction on each campus and the Assistant Deans of

Academic Affairs. All decisions which were purely academic

and did not affect policy and/or operational procedures of

other areas of the college could be finalized within this com-

mittee. This body received the recommendations of the Cur-

riculum and Instruction Committee.

The Curriculum and Instruction Committee studied all

proposals presented to it by the Dean of Academic Affairs.

The committee basically had three courses of action; it could

recommend approval, recommend disapproval, or request addi-

tional information of the initiators or other pertinent people.

The normal channel for proposals was from the initiator, to

the department chairman, to the Dean of Instruction, to the










Dean of Academic Affairs, to the Curriculum and Instruction

Committee. The committee consisted of the following members

at the time of the study: Assistant Dean of Academic Affairs,

two librarians, two counselors, four department chairmen,

and six faculty members. Some of the items that were listed

as being within the purview of the committee were (1) addi-

tion of a new credit course or a new credit program, (2)

change of a course title and/or the level of offering or

credit, (3) changes or revisions of the general education

requirements, and (4) changes or revisions of course objec-

tives.

The Dean of Academic Affairs in conference with the

Council of Academic Deans each year appointed course study

committees. These committees studied specific courses desig-

nated by the department chairmen. The course study commit-

tees were authorized to study any of the following items:

(1) textbooks, (2) course objectives and outlines, (3) instruc-

tional procedures, (4) bibliographic materials, and (5)

instructional materials.

In addition to the committee structure, Southern Community

College defined some of the positions of the college in terms

of their role in the decision-making process. In some instances

these definitions were similar to job descriptions, but in

others they were more general.

The Dean of Academic Affairs was to function as a planner

of program development, supervisor of existing programs, sti-

mulator of curriculum innovation, facilitator of faculty growth,










motivator of instructional creativity, provider of teaching

resources, and interpreter of policy. The Deans of Instruc-

tion were to share with the Deans of Student Services the

administrative responsibility for the operation of the

campus. In addition to their campus administrative duties

Deans of Instruction were to (1) facilitate the department

chairmen and coordinator of evening classes in the development

of innovative curriculum and instruction ideas, (2) review

and react to curriculum and instruction proposals from the

departments and (3) evaluate programs and personnel.

The department chairmen were to be the chief facili-

tators of good student-teacher relationship. Among other

things this role required the performance of the following

specific duties: (1) supervision of curriculum development

and revision, (2) supervision of classroom instruction, (3)

evaluation of instructional activities, (4) provider of ac-

cess to instructional materials, and (5) approval of the

selection of texts and materials. Faculty members were viewed

at Southern Community College as the most vital link in the

education program. Among their responsibilities were

listed the following: (1) utilize supportive services and

resources in development of classroom activities, (2) select

his own technique in presenting the concepts of his disci-

pline, and (3) initiate proposals for experimental or innova-

tive classroom arrangements.










Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by the Decision Point Analysis Instrument


The Decision Point Analysis Instrument was used to col-

lect responses from twenty role incumbents at Southern Com-

munity College. Four members of the sample were selected by

virtue of their position in the college. Eight department

chairmen and eight faculty members were selected at random

and asked if they would be willing to participate in the study.

All respondents completed the instrument in the manner de-

scribed in Chapter I. All respondents appeared willing to

participate and interested in the intent of the study. Be-

cause of the nature of the instrument, the researcher felt

that this positive attitude was an important factor for the

study.

The data collected are separated into three categories:

(1) primary decision-makers, (2) decision participators, and

(3) self-perception of role. Within these categories the

curriculum items are discussed apart from the instruction

items. The responses are then pooled to reflect the total

pattern of the responses.


Primary Decision-Makers

Tables 1-3 depict the responses of the participants as

to what role incumbents were primarily responsible for the

making of each of the decisions. Each item is discussed indi-

vidually below, then the responses are grouped for further

analysis of the decision-making patterns.










Responses to item one in the curriculum area indicated

that department chairmen and the Curriculum and Instruction

Committee were primarily responsible for the decision to

create a new course. The creation of a new program, item

two, reflected a wider dispersion of responses. The Academic

Dean accounted for 40 percent of the responses while the

Curriculum and Instruction Committee had 30 percent.

The creation of a new non-credit course item was adminim-

tered' differently from the other items. At Southern Com-

munity College, as at the other institutions studied, the

role incumbent responsible for continuing education programs

was added to the list of possible responses. This role incum-

bent did not appear in any of the other items of the survey.

Fifty-five percent of the respondents to this item selected

the Coordinator for Continuing Education as the primary deci-

sion-maker.

The changing of a course description, item four, was

indicated by 65 percent of the respondents to be the decision

of the department chairmen. Of the eight department chairmen

responding, however, three designated the Curriculum and

Instruction Committee as being primary. The decision to

change the general education requirements was seen unanimously

as a district-wide decision. Sixty-five percent of the

respondents indicated that the Curriculum and Instruction

Committee was primary and 35 percent felt that the college

Dean of Academics was.

By pooling all the responses to the five curriculum











TABLE 1


DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO CURRICULUM ITEMS
FOR SOUTHERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE


Role
Incumbents


Make The Decision
Item
1 2 3 4 5 Tot. %


Participate
1tem
1 2 3 4 5 Tot. %


President 0 3 0 0 0 3 3

Academic Dean 1 8 4 0 7 20 20

Dean of Instruction 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Department Chairman 9 3 3 13 0 28 28

Faculty 1 0 1 2 0 4 4

Committees 9 6 1 5 13 34 34

Continued Education
Coordinator 0 0 11 0 0 11 11

Don't Know 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

100 100


1 3

6 8

12 12

10 9

14 10

7 6


0 0

0 0


0 2 6 2.8

5 9 34 15.6

8 12 49 22.5

8 15 47 21.5

13 11 53 24.3

8 3 24 11.0


0 0 5 2.3

0 0 0 0

218 100.0










items in Table 1, it can be seen that curriculum matters as

a whole required district-wide coordination. The Curriculum

and Instruction Committee, Continuing Education Coordinator,

and Dean of Academic Affairs were district functions and

accounted for 65 percent of the responses. On the individual

campuses, however, the key decision-maker was perceived to

be the department chairman. That position received 28 percent

of the responses. The Dean of Instruction position received

no responses as being the primary decision-maker in the cur-

riculum items. The President and the faculty did not receive

a significant number of responses for being primary in the

formulation of curriculum decisions.

The instruction items revealed a more decentralized

decision-making pattern (Table 2). The responses to the

decision to change the instructional mode in a course indi-

cated that the decision was made within the department.

Sixty-five percent felt that the faculty member was the key

decision-maker and 35 percent marked the department chairman

as being key. No other role incumbents were marked. Item

two, the decision to introduce new instructional technology,

also fell within the department. The faculty received 60

percent of the responses and the department chairman 30 percent.

It was interesting that the only responders who marked the

department chairman as primary were department chairmen.

The decision to evaluate the instruction in a course or

program was perceived to be the department chairman's function

by fifteen out of the twenty respondents. Four selected











TABLE 2


DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO INSTRUCTION ITEMS
FOR SOUTHERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE


Make the Decision Participate
Role
Incumbents Items Items
1 2 3 4 5 Tot % 1 2 3 4 5 Tot

President 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 3 2.0

Academic Dean 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 3 5 0 13 9.0

Dean of Instruction 0 1 0 2 0 3 3 4 5 5 9 1 24 16.6

Department Chairman 7 6 15 8 9 45 45 12 14 4 13 10 53 36.6

Faculty 13 12 4 9 10 48 48 7 7 14 11 10 49 33.8

Committee 0 1 0 1 1 3 3 0 0 2 0 1 3 2.0

Don't Know 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

20 20 20 20 20 100 100 26 30 28 39 22 145 100.0










faculty as being the primary decision-maker, and one felt the

President would be primary. The 75 percent figure for the

department chairman in this item was the highest mark of

consensus on any item of the survey at Southern Community

College. The decision to begin an instructional innovation

or experiment was once again placed in the department. How-

ever, the perceptions of the respondents were split as to

whether it was the faculty or the department chairman that

was primary. The former received 45 percent of the responses

and the latter 40 percent. The decision concerning the adop-

tion of a textbook was reported to be a departmental function.

Fifty percent of the respondents indicated that the faculty

made the decision; 45 percent felt that the department chair-

man did. On this item the faculty responded almost unanimously;

seVen out of eight indicated that the selection of a textbook

was a faculty decision.

When the instruction responses were pooled, a pattern

very different from the curriculum decisions pattern emerged.

Ninety-three out of the one hundred responses placed the locus

of decision-makers within the department. Forty-eight per-

cent of these indicated faculty, and 45 percent indicated

the department chairman. These responses reflect a more de-

centralized instructional pattern. The district-wide incum-

bents and committees received a total of only four responses.

Three of these were for the Curriculum and Instruction Committee.

The Dean of Academic Affairs, who was perceived as somewhat

influential in the curriculum items, was not given a single










response as a primary decision-maker in the instructional area.

Table 3 is a summation table which pools the responses

to the curriculum items and the instruction items. The

role incumbents are displayed here in their rank order by

frequency of response. In the perceptions of the people

surveyed, the department chairman emerged as the position in

the organization with the greatest amount of primary decision-

making power with respect to the survey items. The chairman

position was listed as the primary decision-maker in 36.5

percent of the responses. Faculty members ranked second

(26 percent) with the Curriculum and Instruction Committee

rated third by frequency of response (18.5 percent). It is

interesting to note that the people responding to the survey

did not perceive the Dean of Instruction as a strong position

with regard to these items. That position ranked last with

only 1.5 percent of the responses.


Participants in Decision-Making

This portion of the Decision Point Analysis Instrument

was designed to measure the amount of participation that was

evident in the formulation of a decision. For each of the

items, the respondents were asked to mark the people that

they felt had viable input into the making of the decision.

They were free to mark as many or as few boxes as they thought

were appropriate to the decision item.

The curriculum items overall showed a great deal of

participation in that the responses numbered 218 for the five











TABLE 3


RESPONSES TO ALL ITEMS, RANK ORDER DISTRIBUTION BY FREQUENCY


Make the Decision Participate
N = 200 N = 363
Frequency % Frequency


Department Chairman 73 36.5 Faculty 102 28.1

Faculty 52 26 Department Chairman 100 27.5

Committee 37 18.5 Dean of Instruction 73 20.1

Dean of Academics 20 10 Dean of Academics 47 12.9

Continued Education Committee 27 7.4
Coordinator 11 5.5
President 9 2.5
President 4 2.0
Continuing Education
Dean of Instruction 3 1.5 Coordinator 3 .8










items, an average of 43.5 responses per item. The partici-

pation was spread fairly evenly over a number of positions.

The highest participation rank for the curriculum items was

at the faculty level. They were perceived as having taken

part in the making of the curriculum decisions more than the

other role incumbents, 24.3 percent. However, two other posi-

tions, the Dean of Instruction (22.5 percent) and the Depart-

ment Chairmen (21.5 percent) ranked nearly as high. Table

1 displays the complete data in more detail.

Table 2 shows the degree of participation that the

respondents thought was typical of the instruction decisions.

The number of responses recorded (145) indicated that parti-

cipation was not as great in these decisions as in the curric-

ulum items. Department chairmen were thought to have the

greatest degree of participation (36.6 percent of the responses)

with faculty having 33.8 percent. The Dean of Instruction,

who was ranked next by frequency of response, had only 16.6

percent of the responses. Thus the distribution of partici-

pation was not as even as was found in the curriculum items.

The pooled responses of both the curriculum items and the

instruction items indicated that the faculty and the depart-

ment chairman role incumbents had nearly equal participation

percentages, 28.1 and 27.5, respectively, with the Dean of

Instruction getting 20.1 percent of the responses. Table 3

details the remainder of the responses by rank order. It is

interesting to note that the Dean of Instruction, who was not

perceived as a primary decision-maker, was perceived as one of

the leading participants in the formulation of decisions.











Respondents' Perception of Their Roles in Decision-Making

Each respondent was asked to characterize his involvement

in the decision process by responding to the following four

options: (1) I make the decision, (2) I recommend the deci-

sion, (3) I provide information, and (4) none. Initially it

was intended that each respondent would mark only one of

the options, but as the study progressed, some respondents

prefered to make more than one to best describe their role

in the process. Table 4 depicts in detail the perceptions

of the respondents.

The responses to the curriculum items in terms of role

perceptions showed an interesting trend. Although everyone

agreed that the decision was made, role incumbents tended not

to select themselves as the decision-maker. More typically

they felt that their role was to provide either information

or to recommend the decision. These data confirmed comments

made by many of the respondents during the survey. Their com-

ments indicated that the curriculum proposals went through a

series of reviews by role incumbents and committees, all of

whom could only recommend or provide information. Indivi-

duals in the process chain were generally unwilling to recog-

nize themselves as having primary responsibility for the deci-

sion. It is also interesting to note that the instructional

faculty tended toward less involvement in the decision-making

for curriculum items.

Instruction decisions again showed a different pattern.

The higher organizational positions, for example district









TABLE 4


RESPONDENTS PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR OWN INVOLVEMENT IN THE PROCESS


Make the Recommend Provide
Role Incumbent Decision Decision Information None


Curriculum Items

President 5

Dean of Academic
Affairs 2 3

Dean of Instruction (2) "7 1 2

Department Chairman (8) 4 21 20 4

Faculty (8) 5 23 13

Instruction Items

President 1 1 3

Dean of Academic
Affairs
Dean of Instruction (2) 5 3 1 1

Department Chairman (8) 25 11 7

Faculty (8) 19 14 10










administrative positions, responded that they played a minor

role in these items. The faculty, however, indicated a

great deal of involvement on their part. This trend would

support the earlier stated generalization that curriculum

matters required more district-wide coordination than did

the instructional decisions. Instructional items were per-

ceived to be campus decisions and in many cases departmental

prerogatives.



Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by Structured Interviews


The structured interview guide was used as a means to

collect data thatwere more easily gathered in an interview.

The incumbents interviewed also completed the Decision Point

Analysis Instrument. As the interviews progressed it became

evident that not all of those questioned were as knowledgeable

about some of the questions as they were about others. During

the interview, if the role incumbent did not wish to express

an opinion or had no opinion of a particular item, the re-

searcher did not press for an answer. Thus, although ten

interviews were conducted, there were not ten responses for

each item. In reporting the data below the emphasis is then

on the substantive responses that were received and not on

frequencies and distribution of all the responses. None of

the respondents was perceived to be reluctant to express

opinions on the items. In most cases it was more difficult

to get the respondent to stop talking on a certain topic and










move to another than it was to elicit further discussion.

The first item dealt with the centralization-decentrali-

zation continuum that was a primary issue in the literature

reviewed in Chapter I. Opinions were split on this at

Southern Community College. Four respondents felt that the

college allowed a great degree of autonomy to the campuses

and more especially to the department chairmen. One depart-

ment chairman stated that his position was the strongest in

the college in terms of decision-making power. He felt that

other department chairmen shared this same power. On the

other hand, four other incumbents perceived the college as a

fairly centralized system; this was attributed mainly to the

strong college unity position taken by the President and the

Board of Trustees. However, these people did agree that the

college had moved toward more campus autonomy in the past few

years. They predicted that this trend would continue as the

college grew and the campuses continued to strive for more

decision-making authority.

Question two was not applicable to Southern Community

College because the position of chief campus administrator

did not exist. The responsibility for the campus was shared

by the Dean of Instruction and the Dean of Student Services.

The Dean of Instruction was responsible for the administra-

tive matters that were related to the instructional program.

The responses to the third question indicated that the term
"shared" was not an especially descriptive term. Neither the

Dean of Instruction nor the Dean of Academic Affairs was seen










as sharing decision-making. Either the decision was one which

they would recommend or one which they would make. In either

case they would contact whomever they felt they needed to

in order to act in the best interests of the college. The

Council of Academic Deans provided a forum for these role

incumbents if they wanted to deliberate over a particular

proposal.

Question number four, relating to participation by vari-

ous role incumbents, was more completely treated in the sec-

tion on participation of the Decision Point Analysis Instru-

ment. The responses to this question, however, confirmed the

data collected by the instrument. The department chairmen

were seen as very strong at Southern Community College.

The faculty were thought to have good input in the area of

instruction and classroom conduct, but not as much in cur-

riculum areas. The Dean of Instruction was perceived as a

position which was handicapped by the fact that so many people

reported to him. On one campus seventeen people reported to

the Dean; on the other nineteen people did. The contention

was that the Dean had so many other responsibilities that he

could not become very involved in curriculum and instruction

matters. As a result the primary decision-making was delegated

to the department chairmen.

In discussing the committee structure presented earlier,

role incumbents were in agreement about two things. First,

the curriculum committee was seen as very active in the college.

There was broad representation on the committee with faculty










being especially well represented. One respondent, however,

indicated that the committee was verging on being too large.

At the time of the study there were fifteen members on the

committee. The only negative comment on the committee's

viability came from a department chairman who said that the

committee was functional except when the central administra-

tion wanted something done. Then the committee did not have

much to do in the making of the decision. The other prevalent

opinion was that the Council of Academic Deans and the Course

Study Committee were not considered an integral part of the

decision-making process. The Council of Academic Deans was

characterized as a "rubber stamp" committee with regard to

curriculum and instruction.

The advantages offered by the multi-campus organization

were thought to revolve around two factors, increased service

to the whole district and better economy in providing that

service. Several people indicated that by having the north

campus the college was providing the needed educational oppor-

tunity to the north county area since the south campus was

outside of commuting distance for the north county residents.

Although there were no hard data to support the contention

that the multi-campus operation was cheaper than two separate

colleges supplying the same service, some respondents to this

item believed it was true. Two of the people who stated this

opinion did not know if this was true from experience, but

they had been told by others that it was.

The perceived disadvantages of the multi-campus system










centered on the contention that the campuses were not as re-

sponsive to their respective communities as two separate in-

stitutions would be. Some respondents felt a lack in terms

of the needs of the students, and others were concerned

about meeting differing community needs. One respondent ex-

plained that the single college concept of Southern Community

College stifled campus innovation and hurt faculty morale.

He was quick to point out that the situation was by no means

unbearable, but that he preferred the multi-college flexibility

to the multi-campus conformity.

When questioned about changes that could be made, several

respondents answered either that they had never thought about

it or that they could not think of any particular change that

would improve the operation of the college. However, two

changes were suggested by several of those interviewed. First,

two people thought that a chief campus administrator should

be appointed to take some of the administrative load off the

Dean of Instruction. They felt that the Dean was not able to

serve as a leader of educational programs because of the

general administrative work that had to be done for the campus.

The other recommended change was a desire for more campus

autonomy. Although this was not a specific organizational

change, it was indicative of a concern for more separate

campus identity.



General Observations and Summation


Southern Community College appeared to be a stable,










well-managed organization with people who enjoyed working at

the institution. Throughout the data gathering process, this

researcher noticed an attitude of openness and frankness

which made the collection of the data much easier. The self-

evaluative remarks made by college officials evidenced a

spirit of optimism and critical objectivity. In the follow-

ing paragraphs the decision-making patterns that have been

identified at Southern are summarized. The first area of

summarization is the degree of congruence between stated

decision procedures and the perceived decision-makers.

Congruence between the stated and perceived pattern of

decision-making relative to curriculum and instruction is

said to exist when the following two criteria are met: (1)

50 -percent or more of the responses for the primary

decision-maker in the item must have been given to one role

incumbent or committee, and (2) the role incumbent or committee

receiving the majority of the responses must have been the

same one identified in the procedures manual as being the

primary decision-maker. Two of the curriculum items, numbers

three and five, satisfied the conditions of congruence. The

first three instruction items also met both conditions. One-

half of the total ten items, then were congruent; that is, the

perceived decision-maker was the same as that identified in

the procedures manual. The remainder of the items failed to

satisfy the conditions. In both curriculum item four and

instruction item five, one role incumbent received a majority

of the responses to the instrument, but these perceived










decision-makers were not the ones indicated by the procedures

manual. The other three items did not have a majority of

responses given to any one position or committee.

Responses to the Decision Point Analysis Instrument and

the Structured Interview Guide have led to the formulation

of the following generalizations about the decision-making

structure at Southern Community College.

1. The Curriculum and Instruction Committee was the
only committee perceived to play a viable role in
the decision-making for curriculum and instruction.

2. Curriculum decisions were perceived to be more
centralized than instruction decisions.

3. There tended to be more participation by a greater
number of role incumbents in the formulation of
curriculum decisions than in instruction decisions.

4. The department chairman's position was perceived
to be a very strong primary decision-making posi-
tion for curriculum and instruction.

5. The Dean of Instruction was perceived to be a weak
primary decision-making position with regard to
the curriculum and instruction items.

6. Role incumbents were reluctant to identify them-
selves as primary decision-makers even when the
majority of the responses so identified them.

7. The decision-making pattern for non-credit courses
was different from that for credit courses. The
Coordinator for Continuing Education was perceived
the primary decision-maker in this area.














CHAPTER III


THE DECISION-MAKING PATTERN OF
WESTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT


This chapter is a description of the decision-making

pattern for curriculum and instruction at Western Community

College. The organization of the chapter is similar to that

of Chapter II. The district environment is described first,

followed by the procedures for decision-making. Next, the

responses to the Decision Point Analysis Instrument are pre-

sented. This is followed by a discussion of data gathered

by interview. The chapter concludes with general observa-

tions and a summary of the generalizations made about deci-

sion-making at the college.



Environment


The Community

Western Community College served a single county dis-

trict which had an area of 856 square miles. This district

had one major urban area that dominated nearly every facet

of the economy in the county. In 1970 the population of the

county was 716,000, but this had grown to approximately 800,000

by 1974. The growth statistics for the area indicated that

the population had grown by approximately 20 percent each

decade and that this trend was expected to continue. Thus










the population by 1980 was expected to be over 900,000. The

population of the main city of the county was 393,000 in

1970, roughly 55 percent of the total population of the county.

The population figure for the city was somewhat misleading,

however, because it did not take into account the numerous

municipalities that surrounded the main urban center. These

communities, despite their governmental independence from

the city, economically were integral parts of the metropoli-

tan area.

The college consisted of two campuses and a central

administration facility. The district administrative offices

were located in the heart of the downtown area of the main

city. They occupied a whole floor of one of the office

buildings. No instructional activities took place on this

site. The campuses were located to the south and to the

northeast. Both of the campuses were accessible by and lo-

cated near the beltway that surrounded the city. It took

approximately one half hour to go from one facility to either

of the other two in normal traffic. A third campus was planned

for the northwest area of the county, but it was not in

operation at the time of this study.


History and Development

Western Community College District was formed July 31,

1965, when voters approved the sale of bonds for construction.

A seven-member Board of Trustees was elected, and they began

work to implement plans for the college, which was to open











in September, 1967. The Board selected a president for the

college in September, 1965, and in December of that year they

acquired the land for the college facilities. The college

was planned as a multiple campus institution, and work began

on the south campus in May, 1966. The northeast campus con-

struction began during the summer of 1967. The south campus

opened its doors in September, 1967, and the northeast campus

opened one year later. The land for the northwest campus

was acquired by the college, and a bond issue was passed in

1971 to provide funds for the construction. The projected

date for the opening of that campus was September, 1975.

There were no other plans for new campuses at the time of

this study.

Despite the growth in the county, the enrollment statis-

tics at Western Community indicated a leveling-off trend. In

the fall of 1973, 6164 students enrolled at the northeast

campus for a full-time equivalent count (FTE) of 4026. En-

rollment was 7296 (headcount) and 4685 (FTE) during the same

term at the south campus. For fall term, 1974, the enroll-

ment was 6150 students for an FTE count of 3967 at the north-

east campus. The south campus also experienced a drop in

enrollment as there were 7023 students, 4495 FTE, for the

fall, 1974, term. The projections made by the college pre-

dicted a period of stable enrollments for a few years followed

by slow growth years into the 1980s. The northwest campus

was expected to open with about 2000 students in fall, 1975.










Patterns of Governance

Western Community College was a part of a state-wide system

of public higher education. The state agencies acted as

coordinating bodies to the institutions. The Board of Trustees

of the Western Community College District was the governing

board for the district. The Board was comprised of seven

members elected by the voters of the county and was the final

authority for all matters of district development and opera-

tion. The Board also had the power to levy taxes for the con-

struction of physical facilities and for district operation

within the authority granted to it by state law and the

voters of the district. The Chancellor of the Western Community

College District was responsible directly to the Board of

Trustees for the total operation of the district.


Organization

Western Community College was conceived as a multi-campus

institution from the beginning. This was an advantage in

that the college did not need to adjust a single campus organ-

izational plan to suit multi-campus operation. Instead it

was free to organize in the way most appropriate to its

mission. The college organizational plan represented an

attempt to provide the benefits of both centralization and de-

centralization. Some administrative services and activities

common to both campuses were centralized to provide for

greater efficiency and maximum return on the tax dollar. In

the daily operation of the campuses, however, the plan showed










a definite commitment to campus authority. The next intended

result of this organization was to provide a coordinated ef-

fort in meeting the post-secondary educational needs of the

district.

Figure 2 is a simplified diagrammatic representation

of the organizational plan used at Western Community College.

