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The development of techniques for teaching the various uses of the pedals of the contemporary grand piano

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The development of techniques for teaching the various uses of the pedals of the contemporary grand piano
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THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING THE VARIOUS USES
OF THE PEDALS OF THE CONTEMPORARY GRAND PIANO


















BY

MARY RAY JOHNSON


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1989
































Copyright 1989

by

Mary Ray Johnson















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I wish to extend my gratitude and sincere thanks to Dr.

Charles R. Hoffer, chairman of my committee, who has been

most generous in giving his time, support, and invaluable

knowledge to this project. I wish also to thank my committee

members who read this paper and made helpful comments: Dr.

Russell Robinson, Professor Boaz Sharon, Dr. Linda Lamme,

Dr. William Hedges, and Dr. Donald Avila, who is now de-

ceased.

For sustaining encouragement I thank my parents, Mr. and

Mrs. Raymond C. Johnson, Jr.


iii















TABLE OF CONTENTS


page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...................................... ... .. iii

LIST OF TABLES.............................. ... ..... vi

ABSTRACT...... ..................................... vii

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION..................... ... .... ..... 1

Lack of Knowledge About Pedaling................ 2
Need for Knowledge of Pedaling............... .... 4
Purpose of the Study. .5..................... 5
Development of the Pedals.................... 7
Stylistic Factors in Pedaling................... 12
Delimitations................................. 17
Definitions of Terminology...................... 17

2 REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH AND WRITINGS.......... 21

Research on Teaching Pedaling................... 22
Writings on Teaching Pedaling................... 23
Lack of Systematic Studies on Teaching
Pedaling............ ..... .... 27
Faults in Teaching Pedaling..................... 31
Pedagogical Views on Teaching Pedaling.......... 33
Introducing the Pedals........ .................... 39
Teaching Techniques for the Damper Pedal........ 46
Additional Pedaling Techniques................. 53
Pedal Exercise Books..... .............. ..... 55
Introduction of the Pedals in Piano
Methods Books... ...... .............. ......... 56

3 PEDAGOGICAL MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES......o...... 61

Composition of the Units....................... 61
Procedures for Developing the Units............. 64
Teaching Unit 1: Legato Pedaling............... 65
Teaching Unit 2: Legatissimo Pedaling.......... 74
Teaching Unit 3: Pedaling for Rhythmic Effects. 80
Teaching Unit 4: Una Corda Pedaling............ 87









Teaching Unit 5: Pre-Pedaling .................. 99
Teaching Unit 6: Finger Pedaling............... 103
Teaching Unit 7: Staccato Pedaling............. 109
Teaching Unit 8: Portato Pedaling.............. 115
Teaching Unit 9: Pedaling to Enhance Phrasing
and Articulation .............................. 119
Teaching Unit 10: Melodic Pedaling .............. 129
Teaching Unit 11: Half Damping.................. 134
Teaching Unit 12: Pedal Vibrato................. 144
Teaching Unit 13: Pedal Diminuendo.............. 150
Teaching Unit 14: Half Pedaling................. 155
Teaching unit 15: Flutter Pedaling .............. 162
Teaching Unit 16: Pedaling for Dynamic Effects.. 169
Teaching Unit 17: Pedal Blurring for Color
and Special Effects ........................... 178
Teaching Unit 18: Harmonic Pedaling ............. 187
Teaching Unit 19: Pedaling One Hand and Not
the Other ..................................... 194
Teaching Unit 20: Sostenuto Pedaling ............ 198
Teaching Unit 21: Pedagogical Sequence for
Implementing Piano Pedaling Techniques........ 226

4 FIELD TESTING AND VALIDATION .................... 237

Pilot Validation ................................ 237
Validation of Materials........................ 240
Incorporation of the Results.................... 249

