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Balzac and Sterne

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Balzac and Sterne
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Thesis--University of Florida.
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Bibliography: leaves 227-232.
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BALZAC AND STERNE


By


SANDRA SOARED DONNELLY


















A DISSCRTATION TTD TO TE GRADUATE
COUNCIL OF THE US1V732ITE OF? FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
PfJLFIL.TEX{rOF 1 E Ci rl jII 7EjTS l,'"0L THE DEGREE OF
DC.T'2 U' O?J -ILOS3OPHY




UNITV7hI [pY OF FLORIDA
1973























FOR MARTY













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I would like to thank Professor J. Wayne Conner

for his great help and inspiration in the preparation of

this dissertation. My thanks also go to Professor Melvyn

New for his ideas on Sterne and his many helpful sugges-

tions, and to Professors Douglas A. Bonneville and Irving

R. Wershow for their assistance and encouragement.













TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .. .. . . . . . . .

KEY TO SIGLA USED IN TEXT ............

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . .. .

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . .

NOTES . . . o o .

I. THE FRENAIS-DE BONNAY TRANSLATION OF STERNE

NOTES o .a o o o. .o. o

II. STERNE IN THE MUVRES DE JEUNESSE . .. ..
NOTES . . . .. . . . . .

III. INFLUENCE: REFLECTIONS OF AUTHOR, CHARACTERS,
INCIDENTS . . . . . .

NOTES . . . .. . . .

IV. INFLUENCE: NARRATIVE MiANNER . . ...

NOTES . . . . . . . .

V. INFLUENCE: IDEAS .........

NOTES . . . . . . . . .

CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . .

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . .


9 iii



* vii
. 1

* 23

. 29

* 83

* 85

& 125


128

* a 154

. 156

. 194

f 195

* 221

. 223

* 227












KEY TO SIGLA USED IN TEXT


AC [Balzac], Annette et le criminel (1824; rpt. Paris:
Les Bibliophiles de--l'riginale, 1961-63).

B Sterne, (uvres completes de Laurent Sterne, [tr.
Frenais, de }Ronnay et al.]-(Paris: J. F. Bastien,
an XI [1803]).

C [Balzac], Le Centenaire (1822; rpt. Paris: Les
Bibliophiles de l'Originale, 1961-63).

CL [Balzac], Clotilde de Lusignan (1822; rpt. Paris:
Les Bibliophiles de i'Originale, 1961-63).

DF [Balzac], La Derniere Fee (1823; rpt. Paris: Les
Bibliophiles de l'Originale, 1961-63).

HB [Balzac], L'Hritiere de Birague (1822; rpt. Paris:
Les Bibliophiles de l'0riginale, 1961-63).

JL [Balzac], Jean Louis (1822; rpt. Paris: Les Bibli-
ophiles de l'Originale, 1961-63).

Phy Balzac, Physiologie du mariage (Paris: Urbain Canel,
[1829]).

PhyPo Balzac, Th~ysiologie du mariage pre-ori inale, ed.
Maurice Bardeche (Paris: Droz, 1940).

RV Sterne, La Vie et les opinions de Tristram Shandy,
[tr. Frenais and de Bonnay] (ork and Paris, Ruault,
Volland, 1776-85).

S Sterne, A Sentimental Journey through France and
Italy b 1r. Yorick, ed. Gardner D. Stout, Jr.
7erkeley University of California Press, 1967).

VA [Balzac], Le Vicaire des Ardennes (1822; rpt.
Paris: Les Bibliophiles de l'Originale, 1961-
63).








V Sterne, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy,
Gentleman, ed. James A. Work (New York: Odyssey,
1940).

WC [Balzac], Wann-Chlore (1825; rpt. Paris: Les Biblio-
philes de l'Originale, 1961-63).


Balzac, La Com~die humaine, ed. Pierre Citron
(Paris: Editions du Seuil, "l'Intgrale," 1965-
66), is cited in text simply by volume and page.













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the
Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


BALZAC AND STERNE


By

Sandra Soares Donnelly

August, 1973


Chairman: J. Wayne Conner
Major Department: Romance Languages and Literatures


Citations of Sterne and his works can be found

in Balzac's ceuvres de jeunesse, his correspondence, his

ouvres diverses, and throughout the Comedie humaine.

During his entire writing career, Balzac considered Sterne

among the great geniuses of literature. He not only men-

tions Sterne often, but also has borrowed a number of

stylistic devices and ideas from the English author.

Balzac was able to read Sterne only in trans-

lation, so I have examined carefully the translation of

Sterne's works that Balzac used. The most change has oc-

curred in Tristram ShandZ. Much of Sterne's bawdiness

has been expurgated, as have been his anti-Catholic ideas.

The work has undergone stylistic change as well; many of

Sterne's clharacteristic narrative mannerisms have been

much exaggerated.
vii








I have then examined Balzac's borrowing from

Sterne in his early works, before 1829. Here I find many

direct citations of Sterne and his characters, and the

use of a number of typically Sternean mannerisms, such

as dialogue with the reader, minute description of gesture

and pose, and extremely informal authorial presence.

In considering the later works, with particular

emphasis on the Come'die humaine, I have found it expedient

to divide my study into three separate parts. The first

deals with direct citations of Sterne and his characters,

and with echoes of incidents from Sterne. There are many

such borrowings, and they are made consistently through-

out Balzac's writing career.

I have next considered narrative manner, and

have found many of the narrative devices used in the ro-

mans de jeunesse used again in the later works. Stylistic

borrowing from Sterne, particularly of his informal mode

of narration and his careful description of' small details,

appears all through Balzac, but is concentrated most

heavily in the Etudes analytiques.

In discussing the ideas that Balzac borrowed

from Sterne, it has been necessary to bear in mind whether

or not ideas presented by Sterne's characters are really

serious ideas of Sterne. Balzac has adopted three ideas

that are not--the importance of names, conception, and

sentiment. This last, however, probably came to Balzac


viii








from Sterne's imitators, since Balzac does not think of

Sterne as primarily a sentimental writer, but as a satirist.

One idea that Sterne presents in earnest, the hobby-horse,

has been adopted by Balzac and worked into one of the cen-

tral concerns of the Comedie humaine. Under Balzac's hand,

the hobby-horse becomes the tragic monomania.












INTRODUCTION


Tristram Shandy is said to have been Balzac's

livre de chevet,1 and although I have found no real sub-

stantiation of this, it may well be true, given the frequency

of Balzac's references to Sterne throughout his writing

career. Citations of Sterne and his works can be found

in the euvres de jeunesse, the correspondence, the

ceuvres diverses, and throughout the Comedie humaine.

Before discussing Balzac's debt to Sterne, it will be

useful to examine briefly the history of Sterne's recep-

tion in France and the early translations of his works.

Sterne published Tristram Shandy two volumes

at a time, at irregular intervals, between 1760 and 1767;

the ninth volume appeared singly in 1767. A Sentimental

Journey, Sterne's other major work, was published in

February, 1768, only a few weeks before Sterne's death.

Both works were extremely successful, bringing their author
2
both fame and notoriety. Sterne's fame quickly spread

to France after the publication of the first two volumes

of Tristram Shandy, and his visits there in the following

years further increased that fame:

Avant mgme qu'il fGit traduit, Tristram Shand
acquit en France une notoriete immediate et
durable, due a trois causes principales: a








l'inte'rt avec lequel on suivait ai Paris le
mouvement litteraire de 1'Europe, et en particu-
lier de l'Angleterre; i la bizarrerie extra-
ordinaire du roman, et aux violentes querelles
que sa publication suscita a Londres; enfin
aux voyages de Sterne en France, ou l'originalitg
de sa personne, ses singularites et son esprit
exciterent chez ceux qui le virent, ou qui
entendirent parler de lui, une vive curiosity
pour son ceuvre.3

Those reviewers in France who read Tristram Shandy before

it was translated were enthusiastic about the first volumes.

They were generally less enthusiastic about succeeding

volumes, and the last volumes were widely condemned. Even

Voltaire, who originally liked the work, ultimately pro-

nounced it frivolous and unsuccessful.4

A Sentimental Journey was translated soon after

publication and was a great success. "Sterne fut aussi-

t6t connu en France que dans sa patrie; il y jouit d'une

reputation gale. Mais, en France, elle reposa presque

uniquement sur le Voyage Sentimental, qui y fut accueilli,

des la premiere traduction, avec un enthousiasme general,

et fut toujours reimprime avec une frequence remarquable."5

Despite the general popularity of A Sentimental Journey,
Tristram Shandy was not translated immediately; in fact,


it did not appear in French until 1776, and even then only

the first four books were translated. This pause, Barton

points out, was remarkable in an age when French anglomania

was reaching a peak. Certainly the delay was due in part

to the difficulty of the work; Barton also feels that per-

haps "la forme litteraire ou le sujet du livre manquait








de l'attrait pour l'&me franjaise."6 The form, however--

at least its more obvious aspects--was later much imitated

in France.

Joseph-Pierre Frenais, who had translated A

Sentimental Journey with great success, published in 1776

his translation (in two volumes) of the first four volumes

of Tristram Shandy.7 L'Annee Litteraire, which took great
8
interest in English literature, published a lengthy review

of this first translation. The reviewer, Elie Fr~ron,

recognized Tristram Shandy as Sterne's principal work,

and keenly appreciated Sterne's wit; he also found in

him "une critique adroite des mours et des faux savans

[et] des re'flexions pleines de soliditY."9 The translation

had considerable commercial success; it was reprinted four

times in the next ten years.

Although his translation of A Sentimental Journey

is fairly close and accurate, Frenais took many liberties

with Tristram Shandy, as he admits in his preface to the

first edition of the translation:

Si un home qui traduit pouvoit 6tre compte
pour quelque chose parmi les Gens de Lettres,
je pourrois aspirer a m'y trouver place. Je
pourrois mgme dire, pour me faire un titre plus
fort, qu'il a fallu que je retranchasse beaucoup
de original, & supplier A ce que je retranchois:
je ne dirois que la verite. Les plaisanteries
de M. Stern [sic] ne m'ont pas en effet paru
toujours fort bones. Je les ai laissees ou
je les ai trouv~es, & j'y en ai substitute d'autres.
Je crois qu'on peut se permettre cette liberty
dans la traduction d'un Ouvrage de pur agrement.
I1 faut seulement faire son possible pour n' tre
pas reconnu, & je me trouverai fort heureux si
l'on ne m'apergoit pas.10








Frenais's idea of the translator's role was certainly not

an uncommon one in the eighteenth century.11 Prevost,

in translating Grandison, felt that he was greatly improving

Richardson's work:

Sans rien changer au dessein general de l'auteur
ni m~me la plus grande partie de l'execution,
j'ai donned une nouvelle face a son ouvrage par
le retranchement des excursions languissantes,
des peintures surcharges, des conversations
inutiles et des r6flexions d6plac~es. Le prin-
cipal reproche que la critique fait a M. Richard-
son est de perdre quelquefois de vue la mesure
de son sujet et de se perdre dans les details.
j'ai fait une guerre continuelle a ce defaut
de proportion.

Le Tourneur, in his introduction to his translation (1769)

of Young's Night Thoughts, says, "Tout ce qu'il y a de

bon chez nos voisins nous deviendrait propre, et nous

laisserions le mauvais que nous n'avons aucun besoin ni

de lire ni de connattre."'13 A modern critic, Alfred Owen

Aldridge, in discussing eighteenth-century and modern

problems of translation, says of the eighteenth century:

"La notion la plus r6pandue est en g6n6ral que le traducteur

devrait essayer d'imaginer comment son auteur aurait 6crit

s'il avait eti un auteur compatriot contemporain."14

Finally, Constance West, in her excellent study of eighteenth-

century translation, points out the major types of changes

made in most translations: 1) expurgation of all that is

off the subject; 2) imposition of order; 3) rendering
15
vocabulary and metaphor more acceptable to French taste.

Particularly in the first half of the eighteenth century,








translation was reader-oriented rather than author-oriented.

Even then, however, some critics advocated literal trans-

lation, among them Saint-Simon. As the century went on,

and more genuine interest in foreign literature was gene-

rated, theories of literal translation gained more adherents.16

In his review of Tristram Shandy in 1776, Freron

quotes Frenais's statement about changing some of Sterne's

witticisms and seems to disapprove. He clearly dislikes

Frenais's addition of an attack on La Harpe. Freron may

not have been aware of the extent of Frenais's changes;

Fre'ron was an anti-philosophe, and he mentions such a

leaning in Sterne.17 A comparison of the translation to

the original shows that Frenais added attacks on the

philosophes to Sterne's text.

Another contemporary critic says of Frenais,

"Il a taille, tronque, supprime, substitute de son propre

fonds [ . ] des pages, des chapitres, et tellement

grossi, charge, grimace ce qu'il laissait subsister qu'en

comparant le text et la traduction, il semble voir une

des bonnes comedies de Moliere de'figuree par des farceurs

de la Foire."18 Joseph Texte, writing at the end of the

nineteenth century, says that under the "heavy hand" of

Frenais, "Sterne's eccentricities become absurdities."19

In his preface, Frenais says, "Ces deux volumes-ci

ne font gueres que le tiers du tout. M. Stern ne le donnoit

que par deux parties a la fois, & je l'ai imite. Il se








seroit arr~t6 si celles qu'il avoit publiees n'eussent pas

plu, & je m'arr~terai tout de meme, si ces deux volumes

ne font pas d6sirer la suite" (RV, I, xii-xiii). Frenais

did not continue the translation, perhaps because of the

negative critical reaction to his work.

It was not until 1785 that the rest of Tristram

Shandy was translated, and in that year two translations

of the second half appeared. One was done by a professional

man of letters, Griffet de la Baume. According to Barton,
20
this translation is quite accurate. It contains cuts,

but no additions. The other translation was done by a

nobleman, le marquis Francois de Bonnay.21

De Bonnay's translation, though less accurate

than that of de la Baume, is of more interest for the

present study, since that is the one that Balzac used.

De Bonnay did his translation simply out of a desire to

finish the novel: "J'ai pris le texte Anglois & un dic-

tionnaire-Et moi aussi, j'entends Stern, ai-je dit.-
Peu-a-peu & presque sans y songer, je suis venu a bout

de traduire ce qui restoit de la Vie & des Opinions de

Tristram Shandy" (RV, III, iii-iv). Despite de Bonnay's

lack of experience, his translation is reasonably accurate.

He, too, makes additions as well as omissions, and he

makes some changes: "M. Frenais avoue qu'il a faith beau-

coup de retranchemens, auxquels il a supple' de

son propre fonds.---J'ai use de la m~me liberty que lui,

& je desire que ce soit avec autant de bonheur" (RV, III,








iv). De Bonnay does not distort Sterne's text nearly to

the extent that Frenais does.

The two translations of the second half of Tris-

tram Shandy were both printed in the same format as the

Frenais; both publishers attempted to convince the public

that theirs was the "real" Tristram Shandy. Subsequent

French editions used de Bonnay's translation more than

de la Baume's, although the latter is more accurate. The

work was not retranslated until nearly 1850.

In L'Annee Litteraire, a review of de Bonnay's

translation stated that volume seven of Tristram Shandy,

containing Tristram's travels in Europe, was inferior to

the rest: "Elle est parsemee d'historiettes dont quelques-

unes sont d'un assez mauvais genre; sa plaisanterie n'est

pas toujours entierement dlicate. Il reussit beaucoup

mieux quand il veut peindre le sentiment."22 The French

reading public of the late 1700's was more disposed to

appreciate Le Fever than the abbess of Andouillets.

One critic, however, in Le Mercure de France in

1785, appreciated Sterne as both a sentimentalist and a

satirist.23 Jacques Mallet du Pan compares Sterne to Pope,

a surprisingly perceptive judgment, as it seems to be only

recently that Sterne's solid Augustan orientation has begun
24
to be appreciated. Mallet du Pan says, "vraisemblablement,

Sterne eut le projet de persiffler les longs Romans de sa

Nation; encourage par le succes des premieres parties, il

se livra a son enjouement et au plaisir d' tendre une satire









qu'il rendoit presque universelle."25 He goes on to say,

"On se meprenderoit en ne regardant Sterne que comme un

Romancier facetieux; il est plein de raison, et de raison

fine; il rajeunit lee moralit6s, les maximes, les verites."26

Mallet du Pan also, however, appreciates the sentimental

genius of Sterne, without specifically tying it in with

Sterne's satiric ends. As an example of this genius, he

cites, ironically, a sentimental episode about a dog that

was added by de Bonnay in translation.27

In general, it was the sentiment and subjectivity

of Sterne that attracted the French to him at this time. As

Joseph Texte says, "in France he was looked upon as a kind

of prophet of the new religion that had just been brought

into fashion [by Rousseau], the religion of the self."28

Consequently, it was Sterne's sentiment that was most often

imitated in France in the late eighteenth century, partic-

ularly from 1780 to 1800: "Un livre d'alors ne pouvait

reussir a se fair lire qu'& condition d'avoir un caractere

sentimental."29 Sterne's sentiment was imitated by Madame

de Lespinasse, in some fragments published with the post-

humous works of d'Alembert, by Gorgy, who wrote a continu-

ation of A Sentimental Journey, and by a number of other

more obscure authors such as Franjois Vernes, Pierre

Blanchard, and Louis Damin.30

Despite all of this imitation, "le nombre et la

popularity des voyages sentimentaux C ]ne prouvent

pas neanmoins que l'auteur anglais ait joue un grand r6le








dans le developpement du roman franjais."31 There is one

notable exception to the mediocrity of Sterne's imitators

at this time: Diderot. In Jacques le fataliste, Diderot

went beyond Sterne's sentimental facade, although there

is a near-sentimental tenderness between Jacques and his

master that is reminiscent of Toby Shandy's relationships

with both his brother Walter and his servant Trim. Jacques

is built around an incident directly borrowed from Sterne;

more important, it uses many of Sterne's techniques--

dialogue with the reader, digression (we have to wait as

long for Jacques's amours as we do for Toby's), and the

combination of much detail with a cryptic, elliptical

presentation. Although Joseph Texte feels that most of

Diderot's borrowing from Sterne is "not happy,"32 I feel

that Jacques is a truly great novel, and that Diderot is

the only French writer before Balzac who imitated Sterne

well.33 Balzac, interestingly, referred in 1840 to Jacques

le fataliste as a "miserable copie de Sterne.'34

Xavier de Maistre's Voyage autour de ma chambre

(1794) and L'Exp~dition nocturne autour de ma chambre (1825)

are also successful imitations of Sterne, although they

imitate almost exclusively the detailed description and

the tenderness of feeling characteristic of A Sentimental

Journey. De Maistre does not capture Sterne's humor, as

does Diderot.35

At the turn of the century, some French critics

seem to have tired of the endless imitations of Sterne.








In Le Spectateur Fran~ais, in 1805, a M. Delalot deplores

the plethora of imitations of Sterne: "Sterne est, comme

le docteur Swift, et comme Rabelais qu'il a beaucoup imite,

un de ces hommes dont on peut admirer l'esprit, mais qu'on

ne doit prendre pour module."36 He strongly criticizes

these imitators:

Sterne a ete quelque temps l' crivain a la mode;
il a opere une sorte de revolution litt&raire
[ . 1; ii a prouv6 qu'on pouvait faire un
livre, sans rien savoir, en ecrivant hardiment
toutes les fadaises qui vous passent par la
tate. Son exemple a seduit cette foule d'agreables
ignorans, qui se croient pleins d'esprit au
moindre billet qu'ils ecrivent.37

He goes on to say:

Vous n'avez ni ordre, ni suite, ni liaison a
mettre dans les idles: vous passez d'un cimetiere
a un cabaret, sans transition aucune; c'est la
le piquant. Si une phrase vous embarasse a finir,
vous la laissez; cette suspension est un trait
d'esprit; chaque page de Sterne est remplie de
ces petites surprises, qui d'celent de l'affectation.
Il commence une aventure, et ne l'ach~ve point;
le lecteur, dont il a pique la curiositY, cherche
la suite des evenements, et ne tro ve rien:
n'est-ce pas la un tour bien gai? o

The heavy tone of sarcasm in this article is certainly

partly due to the large number of mediocre imitations

of Sterne at this time. It is also important to note that

the article follows the publication of Ferriar's Illustra-

tions of Sterne (1798), which "reveals" all of Sterne's

borrowing from other authors. This work did considerable

damage to Sterne's reputation in England, and some of this

negative reaction probably spread to France.39 The Se-








tateur article mentions Ferriar's work as "un rude coup

porter a la gloire de Sterne."40

Nonetheless, early nineteenth-century French

literature still teems with imitations of and borrowing

from Sterne. Eric Partridge, in his survey of The French

Romantics' Knowledge of English Literature (1820-1848),

dealing mainly with direct references to English authors

in French letters, memoirs and periodicals, mentions

imitations of Sterne by a number of minor writers. He

also points out borrowing from Sterne in a number of

major ones. He cites a critic who compares Madame de

Stabl's Corinne to A Sentimental Journey. He feels that

Hugo's use of dialogue in Bug-Jargal is from Sterne.

The plan of Alfred de Vigny's Stello is said to be based

on Tristram Shandy. Partridge mentions Balzac briefly

but does not cite any specific works. And Barbey d'Aure-

villy, in the early 1850's, is said to be indebted to

Sterne 41

Although these authors drew on a number of dif-

ferent aspects of Sterne, sentiment is still at this time

the most appreciated facet of his work. As late as 1853,

we find Barbey d'Aurevilly writing: "Sterne, un de mes

plus vieux favoris, [ . ] cet adorable g6nie qui porte

a sa boutonniere une des fleurs, la plus pale, du bouquet

d'Ophelie, et sur la poudre de sa perruque le plus melan-

colique rayon qui soit tomb6 d'une lune r~veuse sur les

fleurs jaunes des cimetieres que Gray a chantss."2








Unsurpassed, perhaps, in its extravagance--Sterne would

have laughed--this is by no means an uncommon view of

Sterne in Balzac's time. F6lix Mornand, in an appreciation

of Sterne in L'Artiste (1845), writes: "0 bon Yorick!

[ . ] toi, dont l'humour candide et la malheureuse

bonhomie n'ont d'6gal peut-ftre que l'exquise sensibility

repandue comme flots dans toutes tes pages, et qui

mouilles nos paupieres de tant de larmes sympathiques,

-6 Sterne!" etc.43 The article is headed"A Laurence

Sterne," and is simply the dedication to Sterne of the

sentimental anecdote that is to follow in the next issue.

Mornand speaks repeatedly of the "mince volume" that

Sterne produced; Tristram Shandy is completely ignored.

Jules Janin, in the introduction to his trans-

lation of A Sentimental Journey (1840), cautions the reader

against accepting too completely Sterne's sentiment:

"Toutefois ne vous fiez pas trop cette bonhomie appar-

ente, car elle cache plus d'un trait acere, et quand le

romancier se montre avec le plus de grAce et d'abandon,

soyez sir que le satirique n'est pas loin."44 Janin

does not, however, emphasize this point, and ends up con-

tradicting it by insisting that Sterne possesses a basic

innocence in his viewpoint and that Sterne is Yorick.

To Janin, A Sentimental Journey is "le chef-d'ouvre de

notre auteur."45 Balzac's view that Sterne had written

only one great work, Tristram Shandy, was not shared by

his contemporaries. In 1838, Balzac writes to Madame








Hanska, "Quelle destine pour Cervantes et Richardson de

ne faire qu'une seule oeuvre [Balzac liked Clarissa, but

says in this same letter that he found Pamela and Grandison

'horriblement ennuyeux et bates'] et aussi pour Sterne."46

Roger Pierrot, in a footnote to this letter, says, "Execu-

tion rapide des Nouvelles exemplaires de Cervantes et

du Voyage sentimental de Sterne"; that is, it is obvious

that Balzac is speaking here of Tristram Shandy.47

Philarete Chasles, another of Balzac's contempo-

raries, says of Sterne, "[ill a saisi le Path~tique de la

vie commune et souvent vulgaire; en y joignant de vues

fines, un esprit double, une originality de style, quel-

quefois bizarre, et des peintures de Teniers, a faith le

plus singulier melange qui se trouve peut-6tre dans aucun

language [sic], une sorte de sensibility Epigrammatique."48

There seems to have been a renascence of interest

in Sterne and Rabelais in France around 1830. Maurice

Bardeche attributes this to a reaction against Scott and

his imitators, and also against "l'observation trop docile

des conventions dramatiques par le romancier."49 This is

the time when Physiologie du marriage and La Peau de chagrin,

two of Balzac's most heavily Sterne-influenced works,

appeared. And at the same time, Janin's La Confession,

of which Balzac says, "La, c'est Diderot et son langage

abrupt et bri-lant; ici, c'est Sterne et sa touche fine

et delicate."50 And Nodier's L'Histoire du roi du Boh~me

et ses 2 chAteaux appeared, a frank imitation of Sterne.








This work contains all of Sterne's quirks and more. It

also contains some sentimental moments which are like Sterne;

Barton writes, "As in the case of Sterne, [Nodier's] unkindest

remarks are softened by the brightness of a smile or the

glistening of a tear. Nodier's tears, though, are always

sincere."51 It is in the area of style that Nodier's

greatest debt to Sterne lies, according to Barton. He

concludes that Sterne had little lasting influence on

Nodier's novels and short stories--except, perhaps, for

the sentimental moments--but influenced profoundly all

of Nodier's works "in a lighter vein."52

Theophile Gautier's early works were also in-

fluenced by Sterne, according to Barton: "Tristram sug-

gested to him an experiment in literary expression and

aroused in him the desire to see what effects he could

produce with instruments that Sterne had used with such

marked success. He experimented therefore with this

alluring but artificial style, and when he had exhausted

its possibilities, he moved on to something else."53

Barton adds: "It is significant to note [ . ] that

almost every volume of Gautier in which a reflection of

Sterne's style may be detected contains references to

Tristram Shandy and snatches of phrases almost literally

translated from that production.''54 This is also frequently

true of Balzac. Sterne's influence on Gautier is quite

clear in the early works, says Barton, but only there.








Gautier seems to have tried out various gimmicks from

Sterne, but he did not ever absorb them into techniques.

Sterne, then, was very much a part of French

literary consciousness in Balzac's time, although most

of his imitators were content to draw sentiment and

trickery from Sterne rather than any concrete ideas or

techniques. Balzac seems to have recognized more clearly

than his contemporaries that, as Genevieve Delattre puts

it, "la technique de Sterne E . ] offre une infinite

de modules selon qu'on y etudie le dialogue, l'art de la

digression, le style epistolaire, le r6cit a la premiere

personne, et bien d'autres encore. Tout y est.55

There is some question as to when Balzac first

read Sterne. In an article on Une Heure de ma vie, a

very early short work by Balzac, Roland Chollet asserts

that Balzac did not read Sterne until the end of 1821,

after he wrote L'Heritiere de Birague, "qui n'accuse

gu~re l'influence du grand ecrivain anglais que dans
une pigrphe pruve.56
une epigraphe ajoutee sur Ipreuve. I observe, however,

a number of other characteristics of Sterne in L'Heritiere

de Birague: the introduction, with its many ellipses (which

Chollet says may have been added later), the hobby-horsical

characters of Chanclos and Vieille-Roche, and the similarity

of the chapter with the Sterne epigraph to an episode in

Tristram Shandy. I feel that Balzac had probably read at

least Tristram Shandy before writing L'H6ritiere de Birague.








Chollet points out that Sterne's influence is quite obvious

in Jean Louis, and he is right. Sterne was certainly very

much in Balzac's mind in late 1821 and early 1822. This is

also where we find the most frequent references to Sterne

in Balzac's correspondence. It is possible that during this

period Balzac was reading A Sentimental Journey for the first

time--this, perhaps, after L'Heriti~re de Birague--since

the citations in the correspondence are mostly from A

Sentimental Journey. Une Heure de ma vie, dated by Chollet

around March, 1822, is much closer to A Sentimental Journey

than to Tristram Shandy, although it bears marks of both.57

I posit that Balzac read Tristram Shandy before writing

L'Heritiere de Birague (that is, in the fall of 1821, or

even earlier), and A Sentimental Journey just afterwards.

The citations of the Journey in the letters and the imita-

tion of it in Une Heure de ma vie may be the result of

Balzac's first flush of interest in the work;-never again

in his writing career will he show so much concentrated

interest in it.

Balzac undoubtedly read an edition of the complete

works of Sterne. We find references in Balzac's works

not only to Tristram Shandy and A Sentimental Journey,

but also to Letters from Yorick to Eliza (spurious),

Sterne's Memoirs (spurious), and even the sermons. Refer-

ences to these last two appear as early as the romans de

jeunesse; Balzac's enthusiasm for Sterne must have been

immediate and great.








Laure Surville, Balzac's sister, associates

Balzac's interest in Sterne with the personality of their

father. According to Laure, Bernard-Frangois Balzac

"tenait a la fois de Montaigne, de Rabelais, et de l'oncle

Tobie par sa philosophie, son originalit6, et sa bonte.

Comme l'oncle Tobie, il avait aussi une idle pr"dominante.

Cette idle etait chez lui la sante."58 This affinity

has often been noted by critics. L.-J. Arrigon, in Lesi

Debuts litteraires de Balzac, writes: "Sterne C I

est encore un de ses auteurs pref6res, et probablement

cette inclination lui vient de son pere: la verbosite

humoristique et les theories bizarres de l'auteur de

Tristram Shandy sont dans la maniere de B.-F. Balzac."59

Balzac's mother did not approve of her son's

interest in Sterne. In a long letter to Laure, written

in 1822, in which she points out the many faults she sees

in Clotilde de Lusignan, she says, "La frequentation des

jeunes gens qui, entre eux, se gftent le gout, perdent

les convenances, oublient ce qui est bien et ne croient

beau que les sornettes qu'ils se debitent pour rire, a

je crois, beaucoup influx sur le genre d'Honor6. Rabelais

lui a faith tort aussi; Sterne est aussi pour quelque chose

dans la suspension de sens, enfin que je suis desolee,

voila mon refrain."60 To Madame Balzac, Sterne is seen

as almost a part of the bad company that Honors was keep-

ing. But the youmg author was to gain much more than

sornettes from his association with Sterne.








The great bulk of the criticism connecting Balzac

and Sterne has tended, with a few notable exceptions, to

remain either very general or very particular. A number

of critics have pointed out large ideas or methods that

Balzac has taken from Sterne. Maurice Bardeche, in the

introduction to the 1826 text of Physiologie du marriage,

suggests that Balzac gets from Sterne "une certaine fagon

minutieuse d'observer et d'interpreter les petits faits
., ,61
de la vie familiere." Bardeche also feels that Balzac

gets many of his ideas about marriage and women from
62
Sterne, as does A. Prioult. Genevieve Delattre, whose

four pages on Balzac and Sterne in Les Opinions litteraires

de Balzac are in my view the most lucid consideration of

the relationship, mentions, among other things, "recherche

du detail psychologique," and "inventaire des sentiments

humains.''63 Charles D~deyan sets up an entire list of

correspondences between Balzac and Sterne, mostly very

general: "le r6le du hasard," "les glands 4venements

dependent des petits faits," etc.64

A few critics point out narrower areas of influ-

ence. Andre Wurmser, who in La Comedie inhumaine states

that Balzac imitates Sterne "lourdement.,,65 lists as

Balzac's debts to Sterne "le 'dada' [strangely enough,

Wurmser is the only critic I have found who mentions this,

although I think it is one of Balzac's most significant

debts to Sterne], la croyance l'influence et a la sig-








nification de noms, le goat des affirmations paradoxales

C . 1, sa gaillardise enfin, qui n'apparait toutefois

que dans les oeuvres mineures de Balzac, jamais dans La

Comedie humaine.''66 Although it is incomplete, and not

explored any further, what Wurmser says is fairly accurate.

There are, in fact, many traces of Sterne throughout the

Comedie humaine, but the heaviest concentrations lie in

the expository works in the section entitled Etudes

analytiques (which although they form a part of the larger

work are different from the rest in style and content),

and in Balzac's pre-Comedie humaine works. Fernand Balden-

sperger, among others, also mentions the connection between

Balzac and Sterne on theories of names,67 and he attributes

Balzac's use of "folitres 6numerations" to Sterne.68

Genevieve Delattre is the only critic who has raised

clearly the very important question of how seriously

Balzac took Sterne's ideas. It is one thing to say that

Balzac got his theory of the importance of names from

Sterne; it is quite another to consider whether this is

a serious idea in either of the two authors.

Other critics have simply pointed out specific

references to or echoes of Sterne in Balzac, particularly

in the romans de jeunesse, where the influence is most

obvious, but no one seems to have tried to fit these into

larger patterns, to try to measure the breadth and depth

of what Balzac borrowed and learned from Sterns. Rene








Guise, in an article in L'Anne Balzacienne, urges Balzacians

to undertake more comparatist studies.69 He feels that there

is much to be done in this area, and Sterne is one of the

authors that he mentions.70 He sees such studies as dif-

ficult and exacting tasks, because of "l'ampleur de l'louvre

balzacienne" and "la complexity de l'histoire de chacune

des oeuvres qui la composent ]. On comprend que

le chercheur hesite a s'aventurer dans un tel labyrinthe."71

This is even more true when it is a question of a labyrin-

thine work such as Tristram Shandy. Guise urges the com-

paratist to speak of "emprunt possible et non source," and

to "borner ses ambitions a dresser une sorte d'inventaire

des emprunts possibles."72 I have tried to do so, and at

the same time to consider how Balzac used Sterne in devel-

oping his own views on literature, in developing his nar-

rative techniques, and as a basis for some of his ideas.

I will first consider in some detail the trans-

lation of Sterne's works by Frenais and de Bonnay. This

comparison will center on Tristram Shandy, partly because

this is the work of Sterne that Balzac preferred, and

partly because this work undergoes the most change in

translation. The Tristram Shandy that Balzac knew is

quite different from the one Sterne wrote. I will then

examine borrowings from Sterne in Balzac's early works--

before 1829. When considering the Come'die humaine, I

have found it convenient to break my observations into

three separate parts. First I will enumerate and discuss








the purely literary references to Sterne, and the citations

and echoes of specific characters and incidents. Next, I

will consider various stylistic and narrative devices that

Balzac seems to have borrowed from Sterne. Last of all, I

will look at the ideas that Balzac has borrowed from Sterne,

including the hobby-horse, which eventually works itself

into the central tragic concerns of the Come'die humaine.

In these three chapters devoted to the Comedie humaine, I

also take up the relatively small amount of evidence drawn

from the ouvres diverses (post 1829), and the few dim

traces of Sterne that I have found in the Contes drolatiques.

I have examined all of Balzac's Th66tre as well, but I

found there no sign of Sterne's influence.73

For my present purposes, I have not found it

pertinent or productive to seek extremely general links

between Balzac and Sterne. Although it is common in com-

parative studies to seek to link personalities and to find

profound affinities between authors--as does Maurice Le-

cuyer in his interesting study Balzac et Rabelais, for

example74--I have found many specific links between Balzac

and Sterne and have chosen not to seek these more general

connections. Similarly, some critics cited above have

found very general ideas--about marriage or women, for

example--in common between Balzac and Sterne. Certainly

Sterne may have had some influence on Balzac's thinking

in these areas, but Balzac's own life experience and other








readings also taught him much. I have preferred to limit

my study to more specifically literary concerns, and, in

the realm of ideas, to areas in which Balzac himself acknowl-

edges his debt to Sterne.

Even limiting my study in this way, I have

remained acutely aware of Genevieve Delattre's words of

caution: "Nous n'en finirions pas, s'il fallait enumerer

routes les occasions qui se presentent a Balzac d'adopter

telle ou telle idle de Sterne, ou de se rememorer un

personnage ou un incident."75












NOTES


1Charles Dedeyan, "Balzac et l'Angleterre,"
in Balzac: Le Livre du centenaire (Paris: Flammarion,
1952), p. 29; and Maurice Bardeche, editor's introduction
to Balzac, Une Heure de ma vie, in La Femme auteur et
autres frag cnts inedits de Balzac recueillis pr le vi-
comte de Lovenjoul (Paris: Grasset, 1950), p. 238.
2An excellent study of the history of the
critical reception of Sterne's work in England is Alan
Howes, Yorick and the Critics (New Haven: Yale University
Press, 1959T.
3Francis Brown Barton, Etude sur l'influence de
Laurence Sterne en France au dix-huitieme sicle (Paris:
Hachette, 1911)9 PP. 3-4.

4Barton, PP. 7-9. See also Joseph Texte, Jean-
Jacques Rousseau et les origines du cosmopolitanisme
litteraire (Paris: Hachette, 1895), pp. 278-82.
5Barton, p. 2.

6Barton, P. 3.
7The life of Joseph-Pierre Frenais is obscure;
he was born near Vend6me, at Freteval; he died at the
beginning of the nineteenth century. His reputation rests
solely on his translations of Sterne, Wieland "et d'autres
compositions agreables." Biographie universelle, Nouvelle
ed., J. F. Michaud (Paris: Madame C. Desplaces, 1843-65),
s.v. Fresnais.
8See Paul Van Tieghem, L'Annee Litteraire (1754-
1790) comme intermediare en France des litteratures etran-
ger- s T1914; rpt. Genve: Slatkine, 196), pp. 22-24, 40-43.
9Elie Fr~ron, "La Vie et les opinions de Tristram
A T
Shandy," L'Annee Litteraire, XXIII (1776; rpt. Geneve:
Slatkine, 1966), 462.








10Joseph-Pierre Frenais, translator's introduction
to La Vie et les opinions de Tristram Shandy [tr. Frenais
and de BonnayTTYork and Paris: Ruault, Volland, 1776-85),
I, xiii-xiv. Hereafter cited in text as RV.

11See Constance West, "La Theorie de la traduction
au )VII1e siecle," Revue de Litterature Comparee, 12 (1932),
330-55.
12Pr~vost, translator's introduction to Grandison
(1755), quoted by West, p. 337.
13Le Tourneur, translator's introduction to
Young, Night Thoughts (1769), quoted by West, p. 330.

14Alfred Owen Aldridge, "Le Probleme de la
traduction au XVIIIe siecle et aujourd'hui," Revue Belge
de Philologie et d'Histoire, 39 (1961), 747-58.
15West, p. 341.

16West, pp. 350-55.

17Freron, p. 460.

18Le Journal Encyclop4dique, 15 August 1786,
quoted by Barton, p. 15.
19Texte, p. 283.

20Barton, p. 17.

21Franjois de Bonnay was much more a statesman
than a man of letters. He lived from 1750 to 1825. A
staunch monarchist, de Bonnay emigrated during the revolu-
tionary and empire years, and held several government posts
under Louis XVIII after the Restoration. He wrote some
poetry, but his translation of the second half of Tristram
Shandy is his only significant literary effort.
22L'Anne'e Littraire, 32 (1785; rpt. Geneve:
Slatkine, 1966). Freron died in late 1776. His work
was carried on by others, who do not sign the individual
articles.
23Jacques Mallet du Pan, "Suite de la vie & des
opinions de Tristram Shandy," Mercure de France, 12 (Nov.
1785), 71-84.







24For this view, see Melvyn New, Laurence Sterne
as Satirist (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1969):
"Tristram Shandy can best be understood by locating it in
the midst of the conservative, moralistic Augustan tradition,"
p. 1.
25Mallet du Pan, p. 75.
26Mallet du Pan, pp. 76-77.
27Mallet du Pan, p. 81. The 1735 L'Annee Litte-
raire critic appreciates the same episode, see below, p. 80.
28Texte, p. 282.

29Barton, P. 39.

30Barton, PP. 38-97.
31Barton, p. 98.
32Texte, p. 284.
33For a detailed study of the rapport between
Sterne and Diderot, see Alice Green Fredman, Diderot and
Sterne (New York: Columbia University Press, 1955).
34Balzac, "Lettres sur la litterature," III, in
Revue Parisienne (25 September 1840), in Gbuvres diverses,
ed. Marcel Bouteron and Henri Longnon, XL (Paris: Conard,
1940), 318.
35See Barton, pp. 127-42, and Henri Glaesener,
"Laurence Sterne et Xavier de Maistre," Revue de Littra-
ture Comparge, 7 (1927), 459-79.
36Delalot, "Sur les (buvres de Sterne, Le
Spectateur Frangais au XIXe Siecle, 2 (1805), 656.
37Delalot, p. 647
38Delalot, pp. 648-49.
39See Howes, pp. 81-90.
40Delalot, p. 655.
41Eric Partridge, The French Romantics' Knowledge
of English Literature (1820--148) according to Contemporary
French Memoirs, Letters and Periodicals (Paris: E. Champion,
1924): de Stall,7p.4 Hugo, p. 266; de.Vigny, p. 267;
Balzac, p. 269; Barbey d'Aurevilly, p. 281.







42From a letter of Barbey d'Aurevilly, 1853,
quoted by Partridge, p. 281.
43Felix Mornand, "Un Palmipede meconnu: histoire
d'un aveugle et d'une oie philanthrope," L'Artiste, 5
(1845), 101.
44This introduction was also published as an
article: Jules Janin,"Sterne," Revue de Paris, NS 24 (Dec.
1840), 225.
45Janin, p. 240.

4Balzac, Lettres a Yladame Hanska, ed. Roger
Pierrot, I (Paris: Les Bibliophiles de l'0riginale, 1967),
595 (1 April 1838).
47Lettres a Madame Hanska, I, 595 n.

48Quoted by Claude Pichois, Philarete Chasles
et la vie litteraire au temps du romantisme (Paris: Corti,
1965), II, 84.
49Maurice Bardeche, Balzac, romancier (1940;
rpt. Gen~ve: Slatkine, 1967), p. 330.
50Balzac, review of La Confession in Le Feuilleton
Litteraire, 7 (14 April 1830) in Obuvres diverses, KKXVIII
(Paris: Conard, 1935), 413.
51Francis Brown Barton, "Laurence Sterne and
Charles Nodier," Modern Philology, 14 (1916), 220.
52Barton, "Nodier," p. 228.
53Francis Brown Barton, "Laurence Sterne and
Theophile Gautier," Modern Philology, 16 (1918), 211.
5:4
5 Barton, "Gautier," p. 205, n. 2.

55Genevieve Delattre, Les Opinions litteraires
de Balzac (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1961),
p. 170.
56Roland Chollet, "Une Heure de ma vie, ou Lord
R'hoone A la decouverte de Balzac," L'Annee Balzacienne,
1968, p. 123.
57See entire Chollet article, L'Ann'e Balzacif7'nne,
1968, pp. 121-34. Also see below, pp. 85-88.







58Laure Surville, Balzac: sa vie et ses oeuvres
d'apres sa correspondance (Paris: Librairie Nouvelle, 1858),
p. 7.
59L.-J. Arrigon, Les D6buts litteraires d'Honore
de Balzac (Paris: Librairie Acaemie Perrin, 1924),p. 31.
See also Fernand Baldensperger, Orientations etrangeres
chez Honor& de Balzac (Paris: Champion, 1927), p. 41;and
Delattre, pp. 169-70.
60Letter printed in Roger Pierrot, "Balzac vu
par les siens en 1822," Etudes Balzaciennes, 7 (1959),
252.
61Editor's introduction to Balzac, Physiologie
du marriage Pre-originale, ed. Maurice Bardeche (Paris:
Droz, 1940), p. 34. Hereafter cited in text as PhyPo.
62Bard~che introduction to PhyPo, pp. 34-35;
A. Prioult, Balzac avant La Com6die humaine (Paris:
Courville, 1936), p. 230.
63Delattre, p. 169.

64Dedeyan, p. 290.

65Andre Wurmser, La Comedie inhumaine (Paris:
Gallimard, 1965), p. 89.
66Wurmser, p. 272.

67Baldensperger, P. 45.

68Baldensperger, p. 44.

69Rene Guise, "Balzac et l'6tranger," L'Ann~e
Balzacienne, 1970, pp. 3-19.
70Guise, P. 5.

71Guise, p. 4.

72Guise, pp. 12, 14.

7For the Comedie humaine, I have used the readily
available text prepared by Pierre Citron (Paris: Editions
du Seuil, "l'Intggrale," 1965-66), hereafter cited in text
by volume and page number. For the C uvres diverses, cited
above, I have had to rely on the Conard edition (taking into
account the studies of Bruce Tolley on the authenticity of








the works therein) while waiting for the Bibliophiles de
l'0riginale edition, under the direction of Jean A. Ducour-
neau, to be completed. I have used the Ducourneau edition
of the Contes drolatiques, ed. Rolland Chollet,(Paris: Les
Bibliophiles de l'0riginale, 1969) and the Theatre, ed.
Rene Guise (Paris: Les Bibliophiles de l'0riginale, 1969-
70). For Balzac's correspondence, I have used Roger
Pierrot's edition of Lettres a Madame Hanska, cited above,
and correspondence, ed. Roger Pierrot (Paris: Gamier,
1960-69). For the Romans de jeunesse I have used the
modern facsimile edition (Paris: Les Bibliophiles de
l'0riginale, 1961-63).
74 Maurice A. F. Lecuyer, Balzac et Rabelais,
Etudes franoaises fondees sur l'initiative de la Societe
des professeurs frangais en Amerique, No. 47 (Paris:
Societe d'Edition "Les Belles Lettres," 1956).
75Delattre, p. 171.













CHAPTER I

THE FRENAIS-DE BONNAY TRANSLATION OF STERNE


Balzac was quite interested in a number of the

major figures of English and American literature, partic-

ularly Scott, Byron, Shakespeare and Cooper, as well as

Sterne, although he did not read English. "Je ne sais

pas un mot d'anglais," Balzac writes in a letter to
2
Madame Hanska in 1843. So Balzac's reading of Sterne

had to be in translation, which certainly affected to

some degree his knowledge of the English author.

There are two major nineteenth-century editions

of Sterne's complete works published before the time that

Balzac probably first read Sterne, one in 1803, the other

in 1818, not to mention numerous separate editions of

both A Sentimental Journey and Tristram Shandy. De Bon-

nay's translation of the second half of Tristram Shandy

appears in the 1803 Bastien edition of Sterne's complete

works, the edition that I have used as the basis for this

study. 3 I have not'seen the 1818 Ledoux and Tenr6 edition,

but according to Qu~rard, de la Baume's translations of

the letters and sermons appear in this edition. Querard

does not indicate the translator of the second half of

Tristram Shandy in this edition (although he points out

de Bonnay's part in the 1803), but I think that it was








probably de la Baume because of the use of his translation

of some of the miscellaneous works in this edition; his name

is not mentioned at all in connection with the 1803 edition.4

Although Prioult feels that Balzac probably read

the 1818 edition of Sterne's complete works because it is

listed in the catalogue of the Librairie Pigoreau, "avec

laquelle Balzac eut, d;s cet epoque, tant d'attaches"5

I do not accept this as solid proof. There is ample in-

ternal evidence that Balzac used an edition containing

de Bonnay's translation. Balzac quotes at length from

the second half of Tristram Shandy in the Physiologie

du marriage. He gives the entire text of Walter Shandy's

letter to Toby, containing his advice on love and court-

ship.6 In Balzac there is only one minor variant from

de Bonnay's translation in the whole of this long text.

The phrase in question appears in de Bonnay as follows:

"Si c'eu~t ete le bon plaisir de celui qui distribue nos

lots, et qu'il t'eut d~parti plus de conoissances qu'&
moi 1" (B, IV, lxiii, 173). In the 1826 prJ-

originale text of the Physiologie, the word lots appears

as lois, and remains so in subsequent editions of Balzac's

work (PhyPo, 92). In later editions of the Physiologie,

a further variant has come into this phrase: "et qu'il

t'euit depart" becomes "de te departir."7 This may be

a copying error on Balzac's part. Spelling in the passage

has been modernized in all editions of Balzac: verb endings

change from -ois (etc.) to -ais; Dom-Quichotte becomes








Don-Ruichotte (Phy, I, 111). Also in the Physiologie,

Balzac quotes four short paragraphs from Tristram Shandy

on the drinking of water (B, IV, xxxiv, 87-88; W, VIII, v,

543). The wording of this passage is exactly the same as

de Bonnay's in both the 1826 and 1829 texts of the Phy-

siologie (EhyPo, 125; Phy, I, 252-53); there are only a

few minor differences in typography (italicised words

in de Bonnay are rendered in all capitals in Balzac) and

punctuation. Although I have not been able to examine

the de la Baume translation, because of the identity of

these texts in de Bonnay and Balzac, I feel certain that

Balzac used de Bonnay's translation. These passages are

too long to have come out the same under the hand of

two translators.

In any case, the Sterne that Balzac read is not

the Sterne known to English readers. A close comparison

of the French and English texts of Tristram Shandy and

A Sentimental Journey will bring out the major differences.

Certainly it is impossible to discuss Balzac's use of

Sterne without bearing these differences in mind.

Frenais's translation of A Sentimental Journey,

which was published less than a year after Sterne's original,

is very much more accurate than his (or de Bonnay's) trans-

lation of Tristram Shandy. There are no additions, very

few cuts (only a word or two here and there), and no dis-

tortion of opinions and ideas. Frenais seems simply to

have accepted Sterne's work as it stood. A Sentimental








Journey, although it has caused some critical difficulties

in our time, probably seemed quite simple to the eighteenth-

century reader, who accepted Yorick's double-edged senti-

mentalizing without question.

The one change that Frenais consistently makes.

in the Journey is one he also frequently makes in Tristram

Shandy, that is, to fill in the gaps in Sterne's action.

Thus, on the first page of the Journey, where Sterne allows

Yorick to think of going to France and then immediately to

arrive there, Frenais adds 'Je m'embarque" and "J'arrive."8

Similarly, at the beginning of the second chapter, Sterne

says, "When I had finished my dinner [ . ]." Frenais

phrases it "Je dinai. Je bus, [ . ].(B, V, 2; S, 68).

There are a few minor changes in names. Where Sterne has

said Mr. H- Frenais fills in Hume (B, V, 49; S, 69).

In the incident with Madame de Rambouliet, Frenais changes

the name to Rambouillet, to whom Sterne, according to

Stout, was probably referring, since the behavior that

he satirizes here is that of the pr~cieuses (B, V, 103-04;

S, 181, n.). Frenais's change could be a mistake--more

likely, he thought he was rectifying a spelling error in

Sterne. As does de Bonnay in Tristram Shandy (B, IX, lxxiii,

201; W, IX, ix, 611), Frenais substitutes exclamation for

ejaculation at a crucial moment, although the latter word,

with the same double meaning as in English, already existed

in French (B, V, 208; S, 290).








Stylistically, although this translation lacks

the gross distortion characteristic of Frenais's part of

Tristram Shandy, the rendering of the text is somewhat

different from the original. Perhaps a comparison of a

short passage will demonstrate the nature of the difference:

It must needs be a hostile kind of a world, when
the buyer (if it be but of a sorry post-chaise)
cannot go forth with the seller thereof into
the street, to terminate the difference betwixt
them, but he instantly falls into the same frame
of mind, and views his conventionist with the
same sort of eye, as if he was going along with
him to Hyde-park corner to fight a duel. (S, 89)

Le lobe que nous habitons est apparamment une
espece de monde querelleur. Comment, sans cela,
l'acheteur d'une aussi petite chose qu'une mau-
vaise chaise de poste, pourroit-il sortir dans
la rue avec celui qui veut la vendre, dans des
dispositions pareilles a celles ou j'6tois?
Il ne devoit tout au plus Stre question que
d'en regler le prix; et je me trouvais [sic]
dans la m~me position d'esprit, je regardois
mon marchazd de chaises avec les m6mes yeux de
col~re, que si j'avois 6te en chemin pour aller
au coin de Hyde-Parc me battre en duel avec lui.
(B, V, 21)

Here we see a much milder form of the process of change

that Frenais used later in translating Tristram Shandy.

Sterne has one sentence here; Frenais has three. Frenais

adds a rhetorical question. He is wordy and redundant:

"Le globe [ . I est C . ]une espece de monde,"

where Sterne uses the word world only once. Frenais writes

"une aussi petite chose qu'une mauvaise chaise de poste"

where Sterne simply says "but of a sorry post-chaise."

Still, Frenais covers Sterne's main points without commiting

grave stylistic excesses, and this short paragraph is








typical of the rest. It is certainly not a brilliant

translation, but it is not a grotesque distortion of Sterne,

as is Frenais's part--and to a lesser extent, de Bonnay's

part--of Tristram Shandy.9

The most noticeable changes made in Tristram

Shandy by both translators are those which either omit

or mitigate Sterne's frequent bawdy passages and innuendoes.

Frenais is more prudish than de Bonnay; there are very few

bawdy passages retained in his part of the work. Those

that do remain are considerably altered.

Frenais generally omits or changes questionable

words. He expurgates all Sterne's references to defeca-

tion, even inferred references. At one point when Tristram

is discussing the assimilation of ideas, he uses an apple

as an example: "Whence comes this man's right to this apple?

E . ] how did it begin to be his? was it, when he set

his heart upon it? or when he gathered it? or chew'd it?

or when he roasted it? or when he peeled? or when he brought

it home? or when he digested?-or when he -?" (W, III,

xxiv, 222). In Frenais, the process ends with digestion (B,

II, lvii, 150). Frenais also omits some of Sterne-'s more

fanciful and suggestive names. The entire passage on

Prignitz and Scroderus is cut out (B, II, lxii, 161; W, III,

xxxviii, 232-35). Coglionissimo is left out; for Kuna-

strokius, he substitutes the name Paparel.

Sterne frequently includes questionable or sug-








gestive words in a list that would otherwise be acceptable.

In this situation, Frenais omits the offending word or

words. For example, in speaking of types of eloquence,

Sterne lists those of "the senate, the pulpit, the bar,

the coffee-house, the bed-chamber, and fire-side" (W, II,

xvii, 122). Frenais repeats the list, but removes the

bed-chamber (B, I, xliv, 192). In Dr. Slop's extended

curse of Obadiah, at the end of a long string of activities

in which Slop wishes Obadiah damned, are "in pissing, in

shitting, and in blood-letting" (W, III, xi, 177). These

three phrases are omitted in the French; in the original

Latin, on the facing page, Frenais allows them to remain

(B, II, xxiii, 61). In the 1803 text, the euphemism

vacando is substituted for the specific cacando, but

cacando appears in the original French edition (RV).

In the same curse, we find "'May he be cursed [ . ]

in his thighs, in his genitals,' (my father shook his

head)" (W, III, xi, 177). Frenais leaves "in genitalibus"

in the Latin; in French, we find "dans ses cuisses, reprit

le docteur Slop, dans ses . (mon pere ne put s'emp~cher

de sourire)" (B, II, xxiii, 61). In this case, as in some

others, Frenais retains the suggestion while removing the

offending expression.

Sterne employs many suggestive figures of speech

in Tristram Shandy. Frenais usually detects Sterne's in-

nuendo and makes a change. Thus in Sterne Toby does not

know "the right end of a woman from the wrong" (W, II, vii,








101); in Frenais he does not know "le bon c6te d'une femme

d'avec le mauvais" (B, I, xxiv, 158). Similarly, Sterne's

Susannah declares the newborn Tristram to be "as black in

the face as my---" (W, IV, xiv, 287); in Frenais he is

"aussi noir . . (B, II, lxxviii, 221). Walter

Shandy, "a dear searcher into comparisons," presses

Susannah to finish the phrase; the joke is completely

lost in the French, because of the removal of the pos-

sessive adjective. Other figures of speech which present

too vivid an image under the circumstances are removed.

When Walter Shandy and Toby are downstairs engaged in a

discussion while Mrs. Shandy is in labor, Tristram describes

an interrupted speech of Walter to be "as notable and

curious a dissertation as ever was engendered in the womb

of speculation;-it was some months before my father

could get an opportunity to be safely delivered of it"

(W, II, vii, 102-03). In Frenais it is "la plus remarquable

et la plus curieuse dissertation que la speculation eat

peut-etre jamais produite.---Quelque [sic] mois du moins

se passerent sans que mon pare pat y revenir" (B, I, xxiv,

159). Similarly, in speaking of Mrs. Shandy's false

pregnancy, Sterne says "whether it was simply the mere

swell of fancy and imagination in her [ . ] iLt no way

becomes me to decide" (W, I, xv, 41). Frenais omits any

equivalent of the image-suggesting word swell(B, I, xvi,

66).


Sterne often uses suggestive lacunae; Frenais








usually omits them. In discussing Mrs. Shandy's preference

for a midwife, Toby says, "My sister, I dare say [ . ]

does not care to let a man come so near her ****" (W, I,

vi, 100). Sterne goes on to say, "I will not say whether

my uncle Toby had completed the sentence or not;-'tis

for his advantage to suppose he had,-ap, I think, he

could have added no ONE WORD which would have improved

it." He elaborates on the importance of "small particles"

of eloquence (there are many innuendos throughout the

passage), repeats Toby's phrase and the asterisks, then

says, "Make this dash,-'tis an Aposiopesis.----Take the

dash away and write Backside,-'tis Bawdy.-Scratch

Backside out, and put Cover'd-way in,-'tis a Metaphor;

-and, I dare say, as fortification ran so much in my

uncle Toby's head, that if he had been left to have added

one word to the sentence,-that word was it" (W, II, vii,.

100-101). Frenais settles the question by translating

the phrase under discussion as "ma sceur ne veut apparem-

ment pas qu'un homme l'approche de si pros .. . (B,

I, xxxiii, 156); he cuts out all of the discussion imme-

diately following (all that is summarized above is left out),

There are instances where Frenais does allow

some of Sterne's ribaldry to come through. In Slawken-

bergius's Tale, much of the preliminary discussion of

noses is retained (though much is cut). Within the tale

itself, Frenais cuts some of the most obviously suggestive

parts, such as "every finger-every thumb in Strasburg








burned to touch it" (W, IV, 255-56), but many innuendos

are kept.

Another episode in which Frenais only half

expurgates Sterne's bawdiness is that in which Trim takes

Bridget on a nocturnal survey of the fortifications.

Frenais cuts out the preparatory paragraph concluding

with "now and then, though never but when it could be

done with decorum, [Trim] would give Bridget a -"

(W, III, xxiv, 209). The ensuing scene, where Trim

steps too near the fosse and falls in, breaking down

the drawbridge and falling on top of Bridget, is replete

with sexual byplay. Although Frenais does add some re-

sistance on Bridget's part, the scene is essentially

unchanged. Frenais even goes so far here as to add a

few words about a "contusion que mamselle Brigite avait

regue au haut de la cuisse," a particularly Shandean

addition (B, II, xlvi, 126). At the end of the anec-

dote, related on several occasions by Trim to Walter,
who would listen "smiling mysteriously," "It was a thou-

sand to one, my uncle Toby would add, that the poor fellow

did not break his leg.-Ay truly! my father would say,

---a limb is soon broke, brother To2, in such encounters"

(W, III, xxiv, 211). This last is rendered simply "une

jambe [ . ] est bient6t cassee" (B, II, xlvi, 125-26).