The Presidents of the two campuses were responsponsible

directly to the Chancellor of the district. The other major

positions directly responsible to the Chancellor were Vice-

Chancellor for Administration, Vice-Chancellor for Research

and Development, and Director of Community Services. These

positions reflected the main functions of the central admini-

strative staff in providing direction for the college. The

positions depicted at the campus level were positions identi-

fied as being primarily responsible for curriculum and instruc-

tion.



Procedures for Decision-Making in
Curriculum and Instruction


Faculty status at Western Community College was assigned

to all professional personnel whose duties and responsibilities

were directly related to the instructional program or to

activities directly related to the educational development

of students. This included instructional faculty, administra-

tive faculty, student services faculty, professional librarians,

and professional instructional media personnel. All full-

time employees who held faculty status were eligible as voting

















I
VICE CHANCELLOR
FOR
ADMINISTRATION


FIGURE 2. SIMPLIFIED TABLE OF ORGANIZATION FOR ACADEMIC AFFAIRS o
AT WESTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE










members of the official faculty organization on their campus.

These organizations, one for each campus, were representative

of nearly all of the professional personnel working at

Western. Faculty meetings were held monthly during an acti-

vity period. It was within their scope of activity to delib-

erate on curriculum and instruction matters. Recommendations

from these meetings were submitted through the normal organi-

zational channels for consideration. All faculty members

were expected to attend these meetings.

In addition to the faculty organization, a five-man

district committee existed to facilitate decision-making in

curriculum and instruction. The members of the district

Curriculum and Instruction Committee were the two campus

Presidents, the two Deans of Instruction, and the Director

of Curriculum Review and Evaluation. No instructional faculty or

division chairmen were represented on the committee. The

committee functioned primarily as a college-wide curriculum

coordinating vehicle for curriculum matters that might have

had more than single campus impact.

Apart from the committee structure, Western Community

College detailed some of the decision-making responsibilities

of its personnel in position descriptions. These descriptions

were published in the Policies and Procedures Manual that

was distributed to college personnel as an orientation and

reference document. Only the information germane to curri-

culum and instruction decision-making is included below. The

discussion begins with the district administrative positions.










The Chancellor of the district was to provide leadership

in the development of educational programs. This included

the responsibility for establishing priorities in instruc-

tional programming. As part of the district staff, the college

had a Director of Curriculum Review and Evaluation who rep-

resented the district in all academic matters. Included among

his duties was working with the campus Presidents or Deans

of Instruction in identifying and implementing ways for im-

proving the curriculum development process. He was responsi-

ble for preparing an analysis of all curriculum proposals and

instructional programs to facilitate the decision-making

process. Also hc developed and implemented evaluation proce-

dures that were intended to determine the effectiveness,

thrust, and focus of existing educational programs.

The President was the chief administrator for the campus,

and, as such, he was responsible for the total educational

operation of the campus. He also made recommendations for

changes in and development of curriculum, faculty policies,

and academic policies. He also functioned as the chief

liaison officer between the central administration and the

campus.

The Dean of Instruction was responsible for the instruc-

tional program and was the administrative head of the instruc-

tional faculty. He formulated objectives for the entire cur-

riculum and coordinated the preparation of specific course

outlines and syllabi. He was responsible for planning a

systematic program for faculty evaluation as well as evaluation










of the instructional program. He also directed curriculum

development and revision for the campus. He planned for a

faculty development program which had instructional improve-

ment as its goal.

The Director of Community Services was responsible for

the development and implementation of off-campus credit

courses and for all non-credit courses. In cooperation with

the Dean of Instruction, division chairmen, and department

chairmen, he extended the college services beyond the con-

fines of the campus. He reported directly to the President

of the campus. The Chancellor of the district indicated

that the community services function was to be reorganized

at the district level for the 1974-75 academic year. A re-

organization of this nature would change significantly the

roles and duties of the campus community services personnel.

The division chairmen on each campus of the college com-

prised an advisory committee to the Dean of Instruction for

all matters relating to curriculum and instruction. In-

cluded among their responsibilities was the coordination

and supervision of the instructional program in the division.

They recommended course offerings and teaching assignments

in their divisions and coordinated the program of evaluation

of instructional effectiveness and student progress. They

also assisted in preparation and periodic revision of course

syllabi in their divisions.

The department chairmen were the instructional leaders

of their departments and administrative assistants to the










division chairmen. They were responsible for the super-

vision of the department instructional program, preparation

of the instructional budget, and execution of the depart-

mental budget. They evaluated the instructional effective-

ness of their staffs and supervised the preparation and re-

vision of syllabi for departmental course offerings. They

recommended to their division chairmen the textbooks and

media materials to be purchased by the Learning Resources

Center.

The description of the role that faculty played in the

educational process tended to be laudatory and general. In

this regard, it was difficult to identify particular areas

of responsibility that faculty members assumed. Statements

such as the following from the Policies and Procedures Manual

were common in describing faculty responsibilities. "Being

prepared, cheerful, willing and eager to serve, responsive

to change and maintaining a constant dedication to serve stu-

dents make responsibilities of faculty persons unique challenges."



Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by the Decision Point Analysis Instrument


Twenty-two role incumbents from Western Community College

responded to the Decision Point Analysis Instrument. The

only change in the administration of the instrument from that

reported in Chapter II was the insertion of a response space

to accommodate both the department chairman and the division

chairman positions. Four role incumbents from each of these










positions were asked to respond. As at the other colleges

participating, the respondents were cooperative and open

during the interview sessions. The discussion of the data

is presented in the sequence used in Chapter II. Tables 5-8

are summaries of the response data.


Primary Decision-Makers

Item one, the creation of a new course, showed that the

Deans of Instruction and the Presidents were perceived as

the primary decision-makers. The Dean of Instruction posi-

tion received 50 percent of the responses, and the President

received 32 percent. No other position received more than one

response to the item. The creation of a new program, item

2, did not bring a consensus of responses. Seven different

role incumbents received responses as being primary with none

of them having more than 27 percent of the total. The deci-

sion appeared to be one that required cross-campus approval,

however, because nearly 50 percent of the responses were in

the district administrative positions or the Curriculum and

Instruction Committee. One faculty respondent marked that

he did not know where this decision would be made.

The Director of Community Services was seen as the pri-

mary decision-maker in the creation of a new non-credit course

by 54 percent of the respondents. The Dean of Instruction

and the department chairmen were seen by some as being key,

as they received 18 percent and 14 percent, respectively.

Items four and five showed little convergence on a key











TABLE 5


DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO CURRICULUM ITEMS
FOR WESTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE


Role Make the Decision Participate
Incumbents Items Items
1 2 3 4 5 Tot % 1 2 3 4 5 Tot %

Chancellor 1 6 0 1 3 11 10.0 3 3 0 2 3 11 3.0

Director of
Curriculum &
Instruction Review 0 2 0 1 3 6 5.4 5 7 0 4 6 22 6.1

President 7 5 1 5 7 25 22.7 5 15 1 3 9 33 9.2

Dean of Instruction 11 5 4 7 5 32 29.1 11 16 11 12 16 66 18.4

Division Chairman 1 1 1 1 0 4 3.6 20 16 14 17 19 86 24.0

Department Chairman 1 0 3 3 0 7 6.3 18 14 11 16 14 73 20.4

Faculty 0 0 0 1 0 1 .9 10 4 6 9 10 39 10.9

Committee 1 2 0 2 2 7 6.3 5 5 0 2 6 18 5.0

Director of
Community Services N/A N/A 12 N/A N/A 12 10.9 N/A N/A 10 N/A N/A 10 2.8

Don't Know 0 1 1 1 2 5 4.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
22 22 22 22 22 110 99.7 77 80 53 65 83 358 99.8










decision-maker. In item four every option, from the"'han-

celloi'to the'bon't Know"response, received at least one mark,

This indicated a wide divergence of opinion. Only two role

incumbents received a significant number of responses. The

Dean of Instruction had 32 percent of the responses, and

the President had 23 percent. Others were spread over the

remaining positions. Item five indicated again that the Presi-

dent and the Dean of Instruction were perceived as being

primary in the making of the decision. The President received

32 percent and the Dean of Instruction 23 percent of the

responses. Although this was hardly a consensus, these two

positions did receive more than half of the responses. Two

respondents indicated that they did not know who the primary

decision-maker was for this item.

When the responses to the five curriculum items in Table

5 were pooled, the Dean of Instruction and the President

emerged as key decision-makers in the area of curriculum. The

Dean received 29.1 percent of all responses, and the Presi-

dent received 22.7 percent. Faculty was perceived as having

the least voice as primary decision-makers for curriculum.

They received only one response out of a total 110 for less

than 1 percent. A surprisingly high number of respondents,

4.5 percent, indicated that they did not know who made the

decisions. This was the highest incidence of the "Don't Know"

response for the entire study.

The first of the instruction items, Table 6, showed a

more decentralized approach to decision-making. Forty-five

percent of the respondents indicated that the changing of an









TABLE 6

DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO INSTRUCTION ITEMS
FOR WESTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE



Role Make the Decision Participation
Incumbents Items Items
1 2 3 4 5 Tot % 1 2 3 4 5 Tot %

Chancellor 0 0 1 0 0 1 .9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Director of Curri-
culum & Instruc-
tional Review 0 0 4 0 0 4 3.6 0 0 4 0 0 4 1.5

President 0 1 6 1 0 8 7.3 0 3 4 4 0 11 4.0

Dean of Instruction 2 2 5 8 3 20 18.2 7 8 15 7 5 42 15.4

Division Chairman 2 2 3 3 0 10 9.1 13 15 15 16 12 71 26.1

Department Chairman 8 9 3 4 14 38 34.5 13 12 12 18 8 63 23.2

Faculty 10 7 0 6 5 28 25.4 12 14 12 16 17 71 26.1

Committee 0 1 0 0 0 1 .9 1 1 5 1 2 10 3.7

Don't Know 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

22 22 22 22 22 110 99.9 46 53 67 62 44 272 100
a,











instructional methodology was a faculty decision. Thirty-

six percent felt that the department chairman was the key

role incumbent in the making of that decision. Item two, the

decision to introduce new instructional technology, also

showed the department chairmen and the faculty as being the

perceived decision-makers. The department chairmen received

41 percent of the responses while the faculty had 32 percent.

The decision to evaluate the instruction in a course,

item three, had its responses evenly spread over five role

incumbents. The largest number of responses (six) was

given to the President, but the Dean of Instruction had five,

the Director of Curriculum Review and Evaluation had four,

and the two chairmen positions had three each. Item four

also showed very little uniformity of perception. The Dean

of Instruction received 36 percent of the responses, the faculty

27 percent, and the department chairmen 18 percent.

In contrast to items three and four, item five, the

decision to adopt a textbook, had more uniformity of response.

The department chairman was perceived as the primary decision-

maker by 64 percent of the respondents. Faculty was seen as

being primary by 23 percent of the respondents. The 64 per-

cent figure for the department chairman was the highest found

for all of the items at Western Community College.

When the instruction responses were pooled, the decen-

tralized pattern became evident. The department chairman

received 34.5 percent of all responses, and the faculty re-

ceived 25.4 percent. These were easily the two highest rates










of response. The lowest were the Chancellor and the Curri-

culum and Instruction Committee, both with less than one per-

cent. The decision-making for the instruction items was

clearly placed at the campus level. Only six out of the 110

responses placed the primary decision-making at the district

level.

Table 7 summarizes the identified decision-making pat-

tern across all ten decision items. The Dean of Instruction

emerged as having received the most responses, 23.6 percent,

as a primary decision-maker. The department chairman was next

with 20.4 percent of the responses. As an indicator of decen-

tralization, it is interesting to note that the district

level role incumbents and the district curriculum committee

ranked very low in frequency of response. It was especially

surprising that the Curriculum and Instruction Committee

ranked last in terms of perceived primary decision-making.


Participants in Decision-Making

The participants in the decision-making process were

determined the same way as reported in Chapter II. More

participation in the curriculum decisions was indicated by

the fact that there were 86 more responses in the curriculum

items than in the instruction items. The division chairman

received the greatest number of responses, 24 percent, as hav-

ing participated in the making of curriculum decisions. The

department chairman followed with 20.4 percent, and the Dean

of Instruction had 18.4 percent. The Curriculum and Instruction









TABLE 7


RESPONSES TO ALL ITEMS RANK ORDER DISTRIBUTION BY FREQUENCY



Make the Decision Participate
N = 220 N = 630

Frequency % Frequency %

Dean of Instruction 52 23.6 Division Chairman 157 24.9

Department Chairman 45 20.4 Department Chairman 136 21.6

President 33 15.0 Faculty 110 17.5

Faculty 29 13.2 Dean of Instruction 108 17.1

Division Chairman 14 6.4 President 44 6.9

Chancellor 12 5.4 Committee 28 4.4

Director of Com- Dean of Curriculum
munity Services 12 5.4 & Instructional
Review 26 4.1
Director of Curri-
culum & Instruc- Chancellor 11 1.7
tional Review 10 4.5
Director of Com-
Committee 8 3.6 unity Serivces 10 1.6

Don't Know 5 2.3 _j










Committee was seen as having little impact in that they were

perceived as having participated in the making of curriculum

decisions in only five percent of the responses.

The instruction items showed much the same participation

pattern as was seen for the curriculum items. The division

chairman and faculty received the same number of responses

to lead in participation with 26.1 percent each. The de-

partment chairman followed closely with 23.2 percent of all

responses. The Curriculum and Instruction Committee again

faired poorly, being indicated by only 3.7 percent of the

responses as having taken part in the formulation of decisions.

Table 7 shows the combined responses for both curriculum

and instruction decisions. The division chairman was seen

as having the largest share of the responses, 24.9 percent.

The department chairman, faculty, and Dean of Instruction

followed in close order. The role incumbents who were respon-

sible for district-wide coordination received less than 5

percent of the responses. The Curriculum and Instruction

Committee also received less than .5 percent. These data

tended to support the conclusion that the making of curri-

culum and instruction decisions was perceived of as more a

campus function than a college function.


Respondents' Perceptions of Their Roles in Decision-Making

Table 8 displays the way that the respondents perceived

their own involvement in the decision-making process. There

were basically two patterns that emerged from the responses









TABLE 8


RESPONDENTS PRECEPTIONS OF THEIR OWN INVOLVEMENT IN THE PROCESS


Role Incumbent


Make the
Decision


Recommend
Decision

Curriculum Items


Provide
Information


Chancellor

Dean of Curriculum &
Instructional Review

President (2)

Dean of Instruction (2)

Division Chairman (4)

Department Chairman (4)

Faculty (8)


4

7

14

6

7
Instruction Items


Chancellor 5
Dean of Curriculum &
Instructional Review 1 1 3
President (2) 1 1 8
Dean of Instruction (2) 1 6 4
Division Chairman (4) 2 8 10
Department Chairman (4) 7 6 6
Faculty (8) 12 18 8 2


None










to the curriculum decisions. First, the Chancellor and the

Dean of Curriculum Review and Evaluation did not feel that

they played a large role in the decision-making process.

They marked that their input was either that of providing

information or none at all. Most of the faculty also per-

ceived their involvement in the making of curriculum decisions

to be slight. Thirty-three of the forty-one responses were

for either no involvement or providing information. This

tended to leave the bulk of the decision-making to the campus

level administrators.

The pattern changed somewhat for the instruction items.

The central administrative positions again did not perceive

themselves as an integral part of the decision-making process.

Eight of the ten responses indicated no participation. How-

ever, the faculty saw themselves as having a much greater

degree of participation in the making of instruction deci-

sions than they did in curriculum decisions. Thirty of the

forty responses were either in the "make the decision" or
"recommend the decision" boxes. This indicated a greater

degree of decentralization within the campus organizational

structure than found in the area of curriculum. The trend

of not selecting one's self as the decision-maker, identified

in the second chapter, continued at Western Community College

in the curriculum area, but not in the instructional items.

This added credence to the opinions expressed by some of

those interviewed. They stated that the process of decision-

making in curriculum involved many people, and that the










proposal had to go through "channels." Their role in this

process was best described as recommending the decision as

it went from them to another position. This was not perceived

to be so for instructional decisions. Role incumbents were

more willing to respond that they had authority to make a

particular decision.



Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by Structured Interviews


Twelve interviews were conducted at Western Community

College. The respondents to the first question of the inter-

view guide were nearly unanimous in their perception of the

College as a decentralized organization with regard to cur-

riculum and instruction. The individual departments were

seen by some to be nearly autonomous with regard to the

instruction items. Curriculum decisions, however, were made

higher in the organization, although many respondents were

not sure exactly where they were made. At least one inter-

viewee, however, felt that the Director of Curriculum Review

and Evaluation was beginning to emerge as a strong decision-

making position. He made the point that the role incumbent

was relatively new at that position and that as he matured

in that role, he would become a strong decision-maker.

The responses to shared authority between the Presidents

and the Deans of Instruction indicated that it was mainly a

matter of communication rather than sharing. The Deans

stated that they had quite a bit of authority, but stressed










the need to keep the President informed of developments in

the areas of curriculum and instruction. The Presidents

responded that they preferred not to interfere with the

Dean's performance of his duties.

Although the role of the Director of Curriculum Review

and Evaluation was not that of line authority over the Deans

of Instruction, the respondents to the questions of shared

authority between them felt that they stayed in fairly close

contact. The Director stated that he worked more closely

with the Dean of Instruction than any other campus official.

His input to the Dean was seen by both parties to be that of

advice and information.

The interviewees tended to respond to question number

four in the same manner that they did to the Decision Point

Analysis Instrument. The department chairmen were seen as

strong decision-makers in instructional matters, while the

Deans of Instruction were primary in curriculum affairs.

The Curriculum and Instruction Committee was perceived

as a "rubber stamp" type committee that had very little vi-

able input in the decision-making process. The fact that it

consisted only of high level administrators bothered some

of the faculty members who were interviewed. They thought

that it could be a good working committee if it had some

faculty input. Their reactions tended to confirm the data

gathered on the committee through the use of the Decision

Point Analysis Instrument. One administrator responded to

this question by saying that the committee was very efficient

in its operation due to its small size.










The advantages of the multi-campus organization as it

applied at Western Community College were perceived to revolve

around better service for less money. The people interviewed

felt that the district office acted as a coordinating and

planning agency that could eliminate unnecessary duplication

of programs and competition between campuses. They could

also help to plan new campuses and programs from a broader

perspective than the campus level. It was thought that this

was being done at a lower cost to the taxpayer.

Disadvantages were noted in the areas of communication

and program evaluation. Some of those interviewed disliked

the physical separation of the campuses and contended that

it was extremely difficult to coordinate activities between

the two. This difficulty was enough of a problem that several

people said they gave up trying to coordinate their activi-

ties with their counterparts on the other campus. They, in

effect, functioned as separate institutions for most activi-

ties. Another disadvantage was seen in trying to evaluate

programs that existed on both campuses. The programs, although

identical in concept, took on separate identities when imple-

mented. The tendency for the programs to develop different

characteristics was increased over time so that programs

which had existed for several years at both locations had

taken on enough unique qualities to make comparison difficult.

This was thought to be especially true in new or innovative

programs.

The suggested changes that came from the interview sessions










revolved around the area of curriculum. The changes re-

flected a perceived need to achieve a better unity in the

college curriculum. One interviewee responded that he would

like to see the curriculum decisions become a district func-

tion. He felt that the unity in programs would help to

alleviate the confusion that existed at the time of the

study. Several other respondents were more specific in their

recommendations. They wanted to have a Vice-Chancellor for

Academics appointed to the District Staff. This was seen as

a way to unify the college instructional staff with regard to

the curriculum that they teach. No changes were recommended

for the instructional decision-making structure.



General Observations and Summation


At Western Community College the researcher was received

openly and enjoyed the freedom to question anyone employed

at the institution. The participants in the study could be

characterized as professionals interested in this study and

the improvement of their institution. Western Community

College, at the time of the study, was considered one of the

exemplary educational institutions of its state and region.

The objectivity with which those participating viewed their

college made the collection of data much easier. Below are

the summary remarks and generalizations that have been developed

from the data presented in this chapter.

In determining the degree of congruence between stated










decision-making policies and perceived decision-makers, the

same procedures outlined in Chapter II were followed. All

three of the items that had more than 50 percent of the

responses given to one role incumbent were found to be con-

gruent with the state decision-making policy. Curriculum

items one and three were congruent as was instruction item

five. The other seven items failed to identify a primary

decision-maker with more than 50 percent of the responses.

From the information gathered at Western Community College

the following generalizations have been formulated.

1. The committee structure for curriculum and instruc-
tion was not perceived to be an integral part of
the decision-making process.

2. Curriculum decisions were perceived to be more
centralized than instructional decisions, though
both were primarily campus level functions.

3. There tended to be more participation by role in-
cumbents in the formulation of curriculum deci-
sions than in instruction decisions.

4. The department chairman's position was perceived
to be a strong primary decision-making position
for instructional decisions.

5. The Dean of Instruction was perceived to be a
strong primary decision-maker for curriculum
decisions.

6. The curriculum decisions role incumbents were
reluctant to identify themselves as primary deci-
sion-makers even when the majority of the responses
so identified them.

7. The decision-making pattern for non-credit courses
was different from the regular curriculum. The
Director of Community Services was perceived to
be the key decision-maker in the non-credit area.














CHAPTER IV


THE DECISION-MAKING PATTERN OF
EASTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT


Chapter IV is a description of the decision-making pat-

tern for curriculum and instruction in the last of the three

districts studied. As in Chapters II and III, the district

environment is described first, followed by the stated deci-

sion-making procedures. Next are the decision-making patterns

identified by the Decision Point Analysis Instrument and

the responses to the structured interview. A summary section

including general observations and generalizations completes

the investigation of the decision-making patters at Eastern

Community College.



Environment


The Community

Eastern Community College served a district that consisted

of four counties and three independent municipalities. The

total area of the district was 1312 square miles. The popula-

tion of the district was 921,237 in 1970. The district was

the southern portion of the fastest growing metropolitan

area in the United States. The 1973 estimate of the popula-

tion for the entire metropolitan area was 3,200,000. The










district population was expected to reach 1,138,000 by 1976.

Many of the residents, especially in the northern part of

the district, commuted to the center of the metropolitan

area for their employment.

The counties and cities that were located in the northern

part of the district had the greatest concentration of people.

The two counties and one city that comprised that suburban

area accounted for 740,243 people, 80 percent of the total

population of the district. The other areas of the district

did not have large populations at the time of the study, but

projections for the next ten years indicated that as the

metropolitan area grew, these would become prime residential

communities.


History and Development

Eastern Community College was established as a result

of legislation in 1964. In early 1965 the college was approved

by the State Board for Technical Education, the present College

Board was formally established, and the President of the

college was appointed. Less than four months later the col-

lege opened with an initial enrollment of 761 students and a

staff of 46. The first permanent building was opened in 1967.

Sites for three other campuses were purchased also that year.

The enrollment was 5271 in 1968. In 1969 the site for

another campus was purchased. As the original campus con-

tinued to expand, the second full campus, located in the den-

sely populated north district area, began full operation in 1971.










Three other campuses were planned, and in 1972 the funds

for construction of two of these were approved. The new facil-

ities were scheduled for completion by fall, 1974. The con-

struction funds for the other campus had not been approved

at the time of this study. These three campuses opened in

temporary facilities in the fall of 1972. They were still in

those temporary locations at the time of this study.

The enrollment figures for Eastern Community College

indicated a history of rapid growth and a projected contin-

uation of quick enrollment increases. The total enrollment

for all five campuses in the fall of 1973 was 17,260 (head-

count) and 10,340 (FTE). Nearly sixteen thousand of those

students were enrolled at the two completed campuses. These

two campuses were expected to grow until 1978, then remain

relatively static in enrollment. By that year the other cam-

puses were projected to be growing rapidly in their per-

manent facilities. By 1980 the enrollment was projected to

be nearly 35,000 students. Approximately 20,000 were planned

for the two main campuses and 15,000 for the three newer

campuses.


Pattern of Governance

Eastern Community College was part of a state-wide system

of community colleges. The college operated on policies

established by the State Board of Community Colleges and with

the support and advice of a local community college board.

The college was financed primarily by state tax revenue. The










system had a state Chancellor who served as the secretary of

the State Board for Community Colleges and was responsible

for the administration of the state policies. The President

of Eastern Community College was responsible directly to

the Chancellor of the state community college system for the

operation of the college.


Organization

Eastern Community College was the largest multi-campus

institution included in this study. It had a greater number

of students and more campuses than either of the other two

community colleges. Although the college publications did

not stress the unity of the campuses as one college entity,

the organizational charts reflected that type of philosophy.

The Faculty Handbook explained the campus organizational plan

that was used for all of the campuses. This plan is presented

in simplified form as part of the total college organizational

model, which is shown in Figure 3. The Deans for Administra-

tive Services, Instructional Services, and Student Services

were representative of the major college-wide concerns. The

role incumbents in these positions were responsible for the

coordination of their various programs among the campuses.

They worked in conjunction with the Provosts of the campuses,

who were responsible for the total operation of their respec-

tive campuses. Figure 3 shows only the organizational posi-

tions germane to this study and is not intended to represent

the college staff in total.


















DEAN FOR FINANCIAL
& ADMINISTRATIVE
SERVICES


FIGURE 3. SIMPLIFIED TABLE OF ORGANIZATION FOR ACADEMIC AFFAIRS
AT EASTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE


PROVOSTS


2 MAJOR CAMPUSES

3 EMERGING CAMPUSES










Procedures for Decision-Making in
Curriculum and Instruction


The publications from Eastern Community College indicated

that there were at least twelve committees functioning at

various levels of the college at the time of this study. The

committee structure was well delineated in the Faculty Handbook.