5 SUMMARY, RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS.............................. 251

Summary............. ............... .. ........ 252
Results of Extensive Validation............... 253
Questionnaire for Teaching Units 1 20......... 260
Validation of Pedagogical Sequence of
Piano Pedaling Techniques..................... 274
Results of Intensive Validation.................. 276
Conclusions....... .................. .......... 285
Recommendations and Application................. 288

APPENDICES

A COVER LETTER.............................. ..... 292
B QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS..................... 293
C VALIDATION FORM FOR TEACHING UNITS .............. 294
D VALIDATION FORM FOR PEDAGOGICAL SEQUENCE........ 297
E ANALYSIS OF TAPES: OBSERVATIONS ................. 299
F ANALYSIS OF TAPES: CONCLUSIONS.................. 300

REFERENCES ............................................ 302

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.................................... 309









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

1 Mean Ratings for the Aspects of Teaching Units
Category 1: Materials .......................... 261

2 Mean Ratings for the Aspects of Teaching Units
Category 2: Objectives ......................... 262

3 Mean Ratings for the Aspects of Teaching Units
Category 3: Student Application................ 263

4 Combined Mean Ratings for the Aspects of
Teaching Units ................................. 264

5 Grand Mean Ratings for Individual
Teaching Units................................. 265

6 Previous Use of Pedaling Technique According to
Percentage of Responses ........................ 267

7 Stage of Development at which a Particular Pedaling
Technique Should be Introduced According to
Percentage of Responses........................ 268

8 Importance of Teaching Individual Pedaling
Techniques According to Percentage
of Responses.................................... 270

9 Agreement with Concepts in Teaching Unit
According to Percentage of Responses ........... 271

10 Ability to Teach Pedaling Techniques Using
Information Provided in Teaching Units
According to Percentage of Responses ........... 273

11 Analysis of Mean Ratings of Observations
of Tapes .................................. ..... 281

12 Analysis of Mean Ratings of Conclusions of
of Tapes...................................... 282

13 Overall Grand Mean Ratings of Tapes.............. 283















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING THE VARIOUS USES
OF THE PEDALS OF THE CONTEMPORARY GRAND PIANO

By

Mary Ray Johnson

December, 1989

Chairman: Dr. Charles R. Hoffer
Major Department: Instruction and Curriculum

The teaching of piano pedaling is one of the most

neglected and misunderstood areas in piano pedagogy. De-

spite its recognized importance, few systematic studies

exist in this area, and, until recently, no comprehensive

source of pedaling techniques had been published.

The purpose of the present study was the systematic

development and validation of pedagogical procedures for

teaching students the correct use of the three pedals of

the contemporary grand piano. Secondary related purposes

included (1) the development of preliminary exercises to

foster prerequisite skills; (2) the classification of

pedaling techniques according to related skills; and (3)

the formulation of a pedagogical sequence for introducing

pedaling techniques in a logical, systematic order.


vii











After identifying the various pedaling techniques, a

series of pedagogical procedures was developed for the

teaching of each technique. Twenty-one teaching units were

formulated that collectively comprise a comprehensive and

systematic program of study of the three pedals. The first

twenty units follow a logical format that includes (1) a

description of the technique; (2) application; (3) teaching

procedures; (4) examples; and (5) appropriate exercises.

In the final unit, the techniques are grouped into cate-

gories and presented in an instructional sequence.

Most of the pedagogical procedures described in the

teaching units have seldom been subjected to research

analysis. Therefore, both extensive and intensive valida-

tion measures were employed to determine the appropriate-

ness of the materials. The validation process solicited

the opinions from a sample of nationally certified teachers

of piano and piano pedagogy of the Music Teachers National

Association, and analyzed the teaching of the units in

actual piano lessons.

Conclusions regarding the main thrust of the study

were drawn in terms of three criteria. Materials and

concepts presented within the study were found to be (1)

systematic, (2) thorough, and (3) appropriate for piano

teachers who might use them.


viii












At each stage of the study the apparent need for this

type of research was reinforced. Results of both aspects

of the validation process were overwhelmingly positive.