The rest of this chapter in Sterne, which is made a new

chapter by Frenais, is partly taken up with a panegyric,

by Walter, "on the BATTERING-RAMS of the ancients."








Walter ends by saying, "But what are these [ . I to

the destructive machinery of corporal Trim?" (W, III,

xxiv, 211). Frenais exactly reverses the rhetorical pro-

cess here, completely removing the function of the passage

as a celebration of Trim's prowess. He describes the

ancient weapons, and he does say that Walter "ne voyait

rien de si beau que le belier" (B, II, xlvii, 127). But

then he says, "Qu'est-ce que les machines destructives

de Trim, aupr~s du miroir ardent d'Archimede, qui em-

brasoit, dans un clin d'ceil, des flots entiers [ . I"

(and so on). Much is added here (B, II, xlvii, 128).

At the beginning of the following chapter (a

new chapter begins in both Frenais and Sterne), Frenais

adds an initial paragraph that seems to be an apology for

or a disavowal of what went before: "J'6tois tent de

d~chirer le chapitre qui precede. I1 est si loin de

l'aventure de Trim! heureusement que j'avois prevenu mes

lecteurs que je m'egarois [a reference to the previous

chapter title, "Je m'egare" (B, II, xlvii, 127)], ils

ont 6te les maftres de ne me pas suivre, et d'en venir

toute de suite "a la continuation de cette anecdote" (B,

II, xlviii, 129). This disavowal could refer to the

suggestive nature of the material in Sterne, or to Frenais's

own lengthy additions. In the chapter itself, Frenais

dilutes considerably the phallic overtones of the dis-

cussion of horizontal bridges.

It seems quite clear that Frenais is basically








opposed to the suggestive wordplay in Tristram Shandy.

At one point, he even makes a direct statement to this

effect. In need of a figure of speech to describe wit

and judgement, diametrical opposites to Tristram, Sterne

chooses "farting and hickuping" (W, III, xx, 193). In

the French, Frenais uses 'Ile mensonge et la verite, l'in-

difference et l'amour." He then adds (there is no equiv-

alent in Sterne), "Est-il necessaire de toucher aux deux

extremites du monde pour faire des comparaisons? celles-

ci eclaircissent tout aussi bien la mati;re" (B, II, xxix,

94). These two sentences seem to be a sudden outburst

of impatience and indignation with Sterne. They are an

open statement of Frenais's prudishness, obvious from a

comparison of the two texts.

De Bonnay exercises less censorship. He still

avoids some words. Cod-piece gives him some difficulty

(as it does to Frenais, who laments, during the Phutatorius

incident, the lack of an equivalent in French [B, II, xciv,

258; W, IV, xvii, 320]); where Walter Shandy "clapped both

his hands on his cod-piece," de Bonnay gives us "Mon pere

frappa des deux mains sur ses cuisses" (B, IV, xiii, 37;

W, VII, xxvii, 514). In the episode of the channel cros-

sing, the woman who ends up "undone," is, in de Bonnay,

simply "tres mal" (B, III, lxxxvi, 229; W, VII, ii, 481).

The effect of the words bougre and foutre (which Sterne

renders as bouger and fouter) on which the abbess of

Andouillets scene is built, is supposedly circumvented









by Tristram's--and the nuns'--delicacy. Nonetheless, they

do appear written out, "' bou- bou- bou- bou-' 'ger, ger,

ger, ger."' In translating, where the two words are first

introduced, de Bonnay gives the first syllable of each;

after the abbess has said "bou- bou- bou- bou-" de Bonnay

says "Il nest personne un peu instruite qui ne sache ce que

repondoit Marguerite." Marguerite then says "fou- fou-

fou- fou-," and instead of the abbess' response, we find

"Je lis dans vos yeux, mademoiselle, qu'au besoin vous

auriez pu achever le mot pour l'abbesse." Where the ab-

bess and the novice are saying the words rapidly, de Bonnay

gives us "''b-b-b-b' ,g-g-g-g'",; "'f-f-f-f-' 't-t-t-t'"

(B, IV, xi, 31; W, VII, xxv, 510).

At another point where it is a question of a

doubtful word--and incident--de Bonnay has made either

a discreet change or a mistake. In the incident where

Toby, Walter and Trim are discussing radical heat and

radical moisture, Trim explains that radical heat is burn-

ing brandy, and narrates an episode from his and Toby's

military life to illustrate the point. Victims of a "flux"

during a campaign, Toby and Trim rid themselves of this

"radical moisture" by burning brandy in their tent. De Bon-

nay translates flux as innondation; it is a legitimate trans-

lation, and it works in the passage, necessitating no fur-

ther changes. But it is obvious that in Sterne flux means

dysentery, not a flood, and there is much wordplay on it:








"the corporal kept up (as it were) a continual firing,"

etc. (B, III, xli, 114; W, V, xl, 399). All of Sterne's

double meaning is destroyed by the translation of that one

word.

Yet although de Bonnay shies away from some words,

others he allows to pass. And in one instance, he supplies

a word that Sterne has left out; "The old mule let a f-"

becomes "La vieille mule fit un pet" (B, IV, viii, 25;

W, VII, xxii, 508).

De Bonnay, like Frenais, often changes figures

of speech. "She looks at her outside-I at her in-"

becomes "Elle regarde une chose par un cote; je la regarded

par un autre" (B, III, xxvi, 84; W, V, xxiv, 382). Where

Walter Shandy is discussing the requirements for a tutor,

de Bonnay leaves out certain of the niceties demanded.

The passage is set up just as Sterne has it, but these

requirements are left out: the tutor is not to "pick [his

nose], or blow it with his fingers"' "nor (according to
Erasmus) shall he speak to anyone in making water,-nor

shall he point to carrion or excrement" (B, III, xlix,

134; W, VI, v, 415). At least as often as de Bonnay censors

Sterne, however, he preserves or enhances one of Sterne's

innuendos. Thus during the "whiskers" tale, where Sterne

says "De Croix had failed in an attempt to recommend him-

self to ta Rebours," de Bonnay writes "De Croix avait donned

mince opinion de lui a la Rebours dans une occasion essen-

tielle" (B, III, iii, 18;'W, V, i, 345); the use of an








image-suggesting word like mince is certainly a typical

Sterne device. Similarly, after Tristram's "circumcision,"

when Trim speaks to Yorick of his desire to construct arms

from the church-spout and Yorick responds, "You have cut

off spouts enow," de Bonnay makes Trim admit "Javois un

peu rogne le coq de votre eglise"; Yorick's response here

is "Ne serez-vous jamais las de rogner?" (B, III, xxv, 83;

W, V, xxiii, 382).

De Bonnay's treatment of Sterne's suggestive

lacunae is quite distinct from that of Frenais. Frenais

generally rewrites to some degree so he can circumvent

them. De Bonnay, on the other hand, usually fills them

in. For example, when Walter discusses the activities

of famous men at the moment of death, the reader is pre-

pared and waits for an example of someone who died in the

sex act. Sterne does not disappoint his reader's expecta-

tions; he cites "lastly-for of all the choice anecdotes

which history can produce of this matter E . ] this,

like the gilded dome which covers in the fabrick---crowns

all.-Tis of Cornelius Gallus, the prmtor [ . 1.

He died, said my father, as * * * * * * * *

-And if it was with his wife, said my uncle Toby-there

could be no hurt in it." Instead of the lacuna, de Bonnay

gives us "Il mourut dans les bras d'une femme" (B, III, vi,

38; W, V, iv, 357). Of course this phrase conveys Sterne's

meaning, but it does so euphemistically; Sterne's process

allows the reader to imagine that Walter Shandy has not








put it euphemistically. De Bonnay's process, then, sharply

reduces the bawdiness of the passage.

In the same way, when Susannah urges the five-

year-old Tristram to do without the chamber pot (rendered

******* *** in Sterne, pot de chambre in de Bonnay), she

says, "helping [Tristram] up into the window seat [ It

-cannot you manage, my dear, for a single time to *
*** ** *** ******?" (W, V, xii, 376). Here, the configura-

tion of Sterne's asterisks clearly indicates that Susannah

has not used a euphemism; de Bonnay fills in the space

with "de vous en [the chamber pot] passer" (B, III, xix,

73-74). The result of the ensuing accident with the window

is treated in the same way: "in a week's time, or less, it

was in every body's mouth That poor Master Shandy * *
* * * * * * entirely" (W, VI, xiv, 433). Here

the configuration of asterisks in Sterne suggests nothing

specific; the reader, however, is led to assume that a

rather specific description of Tristram's accident is im-

plied. De Bonnay here fills in with "ce pauvre petit

Shand est entierement mutile!" (B, III, lvii, 166).

Sterne continues here by saying that

FAME, who loves to double every thing,-in three
days more, had sworn [ ] "That the nursery
window had not only * * * * * * * *
****************** *******
** ** **;-~but that** *******
** * * * * * * ** * * **
* * * * * * *'s also." (M, VI, xiv, 433)

Here de Bonnay does leave a lacuna, this time less specific








and shorter than Sterne's: "il passa pour constant que la

fen~tre de la chambre de la nourrice avoit non-seulement

mais encore . (B, III, lviii, 166). In

these instances de Bonnay generally says too much, and

implies too little. It is, of course, impossible to say

if de Bonnay purposely cut down on Sterne's ribaldry by

filling in the lacunae, or if he felt that he was retain-

ing or even enhancing it by doing so. The effect is clear

in any case; Sterne's silences are much more suggestive

than de Bonnay's words.

The Widow Wadman/corking-pin passage, one of

Sterne's most outrageously suggestive moments, is changed

only a little in de Bonnay's translation (B, IV, xxxviii-

xli, 94-103; W, VIII, ix-xiii, 547-52). Expressions such

as "old cocked hat" lose their suggestiveness in translation,

and the detailed description of the widow's "northeast

kick" is left out (W, VIII, ix, 548). Immediately fol-

lowing is Tristram's mixed curse on and praise of women,

replete with suggestive images; de Bonnay has removed

the most bawdy of these. He retains the talk of the furred

cap, but "twisting it round my finger" becomes "le regardant

d'un air de colere" (W, VIII, xi, 550; B, IV, xl, 100).

Similarly, "never have a finger in the pye" becomes "je

ne toucherai jamais a ce pAte" (B, IV, lx, 100; W, VIII,

xi, 550), and "get in---or let it alone" becomes "aller

en avant . ou bien se tenir en repos" (B, IV, xlii,

103; W, VIII, xii, 552).










In sum, it is clear that Frenais did not approve

of much of Sterne's bawdiness and wanted to spare his reader

some of the grosser allusions. De Bonnay enters somewhat

into the Shandean spirit, and seems to make some effort

to convey much of Sterne's ribald humor. However, de Bonnay

makes many fewer changes than Frenais in all areas, and

when he does make a change, it is more often concerned

with Sterne's bawdiness than with anything else.

It is amusing that Frenais, in his introduction,

says, in comparing Sterne to Rabelais, "M. Stern s'etoit

en effet nourri des ecrits du Cure de Meudon mais il ne

l'a point imit6 dans ses licences. C'est toujours avec

decence qu'il peint les objets, & il est difficile d'y

mettre plus d'esprit, plus de finesse" (RV, I, xi).

Certainly Sterne is more delicate in his choice of words

than is Rabelais. But the decence of which Frenais speaks

here is that which he himself has imposed on Sterne's work.

Genevieve Delattre says, "Il faut remarquer que Balzac

n'insiste absolument pas sur le cote licencieux du roman

anglais [Tristram Shandy-].I0 Given Balzac's taste for

ribaldry evinced by the Contes drolatigues, I think it is

safe to say that this lack of emphasis in Balzac on the

bawdy side of Tristram Shandy is due in large measure to

the nature of the translation he read. Balzac's comments

on A Sentimental Journey indicate that he did see and ap-

preciate the subtle ribaldry of this work, altered very

little in translation.








A second major area of change in the translations

is religion. Both translators make changes here, but since

the early sections of Tristram Shandy deal more directly

with religion than the later ones, most of the changes come

from Frenais. Catholicism presents the real problem; Sterne

attacks it, both explicitly in allusions to the Catholic

religion, and implicitly in the characterization of Dr.

Slop. The translators, particularly Frenais, have greatly

softened or omitted Sterne's satiric attacks.

Sometimes it is simply a matter of adjusting

single words. Papist becomes catholique (B, I, xxii, 88;

W, I, xx, 56) or pr~tre (B, I, xxvi, 165; W, II, ix, 106).

The many outrages that Sterne attributes to Catholics

Frenais attributes to "faux zeles" (B, I, li, 220; W, II,

xvii, 138). Crimes committed in the name of the "Romish

Church" become crimes committed in the name of religion

in general (B, I, 1, 218; W, II, xvii, 137).

Sterne's most concentrated attack on Catholicism

is worked out through the character of Dr. Slop and through

Yorick's sermon on conscience, read by Trim to the brothers

Shandy and Dr. Slop. Dr. Slop's appearance is unpleasant:

"Imagine to yourself a little, squat, uncourtly figure of

a Doctor Slop, of about four feet and a half perpendicular

height, with a breadth of back, and a sesquipedality of

belly, which might have done honor to a serjeant in the

horse-guards" (W, II, ix, 104). He is often shown to be

a fool. And he is the only important character in Tristram








Shandy who is labelled a Catholic. To enhance Slop's

person would necessitate sweeping changes in the novel.

Instead, Frenais plays down Slop's Catholicism, showing

himself, in the course of these omissions, to be a very

careful reader, for he catches many of Sterne's most subtle

slurs on Catholicism.

Slop first appears astride his horse, about to

collide with Obadiah. When he sees that collision is in-

evitible, he crosses himself (here in Sterne's text there

is the sign which is omitted in the French). "Pugh!"

says Tristram's reader. "But the doctor, Sir, was a Pap-

ist" (W, II, ix, 106). Here Papist becomes pr~tre; pugh

is translated le nigaud, followed by "Il auroit encore

mieux fait de s'arreter tout court, et de ne rien faire

du tout" (B, I, xxxvi, 165). The act of crossing causes

Slop to lose his balance and fall off his horse even before

the collision with Obadiah; Tristram's parenthetical comment,

"which, by the bye, shews what little advantage there is

in crossing," is omitted. Individually, Slop can be shown

to be a fool for crossing himself at the wrong time, but

Frenais will not allow the generalization against crossing

to be drawn from the incident. After falling from his

horse, Slop emerges so covered with mud that he is "trans-

substantiated"; the word is omitted in translation (B, I,

xxxvi, 166; W, II, ix, 106). Similarly, the words "un-

wiped, unappointed, unanealed" are omitted from the des-

cription of Slop as he enters the house (B, I, xxvii, 167;








W, II, x, 107). The reference to Slop's obstetric instru-

ments as "instruments of salvation [probably referring

specifically to the squirt] and deliverance" is omitted.

The pun on deliverance is untranslatable as a pun, and

perhaps that is why both words are omitted. In the light

of Frenais's other changes, though, it is likely that he

found this confounding of religion and obstetrics unac-

ceptable.

When it is a question of the Inquisition, Slop

defends it mildly: "It has its uses; for tho' I'm no great

advocate for it, yet in such a case as this, [one who in-

sults a saint] would soon be taught better manners" (W, II,

xvi, 124). In Frenais, Slop makes a finer distinction,

perhaps so that the reader will not think that he approves

of the Spanish Inquisition: "Une inquisition moderee,

telle qu'a Rome et dans toute l'Italie [ . ] doit Stre

considree sous un autre point de vue. Elle peut 8tre

tres-utile dans bien des cas.---Mais il s'en faut beaucoup

que j'approuve la rigueur excessive qu'elle exerce dans

d'autres pays" (B, I, xlv, 195).

While Trim is reading the sermon, Dr. Slop inter-

rupts him several times; some of these interruptions are

suppressed by Frenais, but in no systematic manner and often

for no clear reason. One long interruption is cut for an

obvious reason, however. It is a discussion between Walter

Shandy and Slop on manners of living and dying, Slop assert-

ing that a Catholic sinner cannot meet death unconcernedly:








"a man in the Romish church may live as badly;-but then

he cannot easily die so.-'Tis little matter, replied my

father, with an air of indifference,-how a rascal dies.

-I mean, answered Dr. S he would be denied the bene-

fits of the last sacraments." Toby asks how many sacra-

ments there are. Upon learning there are seven, he replies

"Humph! [ . ] tho' not accented as a note of acquies-

cence,-but as an interjection of that particular species

of surprize, when a man, in looking into a drawer, finds

more of a thing than he expected. [ . ] Dr. Slop, who

had an ear, understood my uncle Toby as well as if he had

wrote a whole volume against the seven sacraments." Slop

becomes defensive, and cites all of the other phenomena

that occur in sevens: planets, mortal sins, heavens, end-

ing with seven plagues. "That there are, quoth my father,

with a most affected gravity" (W, II, xvii, 129). The

absurdity of Slop's argument and the not-so-subtle contempt

for it shown by Toby and Walter make a poor case for

Catholicism; Frenais omits the entire passage (B, I, xlvii,

203). One more interruption in the sermon deals directly

with Catholicism. "Amongst us," says Slop, "a man's con-

science could not possible continue so long blinded;-

three times in a year, at least, he must go to confession.

Will that restore it to sight? quoth my uncle Toby" (W, II,

xvii, 130). Slop is given no chance to reply. This ex-

change is suppressed by Frenais (B, I, xlviii, 206).

Another more direct attack on Catholicism, in








fact Sterne's most direct attack, is found in the text of

the sermon itself. Yorick has been citing examples of men

whose consciences are inoperative: "A fourth man shall want

even this refuge [law]; shall break through all this cer-

emony of slow chicane;-scorns the doubtful workings of

secret plots and cautious trains to bring about his pur-

pose:---See the bare-faced villain, how he cheats, lies,

perjures, robs, murders-Horrid!" (W, II, xvii, 131).

In Frenais, this example ends here with no further develop-

ment or explanation (B, I, xlviii, 207). Sterne, however,

continues: "But indeed much better was not to be expected,

in the present case,-the poor man was in the dark!-

his priest had got the keeping of his conscience." The

rest of the paragraph is a very unflattering representation

of casuistic Catholicism, ending, "0 Popery! what hast thou

to answer for?-when, not content with the too many nat-

ural and fatal ways, thro' which the heart of man is every

day thus treacherous to itself above all things;-thou

hast wilfully set open this wide gate of deceit before the

face of this unwary traveller, too apt, God knows, to go

astray of himself; and confidently speak peace to himself,

when there is no peace" (W, II, xvii, 131). Up to this

point, Sterne has been attacking in a playful manner the

outward forms and the surface doctrines of the Church.

Here there is nothing playful; this attack comes in the

clearly serious and normative framework of Yorick's sermon.








Sterne's position on conscience, outlined in the sermon,

is that man cannot depend on his conscience (contrary to

the teachings of the moral sense school), but must be

guided by the teachings of Christ. If the Catholic church

relieves man's conscience of responsibility without offer-

ing moral guidance, it is doubly to blame. The outward

forms of Catholicism may be risible to Sterne, and they

can be embodied in a Dr. Slop; the inward effects on a

man's conscience, allowing him to "confidently speak peace

to himself, when there is no peace," are deplorable to

Sterne, and must be presented seriously. This attack is

completely omitted by Frenais; he allows several short

attacks on casuistry to remain elsewhere--but here, where

it is woven so tightly into the fabric of the Church, it

must be omitted.

After the sermon ends, Slop speaks ill of it, and

says "Our sermons have greatly the advantage, that we never

introduce any character into them below a patriarch or a

patriarch's wife, or a martyr or a saint.---There are some

very bad characters in this, however, said my father, and

I do not think the sermon a jot the worse for 'em" (W, xvii,

141). Since much of Yorick's argument rests on the exam-

ples he cites, Slop's objection is absurd. Since he makes

the objection in the name of his church, the Church by

association also looks foolish. Frenais cuts out the entire

exchange (B, I, liii, 226).

And finally, there is one very telling short omis-








sion. As the sermon is coming to a close, during talk of

the Inquisition Trim cries out again and again, identify-

ing the man whose torture is described with his brother

Tom, also a victim of the Inquisition. Finally Walter

begs Trim to be quiet "lest [he] incense Dr. Slop,---we

shall never have done at this rate." The words "lest

Trim incense Dr. Slop" are omitted in translation (B, I,

lii, 223; W, II, xvii, 139). Slop, as an average Catholic,

could have nothing to do with the bad Inquisition. Walter's

fear that Slop might be insulted is actually an insult to

Slop and to most Catholics, so Frenais suppresses it.

Slawkenbergius's Tale also contains a concentrated

attack on Catholicism. The debate among theologians about

the stranger's nose is a satire on ecclesiastical disputes

over matters of doctrine (W, IV, 260-64). Frenais does

not censor any of this attack except to remove the Catholic-

Protestant aspects of the debate; he renders it a dispute

among theologians in general (B, II, 180-83).

De Bonnay makes very few changes that affect

religion, but Sterne deals with religion--particularly

Catholicism--very little in the later books. In one in-

stance, when Tristram is arguing with a French commissary

who is trying to force him to continue his journey by

post-chaise, rather than by boat, as Tristram intends,

Tristram kneels to apostrophize England. A passing priest

offers him extreme unction; Tristram's comment, "I go by

WATER-said I-and here's another will be for making me








pay for going by OYL" is left out in the translation (B, IV,

xx, 59; W, VII, xxiv, 527). A reference to "Saint Boogar

and all the saints at the backside of the door of purgatory"

is changed to "Saint-Ignace de Loyola, et tous ses suppots,"

a fashionable slur on the Jesuits (B, IV, xxix, 78; W, VII,

xliii, 537). And again, when speaking of a fit of laughter

which caused pulmonary bleeding, Tristram attributes the

laughter to "seeing a cardinal make water like a quirster

(with both hands)," while in de Bonnay, it is simply "la

posture ridicule d'un cardinal" (B, IV, xxxv, 91; W, VII,

vi, 545).

The only other change touching on religion that

de Bonnay makes is in the course of a passage on maypoles.

The passage is quite suggestive; clearly Sterne is making

jokes about the phallic nature of the maypole: "The French

women, by the bye, love May-poles, a la folie-that is,

as much as their matins-give 'em but a May-pole, whether
in May, June, ly or September--they never count the

times-down it goes-'tis meat, drink, washing and lodging

to 'em (W, VII, xxxviii, 530). The passage is translated

fairly closely; however, instead of loving maypoles "as

much as their matins," les Frangoises aiment les mais

a la folie . . presque autant que leurs petits chiens"

B, IV, xxiv, 65). This may simply be a mistake in de Bon-

nay; while the English word for morning services is matins,

in French it is matines. The word martin in French means

guard dog.








In general, the philosophical and literary

opinions that Sterne presents, either as his own or as

Tristram's, are preserved in translation. There is one

notable exception. Sterne, it is well known, became

friendly with Diderot and his circle on his visits to

Paris. Although he never embraced the religious aspects

of their free-thinking, Sterne felt a certain intellectual

kinship to these men. Frenais, however, did not like the

philosophes, and he superimposed on parts of Tristram

Shandy his own hostility toward them. The first appear-

ance of the attack on the philosophes is in Yorick's

sermon on conscience. To a paragraph which contains the

central idea of the sermon, "[to] form a just judgement

[of yourself] [ . ] call in religion and morality"

(W, II, xvii, 132), Frenais prefaces: "Et voici ce qui

est de la derni~re importance pour vous. -Le malheur le

plus terrible qui puisse vous arriver, est de vous egarer,

de vous jeter dans l'erreur a cet egard . Philosophes

impies! fremissez . (B, I, xlvii, 209).

Later in the sermon, where the areligious man

defends the motives for morals, Sterne says "Let him de-

claim as pompously as he chooses upon the subject, it will

be found to rest upon no better foundation than either his

interest, his pride [ .' . I" (W, II, xvii, 135). Frenais

says: "Qu'il d~clame sur ce sujet avec autant d'emphase

qu'il voudra; qu'il s'enflamme de tout le feu de nos philo-

sophes, ce phosphore brillant ne me s~duit pas. Il n'a








toujours qu'une vertu apparente, sans solidite, ou qui n'a

du moins pour fondement que son inter~t, son orgueil [ . ]

(B, I, 1, 215). The philosophes are clearly associated with

this type of sin.

In another instance, Frenais adds a thrust at

the Encyclop~die. At the end of his chapter upon chapters,

Tristram says, "I hold [it] to be the best chapter in my

whole work; and take my word, whoever reads it is full as

well employed, as in picking straws" (W, IV, xi, 283).

Frenais omits the deflating end of the sentence, which

terminates Sterne's chapter, and goes on to say, "Une chose

encore que je garantis, c'est qu'il est mieux traits que

dans l'Encyclopedie, et cela ne m' tonne point. De tous

les livres qui portent aujourd'hui ce titre, je ne connais

de bon que .'Encyclopedie Perruguiere" (B, II, lxxiii, 212).

Frenais even adds a direct attack on Diderot.

Sterne says, "I care not what Aristotle, or Pacuvius, or

Bossu, or Ricaboni say,-(though I never read one of them)"

(W, III, xxiv, 208-09). Frenais renders this passage:

"Ariston, et Pacavius, le Bossu et Riccoboni [sic], Diderot

et tant d'autres graves precepteurs du theatre, sont des

messieurs, grace a Dieu, que je n'ai jamais lus, et je

m'inquiete peu de ce qu'ils disent ou ne disent pas" (B,

II, xlv, 120-21).

Sterne's ideas on literature are also somewhat

distorted by Frenais. This translator has made many ad-








ditions in the area of literature and criticsm. Sterne

admires Montaigne, as is clear from his use of Montaigne's

Essais, both in reference and quotation. Frenais seems to

have felt it necessary to make this admiration more explicit.

Tristram expresses a fear that his book may "in the end,

prove the very thing which Montaigne dreaded his essays

should turn out, that is, a book for a parlour-window"

(W, I, iv, 7). Frenais ammends the statement: "Quel chagrin

pour moi, s'il avoit le sort que Montaigne craignoit pour

ses Essais, et qu'ils n'eurent pas?" (B, I, iv, 7-8).

Later, when speaking of sleep, Tristram says, after prais-

ing a quotation from Cervantes on the subject, "-Not

that I altogether disapprove of what Montaigne advances

upon it-'tis admirable in its way.-(I quote by mem-

ory.)" (W, IV, xv, 291). There follows what Work calls

"an olio of quotation and paraphrase from Montaigne's

essay 'Of Experience'" (W, 291, n. 2). After the praise

of Cervantes, Frenais adds a paragraph on sleep-inducing

authors, attacking specifically the director of the Aca-

d~mie franjaise (B, II, lxxxi, 226-27). Then, instead

of translating Sterne's paragraph of paraphrase and quota-

tion, Frenais writes: "Montagne! mon cher Montagne [sic],

tu as aussi ecrit sur le sommeil! pourquoi me tiens-tu

eveille lors m~me que tu en parles, et que les autres

m'endorment en voulant faire le contraire?" (B, II, lxxxi,

227). Sterne's manner of illustrating (in the Renaissance

sense) Montaigne is certainly the more effective, though

less direct.








Frenais expands most of Sterne's mentions of

critics and criticism. Sterne's most concentrated attack

on criticism--all criticism, not merely literary--is in

volume III; it culminates in the line "Of all the cants

which are canted in this canting world-though the cant

of hypocrites may be the worst,-the cant of criticism

is the most tormenting!" (W, III, xii, 182). Frenais

does not violate the basic idea of this passage, and he

follows its outline quite closely. But within the overall

structure of the passage, each individual element is in-

flated and exaggerated. Here Sterne's humor is already

quite inclusive; Frenais renders it sweeping. Thus Sterne's

single sentence beginning "Of all the cants which are

canted in this canting world" becomes

Mes oreilles ont t4 chouees pendant ma vie
de bien des jargons differens. Le jargon des
mystiques, le jargon des faux d~vots, le jargon
des enthousiastes, le jargon des encyclop6distes,
le jargon des theologiens, le jargon des meta-
physiciens, et le jargon plus barbare encore
des avocats, les a souvent tourmentees; mais
de tous les jargons que l'on jargonne dans ce
monde jargonnant, et qu'on y a jargonn6 depuis
qu'on y jargonne; le jargon le plus insipide,
le plus assomant [sic] est a mon avis le jargon
d'un jargonneur de critique, d'un de ces con-
noisseurs a toute epreuve, d'un de ces amateurs
a tous venans, qui ne sait tres-souvent ce qu'il
dit. (B, II, xxvi, 72-73)

Sterne's satire on critics here is the only ex-

tended satiric passage in Tristram Shandy directly dealing

with literature and criticism. Frenais adds another, this

one centering on popular journalism. When Tristram faces








difficulty in getting Walter and Toby off the stairs and

into bed, he calls for a critic to help him. At the end

of the chapter, the critic's solution is discovered: "-So

then, friend! you have got my father and my uncle Toby off

the stairs, and seen them to bed?-And how did you manage

it?-You dropped a curtain at the stairs foot--I thought

you had no other way for it--Here's a crown for your trou-

ble" (W, IV, xiii, 286-87). In Frenais, Tristram calls

for a newspaper rather than a critic, and while waiting

for the newspaper to be brought (before going on to trans-

late Tristram's meditation on how rapidly time is passing

in relation to the progress of his work), Frenais's Tris-

tram ruminates hyperbolically and satirically on the qual-

ities of "nos Aristarques":

En verite, me disois-je, ils sont admirables,
nos Aristarques! . . mais admirabilissimes!
Ils sont fertiles en expediens!
Leur critique est si juste! si honn~te! si
douce!
Ils decouvrent si facilement les fautes qu'on
n'a point faites! (B, II, lxxvi, 218)

And so on. When the newspaper arrives, Tristram discusses

its contents:

Voyons, lisons. La fadeur! . quelle plati-
tude! . c'est-la. une epigramnne? . Je ne
m'en serois pas dout6. Passons . . Une epitre
a un seigneur russe? . Et le seigneur russe
est un cedre du Liban? . et le pobte est une
foible tige d'hysope? . Vil rimeur! tu es
plut6t un ver rampant. Et le seigneur?...
Il est ce qu'il est. Mais quoi encore? Ma foi!
ce quest un seigneur; rien, si vous voulez.
(B, II, lxxvi, 219)








Tristram makes plans to use the newspaper, once he has got-

ten Toby and Walter off the stairs and into bed, to put

them to sleep: "Je lirai a l'un l'6plitre au seigneur russe,

et a l'autre les 6pigrammes" (B, II, lxxvi, 219). Most of

this material is unlike Sterne; Frenais does not tie it

in well with the rest of the chapter, though the suggestion

of reading the paper to Toby and Walter after they are in

bed is an attempt to do so. But instead of allowing the

solution to grow out of the satiric material, as does

Sterne, Frenais imposes it from without in the following

chapter, entitled "Les quatre evnemens"; here is the

chapter in its entirety:

Mon pere et mon oncle Tobie cesserent leur
babil. Ils achev~rent de descendre l'escalier,
allerent se coucher et s'endormirent.
Le journal ne contribua en rien a tout
cela. (B, II, lxxvii, 221)

By allowing Walter and Toby to get off the stairs in this

way, Frenais gives to the characters more control of their

destinies, and to Tristram more control of his work, than

Sterne gives them.

One aspect of Tristram Shandy which attracted a

great deal of interest and imitation is Sterne's idiosyn-

cracies in presentation, such as the marbled page, gothic

lettering, etc. In the 1803 Bastien edition, most of these

typographical devices are missing. The black page at

Yorick's death is not black in the Bastien edition. There

is instead a black-bordered page, blank save for "Helas!








Pauvre Yorick!"; Sterne's black-bordered "Alas, poor

YORICK!' which appears in the text before the last para-

graph of the chapter preceding the black page is omitted

(B, I, xiii, 53; W, I, xii, 33; RV is like Sterne here).

Sterne's famous marbled page, "motly emblem of my work!"

is omitted (B, II, lix, 155; W, III, xxxvi, 227; also not

present in RV). In Frenais's part of the translation,

asterisks denoting lacunae are always replaced by suspension

points; midway through de Bonnay's part, asterisks begin

to appear where Sterne uses them (also true in RV). Sterne

occasionally uses gothic type for emphasis; the Bastien

edition does not (nor does RV). The index sign (W, II,

xii, 114; W, III, xxxvi, 227 and passim) does not appear

in Bastien (it does occasionally in RV). The lines that

Tristram uses to chart the progress of his work are omitted,

as is all explanation in that chapter of the use of time

in fictional narration (W, VI, xl, 473-74; B, III, lxxiv,

225; this is clearly de Bonnay's change, as the lines are

also not present in RV and a change in the text is also

involved). De Bonnay retains Sterne's discourse on the

virtues of straight lines, then adds: "Mais un auteur tel

que moi, et tel que bien d'autres, n'est pas un geometre;

et j'ai abandoned la ligne droite" (B, III, lxxiv, 226).

Actually, at this point Tristram is hoping to achieve straight-

line narration soon. The line traced in the air by Trim's

cane--used by Balzac as the epigraph to La Peau de chagrin








--does appear in Bastien, and is a fairly exact duplication

of the original line in Sterne (B, IV, lxvii, 189; W, IX,

iv, 604). The blank pages left by Sterne for the reader to

describe Mrs. Wadman are reduced from nearly two pages in

Sterne to one-third of a page in Bastien (B, III, lxxxii,

222; W, VI, xxxviii, 470; one page in RV). Chapters XVIII

and XIX of volume nine (B, IV, lxxxii-lxxxiii) are completely

blank in both the original and the translations.

Tristram omits one chapter from his work, a chap-

ter which, he explains, is so good that it dwarfs the rest

of the work. One chapter number is missing in Sterne, and

there is "a chasm of ten pages made in the book by it"

(W, IV, xxiv, 303-312 are omitted). In the Bastien edition

(and RV) Tristram's discussion of the omitted chapter is

translated closely, but the chapter and page numbers con-

tinue in normal sequence (B, II, lxxxix, 245).

Sterne footnotes his text occasionally. Most

of these footnotes are worked into the translated text

(e.g., B, I, xxii, 90; W, I, xx, 57-58). A few are omitted

completely (a few appear in RV that have dropped out in

Bastien). The Latin facing Dr. Slop's curse is retained

in Bastien; that facing the first few pages of Slawkenber-

gius's Tale is omitted (also omitted in RV).

Generally, then, typographical devices are omitted;

only a few appear as they were in the original edition.

There is one kind of addition. In several instances where








a list appears in the course of Sterne's text it is set

off vertically in the translation (B, II, xv, 33; W, III,

iv, 161; and B, II, xxviii, 76; W, III, xiii, 184; and

B, II, lxiii, 169; W, IV, 252). And in Walter Shandy's

lamentation, a list of "Helas!" added by the translator

is set up first in an ascending, then a descending pat-

tern (B, II, lxxxvi, 239-40; W, IV, xix, 296).

The problem of these typographical devices is

one of the more difficult ones in the comparative study.

Of those which appear in the original edition of Tristram

Shandy, some were omitted in later English editions.

Frenais and de Bonnay may have translated from editions

which were already lacking in some of the devices. It

is also possible that the Bastien fonts were not equipped

to reproduce such things as index signs. Some of the

typographical idiosyncracies, as evinced from my examina-

tion of the original French edition (RV), disappeared from

the French text sometime between the original translations

and the Bastien edition.

Sterne does not use chapter titles in Tristram

Shandy. Each chapter is simply preceded by a roman numeral.

From time to time,. Sterne does set off a title, such as

"My Father's Lamentation" (W, IV, xix, 296), but always

mid-chapter. Both de Bonnay and Frenais have chosen to

add chapter titles (the chapters are still numbered), and

both have changed the placement of chapter divisions in

many places. Sterne's division of his work into nine








books has been ignored; chapter numbers begin anew in each

separate volume of the Bastien edition. Both translators

break up long chapters into shorter ones. In Tristram

Shandy there is a total of 312 chapters; in the Bastien

edition there are 351.

Frenais's choice of chapter titles is capricious

and idiosyncratic. Although he does use some simple titles,

such as "La dissertation" (B, I, xl, 182;,W, II, xii, 116),

"Trim" (B, I, xxxii, 144; W, II, v, 93), and "Dialogue"

(B, I, liii, 224; W, II, xvii [mid-chapter], 140), many

of his chapter headings are attempts at whimsey. Thus

he entitles the first chapter, which concerns Tristram's

conception, "C'est bien cela qu'il fallait penser" (B,

i, 1; W, I, i, 4). Frenais frequently uses in a chapter

title pronouns which refer to something in either the

preceding or the ensuing chapter: "En voila l'effet" (B,

I, iii, 5; W, I, iii, 6), or "Elle est renversee" (B, II,

xxvii, 74; W, III, xii [mid-chapter], 183). This type

of title is often confusing, since its meaning is frequently

not clear until after the chapter is read. Frenais's

efforts at cleverness are often wasted.

Similarly, Frenais occasionally makes a chapter

title a rejoinder that would fit at the end of the chapter;

here is the entire text of a chapter which Frenais entitles

"Ni moi non plus":

En verite, frere Tobie, s'6cria mon pare,
je n'y congois rien. Il n'y a encore que deux








heures dix minutes, et rien de plus, que le
docteur Slop est ici, ma montre en faith foi,
regardez-y plut~t vous-mgme; et, cependant, je
ne sais comment il arrive que ces deux heures
dix minutes paroissent un siecle a mon imagina-
tion . . (B, II, xxiv, 85; W, III, xviii, 188)

In some cases, this type of chapter heading intrudes un-

comfortably on the text; for example:

Pourquoi pas?

C'est morbleu bien la le temps, s' cria mon
pare en lui-m~me, de parler de pension, de boulin-
grin et de grenadiers. (B, II, lxviii, 202, entire
chapter; W, IV, iv, 275)

Occasionally Frenais strings chapter titles to-

gether in a series; thus we find in succeeding chapters:

"Comment peindre mon oncle Tobie?", "Nous y viendrons,"

"Un peu de patience," "Enfin nous y voila" (B, I, xxv-

xxviii, 113-22; W, I, xxiii II, i, 74-81). Here Frenais's

device fits in fairly well with the novel; this sequence

of chapters is where the reader first realizes how ill-

controlled Tristram's work is, as Tristram comments all

through this part about how anxious he is to get to the

point. This device of a series of chapter headings is

one that Balzac uses, especially in novels that were pub-

lished serialized.

The voice speaking the chapter title is, I assume,

supposed to be that of Tristram, yet it often intrudes

where Tristram does not belong. Frenais is actually super-

imposing another narrator, a false Tristram, whose running

commentary, through the chapter titles, is often quite

inappropriate.








De Bonnay's choice of chapter titles is consider-

ably more sober than that of Frenais. Most of his chapter

titles are simple statements of the content of the chapter:

"Mon oncle Tobie devient amoureux" (B, IV, lxxxi, 221; W,

VI, xxxvii, 469), or "Portrait de la Veuve Wadman" (B, IV,

lxxxii, 222; W, VI, xxxviii, 470). Frequently his titles

indicate the form--"Dialogue" (B, III, lxxiv, 223; W, VI,

xxxix, 472)-or the function--"La scene change" (B, III,

lxxii, 201; W, VI, xxix, 455)--of the chapter. Occasionally

de Bonnay waxes eloquent, as with "0 Newton! 0 Trim" (B,

III, lxx, 196; W, VI, xxvi, 452); occasionally he uses a

cliche: "I1 y a toujours quelque fer qui cloche" (B, III,

xcii, 242; W, VII, viii, 488). In general, however, his

chapter titles are quite simple. Mallet du Pan, in his

1785 review of Tristram Shandy, mentions the "galimatias"

of the chapter titles as a fault in the novel, not seeming
12
to know they were added by the translators. I am not

alone in my low opinion of these titles.

The best word to describe Frenais's treatment of

all of Tristram Shandy, but particularly of its style, is

distortion. Frenais makes frequent cuts, and many additions,

but most often he simply inflates Sterne's prose, exaggerat-

ing his stylistic idiosyncrasies.

The passage on Tristram's grandfather's nose is

an excellent example of Frenais's characteristic inflation.

Sterne's chapter begins:








-I think it a very unreasonable demand,
-cried my great grandfather, twisting up the
paper, and throwing it upon the table.-By this
account, madam, you have but two thousand pounds
fortune, and not a shilling more,-and you insist
upon having three hundred pounds a year jointure
for it.-
-"Because," replied my great grandmother,
"you have little or no nose, Sir."- (W, III,
xxxi, 217)

Sterne goes on to define exactly what he means by nose, and

cautions the reader against taking the word at any other

than face value. In Frenais, the two short paragraphs

quoted above become:

Je n'y tiens pas, disoit mon bisaleul. Vous
n'y tenez pas? . non, madame, et l'on ne s'est,
peut-etre, jamais avis6 d'une pretention aussi
folle, s' crioit-il, en ouvrant un cahier de papier
qu'il jetoit aussit6t sur la table d'un air furi-
eux. Voyez, voyez-le vous-meme. Madame, ce compte
est clair. Il est demontre que tout ce que j'ai
eu de vous ne consiste qu'en deux mille livres ster-
ling. Il n'y a pas un shelling, pas un iota de
plus. Je defie a l'Arabe qui a invents les chif-
fres, de calculer plus juste; et cependant vous
parlez d'avoir par an un douaire qui surpasse
l'interet de votre dot? . .
J'en parle. Je fais bien plus que d'en
parler; j'y insiste.
Et la raison, s'il vous plaft?
La raison?
Oui, la raison.
Vous voulez que je la dise?
Apparemment.
J'aurois voulu vous epargner ce petit chagrin;
mais puisque vous m'y forcez . Enfin, monsieur,
disoit ma bisaieule, puisqu'il faut vous le dire,
je r~pete un douaire plus fort, parce que vous
n'aviez . mais vous savez tres-bien ce que
vous n'aviez pas . .
Je n'en sais rien.
C'est-a-dire, qu'il n'y a que moi qui me sois
apergue de ce qui vous manquoit. Eh bien! monsieur,
puisqu'il faut vous parler net, ce douaire plus








fort que je r'p te, n'est qu'une indemnity.
Une jeune personne qui se marie par le choix
de ses parens, y va de bonne foi. Elle ne
s'imagine qu'on la trompe.
Je ne congois encore rien a tout cela.
Comment, monsieur, repliqua ma bisaleule,
vous ne saviez pas que vous n'aviez point ou
presque point de nez?
Et que n'y regardiez-vous? avois-je un
masque qui vous empech~t de me voir? . .
Non: mais je m'entends. (B, II, liv,
139-4 1)

Frenais's process here not only betrays Sterne's often-cryp-

tic style, it spoils as well his pleasantry with the defini-

tion of the word. As the ensuing material in the original

work stands, Sterne can blame any double entendre on his

reader's base imagination; Frenais makes the double entendre

so obvious that the burden is no longer on the reader.

There is much addition of rhetorical questions

and exclamations in Frenais; for example: "My uncle Toby

would never offer to answer this by any other kind of argu-

ment, than of whistling half a dozen bars of Lillabullero"

(W, I, xxi, 69), becomes "Que r"pondoit a cela mon oncle

Tobie? Rien: mais il siffloit quelques notes d'un air qui

lui etait familier" (B, I, xxiii, 107). Sterne does use

rhetorical questions and questions posed to his reader, but

not nearly with the frequency of Frenais. The same is true

of exclamations and asides to the reader. The informal style

of narration that Sterne uses is extended to encompass a

large part of Frenais's translation.

Another stylistic change that Frenais often makes








is to turn indirect discourse into direct. For example:

One morning as [Toby] heard [the surgeon's]
foot coming up stairs, he shut up his books,
and thrust aside his instruments, in order to
expostulate with him on the protraction of his
cure, which, he told him, might surely have
been accomplished at least by that time:-
He dwelt long upon the miseries he had undergone,
and the sorrows of his four years melancholy
imprisonment;-adding, that had it not been
for the kind looks, and fraternal chearings
of the best of brothers,-he had long since
sunk under his misfortunes.-My father was
by: My uncle Toby's eloquence brought tears
into his eyes:-'twas unexpected.---My uncle
Toby, by nature, was not eloquent. (W, II,
iv, 91-92)

Il l'entend monter un matin; . aussit~t
il ferme ses livres, cache ses instrumens, et
lui reproche avec aigreur la lenteur de son
retablissement. Combien y a-t-il que j'en
devrois etre quitte! combien de douleurs!
quelle contrainte d'etre oblige de garder ma
chambre pendant quatre annees entieres! Ah!
sans l'amite du meilleur des fr~res, ajouta-
t-il, sans le courage qu'il m'inspire, il y
a longtemps que j'aurois succomb6 'a mes mal-
heurs.
Mon p~re etoit present, et mon oncle mettoit
tant d'energie a ses plaintes, que mon p~re
en versa des larmes. ----C'est ce qu'on n'attend-
oit pas. Mon oncle Tobie n' toit pas naturelle-
ment eloquent. (B, I, xxxi, 142)

By describing Toby's eloquence, and simply hinting at the

content of his speech, Sterne--with the help of Walter's

tears--leaves us convinced that Toby's speech was indeed

very moving. By attempting to reproduce Toby's speech

directly, Frenais forces the burden of eloquence upon him-

self, and he is not equal to the task. He is wise to at-

tribute Walter's tears to the energy of Toby's complaint,








rather than to its eloquence. As in de Bonnay's efforts

to fill in lacunae, the translator is unsuccessful in his

attempts to demonstrate what Sterne simply suggests. There

are frequent instances of this rendering into direct style

what Sterne renders in indirect.

Occasionally, both Frenais and de Bonnay further

formalize Sterne's existing dialogue by setting it off in

dramatic form, thus:

KYSARCHIUS.

Supposons que Gastripheres baptise un
enfant, in homine gatris, au lieu d'in nomine
patris.

DIDIUS.

Eh bien?

KYSARCIIIUS.

Sera-ce l. un bapteme? (B, II, ci, 274;
W, IV, xxix, 326-27)

Perhaps this procedure could be carried out without sub-

stantially altering the dialogue, assuming, as is true in

this case, that Tristram has inserted no commentary. But

in any case, the rhythm of the prose is broken, and Sterne's

phrases such as "quoth my uncle Toby" are very carefully

used for both rhythm and emphasis. Not only is this rhythm

and emphasis lost, though; setting off dialogue as do the

translators fragments and attenuates it, often leaving

much of it completely pointless. Thus after Trim finishes

reading the sermon, we find in Sterne: "Thou hast read the

sermon extremely well, Trim, quoth my father.-If he had








spared his comments, replied Dr. Slop, he would have read

it much better. I should have read it ten times better,

Sir, answered Trim, but that my heart was so full" (W, II,

xvii, 140-41). In Frenais, this becomes:

MON PNRE.

En verite, Trim, je suis fort content de
toi.

LE DOCTEUR SLOP.

Et moi aussi.

MON PFRE.

Il a tres-bien lu le sermon.

LE DOCTEUR SLOP.

Fort bien!

MON ONCLE TOBIE.

A merveille!

LE DOCTEUR SLOP.

Il n'y a que ses commentaires qu'il auroit
pu epargner.

TRIM.

Ma foi! Je n'ai pu y tenir . .

MON ONCLE TOBIE.

Le pauvre gargon!.

TRIM.

Je sais bien que j'aurois mieux lu, si
j'avois ete moins affected. (B, I, liii, 224-25)

Distinctly characteristic of Sterne's style is the

contrast between cryptic presentation and very detailed

presentation--the "second bed of justice" dialogue, for








example (W, VI, xviii, 437-39). Frenais dulls this contrast

considerably, both by the type of expansion shown above,

and by the addition of replies in a dialogue where Sterne

has none.

All is quiet and hush, cried my father, at
least above stairs,-I hear not one foot stir-
ring. -Prithee, Trim, who is in the kitchen?
There is no one soul in the kitchen, answered
Trim, making a low bow as he spoke, except Dr.
Slop. (W, III, xxiii, 206)

Apparemment que les choses vont bien la-
haut, dit mon pere; car on y est bien tranquille.
Qa est vrai, dit mon oncle Tobie.
Mais qui diable est dans la cuisine, Trim?
dit mon pere. J'y entends du bruit!
ga est vrai, dit mon oncle Tobie.
Monsieur, dit Trim, en faisant un humble
salut, il n'y a personne que le docteur Slop.
(B, II, xliii, 116)

Similarly, a feature of Sterne's style is the contrast

between his elaborateness and his sudden jumps, giving

the narrative a distinctive jerky rhythm. Frenais dulls

some, though not all, of this rhythm by the frequent ad-

dition of narration to bridge Sterne's gaps. At the end

of Walter Shandy's lamentation, Toby says "We will send

for Mr. Yorick [ . 1.-You may send for whom you will,

replied my father" (W, IV, xix, 298). Three chapters,

essentially digressive, intervene, then a new chapter

begins, "-But can the thing be undone, Yorick? said

my father" (W, IV, xxiii, 302). In the translation, two

of the three intervening chapters are cut out completely.

Still, Frenais prefaces Yorick's appearance with "Yorick,








que mon oncle Tobie avoit enfin envoy chercher, arriva"

(B, II, lxxxviii, 243).

Another example of this bridging occurs at the

banquet given by Didius. Tristram has torn out the chapter

which was "the description of my father's, my uncle Toby's,

Trim's, and Obadiah's setting out and journeying to the

visitations at ****" (W, IV, xxv, 313), and then takes a

chapter to explain the omission. Narration resumes:

"--See if he is not cutting it all into slips, and giving

them about him to light their pipes!" (W, IV, xxvi, 316).

In the ensuing conversation we learn that "it" is a sermon

that Yorick had preached to the group at the visitation

dinner. Rather than this abrupt resumption of the action,

we find in Frenais:

On avoit beaucoup mange, peu parley et l'on
etoit arrive au dessert avec la plus grande envie
de se dedommager du silence que l'on avoit garden.
Ce fut mon pere qui commenca .
Mais je dois dire a sa gloire que ce ne
fut pas dans l'intention de parler pour lui-
meme.
Nous sommes au moment des choses frivoles,
dit-il. Mais, messieurs, laissons-en plut6t
dire de serieuses. Tenez, voila Yorick qui va
nous lire quelques passages d'un nouveau sermon

D'un sermon? . d'un sermon? . d'un
sermon? . . Ce mot vola de bouche en bouche

Ecoutons, 6coutons, ecoutons! Celui-ci se
rpta en chcur, et Yorick, apres une inclina-
tion de tate la ronde, se mit lire.
Fort bien! tres-bien! belle pens'e! excel-
lente r~flexion! quel feu! quel enthousiasme!
comme cela est chaud!
Yorick laissa les applaudissemens s'accumuler








Mais, mecontent, au fond, de son propre
ouvrage, ainsi que je le suis si souvent du mien,
il dechira son cahier et en presenta un lambeau
a chacun de ces messieurs pour allumer sa pipe.
Quoi donc? s' cria Didius d'un air etonn'.
Voila ce qui est singulier. (B, II, xci, 250-51)

This last is equivalent to Sterne's first sentence, and

Frenais translates fairly closely from that point on the

remainder of the chapter. The flow of Sterne's text is

completely changed by Frenais's addition.

Related to Sterne's technique of beginning a new

scene in the middle is the device of a short skip ahead

in time, with no explanation, no change of setting, and

usually no recapping of intervening events or conversation.

Thus at the end of one chapter Dr. Slop pulls his forceps

from his bag, to demonstrate their use to Toby, and at

the beginning of the next chapter Toby cries "Upon my

honour, Sir, you have tore every bit of the skin quite

off the back of both my hands with your forceps [ . ]

-and you have crushed all my knuckles into the bargain

with them, to a jelly" (W, III, xvi, 187). The effect

is rather like a careless splice in an old film. In this

instance, Frenais defeats Sterne's effect by adding a device

of his own. He translates the end of the one chapter and

the beginning of the other quite closely, but between the

two he inserts a chapter entitled "Rien." The chapter is

as follows:

Je laisse en lacune tout ce que je pourrois
dire ici . . . . . .. . . . .












. . . . . . .. .o .. ..

Le chapitre suivant 114licr . .. . .
(BI III xxxi, 81)

Examples of Frenais's distortion of Sterne's style
abound. One more will serve: "Now in this I think my father

was much to blame; and I will give you my reasons for it"
MW III, ii, 158) is amplified to "Mais, bon Dieu! mon p~re,
que faisiez-vous la*? a quoi songiez-vous? ne voyez-vous done
pas que vous aviez tort? . tort? . oui, sans doute,
et en voice la raison" (B, III xii, 28). Frenais's trans-
lation here is in imitation of Sterne's style; for example:
"stop! my dear uncle Tob,-stop!-go not one foot fur-
ther ].-0 my uncle-! fly-fly-fly from it as
from a serpent" (W, III iij 90). Frenais betrays Sterne's
text with Sterne's own devices.
De Bonnay makes far fewer stylistic changes than
Frenais and is guilty of none of the distortion and exaggera-
tion typical of Frenais. He retains more closely Sterne's
sentence structure and use of the dash, and clearly tries
to stay close to Sterne's rhythm and style. De Bonnay does
add some rhetorical questions and some asides to the reader,
but not nearly with the frequency of Frenais.
De Bonnay occasionally renders indirect discourse
direct, thus:








My father, I say, had a way, when things went
extremely wrong with him, especially upon the
first sally of his impatience,-of wondering
why he was begot,---wishing himself dead;-
sometimes worse. (W, V, xiv, 370)

Quand les choses tournoient mal pour lui, et
surtout dans le premier mouvement de son impa-
tience,-pourquoi suis-je ne? s' crioit-il.
Eh! que fais-je sur la terre? Je voudrois etre
mort.---C'toit-la ses moindres imprecations.
(B, III, xv, 61)

De Bonnay also now and then fills in gaps in the narration,

although not as often as Frenais. Thus at one point in

Tristram's journey, a passing girl is mentioned: "Ah! ma

chere fille! said I, as she tripped by, from her matins,

-you look as rosy as the morning" (W, VII, vii, 487).

She has no formal antecedent here, thus lending a certain

appropriate abruptness. De Bonnay introduces her in a

more direct and conventional way: "Ma belle enfant, dis-

je a une jeune fille qui passoit legerement avec ses

heures sous le bras, vous etes frafche et vermeille comme

le matin" (B, III, xci, 240). These narrative devices

make Sterne's style unique and effective. The more ob-

vious quirks of his style are exaggerated by both trans-

lators; the more subtle ones are simply lost. Both trans-

lations (Frenais's more than de Bonnay's, however) indicate

the ways that imitation of Sterne developed. Only the

most obvious of his stylistic traits and methods were used

by most imitators. De Bonnay does not practice the random

inflation characteristic of Frenais's translation; most of

his major changes can be attributed to some specific point,

such as religious or moral scruples.








Frenais makes many additions to Tristram Shandy,

and many cuts. Again, while some of these alterations are

due to the problems of subject treated above, some are for

no clear reason. Two of the most startling cuts are of

sentimental material, just what the French audience would

be expected to like best, after their warm reception of A

Sentimental Journey. One cut of this nature occurs where

Walter Shandy, in a burst of "perfect good humour" with

Toby and Trim, says to himself, "Generous souls!-God

prosper you both, and your mortar-pieces too" (B, II,

xlii, 116; W, III, xxii, 206). This utterance is left

out of the translation, yet it is an important element

in building the true warmth of feeling existing between

the two brothers. And one of the most sentimental moments,

certainly a popular "beauty of Sterne" is omitted:

Here,-but why here,-rather than in any
other part of my story,-I am not able to tell;
but here it is,----my heart stops me to pay
to thee, my dear uncle Toby, once for all, the
tribute I owe thy goodness.-Here let me thrust
my chair aside, and kneel down upon the ground,
whilst I am pouring forth the warmest sentiments
of love for thee, and veneration for the excel-
lency of thy character, that ever virtue and
nature kindled in a nephew's bosom.-Peace and
comfort rest for evermore upon thy head!-Thou
envied'st no man's comforts, -insulted no man's
opinions.-Thou blackened'st no man's character,
-devoured'st no man's bread: gently with faith-
ful Trim behind thee, didst thou amble round the
little circle of thy pleasures, jostling no crea-
ture in thy way;-for each one's sorrows, thou
hadst a tear, for each man's need, thou hadst
a shilling.
Whilst I am worth one, to pay a weeder,-
thy path from thy door to thy bowling green shall








never be grown up.-Whilst there is a rood and
a half of land in the Shandy family, thy fortifi-
cations, my dear uncle Tob shall never be de-
molish'd. (W, III, xxiv, 224)

Frenais makes a number of major additions to

Sterne's text, many of a political or literary nature.

I count sixteen lengthy additions in all in Frenais's part

of the translation.13

De Bonnay makes no lengthy cuts in Tristram

Shandy, and although he does not display the haphazard

expansiveness of Frenais, he does make two additions of

original material. At one point, Sterne begins a chapter:

Had this volume been a farce [ . ] the
last chapter, Sir, had finished the first act
of it, and then this chapter should have set off
thus.
Ptr..r..r..ing-twing-twang-prut-
trut- 'tis a cursed bad fiddle. (W, V, xv,
371)

The chapter continues with other orchestra-tuning noises

and snatches of conversation, mostly about music. De Bonnay

begins the chapter as Sterne does, but after a passing

mention of the orchestra (with no sound effects), he says,
"Le parterre!--descendons-y pour un moment, je vousprie"

(B, III, xvii, 64). He then reproduces, in dramatic form,

the following three-way conversation:

Premier Interlocuteur. Que dites-vous de
ce dernier acte?

Second Interlocuteur. Pitoyable!

Premier. Vous avez bien raison; on n'y
comprend rien.

Second. Bon! est-ce que l'auteur s'est
compris lui-meme?








Premier. Aucun plan aucune methode.

Second. Nulle connoissance de l'art dra-
matique.

Premier. Que dites-vous des caracteres?

Troisi~me Interlocuteur. Pour moi, j'ai-
merois assez celui de l'oncle.

Second. Fi donc! un vieux fou! et puis si
bete! . . . j'aimerois mieux le pere.
Au moins il est instruit, et il parle bien.

Premier. Vous moquez-vous? La plupart
du temps il ne sait ce qu'il dit. Quant au
caporal . .

Second et Troisieme. Oh! nous vous l'a-
bandonnons.

Premier. Eh bien! je l'abandonne aussi.

Troisieme. Que pensez-vous de la mere?

Second. Ma foi! c'est une femme de bon
sens, et celle qui dit le moins de sottises.

Premier. Oui, parce que c'est elle qui
parle le moins.

Troisieme. Pas mal trouv6! eh bien! je
men tiens -a madame Shandy.

Premier. Et moi aussi.

Second. Et moi aussi.

Premier. Sifflons les autres a mesure qu'ils
paroftront.