The committee which was assigned the responsibility for the

area of curriculum and instruction is the one presented below.

The Committee on Curriculum and Instruction was organized

to coordinate the instructional programs of the separate

campuses. The specific functions of the committee were to

study the instructional programs of the college, to consider

proposals for course changes, and to make recommendations for

the improvement of curriculum and instructional programs of

all campuses. The recommendations from the committee were

made to the President of the college.

The committee was appointed by the President annually

and consisted of the following members: Dean for Instructional

Services--Chairman, Provosts (5), campus instructional ad-

ministration (2), student services administration (1), and

instructional faculty (6). The instructional faculty members

on the committee were nominated by the College Forum, a

general all-college committee.

In addition to the Curriculum and Instruction Committee,

Eastern Community College defined some of the positions of

the college in terms of their role in the decision-making

process for curriculum and instruction. The President, for










example, was the chief executive officer for the college and

as such was responsible for providing leadership and super-

vision for the total community college program.

The Dean of Instructional Services had more specific

duties outlined in the Faculty Handbook. Among them were

the following, which pertained to curriculum and instruction.

1. Coordinate the development of curriculum, courses,
and programs for the college.

2. Advise the campus Provosts in matters of curric-
ulum and instruction.

3. Stimulate and institute, through the Curriculum
and Instruction Committee, needed curricular
changes.

4. Stimulate and institute, through the Curriculum
and Instruction Committee, needea adult education
and community service programs.

5. Serve as the contact person for the college in
dealing with the state Department of Community
Colleges in curriculum and instruction matters.

The Provost's duties, like the President's, were not as

explicitly spelled out as some of the other positions. The

Provost served as the chief academic officer of the local

campus. He assumed general supervisory administration for

the development of curriculum, courses, and programs. Also

he was to institute needed curricular changes on his campus.

Reporting to the Provost were the division chairmen. Among

the division chairmen's responsibilities the following were

listed.

1. Organizing, administering, and supervising the
instructional program of the division.

2. Supervising the divisional instructional program
for both the day and evening class offerings.










3. Recommending to the Provost textbooks, materials,
and equipment after consultation with the appro-
priate division chairmen on the other campuses.

4. Making recommendations to the Provost and the
Curriculum and Instruction Committee concerning
divisional offerings and curricula.

5. Cooperating with the Director of Continuing Edu-
cation in establishing day and evening activities.

6. Working closely with the community to determine
if existing programs are meeting the needs of the
community.

7. Determining the need for, planning, and develop-
ing additional programs for the college.

The Director of Continuing Education had responsibility

for that portion of the campus program which was primarily

oriented toward the adult population and normally scheduled

during the evening and on weekends. As indicated above, the

Director of Continuing Education consulted the division

chairmen in the performance of his duties.

The primary responsibility of a faculty member at Eastern

Community College was to provide quality instruction for

the students. As part of this primary responsibility, the

faculty member also was expected to teach the prescribed

courses with the established texts, attend to assigned divi-

sional and college duties, and contribute to the development

of the program of instruction.



Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by the Decision Point Analysis Instrument


The Decision Point Analysis Instrument was used to collect

responses from twenty-two role incumbents at Eastern Community










College. The President and the Dean for Curriculum and

Instruction were the respondents from the college adminis-

trative staff. Four Provosts, eight division chairmen, and

eight faculty members completed the number of people who

participated in the survey. Included in the eight faculty

responders were two people who held the position of assis-

tant division chairman. Their responses were treated as

faculty responses because their prime duties for the college

were of an instructional nature rather than administrative.

These respondents agreed that they considered themselves

faculty rather than administration. The instrument was

administered in the same manner as before. The data collected

from the survey are classified and presented in the same

format as was used in Chapters II and III.


Primary Decision-Makers

Tables 9-11 summarize the data gained from the survey.

The discussion of the responses is based on that information

and is intended to expand on it.

The responses to the first curriculum item, the creation

of a new course, indicated that the Curriculum and Instruc-

tion Committee had an important role. Fifty-nine percent of

the respondents felt that it was the primary decision-making

body for this item. The creation of a new program, however,

did not bring the same collective type of response. Forty-

one percent thought that the Curriculum and Instruction Com-

mittee was primary, but the remainder of the responses were











TABLE 9


DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO CURRICULUM ITEMS
FOR EASTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE


Role Make the Decision Participate
Incumbents Items !tems
1 2 3 4 5 Tot % 1 2 3 4 5 Tot %


President 0 5 0 0 4 9 8.2 4 3 0 2 4 13 4.2
Dean for Instruc-
tional Services 0 0 0 1 1 2 1.8 12 16 1 13 12 54 17.5

Provost 1 2 1 0 0 4 3.6 16 18 6 12 12 64 20.7

Division Chairman 6 6 1 9 6 28 25.4 15 16 14 13 12 70 22.6

Faculty 2 0 0 4 0 6 5.4 15 18 12 16 15 76 24.6

Committee 13 9 1 8 10 41 37.3 6 10 0 8 6 30 9.7

Don't Know 0 0 1 0 1 2 1.8 0 0 1 0 0 1 .3

Director of Con-
tinued Education N/A N/A 18 N/A N/A 18 16.4 N/A N/A 1 N/A N/A 1 .3

22 22 22 22 22 110 99.9 68 81 35 64 61 309 99.9










scattered over a rather large range. The President received

five responses and the division chairman six.

Item three, the creation of a non-credit course, was

regarded by 82 percent of the role incumbents surveyed to be

a decision made by the Director of Continuing Education.

This figure represented the highest degree of consensus

reached on any of the items at Eastern Community College.

The Curriculum and Instruction Committee and the division

chairman were the two positions that received the greatest

number of responses for item four. The committee received

36 percent of the responses, and the division chairman re-

ceived 41 percent. The committee also was considered to be

the key decision-making body in the changing of general edu-

cation requirements, item five. Forty-five percent of the

responses were given to the Curriculum and Instruction Com-

mittee. The division chairman received 27 percent.

The responses of all five of the curriculum items are

pooled in Table 9 and depict a fairly consistent trend.

The Curriculum and Instruction Committee was considered to

be a strong decision-making committee for curriculum items.

Thirty-seven percent of all responses went to the committee.

The division chairman was also perceived as an important

decision-maker, as that position received 25.4 percent of

the responses. The Director of Continuing Education was per-

ceived to be a strong decision-maker in the area of non-

credit curricular offerings. The Dean for Instructional

Services was not perceived as a key decision-maker for curric-

ulum items.










Item one of the instruction items was perceived to be a

faculty decision by 73 percent of the respondents. The only

other position receiving any responses was the division chair-

man, who received the remaining 27 percent of the responses.

Item two, the introduction of new instructional technology,

was seen as a faculty perrogative by 50 percent of those

surveyed. Thirty-two percent thought the division chairman

was key in the making of this decision.

The decision to evaluate instruction, item three, was

perceived to be a decision made at the division level. The

division chairman received 59 percent of the responses with

the faculty getting 32 percent. Although the division chair-

man did not receive a clear majority of the responses in

item four, that position again received the greatest number

with 45 percent of the responses while 41 percent thought

that faculty were primary in the making of that decision. The

last item, the selection of textbooks, was perceived to be a

faculty responsibility. Seventy-seven percent selected the

faculty as the key decision-maker for this item.

Table 10 contains the summary response data for the

instruction items. The faculty received 54.5 percent of the

responses as being the key decision-makers in the area of

instruction. The division chairman was the only other role

incumbent to receive a significant share of the responses

for the instruction items. That position received 36.4 per-

cent of the responses. From those two figures, the division

emerged as a powerful decision-making unit for instructional




Full Text
77
The advantages of the multi-campus organization as it
applied at Western Community College were perceived to revolve
around better service for less money. The people interviewed
felt that the district office acted as a coordinating and
planning agency that could eliminate unnecessary duplication
of programs and competition between campuses. They could
also help to plan new campuses and programs from a broader
perspective than the campus level. It was thought that this
was being done at a lower cost to the taxpayer.
Disadvantages were noted in the areas of communication
and program evaluation. Some of those interviewed disliked
the physical separation of the campuses and contended that
it was extremely difficult to coordinate activities between
the two. This difficulty was enough of a problem that several
people said they gave up trying to coordinate their activi
ties with their counterparts on the other campus. They, in
effect, functioned as separate institutions for most activi
ties. Another disadvantage was seen in trying to evaluate
programs that existed on both campuses. The programs, although
identical in concept, took on separate identities when imple
mented. The tendency for the programs to develop different
characteristics was increased over time so that programs
which had existed for several years at both locations had
taken on enough unique qualities to make comparison difficult.
This was thought to be especially true in new or innovative
programs.
The suggested changes that came from the interview sessions


67
decision-maker. In item four every option, from the "Chan
cellor" to the "Don't Know" response, received at least one mark.
This indicated a wide divergence of opinion. Only two role
incumbents received a significant number of responses. The
Dean of Instruction had 32 percent of the responses, and
the President had 23 percent. Others were spread over the
remaining positions. Item five indicated again that the Presi
dent and the Dean of Instruction were perceived as being
primary in the making of the decision. The President received
32 percent and the Dean of Instruction 23 percent of the
responses. Although this was hardly a consensus, these two
positions did receive more than half of the responses. Two
respondents indicated that they did not know who the primary
decision-maker was for this item.
When the responses to the five curriculum items in Table
5 were pooled, the Dean of Instruction and the President
emerged as key decision-makers in the area of curriculum. The
Dean received 29.1 percent of all responses, and the Presi
dent received 22.7 percent. Faculty was perceived as having
the least voice as primary decision-makers for curriculum.
They received only one response out of a total 110 for less
than 1 percent. A surprisingly high number of respondents,
4.5 percent, indicated that they did not know who made the
decisions. This was the highest incidence of the "Don't Know"
response for the entire study.
The first of the instruction items, Table 6, showed a
more decentralized approach to decision-making. Forty-five
percent of the respondents indicated that the changing of an


6
provide facilities and programs to the public. One type of
response that colleges are turning to is a movement toward
multi-campus operation. The administrators and other offi
cials of these colleges need information to help them make
responsible decisions about the organization of the multi
campus. This study was an attempt to provide information on
current practices in multi-campus community colleges. The
following statement signifies a need for more research on
multi-campus administration:
If the junior college movement is to retain
in the years ahead the vigor for which it
has been noted in the past, important deci
sions will have to be made about the future
organization and administration of two or more
campuses. [Kintzer, 1969, p. 2]
The results of this research added to the empirically based
knowledge of the multi-campus community college by providing
more information on decision-making patterns.
A simple question stated by Murray Block in his research
on multi-campus administration led to futher justification for
this study. He posed the question: "Should curriculum and
instruction masters be localized or centralized?" [Block,
1970, p. 24]. In large part, the research was organized to react
to that question. The degree of centralization or decentra
lization depends almost entirely on the levels and procedures
of decision-making found in the institution.
This was the second in a series of planned research pro
jects at the University of Florida concerning the administra
tive problems presented by the mult.i-campus community college.


TABLE 1
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO CURRICULUM ITEMS
FOR SOUTHERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Role
Incumbents
1
Make
2 3
The Decision
Item
4 5 Tot
. %
1
2
Participate
Item
3 4 5
Tot
. %
President
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
1
3
0
0
2
6
2.8
Academic Dean
1
8
4
0
7
20
20
6
8
6
5
9
34
15.6
Dean of Instruction
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
12
12
5
8
12
49
22.5
Department Chairman
9
3
3
13
0
28
28
10
9
5
8
15
47
21.5
Faculty
1
0
1
2
0
4
4
14
10
5
13
11
53
24.3
Committees
9
6
1
5
13
34
34
7
6
0
8
3
24
11.0
Continued Education
Coordinator
0
0
11
0
0
11
11
0
0
5
0
0
5
2.3
Don't Know
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
100
100
218
100.0


112
individuals responded that they would like to see more campus
autonomy. Still others responded that there should be more
uniformity in curriculum matters and that the only way to
achieve that was to centralize control at the district
level. There was common agreement though that the the three
multi-campus colleges had moved more toward decentralization
as they matured. The following trend was voiced by several
of those interviewed: the greater the number of campuses
and the larger each of them became, the more decentralized
the decision-making would become.
Congruence of Stated and Perceived Patterns
The congruence between stated decision-making patterns
and perceived decision-making patterns varied among the three
schools. Five items were congruent at Southern Community
College. Three were congruent at Western Community College,
and five were found to be congruent at Eastern Community Col
lege. There could be many reasons that Western Community
College had fewer congruencies, and this research was not
organized to determine the causal relationship. However,
there was one obvious factor that could have affected the
congruence results. Western Community College had two more
role incumbent positions in their organizational plan. The
fact that the respondent to the Decision Point Analysis Instru
ment had two more response options open to him at Western
Community College could have affected the distribution of
the responses enough to lower the congruence. The reason
that Western Community College had such a low congruence level


TABLE 12
RESPONDENTS PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR OWN INVOLVEMENT IN THE PROCESS
Role Incumbents
Make the Recommend
Decision Decision
Provide
Information
None
Curriculum
Items
President
1
1
3
Dean for Instruction
4
1
Provost (4)
3
11
6
Division Chairman (8)
6
24
13
3
Faculty (8)
3
14
17
5
Instruction
Items
President
3
2
Dean for Instruction
5
Provost (4)
7
9
4
Division Chairman (8)
9
23
20
1
Faculty (8)
20
8
10
2


52
centered on the contention that the campuses were not as re
sponsive to their respective communities as two separate in
stitutions would be. Some respondents felt a lack in terms
of the needs of the students, and others were concerned
about meeting differing community needs. One respondent ex
plained that the single college concept of Southern Community
College stifled campus innovation and hurt faculty morale.
He was quick to point out that the situation was by no means
unbearable, but that he preferred the multi-college flexibility
to the multi-campus conformity.
When questioned about changes that could be made, several
respondents answered either that they had never thought about
it or that they could not think of any particular change that
would improve the operation of the college. However, two
changes were suggested by several of those interviewed. First,
two people thought that a chief campus administrator should
be appointed to take some of the administrative load off the
Dean of Instruction. They felt that the Dean was not able to
serve as a leader of educational programs because of the
general administrative work that had to be done for the campus.
The other recommended change was a desire for more campus
autonomy. Although this was not a specific organizational
change, it was indicative of a concern for more separate
campus identity.
General Observations and Summation
Southern Community College appeared to be a stable


CHAPTER II
THE DECISION-MAKING PATTERN OF
SOUTHERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT
This chapter is a description of the decision-making pat
tern for curriculum and instruction in the first of three
districts examined. The district and college are described
first in a section on the local environment. The procedures
for decision-making in curriculum and instruction are then
discussed. Next, the decision-making patterns identified by
the Decision Point Analysis Instrument are presented. The
information gained from the structured interviews then are
presented. General observations and a summation conclude
the chapter.
Environment
The Community
Southern Community College serves a single county area
of approximately 280 square miles. The total population of
the county was estimated at 648,741 on April 1, 1973. This
represented a 24.2 percent increase since the 1970 census.
There were twenty-four incorporated municipalities, which
accounted for 73 percent of the total population. The unincor
porated areas of the county had 27 percent of the population
or a total of 170,238 people.
29


A comparative analysis of the data followed the chapters
on the individual colleges. From the analysis the following
generalizations were formulated:
1. A curriculum and instruction committee had been
established at all three colleges, but it only played a
viable role in the decision-making process when the instruc
tional divisions, i.e., division chairmen, department chairmen,
and faculty members, were represented.
2. The formal organizational structure for curriculum
and instruction helped to determine the perceptions of the
role incumbents about who was responsible for decision-making.
3. Curriculum decisions were perceived to be more centrally
determined than were instructional decisions.
4. Division and department chairmen were perceived as
strong primary decision-makers.
5. Academic administrators from the district administra
tive staff were not perceived to be strong decision-makers
for curriculum and instruction.
6. The decision-making pattern for non-credit courses
was different from that for the regular curriculum. The role
incumbent charged with responsibility for community services
and continuing education was the primary decision-maker in
that area.
7. There tended to be more participation in the formula
tion of curriculum decisions than was evident in instruction
decisions.
8. Role incumbents were reluctant to identify themselves
as primary decision-makers in curriculum items.
IX


87
3. Recommending to the Provost textbooks, materials,
and equipment after consultation with the appro
priate division chairmen on the other campuses.
4. Making recommendations to the Provost and the
Curriculum and Instruction Committee concerning
divisional offerings and curricula.
5. Cooperating with the Director of Continuing Edu
cation in establishing day and evening activities.
6. Working closely with the community to determine
if existing programs are meeting the needs of the
community.
7. Determining the need for, planning, and develop
ing additional programs for the college.
The Director of Continuing Education had responsibility
for that portion of the campus program which was primarily
oriented toward the adult population and normally scheduled
during the evening and on weekends. As indicated above, the
Director of Continuing Education consulted the division
chairmen in the performance of his duties.
The primary responsibility of a faculty member at Eastern
Community College was to provide quality instruction for
the students. As part of this primary responsibility, the
faculty member also was expected to teach the prescribed
courses with the established texts, attend to assigned divi
sional and college duties, and contribute to the development
of the program of instruction.
Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by the Decision Point Analysis Instrument
The Decision Point Analysis Instrument was used to collect
responses from twenty-two role incumbents at Eastern Community


42
faculty as being the primary decision-maker, and one felt the
President would be primary. The 75 percent figure for the
department chairman in this item was the highest mark of
consensus on any item of the survey at Southern Community
College. The decision to begin an instructional innovation
or experiment was once again placed in the department. How
ever, the perceptions of the respondents were split as to
whether it was the faculty or the department chairman that
was primary. The former received 45 percent of the responses
and the latter 40 percent. The decision concerning the adop
tion of a textbook was reported to be a departmental function.
Fifty percent of the respondents indicated that the faculty
made the decision; 45 percent felt that the department chair
man did. On this item the faculty responded almost unanimously;
seven out of eight indicated that the selection of a textbook
was a faculty decision.
When the instruction responses were pooled, a pattern
very different from the curriculum decisions pattern emerged.
Ninety-three out of the one hundred responses placed the locus
of decision-makers within the department. Forty-eight per
cent of these indicated faculty, and 45 percent indicated
the department chairman. These responses reflect a more de
centralized instructional pattern. The district-wide incum
bents and committees received a total of only four responses.
Three of these were for the Curriculum and Instruction Committee.
The Dean of Academic Affairs, who was perceived as somewhat
influential in the curriculum items, was not given a single


4
d. Campus Director for Academic Affairs/chief
campus administrator for academic affairs
on each campus,
e. Eight division/department chairmen, repre
senting all campuses and selected on the
basis of a willingness to participate.
f. Eight faculty members, representing all cam
puses and selected on the basis of a willing
ness to participate.
5. The following role incumbents participated in
the study by completing the Decision Point
Analysis Instrument.
a. Southern Community College (20 total):
1) President
2) Dean of Academic Affairs
3) Dean of Instruction (2)
4) Department Chairmen (8)
5) Faculty (8)
b. Western Community College (22 total):
1) Chancellor
2) Director of Curriculum Review and Evaluation
3) President (2)
4) Dean of Instruction (2)
5) Division Chairmen (4)
6) Department Chairmen (4)
7) Faculty (8)
c. Eastern Community College (22 total):
1) President
2) Dean for Instructional Services
3) Provost (4)
4) Division Chairmen (8)
5) Faculty (8)
6. Not all of the participants in the study were in
terviewed. Because of time and scheduling limi
tations only the following number of interviews
were conducted:
a. Southern Community College--10 interviews
b. Western Community College12 interviews
c. Eastern Community College9 interviews


128
4. The decision to change a course description.
A. Who makes the decision? Mark with an X.
B. Who else participates in making this decision?
Mark with an 0.
President
College
Dean of
Academics
Chief
Campus
Administrator
Campus
Director of
Academics
Depart
ment
Chairman
Faculty
Com
mittee
Don't
Know
C.What is the nature of your participation in the making
of this decision? Mark the appropriate box.
] I make the decision. | | I provide information.
] I recommend the decision.
] None.
5. The decision to change general education requirements.
A. Who makes the decision? Mark with an X.
B. Who else participates in making this decision?
Mark with an 0.
President
College
Dean of
Academics
Chief
Campus
Admini strator
Campus
Director of
Academics
Depart
ment
Chairman
Faculty
Com
mittee
Don't
Know
C.What is the nature of your participation in the making
of this decision? Mark the appropriate box.
] I make the decision. | | I provide information.
J I recommend the decision. | | None.


17
integrating roles in order to achieve the goals of
this system. Operationally, administrative pro
cesses take place in environments characterized
by person-to-person relationships. Thus, any given
superordinate-subordinate relationship within the
administrative structure is enacted in two dynamic
and separate personal situations, one embedded in
the other. This relationship is perceived and
organized by each incumbent in terms of his needs
and goals, skills and experiences. The two sit
uations are related to the extent that the indivi
duals' perceptions are mutual.
Theoretically, the central question and primary
antecedent variable thus becomes, "To what extent
do complementary role incumbents in a given social
system tend to agree or disagree in their percep
tions of their respective roles?" [Eye, 1966, p. 4]
Eye studied school administrators and teachers concerning
the responsibilities for decision-making. The Decision Point
Analysis Instrument was developed to determine who made a
decision, who participated in that decision, and what the
nature of the respondents' participation was. The instrument
consisted of twenty-five decision items pertaining to pupil
personnel, staff personnel, curriculum, business management,
and school-community relations [Eye, 1966, p. 24]. The instru
ment contained an introductory page, a background data page,
and the decision items. The researchers gave brief introduc
tions and explanations before the respondents proceeded through
the items. Among the conclusions Eye drew from his research
the following statements were found.
1. The Decision Point Analysis Instrument was shown
to be a useful device for the assessment and the
quantification of these perceptions of the locus
of decision-making responsibilities.
2. School systems characterized more than others by
a greater extent of staff participation or in
volvement in curricular planning and development
ranked higher in curricular-plan productivity
than did school systems not so characterized.


99
for Instructional Services responded that she worked mostly
with the division chairmen on the campuses in coordinating
curriculum matters. This was always done with the Provost's
knowledge, but usually without his actual participation. The
Provosts indicated that they often asked for information
from the Dean before they made decisions, but did not
actually share the decision-making.
The responses to question four tended to confirm the
data found by the Decision Point Analysis Instrument. The
department chairman was thought to be a strong decision-making
position. The Curriculum and Instruction Committee was con
sidered a viable committee with real decision-making power,
especially in curriculum decisions. The Dean for Instruc
tional Services was seen as a facilitator and coordinator,
who helped the academic processes of the college run smoothly.
As mentioned above, the Curriculum and Instruction Com
mittee was generally considered to be a good working committee.
One interviewee expressed the concern that as the emerging
campuses became larger, so would the committee. Its size
at the time of the study, fifteen members, was considered man
ageable, .but the prospect of its increasing to approximately
25 members was cause for worry. The respondent felt that
such an increase in size would affect the functioning of the
committee.
The advantages offered for the multi-campus organizational
structure were viewed in terms of better service to the public
for a lower cost. Corrdination of services and the avoidance


10
Jensen also found that campus administrators, faculty,
and students favored the multi-college plan because they felt
it offered the most autonomy of the three patterns. There
was unanimous agreement on three organizational issues:
student personnel services should be a campus function, staff
personnel policies should be district-wide, and business
affairs should be handled on the district level.
Milton Jones published a document in 1968 that attempted
to pull together the information available about existing
multi-unit models with the purpose of identifying trends in
organizational structure [Jones, 1968, p. 8]. The most per
tinent finding by Jones was that he identified a continuum
of centralized-decentralized authority related to the various
types of multi-unit organization. He concluded that author
ity in the multi-college district was more decentralized;
i.e., there was more autonomy at the campus level than in
the multi-campus model [Jones, 1968, p. 33].
Bogart conducted a case study of Tarrant County Junior
College District for the purpose of establishing a set of
multi-campus development guidelines [Bogart, 1968] His
sources of data were published documents, letters, news items,
and personal interviews. Bogart found only minor differences
between guidelines considered in developing single and multi
campus junior colleges.
The most extensive study reviewed was done with forty-
five multi-unit junior college districts as participants
[Kintzer, Jensen, Hansen, 1969]. These districts covered


TABLE 9
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO CURRICULUM ITEMS
FOR EASTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Ro^e Make the Decision Participate
Incumbents Items Items
1
2
3
4
5
Tot
%
1
2
3
4
5
Tot
%
President
0
5
0
0
4
9
8.2
4
3
0
2
4
13
4.2
Dean for Instruc
tional Services
0
0
0
1
1
2
1.8
12
16
1
13
12
54
17.5
Provost
1
2
1
0
0
4
3.6
16
18
6
12
12
64
20.7
Division Chairman
6
6
1
9
6
28
25.4
15
16
14
13
12
70
22.6
Faculty
2
0
0
4
0
6
5.4
15
18
12
16
15
76
24.6
Committee
13
9
1
8
10
41
37.3
6
10
0
8
6
30
9.7
Don't Know
0
0
1
0
1
2
1.8
0
0
1
0
0
1
.3
Director of Con
tinued Education
N/A
N/A
18
N/A
N/A
18
16.4
N/A
N/A
1
N/A
N/A
1
.3
22
22
22
22
22
110
99.9
68
81
35
64
61
309
99.9


13
writing, "All a college can do is to examine the different
ways it has been done at other places and then decide on its
own solution" [1963, p. 52].
The literature provided some examples of the different
ways it has been done and some of the problems encountered.
Masiko [1966], Erickson [1964], and Coultas [1964] wrote
descriptions of the development of urban multi-campus community
colleges. Out of descriptions like these comes information
that can be useful to developing multi-campus situations.
Erickson, in writing about the Chicago City Junior College,
expressed very succinctly the primary challenge that faces
multi-campus administrative structures. "The goal ... is
to foster the creativity and flexibility of each campus,
establishing unity in the multi-campus college without rigid
conformity" [Erickson, 1964, p. 19]. All of these articles
enumerated the difficulties encountered in their respective
multi-campus colleges, and most of them are the same ones
identified by Kintzer, Jensen, and Hansen in the study dis
cussed previously.
Rushing [1970] indicated, in his discussion of Tarrant
County Junior College, that the multi-campus situations vary
so much from state to state and situation to situation that
essentially each college faces unique problems. Some general
guidelines can be applied to all cases, but the unique
ness of a given situation may call for new solutions and
create new problems.
At TCJC, learning is not an activity limited
to students. The college staff is constantly


26
In addition to the use of two instruments, data were collected
at the selected community colleges through two other means.
First, documents and records (e.g., policy manuals, faculty
handbooks, appropriate committee reports, organizational charts
and the like) were examined and analyzed to obtain a firm
understanding of established procedures for decision-making.
General observations also were recorded during informal inter
actions with faculty, staff, and students of the community
colleges. These observations were indicative of interpersonal
relationships, attitudes, and knowledge of decision-making
by the respondents.
The field visits were four days long for each selected
community college. During the visits interviews were held,
and at the beginning of each interview the Decision Point
Analysis Instrument was completed by the respondent. Filling
the instrument out with the researcher present had two advan
tages. First, if the respondent needed to ask a question,
he could get a reply before he marked his response. This
tended to eliminate much of the misinterpretation of semantics
that is usually present in questionnaire research. Secondly,
by collecting the instrument at the close of the interview,
the researcher achieved a 100 percent return rate with all
items complete. This would have been virtually impossible to
accomplish through a mail-out program. Between interviews,
manuals and other printed material were read to establish the
procedures for decision-making. All during the visit general
impressions were being gathered to help round out the view of
the college.