The high consistency of the ratings gave further evidence

that the concepts and techniques presented within this

study are pedagogically sound.















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


Fine piano playing is impossible without the correct

use of the three pedals. Just as finger technique should

be analyzed methodically and mastered during the student's

course of study, the use of the pedals should receive simi-

lar attention. Therefore, a systematic investigation of

pedaling techniques and how best to teach them is warranted

and needed.

Pedaling is a complex subject. Numerous techniques

exist for the use of each pedal, and different applications

can be made within each technique. In order to obtain the

best instructional results, teachers should follow a peda-

gogical sequence for introducing each pedaling technique

that presents the various concepts in a logical, systematic

manner. In addition, they need to know what preliminary

exercises should be included to enable students to know

what they are doing with the pedal before it is introduced

into any piece of music. Teachers who are knowledgeable

about pedaling techniques are much more likely to teach

them effectively.












Lack of Knowledge About Pedaling


Despite its recognized importance, many piano teachers

ignore the teaching of musical and artistic pedaling (Bano-

wetz, 1985). It is a much neglected and misunderstood area

of piano teaching, as well as one of the more controver-

sial. Compared to the other aspects of piano playing, the

teaching of the correct use of the pedals is still in a

disorganized state (Gebhard, 1963; Bernstein, 1981). While

the exact percentage has not been documented, many piano

teachers either do not adequately understand the concepts

of pedaling or do not realize the numerous types of pedal-

ing that can be used. It appears that they were never

taught more than the basic mechanical actions of the damper

pedal: (1) pushing it down and letting it up and (2) pedal-

ing to connect notes.

Other teachers lack sufficient knowledge of how to

teach more than basic pedaling techniques, especially those

for which there are no notated symbols. This lack of a-

wareness, in turn, affects what is taught their students.

Consequently, many students avoid pedaling or pedal largely

by instinct, which usually results in inconsistent and un-

stylistic playing (Bernstein, 1981). To the extent that

the student is not taught to use the pedals skillfully, the

quality of that student's musical understanding and per-

formance is diminished.












Several reasons exist for this present situation.

First of all, very little research has been conducted on

pedaling (Banowetz, 1985; Gebhard, 1963; Wolfram, 1965).

In addition, until recently no single comprehensive source

of piano pedaling techniques had been published. Except

for a few books or articles on this subject, when pedaling

is discussed, it is often in a fragmentary manner. This

situation leaves piano teachers with little to draw on

other than their own personal experience, because they have

no research findings or systematic studies with which to

compare the strengths and weaknesses of a particular peda-

gogical approach to a pedaling technique.

Another reason for the lack of a generally accepted

standard is that pedaling is a highly individual matter,

relying heavily on the musicianship of the particular

performer. A rigid, unvarying concept of pedaling is not

desirable, because the choice of pedaling is affected by a

wide variety of factors.

Many pianists fail to listen carefully to the musical

effects of their pedaling, not only because of a lack of

attention, but also because they use the pedals to mask a

number of technical inaccuracies. This lack of aural

attention is unfortunate, because pianists must rely on

aural perception to compensate for the varying conditions

of performance such as the particular instrument being

played, the acoustics of the hall, additional performers in












the group, and mistakes in performance which may occur, as

well as the performer's choice of tempos, touch, dynamics,

and balance of textures. Each of these conditions requires

a response that is unique to the immediate situation.


Need for Knowledge of Pedaling


When Anton Rubinstein referred to pedaling as the

"soul of piano playing," he expressed a regard for the

pedals that is recognized by every outstanding pianist

(Bernstein, 1981, p. 143). Appropriate pedaling is an art

that conveys not only a thorough grasp of the composer's

intent, but also the artistic intelligence of the perform-

er. As Chopin once stated: "The correct way of using the

pedal remains a study for life" (Banowetz, 1985, p. 179).