Second et Troisieme. De tout mon ccur.

Et bien, messieurs, il faut vous en donner
le plaisir: les voila qui reviennent. (B, III,
xvii, 65-66)

'The conversation is amusing, and the device more original,

at least, than those of Frenais. A non-Sternean interpola-








tion, well done, seems almost more appropriate to the work

than does a clumsy handling of one of Sterne's own tricks.

De Bonnay makes one long addition that is very

much in the spirit of Sterne, though it is more like A

Sentimental Journey than Tristram Shandy. He inserts a

story of a poor man, to whom Tristram has just refused

charity, whose dog is killed under the wheels of a carriage.

Tristram offers the broken-hearted man money; a penniless

old soldier gives the weeping man his dog and walks away

(B, IV, i, 2-6; W, VII, xvi, 496). Tristram has learned

a lesson about charity, much as Yorick learns from the

monk in A Sentimental Journey. The reviewer of this trans-

lation of Tristram Shandy in L'Annee Litteraire (1785)

does not particularly like the section of the novel con-

cerned with Tristram's travels in Europe (volume seven);

"Elle est parsemee d'historiettes dont quelques-unes sont

d'un assez mauvais genre; & sa plaisanterie nest pas

toujours extremement delicate. Il reussit beaucoup mieux

quand il veut peindre le sentiment." The reviewer goes

on to summarize this incident with the dog, then says:

"I1 seroit souhaiter que toutes les aventures de notre

voyageur fussent aussi interessantes que celle-ci, on

ne seroit pas tents de le quitter, comme il arrive quel-

quefois sur la route.'14 This commentary is a revealing

picture of the French view of Sterne, and shows how little

he was appreciated for what he really was.








In sum, both A Sentimental Journey and Tristram

Shandy underwent change in translation, particularly Tris-

tram Shandy. Sterne's anti-Catholicism has been expurgated.

The ribaldry of Tristram has been greatly weakened; that of

the Journey, so much more subtle, has emerged almost com-

pletely intact. Frenais has put into Sterne's mouth some

uncharacteristic attacks on the philosophes,including

Diderot, who was Sterne's friend. While the idiosyncrasies

of typography in Tristram Shandy have been sharply reduced,

and lacunae have generally been filled in or skipped, most

of Sterne's other unique traits of style and presentation

have been exaggerated, especially in Frenais's part of

Tristram. Two devices have been added to Tristram Shandy:

humorous chapter titles and the occasional setting up of

dialogue as drama.

Many of Sterne's ideas, however, whether whimsi-

cal (the importance of names) or serious (the hobby-horse),

have remained intact. His detailed descriptions and his

comic-encyclopedic style remain. The bizarre inhabitants

of Shandy Hall, as well as Dr. Slop and Yorick, come through

in all their original clarity. Even the manner of narration

is based on Sterne's own devices, although they are fre-

quently much exaggerated in the translation of Tristram

Shandy. Despite the imperfections of the translation,

these works--particularly Tristram Shandy--were unique

and exciting to the young Balzac, just beginning to try








his hand as a novelist, and Sterne remained one of Balzac's

favorite authors throughout his life.

Genevieve Delattre makes a valid point when she

writes that "la traduction ne lui permettait pas de juger

du style a proprement parler, plut8t du ton general adopts

par l'ecrivain, de sa maniere d'aborder les portraits des

personnages."15 Nonetheless, it may be the very exaggera-

tion of some of Sterne's devices--direct address to the

reader, dialogue with the reader, or the myriad other idio-

syncrasies of his presentation--that caused them to stick

so firmly in Balzac's mind.













NOTES


1For the frequency of Balzac's references to
these authors, see the tables in Delattre, pp. 401-06.
2Lettres a Madame Hanska, II, 227 (28 May 1843).
For Balzac's knowledge and use of Einglish, see Herbert J.
Hunt, "Balzac and the Enulish Tongue," Modern Language
D i~ r a g ae
Review, 49 (1954), 434-41.

3Laurence Sterne, 0?uvres completes de Laurent
Sterne, [tr. Frenais, de Bonnay et al.] (Paris: J. F.
Bastion, an XI [1803]); hereafter cited in text as B.
4Joseph Marie Querard, La France litt~raire, ou
Dictionnaire bibliographique (Paris: Firmin Didot, 1827-
64), IX, 265.
5Prioult, p. 230.

6B, IV, lxiii, 173-77; Sterne, The Life and
Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, ed. James A. Work
(New York: Odyssey, 1940), VII, xxiv, 590-93. Hereafter
cited in text as W.
7Balzac, Physiologic du mariage (Paris: Urbain
Canel, [1829]), I, 108. Hereafter cited in text as hy,.
8B, V, i; Sterne, A Sentimental Journey through
France and Italy b Mr. Yorick, ed. Gardner D. Stout, Jr.
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967), p. 67.
Hereafter cited in text as S.
91n Lhe Bastion edition of Sterne's works there
is a continuation of the Journey, the first thirty pages
of John Hall-Stevenson, Yorick's Sentimental Journey Con-
tinued, ]R Eugenius, in Sterne, A Sentimental Journey
through France and Ita 1, by Mr. Yorick (New York: "For
the booksellers," 1795 pp. 179-316. As Judith Traverse
points out in "Two Continuations of Laurence Sterne's A
Sentimental Journey"(M.A. Thesis, University of Florida,
1970), continuations of the Journey were generally quite
sentimental or quite bawdy. Hall-Stevenson's is bawdy,
and although the Bastien edition clearly indicates that
it is not by Sterne, it may have affected Balzac's view
of the work.







10Delattre, p. 171.

11See Fredman, pp. 5-18, and Texte, pp. 277-81.

12Mallet du Pan, p. 81.

13For example, Frenais adds a discussion of direct
and indirect style (B, II, xii, 28; W, III, ii, 158); at
one point he summarizes at some length the previous events
of the novel (B, II, xx, 44; W, III, ix, 167); in Slawken-
bergius's Tale he attacks La Harpe at length (B, II, lxii,
184; W, IV, 270) and adds an attack on writers of history,
which he ends with an exclamation which is actually quite
characteristic of Tristram: "C'est que, graces a Dieu,
je ne lis pas d'autre histoire que celle de Dom Quichotte"
(B, II, lxii, 195-96; W, IV, 271).
14L'Annee Litteraire, 32 (1785), 647.

15Delattre, pp. 170-71.













CHAPTER II

STERNE IN THE *1UVRES DE JEUNESSE



Balzac's early work, that composed in the 1820's,

before any of the works now contained in the Comedie humaine,

contains diverse borrowings from Sterne. The nature of

these borrowings varies greatly, covering a wide range from

details of style to broad concepts.

Une Heure de ma vie, a short first-person narra-

tive of a walk in Paris, was written early in 1822, when,

according to Roland Chollet, who dates it between Balzac's

first two romans de jeunesse (the term commonly used to

designate the eight novels Balzac wrote under pseudonyms

in the years 1821-25), Sterne's influence on Balzac was

the strongest. "Invoque des le premier chapitre d'Une

Heure de ma vie, Sterne se cache derriere chaque mot."1

Chollet attributes to Sterne--justly, I believe--"la li-

bert6 d'lne forme parfaitement ouverte,""l' art de m~ler

a ses plaisant~ries des reflexions serieuses mais toujours
,2
ambigubs," and the details of a description of holding

a young lady's hand, which is strikingly like Yorick's

experience at the Remise door.3 This hand-holding in-

cident is also like the encounter between Yorick and the

young woman in the glove shop (S, 161-65). The narrator









of Une Heure also speaks of walking in Paris as serving

to "remonter mon horloge," which, as Chollet says, must

certainly be bawdy to a reader of Sterne.4

Besides the correspondences mentioned by Chollet,

I see in Une Heure a catalogue of many of the elements of

Sterne that are to be found in the Comedie humaine, some

of which do not appear in the romans de jeunesse. Here we

find the first inclusion of Sterne in a list of authors.5

We find the first view of the author at his task: "Ah!

Balarouth, vite mes lunettes, un siege" (p. 215), and a

long list of the paraphernalia used in writing, along with

a Tristram-like threat to quit the task (p. 224). Balzac

uses musical terms to describe tone of voice: "Ici la

marchande baissa sa voix au moins d'un octave, et par des

degradations de voix vraiment musicales" (p. 223). We

find several long lists, including one that has a strong

ring of Sterne: "nous avons tous des organes, des fibres,

du sang, des humeurs, des nerfs, des sens differents"

(p. 223). We find the self-conscious author, who says,

"Je suis tellement emu que je ne puis me tirer de la que

par une digression" (p. 221). Finally, we find throughout

the comic-encyclopedic style that is to appear in the

Etudes analytiques. Each of these elements will be spe-

cifically linked to Sterne's works in the course of this

study; Une Heure de ma vie will serve here as a first glance

at the nature of Balzac's borrowing from Sterne.

Une Heure de ma vie contains many more of the









sentimental elements of Sterne than appear in Balzac's

later work, probably because here he is imitating A Senti-

mental Journey so closely. But as well as Yorick's senti-

ment, we also find his bawdiness, pushed farther than in

any place in Sterne; with no preparation at all, a chapter

begins:

Jaais il n'entrera, monsieur l'abbe . .
-M[adame, avec une grande patience, je
reponds . .
-Je vous repete qu'il est trop enfle
ce soir.
--Ouf! . et M. l'abbe se pencha sur
son lit.
A ce moment, la pendule sonna neuf heures.
-L'heure presse! s'ecria-t-elle, et vous
voyez bien qu'il est trop 6troit, vous n'y reus-
sirez pas, il faut y renoncer.
--Il faut convenir, Jeannette, que je ne
l'ai jamais vu si gros, que le diable emporte
tous les cordonniers du monde, et avant les
cordonniers, la damnee goutte qui m'a grossi
le pied. (p. 225)

This astounding double entendre may be based on the seduc-

tion scene in Yorick's room (S, 234-38). It is from this

part of A Sentimental Journey that Balzac draws one of his

citations from Sterne in a letter to Madame de Berny, writ-

ten at around the same time as Une Heure de ma vie: "Vous

trouverez en Sterne la demande suivante: 'Si la nature,

en tissant sa toile d'amitie, a entrelace dans toute la

piece quelques fils d'amour et de desir, faut-il dechirer
6
tout la toile pour les en arracher?'" Chollet does not

connect this ribaldry to anything in Sterne, but I see it

as the first evidence that Balzac read A Sentimental Journey









with the strong sexual undertones that some modern critics

see in it.7 Chollet feels that the equivocations in this

scene "portent un coup fatal a l'histoire et a. ses person-

nages."8 Actually, this coup fatal, the non-sequitur un-

expectedness of this scene--in this way similar to the

closing pages of the Journey--is what I consider to be

the closest imitation of Sterne in the whole work.

Thus, in Une Heure de ma vie, we have Sterne's

influence on Balzac in its most elementary, unabsorbed

form. Some of these elements of influence will show up

in the romans de jeunesse; others will not reappear until

the Comedie humaine. Jean Ducourneau states in his notes

to Une Heure: "Le genre [of Sterne] l'a beaucoup seduit

durant ses premieres annees d'apprentissage, mais il le

quittera tr~s vite, conservant toutefois une admiration

definitive pour l'un de ses premiers maitres" (p. 579).

Perhaps Balzac can be said to have abandonned the genre;

its elements, however, become important parts of his later

works. Une Heure de ma vie is like a preliminary sign-

post; an examination of the romans de jeunesse will begin

to clarify where it leads.

L'Heritiere de Birague, Balzac's first published

novel, begins with a preface that is quite Sternean. En-

titled "Roman Preliminaire, c'est-a-dire Preface," these

opening twenty pages, describing a post-chaise journey,

are divided into very short chapters. The tone of these

chapters is whimsical, containing such humor as "Comme









nous sommes et avons toujours ete des gens extraordinaire-

ment modestes, et cela sans que personne s'en soit jamais

aperiu."'9 Or "deux noms celebres que vous ignorez sans

doute" (HB, I, i). This preface has two narrators, who

do not use regular dialogue, but simply speak in a suc-

cession of moi's which preface the various remarks; one

paragraph begins "Moi, je formal le meme project the next,
"'Moi, pour en venir a mes fins" (HB, I, v-vi). The greater

part of this preface is narrated with nous, the opposition

of moi being difficult to sustain. The humor and the double

narrator, although they may have been inspired by Sterne's

humor and his narrative freedoms, are not really Sterne's

devices, but there are several important elements of the

preface that could have been taken from Sterne as Balzac

knew him in translation. The preface is made up of four-

teen extremely short chapters. Sterne's chapters, of course,

vary in length from nothing at all to twenty or thirty

pages. Still, it is his extremely short (one sentence

to one paragraph) chapters that Balzac, among others, was

most likely to imitate, because of their uniqueness. The

nature of the chapter titles is like Sterne as Balzac knew

him. Sterne himself used no chapter titles in Tristram

Shandy, but his translators did (see above, pp. 63-66),

and Balzac's titles here are short and whimsical like

those of the translators. Thus one chapter ends: "Ici

il y eut un silence de cinq minutes" (HB, I, iv); the

title of the next chapter is "Histoire du silence" and the









following one is entitled "Continuation du silence." The

handling of time in a jerky, discontinuous manner through-

out the preface is reminiscent of Sterne. Probably the

most conscious and striking Sternean touch in the preface

is chapter five, entitled "Les trois postes," which is, in

its entirety:
. . N 0us'cour0es . . . . .
S. .. .... Nous courses trois postes sans
rien dire . . . . . . . .
0 0 *1 0 0 a 0 0 0 a 0 0 1P a a 0 0 0 a S 0
(HB, I, vi)

The use of suspension points in this way is not characteristic

of Sterne, although the brevity of the chapter certainly is.

Frenais, however, frequently adds suspension points where

Sterne uses either asterisks or blank spaces; the chapter

that Frenais adds, entitled "Rien," consisting of only a

few words and nine lines of suspension points (see above,

p. 75), shows this technique most clearly. It is likely,

both in this instance and later in Balzac's work, that

when he makes extensive use of suspension points he is

imitating Sterne as he knew the English author in trans-

lation.

In the romans de jeunesse, there are seven direct

references to Sterne or his works. These citations are

like the visible part of an iceberg; they help to indicate

the presence of influence from Sterne, but they by no means

indicate its depth and breadth. Several of the references

are quite superficial. Thus in the preface to Annette et









le criminel, Balzac says, "Il en cote trop cher de dire

a l'Etat ce qu'on pense sur sa marche, pour qu'Horace de

St.-Aubin [Balzac's pseudonym for this novel] s'expose a

publier ses opinions comme le fit jadis Tristram Shandy"

(AC, I, ii). Nothing here even proves that Balzac had read

Sterne. Another reference, only slightly less superficial,

appears in Le Vicaire des Ardennes: "Toutes les portes de

la maison de M. Gausse etaient organisees d'apres ce sys-

teme qui regissait celles du chateau de M. Shandy, chez

qui les gens savaient les premiers, tout ce qui s'y disait"

(VA, I, 198; W, V, iv, 358-59). Many such references to

Sterne are found in the Comedie humaine. The other direct

references in the romans de jeunesse fit into clear patterns

of borrowing from Sterne.

The theme of the hobby-horse is a striking aspect

of Tristram Shandy. The translators used various words

for hobby-horse. It is most often translated literally

as dada. But it also appears as votre poupee favorite,

califourchon, and manie particuli~re. This use of different

terms weakens the concept, particularly since Sterne usually

presents the hobby-horse in a strongly pictorial, though

symbolic, fashion, whereas one of the French terms, manie

particuli~re, presents no image at all, and another, votre

poup~e favorite, presents a completely different image.

Nonetheless, Balzac embraced completely the word and image

dada.




Full Text
NOTES
1Chollet, p. 123.
2Chollet, p. 124.
3S, 92-98; Chollet, p. 127.
^Chollet, p. 124. Cf. "No modest Lady now dares
to mention a word about winding-up a clock, without exposing
herself to the sly leers and jokes of the family," from The
Clockmaker1s Outcry against the Author of the Life and Opin
ions of Tristram Shandy (1760), quoted by Work, p. 190, n. 2.
5
Balzac, Une Heure de ma vie, in Romans et contes,
ed. Jean A. Qucourneau, Cfeuvres completes de M. d£ Balzac
XXIV (Paris: Les Bibliophiles de l'Originale, 1972), 214.
Hereafter cited in text.
8B, V, 154-55; S, 237. Balzac, Correspondance,
I, 168.
7
See Arthur Hill Cash, Sterne1s Comedy of Moral *
Sentiments: The Ethical Dimension of the Journey, Duquesne
Studies, Philological Series, No. 6 (Pittsburgh: Duquesne
University Press, 1966), and Ernest Nevin Dilworth, The
Unsentimental J ourney of Laurence Sterne (New York: King's
Crown Press, 1948).
8Chollet, p. 132.
9 *
Balzac, L'Heritiere de Birague, I, i, in Romans
de jeunesse (1822-25; rpt. Paris: Les Bibliophiles de L'Ori-
ginale, 1901-63) Hereafter cited in text with the following
sigla:
L'Heritiere de Birague (1822): HB
Jean Louis (71?22) : JL "
Clotilde de Lusignan (1822): CL
Le Vicaire des Ardennes (182277 VA
Le Centenaire (1822): C
La Derniere Fee (1823): DP
Annette et le criminel (1824): AC
V/ann-Chlore~71825): WC
125


13
Hanska, "Quelle destine pour Cervantes et Richardson de
ne faire qu'une seule oeuvre [Balzac liked Clarissa, "but
says in this same letter that he found Pamela and Grandison
_ 46
'horriblement ennuyeux et betes'J et aussi pour Sterne."
Roger Pierrot, in a footnote to this letter, say3, "Execu
tion rapide des Nouvelles exemplaires de Cervantes et
du Voyage sentimental de Sterne"; that is, it is obvious
47
that Balzac is speaking here of Tristram Shandy.
Philarete Chasles, another of Balzac's contempo
raries, says of Sterne, "[il] a saisi le Pathtique de la
vie commune et souvent vulgaire; en y joignant de vues
fines, un esprit double, une originalit de style, quel-
quefois bizarre, et des peintures de Teniers, a fait le
plus singulier melange qui se trouve peut-§tre dans aucun
4 Q
language [sic], une sorte de sensibilit Epigrammatique."
There seems to have been a renascence of interest
in Sterne and Rabelais in France around 1830. Maurice
Bardeche attributes this to a reaction against Scott and
his imitators, and also against "1'observation trop docile
49
des conventions dramatique3 par le romancier." This is
the time when Physiologie du mariage and La Peau de chagrin,
two of Balzac's most heavily Sterne-influenced works,
appeared. And at the same time, Janin's La Confession,
of which Balzac says, "La, c'est Diderot et son langage
abrupt et brlant; ici, c'est Sterne et sa touche fine
50
et delicate." And Nodier's L'Histoire du roi du Boheme
et sea sept chateaux appeared, a frank imitation of Sterne.


62
does appear in Bastien, and is a fairly exact duplication
of the original line in Sterne (B, IV, lxvii, 189 W, IX,
iv, 604). The blank pages left by Sterne for the reader to
describe Mrs. Wadman are reduced from nearly two pages in
Sterne to one-third of a page in Bastien (B, III, lxxxii,
222; W, VI, xxxviii, 470; one page in RV). Chapters XVIII
and XIX of volume nine (B, IV, lxxxii-lxxxiii) are completely
blank in both the original and the translations.
Tristram omits one chapter from his work, a chap
ter which, he explains, is so good that it dwarfs the rest
of the work. One chapter number is missing in Sterne, and
there is "a chasm of ten pages made in the book by it"
(W, IV, xxiv, 303-312 are omitted). In the Bastien edition
(and RV) Tristram's discussion of the omitted chapter is
translated closely, but the chapter and page numbers con
tinue in normal sequence (B, II, lxxxix, 245).
Sterne footnotes his text occasionally. Most
of these footnotes are worked into the translated text
(e.g., B, I, xxii, 90; W, I, xx, 57-58). A few are omitted
completely (a few appear in RV that have dropped out in
Bastien). The Latin facing Dr. Slop's curse is retained
in Bastien; that facing the first few pages of Slawkenber-
gius's Tale is omitted (also omitted in RV).
Generally, then, typographical devices are omitted;
only a few appear as they were in the original edition.
There is one kind of addition. In several instances where


182
topics or events covered in the chapter, to make literary
allusions, or for structuring purposes. On occasion, though,
Balzac does use titles humorously. In some cases they are
puns: "Pin contre fin, quelle en sera la fin" (Splendeurs
et miseres, IV, 401), or "les Fruits du fraisier" (Fraisier
is a character in Le Cousin Pons; V, 271)* In the second
part of Beatrix, for some reason, Balzac uses a great deal
of jest and flippancy in entitling the chapters, for ex
ample: "Comme quoi, dans ces sortes de crises, le premier
besoin est de la lumiere," followed by a chapter entitled
"Et la lumiere fut!" (II, 98). Humorous chapter titles
are the exception, rather than the rule, in Balzac.
Sterne had a great debt to Rabelais; he mentions
and imitates Rabelais numerous times in the course of Tris
tram Shandy. Balzac, too, was profoundly indebted to Rabe
lais, particularly, of course, in the Contes drolatiques,
but also in the Comedie humaine.^ It becomes particularly
difficult, then, in some areas, to distinguish between what
Balzac borrowed from Rabelais and what he borrowed from
Sterne. As Barton puts it,"It becomes hazardous for the
critic to assert that such and such a passage which smacks
seemingly of Yorick's style is inspiredif inspired at
allby Sterne rather than by the Cur of Medon."^
There are two obvious Rabelaisian mannerisms
that appear in both Balzac and Sterne. One is word coinage,
usually in an extravagant manner. We have already seen


152
Balzac himself, in an anonymous review of his
own novel, speaks, after mentioning Rabelais and Sterne,
of human life as a "drame qui serpente, ondule, tournoie,
et au courant duquel il faut s'abandonner, comme dit la
tres-spirituelle epigraphe du livre." Felix Davin
or Balzac, who was instrumental in the writingsays in
the 1834 introduction to the Etudes philosophiques that
the epigraph was misunderstood by most readers: "Peu de
personnes ont vu qu'apres un tel arrt port sur notre
organisation, il n'y avait d'autres ressources, pour la
gnralit des hommes, que de se laisser aller a 1'allure
serpentine de la vie, aux ondulations bizarres de la
destine" (VI, 704). H. J. Hunt says, "La Peau de chagrin
is a work of complex and sinuous design. Hence the adop
tion for its epigraph of the serpentine squiggle which, in
Tristram Shandy, Corporal Trim had placed in the air as a
22
symbol of celibate independance." Raissa Reznik, in a
short note in L'Annee Balzacienne, states her belief that
"Le caractre inachev, perfectible de cette ligne serpen
tine avait attire Balzac comme symbole d'un processus de
2 1
mouvement qui en principe ne s'achve pas."
My own view of the epigraph is slightly different.
I prefer to consider it in its context in Sterne. It is
given to Toby by Trim as a positive example of the pattern
of the life of a free man. The drama of life, perhaps, as
Balzac says, "qui serpente, ondule [...]" Perfectible,


126
10Chollet, p. 123.
^Bardeche, Romaneier, p. 102. Bardeche also men
tions the epigraph, but like Chollet, he considers it super
ficial.
1^Chollet, p. 123.
^Bardeche, Romancier, p. 50.
^Chollet, p. 123.
15 ,
Andre Maurois, Promethee; ou la vie de Balzac
(Paris: Hachette, 1965), p. 97. Pierre Barberis, in Balzac
et le mal du siecle (Paris: Gallimard, 1970), also notices
this similarity, p. 505.
16 %
Maurice Bardeche points out that in the novels
of the Empire and Restoration, "les gestes habituis, l'at-
tude du corps sont rarement indiques." Romancier, p. 30.
17
Quoted by Pierrot, "Balzac vu par les siens,"
p. 252.
^Oeuvres diverses, XXXVIII, 129*
^^ (feuvres diverses, XXXVIII, 63.
20
Bruce Tolley, "Les (buvres diverses de Balzac
(1824-1831): Essai d'inventaire critique," L'Anne Balzacienne,
1963, p. 48.
21 *
Barberis, p. 566.
Pierre Barberis, Aux Sources de Balzac: les
romans de .jeunesse (Paris: Les Bibliophiles de l'Originale,
1965), p. 312.
9
^Quoted by Barberis, Sources, p. 224.
^Balzac, Correspondance, I, 170 and 268.
25
Balzac, Stenie, ou les erreurs philosophiques,
ed. A. Prioult (Paris: G. Courville"i 1936), p. 67.
2 6
For Tristram, see New, especially pp. 41-49.
For the Journey, see Cash and Dilworth, also Rufus Putney,
"Laurence Sterne: Apostle of Laughter," in The Age of John
son: Essays Presented to Chauncey Brewster Tinker, ed.
Frederick W. Hilles (New Haven: Yale University Press,
1949), pp. 159-70.


57
ditions in the area of literature and criticsm. Sterne
admires Montaigne, as is clear from his use of Montaigne's
Essais, both in reference and quotation. Frenis seems to
have felt it necessary to make this admiration more explicit.
Tristram expresses a fear that his book may "in the end,
prove the very thing which Montaigne dreaded his essays
should turn out, that is, a book for a parlour-window"
(W, I, iv, 7). Frenis ammends the statement: "Quel chagrin
pour moi, s'il avoit le sort que Montaigne craignoit pour
ses Essais, et qu'ils n'eurent pas?" (B, I, iv, 7-8).
Later, when speaking of sleep, Tristram says, after prais
ing a quotation from Cervantes on the subject, Not
that I altogether disapprove of what Montaigne advances
upon it tis admirable in its v/ay. (I quote by mem
ory.)" (W, IV, xv, 291). There follows what Work calls
"an olio of quotation and paraphrase from Montaigne's
essay 'Of Experience'" (W, 291, n. 2). After the praise
of Cervantes, Frenis adds a paragraph on sleep-inducing
authors, attacking specifically the director of the Aca-
dmie fran^aise (B, II, lxxxi, 226-27). Then, instead
of translating Sterne's paragraph of paraphrase and quota
tion, Frenis writes: "Montagne! mon cher Montagne [sic],
tu as aussi crit sur le sommeil! pourquoi me tiens-tu
veill lors mme que tu en parles, et que les autres
m'endorment en voulant faire le contraire?" (B, II, lxxxi,
227). Sterne's manner of illustrating (in the Renaissance
sense) Montaigne is certainly the more effective, though
less direct.


177
pourroient dramatiquement me tirer d'embarras;
mais je sais que la circonstance est telle,
qu'elle pourroit me condamner biographiquement,
et faire passer mon livre pour un roman
Non, non, il n'en sera pas ainsi. On me serre
de pres, mais je termine d'un seul trait toute
dispute. Apprenez, mon cher critique, qu'Oba-
diah n'toit pas a cinquante toises de l'curie,
lorsqu'il rencontra le docteur Slop. (B, I,
xxxv, 160-62; W, II, viii, 103-04)
Balzac shows a serious concern for the discrepancy between
the time it takes an event to happen and the time spent in
narrating it: "Cette conversation fut si rapide qu'elle
prit a peine le temps pendant lequel elle se lit" (Splen-
deurs et miseres des courtisanes, IV, 343), and again in
the same novel: "Cette scene s'tait pass en un laps de
temps moins considerable que le moment d'en lire le r-
cit" (IV, 414). In Les Chouans we find the same concern
also mentioned two times: "Ces vnements, qui exigent
tant de mots, se passrent en un moment" (V, 638), and
"Tout ce manege n'employa pas le temps ncessaire a le
dcrire" (V, 654). Tristram is chiding his reader's de
sire for absolute truth in time; Balzac serves this desire.
The case is similar in the handling of digres
sion. Dig: ssion is at the heart of Tristram Shandy; it
is its very substance, and Tristram rarely apologizes for
it. In fact, he claims digression as his right:
Je viens de faire une assez longue digres
sion que le hasard a amene [...]. Ne seroit-
il pas horrible que 1'on ne fit pas attention a
ce chef-d'oeuvre d'habilit digressive? Le lec-
teur cependant ne s'en sera pas aper^ju. J'en
serois assurment fch. Je ne l'accuserois


NOTES
^VII, 533; in original edition, 1845. Professor
J. Wayne Conner has checked a number of my key references
to verify their existence in the original published versions
of Balzac's works. Indications of references so checked
will appear in text, with the original publication date.
When such an indication does not appear, it simply means
that the reference was not checked, not that the citation
was not in Balzac's original version.
rhy, II, 12; VII, 448; not in PhyPo. I have
verified all references to Physiologie du mariage against
the first edition (1829), indicated by the siglum Phy.
All references to this work will be cited from this edition,
from the "Intgrale," indicated by volume and page number,
and it will be indicated whether or not the reference ap
peared in the pre-originale version.
^"Note dans La Presse," 30 June 1839, reprinted
in "Intgrale," VI, 682.
^"Lettre addresse aux crivains francais,"
Revue de Paris, 2 November 1834, in (buvres diverses,
XXXIX, 654.
5 -
Lettres sur la litterature, III, Revue Pansienne,
25 September 1&40, in Cfeuvres diverses, XL, 320.
^Quoted by Roland Chollet, in his introduction
to Les Cent Contes drolatiques, p. xxi.
n
La Comdie du Diable, in GBuvres diverses,
XXXIX, 606, 611.
8
Le Feuilleton Littraire, 14 April 1830, in
Gfeuvres diverses, XXXVIII, 413*
9
Le Feuilleton Litteraire, 14 April 1830, in
Cteuvres diverses, XXXVIII, 416.
^Lovenjoul Collection (Chantilly), Balzac ms.
A 202, f. 19.
154


61
Pauvre Yorick!"; Sterne's black-bordered. "Alas, poor
YORICK!" which appears in the text before the last para
graph of the chapter preceding the black page is omitted
(B, I, xiii, 53; W, I, xii, 33; RV is like Sterne here).
Sterne's famous marbled page, "motly emblem of my work!"
is omitted (B, II, lix, 155; W, III, xxxvi, 227; also not
present in RV). In Frenis's part of the translation,
asterisks denoting lacunae are always replaced by suspension
points; midway through de Bonnay's part, asterisks begin
to appear where Sterne uses them (also true in RV). Sterne
occasionally uses gothic type for emphasis; the Bastien
edition does not (nor does RV). The index sign (W, II,
xii, 114; W, III, xxxvi, 227 and passim) does not appear
in Bastien (it does occasionally in RV). The lines that
Tristram uses to chart the progress of his work are omitted,
as is all explanation in that chapter of the use of time
in fictional narration (W, VI, xl, 473-74; B, III, lxxiv,
225; this is clearly de Bonnay's change, as the lines are
also not present in RV and a change in the text is also
involved). De Bonnay retains Sterne's discourse on the
virtues of straight lines, then adds: "Mais un auteur tel
que moi, et tel que bien d'autres, n'est pas un gometre;
et j'ai abandonn la ligne droite" (B, III, lxxiv, 226).
Actually, at this point Tristram is hoping to achieve straight-
line narration soon. The line traced in the air by Trim'3
caneused by Balzac as the epigraph to La Peau de chagrin


174
"Chacun peut imaginer la cuisine d'aprs la chambre a
coucher" (Le Cur du village, VI, 207), or "Le second
chant [ . ] sera tout entier devine par les amis de
cette sage littrature, grace a cette citation"(Les Paysans,
VI, 90). In Balzac we are never given the freedom that
Sterne gives his reader with the blank page on which to
sketch the Widow Wadman. Balzac controls our imagination
to a great degree with his context.
In one instance, Balzac calls on our imagination
in a way related to a Sternean device that he uses with
some frequency in the romans de .jeunesse, the lacuna:
II faut qu'il soit bien impertinent!
pensa la marquise
Je prie toutes les femmes d'imaginer elles-
mmes le commentaire. (Etude de femme, I, 461)
This is virtually the only appearance of the lacuna in
, 5
the Comedie humaine. Balzac seems to have gone beyond
some of the mannerisms that he depended upon heavily in
his early works.
In Sraphita, the calling upon the reader's
imagination is profoundly transformed by the exalted tone
of the novel:
Etendez les proportions de ces amphitheatres,
lancez-vous dans les^nuages, perdez-vous dans
le creux des roches ou reposent les chiens de
mer, votre pense n'atteindra ni a la richesse,
ni aux poesies de ce site norwgien! Votre
pense pourrait-elle tre aussi grande que l'O-
can qui le borne, aussi capricieuse que les
fantastiques figures dessines par ses forts,
ses nuageSj ses ombres, et par les changements
de sa lumiere? Voyez-vous, au-dessus des prairies
de la plage, sur le dernier pli de terrain qui


30
probably de la Baume because of the use of his translation
of some of the miscellaneous works in this edition; his name
is not mentioned at all in connection with the 1803 edition.^-
Although Prioult feels that Balzac probably read
the 1818 edition of Sterne's complete works because it is
listed in the catalogue of the librairie Pigoreau, "avec
laquelle Balzac eut, des cet poque, tant d'attaches"
I do not accept this as solid proof. There is ample in
ternal evidence that Balzac used an edition containing
de Bonnay's translation. Balzac quotes at length from
the second half of Tristram Shandy in the Physiologie
du mariage. He gives the entire text of Walter Shandy's
letter to Toby, containing his advice on love and court
ship. ^ In Balzac there is only one minor variant from
de Bonnay's translation in the whole of this long text.
The phrase in question appears in de Bonnay as follows:
"Si c'et t le bon plaisir de celui qui distribue nos
lots, et qu'il t'et dparti plus de conoissances qu'
moi [...]" (B, IV, lxiii, 173)* In the 1826 pr-
originale text of the Physiologie, the word lots appears
as lois, and remains so in subsequent editions of Balzac's
work (PhyPo, 92). In la,ter editions of the Physiologie,
a further variant has come into this phrase: "et qu'il
t'et dparti" becomes "de te departir." This may be
a copying error on Balzac's part. Spelling in the passage
has been modernized in all editions of Balzac: verb endings
change from -ois (etc.) to -ais; Dom-Quichotte becomes


168
At the conclusion of the Physiologie, Balzac has
a dialogue with a different reader, quite cleverly worked
in. He begins "Meditation XXX: Conclusion" with the allegory
of a prophet and his followers; as the prophet proceeds,
the followers drop off one by one, each for his own reasons.
When the prophet reaches the mountain top, he finds he has
only one follower left, "auquel il aurait pu dire [ . ]
"Eh bien! messieurs les lecteurs, il parat que vous n'tes
qu'un?" (Phy, II, 323; VII, 497; not in PhyPo). He has
suddenly turned to the reader: "Eh! bien, c'est ici le
lieu de vous demander, mon respectable lecteur, quel est
votre opinion relativement au [ . ]" and the reader
answers (Phy, II, 323; VII, 497; not in PhyPo). I feel
reasonably sure that Balzac had Sterne in mind in this
dialogue, for on the same page we find the reference to
Sterne and his laundress.
Stopping the flow of the narrative for a minute
detailing of pose or gesture is a feature of both Tristram
Shandy and A Sentimental Journey. There is the famous
scene where Trim reads the sermon: "Il toit en face de
son monde, le corps incline en avant, de maniere qu'il
faisoit juste un angle de quatre-vingt-cinq degrs et derai
sur le plan de 1'horizon [ . ]" (B, I, xliv, 191; W,
II, xvii, 122), The description goes on for several pages.
Sterne is aware of the profound expressive weight of gesture:
Mon pere ne fut pas plutot entr dans sa chambre,
quil se jeta tout a travers de son lit, avec
l'air farouche d'un homme abym de chagrin, qui


NOTES
*Por the frequency of Balzacs references to
these authors, see the tables in Delattre, pp. 401-06.
^Lettres a Madame Hanska, II, 227 (28 May 1843)
For Balzac's knowledge and use of English, see Herbert J.
Hunt, "Balzac and the English Tongue," Modern Language
Review, 49 (1954), 434-41.
^Laurence Sterne, Oeuvres completes de Laurent
Sterne, [tr. Frenis, de Bonnay e_t al.j (Paris: J. F.
Bastien, an XI [1803j)5 hereafter cited in text as B.
^Joseph Marie Qurard, La France littraire, ou
Dictionnaire bibliographique (Paris: Firmin Didot, 1o27-
64), IX, 265.
5
"rrioult, p. 230.
^B, IV, lxiii, 173-77; Sterne, The Life and
Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, ed. James A. Work
(New York: Odyssey, 1940), VII, xxiv, 590-93* Hereafter
cited in text as W.
7
Balzac, Physiologie du mariage (Paris: Urbain
Canel, [1829]), I, 108. Hereafter cited in text as Phv.
O
B, V, i; Sterne, A Sentimental Journey through
France and Italy by Mr. Yorick, ed. Gardner D. Stout, Jr.
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967), p. 67*
Hereafter cited in text as S.
Q
In the Bastien edition of Sterne's works there
is a continuation of the Journey, the first thirty pages
of John Hall-Stevenson, Yorick's Sentimental Journey Con
tinued, by Eugenius, in Sterne, A Sentimental Journey
through France and Italy, by Mr. Yorick (New York: "For
the booksellers," 1795)", pp. TS9-316. As Judith Traverse
points out in "Two Continuations of Laurence Sterne's A
Sentimental Journey"(M.A. Thesis, University of Florida,
1970), continuations of the Journey were generally quite
sentimental or quite bawdy. Hall-Stevenson's is bawdy,
and although the Bastien edition clearly indicates that
it is not by Sterne, it may have affected Balzac's view
of the work.
83


55
In general, the philosophical and literary
opinions that Sterne presents, either as his own or as
Tristram's, are preserved in translation. There is one
notable exception. Sterne, it is well known, became
friendly with Diderot and his circle on his visits to
Paris.^ Although he never embraced the religious aspects
of their free-thinking, Sterne felt a certain intellectual
kinship to these men. Frenis, however, did not like the
philosophes, and he superimposed on parts of Tristram
Shandy his own hostility toward them. The first appear
ance of the attack on the philosophes is in Yorick's
sermon on conscience. To a paragraph which contains the
central idea of the sermon, "[to] form a just judgement
[of yourself] [ . ] call in religion and morality"
(W, II, xvii, 132), Frenis prefaces: "Et voici ce qui
est de la derniere importance pour vous. Le malheur le
plus terrible qui puisse vous arriver, est de vous garer,
de vous jeter dans l'erreur a cet gard . Philosophes
impies! frraissez ..." (B, I, xlvii, 209).
Later in the sermon, where the areligious man
defends the motives for morals, Sterne says "Let him de
claim as pompously as he chooses upon the subject, it will
be found to rest upon no better foundation than either his
interest, his pride [ . ]" (W, II, xvii, 135). Frenis
says: "Qu'il declame sur ce sujet avec autant d'emphase
qu'il voudra; qu'il s'enflamme de tout le feu de nos philo
sophes, ce phosphore brillant ne me sduit pas. II n'a


129
Sterne, Voltaire, Walter Scott, les Arabes inconnus des
Mille et une nuits) sont tous des hommes de genie autant
que des colosses d'erudition."^ It is interesting that
Balzac should mention Sterne's erudition in this work,
since it is in Les Etudes analytiques that he makes most
use of the satiric encyclopedic style of Tristram Shandy.
And the authors mentioned here are mostly satirists as well
as great storytellersan important point in Balzac's view
of Sterne, since Balzac's own time generally admired the
sentimental rather than the satiric side of Sterne. Seen
in the light of contemporary views of Sterne, Balzac's
statement in Un Prince de Boheme"ceci surpasse de beau-
coup la raillerie de Sterne dans le Voyage sentimental,
ce serait Scarron dans sa grossieret" (V, 283)is sur
prising. But both Balzac's direct references to and his
use of Sterne show unquestionably that Balzac did not
think of Sterne primarily as a sentimentalist. Perhaps
the most succinct statement of Balzac's view of Sterne is
in the Physiologie du mariage, where he is described a3
"l'un de nos crivains, le plus philosophiquement plaisant,
2
et le plus plaisamment philosophique."
Balzac, speaking through the somewhat unreliable
Lousteau in Illusions perdues, again includes Sterne in a
list of major eighteenth-century novelists: "Tu opposeras
les romans de Voltaire, de Diderot, de Sterne, de Swift
[later changed to Lesage], si substantiels, si incisifs


118
rapidit peut-tre, quand vous apercevrez le but" (AC, III,
250-51). Here Balzac's narrator dreads the end, rather
than desiring it, but the feeling about time is similar
to Sterne's.
There are, besides these larger patterns of
borrowing from Sterne, some details of idea and incident
in the romans de jeunesse that are clearly reminiscent
of Sterne. In Wann-Chlore there is an incident that is
patterned on similar scene in Tristram Shandy. During
the early part of the novel, where Horace is just beginning
to slowly build a relationship with Eugenie, there are
two scenes of approach to the d'Arneuse house, one as
Nikel first comes to pay court to Rosalie (WC, I, 94-98)
and one as Nikel and Horace approach for Horace's first
call on Eugenie (WC, I, 125-28). These scenes echo in
many ways Toby and Trim's approach to the widow Wadman's
(W, IX, xvii, 602-20). Pierre Barbris, in Balzac et le
mal du siecle, notices this parallel, but does not examine
21
it at length.
The structure of the three scenes is roughly
the same. First there is attention to the dressing of
the one who is to pay court, then the long, detailed ap
proach to the house (interrupted in Sterne by a digression
and a switch in point of view) couched in military terms
and punctuated with gestures with canes, then the knock
at the door, fully anticipated by those inside. The detail
of the canes is perhaps the most revealing link. It is


191
du dialogue. [ . ] Dans ces extrmits ce signe qui,
chez nous, precede deja 1'interlocution a t destin
chez nos voisins a peindre ces hesitations, ces gestes,
ces repos qui ajoutent quelque fidlit a une conversation
que le lecteur accentue alors beaucoup mieux et a sa
guise" (V, 765). Maurice Regard, in reprinting this pre
face in his edition of Les Chouans, adds this note: "C'est
Sterne qui, dans Tristram Shandy, utilise ainsi les traits.
On en trouve un grand nombre dans la premiere edition des
Chouans, mme au milieu des phrases. Ils disparaitront
' 12
dans les editions suivantes." This use of the dash re
mains rare in Balzac.
One of the most striking stylistic echoes of
Sterne that I found anywhere in the Comedie humaine appears
in Petites Miseres. "Vous" (the husband) and Caroline are
discussing the education of their son:
Dcidment, Caroline, nous mettrons
Charles en pension.
Charles ne peut pas aller en pension,
dit-elle d'un petit ton doux.
Charles a six ans, l'ge auquel commence
1'education des hommes.
A sept ans, d'abord, rpond-elle. Les
princes ne sont rernis, par leur gouvernante au
gouverneur, qu'a sept ans. Voil la loi et les
prophtes. Je ne vois pas pourquoi 1'on n'ap-
pliquerait pas aux enfants des bourgeois les
lois suivies pour les enfants des princes. Ton
enfant est-il plus avanc que les leurs? Le
roi de Rome . .
Le roi de Rome n'est pas une autorit.
Le roi de Rome n'est pas le fils de
1'Empereur? . (Elle dtourne la discussion.)
En voila bien d'une autre! Ne vas-tu pas accuser
1'impratrice? elle a t accouche par le doc-
teur Dubois, en prsence de . .


162
narrator can be only glimpsed from time to time in the rest
of the Comedie humaine. Of course we are always aware to
some degree of Balzac's presence, if only from the endlessly
repeated "voici comment," and from the little expository
passages imparting his various wisdoms to the reader. From
time to time these interruptions are of a more Sternean
nature: "Oh! avoir les pieds sur la barre polie qui runit
les deux griffons d'un garde-cendre, et penser a ses amours
quand on se leve et qu'on est en robe de chambre, est chose
si dlicieuse que je regrette de n'avoir ni maitresse,
ni chenets, ni robe de chambre" (Etude de femme, I, 460).
In Etude de femme, told in the first person, the narrator
is clearly a character; it is the twist at the end of this
passage, as much as the personal glimpse of the narrator,
that calls Sterne to mind.
Another mannerism that Balzac carries over from
the romans de jeunesse, related to the self-conscious nar
rator, is that of direct asides to or dialogue with the
reader. At times, Balzac seems to try to avoid such direct
involvement, and calls upon the reader in an impersonal
manner; for example, in Les Secret3 de la princesse de
Cadignan, he carefully says, "S'il est permis de risquer
une opinion indivduelle [...]" (IV, 488). In Modeste
Mignon, he interpolates an explanation again without addres
sing the reader directly: "Quelque intressante que cette
situation puisse paraitre, elle le sera bien davantage en


214
trot t a son idee" (VI, 593)* Here Balzac's use of the dada
is much more openly tragic than in Sterne; it can be said
to have been totally absorbed into the world of the Comedie
humaine. The most distinctive feature here is the reactions
of others to the hobby-horsical character. Gambara is no
more heavily obsessed than Toby. Toby's obsession is often
infuriating to his brother Walter, but his love for Toby
always wins out: "Mon pre ne put s'empcher de sourire
en lui-meme. Sa colre, quelque vive qu'elle ft, n'etoit
jamais qu'une tincelle, et le zle et la simplicit de
Trim et la gnreuse marotte de mon onde Tobie, le recon-
cilrent sur le champ avec eux, et avec sa bonne humeur"
(B, II, xlii, 116; W, III, xxii, 206). Even when Walter
is cruel to Toby he regrets it: "L'air affectueux et la
sensibilit de mon onde Tobie furent si agrables a mon
pre [ . ] qu'il se fit les reproches les plus vifs.
Puisse un catapulte, s'cria-t-il en lui mme, me jeter
la cervelle hors de la tete, si jamais j'ose encore in-
sulter une me aussi bienfaisante que la vtre, mon cher
Tobie!"(B, II, xlvii, 129; W, III, xiv, 212). The reac
tions of the others in Gambara to the composer's obsession
are not so charitable: "Les convives, gens affarns dont
1'esprit se rveillait a 1'aspect d'un repas bon ou mau-
vais, laissent percer les dispositions les plus hostiles
au pauvre Gambara, et n'attendait que la fin du premier
service pour donner l'essor a leurs plaisanteries" (VI,


90
following one is entitled "Continuation du silence." The
handling of time in a jerky, discontinuous manner through
out the preface is reminiscent of Sterne. Probably the
most conscious and striking Sternean touch in the preface
is chapter five, entitled "Les trois postes," which is, in
its entirety:
Nous courumes trois postes sans
rien dire
i
(HB,*lj vi) *
The use of suspension points in this way is not characteristic
of Sterne, although the brevity of the chapter certainly is.
Frenis, however, frequently adds suspension points where
Sterne uses either asterisks or blank spaces; the chapter
that Frenis adds, entitled "Rien," consisting of only a
few words and nine lines of suspension points (see above,
p. 75), shows this technique most clearly. It is likely,
both in this instance and later in Balzac's work, that
when he makes extensive use of suspension points he is
imitating Sterne as he knew the English author in trans
lation.
In the romans de jeunesse, there are seven direct
references to Sterne or his works. These citations are
like the visible part of an iceberg; they help to indicate
the presence of influence from Sterne, but they by no means
indicate its depth and breadth. Several of the references
are quite superficial. Thus in the preface to Annette et


93
There are other similarities between Toby and
Chanclos. Both held the rank of captain; both have a
faithful companion, although Vieille-Roche did not do
military service with Chanclos as Trim did with Toby.
The most striking detail is that just as Toby whistles
Lillabulero, Chanclos occasionally whistles "une fanfare,
la seule de3 fanfares qu'il et jamais pu reteir en servant
sous 11aigle du Bearn" (HB, I, 35).
Although he seconds him in all his endeavors,
Vieille-Roche does not share his close friend's obsession
as Trim does Toby's; he has one of his own, wine. His
discourse centers on drinking, and he is almost always
intoxicated. At one point, Balzac brings together the
obsessions of the two friends, when they "lay siege"
to the apartment of Villaini, the villain of the novel.
Young d'Olbreuse and Chanclos are already at the door
when Vieille-Roche arrives
[muni] de deux excellentes bouteilles de vin
et d'un enorme baton [...]. He! de par
saint Henri, patron de mon invincible maitre,
s'cria l'officier de Chanclos, en s'adressant
a^de Vieille-Roche, que signifie 1'equipage
ou je te vois? ......
Cela signifie, mon ami, rpondit le
prudent gentillhomme, que jamais siege n'a
pu etre conduit sans munitions de guerre et
de bouche. (HB, III, 92-93)
This chapter is preceded by an epigraph from Tristram Shandy
Balzac's first reference to Sterne: "Et le caporal Trim
entra fierement, tenant a la main la paire de bottes
transforme en deux mortiers qui devaient servir pour


25
^For this view, see Melvyn New, Laurence Sterne
as Satirist (Gainesville: University of Florida Press"J 19^9) J
"Tristram Shandy can best be understood by locating it in
the midst of the conservative, moralistic Augustan tradition,"
p. 1.
2^Mallet du Pan, p. 75.
26Mallet du Pan, pp. 76-77.
2^Mallet du Pan, p. 81. The 1735 LArme Litt-
raire critic appreciates the same episode, see below, p. 80.
2^Texte, p. 282.
29
Barton, p. 39.
^Barton, pp. 38-97.
Barton, p. 98.
^2Texte, p. 284.
^For a detailed study of the rapport between
Sterne and Diderot, see Alice Green Fredman, Diderot and
Sterne (New York: Columbia University Press, 1955).
-^Balzac, "Lettres 3ur la littrature," III, in
Revue Parisienne (25 September 1840), in fcuvres diverses,
ed. Marcel Bouteron and Henri Longnon, XL (Paris: Conard,
1940), 318.
^See Barton, pp. 127-42, and Henri Glaesener,
"Laurence Sterne et Xavier de Maistre," Revue de Littra
ture Compare, 7 (1927), 459-79.
-^Delalot, "Sur les Cfeuvres de Sterne," Le
Spectateur Franjis au XIXe Siecle, 2 (1805), 656.
-^Delalot, p. 647
-^Delalot, pp. 648-49.
^See Howes, pp. 81-90.
^Delalot, p. 655.
41
Eric Partridge, The French Romantics1 Knowledge
of English Literature (1820-18T8) according to Contemporary
French Memoirs, Letters and Periodicals (Paris: E. Champion,
1924): de Stael, p. 48; Hugo, p. 266; de.Vigny, p. 267
Balzac, p. 269; Barbey d'Aurevilly, p. 281.


51
fact Sterne's most direct attack, is found in the text of
the sermon itself. Yorick has been citing examples of men
whose consciences are inoperative: "A fourth man shall want
even this refuge [law]; shall break through all this cer
emony of slow chicane; scorns the doubtful workings of
secret plots and cautious trains to bring about his pur
pose: See the bare-faced villain, how he cheats, lies,
perjures, robs, murders Horrid!" (W, II, xvii, 131).
In Frenis, this example ends here with no further develop
ment or explanation (B, I, xlviii, 207). Sterne, however,
continues: "But indeed much better was not to be expected,
in the present case, the poor man was in the dark!
his priest had got the keeping of his conscience." The
rest of the paragraph is a very unflattering representation
of casuistic Catholicism, ending, "0 Popery! what hast thou
to answer for? when, not content with the too many nat-
ural and fatal ways, thro' which the heart of man is every
day thus treacherous to itself above all things;thou
hast wilfully set open this wide gate of deceit before the
face of this unwary traveller, too apt, God knows, to go
astray of himself; and confidently speak peace to himself,
when there is no peace" (W, II, xvii, 131). Up to this
point, Sterne has been attacking in a playful manner the
outward forms and the surface doctrines of the Church.
Here there is nothing playful; this attack comes in the
clearly serious and normative framework of Yorick's sermon.


189
ont t parfaitement constate, et les conse
quences qui rsultent de leur rapprochement
ont t principalement pressenties par Van Hel-^
mont, et avant lui par Paracelse, qu'on a trait
de charlatan. Encore cent ans, et Paracelse
deviendra peut-tre un grand homme!
La grandeur, 1'agilit, la concrtion, la
porte de la pense humaine, le gnie, en un
mot, est incompatible:
Avec le mouvement digestif,
Avec le mouvement corporel,
Avec le mouvement vocal;
Ce que prouvent en rsultat les grands
mangeurs, les danseurs et les bavards; ce que
prouvent en principe le silence ordonn par
Pythagore, 1'immobilit presque constante des
plus illustres gomtres, des extatiques, des
penseurs, et la sobrit ncessaire aux hommes
d'nergie intellectuelle.
Le gnie d1Alexandre s'est historiquement
noy dans la dbauche. Le citoyen qui vint
annoncer la victoire de Marathon a laiss sa
vie sur la place publique. Le laconisme con
stant de ceux qui mditent ne saurait tre
contest.
Cela dit, coutez une autre these. (VII,
595)
The extravagance of the argument here is worthy of Walter
Shandy. There are a number of devices that I have already
mentioned as being typical of Sterne: direct address to the
reader, a list, a pretention to scholarship and scientific
method. But it is the ensemble here that brings Sterne
most clearly to mind: the telegraphic style, with short
paragraphs bringing loosely linked material together to
make an essentially absurd point; the feeling (conveyed
by "Je vous ai promis un vritable non-sens au fond de
cette thorie, j'y arrive,") that the author is under dur
ess to live up to certain expectations that he has previous
ly encouraged in the reader, a problem that plagues Tris-


171
celle de leurs mouvements, de leurs gestes, de leurs regards,
de leur ton, de leur accent, quand elles accomplissent cet
acte de politesse si simple" (La Gousine Bette, V, 89).
Balzac's end here is the cataloguing and description of the
life of his time; his method of doing this, though, is at
least partly learned from Sterne.
On a few occasions, Balzac renders gesture paren
thetically in discourse, as Sterne does during Trim's read
ing of the sermon. We saw this in Jean Louis (see above,
p. 95). It occurs again in La Vieille Filie:
Mon enfant, que veux-tu, la socit change,
les femmes ne sont pas moins victimes que la
noblesse de 1'pouvantable dsordre qui se
prepare. Aprs les bouleversements politiques
viennent les bouleversements dans les moeurs.
Helas! la femme n'existera bientt plus (il
ota son coton pour s'arranger les oreilles);
elle perdra beaucoup en se lanyant dans le
sentiment; elle se tordra les nerfs, et n'aura
plus ce bon petit ]olaisir de notre temps dsir .
sans honte, accepte sans fajon, et ou 1'on
n'employait les vapeurs que (il nettoya ses
petites tetes de negre) comme un moyen d'arriver
a ses fins; elles en feront une maladie qui se
terminera par des infusions de feuilles d'oran-
ger (il se mit a rire). Enfin le mariage de-
viendra quelque chose (il prit ses pinces pour
s'piler) de fort ennuyeux, et il tait si gai
de mon temps! Les regnes de Louis XIV et de
Louis XV, retiens ceci, mon enfant, ont t
les adieux des plus belles moeurs du monde.
(III, 287)
As in Jean Louis, Balzac here uses Sterne's technique to
distance us from a character on his hobby-horse.
Balzac is so various, he cannot be expected to
follow any set method. So we do not always find gesture
and pose detailed. In Beatrix, for example, Balzac con-


130
au roman moderne ou tout se traduit par des images, et
que Walter Scott a beaucoup trop dramatise" (III, 507;
in original edition, 1839). The slur on Scott is probably
Lousteau's own; again, though, we find Sterne among satir
ists. In the same work, in a description of Joseph Bridau's
character, we get a more complex view of Sterne: "Original
et sublime parfois [ . ] son esprit est frere de celui
de Sterne, mais sans le travail litteraire. Ses mots, ses
jets de pensle ont une saveur innoui'e" (III, 459; in original
edition, 1839). Still the emphasis is on Sterne's wit.
In the Avant-propos to the Comedie humaine, Balzac
gives a list of fictional characters "dont 1'existence de-
vient plus longue, plus authentique que celle des genera
tions au milieu desquelles on les fait naitre [...].
Tout le coeur humain se remue dans leur enveloppe, il s'y
cache souvent toute une philosophie." Along with Clarissa,
Roland, Ivanhoe, Daphnis and Chloeto name just a fewwe
find "mon onde Tobie" (I, 52). And elsewhere, when Balzac
is complaining about critics' insistence on accuracy in
geographical details, he writes: "Tous ces pays et ces
cuirassiers vivent sur le globe immense ou sont la tour
de Ravenswood, les Eaux de Saint-Ronan, la Terre de Tille-
tudlem, Gander-Cleug, Lilliput, l'abbaye de Thleme, les
consellers prives d'Hoffman, l'ile de Robinson Crusoe,
les terres de la famille Shandy, dans un monde exempt de
contributions, et ou la poste se paie par ceux qui y voyagent
% # 0
a raison de 20 centimes la volume.