90
scattered over a rather large range. The President received
five responses and the division chairman six.
Item three, the creation of a non-credit course, was
regarded by 82 percent of the role incumbents surveyed to be
a decision made by the Director of Continuing Education.
This figure represented the highest degree of consensus
reached on any of the items at Eastern Community College.
The Curriculum and Instruction Committee and the division
chairman were the two positions that received the greatest
number of responses for item four. The committee received
36 percent of the responses, and the division chairman re
ceived 41 percent. The committee also was considered to be
the key decision-making body in the changing of general edu
cation requirements, item five. Forty-five percent of the
responses were given to the Curriculum and Instruction Com
mittee. The division chairman received 27 percent.
The responses of all five of the curriculum items are
pooled in Table 9 and depict a fairly consistent trend.
The Curriculum and Instruction Committee was considered to
be a strong decision-making committee for curriculum items.
Thirty-seven percent of all responses went to the committee.
The division chairman was also perceived as an important
decision-maker, as that position received 25.4 percent of
the responses. The Director of Continuing Education was per
ceived to be a strong decision-maker in the area of non
credit curricular offerings. The Dean for Instructional
Services was not perceived as a key decision-maker for curric
ulum items.


79
decision-making policies and perceived decision-makers, the
same procedures outlined in Chapter II were followed. All
three of the items that had more than 50 percent of the
responses given to one role incumbent were found to be con
gruent with the state decision-making policy. Curriculum
items one and three were congruent as was instruction item
five. The other seven items failed to identify a primary
decision-maker with more than 50 percent of the responses.
From the information gathered at Western Community College
the following generalizations have been formulated.
1. The committee structure for curriculum and instruc
tion was not perceived to be an integral part of
the decision-making process.
2. Curriculum decisions were perceived to be more
centralized than instructional decisions, though
both were primarily campus level functions.
3. There tended to be more participation by role in
cumbents in the formulation of curriculum deci
sions than in instruction decisions.
4. The department chairman's position was perceived
to be a strong primary decision-making position
for instructional decisions.
5. The Dean of Instruction was perceived to be a
strong primary decision-maker for curriculum
decisions.
6. The curriculum decisions role incumbents were
reluctant to identify themselves as primary deci
sion-makers even when the majority of the responses
so identified them.
7. The decision-making pattern for non-credit courses
was different from the regular curriculum. The
Director of Community Services was perceived to
be the key decision-maker in the non-credit area.


TABLE 8
RESPONDENTS PRECEPTIONS OF THEIR OWN INVOLVEMENT IN THE PROCESS
Role Incumbent
Make the Recommend
Decision Decision
Provide
Information
None
Curriculum
Items
Chancellor
5
Dean of Curriculum &
Instructional Review
4
1
President (2)
4
4
2
Dean of Instruction (2)
1
7
2
Division Chairman (4)
14
6
Department Chairman (4)
4
6
11
1
Faculty (8)
1
Instruction
7
Items
18
15
Chancellor
5
Dean of Curriculum &
Instructional Review
1
1
3
President (2)
1
1
8
Dean of Instruction (2)
1
6
4
Division Chairman (4)
2
8
10
Department Chairman (4)
7
6
6
Faculty (8)
12
18
8
2
oo


61
members of the official faculty organization on their campus.
These organizations, one for each campus, were representative
of nearly all of the professional personnel working at
Western. Faculty meetings were held monthly during an acti
vity period. It was within their scope of activity to delib
erate on curriculum and instruction matters. Recommendations
from these meetings were submitted through the normal organi
zational channels for consideration. All faculty members
were expected to attend these meetings.
In addition to the faculty organization, a five-man
district committee existed to facilitate decision-making in
curriculum and instruction. The members of the district
Curriculum and Instruction Committee were the two campus
Presidents, the two Deans of Instruction, and the Director
of Curriculum Review and Evaluation. No instructional faculty or
division chairmen were represented on the committee. The
committee functioned primarily as a college-wide curriculum
coordinating vehicle for curriculum matters that might have
had. more than single campus impact.
Apart from the committee structure, Western Community
College detailed some of the decision-making responsibilities
of its personnel in position descriptions. These descriptions
were published in the Policies and Procedures Manual that
was distributed to college personnel as an orientation and
reference document. Only the information germane to curri
culum and instruction decision-making is included below. The
discussion begins with the district administrative positions.


DECISION POINT ANALYSIS INSTRUMENT1
You are participating in a study of which the purpose is
to determine the locus of decision-making with regard to
specific tasks of academic affairs in selected multi-campus
community colleges. As you consider each of the decision
items, think and respond from the viewpoint of your present
position. Please answer all questions and do not skip ques
tions. Doing so would seriously limit the validity of the
data collected. In filling out the opinionnaire be truthful
in your responses. All responses will be confidential and
none will be identified by person.
Institute of Higher Education
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
Developed from a technique by Glen G.
Research Project No. 5-0443 USOE, 1966, 244
Eye,
pp.
Cooperative
124


121
instruction decisions tend to center around the classroom
behavior of individual teachers. Consultation with other
professionals often is not needed and, in fact, may not be
desired.
2. Generalization: Role incumbents were reluctant to
identify themselves as primary decision-makers in curriculum
items.
Implication: Role incumbents were responding to the
decision-making pattern which calls for a great deal of parti
cipation in the making of the decision. Thus the role incum
bent does not feel that he made the decision, but only that
he participated. These role incumbents form the opinion that
decisions are not made, they are recommended.
Recommendations for Further Study
This study focused on the locus of formal decision-making
with regard to specified tasks in curriculum and instruction.
No attempt was made to assess the effectiveness of quality of
the decision-making processes that were identified. Further
study is suggested to determine if there are any data which
would support a contention that any one of these patterns
is more effective than another.
Detailed studies could also be made in multi-college
districts to determine the extent of decentralization found
there. Other areas, such as personnel and business functions
could be studied to determine what patterns of decision-making


24
the identity of each of the institutions participating in the
study remained confidential. Thus, the pseudonyms: Southern
Community College, Western Community College, and Eastern
Community College were used.
Within the community colleges selected, people who held
the following positions were selected as participants:
a. President/chief administrator for the entire college,
b. Vice-President for Academic Affairs/chief admin
istrator for academic affairs for the entire college,
c. Campus Dean/chief campus administrator for each
campus,
d. Campus Director for Academic Affairs/chief campus
administrator for academic affairs on each campus,
e. Eight division/department chairmen, representing
all campuses,
f. Eight faculty members, representing all campuses.
The department chairmen and faculty members were selected
on the basis of availability and willingness to participate
in the study. The identities of the individuals chosen for
the study remained confidential.
Instrumentation and Data Collection
The Decision Point Analysis Instrument, Appendix A, con
sists of three parts:
1. The cover sheet--this contains the purpose of the
study, the statement of confidentiality and general
instructions for filling out the instrument.
2. The background data sheet--this information was
used in categorizing and analyzing the responses
to the decision items.
3. The body of the instrument--this contains the deci
sion items and the blanks for the responses.


APPENDIX A
THE DECISION POINT INSTRUMENT


15
2. The guidelines for multi-unit community colleges
are, at best, a general case that must be modi
fied to fit specific institutional needs.
3. Controversy exists as to how centralized or de
centralized authority should be in multi-unit
junior colleges.
4. Despite the problems of multi-unit organization,
the number of multi-unit junior colleges has
increased significantly in the past two decades.
Review of Research and Literature on Decision-Making
Decision-making only recently became a popular topic for
research. Daniel Griffiths reported in 1969,
From 1956 through 1962 an average of only one
dissertation a year was written using decision
making as a basis. However, an average of six
per year were completed from 1963 through 1966.
[Griffiths, 1969, p. 19]
Dissertation Abstracts, for the first six months of 1974, listed
more than six studies a month dealing with educational deci
sion-making alone. Along with the many research projects on
decision-making came a great deal of diversity in methodology
and research objectives. Rather than recount the findings
of studies which did not specifically relate to this study,
this review focused only on salient information.
Ernest Dale was one of the organization theorists of
the 1950s who discussed the meaning of decision-making in
terms of centralization or decentralization. His frame of
reference was the business organization, but the following
principles apply as well to educational organizations.
Another type of decentralization--and that with
which we shall be primarily concerned hererefers
to the nature of the company's management. More


96
Services received the greatest number of responses for parti
cipation. This may have been a reflection of the coordinating
nature of the position.
Respondents' Perceptions of Their Roles in Decision-Making
The responses to this portion of the instrument are found
in Table 12. The curriculum items again pointed up the
reluctance for role incumbents to designate themselves as
decision-makers. More typically, they preferred to respond
that they recommended the decision. This may have been an
outgrowth of the perception that curriculum proposals had to
pass over other desks in the organization before they were
finally approved. The faculty were the only ones who placed
more responses in the "provide information" and "none" boxes
than they did in the other two boxes. This indicated that
they felt that they had less input into the making of curric
ulum decisions than other role incumbents did.
Faculty responded quite differently to the instruction
items. They were the only role incumbents who reflected a
great deal of involvement in the making of instruction deci
sions. More than two-thirds of their responses indicated
that they either made the decision or recommended it. The
division chairmen were the only other role incumbents to indi
cate with more than half of their responses a major part in
the decision-making process. The others had most or all of
their responses in the "provide information" and "none"
boxes. These data reiterated the fact that faculty were more


70
of response. The lowest were the Chancellor and the Curri
culum and Instruction Committee, both with less than one per
cent. The decision-making for the instruction items was
clearly placed at the campus level. Only six out of the 110
responses placed the primary decision-making at the district
level.
Table 7 summarizes the identified decision-making pat
tern across all ten decision items. The Dean of Instruction
emerged as having received the most responses, 23.6 percent,
as a primary decision-maker. The department chairman was next
with 20.4 percent of the responses. As an indicator of decen
tralization, it is interesting to note that the district
level role incumbents and the district curriculum committee
ranked very low in frequency of response. It was especially
surprising that the Curriculum and Instruction Committee
ranked last in terms of perceived primary decision-making.
Participants in Decision-Making
The participants in the decision-making process were
determined the same way as reported in Chapter II. More
participation in the curriculum decisions was indicated by
the fact that there were 86 more responses in the curriculum
items than in the instruction items. The division chairman
received the greatest number of responses, 24 percent, as hav
ing participated in the making of curriculum decisions. The
department chairman followed with 20.4 percent, and the Dean
of Instruction had 18.4 percent. The Curriculum and Instruction


TABLE 2
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO INSTRUCTION ITEMS
FOR SOUTHERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Role
Incumbents
1
Make the Decision
Items
2345 Tot
%
1
2
Participate
I terns
3 4 5
Tot
%
President
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
3
2.0
Academic Dean
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
3
3
5
0
13
9.0
Dean of Instruction
0
1
0
2
0
3
3
4
5
5
9
1
24
16.6
Department Chairman
7
6
15
8
9
45
45
12
14
4
13
10
53
36.6
Faculty
13
12
4
9
10
48
48
7
7
14
11
10
49
33.8
Committee
0
1
0
1
1
3
3
0
0
2
0
1
3
2.0
Don 11 Know
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
20
20
20
20
20
100
100
26
30
28
39
22
145
100.0


12
6. may find that competition among the campuses
is excessive and destructive,
7. will likely have one campus oriented more towards
"blue collar" educational programs and the other
towards "white collar" programs with probable
unfortunate social consequences.[Kintzer, 1969,
p. 30]
Ramstad studied nine of the eleven multi-college districts
in California to determine what their general practices and
problems were [Ramstad, 1970]. He was concerned with five
general topics: planning, construction, operation, coordina
tion, and the district office. He found many commonalities
among districts, but could not identify a pattern to the dis
trict operations. Ramstad concluded his study by stating
that the junior college districts had not shared their ex
periences and that this was a loss of valuable information
that could have helped the colleges avoid some of their com
mon developmental problems [Ramstad, 1970, p. 30].
VanTrease conducted a survey of chief campus administra
tors and chief district administrators of multi-campus dis
tricts [VanTrease, 1972], The purpose of the study was to
determine whether there was a difference in the perceptions
of the two groups of administrators regarding the degree of
delegated authority existing in their schools. VanTrease
found that there was a significant difference (.05 level) in
nearly all specified areas. He recommended improved communi
cation between the central office and the campuses.
In addition to the research done on multi-campus junior
colleges, several articles of interest have been written.
Sammartino concluded an article on multi-campus colleges by


23
4. Two responses, one for "committee" and one for a
"don't know" response, were added.
5. The tabs that the respondents marked were elimin
ated; the response area was placed directly be
neath each decision item.
Procedures
The procedures section is divided into three parts. The
first part covers the selection of the sample. Next an ex
planation of the components of the instruments and the data
collection process is presented. The final part deals with
the treatment of the data after collection.
Selection of the Sample
This study was a survey type study encompassing informa
tion gained from three separate multi-campus community colleges.
On the population of public multi-campus community colleges
in the United States the following criteria were imposed.
1. The community/junior college had been in exis
tence as a multi-campus institution for at least
one year at the time of the study.
2. Only one of the three selected community colleges
came from any one state.
3. Each of the campuses of the selected institutions
had at least 3000 students (head count).
4. Central administrative personnel were a separate
entity from the administrative staffs for the
campuses.
From the population of colleges who met the criteria,
three were selected on the basis of their willingness to
participate and their location. As a condition of the study,


25
The second instrument devised for the study was the
structured interview guide, Appendix B. The questions included
in this guide were designed to elicit additional perceptions
of the decision-making patterns of the district. Each role
incumbent who filled out the Decision Point Analysis Instru
ment was asked for an interview. However, not all of these
participants were interviewed. Time constraints and scheduling
difficulties were the main reasons why some role incumbents
were not interviewed. The following role incumbents were
interviewed:
1. Southern Community College (10 total):
a. Dean of Instruction 2
b. Dean of Academic Affairs 1
c. Department Chairman 4
d. Faculty 4
2. Western Communtiy College (12 total):
a. Chancellor 1
b. Dean for Curriculum Review and Evaluation 1
c. President 2
d. Dean of Instruction 2
e. Division Chairman 2
f. Department Chairman 2
g. Faculty 2
3. Eastern Community College (9 total):
a. President 1
b. Provost 4
c. Division Chairman 2
d. Faculty 2
The interview guide served as a common point of departure
for the sessions. Despite the fact that all the participants
who completed the Decision Point Analysis Instrument were not
interviewed, some useful data were collected during the inter
view sessions.


28
separately in Chapters II, III, and IV. Each college is
described relative to its surrounding district, pertinent
historical data, organizational features, and decision-making
patterns. Analysis and discussion of the patterns identified
through the use of the Decision Point Analysis Instrument,
interviews, and general observations follow. A summary is
provided at the end of each of these chapters.
Chapter V provides a comparative analysis of the decision
making patterns of the three multi-campus community college
districts. Similarities and differences have been high
lighted in an effort to determine if a pattern of decision
making emerges for all three institutions.
The final chapter provides a series of generalizations
and implications that emerged from the investigation. Lastly,
the recommendations for further related research are offered.


98
a part of the decision-making process for instruction than
they were for curriculum decisions.
Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by Structured Interviews
The structured interview guide was used the same way at
Eastern Community College as it was at the other institutions
surveyed. A total of nine interviews were conducted, and
the discussion below is based on the information gained
during those interviews.
The interviewees were unanimous in their opinion that
instructional decision-making was decentralized. They all
stated that the central administration did very little in
the area of instruction. The President of the college explained
that the word "instruction" was being dropped from the Curric
ulum and Instruction Committee. After July 1, 1974, that
committee was known as the Curriculum Committee. Opinions
on the curriculum decisions were split. Some felt that the
campuses were relatively autonomous, and others stated that
the Curriculum and Instruction Committee held too much power
for the decision-making to be decentralized.
Question two was not applicable at Eastern Community
College because the two functions mentioned were performed
by one incumbent, the Provost.
The responses to the question on shared authority be
tween the Dean for Instructional Services and the Provost
indicated that authority was generally not shared. The Dean


CHAPTER III
THE DECISION-MAKING PATTERN OF
WESTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT
This chapter is a description of the decision-making
pattern for curriculum and instruction at Western Community
College. The organization of the chapter is similar to that
of Chapter II. The district environment is described first,
followed by the procedures for decision-making. Next, the
responses to the Decision Point Analysis Instrument are pre
sented. This is followed by a discussion of data gathered
by interview. The chapter concludes with general observa
tions and a summary of the generalizations made about deci
sion-making at the college.
Environment
The Community
Western Community College served a single county dis
trict which had an area of 856 square miles. This district
had one major urban area that dominated nearly every facet
of the economy in the county. In 1970 the population of the
county was 716,000, but this had grown to approximately 800,000
by 1974. The growth statistics for the area indicated that
the population had grown by approximately 20 percent each
decade and that this trend was expected to continue. Thus
55


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Chairman
L. Wattenbarge
Professor of Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
QlU¡t £.
Albert B. Smith, Co-Chairman
Assistant Professor of Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of
the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and
was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
August, 1974
Dean, Graduate School


Ill
many people who had the opportunity to recommend the decision,
the identity of a single decision-maker was obscured. Some
curriculum items, one responder indicated, were approved be
cause of the sheer number of recommendations attached rather
than the action of any one decision-maker. This type of pat
tern was not found to exist in the instructional area.
General Observations
Degree of Centralization/Decentralization
Responses to the Decision Point Analysis Instrument indi
cated that the majority of the decision-making for curriculum
and instruction was done at the campus level. The Curriculum
and Instruction Committees at Southern Community College and
Eastern Community College were the only active college-wide
agencies in the perceptions of the respondents. The college
Dean of Academics at Southern Community College, a line posi
tion, also was influential in the formulation of some curric
ulum decisions. Aside from these exceptions, the campus role
incumbents were perceived to be both the primary decision
makers and the main participants in the making of the deci
sions. The instructional items were decided mainly within the
department and the curriculum items were decided at various
levels higher in the organization.
The replies to the structured interviews indicated that
some role incumbents' opinions were divided as to whether
their college was a centralized or decentralized system. Some


TABLE 7
RESPONSES TO ALL ITEMS RANK ORDER DISTRIBUTION BY FREQUENCY
Make the
Decision
Participate
N =
220
N =
630
Frequency
%
Frequency
%
Dean of Instruction
52
23.6
Division Chairman
157
24.9
Department Chairman
45
20.4
Department Chairman
136
21.6
President
33
15.0
Faculty
110
17.5
Faculty
29
13.2
Dean of Instruction
108
17.1
Division Chairman
14
6.4
President
44
6.9
Chancellor
12
5.4
Committee
28
4.4
Director of Com-
Dean of Curriculum
munity Services
12
5.4
& Instructional
Review
26
4.1
Director of Curri
culum & Instruc-
Chancellor
11
1.7
tional Review
10
4.5
Director of Com-
Committee
8
3.6
unity Serivces
10
1.6
Don't Know
5
2.3


86
example, was the chief executive officer for the college and
as such was responsible for providing leadership and super
vision for the total community college program.
The Dean of Instructional Services had more specific
duties outlined in the Faculty Handbook. Among them were
the following, which pertained to curriculum and instruction.
1. Coordinate the development of curriculum, courses,
and programs for the college.
2. Advise the campus Provosts in matters of curric
ulum and instruction.
3. Stimulate and institute, through the Curriculum
and Instruction Committee, needed curricular
changes.
4. Stimulate and institute, through the Curriculum
and Instruction Committee, needed adult education
and community service programs.
5. Serve as the contact person for the college in
dealing with the state Department of Community
Colleges in curriculum and instruction matters.
The Provost's duties, like the President's, were not as
explicitly spelled out as some of the other positions. The
Provost served as the chief academic officer of the local
campus. He assumed general supervisory administration for
the development of curriculum, courses, and programs. Also
he was to institute needed curricular changes on his campus.
Reporting to the Provost were the division chairmen. Among
the division chairmen's responsibilities the following were
listed.
1. Organizing, administering, and supervising the
instructional program of the division.
2. Supervising the divisional instructional program
for both the day and evening class offerings.


32
of time. The total college annual enrollment projection for
1979-80 was approximately 10,500 students.
Pattern of Governance
Southern Community College was part of a statewide sys
tem of public comprehensive community colleges. It was
governed by a seven-member district board of trustees. The
President of the college served as the secretary to the board.
The District Board was charged with full responsibility for
the governance and operation of the district. The role of
the state agencies, the State Board of Education, and the
Division of Community Colleges was largely one of coordina
tion and planning.
Organization
Southern Community College was a multi-campus institu
tion which stressed its unity as a single college. The faculty
handbook stated that the same general policies and philoso
phies of operation, as well as the same procedural methods,
applied to all campuses equally. The organizational chart
for the college indicated that there were four major internal
divisions: academic affairs, administrative affairs, business
affairs, and student affairs. Both campuses had similar or
ganizational plans with only minor differences keeping them
from being identical. Figure 1 represents a simplified view
of the organizational line relationships for the college.
Staff positions and personnel who occupied assistant posi
tions have been left out of the chart. The administrative


9
multi-campus junior colleges [Jensen, 1965] One purpose of
the investigation was to identify the principal reasons for
the emergence of the multi-campus organization. The main
reasons were:
1. To compensate for district geographical size
which prohibited one campus from servicing
the district adequately.
2. To equalize educational opportunities through
effective accessibility of the college to the
residents of the district.
3. To meet the differing educational needs of the
various communities located within the district.
4. To accommodate applicants after the district's
only campus had reached its maximum capacity.
5. To keep each campus to a reasonable and func
tional size. [Jensen, 1965, p.8]
By talking with college officials, studying official
documents, and learning the history of each district, Jensen
was able to determine other characteristics of multi-unit
junior colleges. Of the ten participating districts, two
were multi-college districts, five were multi-campus districts
and three were multi-program districts. The distinctive de
finitions that Jensen derived for these different types of
multi-unit college districts have become standard terminology
in the literature and are:
1. Multi-College District--operates two or more in
dividual comprehensive colleges.
2. Multi-Campus District--operates a single legal in
stitution with two or more comprehensive campuses.
3. Multi-Program District--similar in organization
to multi-campus districts except that each branch
offers a different educational program--for ex
ample, a technical and vocational program on one
campus, and arts and sciences on another. [Jensen,
1965, p.9]


106
Role Incumbents as Decision-Makers
Primary Decision-Makers
The role incumbents who were perceived as primary deci
sion-makers at each of the colleges varied as the organiza
tional pattern varied. Two positions existed at Western Com
munity College that did not exist at the other two, for example.
In spite of these organizational differences and the differ
ences in job titles, there emerged from the data several pat
terns which require discussion.
First, the chief administrator for the college was not
considered a primary decision-maker in the formulation of
curriculum and instruction decisions. This was uniformly
true at all three colleges even though some of the decisions
made would have to have his signature eventually. The chief
administrators, themselves, concurred that they were too busy
with other tasks to take part in this area of activity. Also,
the chief campus administrator, by whatever title he may be
known, was not considered to be a primary decision-maker.
Although they received more responses than the chief college
administrators, the campus heads received only scattered re
sponses for primary decision-making responsibility. They
also were responsible for too many other areas of activity to
devote much of their time to curriculum and instruction.
The Deans of Instruction at Western Community College
were perceived as primary decision-makers in the area of cur
riculum. Their status in the organizational plan made them


110
items were intra-departmental and that the departments and
divisions enjoyed a great degree of autonomy in formulating
instructional decisions.
Respondents' Perceived Roles
Two patterns emerged from the responses to the Decision
Point Analysis Instrument section dealing with the role in
cumbent's own perception of his role in the decision-making
process. First, the respondents from all three colleges
tended to confirm the generalization that curriculum decisions
were made higher in the organization than were instruction
decisions. Faculty, for example, typically responded that
they either provided information or did not participate in
the making of a curriculum decision. However, for the instruc
tional items, faculty typically responded that they either
made the decision or recommended it. The responses were
reversed for role incumbents who occupied positions higher
in the organization than division chairmen. This characteris
tic was uniform among all three colleges studied.
The second pattern emerged from the responses to the
curriculum items only. Role incumbents from all three multi
campus districts were reluctant to designate themselves as
the primary decision-makers for the curriculum decisions.
This held true even when they had been selected by a majority
of the respondents as the decision-maker. The respondents
commented as they filled out the instrument that they could
only recommend the decision because it had to go through other
channels before it could be approved. Thus, because of the


107
unique among the role incumbents in this study. They were not
tasked with general administrative duties, as the campuses
had Presidents to handle those things. This allowed them
the freedom to work in the area of curriculum leadership for
their campus. By contrast, the Deans of Instruction at Southern
Community College were responsible for general campus admini
stration as well as curriculum leadership. They were not
perceived as primary decision-makers for either curriculum
or instruction by the respondents to the survey.
The strongest decision-makers in the area of instruction
were found to be the department chairmen at Southern and
Western Community Colleges and the division chairmen at Eastern
Community College. These positions were roughly comparable
as they were the first formal administrative echelon above
the teaching faculty. The stated duties of these role incum
bents indicated that they were to provide much of the leader
ship for instructional improvement. The perceptions of those
surveyed indicated that in most cases the role incumbents
were performing the duties outlined for them. In some in
stances, it appeared that the department chairman had also
been delegated or had assumed additional duties. At Southern
Community College, for example, the department chairmen were
perceived as the primary decision-makers in the changing of
a course description. This decision was stated in the Poli
cies Manual as a matter for the Curriculum and Instruction
Committee.
Faculty had little input into the formulation of many of


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE LOCUS OF FORMAL DECISION-MAKING
FOR CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION
IN SELECTED MULTI-CAMPUS COMMUNITY COLLEGES
By
Willis N. Holcombe
August, 1974
Chairman: James L. Wattenbarger
Co-Chairman: Albert B. Smith
Major Department: Educational Administration
The purpose of the study was to investigate the locus of
formal decision-making with regard to specific curriculum
and instruction decisions in selected multi-campus community
college districts. The study was designed to respond to three
questions:
1. What are the procedures that exist for making de
cisions in curriculum and instruction for the
selected multi-campus community colleges?
2. What role incumbents make decisions concerning
specified tasks in curriculum and instruction
for the selected multi-campus community colleges?
3. What is the degree of congruence between stated
decision-making procedures in curriculum and in
struction and perceived decision-making patterns
as identified by the Decision Point Analysis
Instrument?
The data relating to these three questions formed a basis for
developing generalizations relative to evolving practices for
decision-making in curriculum and instruction in these dis
tricts .
Vll


20
courses, (3) creation of new programs, and (4) change in
course description [Decision-Guidelines, 1973, pp. 1-8].
The following were campus decisions: (1) creation of a
continuing education course, (2) instructional experimentation
(3) introduction of new instructional technology, (4) evalua
tion of instruction, and (5) adoption of textbooks [Decision-
Guidelines 1973, pp. 11-14].
From the review of the literature related to decision
making this study gained much of its structure. The theore
tical base, the Decision Point Analysis Instrument, and some
of the decision items for the survey came from the sources
mentioned above.
Review of the Literature Used to Formulate the Curriculum and
Instruction Decision Items
When the Decision Point Analysis Instrument was first
used, the focus of attention was not limited to curriculum
and instruction. Glen Eye's decision items came from other
areas of decision-making as well. Thus in the preparation of
the instrument for this study, the decision items themselves
had to be formulated. Three basic criteria provided the
parameters for the items. First, the items were to be deci
sions that would be common to the community colleges studied.
Secondly, they were to be simply stated and easy to understand
Thirdly, there were to be the same number of curriculum items
as there were instruction items to facilitate the comparative
aspect of the analysis.
Policy manuals were obtained from several multi-campus


54
decision-makers were not the ones indicated by the procedures
manual. The other three items did not have a majority of
responses given to any one position or committee.
Responses to the Decision Point Analysis Instrument and
the Structured Interview Guide have led to the formulation
of the following generalizations about the decision-making
structure at Southern Community College.
1. The Curriculum and Instruction Committee was the
only committee perceived to play a viable role in
the decision-making for curriculum and instruction.
2. Curriculum decisions were perceived to be more
centralized than instruction decisions.
3. There tended to be more participation by a greater
number of role incumbents in the formulation of
curriculum decisions than in instruction decisions.
4. The department chairman's position was perceived
to be a very strong primary decision-making posi
tion for curriculum and instruction.
5. The Dean of Instruction was perceived to be a weak
primary decision-making position with regard to
the curriculum and instruction items.
6. Role incumbents were reluctant to identify them
selves as primary decision-makers even when the
majority of the responses so identified them.
7. The decision-making pattern for non-credit courses
was different from that for credit courses. The
Coordinator for Continuing Education was perceived
the primary decision-maker in this area.


108
the curriculum decisions, but they ranked just behind the de
partment chairmen as primary decision-makers in the area of
instructional decisions. Faculty were described in the pub
lications of all three colleges as the primary determiners
of the instructional quality cf the institution. To fulfill
this obligation it was necessary that the faculty be able to
respond to changing instructional situations. The responsi
bility to provide quality instruction demanded the ability
to make decisions regarding the instructional environment.
All three multi-campus districts provided the faculty the
freedom to make those decisions.
The curriculum item that dealt with the creation of a
new non-credit course pointed up another commonality among
the three institutions. At all three colleges, this decision
was made by a role incumbent who had separate responsibility
for the continuing education or community services program.
This item brought the highest degree of consensus found for
any item in the survey. It was also interesting to note that
participation in the making of that decision by other role
incumbents was limited. The responsibility for the non
credit offerings at these institutions had been delegated to
specific role incumbents, and they were perceived as having
performed their duties without a great deal of interference
or interaction with other role incumbents.
Participants in Decision-Making
Two separate patterns emerged from the participation


36
motivator of instructional creativity, provider of teaching
resources, and interpreter of policy. The Deans of Instruc
tion were to share with the Deans of Student Services the
administrative responsibility for the operation of the
campus. In addition to their campus administrative duties
Deans of Instruction were to (1) facilitate the department
chairmen and coordinator of evening classes in the development
of innovative curriculum and instruction ideas, (2) review
and react to curriculum and instruction proposals from the
departments and (3) evaluate programs and personnel.
The department chairmen were to be the chief facili
tators of good student-teacher relationship. Among other
things this role required the performance of the following
specific duties: (1) supervision of curriculum development
and revision, (2) supervision of classroom instruction, (3)
evaluation of instructional activities, (4) provider of ac
cess to instructional materials, and (5) approval of the
selection of texts and materials. Faculty members were viewed
at Southern Community College as the most vital link in the
education program. Among their responsibilities were
listed the following: (1) utilize supportive services and
resources in development of classroom activities, (2) select
his own technique in presenting the concepts of his disci
pline, and (3) initiate proposals for experimental or innova
tive classroom arrangements.


85
Procedures for Decision-Making in
Curriculum and Instruction
The publications from Eastern Community College indicated
that there were at least twelve committees functioning at
various levels of the college at the time of this study. The
committee structure was well delineated in the Faculty Handbook.
The committee which was assigned the responsibility for the
area of curriculum and instruction is the one presented below.
The Committee on Curriculum and Instruction was organized
to coordinate the instructional programs of the separate
campuses. The specific functions of the committee were to
study the instructional programs of the college, to consider
proposals for course changes, and to make recommendations for
the improvement of curriculum and instructional programs of
all campuses. The recommendations from the committee were
made to the President of the college.
The committee was appointed by the President annually
and consisted of the following members: Dean for Instructional
ServicesChairman, Provosts (5), campus instructional ad
ministration (2), student services administration (1), and
instructional faculty (6). The instructional faculty members
on the committee were nominated by the College Forum, a
general all-college committee.
In addition to the Curriculum and Instruction Committee,
Eastern Community College defined some of the positions of
the college in terms of their role in the decision-making
process for curriculum and instruction. The President, for


CHAPTER V
COMMONALITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN THE
DECISION-MAKING PATTERNS FOR THE THREE DISTRICTS
In Chapters II, III, and IV the decision-making patterns
of the three districts surveyed were described. The purpose
of this chapter is to compare and contrast the information
gained about these institutions. The basis for the discussion
that follows is the data presented in the chapters on each
college. The format for this chapter is similar to that of
the three preceding chapters and begins with a discussion of
the decision-making procedures.
Procedures for Decision-Making
Organizational Structure
Each of the institutions had an organizational structure
that differed from the others. At the district administration
level, both Western Community College and Eastern Community
College had staff positions for college-wide coordination of
curriculum and instruction. Southern Community College, on
the other hand, had a Dean of Academic Affairs who had line
responsibility. Responses to the Decision Point Analysis
Instrument indicated that the two staff position role incum
bents were not considered to be strong primary decision-makers.
103


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
A study of this kind requires the assistance and support
of many individuals. The writer wishes to express his appre
ciation to all those who helped make this study possible.
The writer wishes to express his special appreciation to Dr.
James L. Wattenbarger, chairman of the doctoral committee
and director of the thesis.
Special acknowledgement also is due to Drs. Michael Y.
Nunnery and Albert B. Smith for their support and guidance
in the formulation of the study.
The writer wishes to say thank you to his wife, Jo, for
her encouragement, understanding, and assistance in the
completion of the study. Her contribution was evidence of
the love that only a wife can give.
Finally, the writer wishes to thank his parents, Mr. and
Mrs. W.N. Holcombe, for their continued guidance and love
during his formative years.
11


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Willis N. Holcombe was born April 18, 1945, at Iron
Mountain, Michigan. In June, 1963, he was graduated from
Defiance High School in Defiance, Ohio. He attended Baldwin-
Wallace College, Berea, Ohio from September, 1963 to June,
1967. He received a Bachelor of Arts degree with majors in
English and physical education from Baldwin-Wallace in June,
1967. From September, 19 67 through March, 1969, he attended
the University of Florida as an NDEA Title IV fellowship
holder in English. In March, 1969, he joined the United
States Marine Corps. He served is an officer in the Marine
Corps until February, 1972. He returned to the University
of Florida and received the degree of Master of Education
with a major in junior college English education in August,
1972. He entered the Institute of Higher Education, Depart
ment of Educational Administration, University of Florida on
a W.K. Kellogg Foundation Fellowship in September, 1972.
At the institute, he specialized in community junior college
administration for his doctoral degree.
Willis N. Holcombe is married to the former Jo Anne
Frysinger of Defiance, Ohio. They have two children, a
daughter, Megan Marie, and a son, Benjamin Willis.
138


64
division chairmen. They were responsible for the super
vision of the department instructional program, preparation
of the instructional budget, and execution of the depart
mental budget. They evaluated the instructional effective
ness of their staffs and supervised the preparation and re
vision of syllabi for departmental course offerings. They
recommended to their division chairmen the textbooks and
media materials to be purchased by the Learning Resources
Center.
The description of the role that faculty played in the
educational process tended to be laudatory and general. In
this regard, it was difficult to identify particular areas
of responsibility that faculty members assumed. Statements
such as the following from the Policies and Procedures Manual
were common in describing faculty responsibilities. "Being
prepared, cheerful, willing and eager to serve, responsive
to change and maintaining a constant dedication to serve stu
dents make responsibilities of faculty persons unique challenges."
Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by the Decision Point Analysis Instrument
Twenty-two role incumbents from Western Community College
responded to the Decision Point Analysis Instrument. The
only change in the administration of the instrument from that
reported in Chapter II was the insertion of a response space
to accommodate both the department chairman and the division
chairman positions. Four role incumbents from each of these


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
1.
2.
3.
SIMPLIFIED TABLE OF ORGANIZATION FOR
ACADEMIC AFFAIRS AT SOUTHERN COMMUNITY
COLLEGE
SIMPLIFIED TABLE OF ORGANIZATION FOR
ACADEMIC AFFAIRS AT WESTERN COMMUNITY
COLLEGE
SIMPLIFIED TABLE OF ORGANIZATION FOR
ACADEMIC AFFAIRS AT EASTERN COMMUNITY
COLLEGE
Page
33
60
84
vi


TABLE 10
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO INSTRUCTION ITEMS
FOR EASTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Role Incumbents
1
Make the Decision
Items
2 3 4 5 Tot
%
1
2
Participate
Items
3 4 5
Tot
%
President
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
2
1.2
Dean for Instruc-
tional Services
0
0
1
0
0
1
.9
2
2
1
2
4
11
6.7
Provost
0
4
1
2
0
7
6.4
5
7
4
12
2
30
18.4
Division Chairman
6
7
13
10
4
40
33.4
15
14
6
11
13
59
36.2
Faculty
16
11
7
9
17
60
54.5
6
11
15
12
4
48
29.4
Committee
0
0
0
1
1
2
1.8
3
2
3
3
2
13
7.9
Don't Know
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
22
22
22
22
22
110
100
32
37
29
40
25
163
99.9
vo


137
Todd, C.E. The Perceived Functions of the Junior College
Academic Dean in the Improvement of Instruction. (Ed.D.
Dissertation, University of Alabama), Tuscaloosa, 1965.
VanTrease, Dean Paul. An Analysis of the Understanding of
Authority Relationships Between Chief District Adminis
trators and Chief Campus Administrators in Multicampus
Junior College Systems. (Ed.D. Dissertation, North
Texas State University), Denton, 1972.
Wynn, John. "Administering Multicampus Junior Colleges."
College and University Business, 53 (September, 1972),
44-45.
Yell, Raymond H. Selected Aspects of Internal Decision-Making
in Public Supported Community Colleges in Texas as Per
ceived by Administrators, Faculty Members, and Student
Leaders. (Ed.D. Dissertation, Texas Technical University),
Lubbock, 1973.


The three districts were selected on the basis of size,
state governance patterns, location, organizational planning
and willingness to participate. Four data collection tech
niques were used at each of the three institutions. These
techniques included two instruments (the Decision Point
Analysis Instrument and a structured interview guide), a re
view of documents and records, and general observations.
Field visits were conducted in each district and role incum
bents were selected at each district. The Decision Point
Analysis Instrument was completed by the selected role incum
bents in the presence of the researcher. The same people
were also asked to respond to the interview guide. Approxi
mately fifty percent of the role incumbents who completed the
Decision Point Analysis Instrument were interviewed. In addi
tion to the two instruments, policy manuals, handbooks, and
other documents were reviewed to reveal stated decision-making
procedures. Also, general observations were recorded at each
district.
The data were described in separate,chapters devoted to
each of the districts, which were identified only by pseudo
nyms. In these chapters, the stated decision-making structures
were identified. This was followed by the responses to the
Decision Point Analysis Instrument and the structured inter
views. General Observations, a discussion of congruence be
tween stated and perceived decision-making patterns, and a
summary concluded each of the three chapters on the districts.
vm


57
in September, 1967. The Board selected a president for the
college in September, 1965, and in December of that year they
acquired the land for the college facilities. The college
was planned as a multiple campus institution, and work began
on the south campus in May, 1966. The northeast campus con
struction began during the summer of 1967. The south campus
opened its doors in September, 1967, and the northeast campus
opened one year later. The land for the northwest campus
was acquired by the college, and a bond issue was passed in
1971 to provide funds for the construction. The projected
date for the opening of that campus was September, 1975.
There were no other plans for new campuses at the time of
this study.
Despite the growth in the county, the enrollment statis
tics at Western Community indicated a leveling-off trend. In
the fall of 1973, 6164 students enrolled at. the northeast
campus for a full-time equivalent count (FTE) of 4026. En
rollment was 7296 (headcount) and 4685 (FTE) during the same
term at the south campus. For fall term, 1974, the enroll
ment was 6150 students for an FTE count of 3967 at the north
east campus. The south campus also experienced a drop in
enrollment as there were 7023 students, 4495 FTE, for the
fall, 1974, term. The projections made by the college pre
dicted a period of stable enrollments for a few years followed
by slow growth years into the 1980s. The northwest campus
was expected to open with about 2000 students in fall, 1975.


5
7. The scope of this study was confined to formal
decision-making arrangements only and did not
attempt to investigate informal structures.
The importance of the informal decision-making
structure, as identified by Kimbrough (1964)
was recognized, but was not at issue in this
study.
8. The study focused only on decision-making af
fecting the curriculum and instruction items
presented in the Decision Point Analysis Instru
ment .
Limitations
1. The study was limited because of its ex post
facto character, namely,
a. The inability to manipulate independent
variables,
b. The lack of power to randomize,
c. The risk of improper interpretation [Kerlinger,
1964, p. 371]
2. Any generalizations drawn apply only to the three
community colleges studied, and any inferences
drawn to multi-campus institutions in general are
purely speculative.
3. Although the two basic instruments used in this
study have a history of use, enough modification
was made to limit their validity to face validity.
4. The ilentity of the individuals and institutions
remains confidential. A general description
of the social milieu and other pertinent items
of information about the institutions was pre
sented as a background for the study.
Justification for the Study
With the growing demand for its educational services as
evidenced by the increasing numbers of students attending the
community colleges, the community college must respond and


50
as sharing decision-making. Either the decision was one which
they would recommend or one which they would make. In either
case they would contact whomever they felt they needed to
in order to act in the best interests of the college. The
Council of Academic Deans provided a forum for these role
incumbents if they wanted to deliberate over a particular
proposal.
Question number four, relating to participation by vari
ous role incumbents, was more completely treated in the sec
tion on participation of the Decision Point Analysis Instru
ment. The responses to this question, however, confirmed the
data collected by the instrument. The department chairmen
were seen as very strong at Southern Community College.
The faculty were thought to have good input in the area of
instruction and classroom conduct, but not as much in cur
riculum areas. The Dean of Instruction was perceived as a
position which was handicapped by the fact that so many people
reported to him. On one campus seventeen people reported to
the Dean; on the other nineteen people did. The contention
was that the Dean had so many other responsibilities that he
could not become very involved in curriculum and instruction
matters. As a result the primary decision-making was delegated
to the department chairmen.
In discussing the committee structure presented earlier,
role incumbents were in agreement about two things. First,
the curriculum committee was seen as very active in the college.
There was broad representation on the committee with faculty


131
5. The decision concerning the adoption or change of a
textbook.
A. Who makes the decision? Mark with an X.
B. Who else participates in making this decision?
Mark with an 0.
President
College
Dean of
Academics
Chief
Campus
Administrator
Campus
Director of
Academics
Depart
ment
Chairman
Faculty
Com
mittee
Don't
Know
C.What is the nature of your participation in the making
of this decision? Mark the appropriate box.
] I make the decision. | | I provide information.
]l recommend the decision. | | None


APPENDIX B
STRUCTURED INTERVIEW GUIDE


104
The Dean of Academic Affairs at Southern Community College
appeared to be in a stronger decision-making position.
The differences in campus organization were slight for
Southern Community College and Eastern Community College.
Western Community College had two positions in its organiza
tion which were not found in the other two colleges. Simply
stated, Western had more academic administrators than did
either Eastern or Southern. Each campus had a President, Dean
of Instruction, division chairmen and department chairmen.
Thus, there were four levels of administration for curriculum
and instruction at each campus. Both Eastern and Southern
Community College had only two formal levels of administration
at each campus. At both schools one of the two positions
was indicated as a strong decision-making position. At Southern
it was the department chairman's position, and at Eastern
it was the division chairman. Although the titles of the
positions were different, the functions and responsibilities
were found to be much the same. At Western Community College
both the department chairman and the Dean of Instruction were
perceived as strong decision-making positions. The President
and the division chairmen were not perceived as strong deci
sion-makers .
Committee Structure
All three of the districts had a committee responsible
for the deliberation of curriculum and instruction matters.
At two of the institutions, however, the committee was perceived


113
was that only three of the ten items had a role incumbent
who received more than 50 percent of the responses. The
responses were dispersed among several role incumbents. This
may have indicated an amorphous decision-making process,
poor communications, a very participative decision-making
process, or some other condition. This research was not
designed to determine why respondents responded the way
they did.
When the congruent items were separated by type into
either curriculum or instruction, another pattern emerged.
Item three of the curriculum items, the creation of a new
non-credit course, was congruent at all three institutions,
and it was the only item that was congruent at all three.
Item one of the curriculum items was congruent at two of the
institutions. The first three instructional items were con
gruent at both Eastern and Southern Community Colleges. Item
five was the only instruction item congruent at Western Com
munity College. Of the thirteen items found to be congruent,
seven of them were instruction items, and six were curriculum
items.
Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages of the Multi-Campus
District
The responses to these two questions from the structured
interviews were reminiscent of the advantages and disadvantages
reported in the review of multi-campus literature found in
Chapter I. For the most part, the responses reflected were
the usual type that anyone who had read the literature could


58
Patterns of Governance
Western Community College was a part of a state-wide system
of public higher education. The state agencies acted as
coordinating bodies to the institutions. The Board of Trustees
of the Western Community College District was the governing
board for the district. The Board was comprised of seven
members elected by the voters of the county and was the final
authority for all matters of district development and opera
tion. The Board also had the power to levy taxes for the con
struction of physical facilities and for district operation
within the authority granted to it by state law and the
voters of the district. The Chancellor of the Western Community
College District was responsible directly to the Board of
Trustees for the total operation of the district.
Organization
Western Community College was conceived as a multi-campus
institution from the beginning. This was an advantage in
that the college did not need to adjust a single campus organ
izational plan to suit multi-campus operation. Instead it
was free to organize in the way most appropriate to its
mission. The college organizational plan represented an
attempt to provide the benefits of both centralization and de
centralization. Some administrative services and activities
common to both campuses were centralized to provide for
greater efficiency and maximum return on the tax dollar. In
the daily operation of the campuses, however, the plan showed


TABLE 5
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO CURRICULUM ITEMS
FOR WESTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Role
Make
the
: Decision
Participate
Incumbents
Items
Items
1
2
3
4
5
Tot
%
1
2
3
4
5
Tot
%
Chancellor
1
6
0
1
3
11
10.0
3
3
0
2
3
11
3.0
Director of
Curriculum &
Instruction Review
0
2
0
1
3
6
5.4
5
7
0
4
6
22
6.1
President
7
5
1
5
7
25
22.7
5
15
1
3
9
33
9.2
Dean of Instruction
11
5
4
7
5
32
29.1
11
16
11
12
16
66
18.4
Division Chairman
1
1
1
1
0
4
3.6
20
16
14
17
19
86
24.0
Department Chairman
1
0
3
3
0
7
6.3
18
14
11
16
14
73
20.4
Faculty
0
0
0
1
0
1
.9
10
4
6
9
10
39
10.9
Committee
1
2
0
2
2
7
6.3
5
5
0
2
6
18
5.0
Director of
Community Services
N/A
N/A
12
N/A
N/A
12
10.9
N/A
N/A
10
N/A
N/A
10
2.8
Don't Know
0
1
1
1
2
5
4.5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
22
22
22
22
22
110
99.7
77
80
53
65
83
358
99^8


82
Three other campuses were planned, and in 1972 the funds
for construction of two of these were approved. The new facil
ities were scheduled for completion by fall, 1974. The con
struction funds for the other campus had not been approved
at the time of this study. These three campuses opened in
temporary facilities in the fall of 1972. They were still in
those temporary locations at the time of this study.
The enrollment figures for Eastern Community College
indicated a history of rapid growth and a projected contin
uation of quick enrollment increases. The total enrollment
for all five campuses in the fall of 1973 was 17,260 (head-
count) and 10,340 (FTE). Nearly sixteen thousand of those
students were enrolled at the two completed campuses. These
two campuses were expected to grow until 1978, then remain
relatively static in enrollment. By that year the other cam
puses were projected to be growing rapidly in their per
manent facilities. By 1980 the enrollment was projected to
be nearly 35,000 students. Approximately 20,000 were planned
for the two main campuses and 15,000 for the three newer
campuses.
Pattern of Governance
Eastern Community College was part of a state-wide system
of community colleges. The college operated on policies
established by the State Board of Community Colleges and with
the support and advice of a local community college board.
The college was financed primarily by state tax revenue. The


FIGURE 3
SIMPLIFIED TABLE OF ORGANIZATION FOR ACADEMIC AFFAIRS
AT EASTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE
oo


53
well-managed organization with people who enjoyed working at
the institution. Throughout the data gathering process, this
researcher noticed an attitude of openness and frankness
which made the collection of the data much easier. The self-
evaluative remarks made by college officials evidenced a
spirit of optimism and critical objectivity. In the follow
ing paragraphs the decision-making patterns that have been
identified at Southern are summarized. The first area of
summarization is the degree of congruence between stated
decision procedures and the perceived decision-makers.
Congruence between the stated and perceived pattern of
decision-making relative to curriculum and instruction is
said to exist when the following two criteria are met: (1)
50 -percent or more of the responses for the primary
decision-maker in the item must have been given to one role
incumbent or committee, and (2) the role incumbent or committee
receiving the majority of the responses must have been the
same one identified in the procedures manual as being the
primary decision-maker. Two of the curriculum items, numbers
three and five, satisfied the conditions of congruence. The
first three instruction items also met both conditions. One-
half of the total ten items, then were congruent; that is, the
perceived decision-maker was the same as that identified in
the procedures manual. The remainder of the items failed to
satisfy the conditions. In both curriculum item four and
instruction item five, one role incumbent received a majority
of the responses to the instrument, but these perceived


118
three sections: procedures for decision-making, primary deci
sion-makers, and participants in decision making. These
eight generalizations are supported by the data collected
and discussed in the previous chapters. They are drawn from
the three participating institutions and apply only to these
institutions. The implication paragraph, which follows each
generalization, is intended to help amplify and interpret
the generalization. The order in which the generalizations
are presented does not imply an order of priority.
Procedures for Decision-Making
1. Generalization: A curriculum and instruction committee
had been established at all three colleges, but it only played
a viable role in the decision-making process when the instruc
tional divisions, i.e., division chairmen, department chairmen,
and faculty members, were represented.
Implication: This generalization tends to support
the theorists of group decision-making who contend that com
mittees should have representatives from all groups which are
affected by the decisions being made. The main limiting
factor to more complete representation was the size of the
group. There was a fear at two of the institutions that the
Curriculum Committee might become too large to function properly.
2. Generalization: The formal organizational structure
for curriculum and instruction helped to determine the percep
tions of the role incumbents about who was responsible for
decision-making.