35
gestive words in a list that would otherwise be acceptable.
In this situation, Frenis omits the offending word or
words. For example, in speaking of types of eloquence,
Sterne lists those of "the senate, the pulpit, the bar,
the coffee-house, the bed-chamber, and fire-side" (W, II,
xvii, 122). Frenis repeats the list, but removes the
bed-chamber (B, I, xliv, 192). In Dr. Slop's extended
curse of Obadiah, at the end of a long string of activities
in v/hich Slop wishes Obadiah damned, are "in pissing, in
shitting, and in blood-letting" (W, III, xi, 177). These
three phrases are omitted in the French; in the original
Latin, on the facing page, Frenis allows them to remain
(B, II, xxiii, 61). In the 1803 text, the euphemism
vacando is substituted for the specific cacando, but
cacando appears in the original French edition (RV).
In the same curse, we find "'May he be cursed [ . ]
in hi3 thighs, in his genitals,' (my father shook his
head)" (W, III, xi, 177). Frenis leaves "in genitalibus"
in the Latin; in French, we find "dans ses cuisses, reprit
le docteur Slop, dans ses . (mon pere ne put s'empecher
de sourire)" (E, II, xxiii, 61). In this case, as in some
others, Frenis retains the suggestion while removing the
offending expression.
Sterne employs many suggestive figures of speech
in Tristram Shandy. Frenis usually detects Sterne's in
nuendo and makes a change. Thus in Sterne Toby does not
know "the right end of a woman from the wrong" (W, II, vii,


181
"Madame s'impatiente," whose full text is as follows:
Ah! ca, mon cher Nathan, quel galimatias
me faites-vous la? demanda la marquise etonle.
-Madame la marquise, rpondit Nathan,
vous ignorez la valeur de ces phrases prcieuses,
je parle en ce moment le Sainte-Beuve, une nou-
velle langue fran^aise. Je continue. (V, 281)
Nathan is narrating the tale to a marquise; the dialogue,
then, is prepared as part of the frame, as in the Physiologie.
The brevity of the chapter, combined with the use of dialogue
to comment on the work itself, has a ring of Sterne. Another
extremely short chapter appears in Une Passion dans le de
sert again as part of the frame; "Curiosit de femme" is
the title, and the text is only four lines long (V, 744).
This playing with the mechanics of novel-writing, which is
so much of the substance of Tristram Shandy, seems to be
less appealing to the Balzac of the Comedie humaine than
it was to the young author of Jean Louis. Balzac never
really loses his sense of humor, but in the Comedie humaine
his tendency is to work humor into the very substance of
his workas in the presentation of the character of Crevel
and let it radiate both laughter and tragedy.
One means of overlaying humor on a novel's surface
is with chapter titles. As we have seen above (pp. 64-65),
one of the aspects of Frenis's dubious raillerie is to add
whimsical chapter titles to Tristram Shandy; de Bonnay does
so too, although with less forced humor. Balzac frequently
titles his chapters, but his titles are rarely humorous.
He tends to use titles simply as references to the general


140
without mentioning Sterne, Slawkenbergius's Tale. As in
the romans de jeunesse (see above, p. 120), the restless
night passed by excited women is mentioned: "Madame Vauquer
se coucha le soir en rtissant, comme une perdrix dans sa
barde, au feu du dsir qui la saisit de quitter le suaire
du Vauquer pour renatre en Goriot [ . ]. Quant au
reste, je vaux bien le bonhomme! se dit-elle en se retournant
dans son lit, comme pour s'attester a elle-mme les charmes
que la grosse Sylvie trouvait chaqu matin mouls en creux"
(Pere Goriot, II, 223). And again in La Vieille Filie:
"Mais il fallait le silence de la nuit pour ces mariages
fantasques ou elle se plaisait a jouer le sublime role
des anges gardiens. Le lendemain si Perotte trouvait le
lit de sa maitresse cen dessus dessous, mademoiselle avait
repris sa dignit" (III, 301). This is the type of distant
echo of Sterne that I find frequently in Balzac; enough to
recall something particular in Sterne to my mind, and enough
to guess that Balzac might be, at some level, thinking of
Sterne. In this case, both Balzac and Sterne find some
humor in the picture of elderly women tossing restlessly
in their beds in a state of sexual arousal; in both authors
this can be read as a subtle hint of masturbation.
Balzac may have had Slawkenbergius's Tale in mind
while writing La Vieille Filie; the small town where made
moiselle Cormon lives is turned "cen dessus dessous" by
her preparations for the arrival of monsieur de Troisville.


144
"puis par les exigences de sa femme." The link here is
more tenuous.
Occasionally in Balzac, one detail of a descrip
tion calls up Sterne. For example in La Mai son du Chat-
qui-pelote, a symbol of the sobriety and organization of
the Guillaume household is that "les gonds semblaient tou-
jours huils" (I, 62), while in the Shandy household, the
squeaking hinges of the parlor door symbolize its disorgan
ization (W, III, xxi, 203).
Another subtle parallel can be seen in La Re
cherche de l'absolu, where when Claes is in the throes of
an attack of paralysis, "la paralysie [ . ] resta sur
la langue qu'elle avait specialement affecte, peut-tre
parce que la colre y avait port toutes les forces du
vieillard au moment ou il voulut apostropher les enfants"
(VI, 678). The process here is like that in the Phutator-
ius scene in Tristram Shandy, where due to the burning of
the chestnut, Phutatorius' "me escorte de ses idees, de
ses penses, de son imagination, de son jugement, de sa
raison, de sa mmoire, de ses fantaisies et de dix mille
bataillons, peut-tre, d'esprits animaux qui arrivrent
en foule et tumultueusement, par des passages, et des de
files inconnus qu'ils se frayrent, s'lant^a subitement sur
le lieu du danger, et laissa les regions suprieures aussi
vuides que la tete de nos poetes" (B, II, xcvi, 262-63; W,
IV, xxvii, 321). Again the connection i.s slim. Some sub-


70
rather than to its eloquence. A3 in de Bonnay's efforts
to fill in lacunae, the translator is unsuccessful in his
attempts to demonstrate what Sterne simply suggests. There
are frequent instances of this rendering into direct style
what Sterne renders in indirect.
Occasionally, both Frenis and de Bonnay further
formalize Sterne's existing dialogue by setting it off in
dramatic form, thus:
KYSARCHIUS.
Supposons que Gastripheres baptise un
enfant, in homine gatris, au lieu d'in nomine
patris.
DIDIUS.
Eh bien?
KYSARCHIUS.
Sera-ce la un baptme? (B, II, ci, 274;
W, IV, xxix, 326-27)
Perhaps this procedure could be carried out without sub
stantially altering the dialogue, assuming, as is true in
this case, that Tristram has inserted no commentary. But
in any case, the rhythm of the prose is broken, and Sterne's
phrases such as "quoth ray uncle Toby" are very carefully
used for both rhythm and emphasis. Not only is this rhythm
and emphasis lost, though; setting off dialogue as do the
translators fragments and attenuates it, often leaving
much of it completely pointless. Thus after Trim finishes
reading the sermon, we find in Sterne: "Thou hast read the
sermon extremely well, Trim, quoth my father, If he had



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81,9(56,7< 2) )/25,'$


184
Sans vous forcer a m'implorer, sans vous faire
rougir, et sans vous donner un centime de France,
un parat du Levant, un tarain de Sicile, un hel
ler d'Allemagne, un copec de Russie, un farthing
d'Ecosse, une seule des sesterces ou des oboles
de l'ancien monde, ni une piastre du nouveau,
sans vous offrir quoi que ce soit en or, argent,
billon, papier, billet, je veux vous faire plus
riche, plus puissant et plus consider que ne
peut l'tre un roi constitutionnel. (VI, 440)
This sort of extravagance could be borrowed from either
Rabelais or Sterne. In any case, Balzac has made it his
own.
There is another type of enumeration in Balzac
that is more closely related to Sterne. In the Journey,
Yorick lists various types of travelers in a list set
off from the text (S, 31). Balzac mentions Sterne's list
of travelers in "Voyage de Paris a Java," written, according
to its subtitle, "suivant la mthode enseigne par M.
Charles Nodier en son Histoire du roi de Boherne et de
ses sept chateaux" : "Sachez-le bien, je fais partie des
voyageurs egoistes, espce oubliee par Sterne dans sa grande
Q
classification des voyageurs." In Ferragus, Balzac has
picked up this classifying device for pitons; his list
is more descriptive and is not set off from the text.
Nevertheless, it relates clearly to the list in the Jour
ney:
N'y a-t-il pas d'abord le pieton rveur
ou philosophe qui observe avec plaisir, soit
les raies faites par la pluie sur le fond gristre
de 1'atmosphere [...].
Puis il y a le piton causeur qui se plaint
et converse avec la portiere [...]; le piton


41
by Tristram'sand the nuns'delicacy. Nonetheless, they
do appear written out, "' bou- bou- bou- bou-' 'ger, ger,
ger, ger."' In translating, where the two words are first
introduced, de Bonnay gives the first syllable of each;
after the abbess has said "bou- bou- bou- bou-" de Bonnay
says "II n'est personne un peu instruite qui ne sache ce que
rpondoit Marguerite." Marguerite then says "fou- fou-
fou- fou-," and instead of the abbess' response, we find
"Je lis dans vos yeux, mademoiselle, qu'au besoin vous
auriez pu achever le mot pour l'abbesse." Where the ab
bess and the novice are saying the words rapidly, de Bonnay
gives us "'b-b-b-b' 'g-g-g-g'"; "'f-f-f-f-' 't-t-t-t'"
(B, IV, xi, 31; W, VII, xxv, 510).
At another point where it is a question of a
doubtful wordand incidentde Bonnay has made either
a discreet change or a mistake. In the incident where
Toby, Walter and Trim are discussing radical heat and
radical moisture, Trim explains that radical heat is burn
ing brandy, and narrates an episode from his and Toby's
military life to illustrate the point. Victims of a "flux"
during a campaign, Toby and Trim rid themselves of this
"radical moisture" by burning brandy in their tent. Be Bon
nay translates flux as innondation; it is a legitimate trans^
lation, and it works in the passage, necessitating no fur
ther changes. But it is obvious that in Sterne flux means
dysentery, not a flood, and there is much wordplay on it:


94
assiger Dunkerque'* (HB, III, 88). This is not actually
a quotation from Sterne (via Frenis), but is based on the
description of Trim's entrance with the "mortars" (B, II,
xlii, 114; W, III, xxii, 204-05). Trim's entrance in
Sterne centers not on the mortarsattention only gradually
shifts to thembut upon the squeaking of the door's hinges;
he enters not fierement, but cautiously. The placing of
this epigraph seems to clearly indicate a conscious parallel
between Toby-Trim and Chanclos-Vieille-Roche; Trim's entrance,
with makeshift munitions, particularly as shown by Balzac's
revision of Sterne, closely resembles that of Vieille-Roche.
Even though the epigraph was added "sur preuve," as Chollet
says,^ what it refers to is a situation that seems to have
been clearly derived from Sterne. Even without the evidence
of this scene, the handling of the hobby-horsical characters
in the novel convinces me that Balzac read Tristram Shandy
before writing L1Heritiere de Birague.
In Jean Louis, Balzac's next novel (1822), we
again find a distinctly hobby-horsical character, Barnab
Granivel, Jean Louis's uncle. His obsession is with Pyr
rhonism, and in its nature and manifestations resembles
the obsessions of Walter Shandy more than that of Toby.
Barnab twists every type of conversation to his hobby
horse while the other characters become constantly wary
in his presence, hoping to be able to keep Barnab from
launching into one of his intermina,ble discourses.
Maurice Bardiche sees the relationship between


21
the purely literary references to Sterne, and the citations
and echoes of specific characters and incidents. Next, I
will consider various stylistic and narrative devices that
Balzac seems to have borrowed from Sterne. Last of all, I
will look at the ideas that Balzac has borrowed from Sterne,
including the hobby-horse, which eventually works itself
into the central tragic concerns of the Comedie humaine.
In these three chapters devoted to the Comedie humaine, I
also take up the relatively small amount of evidence drawn
from the oeuvres diverses (post 1829) and the few dim
traces of Sterne that I have found in the Contes drolatiques.
I have examined all of Balzac's Theatre as well, but I
found there no sign of Sterne's influence.
For my present purposes, I have not found it
pertinent or productive to seek extremely general links
between Balzac and Sterne. Although it is common in com
parative studies to seek to link personalities and to find
profound affinities between authorsas does Maurice Le-
cuyer in his interesting study Balzac et Rabelais, for
example"^I have found many specific links between Balzac
and Sterne and have chosen not to seek these more general
connections. Similarly, some critics cited above have
found very general ideasabout marriage or women, for
examplein common between Balzac and Sterne. Certainly
Sterne may have had some influence on Balzac's thinking
in these areas, but Balzac's own life experience and other


101
This type of characterization is further tied to
Sterne by Balzac's explanation, earlier in the work, of
the genesis of these characters:
Reraarquons [ . ] 1 que la mere de m.
l'auraonier le comjut pendant une guerre cruelle;
au milieu du rlcit interrompu, que son mari lui
fit un soir, d'un combat sanglant; que 1'attitude
du pere d'Hilarion tait fiere; qu'alors sa mere
le mit au monde avec des organes, des fibres et
des nerfs tenement disposles, que les idles qu'ils
produiserent furent des idles guerrieres, d'am
bition et d'orgeuil, qui se jouerent dans une
seule partie du cerveau d'Hilarion; a force de
s'y jouer ces pensles formerent une bosse a son
crane, parce que les idles y affluerent, en al
lant de prlflrence vers ce point clrlbral; enfin
ces pensles n'ltant pas rlprimles, ni son crne
amolli dans cet endroit, elles firent de l'au-
monier un homme du caractere dont je vous ai
donnl quelques esquisses.
2e Que la contesse, mere du connltable,
montait tres-souvent a cheval pendant sa gros-
sesse, et qu'elle accoucha de Klfalein en descen
dant de cheval.
3e Que la princesse Ludovic de Montesan
Itait divote, ainsi que son mari . (CL, II,
201-02)
This extraordinary passage uses one of Sterne's facetious
ideas, the importance of conception, to explain another,
the hobby-horse. The addition of Gall's theories to Sterne's
renders the whole idea characteristically Balzacian. Here
there are many parallels to the opening chapters of Tristram
Shandy, particularly the rlcit interrompu and the enumera
tion of "des organes, des fibres et des nerfs." Roland
Chollet accurately describes this part of Clotilde de
Luisignan as "pages tout impregnles de Tristram Shandy."^
An important question here is how seriously Balzac


201
names without mentioning Sterne show how much Balzac has
5
adopted this idea as his own.
Tristram Shandy begins with Tristram's conception,
and the second chapter is concerned with the importance of
this process:
Et que voudriez-vous, d'aprs cela, mon cher
monsieur, qu'il devnt, si, seul sur la route,
il lui arrivoit quelque accident, ou que, frapp
de quelque terreur subite, ce qui est fort na-
turel un aussi jeune voyageur, il n'arrivoit
a sa destination qu'avec des esprits puiss
et dissips? Qu'avec sa vigeur musculaire et
virile, rduite un fil? Qu'avec sa forme dl-
figure et mutile? Et que, rduit a ce triste
tat, il ft sujet a des frayeurs soudaines,
ou une suite de reves et de fantaisies m-
lancoliques pendant neuf mois entiers? Je
tremble toutes les fois que je songe a cette
source fconde de foiblesse de corps et d'es
prit. Encore si l'habilet du mdecin et du
philosophe pouvoit y remdier! (B, I, ii, 4-5;
W, ii, 6)
Balzac mentions the importance of conception in the romans
de jeunesse and connects it to the genesis of the hobby
horse (see above, p. 101). The effects of conception and
prenatal experience are discussed several times in La
Comedie humaine. In introducing Montes de Montejanos in
La Cousine Bette, Balzac describes him as having "deux
yeux clairs, fauves a faire croire que la mere du baron
avait eu peur, etant grosse de lui, de quelque jaguar"
(V, 170). Elsewhere, Balzac speaks more directly of the
effects of conception itself. In Les Paysans, as he de
scribes La Pechina, he says, "conquest porte a travers
les fatigues de la guerre, elle s'tait sans doute ressentie


6
seroit arret si celles qu'il avoit publiees n'eussent pas
plu, & je m'arrterai tout de mme, si ces deux volumes
ne font pas dsirer la suite" (RV, I, xii-xiii). Frenis
did not continue the translation, perhaps because of the
negative critical reaction to his work.
It was not until 1785 that the rest of Tristram
Shandy was translated, and in that year two translations
of the second half appeared. One was done by a professional
mam of letters, Griffet de la Baume. According to Barton,
20
this translation is quite accurate. It contains cuts,
but no additions. The other translation was done by a
21
nobleman, le marquis Francois de Bonnay.
De Bonnay's translation, though less accurate
than that of de la Baume, is of more interest for the
present study, since that is the one that Balzac used.
De Bonnay did his translation simply out of a desire to
finish the novel: "J'ai pris le texte Anglois & un dic-
tionnaireEt moi aussi, j'entends Stern, ai-je dit.
Peu-a-peu & presque sans y songer, je suis venu a bout
de traduire ce qui restoit de la Vie & des Opinions de
Tristram Shandy" (RV, III, iii-iv). Despite de Bonnay'3
lack of experience, his translation is reasonably accurate.
He, too, makes additions as well a3 omissions, and he
makes some changes: "M. Frenis avoue qu'il a fait beau-
coup de retranchemens, auxquels il a suppl de
son propre fonds. -J'ai us de la mme libert que lui,
& je dsire que ce soit avec autant do bonheur" (RV, III,


96
(JL, III, 85-86). Sterne uses this type of parenthetical
reaction throughout his work, particularly during the sermon
and the curse. Similarly, Barnab's oratorical gestures
are minutely described, as are Trim's during the sermon.
For example, at one point during the discourse, "(ici le
professeur ta son bonnet de velours noir, s'inclina, et
le remit)" (JL, III, 89). In Sterne: "Le caporal Trim
s'essuya le visage, remit son mouchoir dans sa poche, fit
une inclination, et recommenga sa lecture" (B, I, xlvi,
197; W, II, xvii, 125). Also like Sterne, Balzac here
sets off a list vertically:
[ . ] la philosophie des Icoles. II y en a
diversit: on compte:
"La stoique, de Zenon;
"La platonique, de Socrate;
"L'picurienne, d'Epicure.
"La cynique, de Diogene;
"La pripateticienne, d'Aristote;
"Enfin, la sceptique de Pyrrhon. (JL, III, 89)
In Sterne:
d'ailleurs n'a-t-il pas
De relations a concilier,
D'anecdotes a receuillir,
D'inscriptions dchiffrer,
De particularits a remarquer,
De traditions a plucher,
De^personnages a caractriser,
D'loges a dbiter,
De pasquinades a publier? (B, I, xv, 56-57;
W, I, xiv, 37)
This device in Sterne must have been all the more striking
to Balzac because Sterne's translators used it more than
Sterne himself did.
The tone of the entire discourse is similar to


76
My father, I say, had a way, when things went
extremely wrong with him, especially upon the
first sally of his impatience, of wondering
why he was begot, wishing himself dead;
sometimes worse. (W, V, xiv, 370)
Quand les choses tournoient mal pour lui, et
surtout dans le premier mouvement de son impa
tience, pourquoi suis-je n? s'crioit-il.
Eh! que fais-je sur la terre? Je voudrois tre
mort. C'toit-la ses moindres imprecations.
(B, III, xv, 61)
Be Bonnay also now and then fills in gaps in the narration,
although not as often as Frenis. Thus at one point in
Tristram's journey, a passing girl is mentioned: "Ah! ma
chere filie! said I, as she tripped by, from her matins,
you look as rosy as the morning" (W, VII, vii, 487).
She has no formal antecedent here, thus lending a certain
appropriate abruptness. Be Bonnay introduces her in a
more direct and conventional way: "Ma belle enfant, dis-
je a une jeune filie qui passoit lgerement avec ses
heures sous le bras, vous tes fraiche et vermeille comme
le matin" (B, III, xci, 240). These narrative devices
make Sterne's style unique and effective. The more ob
vious quirks of his style are exaggerated by both trans
lators; the more subtle ones are simply lost. Both trans
lations (Frenis's more than de Bonnay's, however) indicate
the ways that imitation of Sterne developed. Only the
most obvious of his stylistic traits and methods were used
by most imitators. Be Bonnay does not practice the random
inflation characteristic of Frenis's translation; most of
his major changes can be attributed to some specific point,
such as religious or moral scruples.


173
l'tendue infini des modes de la musique" (Splendeurs et
miseres des courtisanes, IV, 449). This method of descrip
tion marks Balzac's interest in very close observation,
like that of "cet admirable observateur," Sterne. Else
where Balzac mentions Sterne's descriptive powers: "[...]
des culottes d'un ampleur qui et merit! de Sterne une
description pique" (Le Cabinet des anticues, III, 345).
And in La Peau de chagrin, we found a painting by the
Flemish artist Gerard Dow compared to a page of Sterne
(VI, 437). Balzac may have have imitated Sterne's close
observation; or he may have particularly admired Sterne's
powers in this direction because he, Balzac, was by the
nature of his mind and art so profoundly disposed to the
use of such techniques.^
In the romans de .jeunesse, Balzac frequently uses
Sterne's device of calling upon the reader's imagination
(see above, pp. 112-13). We find this technique again and
again in the Comedie humaine: "A ces traits vous pouvez
maintenant ajouter d'autres. Nous tcherons dans ce livre
de toujours peindre a fresque et de vous laisser les mini
atures" (PhyPo, 107; Phy, I, 186; VII, 424). Balzac oc
casionally does this in the ceuvres diverses as well:
"0 lecteur! pour m'eviter la peine de vous l'expliquer,
faites-moi le plaisir de figurer vous-mme 1'aspect [ . ]."^
Generally, Balzac will do the half, as Sterne suggests,
giving us something specific on which to build our imagining;


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Sandra Soares Donnelly was born January 10, 1942,
at Oakland, California. In June, 1959, she was graduated
from Los Altos (California) High School. She received the
Associate of Arts Certificate from Cottey College, Nevada,
Missouri, in June, 1961. Her entire third college year
was spent at Reid Hall in Paris. In June, 1965, she received
the Bachelor of Arts with a major in French from North
Central College, Naperville, Illinois. In September, 1966,
she began graduate work at the University of Florida, where
she held an N.D.E.A. Title IV fellowship from September,
1967,to August, 1970. She received the Master of Arts
Degree in French in December, 1968. From September, 1970,
to June, 1972, she taught in the Chicago public schools.
She returned to the University of Florida in June, 1972,
to complete requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy.
Sandra Soares Donnelly is the mother of one
child.


151
is a meeting of scholars at a fireside rather than a dinner,
where "il Itait facile de deviner qu'ils avaient a prononcer
sur la vie, la fortune et le bonheur de leurs semblables"
(Phy, II, 8; VII, 447; not in PhyPo). The matter under dis
cussion is whether it is reasonable for a woman to have
wheels on her bed, in order to wheel it away from her hus
band'sto give her, as it were, strong bargaining power.
The pseudo-scientific working out of this discussion, en
cyclopedic in its references, is like much in Sterne, and
Sterne is cited four times in its length. The second dis-
scussion of this type, which concludes the work, although
it is set up like the dinner at Didius's home, is not
Sternean in its working out.
A truly unique direct citation of Sterne is the
epigraph to La Peau de chagrin (VI, 430; in original edition,
1831). It is a long, sinuous, looping line in Sterne, placed
vertically on the page; the Bastien edition of the transla
tion reproduces the line fairly exactly (B, IV, lxviii, 189;
W, IX, iv, 604). In Balzac, it appears horizontally, with
no loop, and has, in later editions, acquired the forked
tongue of a snake. The line is1drawn in the air with Trim's
cane: "Tant qu'un homme est libre, s'cria le caporal ....
Et en mme-temps il fit avec son baton le moulinet au-dessus
de sa tete, -peu-pres en cette maniere: [ . ] Un
million de syllogismes les plus subtiles de mon pere, n'en
auroit pas dit davantage en faveur du clibat" (B, IV, lxviii,
189; W, IX, iv, 604).


95
Barnab and his brother, Jean Louis's father, as Balzac's
unsuccessful attempt to "faire songer aux deux freres de
Tristram Shandy"; Bardeche cites this as the first real
trace of Sterne in Balzac.^1 The relationship is similar
in some waysthe verbal rivalry, particularlybut Barnab
is much more fully characterized than his brother. Jean
Louis's father does not approach the complexity and strength
of Sterne's characters. Roland Chollet says that in Barnab
"le jeune crivain a audacieusement combin le caractre
cocasse et excentrique de Walter, l'humanit touchante de
l'oncle Toby et la puissante originalit de Bernard-Frangois
Balzac. Barnab est un personnage complexe et russi."
In volume three of Jean Louis, Barnab finally
delivers a discourse in its entirety. Its presentation
and style are distinctly similar to some of the set pieces
in Sterne, such as Walter's letter to Toby, or "My Father's
Lamentation." Although Balzac uses no chapter titles
only epigraphsin Jean Louis, the discourse is set off
with a title mid-chapter: "Discours de Barnab Granivel,
professeur" (JL, III, 85). The purpose of the discourse
is to comfort Jean Louis for the loss of Fanchette. Jean's
reactions are given to us parenthetically, again a Sternean
technique: "Tu as perdu ta maitresse? . (a ce mot, Jean
fit un soupir); elle est place dans une sphere que tu
dsespres d'atteindre .... Je vais t'y faire monter!
. . (Jean Louis regarda le professeur avec tonnement)"


205
prison par ses enfants, dernier fragment d'un livre perdu
dont la seule lecture faisait pleurer ce Sterne, qui lui-
8
meme dlaissait sa femme et ses enfants." Now Balzac is
cynical about Sterne's tears. By the time he writes Modeste
Mignon (1844), he no longer believes in them at all, speaking
of "des larmes qui manquerent, dit-on, dans les yeux du
plus spirituel des auteurs anglais" (I, 206; in original
edition, 1844). Even the early references to Sterne in
Balzac's correspondence show that he recognizes the under
lying sexuality of the Journey; when he quotes the "toile
d'amitie" passage (see above, p. 87) to Madame de Berny,
seduction is his real motive. And although he imitates
some of the sentimental aspects of Sterne in Une Heure de
ma vie, sentiment and sexuality are mingled throughout the
work (see above, pp. 85-87).
In the Comedie humaine there is much use of
Sterne-like sentimentality, but because of Balzac's seem
ing lack of interest in Sterne as a sentimentalist, we
find ourselves here on ground where it is safer to discuss
parallels and comparison rather than influence. If Balzac's
sentimentality is .related to Sterne, it is more likely fil
tered through Sterne's many imitators rather than coming
directly from Sterne himself.
Balzac mentions sentiment directly a number of
times in the Comedie humaine, and his view of it is related
to what we find on the surface of Sterne: "Mais la raison


208
that both Toby and Chabert have had a military career,
and the detail of the pipe, it is possible to think that
Balzac may have had Toby in mind when creating the character
of Chabert. We find a similar flight of sentiment one
other place in the Comedie humaine: "La courtisane laissa
sur le seuil de cette maison une de ces larmes que recueil-
lent les anges" (Les Maraa, VII, 65).
There are a number of other characters in the
Comedie humaine who carry this aura of sentiment and ex
treme delicacy of feelingDavid Sechard, for example.
A certain nai'vete is always present in such characters.
Pons is another such person, and the gentle feelings ex
pressed in his relationship with Schmucke are described
in sentimental terms. Balzac connects Pons' delicacy of
feeling to Jean-Paul Richter: "[...] ce besoin de
prter une signifiance psychique aux riens de la creation,
qui produit les oeuvres inexplicables de Jean-Paul Richter"
(V, 171). Richter's admiration for Sterne has often been
g
noted by critics.
Although Balzac was not taken in completely by
Sterne's sentiment, it is certainly possible that he was
influenced by Sterne's method of searching deeply into the
miniscule events and details of daily life: "N'est-ce pas
a ces petites choses que se reconnaissent les gens de coeur?"
(Modeste Mignon, I, 241). Or in Madame Firamini: "II est
quelques aventures de la vie humaine auxquelles les accents
du coeur seuls rendent la vie" (I, 451). Or in L'Enfant


179
Et allons un peu plus vite, dit Blondet,
tu marivaudes.
Isaure, reprit Bixiou, qui regarda Blondet
de travers, avait une simple robe de crepe blanc
ornee de rubans verts, un camelia dans^ses cheveux,
un camelia a sa ceinture, un autre camelia dans
le bas de son robe, et un camelia . .
-Allons, voila les trois cents chevres de
Sancho!
C'est toute la littrature, mon cher!
Clarisse est un chef-d'oeuvre, il a quatorze
volumes, et le plus obtus vaudevilliste te le
racontera dans un acte. Pourvu que je t'amuse,
de quoi te plains-tu? Cette toilette tait d'un
effet dlicieux, est-ce que tu n'aimes pas le
camelia? veux-tu des dahlias? Non. Eh! bien,
un marrn,^tiens! dit Bixiou qui jetta sans doute
un marrn a Blondet, car nous entendimes le bruit
sur l'assiette.
Allons, j'ai tort, continue? (IV, 242)
Balzac is here making a serious point, though humorously,
about the importance of detail and digression in literature.
Because of my preoccupation with links between Balzac and
Sterne, I read the throwing of the chestnut as an oblique
reference to the Phutatorius scene in Sterne; I can only .
point it out to my reader as a distinct possibility.
In the handling of time, then, as with many other
points of contact between Balzac and Sterne, we can see the
use of similar methods to different ends. Balzac is working
for distinct organization in his readers' eyes; Sterne is
playing with the effects of disorganization.
A quite distinctive feature of Tristram Shandy is
the handling of chapter divisions. There are two special
devices that Sterne uses, the subject-by-subject presenta
tion of materialchapter of things, or chapter of chapters
with frequent references to chapters to come, and the


Le prince laissa toniber sa main sur sa cuisse;
or, il y a bien des manieres de laisser tomber
sa main, et ce geste peut exprimer la douleur
comme le plaisir; mais le prince mit tant de
mlancolie dans ce mouvement, cette main tomba
si bien d'aplomb, que Kefalein fut mu de ce
simple geste; son corps fluet se pencha, sa
petite tete oblongue suivit le mouvement de
la main du prince, et son bonnet ne tourna plus
entre ses doigts. (CL, II, 199)
These detailings of pose and gesture are quite deliberate
in both Balzac and Sterne. It is likely that Balzac had
Sterne in mind while employing this technique; if so, Sterne
can be said to have made a significant contribution to
Balzac's method of observation and description.
The most widely imitated aspect of Sterne is less
of a stylistic device than of an attitude. Tristram's self-
consciousness, the ever-present awareness that he is writ
ing a novel, his intimacy with the reader, his digressive
ness, and his general lack of organization spawned a whole
generation of whimsical writers, just as Yorick's tears and
Toby's gentleness engendered numberless sentimental ones.
This informal attitude most often takes the form of narrative
idiosyncrasies in Sterne's imitators, some of which are
similar to Sterne's devices (asides to the reader, for ex
ample), and others which are simply inspired by them (the
double narration in the preface to L'Heritiere de Birague).
Narrative idiosyncrasies similar to those of
Sterne and his imitators appear throughout Balzac's early
work. The aside to the reader is common in the eighteenth
and nineteenth-century novel, particularly the English novel.


28
the works therein) while waiting for the Bibliophiles de
l'Originale edition, under the direction of Jean A. Ducour-
neau, to be completed. I have used the Ducourneau edition
of the Contes drolatiques, ed. Rolland Chollet^(Paris: Les
Bibliophiles de l'Originale, 1969) and the Theatre, ed.
Ren Guise (Paris: Les Bibliophiles de l'Originale, 1969-
70). For Balzac's correspondence, I have used Roger
Pierrot's edition of Lettres a Madame Hanska, cited above,
and Correspondance, ed. Roger Pierrot (Paris: Gamier,
1960-69). For the Romans de jeunesse I have used the
modern facsimile edition (Paris: Les Bibliophiles de
l'Originale, 1961-63).
"^Maurice A. F. Lecuyer, Balzac et Rabelais,
Etudes fran5aises fondees sur 1'initiative de la Socit
des professeurs frangais en Amrique, No. 47 (Paris:
Socit d'Edition "Les Belles Lettres," 1956).
75
Delattre, p. 171


123
of Sterne: "Le titre seul d'un livre perdu depuis bien
long-temps, m'a donn quelques heures de mlancolie:
Lamentatio gloriosi regis Eduardi de Kernavan, quam edidit
tempore sui incarcerationis; Lamentation du glorieux roi
Eduard de Kemavan, compose par lui pendant son imprison-
nement. Le contraste frappant des troisieme et quatrieme
mots avec le dernier, affecte ma sensibilit" (B, I, xlvj).
One more direct reference to Sterne is to his gentler side,
when in V/ann-Chlore Balzac speaks of "une de ces domestiques
que Sterne appelait d1 humbles amis" (WC, IV, 10), perhaps
a reference to Yorick's words, in A Sentimental Journey:
"Je suis dispose a penser favorablement de tout le monde
au premier abord, et surtout d'un pauvre diable qui vient
offrir ses services a un aussi pauvre diable que moi" (B,
V, 50; S, 124).
The outpourings of the narrator's emotions, par
ticularly in Le Vicaire des Ardennes, Le Centenaire and
Annette et le criminel, are related to Sterne's sentimental
style as well as to his method of informal narration. The
sentiment in Tristram is certainly satiric, and that in the
2 6
Journey is probably so. Balzac may have had mixed feelings
about Sterne's sentiment at this point in his career. The
bawdiness of Une Heure de ma vie is strong evidence that he
did not take Sterne's sentiment seriously, but the references
to Sterne in Jean Louis and Wann-Chlore, as well as those
to the Maria episodes in Balzac's correspondence, give op-


3
de l'attrait pour l'rae fran at least its more obvious aspectswas later much imitated
in France.
Joseph-Pierre Frenis, who had translated A
Sentimental Journey with great success, published in 1776
his translation (in two volumes) of the first four volumes
of Tristram Shandy. L'Anne Littraire, which took great
O
interest in English literature, published a lengthy review
of this first translation. The reviewer, Elie Freron,
recognized Tristram Shandy as Sterne's principal work,
and keenly appreciated Sterne's wit; he also found in
him "une critique adroite des moeurs et des faux savans
[et] des reflexions pleine3 de solidit."^ The translation
had considerable commercial success; it was reprinted four
times in the next ten years.
Although his translation of A Sentimental Jouraey
is fairly close and accurate, Frenis took many liberties
with Tristram Shandy, as he admits in his preface to the
first edition of the translation:
Si un homme qui traduit pouvoit tre compt
pour quelque chose parmi les Gens de Lettres,
jo pourrois aspirer a m'y trouver place. Je
pourrois rnerne dire, pour me faire un titre plus
fort, quil a fallu que je retranchasse beaucoup
de 1'original, & supplier a ce que je retranchois:
je ne dirois que la vrit. Les plaisanteries
de M. Stern [3ic] ne m'ont pas en effet paru
toujours fort bonnes. Je lea ai laisses ou
je les ai trouves, & j'y en ai substitu d'autres,
Je crois quon peut se permettre cette libert
dans la traduction d'un Ouvrage de pur agrment.
II faut seulement faire son possible pour n'tre
pas reconnu, & je me trouverai fort heureux si
l'on ne m'aperjoit pa3.^


145
stantiation can come from the fact that Balzac cites Sterne
several times, directly and indirectly, in La Recherche de
l'absolu, and from the fact that the description of tone of
voice in musical terms at the "beginning of the chestnut scene
is taken up by Balzac both in Une Heure de ma vie (see above,
p. 86) and in the Comedie humaine (see below, pp. 172-73)*
The Physiologie du mariage, first drafted in 1824
25 and set in print (but not published) in 1826, then revised
for the 1829 original edition, demands special consideration.
Balzac uses a light style, a manner which is very like Sterne's,
as we will see when we examine Balzac's stylistic borrowing
from Sterne. There are numerous references to Sterne and
his characters in this work, and several devices such as the
famous Meditation 25 (a four-page stretch of type set up com
pletely at random [Phy, II, 207-210; VII, 479; not in PhyPo]),
which, though not directly borrowed from Sterne, can cer
tainly be said to relate to the fantaisiste tradition of
novel-writing of which Tristram Shandy is a part. It is
not surprising that in this work we should find the most
lengthy borrowing from Sterne in all of the Comedie humaine,
the inclusion, complete, of Walter Shandy's letter to his
brother Toby, containing his advice on love. In the pre
original version of the Physiologie, Balzac introduces the
letter thus: "Predestines de toutes classes et de tous rangs!
relisez ces clebres instructions; et comme beaucoup ignorent
ce chef-d'oeuvre du plus originel des crivains, le voici:"


27
^Laure Surville, Balzac: sa vie et aes oeuvres
d'apres sa correspondance (Paris: Librairie Nouvelle^ 1853),
p. 7.
O j / /
L.-J. Arrigon, les Pebut3 litteraires d1Honor
de Balzac (Paris: Librairie Academie Perrin, 1924),%p. 31.
See also Fernand Baldensperger, Orientations trangres
chez Honor de Balzac (Paris: Champion, 1927), p. 41; and
Delattre, pp. 169-70.
^Letter printed in Roger Pierrot, "Balzac vu
par les siens en 1822," Etudes Balzaciennes, 7 (1959),
252.
^Editor's introduction to Balzac, Physiologie
du mariage pre-originale, ed. Maurice Bardche (Paris:
Droz, 1940), p. 34. Hereafter cited in text as PhyPo.
/To
^Bardche introduction to PhyPo, pp. 34-35;
A. Prioult, Balzac avant La Comedie humaine (Paris:
Courville, 1936), p. 230.
^^Delattre, p. 169.
^Ddyan, p. 290.
^Andr Wurmser, La Comdie inhumaine (Paris:
Gallimard, 1965), p. 89.
^Wurmser, p. 272.
Cn
Baldensperger, p. 45.
68
Baldensperger, p. 44.
^Ren Guise, "Balzac et l'tranger," L'Anne
Balzacienne, 1970, pp. 3-19.
70 K
Guise, p. 5.
71rt .
Guise, p. 4.
^Guise, pp. 12, 14.
^^For the Comdie humaine, I have used the readily
available text prepared by Pierre Citron (Paris: Editions
du Seuil, "1'Intgrale," 1965-66), hereafter cited in text
by volume and page number. For the (feuvres diverses, cited
above, I have had to rely on the Conard edition (taking into
account the studies of Bruce Tolley on the authenticity of


213
"La raison, la prudence, n'ont plus d'empire
sur lui," says Sterne. When the hobby-horse is not a
universal trait but an individual one, it leads to greater
difficulties. In a group, it may cause lack of communica
tion; in an individual it causes isolation and separation
from reality: "Je viens, reprit 1'artiste dont la figure
se dilata comme se dilate celle d'un homme dont on a flat-
t le dada, de terminer la figure allgorique de l'harmonie
[...]" (Les Comdiens sans le savoir, V, 375). Here
we stand outside the character, watching him be carried
away. Similarly in Pierrette:
Le Juge-supplant frappait alors de sa
carme le sol de la ville haute, et s'criait:
Mais ne savez-vous done pas que toute cette
partie de Provins est btie sur des cryptes?
Cryptes!
He! bien, oui, des cryptes d'une hauteur
et d'une tendue inexplicables. C'est comme des
nefs de cathdrales, il y a des piliers.
Monsieur fait un grand ouvrage archo-
logique dans lequel il compte expliquer ces
singulieres constructions, disait le vieux
Martener qui voyait le juge enfourchant son
dada. (III, 22)
The other characters stand outside and watch. Still the
note of tragedy is not struck; these are small instances
and minor characters.
The obsessed musician, Gambara, is introduced
through his hobby-horse: "Le voici, dit Giardini a voix
basse en serrant le bras du comte et lui montrant un homme
d'une grande taille. Voyez comme il est pale et grave,
le pauvre homme! aujourd'hui le dada n'a sans doute pas


18
The great bulk of the criticism connecting Balzac
and Sterne has tended, with a few notable exceptions, to
remain either very general or very particular. A number
of critics have pointed out large ideas or methods that
Balzac has taken from Sterne. Maurice Bardeche, in the
introduction to the 1826 text of Physiologie du mariage,
suggests that Balzac gets from Sterne "une certaine fagon
minutieuse d'observer et d'interpreter les petit3 faits
de la vie familiere.Bardeche also feels that Balzac
gets many of his ideas about marriage and women from
62 *
Sterne, as does A, Prioult. Genevieve Delattre, whose
four pages on Balzac and Sterne in Les Opinions littraires
de Balzac are in my view the most lucid consideration of
the relationship, mentions, among other things, "recherche
du detail psychologique," and "inventaire des sentiments
6 i
humains." 3 Charles Dedyan sets up an entire list of
correspondences between Balzac and Sterne, mostly very
general: "le role du hasard," "les grands vneraents
0 64
dependent des petits faits," etc.
A few critics point out narrower areas of influ
ence. Andr Wurmser, who in La Comedie inhumaine states
65
that Balzac imitates Sterne "lourdement," lists as
Balzac's debts to Sterne "le 'dada' [strangely enough,
Wurmser is the only critic I have found who mentions this,
although I think it is one of Balzac's most significant
debts to Sterne], la croyance a 1'influence et a la sig-


148
What Balzac actually objects to in what Walter
says about the ne is the suggestion that "[si] ton ne
continue a regimber [...], tu te feras tirer quelques
onces du sang au-dessous des oreilles" (PhyPo, 93; Phy, I,
112; VII, 411); "loin de conseiller a un predestin de se
faire tirer du sang, il changerait le regime des concombres
et des laitues en un regime Iminemment substantiel" (PhyPo,
94; Phy, I, 113; VII, 412). Several chapters later, Balzac
returns to his criticism of "Sterne's" regime: "Croyez-vous
srieusement qu'un clibitaire soumis au regime de l'herbe
hana, des concombres, du pourpier et des applications de
sangsues aux oreilles, recommand par Sterne, serait bien
propre a battre en breche l'honneur de votre femme?"(PhyPo,
122; Phy, I, 246; VII, 433)* And "Nous laisserons merne a
Elien son herbe hana et a Sterne son pourpier et ses con
combres" (PhyPo, 124; Phy, I, 249; VII, 434). It is dif
ficult to tell, in the framework of the Physiologie, which
is essentially satiric, if this sort of reaction to Sterne's
ideas means that Balzac took them seriously. Here we have
Balzac in a jovial mood taking up the arguments of Walter
Shandy, whose wisdom, in the framework of Tristram Shandy,
is constantly shown to be of dubious value. To pinpoint,
then, the connections between Balzac's real ideas and those
of Sterne presents some difficulty. At this point, we must
stay in the immediate literary framework, where we can only
say that Balzac's affection for and interest in Sterne is


225
Balzac never ceases to praise Sterne; even after
he no longer believes in the sincerity of his tears, he
still calls Sterne "le plus spirituel des auteurs anglais."
When he lists Sterne with other authors, it is generally
with the greatest of comic and satiric geniuses: Voltaire,
Rabelais, and especially Cervantes and Lesage. He often
appears with Walter Scott, who was one of Balzac's most
important models. This type of citation, however, even
though it indicates Balzac's opinion of Sterne's place
among the greatest of authors, could be seen to be simply
pedanticism on Balzac's partname-dropping. But the
number of details that Balzac retained from his reading
of Sterne, the numerous allusions to specific characters
from Tristram Shandy, and the ideas of Sterne he adopted
whether sincere ideas of Sterne or notshow that Balzac's
knowledge of the English author was not superficial.
Stylistic borrowing from Sterne is also less
a matter of time than a matter of the type of works Balzac
was writing. Again the mo3t borrowing is done in 1829 and
1830, when Balzac wrote the Physiologie du mariage and
Traite de la vie elegante. But in 1833, there is strong
stylistic reflection of Sterne in Thorie de la demarche.
All of the parts of Petites Miseres de la vie conjgale,
written and published in various parts from 1830 on, but
the greater part of which was composed in 1844-45, show
clear stylistic borrowing from Sterne. Sterne certainly


183
the nosarians and antinosarians become disauaires and anti-
disquaires (see above, p. 141). We find Balzac in his light
er moods taking up this device several times. In L'lllustre
Gaudissart, we find "selon la philosophie Gaudissarde [ . .]"
(Ill, 194) and, soon afterwards, "globules, globisles,
globards ou globiens" (III, 194). In its extravagance,
this sally is like Sterne, but in its form it is inspired
by Rabelais.
Another characteristic of both Rabelais and Sterne
is the long enumeration. In both authors we find this car
ried to the point of giving an entire alphabetical list.
In Sterne:
L'amour est, certainement (au moins alpha-
btiquement parlant) 1'affaire de la vie la plus
A gitante,
la plus B izarre,
la plus C onfuse,
la plus I) iabolique;
et de toutes les passions humaines, la passion
la plus
E xtravagante,
la plus P antasque,
la plus G rossiere [etc.] (B, IV, xlii, 103;
W, VIII, xiii, 531)
Balzac uses the same type of list in the Physiologie du
Mariage. In Meditation I, he gives an alphabetical list
of reasons a man might marry, from Ambition all the way
to Zele (Phy, I, 8-9; VII, 394-95; not in PhyPo).
La Peau de chagrin, a work strongly influenced
by both Rabelais and Sterne, contains a number of long
enumerations, not set off from the text, such as


220
people, and it most certainly contributed to the imagery
that Balzac used to describe them. And in this case, in
stead of changing Sterne's idea, Balzac has perceived the
seriousness underlying Sterne's text, and has pushed the
hobby-horse to its logical conclusion, monomania. The
hobby-horse has been made to serve the tragic view of the
Comedie humaine.


14
This work contains all of Sterne's quirks and more. It
also contains some sentimental moments which are like Sterne;
Barton writes, "As in the case of Sterne, [Nodier's] unkindest
remarks are softened by the brightness of a smile or the
glistening of a tear. Nodier's tears, though, are always
51
sincere." It is in the area of style that Nodier's
greatest debt to Sterne lies, according to Barton. He
concludes that Sterne had little lasting influence on
Nodier's novels and short 3toriesexcept, perhaps, for
the sentimental momentsbut influenced profoundly all
52
of Nodier's works "in a lighter vein."
Thophile Gautier's early works were also in
fluenced by Sterne, according to Barton: "Tristram sug
gested to him an experiment in literary expression and
aroused in him the desire to see what effects he could
produce with instruments that Sterne had used with such
marked success. He experimented therefore with this
alluring but artificial style, and when he had exhausted
51
its possibilities, he moved on to something else."
Barton adds: "It is significant to note [ . ] that
almost every volume of Gautier in which a reflection of
Sterne's style may be detected contains references to
Tristram Shandy and snatches of phrases almost literally
54
translated from that production." This is also frequently
true of Balzac. Sterne's influence on Gautier is quite
clear in the early works, says Barton, but only there.


165
in the novel, he gives us, too, a chance not to be like
the reader in the comfortable chair; we have a chance to
be the ames gnreuses that he mentions in La Vieille Filie,
rather than the femmes lgeres. Sterne's comic device has
been worked into the serious business of the Comedie humaine.
Direct address to the reader is not infrequent in
the Contes drolatiques. Often the device has sexual con
notations: "La jolye taincturiere et son bien aym estoyent
occupez a prendre, dans ce ioly lacqus que vous s^avez,
O
cet oyseau mignon [ . ]; et rioyent, et toiours rioyent."
This use of direct address is much more closely related to
Rabelais, as a comparison of Balzac's preface to the second
dixain of his stories to the preface to Rabelais's Quart
Livre shows clearly. Rabelais addresses jovially a large
group of readers; this broad bonhomie is quite distinct
from the intimate exchanges between Tristram and the in
dividual reader.
A further personalizing of the reader is effected
by allowing the reader to answer back: "Assurment, madame:
qu'y a-t-il done en cela de si extraordinaire? L'amiti
la plus tendre ne peut-elle pas rgner entre les personnes
des deux sexes san3? . Ah! fi! M. Shandy. Mais attendez
done, madame. Vous pensez ce que je ne veux point dire"
(B, I, xx, 77; W, I, xvii, 49). Balzac ends La Peau de
Chagrin, already permeated with Sterne, with a dialogue
with the reader, who repeatedly asks of the fate of Pauline
(VI, 520).


149
clearly demonstrated by the length of both this borrowing
and the author's reaction to it. In a later chapter, I
will take up more completely the connections between the
ideas of Balzac and Sterne.
There is another significantly long citation of
Sterne in the Bhysiologie. Balzac quotes four short para
graphs from Tristram Shandy on the drinking of water, be
ginning "Imptueux fluide!" (B, IV, xxiv, 87-88; W, VIII,
v, 543; PhyPo, 125; Phy, I, 252-53; VII, 435). Here Balzac
is recommending that a husband not allow his wife to drink
water. In this case, Balzac seems to be using Sterne to
satiric ends; although he deplored the use of leeches on
a man, he has just recommended that the husband keep his
wife pale and sickly (so she is less able to betray him)
with the use of leeches. The pseudo-scientific evidence
he brings to bear on the questions of leeches and drinking
water is very similar to much in Tristram Shandy. The
problem with the Physiologie is that Balzac does present
some serious ideas in the course of the work; as Genevieve
Delattre 3ays, "Le ton de plaisanterie n'est qu'un deguise-
ment agrable pour faire adopter des idees auxquelles
19
Balzac croit fermement." It is up to us to sort out
the real from the nonsensical, and it is not an easy task.
Balzac refers to another letter in Sterne in the
course of the Physiologie. When he is discussing the types
of men who are most likely to be predestines (to be betrayed


136
The narrator wonders about the identity and function of
this follower: "Etait-ce un ami, un parent pauvre, un
homme qui restait pres du galant comme une demoiselle de
compagnie pres d'une vieille femme? tenait-il le milieu
entre le chien, le perroquet et l'ami? Avait-il sauv
la fortune ou seulement la vie de son bienfaiteur? Etait-
ce le Trim d'un autre capitaine Tobie?" (I, 184; in original
edition, 18 32).
There are several direct references to Toby in
the Comedie humaine in connection with his amours with the
Widow Wadman. In Modeste Mignon, Modeste says to Canalis,
"Le pauvre due d'Herouville se laisse faire avec 1'abandon
de l'oncle Tobie dans Sterne, a cette difference pres que
je ne suis pas la veuve Wadman" (I, 271; in original edition,
1344). Balzac also mentions Toby and the widow in a letter
to Madame Hanska in 1848: "J'ai fait comme mon onde Tobie,
j'ai passe en revue les perfections de la veuve Wadmann
[sic]."^ In Les Secrets de la Princesse de Cadignan,
Balzac again refers to Toby's amours: "D'Arthez laissa
1'amour pntrer dans son coeur a la maniere de notre onde
Tobie, sans fairela moindre resistance" (IV, 484). Toby's
extreme passivity in love seems to have been particularly
memorable to Balzac.
Only once in the Comedie humaine does Balzac
refer to Toby's word3 to the fly: "Va, va-t-en, pauvre
diable [ . ], je ne te ferai point de mal; va, le


46
In sum, it is clear that Frenis did not approve
of much of Sterne's bawdiness and wanted to spare his reader
some of the grosser allusions. De Bonnay enters somewhat
into the Shandean spirit, and seems to make some effort
to convey much of Sterne's ribald humor. However, de Bonnay
makes many fewer changes than Frenis in all areas, and
when he does make a change, it is more often concerned
with Sterne's bawdiness than with anything else.
It is amusing that Frenis, in his introduction,
says, in comparing Sterne to Rabelais, "M. Stern s'toit
en effet nourri des crits du Cur de Meudon mais il ne
l'a point imit dans ses licences. C'est toujours avec
dcence qu'il peint les objets, & il est difficile d'y
mettre plus d'esprit, plus de finesse" (RV, I, xi).
Certainly Sterne is more delicate in his choice of words
than is Rabelais. But the dcence of which Frenis speaks
here is that which he himself has imposed on Sterne's work.
Genevieve Delattre says, "Il faut remarquer que Balzac
n'insiste absoluraent pas sur le cot licencieux du roman
anglais [Tristram Shandy]."^ Given Balzac's taste for
ribaldry evinced by the Contes drolatiques, I think it is
safe to say that this lack of emphasis in Balzac on the
bawdy side of Tristram Shandy is due in large measure to
the nature of the translation he read. Balzac's comments
on A Sentimental Journey indicate that he did see and ap
preciate the subtle ribaldry of this work, altered very
little in translation,


232
vVurraser,
Andr. La Comedie inhumaine. Paris:
1965.
Gallimard,


4
Frenis's idea of the translators role was certainly not
an uncommon one in the eighteenth century.11 Prvost,
in translating Grandison, felt that he was greatly improving
Richardson's work:
Sans rien changer au dessein general de 1'auteur
ni mme la plus grande partie de 1'execution,
j'ai donn une nouvelle face a son ouvrage par
le retranchement des excursions languissantes,
des peintures surcharges, des conversations
intiles et des reflexions dplaces. Le prin
cipal reproche que la critique fait a M. Richard
son est de perdre quelquefois de vue la^mesure
de son sujet et de se perdre dans les details:
j'ai fait une guerre continuelle a ce dfaut
de proportion."2
Le Tourneur, in his introduction to hi3 translation (1769)
of Young's Night Thoughts, says, "Tout ce qu'il y a de
bon chez nos voisins nous deviendrait propre, et nous
laisserions le mauvais que nous n'avons aucun besoin ni
1 3
de lire ni de connaitre." A modern critic, Alfred Owen
Aldridge, in discussing eighteenth-century and modern
problems of translation, says of the eighteenth century:
"La notion la plus rpandue est en general que le traducteur
devrait e3sayer d'imaginer comment son auteur aurait crit
s'il avait t un auteur compatrio te contemporain."1^
Finally, Constance West, in her excellent study of eighteenth-
century translation, points out the major types of changes
made in most translations: 1) expurgation of all that is
off the subject; 2) imposition of order; 3) rendering
15
vocabulary and metaphor more acceptable to French taste.
Particularly in the first half of the eighteenth century,


9
dans le dveloppement du roman francjais."^ There is one
notable exception to the mediocrity of Sterne's imitators
at this time: Diderot. In Jacques le fataliste, Diderot
went beyond Sterne's sentimental facade, although there
is a near-sentimental tenderness between Jacques and his
master that is reminiscent of Toby Shandy's relationships
with both his brother Walter and his servant Trim. Jacques
is built around an incident directly borrowed from Sterne;
more important, it uses many of Sterne's techniques
dialogue with the reader, digression (we have to wait as
long for Jacques's amours as we do for Toby's), and the
combination of much detail with a cryptic, elliptical
presentation. Although Joseph Texte feels that most of
12
Diderot's borrowing from Sterne is "not happy," I feel
that Jacques is a truly great novel, and that Diderot is
the only French writer before Balzac who imitated Sterne
well.^ Balzac, interestingly, referred in 1840 to Jacques
, 14
le fataliste as a "miserable copie de Sterne."
Xavier de Maistre's Voyage autour de ma chambre
(1794) and L'Expdition nocturne autour de ma chambre (1825)
are also successful imitations of Sterne, although they
imitate almost exclusively the detailed description and
the tenderness of feeling characteristic of A Sentimental
Journey. De Maistre does not capture Sterne's humor, as
15
does Diderot.
At the turn of the century, some French critics
seem to have tired of the endless imitations of Sterne.