TABLE 4
RESPONDENTS PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR OWN INVOLVEMENT IN THE PROCESS
Role Incumbent
Make the
Decision
Recommend
Decision
Provide
Information
None
Curriculum Items

President
5
Dean of Academic
Affairs
2
3
Dean of Instruction
(2)
7
1
2
Department Chairman
(8)
4
21
20
4
Faculty (8)
5
23
13
Instruction Items
President
1
1
3
Dean of Academic
Affairs
1
4
Dean of Instruction
(2)
5
3
1
1
Department Chairman
(8)
25
11
7
Faculty (8)
19
14
10


18
3. School systems characterized more than others
by greater productivity of curricular plans,
also ranked higher in the extent to which their
teachers implemented these curricular plans in
the classroom. [Eye, 1966, pp. 201-206]
Fogarty and Gregg adapted the Decision Point Analysis
Instrument for use in their study designed to test the rela
tionship between personal characteristics of superintendents
and the centralization of decision-making [Fogarty and Gregg,
1066, p. 62]. In discussing the implications of this type of
research, Fogarty and Gregg made these observations:
Further research on the advisability of relying
on the perceptions of professional staff members re
garding the loci of decision-points in school sys
tems should be undertaken. It can be argued that
perceptions of the individuals inhabiting an insti
tution should be as accurate and as free of bias
as any other method of obtaining information con
cerning the way the institution operates. This
argument can be tested empirically to determine if
the perceptual approach yields results comparable
to those obtained, for example, by means of direct
observation by personnel from outside the institu
tion. [Fogarty and Gregg, 1966, p. 70]
More recently, John McCluskey used a modified Decision
Point Analysis Instrument to determine the locus of deci
sion-making for student personnel services in selected multi
campus community colleges [McCluskey, 1972]. Although the
format was very similar to the original, McCluskey changed
the task areas and the decision items to accomplish his re
search objective. In addition to the instrument McCluskey
used a structured interview guide as a data gathering tool.
In his section on recommendations to related studies, McCluskey
indicated that studies were needed in other areas of multi
campus decision-making in order to get a better perspective


69
instructional methodology was a faculty decision. Thirty-
six percent felt that the department chairman was the key
role incumbent in the making of that decision. Item two, the
decision to introduce new instructional technology, also
showed the department chairmen and the faculty as being the
perceived decision-makers. The department chairmen received
41 percent of the responses while the faculty had 32 percent.
The decision to evaluate the instruction in a course,
item three, had its responses evenly spread over five role
incumbents. The largest number of responses (six) was
given to the President, but the Dean of Instruction had five,
the Director of Curriculum Review and Evaluation had four,
and the two chairmen positions had three each. Item four
also showed very little uniformity of perception. The Dean
of Instruction received 36 percent of the responses, the faculty
27 percent, and the department chairmen 18 percent.
In contrast to items three and four, item five, the
decision to adopt a textbook, had more uniformity of response.
The department chairman was perceived as the primary decision
maker by 64 percent of the respondents. Faculty was seen as
being primary by 23 percent of the respondents. The 64 per
cent figure for the department chairman was the highest found
for all of the items at Western Community College.
When the instruction responses were pooled, the decen
tralized pattern became evident. The department chairman
received 34.5 percent of all responses, and the faculty re
ceived 25.4 percent. These were easily the two highest rates


119
Implication: The role incumbents in certain positions
had a substantial impact on their role in the decision-making
process, but the functions and duties prescribed to that
position by virtue of the organizational structure also affec
ted their role in the process. For example, where the Dean
of Instruction for a campus also had responsibility for
general administration of the campus, his perceived role as
a leader in curriculum and instruction was less than where he
had no general administration duties.
3. Generalization: Curriculum decisions were perceived
to be more centrally determined than were instructional deci
sions .
Implication: The procedures for curriculum proposals
were more elaborate and involved more people than did the
instruction decisions. The need for more coordination in the
curriculum was evident. The instructional divisions were
delegated the responsibility for formulating the instructional
decisions. They did so without coordinating their activi
ties as much with other echelons of the organization.
Role Incumbents as Decision-Makers
1. Generalization: Division and department chairmen were
perceived as strong primary decision-makers.
Implication: This generalization was especially true
in the instruction items. Multi-campus institutions should
attempt to assign strong educational leaders to these positions.
2. Generalization: Academic administrators from the


2
schools. The establishment of a central administration, struc
turally separate from the individual campuses, posed problems
that have never been encountered before by either the admin
istration or the faculty. These pioneer institutions were
obliged then to resolve their problems with little or no em
pirically gained evidence from other community colleges.
Studies need to be done to extract from these colleges
empirical data which may be useful to others. McCluskey,
in his doctoral dissertation, undertook a study of the formal
decision-making for student personnel services in the multi
campus community college [McCluskey, 1972]. In his study,
McCluskey explored the procedure for and the levels of deci
sion-making in student personnel services for selected com
munity colleges.
The study presented here was methodologically similar
to McCluskey's investigation. Although the target of this
study was decision-making in curriculum and instruction, not
student personnel services, the design was much the same.
The present researcher drew heavily on McCluskey's work in
the formulation of the plan for this research. Thus the com
monalities were by intent, rather than coincidence.
The Problem
Statement of the Problem
The problem was to determine the locus of formal decision
making with regard to specified tasks in curriculum and


REFERENCES
American Association of Community Junior Colleges. Directory
Washington, D.C.: The Association, 1973.
Block, Murray H. "MUDAn Increasing Dilemma for Community
Junior Colleges." Junior College Journal, 40 (March,
1970), 23-25.
Blow, William O'Neil. Faculty Participation in Decision-
Making in Public Junior Colleges of Alabama. (Ed.D.
Dissertation, University of Alabama), Tuscaloosa: 1961.
Bogart, Quentin, J. A Multi-Campus Junior College Case
Study: A Search for Guidelines. (Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of Texas), Austin: 1968.
Coultas, Walter T. "Problems of the Urban Junior College."
Junior College Journal, 35(October, 1964), 13-16.
Dale, Ernest, Planning and Developing the Company Organiza
tion Structure. New York: American Management Associa
tion, 1952.
Doll, Ronald C. Curriculum Improvement: Decision Making and
Process. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1970.
Erickson, Clifford G. "Multi-Campus Operation in the Big
City." Junior College Journal, 35 (October, 1964), 17-21
Eye, Glen G., Russell T. Gregg, Donald C. Francke, James M.
Lipham and Lanore A. Netzer. "Relationship Between
Instructional Change and the Extent to Which School
Administrators and Teachers Agree on the Location of
Responsibilities for Administrative Decisions." Coopera
tive Research Project No. 5-0443 USOE, 1966.
Fogarty, Bruce M. and Russell T. Gregg. "Centralization of
Decision-Making and Selected Characteristics of Super
intendents of Schools." Educational Administration
Quarterly, 2 (Winter, 1966), 62-72.
Griffiths, Daniel E. "Administrative Theory" in Encyclopedia
of Educational Research, ed. by Robert L. Ebil, IV
(1969), 19-24.
135


56
the population by 1980 was expected to be over 900,000. The
population of the main city of the county was 393,000 in
1970, roughly 55 percent of the total population of the county.
The population figure for the city was somewhat misleading,
however, because it did not take into account the numerous
municipalities that surrounded the main urban center. These
communities, despite their governmental independence from
the city, economically were integral parts of the metropoli
tan area.
The college consisted of two campuses and a central
administration facility. The district administrative offices
were located in the heart of the downtown area of the main
city. They occupied a whole floor of one of the office
buildings. No instructional activities took place on this
site. The campuses were located to the south and to the
northeast. Both of the campuses were accessible by and lo
cated near the beltway that surrounded the city. It took
approximately one half hour to go from one facility to either
of the other two in normal traffic. A third campus was planned
for the northwest area of the county, but it was not in
operation at the time of this study.
History and Development
Western Community College District was formed July 31,
1965, when voters approved the sale of bonds for construction.
A seven-member Board of Trustees was elected, and they began
work to implement plans for the college, which was to open


TABLE 3
RESPONSES TO ALL ITEMS, RANK ORDER DISTRIBUTION BY FREQUENCY
Make the
Decision
Participate
N =
200
N = 363
Frequency
%
Frequency
%
Department Chairman
73
36.5
Faculty
102
28.1
Faculty
52
26
Department Chairman
100
27.5
Committee
37
18.5
Dean of Instruction
73
20.1
Dean of Academics
20
10
Dean of Academics
47
12.9
Continued Education
Committee
27
7.4
Coordinator
11
5.5
President
9
2.5
President
4
2.0
Continuing Education
Dean of Instruction
3
1.5
Coordinator
3
.8


48
administrative positions, responded that they played a minor
role in these items. The faculty, however, indicated a
great deal of involvement on their part. This trend would
support the earlier stated generalization that curriculum
matters required more district-wide coordination than did
the instructional decisions. Instructional items were per
ceived to be campus decisions and in many cases departmental
prerogatives.
Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by Structured Interviews
The structured interview guide was used as a means to
collect data thatwere more easily gathered in an interview.
The incumbents interviewed also completed the Decision Point
Analysis Instrument. As the interviews progressed it became
evident that not all of those questioned were as knowledgeable
about some of the questions as they were about others. During
the interview, if the role incumbent did not wish to express
an opinion or had no opinion of a particular item, the re
searcher did not press for an answer. Thus, although ten
interviews were conducted, there were not ten responses for
each item. In reporting the data below the emphasis is then
on the substantive responses that were received and not on
frequencies and distribution of all the responses. None of
the respondents was perceived to be reluctant to express
opinions on the items. In most cases it was more difficult
to get the respondent to stop talking on a certain topic and


115
college concept. These commonalities were necessary so that
the institutions could be compared and analyzed. The analysis,
by design, stressed their postures regarding the decision
making for curriculum and instruction. Chapter V has focused
on the decision-making patterns found at these three community
colleges. This information was used to formulate generali
zations about decision-making in these multi-campus community
colleges. These generalizations are presented in the next
chapter.


LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
1 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO CURRICULUM ITEMS
FOR SOUTHERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE 39
2 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO INSTRUCTION ITEMS
FOR SOUTHERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE 41
3 RESPONSES TO ALL ITEMS, RANK ORDER DISTRIBUTION
BY FREQUENCY 44
4 RESPONDENTS PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR OWN INVOLVE
MENT IN THE PROCESS 47
5 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO CURRICULUM ITEMS
FOR WESTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE 66
6 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO INSTRUCTION ITEMS
FOR WESTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE 63
7 RESPONSES TO ALL ITEMS RANK ORDER DISTRIBUTION
BY FREQUENCY 71
8 RESPONDENTS PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR OWN INVOLVE
MENT IN THE PROCESS 73
9 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO CURRICULUM ITEMS
FOR EASTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE 89
10 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO INSTRUCTION ITEMS
FOR EASTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE 92
11 RESPONSES TO ALL ITEMS RANK ORDER DISTRIBUTION
BY FREQUENCY 94
12 RESPONDENTS PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR OWN INVOLVE
MENT IN THE PROCESS 97
V


74
to the curriculum decisions. First, the Chancellor and the
Dean of Curriculum Review and Evaluation did not feel that
they played a large role in the decision-making process.
They marked that their input was either that of providing
information or none at all. Most of the faculty also per
ceived their involvement in the making of curriculum decisions
to be slight. Thirty-three of the forty-one responses were
for either no involvement or providing information. This
tended to leave the bulk of the decision-making to the campus
level administrators.
The pattern changed somewhat for the instruction items.
The central administrative positions again did not perceive
themselves as an integral part of the decision-making process.
Eight of the ten responses indicated no participation. How
ever, the faculty saw themselves as having a much greater
degree of participation in the making of instruction deci
sions than they did in curriculum decisions. Thirty of the
forty responses were either in the "make the decision" or
"recommend the decision" boxes. This indicated a greater
degree of decentralization within the campus organizational
structure than found in the area of curriculum. The trend
of not selecting one's self as the decision-maker, identified
in the second chapter, continued at Western Community College
in the curriculum area, but not in the instructional items.
This added credence to the opinions expressed by some of
those interviewed. They stated that the process of decision
making in curriculum involved many people, and that the


51
being especially well represented. One respondent, however,
indicated that the committee was verging on being too large.
At the time of the study there were fifteen members on the
committee. The only negative comment on the committee's
viability came from a department chairman who said that the
committee was functional except when the central administra
tion wanted something done. Then the committee did not have
much to do in the making of the decision. The other prevalent
opinion was that the Council of Academic Deans and the Course
Study Committee were not considered an integral part of the
decision-making process. The Council of Academic Deans was
characterized as a "rubber stamp" committee with regard to
curriculum and instruction.
The advantages offered by the multi-campus organization
were thought to revolve around two factors, increased service
to the whole district and better economy in providing that
service. Several people indicated that by having the north
campus the college was providing the needed educational oppor
tunity to the north county area since the south campus was
outside of commuting distance for the north county residents.
Although there were no hard data to support the contention
that the multi-campus operation was cheaper than two separate
colleges supplying the same service, some respondents to this
item believed it was true. Two of the people who stated this
opinion did not know if this was true from experience, but
they had been told by others that it was.
The perceived disadvantages of the multi-campus system


40
items in Table 1, it can be seen that curriculum matters as
a whole required district-wide coordination. The Curriculum
and Instruction Committee, Continuing Education Coordinator,
and Dean of Academic Affairs were district functions and
accounted for 65 percent of the responses. On the individual
campuses, however, the key decision-maker was perceived to
be the department chairman. That position received 28 percent
of the responses. The Dean of Instruction position received
no responses as being the primary decision-maker in the cur
riculum items. The President and the faculty did not receive
a significant number of responses for being primary in the
formulation of curriculum decisions.
The instruction items revealed a more decentralized
decision-making pattern (Table 2). The responses to the
decision to change the instructional mode in a course indi
cated that the decision was made within the department.
Sixty-five percent felt that the faculty member was the key
decision-maker and 35 percent marked the department chairman
as being key. No other role incumbents were marked. Item
two, the decision to introduce new instructional technology,
also fell within the department. The faculty received 60
percent of the responses and the department chairman 30 percent.
It was interesting that the only responders who marked the
department chairman as primary were department chairmen.
The decision to evaluate the instruction in a course or
program was perceived to be the department chairman's function
by fifteen out of the twenty respondents. Four selected


126
DECISION POINT INSTRUMENT
In filling out this form, you are urged to answer each
question as it relates to your present position. The same
three questions are asked in each decision item. Below are
explanations of the questions.
A. Who makes this decision? Choose the people in your
college who are primarily responsible for making
this decision. Place an X in the appropriate box.
B. What other persons participate in making this
decision? Select the people who participate in the
making of the decision other than the ones already
indicated. Place an 0 in the appropriate boxes.
C. What is the nature of your participation in making
this decision? Select from among the four choices
which best describes your participation in making
this decision. Mark the appropriate box.
Curriculum Decisions
1. The decision to create a new credit course
A. Who makes the decision? Mark with an X.
B. Who else participates in making this decision?
Mark with an 0.
President
College
Dean of
Academics
Chief
Campus
Administrator
Campus
Director of
Academics
Depart
ment
Chairman
Faculty
Com
mittee
Don' t
Know


22
The total list of possible decision items was separated
into two categories, curriculum and instruction. After the
inappropriate items were eliminated, five items remained in
each category.
Curriculum items:
1.
the
decision
to
create
a new credit course
2.
the
decision
to
create
a new program
3.
the
decision
to
create
a new non-credit course
4.
the
decision
to
change
a course description
5.
the decision
requirements
to
change
the general education
Instruction
items:
1.
the
for
decision
a course
to
change
the instruction mode
2.
the
decision
to
introduce new instructional
technology
3. the decision to evaluate the instruction in
a course or program
4. the decision to begin an instructional in
novation or experiment in a course or program
5. the decision concerning the adoption or
change of a textbook
The ten decision items were assembled, and an introduc
tory page and a background data page were added to complete
the instrument. When complete this instrument differed from
the original in several ways.
1. There were ten items instead of the twenty-five
in the original.
2. The items were limited to curriculum and instruction.
3. Fewer items of background data were solicited.


46
Respondents' Perception of Their Roles in Decision-Making
Each respondent was asked to characterize his involvement
in the decision process by responding to the following four
options: (1) I make the decision, (2) I recommend the deci
sion, (3) I provide information, and (4) none. Initially it
was intended that each respondent would mark only one of
the options, but as the study progressed, some respondents
prefered to make more than one to best describe their role
in the process. Table 4 depicts in detail the perceptions
of the respondents.
The responses to the curriculum items in terms of role
perceptions showed an interesting trend. Although everyone
agreed that the decision was made, role incumbents tended not
to select themselves as the decision-maker. More typically
they felt that their role was to provide either information
or to recommend the decision. These data confirmed comments
made by many of the respondents during the survey. Their com
ments indicated that the curriculum proposals went through a
series of reviews by role incumbents and committees, all of
whom could only recommend or provide information. Indivi
duals in the process chain were generally unwilling to recog
nize themselves as having primary responsibility for the deci
sion. It is also interesting to note that the instructional
faculty tended toward less involvement in the decision-making
for curriculum items.
Instruction decisions again showed a different pattern.
The higher organizational positions, for example district


16
precisely, it implies the delegation of responsi
bility and authority from higher management to
subordinates down the line. We may say that the
degree of managerial decentralization in a company
is the greater:
1. the greater the number of decisions made
lower down the management hierarchy,
2. the more important the decisions made lower
down the management hierarchy,
3. the more functions affected by decisions
made at lower levels,
4. the less checking required on the decision.
Decentralization is greatest when no check at all
must be made; less when superiors have to be in
formed of the decision after it has been made; still
less if superiors have to be consulted before the
decision is made. [Dale, 1952, pp. 106-107]
Kimbrough has explored the influence of the informal power
structure on decision-making at nearly all levels of educa
tional organizations [Kimbrough, 1964]. Investigations such
as this exposed the complex matrix that can be underneath a
seemingly routine bit of organizational behavior. The Getzels-
Guba model for social systems interaction has provided a con
venient theoretical base for studies that are concerned with
the organizational (normative dimension)characteristics of
observable decision-making behavior [Fogarty and Gregg, 1966,
pp. 62-63].
Glen Eye and his associates developed the Decision Point
Analysis Instrument as a means to translate the theoretical
concern into applied research. The following statement by
Eye provided the link necessary for the development of the
technique.
According to this theory, administration may be
examined from three stances. Structurally, admini
stration may be considered as a hierarchy of super
ordinate-subordinate relationships within this
social system. Functionally, within this hierarchy
of relationships is the locus for allocating and


91
Item one of the instruction items was perceived to be a
faculty decision by 73 percent of the respondents. The only
other position receiving any responses was the division chair
man, who received the remaining 27 percent of the responses.
Item two, the introduction of new instructional technology,
was seen as a faculty perrogative by 50 percent of those
surveyed. Thirty-two percent thought the division chairman
was key in the making of this decision.
The decision to evaluate instruction, item three, was
perceived to be a decision made at the division level. The
division chairman received 59 percent of the responses with
the faculty getting 32 percent. Although the division chair
man did not receive a clear majority of the responses in
item four, that position again received the greatest number
with 45 percent of the responses while 41 percent thought
that faculty were primary in the making of that decision. The
last item, the selection of textbooks, was perceived to be a
faculty responsibility. Seventy-seven percent selected the
faculty as the key decision-maker for this item.
Table 10 contains the summary response data for the
instruction items. The faculty received 54.5 percent of the
responses as being the key decision-makers in the area of
instruction. The division chairman was the only other role
incumbent to receive a significant share of the responses
for the instruction items. That position received 36.4 per
cent of the responses. From those two figures, the division
emerged as a powerful decision-making unit for instructional


TABLE 11
RESPONSES TO ALL ITEMS, RANK ORDER DISTRIBUTION BY FREQUENCY
Name the
Decision
Participate
N =
220
N
= 472
Frequency
%
Frequency
%
Division Chairman
68
30.9
Division Chairman
129
27.3
Faculty
66
30.0
Faculty
124
26.3
Curriculum Com-
Provost
94
19.9
mittee
43
19.5
Dean for Instruc-
Director of Con-
tional Services
65
13.8
tinued Education
18
8.2
Curriculum Com-
Provost
11
5.0
mittee
43
9.1
Present
9
4.1
President
15
3.2
Dean for Instruc-
Director of Con-
tional Services
3
1.4
tinued Education
1
.2
Don't Know
2
0.9
Don't Know
1
.2


129
Instruction Decisions
1. The decision to change the instruction mode for a course.
A. Who makes the decision? Mark with an X.
B. Who else participates in making this decision.
Mark with an 0.
President
College
Dean of
Academics
Chief
Campus
Administrator
Campus
Director of
Academics
Depart
ment
Chairman
Faculty
Com
mittee
Don't
Know
C.What is the nature of your participation in the making
of this decision? Mark the appropriate box.
] I make the decision. I 1 I provide information.
] I recommend the decision.
J None.
2. The decision to introduce new instructional technology.
A. Who makes the decision? Mark with an X.
B. Who else participates in making this decision?
Mark with an 0.
President
College
Dean of
Academics
Chief
Campus
Administrator
Campus
Director of
Academics
Depart
ment
Chairman
Faculty
Com
mittee
Don11
Know
C.What is the nature of your participation in the making
of this decision? Mark the appropriate box.
] I make the decision. | [ I provide information.
] I recommend the decision.
] None.