143
In this same chapter of Petites Miseres there is a dialogue
that is a very striking parallel to Sterne's bed of justice
scene (see below, pp. 191-93).
In Tristram Shandy, at the death of Tristram's
brother Bobby, Walter Shandy speaks a funeral oration, bor
rowed largely from the classics, which extends over several
chapters. One topic he covers is the banality of the last
acts performed by a number of great men, ending, as is so
often the case in Sterne, with a bawdy joke (B, III, vi,
37-38; W, V, IV, 356-57). On his way to commit suicide
at the beginning of La Peau de chagrin, Raphael follows
a related line of thought: "II s'achernina vers le pont
Royal en songeant aux dernieres fantaisies de ses pre-
dcesseurs. II souriait en se rappellant que lord Castel-
reagh avait satisfait le plus humble de nos besoins avant
de se couper la gorge, et que 1'acadmicien Auger etait
ali chercher sa tabatiere pour priser tout en marchant
a la mort" (VI, 433 in original edition, 1831) The con
nection between this passage and that in Sterne is strength
ened by the fact that only a few lines above Balzac has
referred directly to Sterne; La Peau de chagrin contains
a number of references to Sterne, from the epigraph on.
It is tempting to make a similar connection in Sur Cathe
rine de Medicis to this same incident in Sterne: "Charles
IX [ . ] achva sa vie comme Louis XII avait achev la
sienne" (VII, 222), to which Citron adds in a footnote,


77
Frenis makes many additions to Tristram Shandy,
and many cuts. Again, while some of these alterations are
due to the problems of subject treated above, some are for
no clear reason. Two of the most startling cuts are of
sentimental material, just what the French audience would
be expected to like best, after their warm reception of A
Sentimental Journey. One cut of this nature occurs where
Walter Shandy, in a burst of "perfect good humour" with
Toby and Trim, says to himself, "Generous souls! God
prosper you both, and your mortar-piece3 too" (B, II,
xlii, 116; W, III, xxii, 206). This utterance is left
out of the translation, yet it is an important element
in building the true warmth of feeling existing between
the two brothers. And one of the most sentimental moments,
certainly a popular "beauty of Sterne" is omitted:
Here, but why here, rather than in any '
other part of my story, I am not able to tell;
but here it is, my heart stops me to pay
to thee, my dear uncle Toby, once for all, the
tribute I owe thy goodness. Here let me thrust
my chair aside, and kneel down upon the ground,
whilst I am pouring forth the warmest sentiments
of love for thee, and veneration for the excel
lency of thy character, that ever virtue and
nature kindled in a nephew's bosom.*-Peace and
comfort rest for evermore upon thy head! Thou
envied'st no man's comforts, insulted no man's
opinions. Thou blackened'st no man's character,
devoured'st no man's bread: gently with faith
ful Trim behind thee, didst thou amble round the
little circle of thy pleasures, jostling no crea
ture in thy way; -for each one's sorrows, thou
hadst a tear, for each man's need, thou hadst
a shilling.
Whilst I am worth one, to pay a weeder,
thy path from thy door to thy bowling green shall


10
In Le Spectateur Frangais, in 1805, a M. Delalot deplores
the plethora of imitations of Sterne: "Sterne est, comme
le docteur Swift, et comme Rabelais qu'il a beaucoup imite,
un de ces hommes dont on peut admirer 1'esprit, mais qu'on
ne doit prendre pour modele.He strongly criticizes
these imitators:
Sterne a t quelque temps l'crivain a^la mode;
il a oper une sorte de revolution littraire
il a prouv qu'on pouvait faire un
livre, sans rien savoir, en crivant hardiment
toutes les fadaises qui vous passent par la
t§te. Son exemple a sduit cette foule d'agrables
ignorans, qui se croient pleins d'esprit au
moindre billet qu'ils crivent.37
He goes on to say:
Vous n'avez ni ordre, ni suite, ni liaison a
mettre dans le3 idees: vous passoz d'un cimetiere
a un cabaret, sans transition aucune; c'est la
le piquant. Si une phrase vou3 embarasse a finir,
vous la laissez; cette suspension est un trait
d'esprit; chaqu page de Sterne est remplie do
ces petites surprises, qui dclent de 1'affectation.
Il commence une aventure, et ne l'acheve point;
le lecteur, dont il a piqu la curiosit, cherche
la suite des vnements, et ne trouve rien:
n'est-ce pas la un tour bien gai?38
The heavy tone of sarcasm in thi3 article is certainly
partly due to the large number of mediocre imitations
of Sterne at this time. It is also important to note that
the article follows the publication of Ferriar's Illustra
tions of Sterne (1798), which "reveals" all of Sterne's
borrowing from other authors. This work did considerable
damage to Sterne's reputation in England, and some of this
negative reaction probably spread to France. The Spec-


157
qui lui avaient le plus cot a faire" (Phy, II, 325; VII,
497; not in PhyPo). This is a slight transformation of
Sterne. Tristram is not speaking of the difficulty of
writing his hook in the passage Balzac cites; rather, he
is convincing his critics that his work is clean:
Ainsi, messieurs, quand vous voudrez savoir
si ce que j'cris peut se lire, et si rien n'a
sali ma plume, voyez le mmoire de ma blanchis-
seuse; c'est comme si vous lisiez mon livre.
II y a un certain mois ou je suis en tat de
prouver que j'ai sali trente et une chemises.
On ne sauroit pousser la propret plus loin.
-Eh bien! j'ai plus maudit, plus vex, plus
critique, pour ce que j'ai crit dans ce mois-
la, que par tout ce que j'ai crit dans le reste
de l'anne.
Mais je n'avois pas montr a ces messieurs
les mmoires de ma blanchisseuse." (B, IV,
lxxvii, 210-11; W, IX, xiii, 617)
Balzac's interpretation of this passage as referring to
effort rather than cleanliness is probably due to his own
concerns as a writer and the difficulties he experienced
in reaching a satisfactory final version of his works.
Twice Balzac refers to another part of this same
scene in Tristram's study; Tristram says: "Oui, je le main-
tiens. Les idees d'un homme dont la barbe est forte, de-
viennent sept fois plus nettes et plus fraiches sous le
rasoir" (B, IV, lxxvii, 210; W, IX, xiii, 616). In Balzac's
Traite de la vie elegante, we find, "Sterne, cet admirable
observateur, a proclam de la maniere la plus spirituelle
que les ides de 1'homme barbifi n'taient pas celles de
l'homme barbu" (VII, 572). In Autre Etude de femme, Balzac


49
W, II, x, 107). The reference to Slop's obstetric instru
ments as "instruments of salvation [probably referring
specifically to the squirt] and deliverance" is omitted.
The pun on deliverance is untranslatable as a pun, and
perhaps that is why both words are omitted. In the light
of Frenis's other changes, though, it is likely that he
found this confounding of religion and obstetrics unac
ceptable.
When it is a question of the Inquisition, Slop
defends it mildly: "It has its uses; for tho' I'm no great
advocate for it, yet in such a case as this, [one who in
sults a saint] would soon be taught better manners" (W, II,
xvi, 124). In Frenis, Slop makes a finer distinction,
perhaps so that the reader will not think that he approves
of the Spanish Inquisition: "Une inquisition modre,
telle qu'a Rome et dans toute l'ltalie [ . ] doit tre
considre sous un autre point de vue. Elle peut tre
tres-utile dans bien des cas. Mais il s'en faut beaucoup
que j'approuve la rigueur excessive qu'elle exerce dans
d'autres pays" (B, I, xlv, 195).
While Trim is reading the sermon, Dr. Slop inter
rupts him several times; some of these interruptions are
suppressed by Frenis, but in no systematic manner and often
for no clear reason. One long interruption is cut for an
obvious reason, however. It is a discussion between Walter
Shandy and Slop on manners of living and dying, Slop assert
ing that a Catholic sinner cannot meet death unconcernedly:


69
is to turn indirect discourse into direct. For example:
One morning as [Toby] heard [the surgeon's]
foot coming up stairs, he shut up his books,
and thrust aside his instruments, in order to
expostulate with him on the protraction of his
cure, which, he told him, might surely have
been accomplished at least by that time:
He dwelt long upon the miseries he had undergone,
and the sorrows of his four years melancholy
imprisonment; adding, that had it not been
for the kind looks, and fraternal chearings
of the best of brothers, he had long since
sunk under his misfortunes. My father was
by: My uncle Toby1s eloquence brought tears
into his eyes: 'twas unexpected. My uncle
Toby, by nature, was not eloquent. (W, II,
iv, 91-92)
II l'entend monter un matin; . aussitot
il ferme ses livres, cache ses instrumens, et
lui reproche avec aigreur la lenteur de son
rtablissement. Corabien y a-t-il que j' en
devrois tre quitte! combien de douleurs!
quelle contrainte d'etre oblige de garder ma
chambre pendant quatre annes entieres! Ah!
sans 1'amit du meilleur des frres, ajouta-
t-il, sans le courage qu'il m'inspire, il y
a longtemps que j'aurois succomb mes mal-
heurs.
Mon pre toit present, et mon onde mettoit
tant d'energie ses plaintes, que mon pre
en versa des larmes. G'est ce qu'on n'attend-
oit pas. Mon onde Tobie n'toit pas naturelle-
ment loquent. (B, I, xxxi, 142)
By describing Toby's eloquence, and simply hinting at the
content of his speech, Sternewith the help of Walter's
tearsleaves us convinced that Toby's speech was indeed
very moving. By attempting to reproduce Toby's speech
directly, Frenis forces the burden of eloquence upon him
self, and he is not equal to the task. He is wise to at
tribute Walter's tears to the energy of Toby's complaint,


79
Premier, Aucun plan aucune mthode.
Second. Nulle connoissance de l'art dra-
matique.
Premier. Que dites-vous des caracteres?
Troisieme Interlocuteur. Pour moi, j'ai-
merois assez celui de l'oncle.
Second. Fi done! un vieux fou! et puis si
bte! j'aimerois mieux le pere.
Au moins il est instruit, et il parle bien.
Premier. Vous moquez-vous? La plupart
du temps il ne sait ce qu'il dit. Quant au
caporal
Second et Troisieme. Oh! nous vous l'a-
bandonnons.
Premier. Eh bien! je l'abandonne aussi,
Troisieme. Que pensez-vous de la mere?
Second. Ma foi! c'est une femme de bon
sens, et celle qui dit le moins de sottises.
Premier. Oui, parce que c'est elle qui
parle le moins.
Troisieme. Pas mal trouve! eh bien! je
m'en tiens madame Shandy.
Premier. Et moi aussi.
Second. Et moi aussi.
Premier. Sifflons les autres a mesure qu'ils
paroitront.
Second et Troisieme. De tout mon cceur.
Et bien, messieurs, il faut vous en dormer
le plaisir: les voila qui reviennent. (B, III,
xvii, 65-66)
'The conversation is amusing, and the device more original,
at least, than those of Frenis. A non-Sternean interpola-


67
I think it a very unreasonable demand,
cried my great grandfather, twisting up the
paper, and throwing it upon the table. By this
account, madam, you have but two thousand pounds
fortune, and not a shilling more, and you insist
upon having three hundred pounds a year jointure
for it.
"Because, replied my great grandmother,
"you have little or no nose, Sir." (W, III,
xxxi, 217)
Sterne goes on to define exactly what he means by nose, and
cautions the reader against taking the word at any other
than face value. In Frenis, the two short paragraphs
quoted above become:
Je n'y tiens pas, disoit mon bisai'eul. Vous
n'y tenez pas? . non, madame, et l'on ne s'est,
peut-tre, jamais avis d'une pretention aussi
folie, s'crioit-il, en ouvrant un cahier de papier
qu'il jetoit aussitt sur la table d'un air furi-
eux. Voyez, voyez-le vous-meme. Madame, ce compte
est clair. II est demontre que tout ce que j'ai
eu de vous ne consiste qu'en deux mille livres ster
ling. II n'y a pas un shelling, pas un i'ota de
plus. Je dfie a 1'Arabe qui a invent les chif-
fres, de calculer plus juste; et cependant vous
parlez d'avoir par an un douaire qui surpasse
l'intret de votre dot? . .
J'en parle. Je fais bien plus que d'en
parler; j'y insiste.
Et la raison, s'il vous plait?
La raison?
Oui, la raison,
Vous voulez que je la dise?
Apparemment.
J'aurois voulu vous pargner ce petit chagrin;
mais puisque vous m'y forcez . Enfin, monsieur,
disoit^ma bisai'eule, puisqu'il faut vous le dire,
je rpte un douaire plus fort, parce que vous
n'aviez . mais vous savez tres-bien ce que
vous n'aviez pas . .
Je n'en sais rien.
C'est-a-dire, qu'il n'y a que moi qui me sois
aper^ue de ce qui vous manquoit. Eh bien! monsieur
puisqu'il faut vous parler net, ce douaire plus


106
d'Argow)" (VA, IV, 55). Balzac avoids the bloodless euphem-
izing of de Bonnay (of which he could not have been aware):
"Cette fille-la est un trsor, tudieu!
Cette lacune est indispensable; car il faudrait trouver
une periphrase sans energie pour rendre les expressions du
marchal" (WC, I, 112). Balzac understands the principle
behind Sterne's lacunae much better than Sterne's trans
lators did.
There are two incidents in Sterne where forbidden
words are considered at some length; one is the incident of
the abbess of Andouillets in Tristram Shandy (W, VII, xxv,
509-10), the other is the discussion of La Fleur's French
curses in A Sentimental Journey (S, 136-37). In both in
stances the words in question are French. Balzac refers
directly to the abbess in Le Vicaire des Ardennes: "Sa
chaise de poste, trainee par des chevaux aiguillonns par
de bons coups de fouet, et par ces mots sacrementels que
1'Abbesse des Andouillettes eut tant de peine a prononcer
[...]" (VA, III, 160). This is more than a simple
reference to Sterne; it is also the adoption of a Sternean
way of circumventing unacceptable words. Balzac frequently
implies swearing in this way: "Jean Louis, la figure de
compose, lcha le plus grand jurn qu'un homrae puisse dire
. . cherchez-le . . (JL, II, 38-39); in Tristram
Shandy there is a parallel: "Ici je laisse trois lignes
en blanc, pour que le lecteur puisse y placer le jurement
qui lui est le plus familier" (B, IV, xxi, 64; W, VII,


8
25
qu'il rendoit presque universelle." He goes on to say,
"On se mprenderoit en ne regardant Sterne que comme un
Romancier factieux; il est plein de raison, et de raison
fine; il rajeunit les moralits, les mximes, les vrits."
Mallet du Pan also, however, appreciates the sentimental
genius of Sterne, without specifically tying it in with
Sterne's satiric ends. As an example of this genius, he
cite3, ironically, a sentimental episode about a dog that
27
was added by de Bonnay in translation.
In general, it was the sentiment and subjectivity
of Sterne that attracted the French to him at this time. As
Joseph Texte says, "in France he was looked upon as a kind
of prophet of the new religion that had just been brought
2 8
into fashion [by Rousseau], the religion of the self."
Consequently, it was Sterne's sentiment that was most often
imitated in France in the late eighteenth century, partic
ularly from 1780 to 1800: "Un livre d'alora ne pouvait
russir a se faire lire qu'a condition d'avoir un caractere
p q
sentimental." Sterne's sentiment was imitated by Madame
de Lespinasse, in some fragments published with the post
humous works of d'Alembert, by Gorgy, who wrote a continu
ation of A Sentimental Journey, and by a number of other
more obscure authors such as Francois Veraes, Pierre
Blanchard, and Louis Darain.^
Despite all of this imitation, "le nombre et la
popularit des voyages sentimentaux [ . ] ne prouvent
pas nanraoins que 1'auteur anglais ait jou un grand role


87
sentimental elements of Sterne than appear in Balzac's
later work, probably because here he is imitating A Senti
mental Journey so closely. But as well as Yorick's senti
ment, we also find his bawdiness, pushed farther than in
any place in Sterne; with no preparation at all, a chapter
begins:
Jamais il n'entrera, monsieur l'abbe .
Madame, avec line grande patience, je
rponds . .
Je vous rpete qu'il est trop enfl
ce soir.
-Ouf! . et M. l'abbe se pencha sur
son lit.
A ce moment, la pendule sonna neuf heures.
L'heure presse! s'cria-t-elle, et vous
voyez bien qu'il est trop troit, vous n'y rus-
sirez pas, il faut y renoncer.
Il faut convenir, Jeannette, que je ne
l'ai jamais vu si gros, que le diable emporte
tous les cordonniers du monde, et avant les
cordonniers, la damne goutte qui m'a grossi
le pied. (p. 225)
This astounding double entendre may be based on the seduc
tion scene in Yorick's room (S, 234-38). It is from this
part of A Sentimental Journey that Balzac draws one of his
citations from Sterne in a letter to Madame de Berny, writ
ten at around the same time as Une Heure de ma vie: "Vous
trouverez en Sterne la demande suivante: 'Si la nature,
en tissant sa toile d'amiti, a entrelac dans toute la
piece quelques fils d'amour et de dsir, faut-il dchirer
tout la toile pour les en arracher?'"^ Chollet does not
connect this ribaldry to anything in Sterne, but I see it
as the first evidence that Balzac read A Sentimental Journey


216
Where does the hobby-horse stop and monomania
begin? Balzac's definition of the dada as the midway point
between passion and monomania is not really adequate to
his use of all three, which, when it comes to a truly ob
sessed character, are blended. Pere Goriot is one of the
most complete monomaniacs in all of the Comedie humaine.
Yet at one point Balzac says of him: "II laissa errer
sur ses levres le gai sourire d'un bourgeois dont on a
flatt le dada" (II, 222; in original edition, 1834).
And when Balzac gives a full exposition of the type of
obsession that grips the old man, he does it under the
name of passion:
Quelque grossiere que soit une creature, des
qu'elle exprime une affection forte et vraie,
elle exhale un fluide particulier qui modifie
la physionomie, anime le geste, colore la voix.
Souvent, l'tre le plus stupide, sous 1'effort
de la passion, a la plus haute eloquence dans
l'ide, si ce n'est pas dans le langage, et
semble se mouvoir dans une sphere lumineuse.
(II, 259; in original edition, 1834)
Again we find the idea of physical change in an obsessed
character. Toby's face changes too when it comes to his
hobby-horse: "Le rouge montait au visage de mon onde Tobie
[...]. Mais qu'on ne croie pas que ce fut une rougeur
de honte, de modestie ou de colere . Elle toit de plai
sir, de joie . Le pro.jet de Trim l'animoit et le met-
toit en feu" (B, I, xxxii, 151; W, II, v, 97). But in
Balzac this physical change is much greater, and has some
thing of a supernatural aura about it. In Pere Goriot we


I have then examined Balzac's borrowing from
Sterne in his early works, before 1829. Here I find many
direct citations of Sterne and his characters, and the
use of a number of typically Sternean mannerisms, such
as dialogue with the reader, minute description of gesture
and pose, and extremely informal authorial presence.
In considering the later works, with particular
emphasis on the Comedie humaine, I have found it expedient
to divide my study into three separate parts. The first
deals with direct citations of Sterne and his characters,
and with echoes of incidents from Sterne. There are many
such borrowings, and they are made consistently through
out Balzac's writing career.
I have next considered narrative manner, and
have found many of the narrative devices used in the ro
mans de jeunesse used again in the later works. Stylistic
borrowing from Sterne, particularly of his informal mode
of narration and his careful description of small details,
appears all through Balzac, but is concentrated most
heavily in the Etudes analytiques.
In discussing the ideas that Balzac borrowed
from Sterne, it has been necessary to bear in mind whether
or not ideas presented by Sterne's characters are really
serious ideas of Sterne. Balzac has adopted three ideas
that are notthe importance of names, conception, and
sentiment. This last, however, probably came to Balzac
viii


186
volume De re ambulatoria? . (VII, 581). This is strik
ingly like Sterne's mention of "de re concubinari'1 (B, II,
c, 272; V7, IV, xxviii, 324) and occurs in Balzac only a few
lines above "A cette pense, a 1'imitation de Sterne [ . ],
j'ai fait craquer mes doigts [...]" (VII, 531).
The changing of a set Latin phrase to comic or
satiric ends is common in Sterne (and Rabelais) and Balzac
does it too. In Les Petits Bourgeois, Balzac entitles a
chapter "Ad majorem Theodosi Gloriam" a parody of the Jes
uits' motto "Ad majorem Dei gloriam" (V, 323 Citron's note).
Theodore is sharply reduced by this device. In Physiologie
du mariage, Balzac gives an innocent Latin proverb a Shan-
dean twist simply with context: foenum habet en cornu,"
"he has hay on his horns," simply implies rage, in Horace.
In Balzac the cuckold's horns are implied (PhyPo, p. 80;
Phy, I, 66; VII, 404; Citron note). Twice in Un Prince de
la Boheme, Balzac plays with Latin. Once he mixes two set
phrases, "ex professo," in a scholarly manner," and "ex
perto crede Roberto," 'believe Robert's experience," to get
"ex professo Roberto" (V, 284; Citron note). A few pages
later, he says "il ne se souvenait pas de la moindre de
ses oraisons contra Tulla"; Citron says, "Balzac plaisante
avec ses souvenirs de collgien en latn; orison signifie
discours [ . ] le nom de Tulla lui evoque celui de
Tullius, c'est-a-dire Cicern; 1'ensemble st macaronique"
(V, 291; Citron note).


24
Joseph-Pierre Frenis, translator's introduction
to La Vie et les opinions de Tristram Shandy [tr. Frenis
and de Bonnay1 ("York and Paris: Ruault, Volland, 1776-85),
I, xiii-xiv. Hereafter cited in text as RV.
11See Constance West, "La Thorie de la traduction
au XVIIIe siecle," Revue de Littrature Compare, 12 (1932),
330-55.
1 ? ,
Prevost, translator's introduction to Grandison
(1755), quoted by West, p. 337.
^Le Tourneur, translator's introduction to
Young, Night Thoughts (1769), quoted by West, p. 330.
14
Alfred Owen Aldridge, "Le Probleme de la
traduction au XVIIIe siecle et aujourd'hui," Revue Beige
de Philologie et d'Histoire, 39 (1961), 747-58.
15West, p. 341.
1^West, pp. 350-55.
1T *
'Frron, p. 460.
18
^Le Journal Bncyclopdique, 15 August 1786,
quoted by Barton, p. 15.
1<^Texte, p. 283.
^Barton, p. 17.
21
Francois de Bonnay was much more a statesman
than a man of letters. He lived from 1750 to 1825. A
staunch monarchist, de Bonnay emigrated during the revolu
tionary and empire years, and held several government posts
under Louis XVIII after the Restoration. He wrote some
poetry, but his translation of the second half of Tristram
Shandy is his only significant literary effort.
L'Anne Littraire, 32 (1785; rpt. Geneve:
Slatkine, 19667^ Freron died in late 1776. His work
was carried on by others, who do not sign the individual
articles.
2 3
Jacques Mallet du Pan, "Suite de la vie & des
opinions de Tristram Shandy," Mercure de France, 12 (Nov.
1785), 71-84.


39
Walter ends by saying, "But what are these [ . ] to
the destructive machinery of corporal Trim?" (W, III,
xxiv, 211). Frenis exactly reverses the rhetorical pro
cess here, completely removing the function of the passage
as a celebration of Trim's prowess. He describes the
ancient weapons, and he does say that Walter "ne voyait
rien de si beau que le blier" (B, II, xlvii, 127). But
then he says, "Qu'est-ce que les machines destructives
de Trim, aupres du miroir ardent d'Archimede, qui em-
brasoit, dans un clin d'ceil, des flots entiers [...]"
(and so on). Much is added here (B, II, xlvii, 128).
At the beginning of the following chapter (a
new chapter begins in both Frenis and Sterne), Frenis
adds an initial paragraph that seems to be an apology for
or a disavowal of what went before: "J'tois tent de
dchirer le chapitre qui precede. II est si loin de
1'aventure de Trim! heureusement que j'avois prvenu mes
lecteurs que je m'garois [a reference to the previous
chapter title, "Je m'gare" (B, II, xlvii, 127)], ils
ont t les maitres de ne me pas suivre, et d'en venir
toute de suite a la continuation de cette anecdote" (B,
II, xlviii, 129). This disavowal could refer to the
suggestive nature of the material in Sterne, or to Frenis's
own lengthy additions. In the chapter itself, Frenis
dilutes considerably the phallic overtones of the dis
cussion of horizontal bridges.
It seems quite clear that Frenis is basically


1
INTRODUCTION
Tristram Shandy is said to have been Balzac's
livre de chevet,^ and although I have found no real sub
stantiation of this, it may well be true, given the frequency
of Balzac's references to Sterne throughout his writing
career. Citations of Sterne and his works can be found
in the oeuvres de jeunesse, the correspondence, the
oeuvres diverses, and throughout the Comedie humaine.
Before discussing Balzac's debt to Sterne, it will be
useful to examine briefly the history of Sterne's recep
tion in Prance and the early translations of his works.
Sterne published Tristram Shandy two volumes
at a time, at irregular intervals, between 1760 and 1767;
the ninth volume appeared singly in 1767. A Sentimental
Journey, Sterne's other major work, was published in
February, 1768, only a few weeks before Sterne's death.
Both works were extremely successful, bringing their author
2
both fame and notoriety. Sterne'3 fame quickly spread
to Prance after the publication of the first two volumes
of Tristram Shandy, and his visits there in the following
years further increased that fame:
Avant mme qu'il ft traduit, Tristram Shandy
acquit en Prance une notorit immediate et
durable, due a tris causes principales: a
1


CHAPTER IV
INFLUENCE: NARRATIVE MANNER
In the romans de .jeunesse, Balzac borrows a num
ber of narrative devices from Sterne. He takes these up
again in the Comedie humaine and adds some other Sternean
mannerisms.
One of the most striking aspects of both Tristram
Shandy and A Sentimental Journey is the self-conscious
narrator. The narrator's presence is handled fairly con
ventionally in the Journey. In Tristram Shandy it is
much less so. Tristram is always there, of course, but
the complex layering of time in the novel makes his pres
ence much closer to the reader at some times than at others.
Tristram in his study, one major aspect of the narration
of Tristram Shandy,1 seems to have left a strong impres
sion on Balzac. He makes a number of direct references
to this aspect of Tristram, and often, in his lighter
style, presents us with a light-hearted, self-conscious
narrator.
"Sterne a dit fort plaisamment que le livre de
sa blanchisseuse tait le mmoire le plus historique qu'il
connt sur son Tristram Shandy, et que, par le nombre de
ses chemises, on pouvait deviner les endroits de son livre
156


68
fort que je repte, n'est qu'une indemnit.
Une jeune personne qui se marie par le choix
de ses parens, y va de "bonne foi. Elle ne
s'imagine qu'on la trompe.
Je ne con^is encore rien a tout cela.
Comment, monsieur, rpliqua ma bisai'eule,
vous ne saviez pas que vous n'aviez point ou
presque point de nez?
Et que n'y regardiez-vous? avois-je un
masque qui vous empcht de me voir? . .
Non: mais je m'entends. (B, II, liv,
139-41)
Frenis*s process here not only betrays Sterne's often-cryp
tic style, it spoils as well his pleasantry with the defini
tion of the word. As the ensuing material in the original
work stands, Sterne can blame any double entendre on his
reader's base imagination; Frenis makes the double entendre
so obvious that the burden is no longer on the reader.
There is much addition of rhetorical questions
and exclamations in Frenis; for example: "My uncle Toby
would never offer to answer this by any other kind of argu
ment, than of whistling half a dozen bars of Lillabullero"
(W, I, xxi, 69), becomes "Que rpondoit a cela mon onde
Tobie? Rien: mais il siffloit quelques notes d'un air qui
lui tait familier" (B, I, xxiii, 107). Sterne does use
rhetorical questions and questions posed to his reader, but
not nearly with the frequency of Frenis. The same is true
of exclamations and asides to the reader. The informal style
of narration that Sterne uses is extended to encompass a
large part of Frenis's translation.
Another stylistic change that Frenis often makes


48
Shandy who is labelled a Catholic. To enhance Slop's
person would necessitate sweeping changes in the novel.
Instead, Frenis plays down Slop's Catholicism, showing
himself, in the course of these omissions, to be a very
careful reader, for he catches many of Sterne's most subtle
slurs on Catholicism.
Slop first appears astride his horse, about to
collide with Obadiah. When he sees that collision is in-
evitibie, he crosses himself (here in Sterne's text there
is the sign + which is omitted in the French). "Pugh!"
says Tristram's reader. "But the doctor, Sir, was a Pap
ist" (W, II, ix, 106). Here Papist becomes pretre; pugh
is translated lj2 nigaud, followed by "II auroit encore
mieux fait de s'arreter tout court, et de ne rien faire
du tout" (B, I, xxxvi, 165). The act of crossing causes
Slop to lose his balance and fall off his horse even before
the collision with Obadiah; Tristram's parenthetical comment,
"which, by the bye, shews what little advantage there is
in crossing," is omitted. Individually, Slop can be shown
to be a fool for crossing himself at the wrong time, but
Frenis will not allow the generalization against crossing
to be drawn from the incident. After falling from his
horse, Slop emerges so covered with mud that he is "trans-
substantiated"; the word is omitted in translation (B, I,
xxxvi, 166; W, II, ix, 106). Similarly, the words "un
wiped, unappointed, unanealed" are omitted from the des
cription of Slop as he enters the house (B, I, xxvii, 167;


56
toujours qu'une vertu apparente, sans solidit, ou qui n'a
du moins pour fondement que son intret, son orgueil [ . ]
(B, I, 1, 215). The philosophes are clearly associated with
this type of sin.
In another instance, Frenis adds a thrust at
the Encyclopdie. At the end of his chapter upon chapters,
Tristram says, "I hold [it] to be the best chapter in my
whole work; and take my word, whoever reads it is full as
well employed, as in picking straws" (W, IV, xi, 283).
Frenis omits the deflating end of the sentence, which
terminates Sterne's chapter, and goes on to say, "Une chose
encore que je garantis, c'est qu'il est mieux traite que
dans 1'Encyclopdie, et cela ne m'tonne point. Be tous
les livres qui portent aujourd'hui ce titre, je ne connais
de bon que 1'Encyclopdie Perruquire" (B, II, lxxiii, 212).
Frenis even adds a direct attack on Diderot.
Sterne says, "I care not what Aristotle, or Pacuvius, or
Bossu, or Ricaboni say, (though I never read one of them)"
(W, III, xxiv, 208-09). Frenis renders this passage:
"Aristn, et Pacavius, le Bossu et Riccoboni [sic], Diderot
et tant d'autres graves prcepteurs du theatre, sont des
messieurs, grce a Dieu, que je n'ai jamais lus, et je
m'inquite peu de ce qu'ils disent ou ne disent pas" (B,
II, xlv, 120-21).
Sterne's ideas on literature are also somewhat
distorted by Frenis. This translator has made many ad-


72
example (W, VI, xviii, 437-39). Frenis dulls this contrast
considerably, both by the type of expansion shown above,
and by the addition of replies in a dialogue where Sterne
has none.
All is quiet and hush, cried my father, at
least above stairs, I hear not one foot stir
ring. Prithee, Trim, who is in the kitchen?
There is no one soul in the kitchen, answered
Trim, making a low bow as he spoke, except Dr.
Slop. (W, III, xxiii, 206)
Apparemment que les choses vont bien la-
haut, dit mon pere; car on y est bien tranquille.
Qa est vrai, dit mon onde Tobie.
Mais qui diable est dans la cuisine, Trim?
dit mon pere. J'y entends du bruit!
pa est vrai, dit mon onde Tobie.
Monsieur, dit Trim, en faisant un humble
salut, il n'y a personne que le docteur Slop.
(B, II, xliii, 116)
Similarly, a fea.ture of Sterne's style is the contrast
between his elaborateness and his sudden Jumps, giving
the narrative a distinctive jerky rhythm. Frenis dulls
some, though not all, of this rhythm by the frequent ad
dition of narration to bridge Sterne's gaps. At the end
of Walter Shandy's lamentation, Toby says "We will send
for Mr. Yorick [ . ]. You may send for whom you will,
replied my father" (W, IV, xix, 298). Three chapters,
essentially digressive, intervene, then a new chapter
begins, "-But can the thing be undone, Yorick? said
my father" (W, IV, xxiii, 302). In the translation, two
of the three intervening chapters are cut out completely.
Still, Frenis prefaces Yorick's appearance with "Yorick,


17
Laure Surville, Balzac's sister, associates
Balzac's interest in Sterne with the personality of their
father. According to Laure, Bernard-Franjois Balzac
"tenait a la fois de Montaigne, de Rabelais, et de l'oncle
Tobie par sa philosophie, son originalit!, et sa bontl.
Comme l'oncle Tobie, il avait aussi une idee predominante.
Cette idee Itait chez lui la santl." This affinity
has often been noted by critics. L.-J. Arrigon, in Les
Debuts littlraires de Balzac, writes: "Sterne [ . ]
est encore un de ses auteurs prefers, et probablement
cette inclination lui vient de son pere: la verbosit!
humoristique et les theories bizarres de 1'auteur de
' 59
Tristram Shandy sont dans la maniere de B.-F. Balzac."
Balzac's mother did not approve of her son's
interest in Sterne. In a long letter to Laure, written
in 1822, in which she points out the many faults she sees *
in Clotilde de Lusignan, she says, "La friquentation des
jeunes gens qui, entre eux, se gtent le gout, perdent
les convenances, oublient ce qui est bien et ne croient
beau que les sornettes qu'ils se dlbitent pour rire, a
je crois, beaucoup influ sur le genre d'Honor!. Rabelais
lui a fait tort aussi; Sterne est aussi pour quelque chose
dans la suspension de sens, enfin que je suis dlsolle,
voila mon refrain."^0 To Madame Balzac, Sterne is seen
a3 almost a part of the bad company that Honor! was keep
ing. But the young author was to gain much more than
sornettes from his association with Sterne.


NOTES
^See New, p. 81.
2
Contes drolatiques, p. 149-
^On Balzac's concern for observation, see A.
Allemand, Unite et structure de 11univers balzacien (Paris:
Plon, 1965), pp. 71-76.
^"Chapitre purement administratif," Le Caricature,
14 April 1831, in Gfeuvres diverses, XXXIX, 341.
"*In the final revision of Etude de fenime in 1842,
Balzac adds another lacuna, a line and a half of dots fol
lowing the words: "Je ne crois pas quon me sache mauvais
gr de supprimer notre conversation." (huvres completes de
M. d£ Balzac, ed. Jean A. Ducourneau, i (Paris: Bibliophiles
de l'Originale, 1965), p. 400.
^See Lecuyer, Balzac et Rabelais.
^Barton, "Nodier," p. 226.
8
Revue de Paris, 25 November 1832, in Cteuvres
diverses, XXXIX, 573-
q
IV, 21. Baldensperger attributes Balzac's use
of "1'enumeration bouffone" only to Sterne, without mention
of Rabelais. He goes on to say "De ces foltres enumerations,
on en trouve merne dans 11 Histoire des treize,11 probably a
reference to this passage. Baldensperger, pp. 43-44.
^Bardeche, Introduction to PhyPo, p. 34.
11 Guise, p. 12.
12
Balzac, Les Chouans, ed. Maurice Regard (Paris:
Gamier, [1957]), p. 433, n. 1.
194


158
says, "selon Sterne, les idees d'un auteur qui s'est fait
la barbe different de celles qu'il avait auparavant. Si
Sterne a raison, ne peut-on pas affirmer hardiraent que les
dispositions des gens a table ne sont pas celles des mmes
gens revenus au salon?" (II, 430; in original edition,
1842). Here Balzac has taken one of Sterne's fanciful
ideas somewhat seriously, though in a light vein, and
given it a broader, social application.
So far, I have cited words of Tristram in his
study which Balzac has worked into his regular style of
narration; they show only that Tristram in his study was
clearly a part of Balzac's recollection of Sterne. Balzac
gets himself squarely into the style itself on occasion,
once with a direct reference to Sterne: "A cette pense,
a l'imitation de Sterne, qui a un peu copi Archimde, j'ai
fait craquer mes doigts; j'ai jet mon bonnet-en l'air, et
je me suis cri: Eureka (j'ai trouv)!" (Thorie de la
demarche, VII, 581). The entire beginning of Thorie de
la dmarche (1833), where this reference to Sterne is found,
is written in a self-conscious, Sterne-like style. There
are numerous interjections: "Hlas!", "Eh! quoi!", "Quoi!",
all of which open paragraphs. He speaks much of authorial
presence: "Ceci est prtentieux; mais pardonnez a 1'auteur
son orgueil; faites mieux, avouez que c'est lgitirae" (VII,
581). Balzac is encyclopedic, like Sterne: "Ces fragments
d'un vers de Virgile, analogues d'ailleurs a un vers


44
put it euphemistically. De Bonnay's process, then, sharply
reduces the bawdiness of the passage.
In the same way, when Susannah urges the five-
year-old Tristram to do without the chamber pot (rendered
******* *** in sterne, pot de chambre in de Bonnay), she
says, "helping [Tristram] up into the window seat [...],
cannot you manage, my dear, for a single time to ***
*** ** *w* ******?<< (yy, v, xii, 376). Here, the configura
tion of Sterne's asterisks clearly indicates that Susannah
has not used a euphemism; de Bonnay fills in the space
with "de vous en [the chamber pot] passer" (B, III, xix,
73-74). The result of the ensuing accident with the window
is treated in the same way: "in a week's time, or less, it
was in every body's mouth That poor Master Shandy * *
*********** entirely" (W, VI, xiv, 433). Here
the configuration of asterisks in Sterne suggests nothing
specific; the reader, however, is led to assume that a
rather specific description of Tristram's accident is im
plied. De Bonnay here fills in with "£e pauvre petit
Shandy est entierement mutile!" (B, III, lvii, 166).
Sterne continues here by saying that
FAME, who loves to double every thing, in three
days more, had sworn [ . ] "That the nursery
window had not only ***************
*************************
******** *. but that **********
*************************
**************3 also." (W, VI, xiv, 433)
Here de Bonnay does leave a lacuna, this time less specific


160
son livre fait l'effet du bonhomme dans l_e Tableau parlant,
quand il met son visage a la place de la peinture. [ . ]
Assez done! (VII, 531)*
The other major tude analytique, Physiologie du
mariage, is narrated in a similar manner. Early in the Work,
Balzac claims a Sternean spontaneity, a "manie [ . ] de
n'avoir ni style ni premeditation de phrase" (Phy, I, 16;
VII, 396; not in PhyPo). This is reminiscent of Tristram's
vow: "Je dchirerois la page que je vais crire, si vous
pouviez seulement, monsieur, faire une conjecture probable
sur ce que j'y dirai. Mais qu'ai-je a craindre? Sais-je
moi-meme ce qui sortira de ma plume?" (B, I, xxvii, 122;
W, I, xxv, 80). The author is constantly present in the
Physiologie, and he makes numerous references to his own
writing, always in a casual, humorous vein: "Cette question
[des courtisanes] est hrise de tant de si et de mais,
que nous la lguons a nos neveux; il faut leur laisser
quelque chose a faire" (Phy, I, 77; VII, 406; not in PhyPo).
His feelings, like Tristram's, often come through to us: "J'-
prouve une lassitude intellectuelle qui tale comme une crpe
sur toutes les choses de la vie. Il me semble que j'ai un
catarrhe, que je porte des lunettes vertes, que mes mains
tremblent et que je vais passer la second moiti de mon
existence et de mon livre a excuser les folies de la prem
iere" (Phy, II, 304; VII, 494; not in PhyPo). This brings
to mind Tristram's feelings of powerlessness before his task


BALZAC AND STERNE
By
SANDRA SOARES DONNELLY
TO THE GRADUATE
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED
COUNCIL OP THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
FULFILLMENT
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1973


210
If Tristram Shandy is indeed a satire, then the hobby-horse
is a major expression of its informing principle: that man
in the late eighteenth century is losing his center, Christi
anity, and will find other, dangerous centers.1^
The hobby-horse is also important on the surface
of the work. Central to the working out of character and
action in Tristram Shandy is the inability of characters
to communicate with each other effectively, particularly
Walter Shandy and his brother Toby. It is Toby's hobby
horse that interrupts their communication most often, but
Walter's various obsessions also block communication. As
we have seen in examining the romans de jeunesse, Balzac
well retained the idea of the hobby-horse from his reading
of Sterne. The hobby-horse appears again and again in the
Comedie humaine.
In Autre Etude de femme, Balzac defines the hobby
horse: "Un dada est le milieu precis entre la passion et
la monomanie. En ce moment, je compris cette jolie expres
sion de Sterne dans toute son tendue, et j'eus une complete
idee de la joie avec laquelle l'oncle Tobie enfourchait,
Trim aidant, son cheval de bataille" (II, 444-45). Actually,
Balzac uses the word dada and its related imagery to char
acterize the entire range of human obsessions, from the
simplest traits and preferences, often comic, all the way
to the most tragic of monomanias.
In a number of instances, Balzac shows the hobby-


212
eut peur de dplaire a [son] mari en ne le courtisant pas,
et il rsolut de chercher si le bonhomme avait un dada
que l'on put caresser" (III, 412; in original edition,
1837). As a universal human trait, the hobby-horse is
neither comic nor tragic; clever people, however, can use
this trait in others to their own ends.
It is interesting to note, before looking at the
darker side of the hobby-horse, Balzac's use of hobby-horse
imagery throughout the Comedie humaine. Above, we have al
ready seen the image-producing word "caracolait" used with
dada; Sterne frequently uses such imagery in relation to
Toby's obsession. In the romans de jeunesse, we have seen
the saying "Chassez le naturel, il reveint au galop" (VA,
I, 206); Balzac uses this again in Le Recherche de 1'absolu,
1 -|
when a character is speaking of Claes. In Modeste Mignon:
"Canalis enfourcha son cheval de bataille, il parla pen
dant dix minutes de la vie politique" (I, 251). Such im
agery does not always relate directly to the hobby-horse
itself,but it always relates to the loss of touch with
reality to which hobby-horsical activities lead: "Les
boulevards paraissent courts, lorsqu'en s'y promenant
on promeme ainsi son ambition a cheval sur la fantaisie"
(Le Cousin Pons, V, 249). And in Cesar Birotteau: "Le
parfumeur, a cheval sur un sjl, la plus douce monture de
l'Esprance [...]" (IV, 196). A note of danger is
struck here; it is this loss of touch with reality that
leads to Cesar's downfall.


CHAPTER III
INFLUENCE:
REFLECTIONS OF AUTHOR, CHARACTERS, INCIDENTS
The Comedie humaine is replete with both indirect
and direct references to Sterne and his works. These ref
erences and echoes take many different forms and range from
the inclusion of Sterne in a list of great authors to a
subtle absorption of Sterne's characters, incidents, style
and ideas into the heart of Balzac's own works.
As in the romans de .jeunesse, the direct refer
ences to Sterne are far fewer in number than the indirect
ones. Some of these direct references, such as those found
in lists, stand alone, and simply give us glimpses of Bal
zac's overall idea of Sterne. Othersfor example, the
references to Sterne's use of the hobby-horseopen the
way to complex networks of borrowing and adaptation of Sterne.
In this chapter I will deal with purely literary references
to Sterne and with borrowing of specific characters and
incidents.
In Petites miseres de la vie con.jugale, Balzac
includes Sterne in a list of authors he considers the
greatest storytellers: "les grands conteurs (Esope, Lucien,
Boccace, Rabelais, Cervantes, Swift, La Fontaine, Lesage,
128


131
In the preface to Une Filie d'Eve, Balzac cites
Sterne in a list with Swift, Voltaire, Moliere and Scott
(I, 603). Such lists also appear frequently in the oeuvres
diverses; in 1834, Balzac says: "Snque, Virgile, Horace,
Cicern, Cuvier, Sterne, Pope, lord Byron, Walter Scott,
ont fait leurs plus belles oeuvres quand ils avaient hon-
4
neurs et fortune." Balzac praises Sterne highly in 1840;
he states that an author should "[elever] chacune de ses
narrations a la hauteur ou elles deviennent typiques [ . ]
[presenter] l'un des sens gnraux auxquels s'attachent
insensiblement les coeurs [...]. Rabelais, Cervantes,
Sterne, Lesage, ont dot leurs oeuvres d'une pense de ce
5
genre." And in Balzac's Album, we find:
Ceux qui ont cont sont rares, bien cont, on
les compte, et ce sont des hommes de gnie
Lucien Ptrone les fabliaux (autores in-
certos) Rabelais Verville Boccace
1'Arioste La Fontaine Voltaire Walter
Scott Marmontel pour mmoire [last three
words crossed out], Et la Reine de Navarre!
. . Hamilton Sterne Cervantes et Le
Sage donc?
From Sterne's continuing presence in such lists, we can
see that he was an enduring, integral part of Balzac's
literary pantheon. Sterne also shows up as a character
in Balzac's strange Comdie du Diable (1833), although
he has little to say. In this work, Sterne is grouped
7
with Plato, Mohammed, Fnlon and Rabelais, among others.
In his literary criticism, too, Balzac refers
to Sterne. In a review of Jailin's La Confession, Balzac


Sterne, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy,
Gentleman, ed. James A. Work (New York: Odyssey,
1940).
[Balzac], Wann-Chlore (1825; rpt. Paris: Les Biblio
philes de l'Originale, 1961-63).
Balzac, La Comedie humaine, ed. Pierre Citron
(Paris: Editions du Seuil, "1'Intgrale," 1965-
66), is cited in text simply by volume and page.
vi


150
by their wives), he includes the "caporal en patrouille,
comme le prouve la lettre de Lafleur, dans le Voyage
sentimental" (PhyPo, 91 Phy, I, 84; VII, 407). La Fleur's
letter is from a man to a woman, discussing the postponement
of a rendezvous because of the unexpected return of the
woman's husband (S, 153). Here, for once, we are freed
from the problem of translation, since Sterne's original
letter is in French. As elsewhere in Balzac, this refer
ence gives depth to his narrative; it also shows that
Balzac had the Journey in mind as well when he thought
of Sterne, although the majority of his references are
to Tristram Shandy. Balzac quotes the end of this letter
in a letter of 1833 or 1834: "Comme dit le Sergent de
Sterne, vive 1'amour et la bagatelle, car comme disait
20
le Sergent la bagatelle doit suivre 1'amour."
Twice in the Physiologie, there are gatherings
of wise men to solemnly deliberate on matters of marriage.
"L'ide de reunir dans un diner quelques personnes pour
nous clairer sur ces matieres dlicates" (Phy, II, 327;
VII, 498; not in PhyPo) is distinctly reminiscent of the
dinner at the home of Didius in Tristram Shandy, where
"des savans," "des gens de premier ordre, des gens d'lite"
are to gather to discuss various church-matters, and to
which Toby, Walter and Yorick go to see about changing
Tristram's name (B, II, lxxxviii, 224; W, IV, xxiii, 302).
The first meeting of this type in the Physiologie


FOR MARTY


169
attire les larmes de la piti. II tomba la
tete dans sa main droite qui lui couvroit la
moiti des yeux, tandis que son bras gauche,
sans mouvement, restoit insensible, appuy sur
l'anse d'une cuvette qui toit placee sur une
table de nuit a cote du lit. II ne se sentait
pas. Un chagrin fixe, opintre, inflexible,
s'empara de tous les traits de son visage. II
soupiroit avec effort. Tous les mouveraens de .
sa poitrine toient convulsifs; il ne pronon§oit
pas un mot. (B, II, lii, 13637; W, III, xxix,
215-16)
Trim's dropping of the hat, which Balzac certainly remembered,
is another example of the importance of the details of
gesture in Sterne.
In Thorie de la demarche, Balzac shows his aware
ness of this feature of Sterne: "J'abaissai les yeux sur
mon modeste jardin, comme un homme qui perd une esperance.
Sterne a, le premier, observe ce mouvement fnebre chez
les hommes obliges d'ensevelir leurs illusions" (VII, 594).
This may refer to: "J'ai lu dans le chef-d'oeuvre d'Aristote,
que lorsqu'un homme pense a une chose passe, il baisse les
yeux vers la terre" (B, I, xxxiv, 158; W, II, vii, 158).
The expressive power of gesture and pose and their minute
detailing appear again and again in Balzac. In La Cousine
Bette, there are the frozen poses of Crevel, who, in the
crucial scenes, repeatedly "se met en position"; "Presque
tous les hommes affectionnent une posture par laquelle ils
croient faire ressortir tous les avantages dont les a dous
la nature. Cette attitude, chez Crevel, consistait a se
croiser les bras a la Napoleon, en mettant sa tete de trois
quarts, et jetant son regard [ . ] a 1'horizon" (V, 13).


passage says, "Le mot est du latin courant, et il n'y a
nul besoin de Sterne pour dire cela" (VI, 662, n.). Citron
is rightin fact, I find no mention in Sterne of the name
Margarita meaning pearlbut Balzac often mentions Sterne
when it is a question of names. This can be pushed further
Claes the monomaniac, repeating in a sort of hysteria the
name of the author whose hobby-horse gives birth to the crush
ing mania that grips Claesin any case, this evocation of
Sterne can serve as substantiation for the Toby-Trim/Claes-
Lemulquinier parallel, as it shows that Balzac had Sterne
in mind while writing the novel.
It is in La Cousine Bette that monomania shows
most strongly its destructive force. Hector's mania for
women causes the breaking up of the family and directly
causes the death of three of its members, Marshal Hulot,
Hector's brother; Johann Fischer, Hector's wife's uncle;
and ultimately Adeline, Hector's wife. It even indirectly
causes two more deaths, those of Crevel and Valerie, who
are both involved in the embroglio only because of Hector's
obsession. In La Cousine Bette, there is no talk of hobby
horses. The idea has been totally absorbed into Balzac's
world.
I do not wish to maintain that the entire genesis
of the Balzacian monomania is in Sterne's hobby-horse. I
strongly feel, however, that it was a major contributing
factor to Balzac's ideas about the behavior of obsessed


146
(PhyPo, 91-92). In the later edition, Balzac has expanded
this passage to read, "Les clebres instructions que le
plus original des crivains anglais a consignees dans cette
lettre, pouvant, a quelques exceptions pres, completer nos
observations sur la manieredese conduire auprs des femmes,
nous l'offrons textuellement aux reflexions des predestines"
(Phy, I, 107). After 1829, Balzac added these concluding
words to the paragraph: "en les priant de la mditer comme
un des plus substantiels chefs-d'oeuvre de 1'esprit humain"
(VII, 411). The evolution here is interesting; Balzac pro
gressively gives the letter itself even higher praise, but
Sterne has been more precisely specified as the most original
English writer. The new introduction ties the letter in
more closely to the rest of the work; it shows, I think,
Balzac's increasing skill as a writer.
The letter is quoted in its entirety (B, IV, lxiii,
173-77; W, VII, xxxvi, 590-93; PhyPo, 92-94; Phy, I, 108-12;
VII, 411-12). It is a lengthy epistle, in which Walter
recommends to Toby a strict code of hygiene and etiquette,
much of which is extravagantly absurd. Balzac then comments
upon and amends the advice in the letter. He feels that
"dans les circonstances actuelles, Sterne lui-meme retran-
cherait sans doute de sa lettre 1'article de l'ane" (PhyPo,
94; Phy, I, 113; VII, 412). Ane is Walter Shandy's word
for lust, on which there has been much punning in the pre-
.. 18
ceding pages.
Balzac picked up this use of the word ane


26
^2Prom a letter of Barbey d'Aurevilly, 1853,
quoted by Partridge, p. 281.
^Felix Mornand, "Un Palmipede mconnu: histoire
d'un aveugle et d'une oie philanthrope," 11 Artiste, 5
(1845), 101.
^This introduction was also published as an
article: Jules Janin," Sterne," Revue de Pari3, NS 24 (Dec.
1840), 225.
^Janin, p. 240.
Balzac, Lettres a Madame Hanska, ed. Roger
Pierrot, I (Paris: Les Bibliophiles de 1'Originals, 1967),
595 (1 April 1838).
^Lettres a Madame Hanska, I, 595 n.
^Quoted by Claude Pichois, Philarete Chasles
et la vie littraire au temps du romantisme (Paris: Corti,
1965), II, 84.
^Maurice Bardeche, Balzac, romaneier (1940;
rpt. Geneve: Slatkine, 1967), p. 330.
50
Balzac, review of La Confession in Le Feuilleton
Littraire, 7 (14 April 1830) in (buvres diverses, XXXVIII
(Paris: Conard, 1935), 413.
51
Francis Brown Barton, "Laurence Sterne and
Charles Nodier," Modern Philology, 14 (1916), 220.
^Barton, "Nodier," p. 228.
5 3
Francis Brown Barton, "Laurence Sterne and
Thophile Gautier," Modern Philology, 16 (1918), 211.
'^Barton, "Gautier," p. 205, n. 2.
55
Genevieve Delattre, Les Opinions litteraires
de Balzac (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1961),
p. 170.
5 6
Roland Chollet, "Une Heure de ma vie, ou Lord
R'hoone a la dcouverte de Balzac," L1Anne Balzacienne,
1968, p. 123.
57
See entire Chollet article, L1Annee Balzacienne,
1968, pp. 121-34. Also see below, pp. 85-88.


185
indigent, fantastiquement coll sur le mur^
[...]; le piton savant qui tudie, ple
ou lit les affiches sans les achever; le piton
rieur qui se moque des gens auxquels il arrive
malheur dans la ru [...]; le piton silen-
cieux qui regarde a toutes les croises, a tous
les tages; le piton industriel, arm d'un sa-
coche ou muni d'un paquet, traduisant la pluie
par profits et pertes; le piton aimable, qui
arrive comme un obs, en disant: Ah! quel temps,
messeurs! et qui salue tout le monde; enfin, le
vrai bourgeois de Paris, homme a parapluie, ex
pert en averse, qui l'a prvue, sorti malgr
l'avis de sa femme, et qui s'est assis sur la
chaise du portier. Selon son caractre, chaqu
membre de cette socit fortuite contemple le
ciel [...]. Chacun a ses motifs. II ne
reste que le piton prudent, 1'homme qui, pour
se remettre en route, pie quelques espaces
bleus a travers les nuages crevasss.9
I am certainly not prepared to assert that Balzac got his
mania for classification from Sterne, and this list is
clearly part of Balzac's desire to catalogue completely
the life of his time. What I can say is that Balzac and
Sterne use this kind of classification in a similar manner.
Another superficial narrative trick that Balzac
may have taken from Sterne is the bastardization of Latin.
Tristram Shandy is heavily sprinkled with Latin, both cor
rect and incorrect, as part of Tristram's and Walter's
"erudition. Balzac, too, uses Latin in fun. At the be
tinning of Thorie de la dmarche, he laments the lack of
scholarly works on the subject then says: "Quoi! vous
trouveriez plus facilement le De pantouflis veterum, in
voqu par Charles Nodier, dans sa raillerie toute panta-
grulique de 1'Histoire du roi de Boheme, que le moindre


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank Professor J. Wayne Conner
for his great help and inspiration in the preparation of
this dissertation. My thanks also go to Professor Melvyn
New for his ideas on Sterne and his many helpful sugges
tions, and to Professors Douglas A. Bonneville and Irving
R. Wershow for their assistance and encouragement.
in


TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
KEY TO SIGLA USED IN TEXT v
ABSTRACT vii
INTRODUCTION 1
NOTES 2 3
I.THE FRENAIS-DE BONNAY TRANSLATION OF STERNE . 29
NOTES 83
II.STERNE IN THE CEUVRES DE JEUNESSE 85
NOTES 125
III.INFLUENCE: REFLECTIONS OF AUTHOR, CHARACTERS,
INCIDENTS 128
NOTES 154
IV.INFLUENCE: NARRATIVE MANNER 156
NOTES 194
. V. INFLUENCE: IDEAS 195
NOTES 221
CONCLUSION 223
BIBLIOGRAPHY 227
iv


192
Je ne dis pas cela . .
Tu ne me laisses jamais finir, Adolphe.
Je te dis que le roi de Rome . (ici
vous commencez a lever la voix), le roi de Rome,
qui avait a peine quatre ans lorsqu'il a quitt
la France, ne saurait servir d'exemple.
Cela n'empche pas que le due de Bor
deaux n'ait t remis a sept ans a M. le due
de Riviere, son gouverneur. (Effet de logique.)
[ . ] (VII, 512; in original edition, 1839)
The stylistic similarity between this discussion and the
"bed of justice" scene in Tristram Shandy is pervasive.
The parenthetical comments of the author, the style of
argumentand particularly the rhythm of the dialogue
clearly echo the scene in Sterne:
"Nous devrions, dit mon pere, en se retournant
a moiti dans son lit, et rapprochant son oreiller
de ma mere, nous devrions penser, madame Shandy,
a mettre cet enfant en culottes."
"Vous avez raison, monsieur Shandy, dit ma
mere."
"II est rnerne honteux, ma chere, dit mon pere,
que nous ayions diffr si longtemps."
"Je le pense comme vous, dit ma mere."
"Ce n'est pas, dit mon pere, que 1'enfant
ne soit tres-bien comme il est."
"II est tres-bien comme il est, dit ma mere."
"Mais il grandit a vue d'oeil, ce petit gar-
con-la! rpliqua mon pere."
"Il est tres-grand pour son age, dit ma mere."
"Jenepuis, dit mon pere, appuyant sur
chaqu syllabe, je ne puis pas imaginer qui
diantre il ressemble."
"Je ne saurois 1'imaginer, dit ma mere."
"Ouais! dit mon pere."
Le dialogue cessa pour un moment. [ . ]
(B, III, lxii, 171-72; W, VI, xviii, 437)
The content is different only in that Caroline has an opinion
and Mrs. Shandy does not. The frustration Walter feels is


65
heures dix minutes, et rien de plus, que le
docteur Slop est ici, ma montre en fait foi,
regardez-y plutot vous-mme; et, cependant, je
ne sais comment il arrive que ces deux heures
dix minutes paroissent un siecle a mon imagina
tion .... (B, II, xxiv, 85; W, III, xviii, 188)
In some cases, this type of chapter heading intrudes un
comfortably on the text; for example:
Pourquoi pas?
C'est morbleu bien la le temps, s'cria mon
pere en lui-meme, de parler de pension, de boulin-
grin et de grenadiers. (B, II, lxviii, 202, entire
chapter; W, IV, iv, 275)
Occasionally Frenis strings chapter titles to
gether in a series; thus we find in succeeding chapters:
"Comment peindre mon onde Tobie?", "Nous y viendrons,"
"Un peu de patience," "Enfin nous y voila" (B, I, xxv-
xxviii, 113-22; W, I, xxiii II, i, 74-81). Here Frenis's
device fits in fairly well with the novel; this sequence
of chapters is where the reader first realizes how ill-
controlled Tristram's work is, as Tristram comments all
through this part about how anxious he is to get to the
point. This device of a series of chapter headings is
one that Balzac uses, especially in novels that were pub
lished serialized.
The voice speaking the chapter title is, I assume,
supposed to be that of Tristram, yet it often intrudes
where Tristram does not belong. Frenis is actually super
imposing another narrator, a false Tristram, whose running
commentary, through the chapter titles, is often quite
inappropriate.


203
in the ensuing paragraphs, we would see his ideas clearly
here, even to the detail of ab ovo (cf. B, III, 7; W, iii,
7). Here Balzac is playing with the idea of the importance
of conception and connecting it, as does Sterne, with the
frustrations of marital sex. Still, given Balzac's ideas
about the hidden connections between spirit and flesh, it
is possible to see at least some seriousness couched in
the statement about how little modern science understands
the mysteries of conception and the effects of exterior
circumstances on the microscopic beings involved. And is
Balzac really citing Sterne as an authority when he says
"Le plus jeune membre propose de faire une collecte pour
recompenser 1'auteur de la meilleur dissertation sur cette
question [du lit] regarde par Sterne comme si importante"
(Phy, II, 14; VII, 448; not in PhyPo)? There is such a
mixture of the comic and the earnest in the Physiologie
that it is difficult to sort out Balzac's real ideas.
Similarly, in Traite de la vie elegante, in a footnote,
Balzac says, "C'est une erreur de croire les intelligences
gales [...]. Ce fait immense prouve que Sterne avait
peut-etre raison de mettre l'art d'accoucher en avant de
toutes les sciences et des philosophies" (VII, 569, n.).
It is in the Etudes analytiques that we find most often
the process of advancing serious ideas in jest that Delattre
mentions: "Le ton humouristique sur lequel [Sterne] expose
ses theories ne differe guere du ton adopte par 1'auteur


230
Janin, Jules. "Sterne," Revue de Paris, NS 24 (Dec. 1840),
221-48.
Lecuyer, Maurice A. P. Balzac et Rabelais. Etudes fran-
caises fondees sur 1'initiative de la Socit
des professeurs frangais en Amrique, No. 47.
Paris: Socit d'Edition "Les Belles Lettres,"
1956.
Loy. J. Robert. Diderot1s Determined Fatalist. New York:
King's Grown Press, 1950.
Mallet du Pan, [Jacques]. "Suite de la vie & des opinions
de Tristram Shandy,11 Mercure de France, 12 (Nov.
1785), 71-84.
Maurois, Andr. Promethe; ou la vie de Balzac. Paris:
Hachette, 1965.
Mornand, Flix. "Un Palmipede mconnu: histoire d'un
aveugle et d'une oie philanthrope," L1Artiste,
5 (1845), 101.
New, Melvyn. Laurence Sterne as Satirist. Gainesville:
University of Florida Press, 1969
Partridge, Eric. The French Romantics' Knowledge of
English Literature (1820-1848) according to
Contemporary French Memoirs, Letters and Peri
odicals Paris: E. Champion, 1924.
Pichois, Claude. Philarte Chasles et la vie littraire
au temps du romantisme. 2 vol. Paris: Corti,
1965.
Pierrot, Roger. "Balzac vu par les siens en 1822,"
Etudes Balzaciennes, 7 (1959), 249-58.
Prioult, A. Balzac avant La Comdie humaine. Paris:
Courville, 1936.
Putney, Rufus D. S. "Laurence Sterne: Apostle of Laugh
ter," in The Age of Johnson: Essays Presented
to Chauncey Brewster Tinker. Ed. Frederick W.
Hilles. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1949.
Pp. 159-70.
Qurard, Joseph Marie. La France littraire, ou Diction-
naire bibliographique. 12 vol. Paris: Firmin
Didot, 1827-64.


170
The comic development of Crevel's character is mirrored in
the development of his pose:
Depuis trois ans, 1'ambition avait modifi
la pose de Crevel. Comme les grands peintres,
il en tait a sa second maniere.
Dans le grand monde [ . ] il gardait
son chapeau la main d'une fa^on dgagee que
Valerie lui avait apprise, et il inserait la
pouce de 1'autre main dans l'entournure de son
gilet d'un air coquet, en mignaudant de la tete
et des yeux. Cette autre mise en position tait
due a la railleuse Valerie qui, sous pretexte
de rajeunir son maire, 1'avait dot d'un ridicule
de plus. (V, 112)
Pose, as in Sterne, takes on deep psychological meaning;
here it shows Crevel's distorted self-awareness and Val-
rie's control over him. Balzac uses pose similarly in
Les Petits Bourgeois: "Me pardonnerez-vous, belle dame, dit
Thullier, en se tortillant et s'arrtant a sa pose numro
deux de son rpertoire de 1807" (V, 323)
There are numerous examples of the detailing of
a static pose in La Comdie humaine. It is not simply the
posing itself that brings Sterne to mind; it is the choice
of details: "Puis il s'appuya le corps sur la jambe gauche,
avanza la droite [...], il porta la tete vers le ciel
afin de se mettre a la hauteur de la gigantesque histoire
qu'il alia dire" (Le Mdecin de campagne, VI, 172).
The expressive power of gesture, as in Trim's
dropping of his hat, also occurs frequently the Comdie
humaine: "Il y a, dans la maniere dont la femme [apporte
une tasse de th], tout un langage; mais les femmes le
savent bien; aussi est-ce une tude curieuse a faire que


109
une tournure si philosophique et si argumentative, qu'il
dit, en se balan I, 65-66).
Another description of gesture in early Balzac has
a distinct parallel in Sterne. At the news of the death.of
Tristram's brother Bobby, Trim's reaction is described:
Nous voila tous ici, continua le caporal,
e_t en un moment . (laissant tomber perpen-
diculairement son chapeau, et s'arretant avant
d'achever), et en un moment nous ne sommes plus.
Le chapeau tomba comme si c'et te une masse
de plomb. Rien ne pouvoit mieux exprimer l'ide
de la mort, dont ce chapeau toit la figure et
le type. La main de Trim sembla se paralyser,
Le chapeau tomba mort. Trim resta les yeux
fixes dessus, comme sur un cadavre. Et Suzanne
fondit en larmes.
0ri il y a mille, dix mille, et comme
la matiere et le mouvement^sont infinis, dix
mille fois, dix mille manieres, dont un chapeau
peut tomber a terre sans produire aucun effet.
Si Trim l'eut jet avec force ou colre,
avec negligence ou mal-adresse,s'il l'eut
jet devant lui, ou de ct, ou en arrire, ou
dans un autre direction quelconque, ou si, en
lui dormant la meilleure direction possible, il
l'eut laiss tomber d'une [sic] air gauche^
hbet, effar; enfin, si, pendant ou apres
la chute, Trim n'et pas eu 1'expression de tete
et 1'attitude qui devoit 1'accompagner, tout
toit manqu, et 1'effet du chapeau sur le coeur
toit perdu. (B, III, ix, 47-48; W, V, vii, 362)
In the Comdie humaine, Balzac refers several times to the
dropping of Trim's hat (see below, pp. 135-36). Although
he makes no specific mention of this scene in the romans
de jeunesse, in Clotilde de Lusignan we find the same in
terest in the various ways a gesture can be made and its
effect on the observer:


97
much in Sterne, particularly the Tristrapoedia. It also
hears some distinct similarities to Pantagruel's letter
to Gargantua, although Balzac is not serious here. Rather,
Barnab's speech can be seen as a satire of the typical
literary discourse on education. Barnab lists all that
he feels that Jean Louis should learn; typical of this list
is: "Tu apprendras la chimie et l'alchimie, qui t'offrent
les moyens de dpenser cent mille francs pour avoir un
once d'or; la mtallurgie, avec laquelle tu pourras te
faire pendre en faux monnayant" (JL, III, 90-91) The
list is ridiculously long and extravagantly absurd; it
is clearly reminiscent of the list of desired qualities
for Tristram's tutor (B, III, xlix, 134; W, VI, v, 415)
After fourteen pages, the speech seems to be coming to
an end with an envoi: "Va, mon enfant, achve ce que j'ai
commence" (JL, III, 98). Here Balzac interrupts to address
the reader, and he makes the connection with Sterne even
more clear with his reference to the dada:
Lecteur, a ce discours, qui fut debit avec une
volubilit extraordinaire, vous devez vous aper-
cevoir que Barnab se trouvait dans un des plus
beaux paroxismes de sa passion favorite, qui
consistait a parler sans cesse, et a montrer
la vaste tendue de ses connaissanees, En re-
passant en revue les divers dadas les hommes, le bon pyrrhonien se delectait en
faisant caracoler le sien. Hlas! . on a
bien raison d'affirmer que les passions ou les
dadas, comme on voudra, aveuglent les hommes
.... Barnab en est une grande preuve, et
les gens qui voudront confondre les incrdules
^ourron.t la citer . . Le pauvre docteur
etait si bien aveugl, que non-seulement il
ne voyait pas un dluge de salive, qui, 3'-


86
of Une Heure also speaks of walking in Paris as serving
to "remonter mon horloge," which, as Chollet says, must
4
certainly he bawdy to a reader of Sterne.
Besides the correspondences mentioned by Chollet,
I see in Une Heure a catalogue of many of the elements of
Sterne that are to be found in the Comedie humaine, some
of which do not appear in the romans de jeunesse. Here we
5
find the first inclusion of Sterne in a list of authors.
We find the first view of the author at his task: "Ah!
Balarouth, vite mes lunettes, un siege" (p. 215), and a
long list of the paraphernalia used in writing, along with
a Tristram-like threat to quit the task (p. 224). Balzac
uses musical terms to describe tone of voice: "Ici la
marchande baissa sa voix au moins d'un octave, et par des
degradations de voix vraiment musicales" (p. 223). We
find several long lists, including one that has a strong
ring of Sterne: "nous avons tous des organes, des fibres,
du sang, des humeurs, des nerfs, des sens diffrents"
(p. 223). We find the self-conscious author, who says,
"Je suis tenement mu que Je ne puis me tirer de la que
par une digression" (p. 221). Finally, we find throughout
the comic-encyclopedic style that is to appear in the
Etudes analytique3. Each of these elements will be spe
cifically linked to Sterne's works in the course of this
study; Une Heure de ma vie will serve here as a first glance
at the nature of Balzac's borrowing from Sterne.
Une Heure de ma vie contains many more of the


132
writes: "La c'est Diderot et son langage abrupt et brlant;
8
ici, c'est Sterne et sa touche fine et delicate." In
another review in the same number of Le Feuilleton Litt-
raire, in the process of praising a particular character
while condemning a work, he writes: "Mais quelque gracieuse
que soit cette figure digne de Sterne ou de Goldsmith,
Q
[ . ]." Sterne's work is clearly one of Balzac's
literary norms.
In another direct citation which mentions Sterne
in what I consider to be a self-contained literary manner,
Balzac allows Adolphe of Petites miseres to refer contempt
uously to his wife's novel en feuilleton as being "d'un
neuf qui date de Sterne, de Gessner" (VII, 544; in original
edition, 1845). This is a puzzling allusion; virtually all
of Balzac's other comments on Sterne are complimentary,
but this one is clearly not so. Gessner was a Swiss painter
who also wrote pastoral poetry, and who had considerable
influence on the most sentimental of the early French ro
mantics. Generally, Balzac does not think of Sterne in a
sentimental vein; this reference may simply be to the time
that Sterne wrote, or it may be to the vogue of sentimental
writing that followed him.
In La Peau de chagrin, Balzac compares a painting
by Gerard Dow, which Raphael sees in the antique shop, to a
page of Sterne (VI, 437; in original edition, 1831)- Dow
is a seventeenth-century Flemish painter; here Balzac is
speaking of Sterne's attention to detail.


119
in this scene that Trim makes the gesture that Balzac used
later as the epigraph to La Peau de chagrin (W, IX, iv, 604;
see below, pp.151-53 ). But there are other mentions of
sticks (Sterne is obviously playing with their phallic
suggestiveness): "son baton [Trim's], suspendu par un petit
cordon de cuir noir, dont les deux bouts renous ensemble
finissoit par un gland, balan^oit au-dessous de son poignet
gauche. -Mon onde Tobie portoit sa canne comme une hal-
lebarde" (B, IV, lx, 185-86; W, IX, ii, 602); and "Mon
onde Tobie retourna la tete plus de dix fois, pour voir
si le caporal se tenoit prt a le soutenir; et autant de
fois le caporal fit un petit moulinet de son baton, non
pas d'un air avantageux, mais avec 1'accent le plus doux
du plus respectueux encouragement, comme pour dire a son
maitre: ne craignez ren" (B, IV, lx, 186; W, IX, iii, 602).
In the first scene in Balzac, "[Nikel] partit en fredonnant
une chanson et en faisant tournoyer sa canne comme pour
se donner de la hardiesse, et a en juger par la force et
la rapidit des tournoiemens, grande tait sa timidit"
(WC, I, 94-98). In the second scene, "D'ailleurs, monsieur,
ajouta Nikel, en faisant tourner sa canne comme pour en-
lever ses scrupules, vous trouverez la des distractions
plutt que chez vous" (WC, I, 127-28). Nikel and Horace's
relationship is, in some ways, similar to that of Toby
and Trim; the similarity is marked in these scenes, which
are lighter in tone than most of the rest of the novel.


167
Part of his inspiration comes from a discussion with two
women; he repeats their initial conversation and also a
short conversation in which they convince him, once the
work is written, to go ahead and publish it. He then says,
"Quoique 1'auteur ne se donne ici que pour 1'humble secre
taire de deux dames [...]" (Phy, I, xxxij; VII, 393;
this entire framework is missing from PhyPo). So when,
from time to time, he addresses them directly, their exis
tence is already explained, whereas in Tristram Shandy,
when Tristram first addresses "Madam his reader, her
existence is not. Balzac includes several fairly long
discussions with one or other of the ladies in the course
of the work. These dialogues are in the past tense:
"Madame, repondis-je" (Phy, I, 157; VII, 419), so they
are temporally removed from the immediate time of reading/
writing. And they are framed and prepared by the previous
introduction of the ladies: "Monsieur, me dit une des
puissantes intelligences feminines qui m'ont daign -
clairer sur un des passages les plus obscurs de mon livre
[...]" (Phy, I, 151; VII, 419). But the stylistic
effect in both Balzac and Sterne is the same; the author's
voice is interrupted by the opinions of others on the mat
ter of the novel itself. Since the Physiologie is a satiric
work, though much gentler than Sterne's satire, the spirit
of Balzac's use of Sterne's methods is much lighter, much
more like Sterne, than in the rest of the Comedie humaine.


196
raancie [sic] d'avilir ses actions, ou sur le
rare privilege que le nom seul de Dulcine avoit
de repandre du lustre et de 1'clat sur ses
faits hroiques, que ce que raon pere ne pouvoit
dire sur les oras de Trismegiste ou d'Archimde,
compares avec d'autres qui le choquoient.
Combien de Csars, combien de Pompees, par la
seule inspiration de ces noms fameux, s'toient-
ils rendu dignes de le porter? Et combien,
ajoutoit-il, a-t-on vu de gens dans le monde
qui s'y seroient distingues, si leur caractere,
leur gnie n'avoient pas t abattus, avilis,
sous un nom aussi sot, par exemple, que celui
de Nicodme? (B, I, xxi, 79; W, I, xix, 50)
The idea is thoroughly undercut by the reference to Don
Quixote, still a figure of ridicule at the time Sterne
wrote (but a hero to Balzac's time),^ but as Baldensperger
points out, "L'humouristique chapitre xix de Tristram Shandy
, 4
est reste pour Balzac une sorte d'evangile."
Balzac took great care in the naming of his char
acters, and he makes frequent references to Sterne when he
discusses names. In Gobseck, for example: "Enfin par un
hasard [une singularit] que Sterne appelerait une pre
destination, cet homme se nomme [nommait] Gobseck"(lI, 128;
in original edition, 1830; parenthetical changes made in
1835). And in Le Cur de Tours:
Ici 1'historien serait en droit de crayonner
le portrait de cette dame; mais il a pens que
ceux mmes auxquels le systme de cognotnologie
de Sterne est inconnu, ne pourrait prononcer
ces trois mots: MADAME DE LIST0M2RE! sans la
peindre noble, digne, temprant les rigueurs
de la pit par la vieille lgance des moeurs
monarchiques et classiques, par des manieres
polies; se permettant la lecture de La Nouvelle
Hloi'se, la comedie, et se coiffant encore en
cheveux. (III, 74; in original edition, 1832)


198
in mind in reference to names, it is also possible that he
consciously connected the discussion of the author's rights
and the reader's imagination to Sterne.
In Beatrix, the significance of names is mentioned
twice. Near the beginning, Felicit des Touches (Camille
Maupin), says bitterly: "Sterne a raison. Les noms signi-
fient quelque chose, et le mien [i.e., Felicit] est la
plus sauvage raillerie" (II, 36). Even though these words
are spoken by a character instead of by Balzac as narrator,
given the character of Camille Maupin and Balzac's other
references to Sterne's theories of names, I think the state
ment can be considered to be Balzac's own. Later in the
novel, when Calyste is in love with Batrix, he says,
"Camille disait nagure qu'il y avait une fatalit inne
dans les noms, propos du sien. Cette fatalit, je l'ai
pressentie pour moi dans 1e votre quand, sur la jete de
Gurande, il a frapp mes yeux au bord de l'ocan. Vous
passerez dans ma vie comme Batrix a pass dans la vie de
Dante" (II, 63). In both cases in Batrix there is irony
in the use of names. Camille states the irony herself;
Calyste does not see the irony in his statement, but it
is there, since Batrix will destroy him rather than saving
him. Despite the irony, it is clear that Balzac has taken
seriously what Tristram and Walter Shandy have said about
names.
In Ursule Mirouet Balzac again mentions the pos-


163
expliquant [...]" (I, 196). Balzac by no means always
addresses the reader directly when he is trying to draw
the reader's attention in a special way.
In Balzac there are varying degrees of direct
ness in this sort of address. Often he brings us in with
a very general "vous." In La Bourse, Balzac apologizes
to the reader for the length of a description with "Si
vous y trouvez des longueurs [ . ]" (I, 181) Or in
La Muse du dpartement, we find mentioned "un merveilleux
palais que vous admirerez quand vous irez a Venise" (IV,
554). Here the process of what I call personalization of
the reader is incomplete, but suggested. There are many
instances of this use of vous throughout the Comedie hu-
maine.
The reader is sometimes further personalized,
and like Sterne, Balzac often envisions his reader as a
woman. In La Vieille Filie, Balzac turns rather suddenly
on the reader:
Se moque qui voudra de la pauvre filie!
vous la trouverez sublime, ames gnreuses qui
ne vous inquitez jamais de la forme que prend
le sentiment, et l'admirez la ou il est!
Ici quelques femmes lgres essaieront peut-
tre de chicaner la vraisemblance de ce rcit,
elles diront [...]. (Ill, 301)
Here Balzac is passing judgement on his readers, as does
Sterne: "Mais en verit, madame, je ne vous con^ois pas.
[ . ] Vous lisez done avec bien peu d'attention" (B,
I, xxii, 88; W, I, xx, 56). Tristram sends the reader


78
never be grown up. Whilst there is a rood and
a half of land in the Shandy family, thy fortifi
cations, my dear uncle Toby, shall never be de
molish'd. (W, III, xxiv, 224)
Frenis makes a number of major additions to
Sterne's text, many of a political or literary nature.
I count sixteen lengthy additions in all in Frenis's part
of the translation.^
De Bonnay makes no lengthy cuts in Tristram
Shandy, and although he does not display the haphazard
expansiveness of Frenis, he does make two additions of
original material. At one point, Sterne begins a chapter:
Had this volume been a farce [ . ] the
last chapter, Sir, had finished the first act
of it, and then this chapter should have set off
thus.
Ptr.. r.. r.. ing twing twang prut
trut- 'tis a cursed bad fiddle. (W, V, xv,
371)
The chapter continues with other orchestra-tuning noises
and snatches of conversation, mostly about music. De Bonnay
begins the chapter as Sterne does, but after a passing
mention of the orchestra (with no sound effects), he says,
"Le parterre! descendons-y pour un moment, je vous prie"
(B, III, xvii, 64). He then reproduces, in dramatic form,
the following three-way conversation:
Premier Interlocuteur. Que dites-vous de
ce dernier acte?
Second Interlocuteur. Pitoyable!
Premier. Vous avez bien raison; on n'y
comprend rien.
Second. Bon! est-ce que 1'auteur s'est
compris lui-meme?


116
cared little. That Sterne would come to mind here, though,
strongly hints that Balzac wrote such intrusive-narrator
passages thinking of Sterne.
One remarkable aspect of the narration of Tristram
Shandy is Sterne's use of time and duration. A time device
that Sterne uses several times is the freezing of a character
in a particular attitude while he digresses, before return
ing to the character. Toby is frozen knocking the ashes
from his pipe; Mrs. Shandy is left at the keyhole; Toby and
Walter spend a great many pages on the stairs. These time-
stops are dulled somewhat in the translation, either by
omission of some elements of their presentation or by the
insertion of extraneous material, but their general outline
is preserved. This device appears once in the romans de
jeunesse; "II sera tres-utile, avant de reprendre M. de
Durental et Annette ou nous les avons laisss, c'est-a-dire
dans 1'antichambre [ . ] de faire assister le lecteur
aux derniers propos tenus par ce cercle de la haute societ
de Durental" (AC, III, 24-25).
Tristram frequently comments on how slowly his
story advances, and generally blames it on his digressive
ness. In Clotilde de Lusignan, Balzac's narrator experiences
the same problem (but not as acutely as does Tristram); "Que
l'on convienne, pour l'honneur des R'hoone [Balzac's pseudo
nym for this work] que cette histoire avance. Elle avance
bien peu, dira-t-on, mais, enfin elle avance! . . et


84
1^Delattre, p. 171.
^1See Fredman, pp. 5-18, and Texte, pp. 277-81.
1^Mallet du Pan, p. 81.
1^For example, Frenis adds a discussion of direct
and indirect style (B, II, xii, 28; W, III, ii, 158); at
one point he summarizes at some length the previous events
of the novel (B, II, xx, 44; W, III, ix, 167); in Slawken-
bergius's Tale he attacks La Harpe at length (B, II, lxii,
184; W, IV, 270) and adds an attack on writers of history,
which he ends with an exclamation which is actually quite
characteristic of Tristram: "C'est que, grces a Dieu,
je ne lis pas d'autre histoire que celle de Dom Quichotte"
(B, II, lxii, 195-96; W, IV, 271).
1^L'Anne Littraire, 32 (1785), 647.
15
Delattre, pp. 170-71


98
coulant de chaqu cote de sa bouche, produisait
un fleuve sur son habit; mais encore qu'il n'avait
entre son pouce et son index droit que le bouton
de la veste par lequel il avait saisi son neveu,
qui depuis long-temps s'tait couch, de mme que
le pre Granivel! (JL, III, 98-99)
This is Balzac's first use of the word dada.
His attitude toward the hobby-horse is much like Sterne's:
"Lorsqu'une passion tyrannise un homme, ou, ce qui est la
mme chose, lorsqu'il se laisse emporter par son dada chri;
la raison, la prudence n'ont plus d'empire sur lui; elles
1'abandonnent" (B, I, xxxii, 144; W, II, v, 93) Balzac
uses the image-producing words enfourchait and caracolait;
Sterne, too, frequently presents such images with the hobby
horse. Balzac adds ridicule of his hobby-horsical character
the "deluge de salive" is more cruel a picture than Sterne
ever presents of either Toby or Walter. Balzac's narrator
is compassionate at the same time, though, and later cuts
through clearly to the sadly ironic core of Barnab's ob
session: "Le reel n'existe pas pour lui; et cet homme qui
cherche la vrit, qui veut tout sacrifier pour elle, vit
sans cesse au milieu des chimeres" (JL, IV, 125). The de
velopment of the hobby-horsical character has led Balzac
to this insight, an insight that is to give much power to
his presentation of monomaniacs in his later works.
In Clotilde de Lusignan (1822), the hobby-horse
phenomenon does not center on only one character, but upon
several, all secondary characters, all supporters of Clo
tilde 's father, Jean II, deposed king of Cyprus. Hilarin,


180
very short chapters. Both of these types of chapters are
found in the Comedie humaine. In La Cousine Bette, among
others, we find the subject-chapter handled in a serious
way, as in the chapters entitled "De la sculpture," (V, 83),
and "Des polonais en general et de Steinbock en particulier"
(V, 87). Such chapters are found throughout the Comedie
humaine, and are only dimly, if at all, related to Sterne.
In the Etudes analytiques, however, such a connection be
comes quite clear: "II s'agissait de savoir si le chapitre
des Manieres devait passer avant celui de la Conversation"
(Traite de la vie elegante, VII, 573)* Here the topical
division is as contrived as in Tristram Shandy. Similarly,
in Petites Miseres, Balzac's chapter divisions are self-
conscious: "Ceci rentre dans les mille facties du chapitre
suivant, dont le titre doit faire sourire les amants aussi
bien que les poux" (VII, 519-20), and "La villa cree alors
une phase aussi singuliere, et qui mrite un chapitre a
part" (VII, 522). And he uses the same device in the Phy-
siologie du mariage: "Dans ce milieu de femmes honntes,
nous n'avons pas encore essays de chercher le nombre des
feinmes vertueuses. Une distinction aussi subtile reclame
une nouvelle Meditation" (PhyPo, 75; not in 1829 or later
editions).
The very short chapter is rare in the Comedie
humaine, but it does occur. In Un Prince de la Boheme,
Sternean in its light style, we find a chapter entitled


178
point, a cet gard, d'un dfaut de penetration.
C'est plutot que cette perfection est si rare
dans une digression, que l'on ne s'y attend pas.
[ . ] (3, I, xxiv, 110; W, I, xxii, 72)
and
Les digressions sont incontestablement la lumiere,
la vie, l'me de la lecture. Otez-les par exem-
ple de ce livre, il seroit aussi bon de mettre
le livre tout-a-fait de cote. Une langueur ac-
cablante, une monotonie insipide rgneroient a
chaqu page; il tomberoit des mains. Rendez-
les a 1'auteur; il brille, il amuse, il se vari,
il chasse 1'ennui. (3, I, xxiv, 112; W, I, xxii,
73)
Balzac usually justifies his digressions to the reader with
a phrase such as "cette digression tait ncessaire pour
1'intelligence de la scene [...]" (Les Proscrits, VII,
278), or he brackets a digression with justification: "Main-
tenant il est necessaire d'expliquer le dvouement extra
ordinaire de cette belle et noble femme; et voici l'his-
toire de sa vie en peu de mots." . "Maintenant la na-.
ture des reflexions de la barrone et ses pleurs, apres le
depart de Crevel, doivent se concevoir parfaitement" (La
Cousine Bette, V, 17, 19). Perhaps Balzac felt it necessary
to justify his digressions to the ordinary reader: "Quelques
esprits, arides de l'intrt avant tout, accuseront ces
explications de longueur; mais [ . ] 1'historien des
moeurs obit a des lois plus dures que celles de 1'historien
des faits" (Les Paysans, VI, 61). Balzac does, at times,
make light of the problem of digression. In La Maison
Nucingen, Bixiou is narrating a story, and being very di
gressive; 31ondet tries to get him to come to the point:


2
l'intrt avec lequel on suivait a Paris le
mouvement littraire de 1'Europe, et en particu-
lier de 1'Angleterre; ' la bizarrerie extra
ordinaire du romn, et aux violentes querelles
que sa publication suscita a Londres; enfin
aux voyages de Sterne en France, ou 1'originalit
de sa personne, ses singularits et son esprit
excitrent chez ceux qui le virent, ou qui
entendirent parler de lui, une vive curiosit
pour son oeuvre.3
Those reviewers in France who read Tristram Shandy before
it was translated were enthusiastic about the first volumes.
They were generally less enthusiastic about succeeding
volumes, and the last volumes were widely condemned. Even
Voltaire, who originally liked the work, ultimately pro-
4
nounced it frivolous and unsuccessful.
A Sentimental Journey was translated soon after
publication and was a great success. "Sterne fut aussi-
t reputation gale. Mais, en France, elle reposa presque
uniquement sur le Voyage Sentimental, qui y fut accueilli,
des la premiere traduction, avec un enthousiasme general,
c
et fut toujours reimprime avec une frequence remarquable."
Despite the general popularity of A Sentimental Journey,
Tristram Shandy was not translated immediately; in fact,
it did not appear in French until 1776, and even then only
the first four books were translated. This pause, Barton
points out, was remarkable in an age when French anglomania
was reaching a peak. Certainly the delay was due in part
to the difficulty of the work; Barton also feels that per
haps "la forme littraire ou le sujet du livre manquait


translation was reader-oriented rather than author-oriented.
Even then, however, some critics advocated literal trans
lation, among them Saint-Simon. As the century went on,
and more genuine interest in foreign literature was gene
rated, theories of literal translation gained more adherents.
In his review of Tristram Shandy in 1776, Frron
quotes Frenis's statement about changing some of Sterne's
witticisms and seems to disapprove. He clearly dislikes
Frenis's addition of an attack on La Harpe. Frron may
not have been aware of the extent of Frenis's changes;
Frron was an anti-philosophe, and he mentions such a
17
leaning in Sterne. A comparison of the translation to
the original shows that Frenis added attacks on the
philosophes to Sterne'3 text.
Another contemporary critic says of Frenis,
"II a taill, tronqu, supprim, substitu de son propre
fonds [ . ] des pages, des chapitres, et tellement
grossi, charg, grimac ce qu'il laissait subsister qu'en
comparant le texte et la traduction, il semble voir une
des bonne3 comdies de Moliere dfigure par des farceurs
18
de la Foire." Joseph Texte, writing at the end of the
nineteenth century, says that under the "heavy hand" of
19
Frenis, "Sterne's eccentricities become absurdities."
In his preface, Frenis says, "Ces deux volumes-ci
ne font gures que le tiers du tout. M. Stem ne le donnoit
que par deux parties a la fois, & je l'ai imit. II se


92
In L'Heritiere de Birague, the old Capitaine de
Chanclos, father-in-law of Matthieu the protagonist, is
clearly a hobby-horsical character, as is his companion,
Vieille-Roche. There are many striking similarities between
the old captain and Toby Shandy, the most important of
which is the identical hobby-horse, a former military ca
reer. In this novel, however, Balzac does not use any of
the terms for hobby-horse, but the connection to Sterne
is quite clear. Balzac also uses the verbal tic to mani
fest Chanclos's obsession; the old captain constantly swears
"par l'aigle du Bearn, mon invincible maitre," referring
to Henri IV, under whom he served. And quite early in
the work, Balzac says "Avant d'aller plus loin, il est
bon de prevenir le lecteur que chez messire de Chanclos
tout se nommait Henri, Henrion ou Henriette, tant tait
grand le fanatisme pour son invincible maitre, l'aigle
du Bearn" (HB, I, 27). Such a verbal tic is used by Sterne
to characterize Trim, who repeats "an't please your honour"
("ne vous en deplaise," and "sauf le respect de monsieur").
The captain has another verbal tic, one that
reflects Sterne's style, rather than his presentation of
hobby-horsical characters. He consistently refers to
Matthieu as "Matthieu mon gendre," and when he speaks
directly to Matthieu, his discourse is filled with the
parenthetical "mon gendre." This is clearly reminiscent
of Tristrams constant use of "my father" and'fny uncle
Toby."


215
593)* This is quite different from the reactions to Toby-
in Tristram Shandy,
Similarly, Facino Cane is ridiculed for his ob
session:
Ne lui parlez pas de Venise [ . ] ou
notre doge va commencer son train.
Sa physionomie quitta sa froide expression
de tristesse; je ne sais quelle esperance egaya
ses traits, se coula comme une flamme bleue dans
ses rides; il sourit, et s'essuya le front, ce
front audacieux et terrible; et 3e mit a sourire
[enfin il devint gai] comme un homme qui monte
sur son dada. (IV, 259; in original edition,
1836; parenthetical change made in later editions)
This is certainly a much more openly tragic use of the
hobby-horse than Sterne ever makes. The changes that
cross Cane's face are close to diabolical. V/hile the
hobby-horsical character is ridiculed, he also gains a
very special sort of stature. In the case of both Gambara
and Facino Cane, the truly sensitive souls respond with
interest and sympathy to the obsessed man; thus he acts,
in a way, as a yardstick for the other characters. It
is interesting to note that, in Facino Cane, Balzac connects
the hobby-horse, here approaching closely to monomania,
to the idea of the importance of conception: "Une petite
observation avant de continuer, dit [Cane] apres une pause.
Que les fantaisies d'une femme influent ou non sur son
enfant pendant qu'elle le porte ou quand elle le con^oit,
il est certain que ma mere eut une passi-on pour l'or pen
dant sa grossesse. J'ai une monomanie pour l'or [ . ]"
(IV, 260; in original edition, 1836).


103
The tone of this "proof," and Balzac's contempt
for those who take him too seriously, although they apply
most specifically to the broad cause-and-effect theory
that Balzac draws from the discussion of hobby-horses and
conception, still apply to the latter ideas as well. In
this context, at least, Balzac does not take Sterne's ideas
seriously.
Andr Maurois points out that Le Vicaire des Ar-
15
dennes begins "sur un ton qui rappelait Sterne." In this
novel we find only one clear hobby-horsical character, Leseq,
with his obsession for Latin. Although the word dada is not
used, the metaphor remains. In referring to Leseq, another
character says, "Chassez le naturel, il revient au galop"
(VA, I, 206). Balzac's interest in this type of character
seems to have cooled considerably at this point, perhaps
due to his extensive use and explanation of it in Clotilde
de Lusignan. Characteristic of Balzac's early work is the
trying out and abandonment of various literary devices.
No further hobby-horsical characters appear in
the romans de jeunesse. Leseq comes back in Annette et le
criminel, but his hobby-horse is gone. It is interesting,
then, that only in his last early novel, Wann-Chlore, does
Balzac explicitly connect the hobby-horse idea to Sterne:
"Le marechal avait pour le moment ce que les mdecins ap-
pellent une idee fixe, ce que Sterne appelle un dada, ce
que l'on nomme une marotte"; and this is not a typical


63
a list appears in the course of Sterne's text it is set
off vertically in the translation (B, II, xv, 33 W, III,
iv, 161; and B, II, xxviii, 76; W, III, xiii, 184; and
B, II, lxiii, 169; W, IV, 252). And in Walter Shandy's
lamentation, a list of "Helas!" added by the translator
is set up first in an ascending, then a descending pat
tern (B, II, lxxxvi, 239-40; W, IV, xix, 296).
The problem of these typographical devices is
one of the more difficult ones in the comparative study.
Of those which appear in the original edition of Tristram
Shandy, some were omitted in later English editions.
Frenis and de Bonnay may have translated from editions
which were already lacking in some of the devices. It
is also possible that the Bastien fonts were not equipped
to reproduce such things as index signs. Some of the
typographical idiosyncracies, as evinced from my examina-,
tion of the original French edition (RV), disappeared from
the French text sometime between the original translations
and the Bastien edition.
Sterne does not use chapter titles in Tristram
Shandy. Each chapter is simply preceded by a roman numeral.
From time to time, Sterne does set off a title, such as
"My Father's Lamentation" (W, IV, xix, 296), but always
mid-chapter. Both de Bonnay and Frenis have chosen to
add chapter titles (the chapters are still numbered), and
both have changed the placement of chapter divisions in
many places. Sterne's division of his work into nine


155
Emphasis on Mrs. Shandy's silence may come to
Balzac from de Bonnay's addition to Tristram Shandy; "Ma
foi! C'est une femme de bon sens, et celle qui dit le moins
de sottises." "Oui, parce que c'est elle qui parle le moins"
(B, III, xvii, 66; see above, p. 79).
1 O
r. Barriere, Honor de Balzac et la tradition
littraire classique (Paris: Hachette, 1923}", p. 89.
^Lettres a Madame Hanska, IV, 352.
14
Monographie du rentier, Les Francais peints par
eux-memes, 1840, in (buvres diverses, XL, 223.
15
An interesting aside to the use of Sternean
names is the fact that Zulma Carraud, a close friend of
Balzac, named her second son Yorick, "par amour de Sterne,
done de Balzac." Maurois, p. 272. Yorick is not mentioned
at all in Balzac's fiction; he is cited once in a letter,
in connection with "le brevet de la sage-femme." This let
ter is only approximately dated, in 1823 or 24. Correspon-
ance, I, 232.
^^Correspondence, I, 170.
17
Correspondence, I, 268.
1 ft
VY, VIII, xxxii, 584-85. De Bonnay handles this
problem nicely by making Toby understand the word ne as
aine, "groin (B, IV, lxi, 163-64).
^Delattre, p. 172.
20
Correspondence, II, 439.
21
Reprinted in Charles-Victor Spoelberch de
Lovenjoul, L'Histoire des oeuvres de H. de Balzac (1888;
rpt. Geneve: Slatkine, 1968), p. 133.
22 *
Herbert J. Hunt, Balzac's Comedie humaine (London
Athalone Press, 1964), p. 39.
^^Eai'ssa Reznik, "L'Epigraphe de La Peau de cha
grin, L'Anne Balzacienne, 1972, p. -375.


204
de la Physiologie du mariage ou des diffrents oeuvres qui
doivent constituer la Pathologie de la vie sociale. Le ton
de plaisanterie n'est qu'un dguisement agrable pour faire
adopter des idees auxquelles Balzac croit fermement."^
It is impossible to discuss Sterne without men
tioning sentiment. The controversy on Sterne's sentimentality
has gone on for two hundred years, particularly with refer
ence to A Sentimental Journey. Is Yorick's sentimentality
totally destroyed by his sexuality? Arthur Hill Cash, in
Sterne1s Comedy of Moral Sentiments: The Ethical Dimension
7
of the Journey, has convinced me that this xs so. Although
to Balzac's age, "le bon Yorick" is still primarily a sen
timentalist, Balzac himself was not fooled by Sterne's man
ner in the Journey, since he refers to "la raillerie du
Voyage sentimental" in the same breath with the grossiret
of Scarron (V, 233). But Balzac did accept Sterne's senti
ment to some degree, particularly early in his writing career.
We can trace a clear evolution in Balzac's view
of Sterne's tears. The first direct reference to Sterne by
name in the body of Balzac's writings is in Jean Louis: "Si
Sterne pleurait au seul titre de l'ouvrage: Lamentations du
glorieux roi de Kernaven dans sa prison [...]" (JL, III,
6; see above, p. 122). Balzac takes up this reference again
in La Peau de chagrin: "Devant ce laconisme parisin, les
drames, les romans, tout plit, mme ce vieux frontispice:
Les lamentations du glorieux roi de Kaernavan, mis en


172
sciously avoids this type of description: "Quant a sa pose,
un mot suffit, elle valait tout la peine quelle avait
prise a la chercher"(II, 93).
The minute observation of tone of voice, partic
ularly in a sense related to music, is another narrative
trick that Balzac may have borrowed from Sterne. In the
chestnut scene, Phutatorius' utterance Zounds! is analyzed
in this way:
Deux autres des convives [ . . ^ ] avoient
l'oreille tres-fine. Ils distingurent dans
1'expression le melange des deux tons ["d'un
homme qui est dans 1'etonnement, et qui res-
sent quelques (sic) peine de corps"] aussi
facilement qu'un virtuose discerne une tierce,
une quinte, ou tout autre accord; mais avec
toute cette finesse, ils ne purent faire que
de fausses conjectures sur les causes de cette
trange prosodie. L'accord en lui-meme toit
excellent; mais il tait hors du ton. II n'avoit
pas la moindre analogie, pas le moindre rapport
au sujet qui toit sur le tapis. (B, II, xcxii,
254; W, IV, xxvii, 313)
Balzac, always the close observer, frequently describes
tone of voice in musical terms. In La Recherche de 1'ab-
solu: "[...] si je trouve, si je trouve, si je trouve!
En disant ces mots sur trois tons diffrents son visage
monta par dgrs a 1'expression de 1'inspire" (VI, 636).
Or in Petites Miseres: "Les femmes ont autant d'inflexions
de voix pour prononcer ces mots: Mon Ami [ . ]; j'en
ai compt vingt-neuf qui n'expriment encore que les dif
frents degrs de la haine" (VII, 554). And most striking:
"Les femmes du monde, par leurs cent manieres de prononcer
la mme phrase, dmontrent aux observateUrs attentifs,


60
Tristram makes plans to use the newspaper, once he has got
ten Toby and Walter off the stairs and into bed, to put
them to sleep: "Je lirai a l'un l'pitre au seigneur russe,
et a 1'autre les pigrammes" (B, II, lxxvi, 219). Most of
this material is unlike Sterne; Frenis does not tie it
in well with the rest of the chapter, though the suggestion
of reading the paper to Toby and Walter after they are in
bed is an attempt to do so. But instead of allowing the
solution to grow out of the satiric material, as does
Sterne, Frenis imposes it from without in the following
chapter, entitled "Les quatre vnemens"; here is the
chapter in its entirety:
Mon pere et mon onde Tobie cesserent leur
babil. lis acheverent de descendre l'escalier,
allerent se coucher et sendormirent.
Le journal ne contribua en rien a tout
cela. (B, II, lxxvii, 221)
By allowing Walter and Toby to get off the stairs in this
way, Frenis gives to the characters more control of their
destinies, and to Tristram more control of his work, than
Sterne gives them.
One aspect of Tristram Shandy which attracted a
great deal of interest and imitation is Sterne's idiosyn-
cracies in presentation, such as the marbled page, gothic
lettering, etc. In the 1803 Bastien edition, most of these
typographical devices are missing. The black page at
Yorick's death is not black in the Bastien edition. There
is instead a black-bordered page, blank save for "Helas!


124
posite evidence. In the Comedie humaine it becomes evident
that Balzac no longer believes in the sincerity of Sterne's
sentiment (see below, pp. 204-05).
Aspects of Sterne, then, appear in many guises
in Balzac's early work. The reading of Sterne seems to
have affected Balzac's style, his methods of characteriza
tion, his powers of observation, and to have provided many
diverse ideas and images to the young artist. But the
traces of Sterne are in a raw, unabsorbed state here, as
the beginning novelist tries out methods and ideas, seem
ingly searching for those most suited to his art:
Ce que Balzac a appris chez^ses contemporains,
romanciers ou romancieres mediocres, quelle qu'en
soit 1'originalit artificielle, il ne pourra
jamais l'oublier. Seulement alors que ses autres
ouvrages nous montreront les mmes themes forte-
ment marques de sa personnalit conqurante, et
transformes par son genie, sa premiere esquisse
nous les montre dans leur candeur, et nous en
fait sentir certains caracteres.27
Although Bardeche is speaking here of Balzac's mediocre
contemporaries, the same is true of his use of Sterne in
the oeuvres de jeunesse.


16
Chollet points out that Sterne's influence is quite obvious
in Jean Louis, and he is right. Sterne was certainly very
much in Balzac's mind in late 1821 and early 1822. This is
also where we find the most frequent references to Sterne
in Balzac's correspondence. It is possible that during this
period Balzac was reading A Sentimental Journey for the first
timethis, perhaps, after L'Heritiere de Biraguesince
the citations in the correspondence are mostly from A
Sentimental Journey. Une Heure de ma vie, dated by Chollet
around March, 1822, is much closer to A Sentimental Journey
57
than to Tristram Shandy, although it bears marks of both.
I posit that Balzac read Tristram Shandy before writing
L'Heritiere de Birague (that is, in the fall of 1821, or
even earlier), and A Sentimental Journey just afterwards.
The citations of the Journey in the letters and the imita
tion of it in Une Heure de ma vie may be the result of
Balzac's first flush of interest in the work; never again
in his writing career will he show so much concentrated
interest in it.
Balzac undoubtedly read an edition of the complete
works of Sterne. We find references in Balzac's works
not only to Tristram Shandy and A Sentimental Journey,
but also to Letters from Yorick to Eliza (spurious),
Sterne's Memoirs (spurious), and even the sermons. Refer
ences to these last two appear as early as the roman3 de
jeunesse; Balzac's enthusiasm for Sterne must have been
immediate and great.


153
as Reznik says. But no one seems to relate it to the life
of Raphael Valentin. "Tant qu'un homme est libre [...]"
it is exactly this freedom that Raphael abandons when he
accepts the skin. I believe that Balzac uses this epigraph
to represent the life that Valentin has lost. Once he is
under the power of the skinor to expand the idea, once
a man has given his life over to another power, be it a
supernatural one, a monomania, or simply a stifling relation
shiphis life moves in a straight line, inexorably, to his
destruction.
The literary references to Sterne and the borrow
ing of characters and incidents, though spread throughout
Balzac's work, remain on its surface. There are, with the
exception of the extended quotations in the Fhysiologie, all
short and self-contained. It is when we deal with style
and ideasthe subjects of the next two chaptersthat we
begin to see the Sternean influence work its way into the
heart of Balzac's world.


113
Balzac calls on the reader to help imagine Madame de
Ravendsi (C, II, 178-79), and in Clotilde de Lusignan
he asks us to do a landscape: "Je veux une seule fois me
dispenser de dpeindre l'aube matinale et vous laisser
imaginer cette douceur [...]. Cette fois la critique
n'aura rien a mordre, puisque c'est votre imagination qui
aura fait les frais de ce tableau suave et delicate" (CL,
III, 205-06). Here Balzac uses this type of description,
as does Sterne on occasion, to insinuate jibes at the
critics.
Balzac also asks the reader's assistance with
the passage of time: "Avancez votre montre, madame? . .
Bien. II est onze heures et demie" (JL, IV, 78-79), and
with moving from place to place: "Pendant que tout le
monde dort au chteau de Casin-Crandes, je prie mon aimable
lectrice de prendre, si cela ne la fatigue trop, le chemin
[...]" (CL, I, 105). The reader is also, as in Sterne,
expected to remember carefully what he has read: "Les
lecteurs attentifs doivent se rappeler la description
minitieuse que nous avons donne [...]" (AC, II, 129).
Also like Sterne, Balzacparticularly in Jean
Louisplays with his power as narrator: "Ici, lecteur,
j'ai un compte a rgler avec vous: quoique je n'aie pas
tant de ramoire que vous, je me souviens fort bien que
j'ai le droit de mettre dans ce susdit ouvrage deux cents
et quelques pages dont la substance quivaille a rien.


166
As is the case with the self-conscious narrator,
it is in the Etudes analytiques that Balzac most uses direct
address and dialogue with the reader. Sometimes it takes
the form of exhortation: "Plaignez Adolphe! Plaignez-vous,
maris! 0 gar 515). He addresses the reader, at times, even more infor
mally than does Sterne; throughout the Physiologie he has
spoken often to vous, the husband, but at one point he turns
to the inner circle of readers, like Sterne addressing
those remaining while the inattentive lady goes back to
reread the chapter, saying "Que t'en semble, lecteur?"
CPhyPo, 110; not in 1829 or later editions).
In the Etudes analytiques, the forms of dialogue
with the reader assume varying degrees of complexity. Some
times it is a simple interjection: "Vous m'arrtez, je le
vois, pour me dire: Comment releve-t-on la hauteur dans
cette mer?"(Petites Miseres, VII, 516). Or as in his second
preface (in the body of the text) to Petites Miseres:
Si vous avez pu comprendre ce livre [...],
si done vous avez pret quelque attention a ces
petites scenes de la vie conjgale, vous aurez
peut-tre remarqu leur couleur . .
Quelle couleur? demandera sans doute un
picier, les livres sont couverts en jaune, en
bleu, revers de botte, vert ple, gris perle,
blanc. (VII, 531)
The Physiologie du mariage has an entire narrative
framework built on dialogue with the reader. In his intro
duction, the author speaks of how he came to write the work.


from Sterne's imitators, since Balzac does not think of
Sterne as primarily a sentimental writer, but as a satirist.
One idea that Sterne presents in earnest, the hobby-horse,
has been adopted by Balzac and worked into one of the cen
tral concerns of the Comedie humaine. Under Balzac's hand,
the hobby-horse becomes the tragic monomania.
IX


53
sion. As the sermon is coming to a close, during talk of
the Inquisition Trim cries out again and again, identify
ing the man whose torture is described with his brother
Tom, also a victim of the Inquisition. Finally Walter
begs Trim to be quiet "lest [he] incense Dr. Slop, we
shall never have done at this rate." The words "lest
Trim incense Dr. Slop" are omitted in translation (B, I,
lii, 223; W, II, xvii, 139). Slop, as an average Catholic,
could have nothing to do with the bad Inquisition. Walter's
fear that Slop might be insulted is actually an insult to
Slop and to most Catholics, so Frenis suppresses it.
Slawkenbergius's Tale also contains a concentrated
attack on Catholicism. The debate among theologians about
the stranger's nose is a satire on ecclesiastical disputes
over matters of doctrine (W, IV, 260-64). Frenis does
not censor any of this attack except to remove the Catholic-
Protestant aspects of the debate; he renders it a dispute
among theologians in general (B, II, 180-83).
De Bonnay makes very few changes that affect
religion, but Sterne deals with religionparticularly
Catholicismvery little in the later books. In one in
stance, when Tristram is arguing with a French commissary
who is trying to force him to continue his journey by
post-chaise, rather than by boat, as Tristram intends,
Tristram kneels to apostrophize England. A passing priest
offers him extreme unction; Tristram's comment, "I go by
WATERsaid I and here's another will be for making me


133
Also to be considered as nearly direct references,
I think, are the instances in the Comedie humaine when Balzac
uses the phrase "de la vie et des opinions": once as a chap
ter title in La Cousine Bette, "De la vie et des opinions de
monsieur Crevel" (V, 49); once in referring to Grvin in Le
Depute d'Arcis, "II n'est inutile de jeter un coup d'oeil
sur la personne, sur la vie et les opinions de ce vieillard"
(V, 589); and again in Un Debut dans la vie, in reference to
the "vie et opinions" of l'oncle Cardot, who, even before
the reference to Sterne, had reminded me of Toby Shandy (I,
323)* Finally, Balzac's first tentative title for Albert
Savarus was "De la Vie et des opinions de M. Savaron de
Savarus."
All of the above references seem to stand on
their own, indicating Balzac's literary opinion of Sterne
and showing us that Balzac often had Sterne in mind as he
wrote. One larger pattern the allusions to Sterne form
is that of mentioning specific characters.
The empty-headed Mrs. Shandy, Tristram's mother,
is specifically mentioned four times in the Comedie humaine.
In one instance, it is silence that Balzac cites as her
most distinctive characteristic;^ Balzac speaks of a char
acter in La Vendetta as being "si habituellement silencieuse
qu'on l'eut prise pour une nouvelle madame Shandy" (I, 398).
Elsewhere it is Mrs. Shandy's indifference to matters of
love: "Je crois [ . ] qu'il faut vous marier a quelque


188
over, the fragmenting of consideration of these stylistic
traits into various categories does not show how striking
is the resemblance of a page of this work to a page of Sterne.
Ren Guise has suggested that the comparatist be on the look
out for "une impression de deja lu, qu'on prouve en lisant
une page de Balzac."1^ It is in reading Thorie de la de
marche that I experience this impression the most strongly:
Meditez ces principes, appliquez-les, vous
plairez. Pourquoi? Personne ne le sait. En
toute chose, le beau se sent et ne se dfinit
pas.
Une belle demarche, des manieres douces,
un parler gracieux, sduisent toujours et donnent
a un homme mediocre d'immenses avantages sur un
homme suprieur. Le Bonheur est un grand sot
peut-tre! Le talent comporte en toute chose
d'excessifs mouvements qui dplaisent; et un
prodigieux abus d'intelligence qui determine
une vie d'exception. L'abus soit du corps,
soft de la tete, ternelle plaie des socits,
cause ces originantes physiques, ces deviations,
dont nous allons nous moquant sans cesse. La
paresse du Ture, assis sur le Bosphore et fumant
sa pipe, est sans doute une grande sagesse.
Fontanelle, ce beau gnie de la vitalit, qui
devina les petits dosages du mouvement, l'hom-
opathie de la demarche, tait essentiellement
Asiatique.
Pour tre heureux, a-t-il dit, il faut
teir peu d'espace, et peu changer de place.
Done, la pense est la puissance qui corrompt
notre mouvement, qui nous tord le corps, qui
le fait clater sous ses despotiques efforts.
Elle est le grand dissolvant de l'espece hu-
maine.
Rousseau l'a dit, Goethe l'a dramatise
dans Faust, Byron l'a poetise dans Manfred.
Avant eux, 1'Esprit-Saint s'est prophtiquement
cri sur ceux qui vont sans cesse: "Qu'ils
soient crame des roues!"
Je vous ai promis un veritable non-sens
au fond de cette thorie, j'y arrive.
Depuis un temps immmorial, trois faits


175
s'ondule au bas des hautes collines de Jarvis,
deux ou trois cents maisons couvertes en noever,
especes de couvertures faites avec l'ecorce du
bouleau, maisons toutes grles, plates et qui
ressemblent a des vers a soi sur une feuille de
rarier jetee la par les vents? (VII, 328)
Here he calls upon our imagination, but he does not really
\
trust it; we do not exist on the plane he is depicting.
Balzac, like Sterne, however, relies only occasion
ally on the reader to supply description. Much more often
he supplies all the details himself, since the presentation
of such details is one of his greatest strengths as an
artist. The extension of trust to the reader may be only
a certain lassitude in Balzac, faced with such huge tasks.
Or, at times, it is simply to focus our attentionone of
those little taps on the shoulder that he so often gives
us. Thus at the end of a very detailed description we
find: "Vous pouvez vous figurer maintenant les Rouxey"
(Albert Savarus, I, 372). He is simply trying to focus
our attention; he has not relied on our imagination at all.
Balzac showed an enduring concern for the problems
of handling time in his novels, and careful organization
and use of time is one of the mainstays of Balzacian struc
ture. In Tristram Shandy, Sterne uses the careful handling
of time at one point to play an elaborate joke on the reader:
Une heure et demie? Quoi! vous prtendez
qu'il y a une heure et demie de lecture depuis
que mon onde Tobie a tir le cordon de la
sonnette, et qu'on a donn des ordres a Obadiah
de seller le gros cheval, et d'aller qurir le
docteur Slop? Cui, je le pretends, et l'on ne
peut pas dire avec raison que .je n'ai pas, po-


20
Guise, in an article in L1Anne Balzacienne, urges Balzacians
69
to undertake more comparatist studies. He feels that there
is much to be done in this area, and Sterne is one of the
70
authors that he mentions. He sees such studies as dif
ficult and exacting tasks, because of "l'ampleur de 1'oeuvre
balzacienne" and "la complexit de l'histoire de chacune
des oeuvres qui la composent [...]. On comprend que
/ % 71
le chercheur hesite a s'aventurer dans un tel labyrinthe."
This is even more true when it is a question of a labyrin
thine work such as Tristram Shandy. Guise urges the com
paratist to speak of "emprunt possible et non source," and
to "borner ses ambitions a dresser une sorte d'inventaire
72
des emprunts possibles." I have tried to do so, and at
the same time to consider how Balzac used Sterne in devel
oping his own views on literature, in developing his nar
rative techniques, and a3 a basis for some of his ideas.
I will first consider in some detail the trans
lation of Sterne's works by Preis and de Bonnay. This
comparison will center on Tristram Shandy, partly because
this is the work of Sterne that Balzac preferred, and
partly because this work undergoes the most change in
translation. The Tristram Shandy that Balzac knew is
quite different from the one Sterne wrote. I will then
examine borrowings from Sterne in Balzac's early works
before 1829. When considering the Comedie humaine, I
have found it convenient to break my observations into
three separate parts. First I will enumerate and discuss


11
tateur article mentions Perriar's work as "un rude coup
port a la gloire de Sterne."^
Nonetheless, early nineteenth-century French
literature still teems with imitations of and borrowing
from Sterne. Eric Partridge, in hi3 survey of The French
Romantics1 Knowledge of English Literature (1820-1848),
dealing mainly with direct references to English authors
in French letters, memoirs and periodicals, mentions
imitations of Sterne by a number of minor writers. He
also points out borrowing from Sterne in a number of
major ones. He cites a critic who compares Madame de
Stael's Corinne to A Sentimental Journey. He feels that
Hugos use of dialogue in Bug-Jargal is from Sterne.
The plan of Alfred de Vigny's Stello is said to be based
on Tristram Shandy. Partridge mentions Balzac briefly
but does not cite any specific works. And Barbey d'Aure-
villy, in the early 1850's, is said to be indebted to
Sterne.
Although these authors drew on a number of dif
ferent aspects of Sterne, sentiment is still at this time
the most appreciated facet of his work. As late as 1853
we find Barbey d'Aurevilly writing: "Sterne, un de mes
plus vieux favoris, [ . ] cet adorable gnie qui porte
a sa boutonniere une des fleurs, la plus pale, du bouquet
d'Ophlie, et sur la poudre de sa perruque le plus mlan-
colique rayon qui soit tomb d'une lune rveuse sur le3
fleurs jaunes de3 cimetires que Gray a chantes.


138
In Le Cousin Pons, we find an Englishman named
Monsieur Wadmann, who is selling a country home (V, 249).
He does not appear on scene at all. It is likely that
Balzac, casting around for a name for an Englishman, bor
rowed this one from Sterne; this is the spelling of the
widow's name that he uses in his letter of 1845. Balzac
mentions the historical person La Eosseuse in Sur Catherine
de Medecis, and picks up the name again for a fictional
character in Le Medecin de campagne, but the use of this
15
name does not seem to be connected at all to Sterne.
As in the romans de jeunesse, Balzac recalls the
scene of the abbess of Andouillets: "II pronon^a le grand
jurn francais, sans y mettre les jsuitiques reticences
de l'abbesse des Andouillettes" (La Peau de chagrin, VI,
498; in original edition, 1831). There is only this one
specific reference, but the motif, perhaps related to
Sterne, goes throughout the Comedie humaine. In Les Chouans
we find: "Allons-nous nous laisser embeter par des brigands?
Le verbe par lequel nous remplagons ici 1'expression dont
se servit le brave commandant n'en est qu'un faible equi
valent; mais les veterans sauront y substituer le veritable
qui certes est d'un plus haut gout soldatesque" (V, 640).
Similarly, in Ursule Mirouet: "Malgr les lois de la po-
tique moderns sur la couleur locale, il est impossible
de pousser la vrit jusqu'a rpter l'horrible injure
mel de jurons que cette nouvelle, en apparence si peu


33
Stylistically, although this translation lack3
the gross distortion characteristic of Frenis's part of
Tristram Shandy, the rendering of the text is somewhat
different from the original. Perhaps a comparison of a
short passage will demonstrate the nature of the difference:
It must needs be a hostile kind of a world, when
the buyer (if it be but of a sorry post-chaise)
cannot go forth with the seller thereof into
the street, to terminate the difference betwixt
them, but he instantly falls into the same frame
of mind, and views his conventionist with the
same sort of eye, as if he was going along with
him to Hyde-park corner to fight a duel. (S, 89)
Le globe que nous habitons est appararament une
e3pece de monde querelleur. Comment, sans cela,
l'acheteur d'une aussi petite chose qu'une mau-
vaise chaise de poste, pourroit-il sortir dans
la rue avec celui qui veut la vendre, dans des
dispositions pareilles a celles ou j'tois?
II ne devoit tout au plus tre question que
d'en rgler le prix; et je me trouvais [sic]
dans la merne position d'esprit, je regardois
mon marchand de chaises avec les memes yeux de
colere, que si j'avois t en chemin pour aller
au coin de Hyde-Parc rae battre en duel avec lui.
(B, V, 21)
Here we see a much milder form of the process of change
that Frenis used later in translating Tristram Shandy.
Sterne has one sentence here; Frenis has three. Frenis
adds a rhetorical question. He is wordy and redundant:
"Le globe [ . ] est [ . ] une espece de monde,"
where Sterne uses the word world only once. Frenis writes
"une aussi petite chose qu'une mauvaise chaise de poste"
where Sterne simply says "but of a sorry post-chaise."
Still, Frenis covers Sterne's main points without commiting
grave stylistic excesses, and this short paragraph is


80
tion, well done, seems almost more appropriate to the work
than does a clumsy handling of one of Sterne's own tricks.
De Bonnay makes one long addition that is very
much in the spirit of Sterne, though it is more like A
Sentimental Journey than Tristram Shandy. He inserts a
story of a poor man, to whom Tristram has just refused
charity, whose dog is killed under the wheels of a carriage.
Tristram offers the broken-hearted man money; a penniless
old soldier gives the weeping man his dog and walks away
(B, IV, i, 2-6; W, VII, xvi, 496). Tristram has learned
a lesson about charity, much as Yorick learns from the
monk in A Sentimental Journey. The reviewer of this trans
lation of Tristram Shandy in L'Arme Littraire (1785)
does not particularly like the section of the novel con
cerned with Tristram's travels in Europe (volume seven);
"Elle est parsemee d'historiettes dont quelques-unes sont
d'un assez mauvais genre; & sa plaisanterie n'est pas
toujours extrmement delicate. II russit beaucoup mieux
quand il veut peindre le sentiment." The reviewer goes
on to summarize this incident with the dog, then says:
"II seroit a souhaiter que toutes les aventures de notre
voyageur fussent aussi intressantes que celle-ci, on
ne seroit pas tent de le quitter, comme il arrive quel-
14
quefois sur la route." This commentary is a revealing
picture of the French view of Sterne, and shows how little
he was appreciated for what he rea.lly was.