65
positions were asked to respond. As at the other colleges
participating, the respondents were cooperative and open
during the interview sessions. The discussion of the data
is presented in the sequence used in Chapter II. Tables 5-8
are summaries of the response data.
Primary Decision-Makers
Item one, the creation of a new course, showed that the
Deans of Instruction and the Presidents were perceived as
the primary decision-makers. The Dean of Instruction posi
tion received 50 percent of the responses, and the President
received 32 percent. No other position received more than one
response to the item. The creation of a new program, item
2, did not bring a consensus of responses. Seven different
role incumbents received responses as being primary with none
of them having more than 27 percent of the total. The deci
sion appeared to be one that required cross-campus approval,
however, because nearly 50 percent of the responses were in
the district administrative positions or the Curriculum and
Instruction Committee. One faculty respondent marked that
he did not know where this decision would be made.
The Director of Community Services was seen as the pri
mary decision-maker in the creation of a new non-credit course
by 54 percent of the respondents. The Dean of Instruction
and the department chairmen were seen by some as being key,
as they received 18 percent and 14 percent, respectively.
Items four and five showed little convergence on a key


114
recount from memory. Unfortunately the researcher got the
distinct impression that he was hearing recitations from
memory. The intent of the question was to find out if the
respondents perceived any advantages or disadvantages that
had not been previously identified. Also the researcher hoped
to find evidence that could substantiate or refute some of
the claimed advantages or disadvantages. Such evidence was
not found, and the colleges surveyed showed no signs of de
veloping this information.
The question, in essence, provided the researcher with
an approximate idea of who in the institution had read any
of the standard references on multi-campi s organization.
Many of the respondents to these questions had an acquaint
ance with the advantages and disadvantages of multi-campus
community colleges and could mention several.
Summation
The three community college districts studied had several
similar traits. They were all located in fast-growing areas
with more than half a million people in their service dis
tricts. They all had enrollments of more than nine thousand
students at the time of the study. They existed in state
systems of higher education which provided them with a certain
amount of guidance, but enough autonomy to operate somewhat
independently. Their organizational charts were similar,
and they all were committed to the comprehensive community


27
Data Treatment
Examination of college documents and records, structured
interviews with role incumbents, and general observations
provided the information for determining the established pro
cedures and policies for decision-making in each of the dis
tricts. This information is presented first in the chapter
on each college. Next the data collected from the responses
to the Decision Point Analysis Instrument are interpreted.
This is accomplished through a series of frequency distribu
tion tables which pool the perceptions of the respondents as
to decision-making structure. These distributions reflect the
number of times a particular role incumbent was selected as
either primarily responsible for making the decision or as
having participated in making the decision. Also data as to
the respondent's perception of his own involvement in the
making of decisions are presented.
The decision items are discussed individually as well
as being grouped. The curriculum items and the instruction
items are analyzed as groups and then are pooled into a fre
quency table for all of the items. The final analysis done
on the data is a determination of the degree of congruence
existent between the stated procedures for decision-making
and the perceived patterns identified during the study.
Organization of the Remainder of the Research Report
The three community college districts studied are presented


81
district population was expected to reach 1,138,000 by 1976.
Many of the residents, especially in the northern part of
the district, commuted to the center of the metropolitan
area for their employment.
The counties and cities that were located in the northern
part of the district had the greatest concentration of people.
The two counties and one city that comprised that suburban
area accounted for 740,243 people, 80 percent of the total
population of the district. The other areas of the district
did not have large populations at the time of the study, but
projections for the next ten years indicated that as the
metropolitan area grew, these would become prime residential
communities.
History and Development
Eastern Community College was established as a result
of legislation in 1964. In early 1965 the college was approved
by the State Board for Technical Education, the present College
Board was formally established, and the President of the
college was appointed. Less than four months later the col
lege opened with an initial enrollment of 761 students and a
staff of 46. The first permanent building was opened in 1967.
Sites for three other campuses were purchased also that year.
The enrollment was 5271 in 1968. In 1969 the site for
another campus was purchased. As the original campus con
tinued to expand, the second full campus, located in the den
sely populated north district area, began full operation in 1971.


100
of costly program duplication were mentioned as advantages.
It was also mentioned that the multi-campus institution can
afford more costly programs than a smaller institution by ef
fecting some economies of scale.
The discussions of the disadvantages offered by the
multi-campus concept brought about some animated comments.
Several of the interviewees were very concerned about some
of the disadvantages, especially as they might affect Eastern
Community College. The problem of geographical dislocation
was seen as a major hindrance to coordination among the
campuses. It was thought that this problem would become
more acute as the emerging campuses became larger. Inter
viewees speculated also that the college might become too slow
to respond and change as it grew. One respondent stated that
the biggest shortcoming of the multi-campus operation was
that it promoted uniformity rather than originality. This
lack of originality, it was stated, would hamper the creative
development of the institution and might lead to a stagnation
and loss of its viability in the community.
Two suggestions for change were voiced during the inter
views. The first was a call for a redefining of the roles
of the various agencies in the institution. The concern here
was that some of the decision-making processes used at the
time of the study were antiquated. The implications of the
emergence of the college from a two-campus institution to a
five-campus institution had not been fully explored. At least
one respondent felt that the reexamination should be done.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS - ii
LIST OF TABLES V
LIST OF FIGURES vi
ABSTRACT vii
Chapter
IINTRODUCTION 1
The Problem 2
Definition of Terms 7
Review of Related Literature 8
Procedures 23
Organization of the Remainder of
the Research Report. 27
IITHE DECISION-MAKING PATTERN OF SOUTHERN
COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT 29
Environment. 2 9
Procedures for Decision-Making in
Curriculum and Instruction 34
Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by the Decision Point Analysis
Instrument 37
Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by Structured Interviews 48
General Observations and Summation 52
IIITHE DECISION-MAKING PATTERN OF WESTERN
COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT 55
Environment 55
Procedures for Decision-Making in
Curriculum and Instruction 59
Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by the Decision Point Analysis
Instrument 64
Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by Structured Interviews 75
in


11
seventeen states and a wide diversity of demographic charac
teristics. Two items of that study are pertinent to this
review. Kintzer and associates concluded that there was
no best pattern of organization extant, but that some general
guidelines could be stated. Some of these are:
1. that a chancellor represent the board of trus
tees and be responsible for general administra
tion of the entire district,
2. that someone at the central office be responsible
for:
a. business affairs
b. instructional programs
c. business, technical, and vocational education,
3. that the central office be located completely
away from all campuses and, if possible, cen
trally within the district,
4. that each campus have as much autonomy as possible,
5. that experimentation on the campus level be en
couraged and supported,
6. that each campus be allowed to hire its own per
sonnel. [Kintzer, 1969, pp. 51-54]
In addition to the positive aspects of the multi-unit or
ganizational structures, the Kintzer study group chronicled
what they found to be disadvantages of these structures.
Some of these are:
1. may not be sufficiently sensitive to the various
service areas within the district,
2. not as well suited to innovative change as is the
simpler one-unit college district,
3. may find it more difficult for the community to
identify with the institution,
4. will find that central office personnel tend to be
too directive,
5. will find that both building costs and, at least
initially, operating costs are greater,


TABLE 6
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO INSTRUCTION ITEMS
FOR WESTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Role
Make
the Decision
Participation
Incumbents
Items
Items
1
2
3
4
5
Tot
%
1
2
3
4
5
Tot
%
Chancellor
0
0
1
0
0
1
.9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Director of Curri
culum & Instruc
tional Review
0
0
4
0
0
4
3.6
0
0
4
0
0
4
1.5
President
0
1
6
1
0
8
7.3
0
3
4
4
0
11
4.0
Dean of Instruction
2
2
5
8
3
20
18.2
7
8
15
7
5
42
15.4
Division Chairman
2
2
3
3
0
10
9.1
13
15
15
16
12
71
26.1
Department Chairman
8
9
3
4
14
38
34.5
13
12
12
18
8
63
23.2
Faculty
10
7
0
6
5
28
25.4
12
14
12
16
17
71
26.1
Committee
0
1
0
0
0
1
.9
1
1
5
1
2
10
3.7
Don't Know
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
22
22
22
22
22
110
99.9
46
53
67
62
44
272
100


45
items, an average of 43.5 responses per item. The partici
pation was spread fairly evenly over a number of positions.
The highest participation rank for the curriculum items was
at the faculty level. They were perceived as having taken
part in the making of the curriculum decisions more than the
other role incumbents, 24.3 percent. However, two other posi
tions, the Dean of Instruction (22.5 percent) and the Depart
ment Chairmen (21.5 percent) ranked nearly as high. Table
1 displays the complete data in more detail.
Table 2 shows the degree of participation that the
respondents thought was typical of the instruction decisions.
The number of responses recorded (145) indicated that parti
cipation was not as great in these decisions as in the curric
ulum items. Department chairmen were thought to have the
greatest degree of participation (36.6 percent of the responses)
with faculty having 33.8 percent. The Dean of Instruction,
who was ranked next by frequency of response, had only 16.6
percent of the responses. Thus the distribution of partici
pation was not as even as was found in the curriculum items.
The pooled responses of both the curriculum items and the
instruction items indicated that the faculty and the depart
ment chairman role incumbents had nearly equal participation
percentages, 28.1 and 27.5, respectively, with the Dean of
Instruction getting 20.1 percent of the responses. Table 3
details the remainder of the responses by rank order. It is
interesting to note that the Dean of Instruction, who was not
perceived as a primary decision-maker, was perceived as one of
the leading participants in the formulation of decisions.


122
exist in those areas. The role of the chief college adminis
trator in the function of the district could be explored.
Perhaps the most useful study that could be undertaken
in this area would be a study that would result in guidelines
or a model for the organization of curriculum and instruction
in multi-campus community colleges. Such a study would
require a standard of measure by which various patterns could
be compared for effectiveness. The question of effectiveness
eventually must be met if education is to progress rather
than just change.


8
Primary Decision-MakerThe role incumbent who was mainly
responsible for the making of a particular decision. Opera
tionally the primary decision-maker was identified by responses
to part "A" of each decision item in the Decision Point Anal
ysis instrument.
Role IncumbentThe individual that occupies one of the
official college positions identified in this study.
Multi-UnitA general term describing a district operating
two or more community college sites under one governing board.
It is a more inclusive term than multi-campus in that it en
compasses both multi-college and multi-campus districts.
Review of Related Literature
The review of related literature for this study is pre
sented in three separate sections. The first section is a
review of research and literature on multi-unit community col
lege districts. The second section consists of literature
pertaining to decision-making theory and practice. Curriculum
and instruction literature pertinent to this study is pre
sented in the third section.
Review of Research and Literature on Multi-Unit Districts
This section is divided into two parts: the research
studies and the other literature pertinent to multi-unit junior
colleges. The research information is presented first and
is arranged in chronological order.
The first study noted herein was a survey of ten urban


117
to gather information pertaining to stated policies of
decision-making for curriculum and instruction.
The on-site visits to the institutions included a survey
of all pertinent college information, interviews with role
incumbents, and the completion of the Decision Point Analysis
Instrument by all participants. There were twenty partici
pants at Southern Community College and twenty-two at both
Western and Eastern Community Colleges. The responses to
the instrument were analyzed in terms of frequency of response
to the various decision items. The results of the investi
gation at each college were reported in separate chapters
devoted to the decision-making patterns of that institution.
Each district was described relative to established procedures
that existed for decision-making, primary decision-makers,
and participants in decision-making.
Structured interviews were conducted with as many of
the participating role incumbents as was possible. Ten
interviews were conducted at Southern Community College, nine
at Eastern Community College and twelve at Western Community
College. The information gathered from these interviews
was used to describe more fully the decision-making patterns
identified. General observations for each district were also
presented.
Generalizations and Implications
The generalizations drawn from the data are reported in


30
Two of the incorporated areas contained 64 percent of the
incorporated population. The larger of these was a sizable
urban area with a population of 241,420. This city was the
foca], point of the county in nearly all facets of government,
economy, and activity. The growth rate of this urban area
from 1970 to 1973 was 11.6 percent. The other large incor
porated area grew more rapidly during the same period, 28.4
percent, but still had a population of only 66,855. This
municipality did not have the urban characteristics of the
main city in the south end of the county. Rather it was the
largest of a group of fast-growing municipalities in the
north-central part of the county. Collectively these incor
porated areas had a growth rate of slightly over 38 percent for
the period 1970-73. The projections carried out by the
county planning board indicated that the county could expect
to grow more, especially in the smaller incorporated areas
and in the unincorporated areas. At the time of the study,
Southern Community College had its two campuses located in
the two large population centers. The central administrative
facility was located between the two campuses on a main
thoroughfare. Under normal traffic conditions it took ap
proximately twenty minutes to travel from the central admin
istration site to either of the campuses.
History and Development
Southern Community College was founded in 1927 as a
private, non-profit corporation. During the first year there


63
of the instructional program. He also directed curriculum
development and revision for the campus. He planned for a
faculty development program which had instructional improve
ment as its goal.
The Director of Community Services was responsible for
the development and implementation of off-campus credit
courses and for all non-credit courses. In cooperation with
the Dean of Instruction, division chairmen, and department
chairmen, he extended the college services beyond the con
fines of the campus. He reported directly to the President
of the campus. The Chancellor of the district indicated
that the community services function was to be reorganized
at the district level for the 1974-75 academic year. A re
organization of this nature would change significantly the
roles and duties of the campus community services personnel.
The division chairmen on each campus of the college com
prised an advisory committee to the Dean of Instruction for
all matters relating to curriculum and instruction. In
cluded among their responsibilities was the coordination
and supervision of the instructional program in the division
They recommended course offerings and teaching assignments
in their divisions and coordinated the program of evaluation
of instructional effectiveness and student progress. They
also assisted in preparation and periodic revision of course
syllabi in their divisions.
The department chairmen were the instructional leaders
of their departments and administrative assistants to the


134
advantages relative to decision-making in curriculum and
instruction? If so, what are some of the advantages?
7. Do you feel the multi-campus organizational pattern offers
disadvantages relative to decision-making in curriculum
and instruction? If so, what are some of the problems?
8. What changes would you recommend relative to decision
making in curriculum and instruction on your campus and
for the entire college?


101
The other recommendation called for the elimination of most
of the committees of the college. The contention was that
the committees were slowing down the decision-making process
too much. The respondent who made this recommendation also
stated that the reason most of the committees were in exis
tence was to lessen faculty desire to unionize. The committees
were not considered to be vital to the college's functioning
by that respondent.
General Observations and Summation
Eastern Community College was a fast-growing institution.
At the time of this study, it was in a boom period, which
probably will never be encountered again. Yet, amidst all
of this change, the institution and its personnel did a tre
mendous job of creating an atmosphere of well-planned growth.
The institution was advancing in quality of service provided
as well as growing in the number of people served.
Congruence between the stated decision-making procedures
and the percei/ed decision-makers was determined for the ten
decision items of the Decision Point Analysis Instrument.
Five of the ten decision itemscurriculum items one and
three and instruction items one, two and threewere found
to be congruent. Instruction item five had more than 50 per
cent of the responses given to one role incumbent, but the
role incumbent was not the one mentioned in the Faculty Handbook
as being responsible for the decision. The other items


21
community colleges to help build a list of potential items.
The documents from Miami-Dade Junior College and Macomb County
Community College mentioned above were typical of the kind
reviewed. In addition, some previous research projects helped
provide information relating to the decision items. Willis
LaVire's doctoral dissertation listed critical tasks that
should be performed in instruction and curriculum development
[LaVire, 1961, p. 9], A.M. Jensen's study of the adminis
tration of multi-campus junior colleges provided not only
decision items, but some data on how role incumbents responded
to the items during his study. For example, Jensen reported
the following responses to the task of textbook selection:
In two multibranch districts this was a central
office decision. Only five of the districts, multi
branch and multiprogram, made it necessary to send
the choices of textbooks on to the central office
for approval.
In all ten districts, administrators at the cen
tral office and at individual campuses stated that
the faculty should play the key role in choosing
textbooks. However, the majority of them believed
that all teachers on one campus should use the
same textbook for a single course. [Jensen, 1965,
pp. 11-12]
More recently Raymond Yell conducted a study of decision
making in Texas' community colleges. He formulated a ques
tionnaire asking for perceptions as to who made the decisions
in the institutions. He then compared the perceptions of ad
ministrators, faculty members, and student leaders. One of
his findings was a significant difference in the perceptions
of the administrators and faculty regarding the decision to
change instructional methods and materials [Yell, 1973].


130
3. The decision to evaluate the instruction in a course or
program.
A. Who makes the decision? Mark with an X.
B. Who else participates in making this decision?
Mark with an 0.
President
College
Dean of
Academics
Chief
Campus
Administrator
Campus
Director of
Academics
Depart
ment
Chairman
Faculty
Com
mittee
Don' t
Know
C.What is the nature of your participation in the making
of this decision? Mark the appropriate box.
] I make the decision. | | I provide information.
] I recommend the decision. | 1 None.
4. The decision to begin an instructional innovation or ex
periment in a course or program.
A. Who makes the decision? Mark with an X.
B. Who else participates in making this decision?
Mark with an 0.
President
College
Dean of
Academics
Chief
Campus
Administrator
Campus
Director of
Academics
Depart
ment
Chairman
Faculty
Com
mittee
Don' t
Know
C.What is the nature of your participation in the making
of this decision? Mark the appropriate box.
]l make the decision. 1 1 I provide information.
]l recommend the decision. f" 1 None.


34
structures of the other major divisions were not shown in
detail so that the academic positions could be better high
lighted.
Procedures for Decision-Making in
Curriculum and Instruction
The college procedures manual described three committees
which could be instrumental in the decision-making process
for curriculum and instruction. The committees were formed
to provide wider participation in the decision-making process.
These committees were the Council of Academic Deans, the Cur
riculum and Instruction Committee, and the Course Study Com
mittee .
The Council of Academic Deans was composed of the Deans
of Instruction on each campus and the Assistant Deans of
Academic Affairs. All decisions which were purely academic
and did not affect policy and/or operational procedures of
other areas of the college could be finalized within this com
mittee. This body received the recommendations of the Cur
riculum and Instruction Committee.
The Curriculum and Instruction Committee studied all
proposals presented to it by the Dean of Academic Affairs.
The committee basically had three courses of action; it could
recommend approval, recommend disapproval, or request addi
tional information of the initiators or other pertinent people.
The normal channel for proposals was from the initiator, to
the department chairman, to the Dean of Instruction, to the


83
system had a state Chancellor who served as the secretary of
the State Board for Community Colleges and was responsible
for the administration of the state policies. The President
of Eastern Community College was responsible directly to
the Chancellor of the state community college system for the
operation of the college.
Organization
Eastern Community College was the largest multi-campus
institution included in this study. It had a greater number
of students and more campuses than either of the other two
community colleges. Although the college publications did
not stress the unity of the campuses as one college entity,
the organizational charts reflected that type of philosophy.
The Faculty Handbook explained the campus organizational plan
that was used for all of the campuses. This plan is presented
in simplified form as part of the total college organizational
model, which is shown in Figure 3. The Deans for Administra
tive Services, Instructional Services, and Student Services
were representative of the major college-wide concerns. The
role incumbents in these positions were responsible for the
coordination of their various programs among the campuses.
They worked in conjunction with the Provosts of the campuses,
who were responsible for the total operation of their respec
tive campuses. Figure 3 shows only the organizational posi
tions germane to this study and is not intended to represent
the college staff in total.


136
Jensen, Arthur M. "Urban Community Colleges Go Multi-Campus."
Junior College Journal, 36 (November, 1965), 8-13.
Jones, Milton 0. "The Development of Multi-Unit Junior
Colleges." ERIC Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of
Health, Education and Welfare, Office of Education,
Washington, D.C.: May, 1968 (ED 023391).
Kerlinger, Fred N. Foundations of Behavioral Research. New
York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964.
Kimbrough, Ralph B. Political Power and Educational Decision-
Making. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co., 1964.
Kintzer, Frederick C., Arthur M. Jensen and John S. Hansen.
The Multi-Institutional Junior College District. Wash
ington, D.C.: American Association of Junior Colleges,
1969.
LaVire, Willis A. Critical Tasks for Public Junior College
Administrators'! (Ed.D. Dissertation, University of
Florida), Gainesville, 1961.
Masiko, Peter. "Going Multi-Campus." Junior College Journal,
37 (October, 1966), 22-26.
McCluskey, John W. An Investigation of the Locus of Formal
Decision-Making for Student Personnel Services in Selected
Multi-Unit Community College Districts. (Ed.D. Disser
tation, University of Florida), Gainesville, 1972.
Macomb County Community College. "Distribution of Responsi
bilities Between the Campus and District Levels of
Administration." Policy Manual, 1973-74.
Miami-Dade Junior College. "Decisions in Academic Affairs,"
Miami-Dade Junior College Decision-Making Guidelines, 1973.
Morrissey, Kermit C. "Creative Leadership of Multi-Unit
Colleges." Junior College Journal, 38 (September, 1967),
38-42.
Ramstad, William K. "Multi-Campus--Ready-Set-Go!" Junior
College Journal, 39 (March, 1970), 25-30.
Rushing, Joe B. "Managing the Multi-Campus." College Manage
ment, 5 (September, 1970), 14-16.
Sammartino, Peter. "Multiple Campus Colleges and Universities."
Liberal Education, 49 (March, 1963), 48-52.


31
were fourteen members on the faculty and eighty-seven students
enrolled. The college was fully accredited in 1931. In
1938 a building campaign was conducted resulting in the erec
tion of the first permanent building on the present south
campus location. During 1948 the college converted from
private to public school status, becoming part of the county
school system. The north campus was opened to provide for
the rapidly expanding population of the upper county in 1965.
The central administration complex was completed in 1968.
Apart from the two campuses, the college operated one center
to offer further educational service to the people of the
north county area. Growth at this center was projected to be
slow because it was fairly close to another public community
college in a neighboring district. At the time of the study,
there were no definite plans to enlarge the center to campus
status or to build another campus.
Southern has enjoyed excellent growth in terms of enroll
ment. The south campus had a fall, 1973, headcount enroll
ment of 5679 students. This represented 58 percent of the
college's total fall enrollment. The north campus had 3686
students, which was approximately 38 percent of the total
9759 for the whole college. Enrollment at the center was 394
students or 4 percent of the college total. The enrollment
projections completed by the college indicated that the
north campus could expect its share of the enrollment to in
crease slightly in the next five years. The south campus
was expected to have stable enrollment for the same period


3
instruction in selected multi-campus community colleges.
Answers to the following questions were sought.
1. What are the procedures that exist"for making
decisions in curriculum and instruction for
the selected multi-campus community colleges?
2. What role incumbents make decisions concerning
specified tasks in curriculum and instruction
for the selected multi-campus community colleges?
3. What is the degree of congruence between stated
decision-making procedures in curriculum and in
struction and perceived decision-making patterns
as identified by the Decision Point Analysis
Instrument?
Delimitations
The following restrictions were observed in the conduct
of the study:
1. The study of the locus of decision-making
was limited to three multi-campus community
colleges.
2. The study was limited to the decision-making
policies for curriculum and instruction that
prevailed in 1973-1974.
3. The data collection was limited to an exam
ination of college documents and records,
general observations, responses to the Decision
Point Analysis Instrument, and responses to
the structured personal interview.
4. Only the following role incumbents at each
college were asked to respond to the Decision
Point Analysis Instrument and the structured
personal interview:
a. President/chief administrator for the
entire college,
b. Vice-President for Academic Affairs/chief
administrator for academic affairs for the
entire college,
c. Campus Dean/chief campus administrator for
each campus,


59
a definite commitment to campus authority. The next intended
result of this organization was to provide a coordinated ef
fort in meeting the post-secondary educational needs of the
district.
Figure 2 is a simplified diagrammatic representation
of the organizational plan used at Western Community College.
The Presidents of the two campuses were responsponsible
directly to the Chancellor of the district. The other major
positions directly responsible to the Chancellor were Vice-
Chancellor for Administration, Vice-Chancellor for Research
and Development, and Director of Community Services. These
positions reflected the main functions of the central admini
strative staff in providing direction for the college. The
positions depicted at the campus level were positions identi
fied as being primarily responsible for curriculum and instruc
tion.
Procedures for Decision-Making in
Curriculum and Instruction
Faculty status at Western Community College was assigned
to all professional personnel whose duties and responsibilities
were directly related to the instructional program or to
activities directly related to the educational development
of students. This included instructional faculty, administra
tive faculty, student services faculty, professional librarians,
and professional instructional media personnel. All full
time employees who held faculty status were eligible as voting


CHAPTER IV
THE DECISION-MAKING PATTERN OF
EASTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT
Chapter IV is a description of the decision-making pat
tern for curriculum and instruction in the last of the three
districts studied. As in Chapters II and III, the district
environment is described first, followed by the stated deci
sion-making procedures. Next are the decision-making patterns
identified by the Decision Point Analysis Instrument and
the responses to the structured interview. A summary section
including general observations and generalizations completes
the investigation of the decision-making patters at Eastern
Community College.
Environment
The Community
Eastern Community College served a district that consisted
of four counties and three independent municipalities. The
total area of the district was 1312 square miles. The popula
tion of the district was 921,237 in 1970. The district was
the southern portion of the fastest growing metropolitan
area in the United States. The 1973 estimate of the popula
tion for the entire metropolitan area was 3,200,000. The
80


37
Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by the Decision Point Analysis Instrument
The Decision Point Analysis Instrument was used to col
lect responses from twenty role incumbents at Southern Com
munity College. Four members of the sample were selected by
virtue of their position in the college. Eight department
chairmen and eight faculty members were selected at random
and asked if they would be willing to participate in the study.
All respondents completed the instrument in the manner de
scribed in Chapter I. All respondents appeared willing to
participate and interested in the intent of the study. Be
cause of the nature of the instrument, the researcher felt
that this positive attitude was an important factor for the
study.
The data collected are separated into three categories:
(1) primary decision-makers, (2) decision participators, and
(3) self-perception of role. Within these categories the
curriculum items are discussed apart from the instruction
items. The responses are then pooled to reflect the total
pattern of the responses.
Primary Decision-Makers
Tables 1-3 depict the responses of the participants as
to what role incumbents were primarily responsible for the
making of each of the decisions. Each item is discussed indi
vidually below, then the responses are grouped for further
analysis of the decision-making patterns.