159
d'Homere, que je ne veux pas citer, de peur d'tre accuse
de pdantisme, sont deux tmoignages qui attestent 1'im
portance attache a la demarche par les anciens. Mais qui
de nous, pauvres coliers fouetts de grec, ne sait pas
que Demosthne reprochait a Nicobule de marcher a la diable,
assimilant une pareille demarche, comme manque d'usage et
de bon ton, a un parler insolent9" (VII, 582). This hodge
podge of classical references, except for the disclaimer
of pedanticism, could be Walter Shandy speaking; the dis
claimer and the point of view could be Tristram. Balzac
ends this part with : "Ma preface finit la. Je commence"
(VII, 582).
Similarly, in Petites Miseres de la vie conjgale,
Balzac as author-character speaks often of his own writing
in a humorous way: "Malgre la repugnance de 1'auteur a
glisser des anecdotes dans une oeuvre tout a fait aphoris-
tique, dont le tissu ne comporte que des observations plus
ou moins fines et tres dlicates, par le sujet du moins,
il lui semble ncessaire d'orner cette page d'un fait d
d'ailleurs a l'un de nos premiers mdecins" (VII, 555).
Tristram is less concerned with rules; but the interference
of the author in such a self-conscious way, particularly
with promises and self-praise, is clearly reminiscent of
Tristram's method. The author of Petites Miseres is con
stantly aware of the disruptive effect of his presence:
"D'ailleurs un auteur qui prend la parole au milieu de


176
tiquement parlant, donn assez de temps a
Obadiah pour aller et revenir. J'avoue, pour-
tant moralement et mme physiquement parlant,
que l'homme avoit a peine eu le temps, peut-
tre, de mettre ses bottes.
Mais cela ne change rien a ma these, et
si quelqu'un y trouve a redire, si quelqu'un,
sa montre la main, a mesur l'espace qui se
trouve entre le bruit de la sonnette et le
coup a la porte, s'il a trouve par-la, comme
cela peut-tre, que 1'intervalle n'est que de
deux minutes, treize secondes, quatre tierces,
qu'en rsulte-t-il? Prtendra-t-il qu'il est
en droit de m'insulter, parce qu'il s'imaginera
que j'ai viol 1'unit ou plutt la probabilit
du temps?^ Qu'il sache que c'est de la succession
de nos ides que nous nous en formons une de la
dure du temps et des ses simples modes.
Voila quelle est la vritable horloge scholas-
tique, et j'entends, comme homme de lettres,
que ce soit par elle que l'on me juge. Je
rcuse la juridiction de toutes les autres hor-
loges du monde.
II n'y a que huit milles de Shandy chez le
docteur Slop; c'est une circonstance a saisir.
Voila Obadiah qui va et revient, et les parcourent
deux fois; il ne fait que ce chemin, et moi,
pendant ce temps, j'ai ramen mon onde Tobie
des environs de Namur en Angleterre, en travers-
ant toute la Flandre. Je l'ai tenu malade
pendant prs de quatre ans; je lui ai fait ap-
prendre trois ou quatre sciences que personne
ne peut apprendre parfaitement durant toute sa
vie; je l'ai fait voyager ensuite avec le capo
ral Trim, dans un assez mauvais carrosse a
quatre chevaux, depuis Londres jusqu'a sa apetite
maison dans le fond du comt d'Yorck, pres
de deux cent milles de la capitale. II y est,
et depuis long-temps. Tout cela veut dire que
1'imagination du lecteur doit tre prpare
a 1'apparition du docteur Slop sur le thtre.
J'ai pens que cela valoit pour le moins les
gambardes, les airs et les mines dont on nous
rgale entre les actes.
Critique intraitable! quoi! vous n'tes
pas encore satisfait? Vous voulez toujours
que deux minutes, treize secondes, quatre ti
erces, ne fassent pas davantage que deux minutes,
treize secondes, quatre tierces? J'ai dit tout
ce que je peux dire sur ce point. Mes raisons


66
De Bonnay's choice of chapter titles is consider
ably more sober than that of Frenis. Most of his chapter
titles are simple statements of the content of the chapter:
"Mon onde Tobie devient araoureux" (B, IV, lxxxi, 221; W,
VI, xxxvii, 469), or "Portrait de la Veuve Wadman" (B, IV,
lxxxii, 222; W, VI, xxxviii, 470). Frequently his titles
indicate the form"Dialogue" (B, III, lxxiv, 223; W, VI,
xxxix, 472)or the function"La scene change" (B, III,
lxxii, 201; W, VI, xxix, 455)of the chapter. Occasionally
de Bonnay waxes eloquent, as with "0 Newton! 0 Trim" (B,
III, lxx, 196; W, VI, xxvi, 452); occasionally he uses a
cliche: "II y a toujours quelque fer qui cloche" (B, III,
xcii, 242; W, VII, viii, 488). In general, however, his
chapter titles are quite simple. Mallet du Pan, in his
1785 review of Tristram Shandy, mentions the "galimatias"
of the chapter titles as a fault in the novel, not seeming
12
to know they were added by the translators. I a-m not
alone in my low opinion of these titles.
The best word to describe Frenis*s treatment of
all of Tristram Shandy, but particularly of its style, is
distortion. Frenis makes frequent cuts, and many additions,
but most often he simply inflates Sterne's prose, exaggerat
ing his stylistic idiosyncrasies.
The passage on Tristram's grandfather's nose is
an excellent example of Frenis's characteristic inflation
Sterne's chapter begins:


NOTES
^Delattre, p. 171.
^Delattre, p. 172.
^Stuart Tave, in The Amiable Humorist (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, I960), writes, "Shaftesbury,
Addison, the Examiner, Blackmore, all praised [Cervantes']
novel for the excellent result of its satire. [ . ] For
many years Cervantes was regarded primarily as a satirist"
(pp. 152-53). Tave feels, however, that "Sterne must have
been a major influence in teaching his readers to identify
amiability with Cervantes, even in the writing of satire.
To Tristram, Don Quixote is 'the peerless knight of La
Mancha, whom, by the bye, I love more, and would actually
have gone further to pay a visit to, than the greatest
hero of antiquity'" (p. 159)* I think it can be shown
that despite Tristram's opinion of Don Quixote, Sterne
uses references to Quixote to undermine the reader's trust
of Tristram.
4
Baldensperger, p, 45.
5
Baldensperger discusses this question at some
length, and cites many of the examples I have here (pp.
44-47). in this area, I understand what Guise means when
he says that Baldensperger is so comprehensive that he has
had a "paralysant" effect on further comparatist studies
of Balzac. Guise, p. 4.
^Delattre, p. 172.
7
An excellent summary of the controversy can
be found in Traverse, pp. 1-10.
Q
VI, 433; in original edition, 1831 It seems
that Balzac is quoting Sterne's Memoires from memory, given
the discrepancy in the wording of the title and the spelling.
As Prioult says, in speaking of Balzac's allusions to other
authors: "Ces details, Balzac va les puiser dans le vaste
'kaleidoscope' que constitue sa mmoire, d'ordinaire sans
recourir a des notes, et, par consequent, au risque de
dformer les elements" (p. xi).
221


47
A second major area of change in the translations
is religion. Both translators make changes here, but since
the early sections of Tristram Shandy deal more directly
with religion than the later ones, most of the changes come
from Frenis. Catholicism presents the real problem; Sterne
attacks it, both explicitly in allusions to the Catholic
religion, and implicitly in the characterization of Dr.
Slop. The translators, particularly Frenis, have greatly
softened or omitted Sterne's satiric attacks.
Sometimes it is simply a matter of adjusting
single words. Papist becomes catholique (B, I, xxii, 88;
W, I, xx, 56) or pretre (B, I, xxvi, 165; W, II, ix, 106).
The many outrages that Sterne attributes to Catholics
Frenis attributes to "faux zls" (B, I, li, 220; W, II,
xvii, 138). Crimes committed in the name of the "Romish
Church" become crimes committed in the name of religion
in general (B, I, 1, 218; W, II, xvii, 137).
Sterne's most concentrated attack on Catholicism
is worked out through the character of Dr. Slop and through
Yorick's sermon on conscience, read by Trim to the brothers
Shandy and Dr, Slop. Dr. Slop's appearance is unpleasant:
"Imagine to yourself a little, squat, uncourtly figure of
a Doctor Slop, of about four feet and a half perpendicular
height, with a breadth of back, and a sesquipedality of
belly, which might have done honor to a serjeant in the
horse-guards" (W, II, ix, 104). He is often shown to be
a fool. And he is the only important character in Tristram


121
In La Derniere Fee there are several small de
tails relating to Sterne. At the very end of the novel
we discover that the "fairy's first name is Jenny: "Adieu
chere Jenny . Jenny! dans peu nous dirons: Abel et
Jenny" (DF, II, 206). This dwelling on the name of Tris
tram's beloved may have been done with Sterne in mind, as
Tristram frequently repeats the name: "0 Jenny! Jenny! lui
dis-je, et cela me conduit au quarante et unieme chapitre"
(B, IV, xxxix, 101; W, VIII, xi, 551). Another detail in
this novel is clearly from Sterne; in describing the child
hood of Abel, Balzac gives us an example of his gentleness:
"aussi le cher enfant dit, avec la tendre voix de l'enfance,
'va, petit cricri . . et il le regarda marcher, en
souriant du doux sourire d'un ange" (DF, I, 42). This is
an echo of Toby's famous words to the fly.
Balzac removed a key reference to Sterne from La
Derniere Fee:
II n'a t donn qu'a Sterne de faire lire le
premier chapitre de Tristram Shandy sans que
filie, femme ou mere ou prtre puisse en rougir;
cette observation n'est a d'autre fin que de
prevenir que je n'essaierai pas de refaire ce
qu'il a si bien fait, mais qu'il me soit permis
de dire qu'il n'y avait pas de pendule chez
notre chimiste, qu'alors aucune circonstance
raalhereuse ne troubla la conception de l'hri-
tier prsomptif du chimiste ainsi qu'il arriva
a ce pauvre Tristram. Cela tant, la femme de_..
notre savant eut un enfant beau comme le jour. J
This citation of Sterne is reminiscent of Une Heure de ma
vie, and firmly establishes the connection between Balzac's


NOTES
^Charles Dedyan, "Balzac et 1'Angleterre,"
in Balzac: Le Livre du centenaire (Paris: Plammarion,
1952), p. 2^9; and Maurice Bardeche, editor's introduction
to Balzac, Une Heure de ma vie, in La Femme auteur et
autres fragments inedits de Balzac recueillis par le vi-
comte de Loven.jouXTParis: Grasset, 1950), p7 2 3&.
p
An excellent study of the history of the
critical reception of Sterne's work in England is Alan
Howes, Yorick and the Critics (New Haven: Yale University
Press, 1958).
^Francis Brown Barton, Etude sur 1' influence de
Laurence Sterne en France au dix-huitieme siecle (Paris:
Hachette, 1911), pp. 3-4.
^Barton, pp. 7-9. See also Joseph Texte, Jean-
Jacques Rousseau et les origines du cosmopolitanisms
littraire (Paris: Hachette, 189577 pp. 278-§2.
5
Barton, p. 2.
^Barton, p. 3
7
The life of Joseph-Pierre Frenis is obscure;
he was bora near Vendme, at Frteval; he died at the
beginning of the nineteenth century. His reputation rests
solely on his translations of Sterne, Wieland "et d'autres
compositions agrables." Biographie universelle, Nouvelle
ed., J. F. Michaud (Paris: Madame C. Desplaces, 1843-65),
s.v. Fresnais.
See Paul Van Tieghem, L'Anne Littraire (1754
1790) comma intermediare en France des litteratures tran-
geres 7i*914; rpt. Geneve: Slatkine, 196^77 pp. 22-24, 40-43.
9
Elie Freron, "La Vie et les opinions de Tristram
Shandy," L'Anne Littraire, XXIII (1776; rpt. Geneve:
Slatkine, 1966), 462.
23


34
typical of the rest. It is certainly not a brilliant
translation, but it is not a grotesque distortion of Sterne,
as is Preis's partand to a lesser extent, de Bonnay's
9
partof Tristram Shandy.
The most noticeable changes made in Tristram
Shandy by both translators are those which either omit
or mitigate Sterne's frequent bawdy passages and innuendoes.
Frenis is more prudish than de Bonnay; there are very few
bawdy passages retained in his part of the work. Those
that do remain are considerably altered.
Frenis generally omits or changes questionable
words. He expurgates all Sterne's references to defeca
tion, even inferred references. At one point when Tristram
is discussing the assimilation of ideas, he uses an apple
as an example: "Whence comes this man's right to this apple?
[ . ] how did it begin to be his? was it, when he set
his heart upon it? or when he gather'd it? or chew'd it?
or when he roasted it? or when he peel'd? or when he brought
it home? or when he digested? or when he ?" (W, III,
xxiv, 222). In Frenis, the process ends with digestion (B,
II, lvii, 150). Frenis al30 omits some of Sterne's more
fanciful and suggestive names. The entire passage on
Prignitz and Scroderus is cut out (B, II, lxii, 161; W, III,
xxxviii, 232-35). Coglionissimo is left out; for Kuna-
strokiu3, he substitutes the name Paparel.
Sterne frequently includes questionable or sug-


7
iv), De Bonnay does not distort Sterne's text nearly to
the extent that Frenis does.
The two translations of the second half of Tris
tram Shandy were both printed in the same format as the
Frenis; both publishers attempted to convince the public
that theirs was the "real" Tristram Shandy. Subsequent
French editions used de Bonnay's translation more than
de la Baume's, although the latter is more accurate. The
work was not retranslated until nearly 1850.
In L'Anne Littcraire, a review of de Bonnay's
translation stated that volume seven of Tristram Shandy,
containing Tristram's travels in Europe, was inferior to
the rests "Elle est parseraee d'historiettes dont quelque3~
une3 sont d'un assez mauvais genre; sa plaisanterie n'est
pas toujours entierement delicate. II russit beaucoup
22
mieux quand il veut peindre le sentiment." The French
reading public of the late 1700's was more disposed to
appreciate Le Fever than the abbess of Andouillets.
One critic, however, in Le Mercure de Franco in
1785, appreciated Sterne as both a sentimentalist and a
satirist. J Jacques Mallet du Pan compares Sterne to Pope,
a surprisingly perceptive judgment, as it seems to be only
recently that Sterne's solid Augustan orientation has begun
24
to be appreciated, Mallet du Pan says, "vraisemblablement,
Sterne eut le projet de persiffler les longs Romans de sa
Nation; encourage par le suecas des premieres parties, il
se livra a son enjouement et au plaisir d'tendre une satire


231
Reznik, Raissa. "L'Epigraphe de La Peau de chagrin,"
L*Anne Balzacienne, 1972, pp. 373-75.
Spoelberch de Lovenjoul, Charles-Victor. L1Histoire des
Gfeuvres deH.de Balzac. 1888; rpt. Geneve:
Slatkine, 1968.
Sterne, Laurence. The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy,
Gentleman. Ed. James A. Work. New York: Odyssey,
1940.
. Oeuvres completes de Laurent Sterne. [Tr. Frenis,
de Bonna.y et al. J 6 vol. Paris: J. F. Bastien,
an XI [18031.
. A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy
by Mr. Yorick. Ed. Gardner D. Stout, Jr. Ber
keley: University of California Press, 1967.
. La Vie et les opinions de Tristram Shandy. [Tr.
Frenis and de Bonnay]. 4 vol. York and Paris:
Ruault, Volland, 1776-85.
Surville, L[aure]. Balzac: sa vie et ses oeuvres d1apres
sa correspondance. Paris: Librairie Nouvelle,
1858.
Tave, Stuart. The Amiable Humorist. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 1960.
Texte, Joseph. Jean-Jacques Rousseau et les origines du
cosmopolitanisms littraire. Paris: Hachette,
1895.
Tolley, Bruce. "Les Oeuvres diverses de Balzac (1824
1831): Essai d'inventaire critique," L1Anne
Balzacienne, 1963 pp. 31-64.
Traverse, Judith. "Two Continuations of Laurence Sterne's
A Sentimental Journey." M.A. Thesis, University
of Florida, 1970.
Van Tieghem, Paul. L'Anne Littraire (1754-1790) comme
intermdaire en France des litteratures trangres.
1914; rpt. Geneve: Slatkine, 1966.
West, Constance. "La Thorie de la traduction au XVIIIe
siecle," Revue de Littrature Compare, 12
(1932), 330-55.


45
and shorter than Sterne's: "il passa pour constant que la
fenetre de la chambre de la nourrice avoit non-seuleraent
. . mais encore . . (B, III, lviii, 166). In
these instances de Bonnay generally says too much, and
implies too little. It is, of course, impossible to say
if de Bonnay purposely cut down on Sterne's ribaldry by
filling in the lacunae, or if he felt that he was retain
ing or even enhancing it by doing so. The effect is clear
in any case; Sterne's silences are much more suggestive
than de Bonnay's words.
The Widow Wadman/corking-pin passage, one of
Sterne's most outrageously suggestive moments, is changed
only a little in de Bonnay's translation (B, IV, xxxviii-
xli, 94-103; W, VIII, ix-xiii, 547-52). Expressions such
as "old cocked hat" lose their suggestiveness in translation,
and the detailed description of the widow's "northeast
kick" is left out (W, VIII, ix, 548). Immediately fol
lowing is Tristram's mixed curse on and praise of women,
replete with suggestive images; de Bonnay has removed
the most bawdy of these. He retains the talk of the furred
cap, but "twisting it round my finger" becomes "le regardant
d'un air de colere" (W, VIII, xi, 550; B, IV, xl, 100).
Similarly, "never have a finger in the pye" becomes "je
ne toucherai jamais a ce pt" (B, IV, lx, 100; W, VIII,
xi, 550), and "get in or let it alone" becomes "aller
en avant . ou bien se teir en repos" (B, IV, xlii,
103; W, VIII, xii, 552).


19
nification de noms, le got des affirmations paradoxales
[...], sa gaillardise enfin, qui n'apparait toutefois
que dans les oeuvres mineures de Balzac, jamais dans La
Comedie humaine." Although it is incomplete, and not
explored any further, what Wurmser says is fairly accurate.
There are, in fact, many traces of Sterne throughout the
Comedie humaine, but the heaviest concentrations lie in
the expository works in the section entitled Etudes
analytiques (which although they form a part of the larger
work are different from the rest in style and content),
and in Balzac's pre-Comdie humaine works. Fernand Balden-
sperger, among others, also mentions the connection between
rn
Balzac and Sterne on theories of names, and he attributes
* 68
Balzac's use of "foltres enumerations" to Sterne.
Genevieve Delattre is the only critic who has raised
clearly the very important question of how seriously
Balzac took Sterne's ideas. It is one thing to say that
Balzac got his theory of the importance of names from
Sterne; it is quite another to consider whether this is
a serious idea in either of the two authors.
Other critics have simply pointed out specific
references to or echoes of Sterne in Balzac, particularly
in the romans de jeunesse, where the influence is most
obvious, but no one seems to have tried to fit these into
larger patterns, to try to measure the breadth and depth
of what Balzac borrowed and learned from Sterne. Ren


CHAPTER I
THE FRENAIS-DE BONNAY TRANSLATION OF STERNE
Balzac was quite interested in a number of the
major figures of English and American literature, partic
ularly Scott, Byron, Shakespeare and Cooper, as well as
Sterne,^ although he did not read English. "Je ne sais
pas un mot d'anglais," Balzac writes in a letter to
2
Madame Hanska in 1843* So Balzac's reading of Sterne
had to be in translation, which certainly affected to
some degree his knowledge of the English author.
There are two major nineteenth-century editions
of Sterne's complete works published before the time that
Balzac probably first read Sterne, one in 1803, the other
in 1818, not to mention numerous separate editions of
both A Sentimental Journey and Tristram Shandy. De Bon-
nay's translation of the second half of Tristram Shandy
appears in the 1803 Bastien edition of Sterne's complete
works, the edition that I have used as the basis for this
study. ^ I have not seen the 1818 Ledoux and Tenrl edition,
but according to Qurard, de la Baume's translations of
the letters and sermons appear in this edition. Qurard
does not indicate the translator of the second half of
Tristram Shandy in this edition (although he points out
de Bonnay's part in the 1803), but I think that it was
29


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the
Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
BALZAC AND STERNE
By
Sandra Soares Donnelly
August, 1973
Chairman: J. Wayne Conner
Major Department: Romance Languages and Literatures
Citations of Sterne and his works can be found
in Balzac's oeuvres de jeunesse, his correspondence, his
oeuvres diverses, and throughout the Comedie humaine.
During his entire writing career, Balzac considered Sterne
among the great geniuses of literature. He not only men
tions Sterne often, but also has borrowed a number of
stylistic devices and ideas from the English author.
Balzac was able to read Sterne only in trans
lation, so I have examined carefully the translation of
Sterne's works that Balzac used. The most change has oc
curred in Tristram Shandy. Much of Sterne's bawdiness
has been expurgated, as have been his anti-Catholic ideas.
The work has undergone stylistic change as well; many of
Sterne's characteristic narrative mannerisms have been
much exaggerated.
vii


31
Don-Quichotte (Phy, I, 111). Also in the Physiologie,
Balzac quotes four short paragraphs from Tristram Shandy
on the drinking of water (B, IV, xxxiv, 87-88; W, VIII, v,
543) The wording of this passage is exactly the same as
de Bonnay's in both the 1826 and 1829 texts of the Phy-
siologie (PhyPo, 125; Phy, I, 252-53); there are only a
few minor differences in typography (italicised words
in de Bonnay are rendered in all capitals in Balzac) and
punctuation. Although I have not been able to examine
the de la Baume translation, because of the identity of
these texts in de Bonnay and Balzac, I feel certain that
Balzac used de Bonnay's translation. These passages are
too long to have come out the same under the hand of
two translators.
In any case, the Sterne that Balzac read is not
the Sterne known to English readers. A close comparison
of the French and English texts of Tristram Shandy and
A Sentimental Journey will bring out the major differences.
Certainly it is impossible to discuss Balzac's use of
Sterne without bearing these differences in mind.
Frenis's translation of A Sentimental Journey,
which was published less than a year after Sterne's original,
is very much more accurate than his (or de Bonnay's) trans
lation of Tristram Shandy. There are no additions, very
few cuts (only a word or two here and there), and no dis
tortion of opinions and ideas. Frenis seems simply to
have accepted Sterne's work as it stood. A Sentimental


164
back to reread the chapter, and while she is "gone," tells
us:
la peine n'toit pas lgre: raais si je l'ai
impose a la dame, ce n'toit pour badiner, ni
par duret. Un bon motif m'y a forc. [ . ]
Que'l gout vicieux rgne dans presque toutes
les lecteurs! On court a la recherche des aven
tures, et on nglige la profonde rudition et
les connoissances que l1on pourroit acquerir par
la lecture attentive d'un livre tel que celui
ci. (B, I, xxii, 88-89; W, I, xx, 56)
Sterne is joking; Balzac is in earnest. Except in the
Etudes analytiques, Balzac generally uses Sterne's comic
devices in a serious vein. They are the lighter moments
in much of Balzac, but they generally contain an element
of seriousness that is not apparent on the surface of
Sterne. Thus in Pere Goriot, where the reader is further
personalized, we find:
Ainsi ferez-vous, vous qui tenez ce livre d'une
main blanche, vous qui vous enfoncez dans un
moelleux fauteuil en vous disant: Peut-tre
ceci va-t-il m'amuser. Aprs avoir lu les
secretes infortunes du pre Goriot, vous di-
nerez avec apptit en mettant votre insensi-
bilit sur le compte de 1'auteur, en le taxant
d'exagration, en 1'accusant de posie. Ah!
sachez-le: ce drame n'est ni une fiction, ni
un roman. All is true, il est si vritable,
que chacun peut en reconnaitre les lments
chez soi, dans son coeur peut-tre. (II, 217)
Like Sterne, Balzac personalizes a reader to use him or
her as a negative example. Sterne invites the rest of us
to share in his criticism of the lady while she hurries
back to read again the last chapter; Balzac keeps all of
us included in his criticism, but in warning us so early


147
in La Peau de chagrin; when Raphael is desperately trying
to find ways to stretch the skin, he says, "Je vais teir
mon ne en bride," and Balzac adds, "Sterne avait dit avant
lui: 'Menageons notre ne, si nous voulons vivre vieux.'
Mais la bte est si fantasque!" (VI, 501; in original edi
tion, 1831). I do not find these exact words in Sterne; it
may be a free adaptation of Sterne's line: "C'est un animal
concupiscent; et malheur celui qui ne 1'empiche pas de
regimber" (B, IV, lx, 162-63; W, VIII, xxxi, 584). Raphael,
at this point, has just discovered that his love for Pauline
is causing the skin to shrinkparticularly his sexual de
sire for her. Balzac is using the word ne in the same way
as Walter Shandy.
In the 1829 text of the Physiologie, Balzac comments
further on the ne: "Enfin, chose difficile, chose pour la-
quelle il faut un courage surhumain, il doit exercer le
pouvoir le plus absolu sur l'ne dont parle Sterne. Cet
ne doit Itre soumis comme un serf au treizieme siecle a
son seigneur; obir et se taire, marcher et s'arrter au
moindre commanderaent" (Phy, I, 115; VII, 412; not in PhyPo).
It is doubtful that Balzac really felt that sexual passion
can and should be kept under such strict controlalthough
it is often loss of such control that leads to a man's down
fall in the Comedie humaine. Hector Hulot's case is classic;
even Raphael's last wish, the one that shrinks the skin to
nothing and causes his death, is for his wife Pauline.


200
sciences occultes" (V, 60S). There is no mention of Sterne
here, but this passage provides the key, I think, to why
Balzac was able to take this idea so seriously. He links
it to his belief that ineffable links between mind and
matter prevade the world. We find this process numerous
times when dealing with Balzac and Sterne. Balzac takes
an idea or a narrative device from the surface of Sterne,
adopts it seriously, and makes it serve one of his own
ideas.
There are numerous examples of assigning sig
nificance to names in Balzac. In La Recherche de l'absolu,
for example, when introducing Emmanuel, Balzac says, "Chacun
voulait voir une predestination dans le nom suave que lui
avait donn sa raarraine" (VI, 644); the name means "God is
with us." And in Petites miseres, "Ce nom [Caroline] porte
bonheur aux femmes" (VII, 558; in original edition, 1845);
Balzac is ironic again. In Ursule Mirouet, Balzac seems
preoccupied with names; early in the novel, he has mentioned
Sterne in connection with "l'occulte puissance des noms','
(II, 461). He mentions their significance several other
times: "On 1avait appele la Bougivale par impossibilit
reconnue d'appliquer a sa personne son prnom d'Antoinette,
car les noms et les figures obissent aux lois de l'harmonie"
(II, 471); "Eh bien, Zelie aime le zle" (II, 473); "Ur
sule est digne de son nom [ . ] elle est tres sauvage"
(II, 489). These uses of Sterne's idea of the power of


187
We are back to the essential question: how to know
if Balzac did indeed borrow this device from Sterne? There
is no way to be certain, but in the case of the Latin phrases,
we find them all in works that are essentially social satire.
So we can say, at least, that the comic use of Latin is a
part of Balzac's satiric manner, and it is in his most es
sentially satiric works that we find his most frequent bor
rowings from Sterne. It is quite safe to say, I believe,
that Sterne's methods are a key building block of Balzac's
satiric style.
The borrowings from Sterne in the Physiologie du
marriage are numerous, and have been much commented upon
by critics. Maurice Bardeche, in the introduction to his
edition of the pre-original text of the Physiologie, says
that Balzac took from Sterne "deux des observations qui
soutiennent le livre: que dans le mariage, rien ne compte
que les petits details, les petites erreurs, les petites
precautions, et qu'un homme marie est, au fond, un de ces
malades qui doivent finir comme le voulait Montaigne, par
savoir se soigner tout seul."1^On a purely stylistic plane,
we have seen Sterne again and again in the Physiologie.
Less attention has been paid by critics to the
influence of Sterne on the other Etudes analytiques. I
found page after page of Thorie de la demarche that echoed
Sterne in ways that do not fit neatly into the categories
of narrative techniques so far established here. More-


22
readings also taught him much. I have preferred to limit
my study to more specifically literary concerns, and, in
the realm of ideas, to areas in which Balzac himself acknowl
edges his debt to Sterne.
Even limiting my study in this way, I have
remained acutely aware of Genevieve Delattre's words of
caution: "Nous n'en finirions pas, s'il fallait numrer
toutes les occasions qui se presentent a Balzac d'adopter
telle ou telle idee de Sterne, ou de se rememoren un
75
personnage ou un incident."


KEY TO SIGLA USED IN TEXT
[Balzac], Annette et le criminel (1824; rpt. Paris:
Les Bibliophiles de l'Originale, 1961-63).
Sterne, Cfeuvres completes de Laurent Sterne, [tr.
Frenis, de Bonnay e_t al. ]~~("Paris: J. F. Bastien,
an XI [1803]).
[Balzac], Le Centenaire (1822; rpt. Paris: Les
Bibliophiles de l'Originale, 1961-63).
[Balzac], Clotilde de Lusignan (1822; rpt. Paris:
Les Bibliophiles de l'Originale, 1961-63).
[Balzac], La Derniere Fee ( 1823; rpt. Paris: Les
Bibliophiles de l'Originale, 1961-63).
[Balzac], L'Heritiere de Birague (1822; rpt. Paris:
Les Bibliophiles de l'Originale, 1961-63).
[Balzac], Jean Louis (1822; rpt. Paris: Les Bibli
ophiles de l'Originale, 1961-63).
Balzac, Physiologie du mariage (Paris: Urbain Canel
[1829]).
Balzac, Physiologie du mariage pre-originale, ed.
Maurice Bardeche (Paris: Droz, 1940).
Sterne, La Vie et les opinions de Tristram Shandy,
[tr. Frenis and de Bonnay] (York and Paris, Ruault
Vo Hand, 1776-85).
Sterne, A Sentimental Journey through France and
Italy by. Mr. Yorick, ed. Gardner D. Stout, Jr.
^Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967).
[Balzac], Le Vicaire des Ardennes (1822; rpt.
Paris: Les Bibliophiles de l'Originale, 1961-


88
with the strong sexual undertones that some modern critics
7
see in it. Chollet feels that the equivocations in this
scene "portent un coup fatal a l'histoire et a ses person-
O
nages." Actually, this coup fatal, the non-sequitur un
expectedness of this scenein this way similar to the
closing pages of the Journeyis what I consider to he
the closest imitation of Sterne in the whole work.
Thus, in Une Heure de ma vie, we have Sterne's
influence on Balzac in its most elementary, unabsorbed
form. Some of these elements of influence will show up
in the romans de .jeunesse; others will not reappear until
the Comedie humaine. Jean Ducourneau states in his notes
to Une Heure: "Le genre [of Sterne] l'a beaucoup sduit
durant ses premieres annes d'apprentissage, mais il le
quittera tres vite, conservant toutefois une admiration
definitive pour l'un de ses premiers maitres" (p. 579).
Perhaps Balzac can be said to have abandonned the genre;
its elements, however, become important parts of his later
works. Une Heure de ma vie is like a preliminary sign
post; an examination of the romans de .jeunesse will begin
to clarify where it leads.
L'Heritiere de Birague, Balzac's first published
novel, begins with a preface that is quite Sternean. En
titled "Roman Prliminaire, c'est-a-dire Preface," these
opening twenty pages, describing a post-chaise journey,
are divided into very short chapters. The tone of these
chapters is whimsical, containing such humor as "Comme


(
CHAPTER II
STERNE IN THE CEUVRES DE JEUNESSE
Balzac's early work, that composed in the 1820's,
before any of the works now contained in the Comedie humaine,
contains diverse borrowings from Sterne. The nature of
these borrowings varies greatly, covering a wide range from
details of style to broad concepts.
Une Heure de ma vie, a short first-person narra
tive of a walk in Paris, was written early in 1822, when,
according to Roland Chollet, who dates it between Balzac's
first two romans de jeunesse (the term commonly used to
designate the eight novels Balzac wrote under pseudonyms
in the years 1821-25), Sterne's influence on Balzac was
the strongest. "Invoqu des le premier chapitre d'Une
Heure de ma vie, Sterne se cache derrire chaqu mot."^
Chollet attributes to Sternejustly, I believe"la li
bert d'une forme parfaitement ouverte," "l'art de rneler
a ses plaisantries des rflexions srieuses mais toujours
2
ambiges," and the details of a description of holding
a young lady's hand, which is strikingly like Yorick's
experience at the Remise door.^ This hand-holding in
cident is also like the encounter between Yorick and the
young woman in the glove shop (S, 161-65). The narrator
85


114
Or, je declare que je veux user de ce droit, et faire un
chapitre d'ennui" (JL, III, 82-83). Further evidence of
the conscious imitation of Sterne here is, of course, the
idea of inserting a digressive chapter on a particular
topic, like Tristram's "chapter upon button-holes," or
"chapter upon chapters."
In Tristram Shandy one is always conscious of
Tristram sitting at his desk, writing his novel. Balzac
gives us glimpses of a writing narrator in almost all of
the early works. Thus in Le Vicaire des Ardennes, the
pen slips from the narrator's hand (VA, IV, 253) > and at
the end of the novel: "Prvoyant ma propre douleur, de ce
moment, j'ai mis la conclusion de cet ouvrage au commence
ment" (VA, IV, 254). This device has parallels in both
Tristram Shandy and A Sentimental Journey. As Yorick is
about to begin the story of Maria in the Journey, he says,
"Pourquoi mon pouls bat-il si foibleraent, que je le sens
a peine, pendant que je trace ces lignes?" (B, V, 189; S,
270). Tristram frequently reacts emotionally to what he
writes; for example: "Je n'entre a present dans cette par-
tie de mon histoire qu'avec les idees les plus mlancoliques
dont un coeur sympathique puisse etre affect. Mes fibres
se relchent [...]. La vitesse de mon pouls se ralentit"
(B, II, li, 135; W, III, xxviii, 215).
The presence of the writing narrator is not used
in Balzac only to evoke emotion. It most often serves as


74
Mais, mcontent, au fond, de son propre
ouvrage, ainsi que je le suis si souvent du mien,
il dchira son cahier et en presenta un lambeau
a chacun de ces messieurs pour allumer sa pipe.
Quoi done? s'ecria Didius d'un air tonn.
Voila ce qui est singulier. (B, II, xci, 250-51)
This last is equivalent to Sterne's first sentence, and
Frenis translates fairly closely from that point on the
remainder of the chapter. The flow of Sterne's text is
completely changed by Frenis's addition.
Related to Sterne's technique of beginning a new
scene in the middle is the device of a short skip ahead
in time, with no explanation, no change of setting, and
usually no recapping of intervening events or conversation.
Thus at the end of one chapter Dr. Slop pulls his forceps
from his bag, to demonstrate their use to Toby, and at
the beginning of the next chapter Toby cries "Upon my
honour, Sir, you have tore every bit of the skin quite
off the back of both my hands with your forceps [ . ]
and you have crush'd all my knuckles into the bargain
with them, to a jelly" (W, III, xvi, 187). The effect
is rather like a careless splice in an old film. In this
instance, Frenis defeats Sterne's effect by adding a device
of his own. He translates the end of the one chapter and
the beginning of the other quite closely, but between the
two he inserts a chapter entitled "Rien." The chapter is
as follows:
Je laisse en lacune tout ce que je pourrois
dire ici


1S9
sibility of irony in names: "En pensant que cette e3pece
d'elephant sans trompe et sans intelligence se nomme Minoret-
Levrault, ne doit-on reconnaitre avec Sterne l'occulte puis
sance des oras qui tantot raillent et tantot prdisent les
caracteres?"(II, 461). Sterne does not ever speak of an
ironical contrast between name and character; this idea
comes from Balzac. To Tristram and his father, the impor
tance of names is serious. To Walter, the misnaming of
his youngest son is a real tragedy. To Tristram it is
part of the evil fate that hangs over him and his father.
Sterne invites us to laugh at the whole affair, but to
see true irony, we would have to take it seriously. Irony
is an integral part of much of the tragedy that we find in
La Comedie humaine. Pere Goriot, for example, dies thinking
that Eugene de Rastignac is one of his daughters, come to
comfort him in his last hour. In taking Sterne's idea
seriously, Balzac has also marked it with his own stamp.
In Z. Marcas, Balzac considers even more seriously
the occult nature of the power of names:"Je ne voudrais
pas prendre sur moi d'affirmer que les noms n'exercent
aucune influence sur la destine. Entre les faits de la
vie et le nom des hommes, il est de secretes et d'inexpli
cables concordances et des disaccords visibles qui sur-
prennent; souvent des correlations lointaines, mais ef-
ficaces, s'y sont rvles. Notre globe est plein, tout
s'y tient. Peut-etre reviendra-t-on quelque jour aux


58
Frenis expands most of Sternes mentions of
critics and criticism. Sterne's most concentrated attack
on criticismall criticism, not merely literaryis in
volume III; it culminates in the line "Of all the cants
which are canted in this canting world though the cant
of hypocrites may be the worst, the cant of criticism
is the most tormenting!" (W, III, xii, 182) Frenis
does not violate the basic idea of this passage, and he
follows its outline quite closely. But within the overall
structure of the passage, each individual element is in
flated and exaggerated. Here Sterne's humor is already
quite inclusive; Frenis renders it sweeping. Thus Sterne's
single sentence beginning "Of all the cants which are
canted in this canting world" becomes
Mes oreilles ont t cho^ues pendant ma vie
de bien des jargons differens. Le jargon des
mystiques, le jargon des faux dvots, le jargon
des enthousiastes, le jargon des encyclopdistes,
le jargon des thologiens, le jargon des mta-
physiciens, et le jargon plus barbare encore
des avocats, les a souvent tourmentes; mais
de tous les jargons que l'on jargonne dans ce
monde jargonnant, et qu'on y a jargonne depuis
qu'on y jargonne; le jargon le plus insipide,
le plus assomant [sic] est rnon avis le jargon
d'un jargonneur de critique, d'un de ces con
noisseurs toute preuve, d'un de ces amateurs
a tous venans, qui ne sait tres-souvent ce qu'il
dit. (B, II, xxvi, 72-73)
Sterne's 3atire on critics here is the only ex
tended satiric passage in Tristram Shandy directly dealing
with literature and criticism. Frenis adds another, this
one centering on popular journalism. When Tristram faces


73
que raon onde Tobie avoit enfin envoy chercher, arriva"
(B, II, lxxxviii, 243)
Another example of this bridging occurs at the
banquet given by Didius. Tristram has torn out the chapter
/
which was "the description of my father's, my uncle Toby1s,
Trim's, and Obadiah's setting out and journeying to the
visitations at ****" (W, IV, xxv, 313) and then takes a
chapter to explain the omission. Narration resumes:
" See if he is not cutting it all into slips, and giving
them about him to light their pipes!" (VV, IV, xxvi, 316).
In the ensuing conversation we learn that "it" is a sermon
that Yorick had preached to the group at the visitation
dinner. Rather than this abrupt resumption of the action,
we find in Frenis:
On avoit beaucoup mange, peu parl, et l'on
toit arrive au dessert avec la plus grande envie
de se ddommager du silence que l'on avoit garde.
Ce fut mon pre qui commenca .*. .
Mais je dois dire a sa gloire que ce ne
fut pas dans 1'intention de parler pour lui-
mme.
Nous somraes au moment des choses frivoles,
dit-il. Mais, messieurs, laissons-en pltt
dire de srieuses. Tenez, voila Yorick qui va
nous lire quelques passages d'un nouveau sermon

D'un sermon? . d'un sermon? . d'un
sermon? . . Oe mot vola de bouche en bouche

Ecoutons, coutons, coutons! Celui-ci se
rpta en choeur, et Yorick, aprs une inclina
tion de tete a la ronde, se mit a lire.
Fort bien! tres-bien! belle pense! excel-
lente reflexion! quel feu! quel enthousiasme!
comme cela est chaud!
Yorick laissa les applaudissemens s'accumuler


224
The appearance of Sterne in Balzac's work year after year
makes me feel that Balzac had the English author in mind
in a fairly consistent manner as he wrote; there is no
one point in time where it becomes obvious that Balzac
reread Sterne. Either he reread him regularlyperhaps
Tristram Shandy was indeed his livre de chevetor he
remembered Sterne vividly from his early reading.
In checking for the appearance of some of the
key references in original editions, it was surprising
to find that all of the allusions checked did appear in
the original editions of the works. Balzac never ceased
to revise his work, and a common form his revisions take
is the additions of citations of other authors. This is
apparently not the case with his citations of Sterne; they
are consistently a part of Balzac's original conception
of his works.
There are a few types of references that are
more prevalent at particular times in Balzac's career.
There is a concentration of references to the hobby-horse
during the years 1832-38, at the time that Balzac was
presenting us with the first great monomaniacs, Claes,
Goriot and Grandet. This is further proof, I feel, that
the hobby-horse contributed materially to Balzac's develop
ment of the idea of monomania; certainly the hobby-horse
was very much in his mind at this time. The hobby-horse
continues to be mentioned in Balzac's work as late as
1847.


122
ideas on the importance of conceptionwhich will come up
in the Comedie humaineand Sterne.
In Le Centenaire, there is a portrait of a mentally-
deranged young girl which is distinctly similar to Sterne's
descriptions of Maria in both Tristram Shandy and A Senti
mental Journey. "Cette jeune filie [ . ] devint folie;
sa folie n'avait rien que de touchant" (C, III, 101). Al
though the details of Ines' situation are quite different
from Maria's, the compassionate description of insanity is
much the same. We know that Balzac was impressed by the
Maria scenes, because he mentions them in a letter to Madame
de Berny in 1822 and in one to the Duchesse d'Abrantes in
-24 n
1825. Le Centenaire was written in 1822.
There are a few other hints of Sterne's senti
mental side in Balzac's early work, although it is difficult
to say whether they come directly from Sterne or from other
popular literature of the time. Even before Balzac read
Sterne, there are sentimental moments in his work. In
Stnie (18 ) we find such things as: "Pour le coup d'oeil
25
d'un homme vertueux, que ne ferait-on pas?" Balzac's
first direct mention of Sterne, which is in Jean Louis,
is of the sentimental Sterne: "Si Sterne pleurait au seul
titre de 1'ouvrage: Lamentations du glorieux roi de Ker-
navan dans sa prison, combien de larmes un vieux soldat
ne rpandra-t-il sur ces mots [. . ]" (JL, III, 6).
Actually, this reference is to the spurious Memoires that
are attached to most nineteenth-century French editions


100
choses sous un angle special favorable a sa
vanit, a son metier ou a ses intrets. Le
comique reside dans le retour chez chaqu per-
sonnage de cette preoccupation constante. A
cause de cette idee fixe, la plupart d'entre
eux s'attechent a certaines particularities
de langage. L'un emploie constamment des termes
de chasse, un autre fait talage de ses con-
naissances en jurisprudence, un autre laisse
deviner ses lectures de la Bible.^
This is definitely the process that Balzac uses in dialogues
in which hobby-horsical characters take part. It is an
easy way to handls secondary characterization, and is as
well a source of humor. I do not believe, however, that
Scott can be said to have invented this type of dialogue.
Not only is it evident in Sterne's work; humors characters
are as old as fiction itself, and similar exchanges can
be found in Fielding, Diderot, Cervantes and many others.
The mechanization, if it can be so called, of this process
may originate with Scott. That Balzac is aware of the
mechanical, self-perpetuating aspects of this mode of
dialogue is quite clear at one point in Clotilde de Lusignan
when he calls upon the reader to complete a scene:
Les Camaldules [source of the "manuscript" the
narrator is using] ont omis de nous en donner
l'historique [of a council]; mais ceux qui lisent
avec attention doivent imaginer facilement cette
scene, et voir l'vque proposer de soudoyer des
troupes, Kefalein se promettant de creer un corps
de cavalerie, etc., etc. (CL, III, 293-94)
Balzac's use of this process is as much related to Sterne
as to Scott. Sven his discussion of it here is couched in
a Sternean device, that of letting the reader's imagination
take over.


43
image-suggesting word like mince is certainly a typical
Sterne device. Similarly, after Tristram's "circumcision,"
when Trim speaks to Yorick of his desire to construct arms
from the church-spout and Yorick responds, "You have cut
off spouts enow," de Bonnay makes Trim admit "Jtavois un
peu rogn le coq de votre Iglise"; Yorick's response here
is "Ne serez-vous jamais las de rogner?" (B, III, xxv, 83;
W, V, xxiii, 382).
De Bonnay's treatment of Sterne's suggestive
lacunae is quite distinct from that of Frenis. Frenis
generally rewrites to some degree so he can circumvent
them. De Bonnay, on the other hand, usually fills them
in. For example, when Walter discusses the activities
of famous men at the moment of death, the reader is pre
pared and waits for an example of someone who died in the
sex act. Sterne does not disappoint his reader's expecta
tions; he cites "lastly for of all the choice anecdotes
which history can produce of this matter [ . ] this,
like the gilded dome which covers in the fabrick crowns
all. 'Tis of Cornelius Gallus, the praetor [...].
He died, said my father, as***************
And. if it was with his wife, said my uncle Toby there
could be no hurt in it." Instead of the lacuna, de Bonnay
gives us "II mourut dans les bras d'une femme" (B, III, vi,
38; W, V, iv, 357). Of course this phrase conveys Sterne's
meaning, but it does so euphemistically; Sterne's process
allows the reader to imagine that Walter Shandy ha3 not


120
An interesting reference to Sterne appears in the first
manuscript of Wann-Ohlore. Pierre Barbris, in Aux Sources
de Balzac, points out that in the first manuscript of this
novel, Balzac alludes to one of Sterne's sermons, "Le
22
levite et sa concubine." This reference indicates that
Balzac read some, if not all, of the sixteen of Sterne's
sermons included in the early nineteenth-century editions
of Sterne's complete works; "Le Levite et sa concubine"
appears in the sixth volume of the Bastien edition of
Sterne. This is the only reference to the sermons in
all of Balzac's v/orks.
In Clotilde de Lusignan, I detect what might be
two reference to the ribald Slawkenbergius's Tale. Sterne
makes much of the reactions of the womenboth religious
and layto the stranger's massive nose: "Ni les unes ni
les autres ne purent fermer un oeil; pas une des parties
de leur corps ne resta tranquille" (B, II, xlii, 172; W,
IV, 253-54); it goes on and on, one of Sterne's most frankly
bawdy passages, and one of the few ribald passages to be
faithfully translated. In Clotilde de Lusignan we find:
"Les Camaldules pretendent que les dames d'Aix, venues a
ce tournoi, rverent toute la nuit de ce beau baron de
Piles; mais comment l'ont-ils su? . . (CL, III, 159),
and "A 1'aspect de la valeur et de la bonne tournure du
vainqueur, les Camladules disent encore que les dames
d'Aix mais je ne le crois pas! ..." (CL, III,
160).


99
the bishop, is obsessed with military strength; although a
bishop, he feels that God is on the side of the mighty. His
verbal refrain is "trente mille hommes," the number he feels
necessary for the reconquering of Cyprus. Ludovic de Monte-
san, though not a cleric, is obsessed with religion. He
feels that the loss of Cyprus was due to loss of faith; he
feels that only through a total renewal of their Christianity,
both in faith and works, will the loyalists be able to regain
Cyprus. Kefalein, another of the king's followers, is pre
occupied with cavalry, to him the real solution to the prob
lem.
Balzac uses hobby-horse terminology for these ob
sessions. At one point, Montesan enumerates the preoccupa
tions of these characters, and a few others, and then says
"Chacun sa marotte!" (CL, I, 193). Elsewhere, we see "Ke
falein, dont le visage annoncait la joie de pouvoir monter
sur son dada favori" (CL, III, 232).
Although the germ of the hobby-horse clearly comes
to Balzac from Sterne, his implementation of it in this
novel is done with a technique perhaps learned from Scott.
Bardche, who does not mention Sterne in this context, points
out:
l'originalite de Walter Scott est d'avoir in
vent [ . ] un type de dialogue bien partic
ular. Chaqu personnage du groupe a deux ou
trois traits de caractre dominants qui expliquent
ses jugements, ses observations, ses commentaires,
ses conseils. Chacun met alors une certaine ob-
stination a revenir sur un point particuleir qui
montre mieux son importance ou a considrer les


197
It is clear from these two examples, and from the others
that will follow, that Balzac attributes this idea to Sterne
himself, not to Walter Shandy. Because of his own interest
in names, Balzac accepts unquestioningly Sterne's serious
ness in this matter. This presents us with a real problem
of determining how Balzac read Sterne. We can see from his
other references to Sterne that Balzac thinks of him as a
skillful storyteller, a great descriptive artist, and an
essentially comicor even satiricauthor. Balzac was
perceptive enough to see A Sentimental Journey as raillerie,
yet he did not seem to grasp how completely Sterne discredits
most of the ideas put forth on the surface of Tristram
Shandy. In this case, I think that Balzac is blinded by
one of his own hobby-horses, his belief in the effects of
the occult on the daily lives of men, "les sympathies qui
mconnaissent les lois de l'espace [...]; une science '
nouvelle a laquelle il a manque jusqu'a ce jour un homme
de gnie" (Le Requisitionnaire, VII, 89).
In the passage from Le Cure de Tours cited above,
it is also interesting to note that Balzac cites Sterne in
a passage where he is ostensibly leaving description to the
reader's imagination. In fact, he directs our imagination
rigidly, even to the point of urging us to imagine that
Madame de Listomere is "lgerement nasillarde." It is
nevertheless possible to say that this passage bears a
double relationship to Sterne, and that if Balzac had Sterne


141
The way the gossip about this arrival spreads through the
town is reminiscent of the reaction of the people of Stras
bourg to the arrival of the man with the wondrously large
nose. And in Les Paysans I find another echo of the tale:
"Le mot disque, contest par le positif Brunet, donna ma-
tire a des discussions qui durrent onze mois; mais Gour-
don le savant [ . ] crasa le parti des antidisquaires11
(VI, 91); this recalls Sterne's Nosarians and Antinosarians
(in French Nezariens), a Swift-like satire on ecclesiastical
disputes. If this is simply a parallel instead of a clear
borrowing, it shows Balzac's participation in the great
satiric tradition of Rabelais, Swift and Sterne, as do the
two references to the author's "bonnet et marotte" (Phy, I,
208; VII, 428; not in PhyPo; and Sur Catherine de Medicls,
VII, 192).
There are also reminders in Balzac of some of the
most sentimental incidents in Sterne, the Maria episodes
in the Journey and Tristram. We know that Balzac was im
pressed by this part of Sterne from his correspondence;
to madame de Berny in 1822, Balzac writes: "Je puis dire
que vous n'avez pas sous les yeux le Sterne et son aventure
avec Marie.In the letter to the duchesse d'Abrants,
in 1825, Balzac says: "Vous savez sans doute Sterne par
17
coeur, souvenez-vous de l'histoire de Marie." In citing
Sterne to madame de Berny, Balzac is chiding her for lack
of feeling: "Vous ne m'aimez plus, tout me l'annonce." In


135
depth to a description. As P. Barriere says, "Souvent
[ . ] les citations que fait Balzac et ses reminis
cences fournissent des caracteres: la comparaison avec
un personnage connu du repertoire classique claire brusque-
ment une me, resume ou remplace une analyse psychologique."
Trim seems to have impressed Balzac most in the
scene where he throws down his hat, using it as an emblem
of death (B, III, ix, 47-48; W, V, vii, 362; see above,
p. 109). Although this is the only scene where Trim's
hat is of central importance, the hat has become a symbol
for Balzac. "Ce livre devint pour Adolphe ce que c'est
pour le caporal Trim ce fameux bonnet qu'il met toujour3
en jeu" (Petites Miseres, VII, 533; in original edition,
1845); "La vicomtesse ennuyait prodigeusement ses quatre
filies en les mettant aussi souvent en jeu que le caporal
Trim met son bonnet en Tristram Shandy" (Beatrix, II, 55)
and "II faisait de de Marsay ce que le caporal Trim faisait
de son bonnet, un enjeu perptuel" (La Filie aux yeux d1 or,
IV, 112). It is interesting that in two of these cases,
Balzac is speaking of manipulating people, using them as
objects, thus carrying even further the process of object
ification begun by Trim when he drops his hat.
Trim is also mentioned once in connection with
Toby, in La Bourse. Two men arrive at the home of madame
de Rouville; one of these is an aging "voltigeur de Louis
XIV," the other is his "reflet, ou ombre, si vous voulez."


229
Cash, Arthur Hill. Sterne1s Comedy of Moral Sentiments:
The Ethical Dimension of the Journey. Duquesne
Studies, Philological Series, No. 6. Pittsburgh:
Duquesne University Press, 1966.
Chollet, Roland. "Une Heure de ma vie, ou Lord R'hoone a
la dcouverte de Balzac," L1 Annie Balzacienne,
1968, pp. 121-34.
[Delalot, Z.], "Sur les Gfeuvres de Sterne," Le Spectateur
Franyais au XIXe Steele, 2 (1805), 647-57.
Ddyan, Charles. "Balzac et 1'Angleterre," in Balzac:
Le Livre du centenaire. Paris: Flammarion,
1952. Pp. 283-97.
Delattre, Genevieve. Les Opinions littraires de Balzac.
Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1961.
Dilworth, Ernest Nevin. The Unsentimental Journey of
Laurence Sterne. New York: King's Crown Press,
T94S7
Fredman, Alice Green. Diderot and Sterne. New York:
Columbia University Press, 1955.
Frron, Elie et alL. L1 Anne Littraire. 37 vol. 1754--
90; rpt. Geneve: Slatkine, 1966.
Glaesener, Henri. "Laurence Sterne et Xavier de Maistre,"
Revue de Littrature Compare, 7 (1927), 459-79.
Guise, Ren. "Balzac et l'tranger," L1Anne Balzacienne,
1970, pp. 3-19.
[Hall-Stevenson, Jolm]. Yorick's Sentimental Journey Con
tinued, by Eugenius, in Sterne, A Sentimental
Journey through France and Italy, by Mr. Yorick.
New York: "For the booksellers," 1795. Pp. 189
316.
Howes, Alan B. Yorick and the Critics: Sterne's Reputation
in England, 1760-1768. New Haven: Yale University
Press, 1953.
Hunt, Herbert J. Balzac1s Comdie Humaine. London: Atha-
lone Press, 1964.
. "Balzac and the English Tongue," Modern Language
Review, 49 (1954), 434-41.


CHAPTER V
INFLUENCE: IDEAS
It is in style and manner of narration that
Balzac was most widely influenced by Sterne, but we also
find several ideas which, although advanced humorously by
Sterne, become touchstones of Balzac's thought. Genevieve
Delattre has noted Balzac's tendency to take Sterne's ideas
seriously: "Balzac semble parfois un peu trop port a ac
cepter les idees avances par Sterne sous le couvert de
ses personnages."1 She points out that Balzac himself
presented serious ideas in jest, and would assume that
Sterne did so too; "Cette facilit tonnante de Balzac
a adopter les ides les plus douteuses raraasses dans
Sterne, dcoule de la confiance que lui inspire cet cri-
vain en qui il salue un des plus fins observateurs que
la littrature ait connu."
One of Sterne's "ideas" that Balzac took the
most seriously is that of the importance of names. Walter
Shandy is the exponent of this theory:
Il^s'toit form l'ide que les noms, par
une espce de biais magique, avoient, sur notre
conduite, sur notre caractre, une influence
qu'on ne ^ouvoit dtourner.
Le heros de Miguel de Cervantes ne rai-
sonnoit pas avec plus de gravit.II n'avoit
pas une foi plus ferme. II ne pouvoit rien
dire de plus sur le pouvoir qu'avoit la ngro-
195


91
le critninel, Balzac says, 11 en cote trop cher de dire
a l'Etat ce qu'on pense sur sa marche, pour qu'Horace de
St.-Aubin [Balzac's pseudonym for this novel] s'expose a
publier ses opinions comme le fit jadis Tristram Shandy
(AG, I, ii). Nothing here even proves that Balzac had read
Sterne. Another reference, only slightly less superficial,
appears in Le Vicaire des Ardennes: "Toutes les portes de
la maison de M: Gausse taient organises d'apres ce sys-
teme qui rgissait celles du chteau de M. Shandy, chez
qui les gens savaient les premiers, tout ce qui s'y disait
(VA, I, 198; W, V, iv, 358-59). Many such references to
Sterne are found in the Comedie humaine. The other direct
references in the romans de jeunesse fit into clear patterns
of borrowing from Sterne.
The theme of the hobby-horse is a striking aspect
of Tristram Shandy. The translators used various words
for hobby-horse. It is most often translated literally
as dada. But it also appears as votre poupe favorite,
califourchon, and manie particuliere. This use of different
terms weakens the concept, particularly since Sterne usually
presents the hobby-horse in a strongly pictorial, though
symbolic, fashion, whereas one of the French terms, manie
particuliere, presents no image at all, and another, votre
poupe favorite, presents a completely different image.
Nonetheless, Balzac embraced completely the word and image
dada.


32
Journey, although it has caused some critical difficulties
in our time, probably seemed quite simple to the eighteenth-
century reader, who accepted Yorick's double-edged senti
mentalizing without question.
The one change that Frenis consistently makes
in the Journey is one he also frequently makes in Tri strain
Shandy, that is, to fill in the gaps in Sterne's action.
Thus, on the first page of the Journey, where Sterne allows
Yorick to think of going to France and then immediately to
g
arrive there, Frenis adds "Je m'embarque and J'arrive."
Similarly, at the beginning of the second chapter, Sterne
says, "When I had finished my dinner [...]." Frenis
phrases it "Je dinai. Je bus, [ . ].(B, V, 2; S, 68).
There are a few minor changes in names. Where Sterne has
said Mr. H Frenis fills in Hume (B, V, 49 S, 69).
In the incident with Madame de Rambouliet, Frenis changes'
the name to Rambouillet, to whom Sterne, according to
Stout, was probably referring, since the behavior that
he satirizes here is that of the prcieuses (B, V, 103-04;
S, 181, n.). Frenais's change could be a mistakemore
likely, he thought he was rectifying a spelling error in
Sterne. As does de Bonnay in Tristram Shandy (B, IX, lxxiii,
201; W, IX, ix, 611), Frenis substitutes exclamation for
ejaculation at a crucial moment, although the latter word,
with the same double meaning as in English, already existed
in French (B, V, 208; S, 290).


12
Unsurpassed, perhaps, in its extravaganceSterne would
have laughedthis is by no means an uncommon view of
Sterne in Balzac's time. Felix Momand, in an appreciation
of Sterne in L1Artiste (1845) writes: "0 bon Yorick!
[ . ] toi, dont 1'humour candide et la malheureuse
bonhomie n'ont d'gal peut-tre que 1'exquise sensibilit
rpandue comme a flots dans toutes tes pages, et qui
mouilles nos paupieres de tant de larmes 3ympathiques,
41
6 Steme!" etc. The article is headed "A Laurence
Sterne," and is simply the dedication to Sterne of the
sentimental anecdote that is to follow in the next issue.
Momand speaks repeatedly of the "mince volume" that
Sterne produced; Tristram Shandy is completely ignored.
Jules Janin, in the introduction to his trans
lation of A Sentimental Journey (1840), cautions the reader
against accepting too completely Sterne's sentiment:
"Toutefois ne vous fiez pas trop a cette bonhomie appar-
ente, car elle cache plus d'un trait acre, et quand le
romancier se montre avec le plus de grce et d'abandon,
44
soyez sur que le satirique n'est pas loin." Janin
does not, however, emphasize this point, and ends up con
tradicting it by insisting that Sterne possesses a basic
innocence in his viewpoint and that Sterne is Yorick.
To Janin, A Sentimental Journey is "le chef-d'oeuvre de
45
notre auteur." Balzacs view that Steme had written
only one great work, Tristram Shandy, was not shared by
his contemporaries. In 1838, Balzac writes to Madame


I certify that I have read this study and
that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards
of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
V/ay'ne C
Conner, Chairman
Professor of French
I certify that I have read this study and
that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards
of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
Associate Professor of French
I certify that I have read' this study and
that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards
of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
Irvirtg R. Wershow
Professor of Spanish
I certify that I have read this study and
that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards
of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
Melvyn New
Associate Professor of English


107
xxxvii, 529). In the midst of the long rhapsody on deter
minism triggered by the discussion of conception in Clotilde
de Lusignan, where Sterne is certainly in Balzac's mind,
Balzac 3eems to refer directly to the swearing scene in
A Sentimental Journey, where Sterne says: "Quoique La Fleur
[ . ] ne se fut servi que de ces deux termes d'exclama
tion [diable, pe3te], il y en a cependant trois dans la
langue fran^oise. lis rpondent a ce que les grammariens
appellent le positif, le comparatif et le superlatif; et
l'on se sert des uns et des autres dans tous les accidens
imprvus de la vie" (B, V, 62; S, 136). In Balzac we find,
"sans cela nous possderions 1'Angleterre, et au lieu de
goddem, ils diraient le superlatif de nos jurons" (CL, II,
210). As Sterne plays with French curses, here Balzac
plays with English ones. The idea of a superlative curse
may be taken directly from Sterne.
A distinctive feature of Sterne's method of nar
ration is the minute detailing of gesture and pose. One of
the most striking examples of this technique is the descrip
tion of Trim's pose for reading the sermon in Tristram
Shandy:
II se tint, done, et je le rpte, afin
que l'on se reprsente bien sa posture, il se
tint le corps incline en avant, sa jambe droite
toit ferme sous lui, et portoit les sept-huit-
imes de tout son poids. Son pied gauche, dont
le dfaut n'toit pas dsavantageux, avan^oit un
peu. Ce n'toit ni de cote, ni en avant, mais
un mdium agrable. Son genou toit pli, mais
peu, et ssulement pour tomber dans les limites
de cette ligne presqu'imperceptible de la beau-
t [ . ].


161
and of the pliysical effects he sometimes feels while writing:
Je n'entre a present dans cette partie de mon
histoire qu'avec les idees les plus mlancoliques
dont un coeur sympathique puisse tre affect!.
Mes fibres se relchent. Je sens a chaqu ligne
que j'cris un abattement, une foiblesse qui a
peine me permet de continuer. La vitesse de
ma pouls se rallentit, et cette gait si vive,
qui chaqu jour de ma vie m'excitoit a dire,
ou a crire mille choses plus ou moins saillantes,
est presque entierement disparue. (3, II, li,
135; W, III, xxvii, 215)
Both Balzac-narrator and Tristram have become profoundly
involved in a narrative taken up casually. At this point
in the Physiologie, Balzac-narrator has just realized how
involved he has become: "Mon esprit a si fraternellement
accompagn le Mariage dans toutes les phases de la vie
fantastique, qu'il me semble avoir vieilli avec le menage
que j'ai pris si jeune au commencement de cet ouvrage"
(Phy, IE, 303; VII, 494; not in PhyPo) The narrator, here
like Tristram, has become enmeshed in his work. Balzac,
I think, was always involved to some degree in his stories;
it is only in his "analytical" works, however, that the
involvement is allowed to show through so clearly. Here,
then, is a very close point of contact between Balzac and
Sternenot just the way the narrator is presented, but
how the narrator's presence is integrated into the world
of the work.
The very nature of the Etudes analytiques is
Sternean, and virtually every stylistic device of Sterne
that Balzac uses shows up in them. The self-conscious


190
tram throughout. Thorie de la demarche is much shorter
than the Physiologiet and in the latter Balzac is also
drawing heavily on Rabelais. In Thorie de la demarche,
Balzac's borrowing from Sterne comes through much more clearly.
Petites Misres de la vie con.jugale is Sternean in
its very conception; the idea that it is the small details
of daily life that bring its major joys and frustrations
is at the heart of both Tristram and the Journey, and of
course it appears as a basis for much of Balzac's work.
The expansion of one small daily occurrence into an emblem
of an entire situation or way of lifesuch as the problem
with butter in Eugenie Grandetis a central characteristic
of Balzac's method. Petites Misres, not surprisingly, is
full of stylistic echoes of Sterne. Again we find the
telegraphic method, this time with liberal use of the
dash, so characteristic of Sterne: "Ni vos cassettes,
ni vos habits, ni vos tiroirs de caisse ou de bureau
de table ou de commode, ni vos portefeuilles a secrets,
ni vos papiers, ni vos ncessaires de voyage, ni
votre toilette [...]" (VII, 548; in original edition,
1845). Balzac does not often use the dash, but when he
does, it is related to Sterne. In the introduction to
the first edition (1829) of Les Chouans, Balzac writes:
''L'auteur prvient ici le lecteur qu'il a essay d'importer
dans notre littrature le petit artifice typographique par
lequel les romanciers anglais expriment certains accidents


222
^See Cash, pp. 19-23 and Tave, p. 238.
^See New, pp. 16-18.
11,
VI, 633. Citron tells us that this is a
"citation, passe en proverbe, du Clorieux de Destouch.es
(1732)" (VI, 633, n.).


52
Sterne's position on conscience, outlined in the sermon,
is that man cannot depend on his conscience (contrary to
the teachings of the moral sense school), but must be
guided by the teachings of Christ. If the Catholic church
relieves man's conscience of responsibility without offer
ing moral guidance, it is doubly to blame. The outward
forms of Catholicism may be risible to Sterne, and they
can be embodied in a Dr. Slop; the inward effects on a
mein's conscience, allowing him to "confidently speak peace
to himself, when there is no peace," are deplorable to
Sterne, and must be presented seriously. This attack is
completely omitted by Frenis; he allows several short
attacks on casuistry to remain elsewherebut here, where
it is woven so tightly into the fabric of the Church, it
must be omitted.
After the sermon ends, Slop speaks ill of it, and
says "Our sermons have greatly the advantage, that we never
introduce any character into them below a patriarch or a
patriarch's wife, or a martyr or a saint. There are some
very bad characters in this, however, said my father, and
I do not think the sermon a jot the worse for 'em" (W, xvii,
141). Since much of Yorick's argument rests on the exam
ples he cites, Slop's objection is absurd. Since he makes
the objection in the name of his church, the Church by
association also looks foolish. Frenis cuts out the entire
exchange (B, I, liii, 226).
And finally, there is one very telling short orais-


59
difficulty in getting Walter and Toby off the stairs and
into bed, he calls for a critic to help him. At the end
of the chapter, the critic's solution is discovered: So
then, friend! you have got my father and my uncle Toby off
the stairs, and seen them to bed? And how did you manage
it? You dropp'd a curtain at the stairs foot 1 thought
you had no other way for it Here's a crown for your trou
ble" (W, IV, xiii, 286-87). In Frenis, Tristram calls
for a newspaper rather than a critic, and while waiting
for the newspaper to be brought (before going on to trans
late Tristram's meditation on how rapidly time is passing
in relation to the progress of his work), Frenis's Tris
tram ruminates hyperbolically and satirically on the qual
ities of "nos Aristarques":
En vrit, me disois-je, ils sont admirables,
nos Aristarques! .... mais admirabilissimes!
Ils sont frtiles en expdiens!
Leur critique est si juste! si honnte! si
douce!
Ils dcouvrent si facilement les fautes qu'on
n'a point faites! (B, II, lxxvi, 218)
And so on. When the newspaper arrives, Tristram discusses
its contents:
Voyons, lisons. La fadeur! . quelle plati
tude! . c'est-la une pigramme? . Je ne
m'en serois pas dout. Passons .... Une ptre
a un seigneur russe? . Et le seigneur russe
est un cedre du Liban? . et le poete est une
foible tige d'hysope? . Vil rimeur! tu es
plutt un ver rampant. Et le seigneur?. .
II est ce qu'il est. Mais quoi encore? Ma foi!
ce qu'est un seigneur; rien, si vous voulez.
(B, II, lxxvi, 219)


142
writing to the duchesse d'Abrantes, Balzac is speaking of
story-telling technique, urging her to use a more direct
style in writing.
There are two clear echoes of the Maria episodes
in the Comedie humaine, both of them quite early. The first,
in 1830, is Adieu, in which Stephanie, the mentally ill
heroine, is presumed to come from Moulins, Maria's home
(VII, 47). Some of the description of Stephanie's madness
(VII, 54) is reminiscent in its sentimentality of Sterne's
description of Maria (W, IX, xiv, 630). Le Message (1832),
also told in a very sentimental manner, centers around the
town of Moulins, which may have been a sort of emblem of
sentiment to Balzac at this time because of the Maria story.
There are a number of incidents in Sterne that
have parallels in the Comedie humaine, ranging from minor
details to fairly lengthy episodes. "Un homme, quand il
le voudrait, ne saurait discuter au lit avec sa femme;
elle a trop d'avantages sur lui, et peut trop facilement
le rduire au silence" (Petites Miseres, VII, 511), calls
to mind the "bed of justice" scene in Tristram Shandy,
where Mrs. Shandy reduces Walter to silence four times.
In both cases, the idea of being reduced to silence car
ries sexual overtones:
Je suis fort petit, continua mon pere grave-
ment.
Tres-petit, monsieur Shandy, dit ma mere
Ouais! dit mon pere [ . ] Ici il y eut
un silence de trois minutes et demie. (B, III,
lxii, 172; W, VI, xviii, 437)


115
a comic device. In La Derniere fee we find: "La chaumiere
dans laquelle vivaient . Que vois-je? vingt-cinq pages,
grand Dieu! Les temps sont si durs que jamais on ne pourrait
lire un chapitre plus long" (DF, I, 25). In Jean Louis the
writing narrator makes his presence almost as constantly
evident as does Tristram. Thus there are such informalities
as "Je saute aux pieds joints sur ses interrogatoires" (JL,
IV, 20), or "Nous le suiverons bientt dans sa marche tor-
tueuse. En attendant, lecteur, permettez-moi d'aller me '
coucher, car j'ai sommeil, et ma mnagere m'apporte raon
bonnet de coton. Bonsoir . . (JL, II, 215). There
are many parallels in Tristram Shandy: "Maintenant, madame,
la chose que j'ai a demander, c'est: comment va votre mi-
grane? rnais ne me rpondez point. Je suis sur qu'elle
est passe. La mienne dure encore" (B, III, ii, 9 W, IV,
xxxii, 337).
Balzac gives evidence that he has Sterne in mind
while practicing these narrative tricks. At the beginning
of Jean Louis, Balzac writes: "Lecteur, je crois que dans
ce moment des reflexions sur 1'inconstance des choses hu-
maines viendraient tres a-propos. Avouez que j'ai le droit
d'interrompre cett intressante histoire par sept ou huit
bonnes pages de dialogues sur le haut et le bas des roues
du char de la fortune" (JL, III, 5). Just four lines after
this, Balzac mentions Sterne by name for the first time in
his work. This citation of Sterne is of the sentimental
Sterne, an aspect of him about which Balzac seems to have


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Aldridge, Alfred Owen. "Le Probleme de la traduction au
XVIIIe siecle et aujourd'hui," Revue Beige de
Philologie et d'Histoire, 39 (1961), 747-58.
Allemand, A. Unite et structure de 11univers balzacien.
Paris: Plon, 1965.
Arrigon, L.-J. Les Debuts littraires d1 Honor de Balzac.
Paris: Librairie Academie Perrin, 1924.
Baldensperger, Fernand. Orientations trangres chez
Honor de Balzac. Paris: Champion, 1927.
Balzac, Honor de. Les Cent Contes drolatiques. Ed.
Roland Chollet. CBuvres completes de M. de
Balzac, XX. Paris: Les Bibliophiles de 1'Ori
gnale, 1969.
. Les Chouans. Ed. Maurice Regard. Paris: Gamier,
TT957T:
. La Comdie humaine. Ed. Pierre Citron. 7- vol.
Paris: Editions du Seuil, "1'Intgrale," 1965-66.
. Correspondance. Ed. Roger Pierrot. 5 vol.
Faris: Gamier, 1960-69.
_______ Une Heure de^ma vie, in La Femme auteur et autres
fragments mdits de Balzac recueillis par le
vicomte de Loven,joul. Ed. Maurice Bar d che. Paris
Grasset, 1950. Pp.
. Une Heure de ma vie, in Romans et contes. Ed.
Jean A. Ducourneau. GCuvres completes de M.
de Balzac, XXIV. Paris: Les Bibliophiles de
l'Originale, 1972. Pp. 213-26 and notes, pp.
579-84.
. Lettres a Madame Hanska. Ed. Roger Pierrot.
4 vol. Paris: Les Bibliophiles de l'Originale,
1967-71.
227


37
usually omits them. In discussing Mrs. Shandy's preference
for a midwife, Toby says, "My sister, I dare say [ . ]
does not care to let a man come so near her ****" (W, II,
vi, 100). Sterne goes on to say, "I will not say whether
my uncle Toby had completed the sentence or not; 'tis
for his advantage to suppose he had, a?, I think, he
could have added no ONE WORD which would have improved
it." He elaborates on the importance of "small particles"
of eloquence (there are many innuendos throughout the
passage), repeats Toby's phrase and the asterisks, then
says, "Make this dash, 'tis an Aposiopesis. Take the
dash away and write Backside, 'tis Bawdy. Scratch
Backside out, and put Cover'd-way in, 'tis a Metaphor;
and, I dare say, as fortification ran so much in my
uncle Toby1s head, that if he had been left to have added
one word to the sentence,that word was it" (W, II, vii,'
100-101). Frenis settles the question by translating
the phrase under discussion as "ma sceur ne veut apparem-
ment pas qu'un homme l'approche de si pres (B,
I, xxxiii, 156); he cuts out all of the discussion imme
diately following (all that is summarised above is left out).
There are instances where Frenis does allow
some of Sterne's ribaldry to come through. In Slawken-
bergius's Tale, much of the preliminary discussion of
noses is retained (though much is cut). Within the tale
itself, Frenis cuts some of the most obviously suggestive
parts, such as "every finger every thumb in Strasburg


38
burned to touch it (W, IV, 255-56), but many innuendos
are kept.
Another episode in which Frenis only half
expurgates Sterne's bawdiness is that in which Trim takes
Bridget on a nocturnal survey of the fortifications.
Frenis cuts out the preparatory paragraph concluding
with "now and then, though never but when it could be
done with decorum, [Trim] would give Bridget a "
(W, III, xxiv, 209). The ensuing scene, where Trim
steps too near the fosse and falls in, breaking down
the drawbridge and falling on top of Bridget, is replete
with sexual byplay. Although Frenis does add some re
sistance on Bridget's part, the scene is essentially
unchanged. Frenis even goes so far here as to add a
few words about a "contusion que mamselle Brigite avait
regue au haut de la cuisse," a particularly Shandean
addition (B, II, xlvi, 126). At the end of the anec
dote, related on several occasions by Trim to Walter,
who would listen "smiling mysteriously," "It was a thou
sand to one, my uncle Toby would add, that the poor fellow
did not break his leg. Ay truly! my father would say,
a limb is soon broke, brother Toby, in such encounters"
(W, III, xxiv, 211). This last is rendered simply "une
jambe [ . ] est bientt casse" (B, II, xlvi, 125-26).
The rest of this chapter in Sterne, which is made a new
chapter by Frenis, is partly taken up with a panegyric,
by Walter, "on the BATTERING-RAMS of the ancients."


50
"a man in the Romish church may live as badly; but then
he cannot easily die so. 'Tis little matter, replied my
father, with an air of indifference, how a rascal dies.
1 mean, answer'd Dr. Slop, he would be denied the bene
fits of the last sacraments." Toby asks how many sacra
ments there are. Upon learning there are seven, he replies
"Humph! [ . ] tho' not accented as a note of acquies
cence,but as an interjection of that particular species
of surprize, when a man, in looking into a drawer, finds
more of a thing than he expected. [ . ] Dr. Slop, who
had an ear, understood my uncle Toby as well, as if he had
wrote a whole volume against the seven sacraments." Slop
becomes defensive, and cites all of the other phenomena
that occur in sevens: planets, mortal sins, heavens, end
ing with seven plagues. "That there are, quoth my father,
with a most affected gravity" (W, II, xvii, 129). The
absurdity of Slop's argument and the not-so-subtle contempt
for it shown by Toby and Walter make a poor case for
Catholicism; Frenis omits the entire passage (B, I, xlvii,
203). One more interruption in the sermon deals directly
with Catholicism. "Amongst us," says Slop, "a man's con
science could not possible continue so long blinded;
three times in a year, at least, he must go to confession.
Will that restore it to sight? quoth my uncle Toby" (W, II,
xvii, 130). Slop is given no chance to reply. This ex
change is suppressed by Frenis (B, I, xlviii, 206).
Another more direct attack on Catholicism, in


193
due to Mrs. Shandy's passive agreement with all that he
says, thus giving his argument no real power; Adolphe in
Balzac is powerless, too, as he cannot persuade his wife
that he is right. Both scenes clearly imply sexual impo
tence. That is most striking here, though, is the form and
rhythm of the dialogue. It is safe to say, I think, that
Balzac had Sterne in mind.
The stylistic methods that I have discussed are
essentially comic, as would be expected when dealing with
an author like Sterne, who, despite critical controversy,
emerges clearlyeven in Balzac's mindas a satirist.
Sterne's mannerisms, we have seen, show up clearly and
with little change in Balzac's essentially satiric and
non-fictional works, such as Petites Miseres de la vie
conjgale, Physiologie du mariage, and Thorie de la de
marche They are frequent as well, with some modification,
in the parts of the Comedie humaine which, though closely
tied in with the regular world of the Comedie, are light
in conception and execution, such as Un Prince de la Bo-
heme Mien Sterne's devices turn up in works that are
central to Balzac's deepest concernsthe truly great
works such as La Cousine Bette and Pere Goriotthey have
undergone transformations that make them express not comedy
or satire, but the serious, even tragic, concerns at the
center of the Comedie humaine. Taken by itself, for
example, Crevel's posing is laughable seen in the light
of Adeline's Christlike suffering, it is not.


202
de ces circonstances" (VI, 69); and "La nature avait voulu
faire de ce petit tre une femme, les circonstances de la
conception lui prterent la figure et le corps d'un garln"
(VI, 70). Here the connection between the actual conception
and the personality is clearly made; we are no longer deal
ing in commonplaces about the effects during pregnancy on
the unborn child, but with an idea that is somewhat unique
to Sterne. And we are again on the difficult ground of
Balzac's seeming to take seriously an idea that Sterne
advances in jest.
In the Physiologie du mariage, the question of
conception is treated lightly, much in the spirit of Sterne.
And here Balzac has Sterne constantly in mind. A group of
wise men are discussing the importance of the marriage bed;
it is immediately linked to conception:
Les mysteres de la conception, messieurs, sont
encore envelopps de tnebres que la science
moderne n'a que faiblement dissips. Nous ne
savons jusqu'a que'1 point les circonstances
extrieurs agissent sur les animaux microsco-
piques [...]. L'imperfection du lit ren-
ferme une question musicale de la plus haute
importance, et, pour mon compte, je declare que
je viens d'crire en Italie pour obtenir des
renseignements certains sur la maniere dont
les lits y sont gnralement tablis . .
Nous saurons incessamment, s'il y a beaucoup
de tringles, de vis, de roulettes, si les con
structions en sont plus vicieuses dans ce pays
que partout ailleurs, et si la scheresse des
bois due a 1'action du soleil, ne produit pas,
ab ovo, l'harmonie dont les Italiens ont le
sentiment inn . (Phy, II, 10-11; VII, 448;
not in PhyPo)
Even were it not for the four direct references to Sterne


82
his hand as a novelist, and Sterne remained one of Balzac's
favorite authors throughout his life.
Genevieve Delattre makes a valid point when she
writes that "la traduction ne lui permettait pas de juger
du style a proprement parler, plutt du ton general adopt
par l'crivain, de sa maniere d'ahorder les portraits des
15
personnages." Nonetheless, it may be the very exaggera
tion of some of Sterne's devicesdirect address to the
reader, dialogue with the reader, or the myriad other idio
syncrasies of his presentationthat caused them to stick
so firmly in Balzac's mind.


104
hobby-horse: "Enfin, en langage ordinaire, il tait amoureux,
il ne voyait qu'une seule chose, c'est-a-dire l'ceil fripon
de Rosalie" (WC, I, 90). The hobby-horse will return in full
force, however, in the Comedie humaine.
One of Sterne's most imitated devices is the lacuna.
These range in length from omitted words to blank pages. In
translation, the lacunae are frequently omitted or distorted;
as I have shown above, many of the shorter gaps are either
circumvented or filled in by the translators. The most
significant change, at least with reference to Balzac, is
Frenis's and de Bonnay's supplying of suspension points
where Sterne uses either dashes, asterisks, or simply blank
pages. In only a few instances do the translators of Tris
tram Shandy use the blank page; more often in the large
lacunae one finds lines of dots.
Balzac has picked up the use of full lines of
suspension points, and he uses them most often in his lighter
style, often combined with Sterne-like asides and admonitions
to the reader. They frequently infer sexual contact. Typical
of this type of break is one in Jean Louis:
Il lui offre galamment la main, pour rentrer
dans le boudoir .... lis y sont, la porte se
referme, et .
0 vous lecteur3, vous surtout sensibles
lectrices, ne vous effrayez pas de ces trois lignes
de points. (JL, II, 56)
Or in Clotilde de Lusignan: "La femme triomphait [. . ].
Le pauvre Nepthaly ne se doutait pas qu'il n'entra au chteau


137
monde est assez grand pour te contenir, toi et moi. "
(B, I, xxxix, 178; W, II, xii, 113). In L'Envers de l'his-
toire contemporaine, we find "le bonhomme Alain! lui qui,
semblable a l'oncle Tobie de Sterne, n'crasait pas une
mouche aprs avoir t piqu vingt fois par elle!" (V, 421).
To Balzac, sentiment of this type is not the salient feature
of Sterne. He does, however, admire Toby's character, and
in the Monographie du rentier, in summing up some of the
virtues of a class that he has just thoroughly satirized,
he writes, "Pauvre argile d'ou ne sort jamais le crime,
dont les vertus sont indites et parfois sublimes! car-
rire ou Sterne a taill la belle figure de mon onde Tobie,
. 14
et d'ou j'ai tire les Birotteau." It is interesting to
see how often Balzac refers to Toby as "mon onde" or
"notre onde."
Balzac also refers to Toby indirectly. In Les
Chouans, Gua St.-Cyr, a rather hobby-horsical character,
frequently softly whistles revolutionary songs, reminis
cent of Toby's whistling of Lillabullero. In the preface
to an early version of this novel Balzac speaks of "sif-
flant a leurs oreilles [to critics] la lilla-burello de
mon onde le capitaine Tobie Shandy" (V, 762); this is the
spelling used in the French translation of Tristram Shandy
(sometimes hyphenated, sometimes all one word). This cita
tion makes me feel strongly that St.-Cyr's whistling is
related to Toby's.


228
. Cfeuvres completes de M. de Balzac. Ed. Jean A.
Ducourneau. I. Paris: Les Bibliophiles de
l'Originale, 1965.
. Cfeuvres diverses. Ed. Marcel Bouteron and Henri
Longnon. Cfeuvres completes de Honor de Balzac,
XXXVIII-XL. Paris: Gonard, 1935-40.
. Physiologie du mariage. 2 vol. Paris: Urbain
Ganel, [1829].
. Physiologie du mariage pre-originale. Ed. Maurice
Bardeche. Paris: Droz, 1940.
. Romans de jeunesse. 14 vol. 1822-25; rpt. Paris:
Les Bibliophiles de l'Originale, 1961-63.
. Stnie, ou les erreurs philosophiques. Ed. A.
Prioult. Paris: G. Courville, 1936.
. Theatre Ed. Ren Guise. Gfeuvres completes de
M. de Balzac, XXI-XIII. Paris: Les Bibliophiles
de l'Originale, 1969-70.
Barbris, Pierre. Aux Sources de Balzac: les romans de
ieuness^. Paris: Les Bibliophiles de l'Originale,
1965.
________ Balzac et le mal du sicle. 2 vol. Paris:
Gallimard, 1970.
Bardeche, Maurice. Balzac, romaneier 1940; rpt. Geneve:
Slatkine, 1967.
Barriere, P. Honor de Balzac et la tradition littraire
classique. Paris: Hachette, 1928.
Barton, Francis Brown. Etude sur 1'influence de Laurence
Sterne en France au dix-huitieme sicle. Paris:
Hachette, 1911.
. "Laurence Sterne and Charles Nodier," Modern
Philology, 14 (1916), 217-28.
. "Laurence Sterne and Thophile Gautier," Modern
Philology, 16 (1918), 205-12.
Biographie universelle.
Paris: Madame
Nouvelle d., J. F. Michaud.
C. Desplaces, 1843-65.


218
Their conversations are reminiscent of some of the ex
changes between Toby and Trim:
Ah! ja se ferait comme qa, dit Lemulqui-
nier en contemplant son maitre avec admiration.
Or, reprit Balthazar apres une pause,
la conbinaison est soumise a 1'influence de cette
pile qui peut agir . .
Si monsieur veut, Je vais en augmenter
l'effet . .
Non, non, il faut la laisser telle qu'elle
est. Le repos et le temps sont des conditions
essentielles a la cristallisation . .
Parbleu, faut qu'elle prenne son temps,
cette cristallisation, s'cria le valet de cham
bre [...] (VI, 668)
Lemulquinier is totally absorbed in the hobby-horsical ob
session of his master, Just as is Trim. But how far this
is from Toby and Trim's "innocent" pleasures, even as des
cribed by Balzac himself: "J'eus une complete idee de la
joie avec laquelle l'oncle Tobie enfourchait, Trim aidant,
son cheval de bataille" (Autre tude de femme, II, 445).
Claes' obsession causes financial ruin and the destruction
of the family, two of the greatest possible disasters in
Balzac's world.
The connection between Claes' obsession and Toby's
may be further substantiated by several direct mentions of
Sterne in the course of the novel, including one where Claes
is trying to divert his daughter: "[...] Marguerite.
Margarita? [ . ] ton nom est une prophtie. Margarita
veut dire une perle. Sterne a dit cela quelque part. As-
tu lu Sterne? veux-tu un Sterne? in original edition, 1834). Citron, in'a footnote to this


15
Gautier seem3 to have tried out various gimmicks from
Sterne, but he did not ever absorb them into techniques.
Sterne, then, was very much a part of French
literary consciousness in Balzac's time, although most
of his imitators were content to draw sentiment and
trickery from Sterne rather than any concrete ideas or
techniques. Balzac seems to have recognized more clearly
than his contemporaries that, as Genevieve Delattre puts
it, "la technique de Sterne [ . ] offre une infinite
de modeles selon qu'on y tudie le dialogue, l'art de la
digression, le style pistolaire, le rcit a la premiere
55
personne, et bien d'autres encore. Tout y est."
There is some question as to when Balzac first
read Sterne. In an article on Une Heure de ma vie, a
very early short work by Balzac, Roland Chollet asserts
that Balzac did not read Sterne until the end of 1821,
after he wrote L'Heritiere de Birague, "qui n'accuse
guere 1'influence du grand crivain anglais que dans
une epigraphs ajoute sur preuve."' I observe, however,
a number of other characteristics of Sterne in L'Heritiere
de Birague: the introduction, with its many ellipses (which
Chollet says may have been added later), the hobby-horsical
characters of Chanclos and Vieille-Roche, and the similarity
of the chapter with the Sterne epigraph to an episode in
Tristram Shandy. I feel that Balzac had probably read at
least Tristram Shandy before writing L'Heritiere de Birague.


This dissertation was submitted to the Department of
Romance Languages and Literatures in the College of
Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate Council, and
was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
August, 1973
Dean, Graduate School


111
Sterne is almost alone, though, in addressing individual
readers, rather informally and suddenly as "sir" or "madam,"
rather than in the common impersonal way as "reader" or
"dear reader." Sterne's asides involve the reader deeply
in the progress of the work, chide him (or her) for inat
tention, even ask the reader for aid. The reader's answer
to Tristram occasionally appears (the translators have
greatly exaggerated this particular device). All of these
uses of asides appear in early Balzac. In her letter of
1822, complaining about Sterne's bad influence on her son,
Madame Balzac writes: "Lorsqu'il parle aux lecteurs, c'est
17
toujours d'un mauvais gout."
In Balzac's Code des gens honnetes, a short work
published in 1825, we find much informal address to the
reader, in a Sternean manner: "Figurez-vous un moment que
vous avez une maison (peut-tre que vous n'avez pas le sou,
1 fi
qu'importe! figurez-vous-le; cela fait toujours plaisir)."
Such informality appears throughout the work. Also as in
Tristram Shandy, the dedication is placed within the body
19
of the work. Of Balzac's early Codes, Bruce Tolley says,
"Ces Codes sont places sous le signe de Gall et Lavater, de
20
Sterne et Brillat-Savarin."
Jean Louis, the lightest in style of Balzac's
early novels, shows the strongest traces of Sterne in this
manner, but asides appear in all the novels. Only in Jean
Louis, however, is the sudden aside to "madame" or "monsieur"
common.


105
que parce que la nuit derniere le concierge n'avait pas
prudes, je m'arrete! . .
(CL, III, 272).
The lacuna for sex also occurs in Balzacs more
serious style; we find such breaks in Le Vicaire des Ar
dennes Le Centenaire, and Annette et le criminel; for
example:
Finette vient de fermer la chambre conjgale,
et madame de Rosann versant une larme, se retire.
Si Finette a souri, je puis aussi sourire! mais
aussi je dois l'imiter, et mettre le verrou sur
tout ce qu'il m'est loisible de penser. Souriez
done si vous voulez? . que votre imagination
s'exerce sur la lacune que je laisse! remplis-
sez cette feuille d'idees volupteuses? . .
quant a moi, je n'en ferai rien, car j'aime trop
Melanie, et 1'avenir m'effraie
(VA, IV, 185-86)
Balzac has, in these later novels, converted Sterne's comic
device into a serious one.
The lacuna lends itself to many uses. In one place
in his early work, Balzac uses it to cover scatology:
En entendant ces funestes paroles, le pauvre
docteur
Trouvez bon, lecteurs, que cette lacune vous tienne
lieu de ce que rapporte l'histoire. En effet, bien
que 1'action de Trousse soit tres naturelle, et
mrae priodique chez les hommes et chez les femmes,
la politesse fran^aise de nos jours veut que l'on
supprime ces menus details, dont nos bons ai'eux
tiraient leurs plaisanteries. (CL, IV, 23-24)
The lacuna also covers unpresentable words as well as acts:
(ceci remplace l'effroyable jurn
If


217
see the true destructive force of the monomania. Like
Gambara and Cane, Goriot is cruelly ridiculed by those
around him; it is difficult even for the sensitive Eugene
to maintain sympathy, though he finally does.
Goriot's monomania ultimately destroys him. The
destruction caused by his obsession is limited, though,
only to himself, except insofar as his indulgence has
caused his daughters' selfishness. In La Recherche de
l'absolu the power of the monomaniac to destroy the lives
of those around him emerges in full force. It is in this
novel that the evolution from hobby-horse to monomania
is most clear. Although Balzac does not ever use the
term dada to describe Claes' obsession, hobby-horsical
imagery appears: "II continua a parler sans voir 1'hor
rible convulsion qui travailla la physionomie de Josephine.
II tait mont sur la Science qui l'emportait en croupe,
ailes dploys, bien loin du monde materiel" (VI, 636).
Here the blindness to others caused by the mania reaches
tragic proportions; it finally causes the death of Claes'
wife.
The other clear bridge between Claes' monomania
and Sterne's use of the hobby-horse is in Claes' relation
ship with his servant Lemulquinier. Just as Trim partici
pates with enthusiasm and dedication in Toby's wars, Le
mulquinier devotes his life to Claes' experiments: "Ces
deux vieillards envelopps d'une idee [...]" (VI, 672).


139
dramatique, fit sortir de la bouche de Minoret-Levrault"
(II, 462). Like Sterne, Balzac amuses us by letting us
imagine what horrible language his characters have used.
Balzac mentions Eliza Draper twice, further proof
that he read more of Sterne than just the novels; some "Let-
tres de Yorick a Eliza" appear in the 1803 edition of Sterne,
and one section of the spurious Memoires is entitled "Eliza
ou la Confucius femme." In the Physiologie du mariage,
Balzac refers, in passing, to Eliza's divorce (on a page
that contains three other references to Sterne) (Phy, II,
14; VII, 448; not in PhyPo). In Modeste Mignon, Eliza
takes on much more importance; to Modeste she becomes
symbolic: "L'histoire de Sterne et d'Eliza Draper fit
sa vie et sa bonheur pendant quelques mois. Devenue en
idee l'hroine d'un roman pareil, plus d'une fois elle
tudia le role sublime d'Eliza. L'admirable sensibilit,
si gracieusement exprime dans cette correspondance,
mouilla ses yeux de larmes qui manqurent, dit-on, dans
les yeux du plus spirituel des auteurs anglais" (I, 206;
in original edition, 1844) It is interesting that here
Balzac no longer believes in Sterne's tears (see below,
pp. 204-05). Although Eliza Draper is but a minor part
of Sterne's life and work, it should not surprise us that
Balzac would be interested in her, since the two major
loves of his life were married women.
In the Comedie humaine, Balzac recalls, though


108
[ one paragraph ]
Mais en voila bien assez aussi sur les
pieds, le corps et les jambes du^caporal Trim.
II tenoit son sermon avec lgret, sans
negligence. C'est un soin qu'il avoit confi
a sa main gauche, tandis que son bras droit
tomboit ngligemment le long de son cote, selon
les lois de la nature et de la gravit; et il
faut remarquer que cette main toit ouverte,
tourne vers ses auditeurs, et prte, au besoin,
a aider le sentiment. (B, I, xliv, 192-93; W,
II, xvii, 122-23)
Throughout the romans de jeunesse we find similar
descriptions of gesture and attitude, perhaps inspired by
16
Sterne. For example, in Le Vicaire des Ardennes: "Ce
domestique tait debout, la serviette sous le bras, plac
juste en face du jeune prtre; il ne se soutenait que sur
un pied, sa tete lgrement courbe suivant la pente gn-
rale du corps; cette inclinaison ajoutait encore a l'ironie
qu'exprimait son visage" (VA, III, 2). The use of "pente
gnrale du corps" here is particularly reminiscent of
Sterne's description of Trim. Other details of Trim's
attitude are recalled in Wann-Chlore: "Horace regarda
machinalement le feu; sa tete tait tristement appuye
sur la paume de sa main droite, dont le coude posait 3ur
son fauteuil, et sa main gauche pendante annon^ait par son
immobilit une bien forte proccupation." This description
is directly followed by one of the pose of Horace's servant,
Nikel: "La, posant son coude sur la manche de son balai,
il ne se soutint plus que sur la jambe gauche, autour de
laquelle il entortilla sa jambe droite; se contemplant
alors un instant dans la glace, il se trouva si bonne grace,


206
est toujours mesquine auprs du sentiment; l'une est na-
turellement borne, comme tout ce qui est positif, et 1'au
tre est infini. Raisonner la ou il faut sentir est le propre
des mes sans porte" (La Femme de trente ans, II, 185).
Or, as another example, "le sentiment rapproche les distan
ces mora.les qu'a crs la socit" (Honorine, I, 565).
Balzac is, after all, a man of his age, when delicacy of
feeling was a strong positive moral value.
Balzac puts his ideas of sentiment to use in a
number of works. We find strong sentimental auras around
certain characters, some of them fairly clearly related to
Sternean characters, particularly Toby. In La Oousine Bette,
for example, which takes place in a world governed by lust,
social class and money (even Adeline's problems relate at
least as much to class and money as they do to any delicacy
of feeling), one character stands away from these concerns:
Marshal Hulot. Like Toby, Marshal Hulot's peak in life is
his military career. Although it is not an obsession with
him as it is with Toby, still the marshal uses militarism
as his main frame of reference. If it is not the central
subject of his discourse, as it is with Toby, it is at
least the basis of his moral code and a constant source
of metaphor. We see the aura of sentiment around Hulot
especially in his dealings with people outside the family.
His farewell to the Prince de Wissembourg, for example:
[ . ] le prince embrassa le marchal.
II me semble que je dis adieu, dit-il,


112
Tristram declares early in Tristram Shandy that
"[1'auteur] doit respecter la penetration et le jugement
du lecteur, et lui laisser toujours le plaisir d'imaginer
et de deviner quelque chose [...]. J'ai toujours soin
de laisser a 1'imagination de ceux qui me lisent, un ali
ment propre a la soutenir dans une activit qui gale la
mienne" (B, I, xxxviii, 170; W, II, xi, 109)* Tristram is
true to this precept; various times in the course of the
work he calls on the reader's imagination, as in the des
cription of the Widow Wadman: "la veuve Wadman
-mais je veux que vous fassiez vous-meme son portrait.
Voici une plume, de 1'enere et du papier: asseyez-vous,
monsieur, et peignez-la a votre fantaisie. Comme votre
maitresse, si vous pouvez, et non comme votre femme, si
votre conscience vous le permet. Au reste, ne suivez que
votre gout; je ne pretends point gner votre imagination"
(B, III, lxxxii, 222; W, VI, xxxviii, 470-71). The follow
ing two pages are left blank. Balzac asks his reader for
similar aid: "encore une fois, madame, j'aurai recours a
votre ardente imagination pour que vous vous reprsentiez
lonie tombant dans un fauteuil" (Jl, III, 126). This is
in direct contrast to the minute detailing of gesture seen
elsewhere. The contrast can be seen as a sort of stylistic
polarizationnot content with the ordinary, Balzac and
Sterne are drawn to both extremely detailed and extremely
cryptic modes of description. Similarly, in le Centenaire,


209
maudit: "Pour lui, quelle grandeur dans ces riensj" (VII,
37). The idea of "grandeur dans les riens" is so central
to Balzac's method that it would be difficult to maintain
that it came only from Sterne. Some of the stylistic de
vices used in carrying it out, however, particularly cer
tain types of description (see above, pp. 107-10, and
169-73) relate clearly enough to Sterne that we can
safely say that Sterne influenced Balzac's method of
presenting such details, even if Balzac may not have
gotten the idea of such presentation from Sterne.
"Lorsqu'un une passion tyrannise un homme, ou,
ce qui est la merne chose, quand il se laisse emporter par
son dada cheri, la raison, la prudence, n'ont plus d'em
pire sur lui; elles 1'abandonnent" (B, I, xxxii, 144; W,
II, v, 93). Sentiment and extravagant ideas about names
and conception are handled satirically by Sterne. Al
though the hobby-horse is also satiric in its working out,
it can be seen to be a serious idea of Sterne. The problems
a man encounters because of a ruling passion are real prob
lems; the consequences, even though we are invited to laugh
at themsuch as Tristram's "circumcision" by the window-
sash because of Trim's theft of the lead weightare real
consequences, much more concrete than the misfortunes of
Tristram's misnaming or his botched conception. The tra
gic effects on a man's soul are made explicit in the ser
mon on conscience (B, I, xlvii, 200; W, II, xvii, 127).


42
"the corporal kept up (as it were) a continual firing,"
etc. (B, III, xli, 114; W, V, xl, 399). All of Sterne's
double meaning is destroyed by the translation of that one
word.
Yet although de Bonnay shies away from some words,
others he allows to pass. And in one instance, he supplies
a word that Sterne has left out; "The old mule let a f "
becomes "la vieille mule fit un pet" (B, IV, viii, 25;
W, VII, xxii, 508).
De Bonnay, like Frenis, often changes figures
of speech. "She looks at her outsideI at her in "
becomes "Elle regarde une chose par un cote; je la regarde
par un autre" (B, III, xxvi, 84; W, V, xxiv, 382). Where
Walter Shandy is discussing the requirements for a tutor,
de Bonnay leaves out certain of the niceties demanded.
The passage is set up just as Sterne has it, but these
requirements are left out: the tutor is not to "pick [his
nose], or blow it with his fingers"} "nor (according to
Erasmus) shall he speak to anyone in making water, nor
shall he point to carrion or excrement" (B, III, xlix,
134; W, VI, v, 415). At least as often as de Bonnay censors
Sterne, however, he preserves or enhances one of Sterne's
innuendos. Thus during the "whiskers" tale, where Sterne
says "De Croix had failed in an attempt to recommend him
self to la Rebours," de Bonnay writes "De Croix avait donn
mince opinion de lui a la Rebours dans une occasion essen-
tielle" (B, III, iii, 18; W, V, i, 345); the use of an


207
a toute la grande arme en ta personne . .
Adieu done, mon bon et vieux camarade!
dit le ministre.
Oui, adieu, car je vais ou sont tous
ceux de nos soldats que nous avons pleurs
. . (V, 124)
And the reaction of the invalides as the marshal passes
them every day, which is illuminated for us by a vignette
of an old soldier explaining the marshal's exploits to a
gamin, emphasizing Hulot's humanity and humility (V, 119),
increases this aura of sentiment.
Le Colonel Chabert is one of Balzac's most senti
mental works. The entire plot turns on the delicacy of
the colonel's feelings, and the colonel himself expresses
a kind of sentimentalist's credo: "Enfin, ajouta-t-il en
faisant un geste plein d'enfantillage, il vaut mieux avoir
du luxe dans ses sentiments que dans ses habits" (II, 332).
This pervading sentimental atmosphere leads Balzac to such
statements as, when the colonel's pipe breaks: "Les anges
auraient peut-tre ramass les morceaux" (II, 321). This
sort of extravagance sends one back to some of the treatment
of Toby:
II ne mourra pas! s'cria mon onde Tobie.
Non, par le Dieu vivant! II ne mourra pas.
L'esprit dlateur, qui vola a la chancellerie
du ciel avec le jurement de mon onde Tobie, rou-
git en le dposant; et l'ange qui tient les regis
tres, laissa tomber une larme sur le mot en l'cri-
vant, et l'effa$a pour jamais. (B, III, lii, 153
W, VI, viii, 425)
Given the similarity of these two short passages, the fact


CONCLUSION
Sterne remained an integral part of Balzac's
literary consciousness throughout his writing career.
Balzac cites and imitates Sterne in his first published
work, in 1822, and continues to mention him regularly
until his last year of writing, 1348. Sterne is, to
Balzac, a source of characters, techniques, and ideas,
as we have seen.
In dating Balzac's many direct references to
the English author, I find a heavy concentration of cita
tions in 1829 and 1830, when he was writing the first
Etudes analytiques; this concentration is, I believe,
due to the nature of the works themselves, rather than
to any upsurge of interest of Balzac in Sterne at the
time. Balzac wrote the Physiologie du mariage when such
works were in vogue; his enduring interest in Sterne
simply served this mode. From this point on, scarcely
a year passes without the appearance of a direct ref
erence to Sterne somewhere in Balzac's work. A few years,
1839 and 1844, for example, bring particularly numerous
citations of Sterne and his characters, but I strongly
feel that this was simply because the type of characters
Balzac was creating happened to bring Sterne to mind often.
223


took these ideas. The characters themselves have been a
source of humor throughout the novel, so anything that Balzac
says of them is likely to bethough not necessarilyface
tious. The explanation of the characters of the three men
is immediately followed in the text by a linking of the
woes of the king of Cyprus to the mothers of his three fol
lowers, and Balzac then argues for an endless chain of
cause and effect: "Je remonterai jusqu'a la creation, et
je prouverais qu'elle est la cause premiere des vnemens
dont vous allez lire le rcit" (CL, II, 202). Balzac then
examines the reactions of his readers to the discourse.
He expects half of them to laugh. The other half is divided
into quarters: "Un quart de moiti sera pyrrhonien, et dira
qu'il y a du pour et du contre, et ils seront sages [ . ]
le second quart sera compose de gens qui voudront passer
pour savans, et qui diront que j'ai raison, en employant
beaucoup d'esprit: je les felicite d'avoir de l'esprit; le
troisieme quart renfermera des penseurs philosophes; et le
dernier quart de3 originaux qui me croiront plus de talent
que je n'en ai . . Ce quart sera le plus faible" (CL,
II, 204). There follows a long discourse, ironic and some
times bitter, on subtle causes of historical events. For
example: "Se les sens d'une jeune filie mue par je ne sais
quoi, n'avait produit un reve fantasque, la France n'eut
pas t sauve, nous serions devenus Anglais, et au lieu
de mot au plaisir consacr, nous aurions dit goddem!


40
opposed to the suggestive wordplay in Tristram Shandy.
At one point, he even makes a direct statement to this
effect. In need of a figure of speech to describe wit
and judgement, diametrical opposites to Tristram, Sterne
chooses "farting and hickuping" (W, III, xx, 193) In
the French, Frenis uses "le mensonge et la verit, 1'in
difference et 1'amour." He then adds (there is no equiv
alent in Sterne), "Est-il ncessaire de toucher aux deux
extrmits du monde pour faire des comparaisons? celles-
ci claircissent tout aussi bien la matire" (B, II, xxix,
94). These two sentences seem to be a sudden outburst
of impatience and indignation with Sterne. They are an
open statement of Frenis*s prudishness, obvious from a
comparison of the two texts.
De Bonnay exercises less censorship. He 3till
avoids some words. Cod-piece gives him some difficulty
(as it does to Frenis, who laments, during the Phutatorius
incident, the lack of an equivalent in French [B, II, xciv,
258; W, IV, xvii, 320]); where Walter Shandy "clapped both
his hands on his cod-piece," de Bonnay gives us "Mon pre
frappa des deux mains sur ses cuisses" (B, IV, xiii, 37;
W, VII, xxvii, 514). In the episode of the channel cros
sing, the woman who ends up "undone," is, in de Bonnay,
simply "tres mal" (B, III, lxxxvi, 229; W, VII, ii, 481).
The effect of the words bougre and foutre (which Sterne
renders as bouger and fouter) on which the abbess of
Andouillets scene is built, is supposedly circumvented


81
In sum, both A Sentimental Journey and Tristram
Shandy underwent change in translation, particularly Tris
tram Shandy. Sterne's anti-Catholicism has been expurgated.
The ribaldry of Tristram has been greatly weakened; that of
the Journey, so much more subtle, has emerged almost comr-
pletely intact. Frenis has put into Sterne's mouth some
uncharacteristic attacks on the philosophes,including
Diderot, who was Sterne's friend. While the idiosyncrasies
of typography in Tristram Shandy have been sharply reduced,
and lacunae have generally been filled in or skipped, most
of Sterne's other unique traits of style and presentation
have been exaggerated, especially in Frenis's part of
Tristram. Two devices have been added to Tristram Shandy:
humorous chapter titles and the occasional setting up of
dialogue as drama.
Many of Sterne's ideas, however, whether whimsi
cal (the importance of names) or serious (the hobby-horse),
have remained intact. His detailed descriptions and his
comic-encyclopedic style remain. The bizarre inhabitants
of Shandy Hall, as well as Dr. Slop and Yorick, come through
in all their original clarity. Even the manner of narration
is based on Sterne's own devices, although they are fre
quently much exaggerated in the translation of Tristram
Shandy. Despite the imperfections of the translation,
these worksparticularly Tristram Shandywere unique
and exciting to the young Balzac, just beginning to try


64
books has been ignored; chapter numbers begin anew in each
separate volume of the Bastien edition. Both translators
break up long chapters into shorter ones. In Tristram
Shandy there is a total of 312 chapters; in the Bastien
edition there are 351.
Frenis's choice of chapter titles is capricious
and idiosyncratic. Although he does use some simple titles,
such as "La dissertation" (B, I, xl, 182;,W,! II, xii, 116),
"Trim" (B, I, xxxii, 144; W, II, v, 93)> and "Dialogue"
(B, I, liii, 224; W, II, xvii [mid-chapter], 140), many
of his chapter headings are attempts at whimsey. Thus
he entitles the first chapter, which concerns Tristram's
conception, "C'est bien a cela qu'il fallait penser" (B,
i, 1; W, I, i, 4). Frenis frequently uses in a chapter
title pronouns which refer to something in either the
preceding or the ensuing chapter: "En voila l'effet" (B,
I, iii, 5; W, I, iii, 6), or "Elle est renverse" (B, II,
xxvii, 74; W, III, xii [mid-chapter], 183) This type
of title is often confusing, since its meaning is frequently
not clear until after the chapter is read. Frenis's
efforts at cleverness are often wasted.
Similarly, Frenis occasionally makes a chapter
title a rejoinder that would fit at the end of the chapter;
here is the entire text of a chapter which Frenis entitles
"Ni moi non plus":
En verit, frre Tobie, s'loria mon pre,
je n'y congois rien. II n'y a encore que deux


211
horse to be a universal human trait: "Comme il est diffi
cile a tout le monde, mme a un prtre, de vivre sans un
dada" (Le Cur de Tours, III, 63; in original edition,
1832). This idea does not always include the word dada:
"II est impossible qu'un homme n'ait pas une manie" (Phy,
II, 215; VII, 482; not in PhyPo), and "Chacun prche pour
son saint" (Le Cure du Village, VI, 276). As a universal
trait, the dada poses no particular problem in a person's
life; it is simply a part of human personality and thought.
In this light, it is even possible to have more than one:
"Si ce mouton n'est qu'une bte, il faut que l'homrae re
nonce au plus joli dada de son curie philosophique" (Les
Martyrs ignores, VI, 428). This sort of hobby-horse has
several effects. It is, as in Sterne, an obstacle to com
munication: "Pendant que le vin de Chypre dliait toutes
les langues et que chacun caracolait sur son -dada favori
[...]" (Massimilla Doni, VI, 575); here we see a group
of people going off in different directions. The universal
hobby-horse also allows people to manipulate one another
on a social level; in Pierrette, Madame Tiphaine's social
success is partly due to the fact that "elle satisfaisait
tous les amours-propres, caressait les dadas de chacun:
grave avec les gens graves, jeune filie avec les jeunes
filies [...]" (Ill, 17). At the beginning of Illusions
perdues, Lucien realizes this function of the hobby-horse
as he begins his liaison with Madame de.Bargeton: "Puis il


54
pay for going by OYL" is left out in the translation (B, IV,
xx, 59; W, VII, xxiv, 527). A reference to "Saint Boogar
and all the saints at the backside of the door of purgatory"
is changed to "Saint-Ignace de Loyola, et tous ses suppots,"
a fashionable slur on the Jesuits (B, IV, xxix, 78; W, VII,
xliii, 537). And again, when speaking of a fit of laughter
which caused pulmonary bleeding, Tristram attributes the
laughter to "seeing a cardinal make water like a quirster
(with both hands)," while in de Bonnay, it is simply "la
posture ridicule d'un cardinal" (B, IV, xxxv, 91; W, VII,
vi, 545).
The only other change touching on religion that
de Bonnay makes is in the course of a passage on maypoles.
The passage is quite suggestive; clearly Sterne is making
jokes about the phallic nature of the maypole: "The French
women, by the bye, love May-poles, a la folie that is,
as much as their matins give 'em but a May-pole, whether
in May, June, July, or September they never count the
times down it goes 'tis meat, drink, washing and lodging
to 'em (W, VII, xxxviii, 530). The passage is translated
fairly closely; however, instead of loving maypoles "as
much as their matins," les Francoises aiment les mais
a la folie .... presque autant que leurs petits chiens"
B, IV, xxiv, 65). This may simply be a mistake in de Bon
nay; while the English word for morning services is matins,
in French it is matines. The word matin in French means
guard dog.


226
contributed to Balzac's satiric style, and it is evident
from thi3 fact, from the type of authors Balzac groups
Sterne with in a list, and particularly from what he says
about Sterne, that he considered the English author to be
primarily a satiric writer rather than a sentimental one.
While Sterne may not be the most important con
tributor to Balzac's developmentI feel that Balzac's
debt to Scott and Rabelais is greaterhis importance in
the development of Balzac's light, satiric style cannot
be overlooked. The many references to Sterne's characters
add relief and interest to Balzac's narratives, and Walter
Shandy's extravagant ideas on names fed right into Balzac's
interest in the occultthese are important debts. But
perhaps the most important contribution Sterne made to
Balzac is the hobby-horse, which becomes integrated into
the monomania, one of the main touchstones of the Comedie
humaine.


89
nous sommes et avons toujours t des gens extraordinaire-
ment modestes, et cela sans que personne s'en soit jamais
q
apergu." Or "deux noms celebres que vous ignorez sans
doute" (HB, I, i). This preface has two narrators, who
do not use regular dialogue, but simply speak in a suc
cession of moi's which preface the various remarks; one
paragraph begins "Moi, je formai le mme projet," the next,
"Moi, pour en venir a mes fins" (HB, I, v-vi). The greater
part of this preface is narrated with nous, the opposition
of moi being difficult to sustain. The humor and the double
narrator, although they may have been inspired by Sterne's
humor and his narrative freedoms, are not really Sterne's
devices, but there are several important elements of the
preface that could have been taken from Sterne as Balzac
knew him in translation. The preface is made up of four
teen extremely short chapters. Sterne's chapters, of course,
vary in length from nothing at all to twenty or thirty
pages. Still, it is his extremely short (one sentence
to one paragraph) chapters that Balzac, among others, was
most likely to imitate, because of their uniqueness. The
nature of the chapter titles is like Sterne as Balzac knew
him. Sterne himself used no chapter titles in Tristram
Shandy, but his translators did (see above, pp. 63-66),
and Balzacs titles here are short and whimsical like
those of the translators. Thus one chapter ends: "Ici
il y eut un silence de cinq minutes" (HB, I, iv); the
title of the next chapter is "Histoire du silence" and the


134
madame Shandy, qui ne saura ren de 1'amour, ni des passions'*
(Le Lys dans la valle, VI, 394). And her scatterbrained
nature is recalled: "Insouciante et froide, elle s'est cou-
che en pensant peut-tre, comme l'eut fait madame Gauthier
Shandy, que le lendemain est un jour de lessive [later changed
to maladie], que son mari rentre bien tard, que les oeufs
a la neige qu'elle a manges n'etaient pas assez sucres,
qu'elle doit plus de cinq cents francs a sa couturiere"
(Phy, II, 27; VII, 450; not in PhyPo) Mrs. Shandy is
shown up for the failings that make living with her so
trying for Walter Shandy; the ever-categorizing intellectual,
he finds her lack of discrimination exasperating: "Ne dis
tinguere z-vous jamais, madame Shandy, ne vous apprendrai-
je jamais a distinguer ce qui plait d'avec ce qui convient?"
(B, III, lxii, 174; W, VI, xviii, 438-39). Balzac does not
really condemn her, however: "Madame Shandy n'entendait pa's
malice en prevenant le pere de Tristram de remonter la pen-
dule, tandis que votre femme prouvera du plaisir a vous
interrompre par les questions les plus positives" (Phy, II,
270-71; VII, 489; not in PhyPo). With these references
Balzac is not evaluating Mrs. Shandy; rather, he uses them
as a descriptive shortcut, a simile that depends on the
reader's literary background. They are meant to call up
in the reader's mind as distinct and clear a picture as
Balzac would like us to get when he describes something
as resembling a painting by a particular artist; they give


36
101); in Frenis he does not know "le bon cote d'une femme
d'avec le mauvais" (B, I, xxiv, 158). Similarly, Sterne's
Susannah declares the newborn Tristram to be "as black in
the face as my (W, IV, xiv, 287); in Frenis he is
"aussi noir . . (B, II, lxxviii, 221). Walter
Shandy, "a dear searcher into comparisons," presses
Susannah to finish the phrase; the joke is completely
lost in the French, because of the removal of the pos
sessive adjective. Other figures of speech which present
too vivid an image under the circumstances are removed.
When Walter Shandy and Toby are downstairs engaged in a
discussion while Mrs. Shandy is in labor, Tristram describes
an interrupted speech of Walter to be "as notable and
curious a dissertation as ever was engendered in the womb
of speculation;-it was some months before my father
could get an opportunity to be safely delivered of it"
(W, II, vii, 102-03). In Frenis it is "la plus remarquable
et la plus curieuse dissertation que la speculation et
peut-tre jamais produite. Quelque [sic] mois du moins
se passerent sans que mon pere put y revenir" (B, I, xxiv,
159). Similarly, in speaking of Mrs. Shandy's false
pregnancy, Sterne says "whether it was simply the mere
swell of fancy and imagination in her [ ] i.t no way
becomes me to decide" (W, I, xv, 41). Frenis omits any
equivalent of the image-suggesting word swell.(B, I, xvi,
66).
Sterne often uses suggestive lacunae; Frenis


127
27
Bardeche,
Romancier,
. 72.


75
Le chapitre suivant l'claircira
(B, II, xxxi, 81)
Examples of Frenis's distortion of Sterne's style
abound. One more will serve: "Now in this I think my father
was much to blame; and I will give you my reasons for it"
(W, III, ii, 158) is amplified to "Mais, bon Dieu! mon pere,
que faisiez-vous la? quoi songiez-vous? ne voyez-vous done
pas que vous aviez tort? . tort? . oui, sans doute,
et en voice la raison" (B, II, xii, 28). Frenis's trans
lation here is in imitation of Sterne's style; for example:
"stop! my dear uncle Toby, stop! go not one foot fur
ther [ . ]. 0 my uncle! fly- fly fly from it as
from a serpent" (W, II, iii, 90). Frenis betrays Sterne's
text with Sterne's own devices.
De Bonnay makes far fewer stylistic changes than
Frenis and is guilty of none of the distortion and exaggera
tion typical of Frenis. He retains more closely Sterne's
sentence structure and use of the dash, and clearly tries
to stay close to Sterne's rhythm and style. De Bonnay does
add some rhetorical questions and some asides to the reader,
but not nearly with the frequency of Frenis.
De Bonnay occasionally renders indirect discourse
direct, thus:


117
l'on s'attend a de grands vnemens [...]. Je hai3
l'esclavage, ainsi daigner me pardonner mes digressions
. . (CL, II, 190-91).
Sterne shows some concern with the discrepancy
between the amount of time an action takes to happen and
the time it takes to tell it. He considers at great length
the problem of the passing of time when Obadiah is sent for
Dr. Slop (W, II, viii, 103-04). This concern is mirrored
by Balzac in the middle of the climax of Annette et le
criminel: "En racontant les mille incidents d'une telle
catastrophe on est oblige de laisser en suspens une action
qui marche aussi vite que le balancier d'une pendule; mais
le lecteur retiendra, que ce que nous racontons longuement
se passait en ralit avec la rapidit de 1'eclair" (AC,
III, 208). Tristram is also concerned with the pace of
his story: "La chose que je regrette, c'est d'avoir t
tellement press! par la foule des vnemens qui se sont
trouvs devant moi, qu'il m'a t impossible, malgr tout
le dsir que j'en avois, de faire entrer dams cette partie
de mon ouvrage les campagnes, et surtout les amours de
mon onde Tobie" (B, III, ii, 10; V/, IV, xxii, 337).
Balzac shows a similar interest in pace in Annette et
le criminel; since the novel's end is tragic, he says,
"Vous, lecteur, si jusqu'ici vous m'avez vu conduire mon
char a peu pres comme le postillion conduisait nos hros,
esprez que dsormaic, nous allons rouler avec trop de


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08554 7007


71
spared his comments, replied Dr. Slop, he would have read
it much better. I should have read it ten times better,
Sir, answered Trim, but that my heart was so full (VY, II,
xvii, 140-41). In Frenis, this becomes:
MON PRE.
En vrit, Trim, je suis fort content de
toi.
LE DOCTEUR SLOP.
Et moi aussi.
MON PRE.
II a tres-bien lu le sermon.
LE DOCTEUR SLOP.
Fort bien!
MON ONCLE TOBIE.
A merveille!
LE DOCTEUR SLOP.
II n'y a que ses commentaires qu'il auroit
pu pargner.
TRIM.
Ma foi! Je n'ai pu y teir ....
MON ONCLE TOBIE.
Le pauvre garln!. .
TRIM.
Je sais bien que j'aurois mieux lu, si
j'avois t moins affect. (B, I, liii, 224-25)
Distinctly characteristic of Sterne's style is the
contrast between cryptic presentation and very detailed
presentationthe "second bed of justice" dialogue, for