FIGURE 2
SIMPLIFIED TABLE OF ORGANIZATION FOR ACADEMIC AFFAIRS
AT WESTERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE
CT\
O


49
move to another than it was to elicit further discussion.
The first item dealt with the centralization-decentrali
zation continuum that was a primary issue in the literature
reviewed in Chapter I. Opinions were split on this at
Southern Community College. Four respondents felt that the
college allowed a great degree of autonomy to the campuses
and more especially to the department chairmen. One depart
ment chairman stated that his position was the strongest in
the college in terms of decision-making power. He felt that
other department chairmen shared this same power. On the
other hand, four other incumbents perceived the college as a
fairly centralized system; this was attributed mainly to the
strong college unity position taken by the President and the
Board of Trustees. However, these people did agree that the
college had moved toward more campus autonomy in the past few
years. They predicted that this trend would continue as the
college grew and the campuses continued to strive for more
decision-making authority.
Question two was not applicable to Southern Community
College because the position of chief campus administrator
did not exist. The responsibility for the campus was shared
by the Dean of Instruction and the Dean of Student Services.
The Dean of Instruction was responsible for the administra
tive matters that were related to the instructional program.
The responses to the third question indicated that the term
"shared" was not an especially descriptive term. Neither the
Dean of Instruction nor the Dean of Academic Affairs was seen


THE LOCUS OF FORMAL DECISION-MAKING
FOR CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION
IN SELECTED MULTI-CAMPUS COMMUNITY COLLEGES
By
WILLIS N. HOLCOMBE
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR
THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1974


43
response as a primary decision-maker in the instructional area.
Table 3 is a summation table which pools the responses
to the curriculum items and the instruction items. The
role incumbents are displayed here in their rank order by
t
frequency of response. In the perceptions of the people
surveyed, the department chairman emerged as the position in
the organization with the greatest amount of primary decision
making power with respect to the survey items. The chairman
position was listed as the primary decision-maker in 36.5
percent of the responses. Faculty members ranked second
(26 percent) with the Curriculum and Instruction Committee
rated third by frequency of response (18.5 percent). It is
interesting to note that the people responding to the survey
did not perceive the Dean of Instruction as a strong position
with regard to these items. That position ranked last with
only 1.5 percent of the responses.
Participants in Decision-Making
This portion of the Decision Point Analysis Instrument
was designed to measure the amount of participation that was
evident in the formulation of a decision. For each of the
items, the respondents were asked to mark the people that
they felt had viable input into the making of the decision.
They were free to mark as many or as few boxes as they thought
were appropriate to the decision item.
The curriculum items overall showed a great deal of
participation in that the responses numbered 218 for the five


76
the need to keep the President informed of developments in
the areas of curriculum and instruction. The Presidents
responded that they preferred not to interfere with the
Dean's performance of his duties.
Although the role of the Director of Curriculum Review
and Evaluation was not that of line authority over the Deans
of Instruction, the respondents to the questions of shared
authority between them felt that they stayed in fairly close
contact. The Director stated that he worked more closely
with the Dean of Instruction than any other campus official.
His input to the Dean was seen by both parties to be that of
advice and information.
The interviewees tended to respond to question number
four in the same manner that they did to the Decision Point
Analysis Instrument. The department chairmen were seen as
strong decision-makers in instructional matters, while the
Deans of Instruction were primary in curriculum affairs.
The Curriculum and Instruction Committee was perceived
as a "rubber stamp" type committee that had very little vi
able input in the decision-making process. The fact that it
consisted only of high level administrators bothered some
of the faculty members who were interviewed. They thought
that it could be a good working committee if it had some
faculty input. Their reactions tended to confirm the data
gathered on the committee through the use of the Decision
Point Analysis Instrument. One administrator responded to
this question by saying that the committee was very efficient
in its operation due to its small size.


FIGURE 1
SIMPLIFIED TABLE OF ORGANIZATION FOR ACADEMIC AFFAIRS
AT SOUTHERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE
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109
responses to the Decision Point Analysis Instrument. The
first pattern was for participation in the making of the
curriculum decisions. The second was the participation in
the making of the instructional decisions.
The responses to the curriculum items indicated a greater
degree of participation was perceived in the formulation of
curriculum decisions than was perceived for the instructional
decisions. At all three community colleges, the department
and division chairmen were considered participants in the
making of the curriculum decisions. Faculty were seen as
being main participants only at Eastern and Southern Community
Colleges. Only Eastern Community College listed the district
wide position of Dean of Instructional Services as a signifi
cant participant in the making of those decisions. The other
two colleges limited their significant participants to campus
level role incumbents.
The pattern established for participation in the making
of instructional decisions was consistent among all three
colleges. There was less participation than found in the cur
ricular area, but also most of the participation took place
within the instructional department or division. The depart
ment and division chairmen received the greatest number of
responses for participation at all three schools. They were
followed by the faculty members, who received only a few less
responses. In every case the response rate dropped off sig
nificantly after the chairmen and the faculty. The pattern
indicated that the communication channels for instructional


38
Responses to item one in the curriculum area indicated
that department chairmen and the Curriculum and Instruction
Committee were primarily responsible for the decision to
create a new course. The creation of a new program, item
two, reflected a wider dispersion of responses. The Academic
Dean accounted for 40 percent of the responses while the
Curriculum and Instruction Committee had 30 percent.
The creation of a new non-credit course item was adminim-
tered' differently from the other items. At Southern Com
munity College, as at the other institutions studied, the
role incumbent responsible for continuing education programs
was added to the list of possible responses. This role incum
bent did not appear in any of the other items of the survey.
Fifty-five percent of the respondents to this item selected
the Coordinator for Continuing Education as the primary deci
sion-maker .
The changing of a course description, item four, was
indicated by 65 percent of the respondents to be the decision
of the department chairmen. Of the eight department chairmen
responding, however, three designated the Curriculum and
Instruction Committee as being primary. The decision to
change the general education requirements was seen unanimously
as a district-wide decision. Sixty-five percent of the
respondents indicated that the Curriculum and Instruction
Committee was primary and 35 percent felt that the college
Dean of Academics was.
By pooling all the responses to the five curriculum



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PAGE 149

81,9(56,7< 2) )/25,'$


93
items at Eastern Community College. The Dean for Instructional
Services again was not perceived as a strong decision-maker.
The total pattern of decision-making can be seen by
ranking the role incumbents according to frequency of respon
ses over all ten items. Table 11 displays the rank order
distribution. The division chairman and faculty both received
the largest number of responses. They had 30.9 percent and
30.0 percent, respectively. The faculty received 60 of its
66 responses in the instructional area, while the division
chairman received 40 to 68 responses on instructional items.
This indicated a strong trend toward decentralized decision
making in the instructional area. The Curriculum and Instruc
tion Committee, which received 41 of its 43 responses from
the curriculum items, stood as the main decision-making body
for the curriculum area. Thus the decision-making pattern
for curriculum decisions was more centralized than that for
the instructional area.
The decision-making pattern of non-credit courses was
perceived to be different from that of the regular curriculum.
The Director of Continuing Education was seen as the key de
cision-maker in that area. The role incumbent with the least
perceived impact as a key decision-maker was the Dean for
Instructional Services. That position received only 1.4
percent of the responses.
Participants in Decision-Making
The responses to the curriculum decision items as a whole


88
College. The President and the Dean for Curriculum and
Instruction were the respondents from the college adminis
trative staff. Four Provosts, eight division chairmen, and
eight faculty members completed the number of people who
participated in the survey. Included in the eight faculty
responders were two people who held the position of assis
tant division chairman. Their responses were treated as
faculty responses because their prime duties for the college
were of an instructional nature rather than administrative.
These respondents agreed that they considered themselves
faculty rather than administration. The instrument was
administered in the same manner as before. The data collected
from the survey are classified and presented in the same
format as was used in Chapters II and III.
Primary Decision-Makers
Tables 9-11 summarize the data gained from the survey.
The discussion of the responses is based on that information
and is intended to expand on it.
The responses to the first curriculum item, the creation
of a new course, indicated that the Curriculum and Instruc
tion Committee had an important role. Fifty-nine percent of
the respondents felt that it was the primary decision-making
body for this item. The creation of a new program, however,
did not bring the same collective type of response. Forty-
one percent thought that the Curriculum and Instruction Com
mittee was primary, but the remainder of the responses were


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The concept of the public community junior college is no
longer new to American education. The junior college came
into existence just after the turn of the century and has
grown tremendously since that time. The 1973 Directory of
the American Association of Community Junior Colleges reported
that in October, 1972, there were more than 900 public junior
colleges in the United States of America. The combined en
rollment of these institutions was over 2,700,000 students
[AACJC, 1973, p. 7]
During this expansion period not all of the growth was
in the area of numbers of institutions and students. The
junior college itself has changed over the past 70 years and
especially in the past two decades. One such change is the
evolution of the community college with more than one campus.
This type of institution is relatively new and is still emer
ging from previously single campus community colleges.
Kintzer, Jensen, and Hansen related that in 1964 there were
only ten multi-junior college districts; in 1967, thirty-one
and in 1968, forty [Kintzer, 1969, p. 2].
Most of the first community colleges to develop into
multi-campus institutions did so without the benefit of clear
cut guidelines for the organization and governance of their
1


CHAPTER VI
GENERALIZATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY
The focus of this study was the locus of formal decision
making with regard to specific tasks in curriculum and in
struction at selected multi-campus community colleges. The
study was designed to form a basis for developing general
izations relative to the evolving practices for decision
making in curriculum and instruction in three college districts.
Specifically, the study was designed to answer these three
questions:
1. What are the procedures that exist for making
decisions in curriculum and instruction for the
selected multi-campus community colleges?
2. What role incumbents make decisions concerning
specified tasks in curriculum and instruction
for the selected multi-campus community colleges?
3. What is the degree of congruence between stated
decision-making procedures in curriculum and
instruction and perceived decision-making pat-
terms as identified by the Decision Point Analysis
Instrument?
Three multi-campus community college districts were
selected for inclusion in the study based on the criteria
presented in Chapter I and their willingness to participate.
The Decision Point Analysis Instrument was modified for inclu
sion in this study, and a structured interview guide was
developed. College manuals and publications also were used
116


72
Committee was seen as having little impact in that they were
perceived as having participated in the making of curriculum
decisions in only five percent of the responses.
The instruction items showed much the same participation
pattern as was seen for the curriculum items. The division
chairman and faculty received the same number of responses
to lead in participation with 26.1 percent each. The de
partment chairman followed closely with 23.2 percent of all
responses. The Curriculum and Instruction Committee again
faired poorly, being indicated by only 3.7 percent of the
responses as having taken part in the formulation of decisions.
Table 7 shows the combined responses for both curriculum
and instruction decisions. The division chairman was seen
as having the largest share of the responses, 24.9 percent.
The department chairman, faculty, and Dean of Instruction
followed in close order. The role incumbents who were respon
sible for district-wide coordination received less than 5
percent of the responses. The Curriculum and Instruction
Committee also received less than 5 percent. These data
tended to support the conclusion that the making of curri
culum and instruction decisions was perceived of as more a
campus function than a college function.
Respondents' Perceptions of Their Roles in Decision-Making
Table 8 displays the way that the respondents perceived
their own involvement in the decision-making process. There
were basically two patterns that emerged from the responses


75
proposal had to go through "channels." Their role in this
process was best described as recommending the decision as
it went from them to another position. This was not perceived
to be so for instructional decisions. Role incumbents were
more willing to respond that they had authority to make a
particular decision.
Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by Structured Interviews
Twelve interviews were conducted at Western Community
College. The respondents to the first question of the inter
view guide were nearly unanimous in their perception of the
College as a decentralized organization with regard to cur
riculum and instruction. The individual departments were
seen by some to be nearly autonomous with regard to the
instruction items. Curriculum decisions, however, were made
higher in the organization, although many respondents were
not sure exactly where they were made. At least one inter
viewee, however, felt that the Director of Curriculum Review
and Evaluation was beginning to emerge as a strong decision
making position. He made the point that the role incumbent
was relatively new at that position and that as he matured
in that role, he would become a strong decision-maker.
The responses to shared authority between the Presidents
and the Deans of Instruction indicated that it was mainly a
matter of communication rather than sharing. The Deans
stated that they had quite a bit of authority, but stressed


35
Dean of Academic Affairs, to the Curriculum and Instruction
Committee. The committee consisted of the following members
at the time of the study: Assistant Dean of Academic Affairs,
two librarians, two counselors, four department chairmen,
and six faculty members. Some of the items that were listed
as being within the purview of the committee were (1) addi
tion of a new credit course or a new credit program, (2)
change of a course title and/or the level of offering or
credit, (3) changes or revisions of the general education
requirements, and (4) changes or revisions of course objec
tives .
The Dean of Academic Affairs in conference with the
Council of Academic Deans each year appointed course study
committees. These committees studied specific courses desig
nated by the department chairmen. The course study commit
tees were authorized to study any of the following items:
(1) textbooks, (2) course objectives and outlines, (3) instruc
tional procedures, (4) bibliographic materials, and (5)
instructional materials.
In addition to the committee structure, Southern Community
College defined some of the positions of the college in terms
of their role in the decision-making process. In some instances
these definitions were similar to job descriptions, but in
others they were more general.
The Dean of Academic Affairs was to function as a planner
of program development, supervisor of existing programs, sti
mulator of curriculum innovation, facilitator of faculty growth,


125
BACKGROUND DATA
Please print.
1.Title of Your Current Position:
2.Campus or Location of Your Work:
3.Number of Years at Present Institution:
4.Number of Years in Present Position:
5.Department:


19
of the total decision-making pattern. This study was a direct
outgrowth of McCluskey's research and recommendation.
The level of decision-making was much more of a concern
in multi-campus institutions than it was in the single cam
pus school. Because of physical limitations as well as the
complexities of the organizational structure, the need for
decision-making policies was felt by several multi-campus
institutions. Some of these institutions published position
papers on this subject. Such a document was published by
Macomb County Community College in its 1973-74 policy manual.
The following is an excerpt from the policy manual.
The working basis for the division of responsi
bilities is to assign the authority and the obli
gation to make decisions to that level which is
judged to be best able and/or most efficient in
performing the task. Normally this is judged to be
the level closest to all of the facts required for
a reasonable decision and which therefore utilizes
the shortest lines of communication. Where there
is doubt about the level which would insure the
greatest efficiency, preference is given to the campus.
Where uniformity is essential, in most instances a
district administrator should be assigned the re
sponsibility. [Policy Manual, 1973-74, 11 2410.11]
More specifically some of the items that were listed as campus
functions were course content and organization, transfer cur-
riculums, faculty committees, and textbook selection. Among
the coordinated functionsthat is, cross-campus decisions--
were course numbering and titles, occupational and terminal
curriculums, and graduation requirements.
Miami-Dade Junior College also addressed itself to this
concern. It listed the following among its district-wide
decisions: (1) change in course title, (2) creation of new


120
district administrative staff were not perceived to be strong
decision-makers for curriculum and instruction.
Implication: Unless the academic administrator at
the district office is given line authority over campus func
tions, his role will not exceed that of coordinator among
the campuses. If an institution desires to locate the formal
decision-making power on the separate campuses, then the dis
trict academic position should be made a staff position.
3. Generalization: The decision-making pattern for
non-credit courses was different from that for the regular
curriculum. The role incumbent charged with responsibility
for community services and continuing education was the pri
mary decision-maker in that area.
Implication: The area of continuing education appeared
to be separated from the rest of the institution. There
seemed to be little interaction between the regular program
and the non-credit program. The end result of such separa
tion is hard to predict, but it cannot be good. This tendency
toward isolation should be resisted.
Participants in Decision-Making
1. Generalization: There tended to be more participation
in the formulation of curriculum decisions than was evident
in instruction decisions.
Implication: The need for participation in curriculum
does not transfer to instruction decisions. Curriculum de
cisions affect more people than instruction decisions. The


62
The Chancellor of the district was to provide leadership
in the development of educational programs. This included
the responsibility for establishing priorities in instruc
tional programming. As part of the district staff, the college
had a Director of Curriculum Review and Evaluation who rep
resented the district in all academic matters. Included among
his duties was working with the campus Presidents or Deans
of Instruction in identifying and implementing ways for im
proving the curriculum development process. He was responsi
ble for preparing an analysis of all curriculum proposals and
instructional programs to facilitate the decision-making
process. Also he developed and implemented evaluation proce
dures that were intended to determine the effectiveness,
thrust, and focus of existing educational programs.
The President was the chief administrator for the campus,
and, as such, he was responsible for the total educational
operation of the campus. He also made recommendations for
changes in and development of curriculum, faculty policies,
and academic policies. He also functioned as the chief
liaison officer between the central administration and the
campus.
The Dean of Instruction was responsible for the instruc
tional program and was the administrative head of the instruc
tional faculty. He formulated objectives for the entire cur
riculum and coordinated the preparation of specific course
outlines and syllabi. He was responsible for planning a
systematic program for faculty evaluation as well as evaluation


127
C. What is the nature of your participation in the
making of this decision? Mark the appropriate box.
| |I make the decision.
| ] I provide information.
I recommend the decision.
] None.
2. The decision to create a new program
A. Who makes the decision? Mark with an X.
B. Who else participates in making this decision?
Mark with an 0.
President
College
Dean of
Academics
Chief
Campus
Administrator
Campus
Director of
Academics
Depart
ment
Chairman
Faculty
Com
mittee
Don't
Know
C.What is the nature of your participation in the making
of this decision? Mark the appropriate box.
1 | I make the decision. | | I provide information.
| | I recommend the decision. | | None.
3. The decision to create a new non-credit course
A. Who makes the decision? Mark with an X.
B. Who else participates in making this decision?
Mark with an 0.
President
College
Dean of
Academics
Chief
Campus
Administrator
Campus
Director of
Academics
Depart
ment
Chairman
Faculty
Com
mittee
Don't
Know
C.What is the nature of your participation in the making
of this decision. Mark the appropriate box.
] I make the decision. | | I provide information.
] I recommend the decision. | [ None.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08555 2841


102
failed to have a role incumbent receive a clear majority of
the responses.
The responses to the Decision Point Analysis Instrument
and the Structured Interview Guide have led to the formulation
of the following generalizations concerning the decision
making structure at Eastern Community College.
1. The Curriculum and Instruction Committee was per
ceived to be a viable integral part of the deci
sion-making process for curriculum.
2. Instruction decisions were perceived to be more
decentralized than curriculum decisions.
3. There tended to be more participation by more
role incumbents in the formulation of curriculum
decisions than in instruction decisions.
4. The division chairman was perceived to be a strong
primary decision-making position in both the curric
ulum and the instruction decisions.
5. The faculty were perceived to have much primary
decision-making power in instructional decisions.
6. In curriculum decisions role incumbents were
reluctant to identify themselves as primary deci
sion-makers even when the majority of the responses
so identified them.
The decision-making pattern for non-credit courses
was different from that for credit courses. The
Director of Continuing Education was perceived as
the primary decision-maker in this area.
7.


14
learning ways of managing a multi-campus insti
tution. With each new answer, there also arises
at least one new question. [Rushing, 1970, p.
16]
Wynn [1972] and Block [1970] identified many of the ques
tions that administrators and faculty must answer in order to
be able to live and work together. Block's contention was
that the way the fundamental questions of the organization
are answered will largely determine the degree to which
power is centralized or decentralized in the organization.
In actual practice, Block stated that the multi-unit community
college districts have such varied patterns that one is
led to conclude that there are no standard answers [Block,
1970, p. 24]. Wynn submitted that in a multi-campus situa
tion the responsibility falls at the district level and there
fore most of the authority should be located at the same
level [Wynn, 1972, p. 44]. He supported a strongly centra
lized multi-campus organization.
At the other end of the continuum was Morrissey [1967],
who argued that multi-unit districts should be multi-college
and thus be more decentralized.
I recommend that in complex community college sys
tems each college established be called a college,
with the privilege of naming the school reserved for
the college professionals and interested citizens
of the region to be served. The word "campus" calls
forth the mummified ghosts of higher educational mis
takes; the wor(k) "college" describes what the insti
tution is in fact. [Morrissey, 1967, p. 40]
From the research studies and articles on multi-unit
community colleges, a few general statements can be made.
1. Multi-unit colleges are not all the same and do
not always face the same problems.


Page
General Observations and Summation 7 8
IV THE DECISION-MAKING PATTERN OF EASTERN
COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT 80
Environment 80
Procedures for Decision-Making in
Curriculum and Instruction 85
Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by the Decision Point Analysis
Instrument 87
Decision-Making Patterns Identified
by Structured Interviews 98
General Observations and Summation 101
V COMMALITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN THE
DECISION-MAKING PATTERNS FOR THE THREE
DISTRICTS 103
Procedures for Decision-Making 103
Role Incumbents as Decision-
Makers 106
General Observations Ill
Summation 114
VI GENERALIZATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY 116
Generalizations and Implications 117
Recommendations for Further Study 121
APPENDIX A THE DECISION POINT INSTRUMENT 123
APPENDIX B STRUCTURED INTERVIEW GUIDE 132
REFERENCES 135
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 138
IV


105
to be much more an integral part of the decision-making agent
than it was at the third. The responses at Southern Com
munity College indicated that the Curriculum and Instruction
Committee was a viable part of the decision-making process
for curriculum and instruction. It was a large committee
with representation from the teaching faculty and administra
tive faculty. The Curriculum and Instruction Committee at
Eastern Community College was considered to be a leading
decision-making body in the area of curriculum, but not in
the area of instruction. This was also a large committee, and
it had representation from both the teaching and administra
tive faculty.
The Curriculum and Instruction Committee of Western Com
munity College was organized differently. It was a relatively
small committee, five members, and consisted mainly of higher
level administrative personnel. The President and Dean of
Instruction from each campus were members as was the Director
of Curriculum Review and Evaluation. No department chairmen
or member of the teaching faculty had direct representation
on the committee. Responses to the Decision Point Analysis
Instrument indicated that the committee was not perceived
as a major part of the decision-making pattern at Western
Community College. That opinion may have been a reflection
of the narrow representation of the committee.
No other committee at any of the three community colleges
was considered to be an integral part of the decision-making
process for curriculum and instruction.


95
indicated that a large number of people participated in the
formulation of those decisions. Three hundred nine responses
were made in this area. This trend was consistent with that
found at the other colleges surveyed. Four positions accounted
for 85.4 percent of the total responses. They were faculty
(24.6), division chairman (44.6), Provost (20.7), and Dean
for Instructional Services (17.5). Table 9 displays the com
plete data, but the generalization that many people in the
college participated in the making of curriculum decisions
was evident from the above statistics.
Responses to the instruction items indicated that fewer
people participated in the making of these decisions than
was true for the curriculum items. Only 163 responses were
recorded for all of the instruction items. The division chair
man and faculty received most of the responses, 36.2 percent
and 29.4 percent, respectively. The remainder of the responses
were spread among the other role incumbents with the Provost
receiving 18.4 percent. Thus the major participators in the
making of instruction decisions were campus role incumbents
rather than college-wide officials. This tended to confirm
the decentralized decision-making pattern noted earlier.
Table 11 indicates the total participation pattern for
all items. It is interesting to note that the three campus
role incumbents received the greatest number of responses
while the three positions receiving the fewest responses,
excluding the Director of Continuing Education, were college
wide positions. Of the college positions, the Dean of Instruction


Structured Interview Guide
(Adapted from the original by John McCluskey)
1. Do you perceive the organization of curriculum and instruc
tion as primarily a centralized or decentralized function
with regard to decision-making? To what degree?
2. Are there shared areas of decision-making between the
chief campus administrator and the chief campus adminis
trator for academic affairs? If so, in what areas? If
not, do you feel that there should be in some areas?
What areas?
3. Are there shared areas of decision-making between the
chief campus administrator for academic affairs and the
chief administrator for academic affairs for the college?
If so, in what areas? If not, do you feel that there
should be in some areas? What areas?
4. To what extent do each of the following participate in
decision-making for curriculum and instruction: faculty,
department chairman, chief campus administrator for aca
demic affairs, chief campus administrators, the chief
college administrator for academic affairs, the president,
the board of trustees?
5. What formal mechanisms, such as committees and councils
exist for decision-making in curriculum and instruction?
Please describe them and their procedures.
6. Do you feel the multi-campus organizational pattern offers
133


78
revolved around the area of curriculum. The changes re
flected a perceived need to achieve a better unity in the
college curriculum. One interviewee responded that he would
like to see the curriculum decisions become a district func
tion. He felt that the unity in programs would help to
alleviate the confusion that existed at the time of the
study. Several other respondents were more specific in their
recommendations. They wanted to have a Vice-Chancellor for
Academics appointed to the District Staff. This was seen as
a way to unify the college instructional staff with regard to
the curriculum that they teach. No changes were recommended
for the instructional decision-making structure.
General Observations and Summation
At Western Community College the researcher was received
openly and enjoyed the freedom to question anyone employed
at the institution. The participants in the study could be
characterized as professionals interested in this study and
the improvement of their institution. Western Community
College, at the time of the study, was considered one of the
exemplary educational institutions of its state and region.
The objectivity with which those participating viewed their
college made the collection of data much easier. Below are
the summary remarks and generalizations that have been developed
from the data presented in this chapter.
In determining the degree of congruence between stated


7
McCluskey's doctoral dissertation was the first study and
dealt with the area of student personnel services. There is
a need for further studies dealing with the other areas of
administration to provide a comprehensive empirical descrip
tion of the ways that junior community colleges are operating
in the multi-campus setting.
Definition of Terms
Community CollegeA public, two-year college which of
fers programs and/or courses limited to the first two years
of post-high school education, including the university parallel
program and at least one of the following: occupational edu
cation or continuing education. For the purposes of this
study, community college is synonymous with "junior college"
and "community junior college."
Curriculum--The courses and programs of instruction of
fered at the community college.
InstructionThe methods and materials used by faculty
in their teaching of the curriculum.
LocusThe role incumbent (position) that has the effec
tive responsibility for the decision-making process in speci
fic task areas of curriculum and instruction.
Multi-CampusA community college organizational pattern
utilizing the following: one district, a single college, two
or more campuses, where a central administration directs many
of the internal operations of the college.