A thorough understanding and mastery of the use of

each of the three pedals is essential for anyone who seeks

to play at a high artistic level. Unfortunately, aside

from the confusion surrounding the many functions of the

damper pedal, both the una corda and sostenuto pedals are

frequently misused or misunderstood. The una corda pedal

is sometimes employed as a crutch when finger technique

alone could be more effective, and the sostenuto pedal is

often ignored completely.

In interviews with a cross-section of twelve concert

pianists, Noyle (1987) cites artistic concerns that express

the gamut of piano practice and performance. Several









5

artists made references to pedaling, including Misha

Dichter, who stated

In my various experiences from teaching master classes
around the country, if I can cite the one single fail-
ing with teaching in this country, it's that the pedal
is really short-changed in the teaching. It seems
almost to be an appendage that is just added after the
student has learned the piece. (Noyle, 1987, p. 51)

While performance situations cannot be duplicated

exactly in the studio, proper training can cultivate an

awareness that will lead to enhanced and improved pedal

techniques. Spontaneous reactions involving the pedal

can even be valuable during a performance, because many

pianists tend to rely heavily on the pedal when they be-

lieve they are in difficulty. Yet, as Lhevinne (1972,

p. 47) indicates, "The best pedal effects in artistic

playing are those in which the audience does not realize

that there is a pedal at all." Pedaling techniques improp-

erly applied without musical awareness only compound or

perpetrate errors. Ultimately, each pianist must let his

or her musical sensibilities be the final guide.


Purpose of the Study


The primary purpose of the study was the systematic

development and validation of pedagogical procedures for

teaching students the correct use of the three pedals on

the contemporary grand piano.

As has been pointed out on the preceding pages, the

knowledge and the use of the pedals and the pedagogical












practices for teaching this facet of piano playing lag far

behind other aspects of piano playing and instruction.

This study sought to deal with this situation in two

phases. One was to compile and synthesize the available

knowledge about the many techniques for the use of the

three pedals. The extant writings and research are pres-

ented in Chapter 2. The procedures that were developed,

which are presented in unit form in Chapter 3, consist of

more than just a compilation of other writings. The re-

searcher also drew on many years of dealing with the topic

as a teacher and professor of piano, as well as systematic

analysis, to expand on and organize the various pedaling

techniques.

The second purpose of the study was to develop peda-

gogical procedures for the teaching of pedaling. Inter-

estingly, less research and writings are available on the

pedagogical aspects than on the nature of the techniques.

Therefore, a significant amount of the pedagogical pro-

cedures presented in Chapter 3 is the result of systematic

analysis and application of principles and ideas.

Because many of the pedagogical procedures in that

chapter have seldom been available for consideration, some

validation of them was desirable. To accomplish this, both

intensive and extensive procedures were utilized. The

intensive portion of the validation process consisted of

the tape recording of the procedures being taught by












several piano teachers certified as "Master Teachers" by

the Music Teachers National Association. These tapes were

then analyzed by the researcher along with a panel of three

certified piano teachers to verify that the students did in

fact learn the particular pedaling technique. The exten-

sive portion of the validation process consisted of ques-

tionnaires sent to forty-two certified "Master Teachers"

asking for their opinions and suggestions about the units

on pedaling. These validation efforts are described in

detail in Chapter 4.

This study also had some secondary purposes related

to the development of the units. These secondary purposes

include

(1) the development of preliminary exercises to

foster prerequisite skills prior to teaching pedaling

techniques;

(2) the classification of pedaling techniques

according to related skills that are employed in executing

each technique; and

(3) the formulation of a pedagogical sequence for

introducing piano pedaling techniques in a logical,

systematic order.


Development of the Pedals


A knowledge of the development of each of the pedals

provides the performer with insight into performance prac-












tices of earlier periods; such knowledge can lead to a more

artistic level of performance through their appropriate

use.

The historical development of the pedals is a compli-

cated evolution that spanned more than 150 years. As the

piano increased in range and size, alterations were desired

to help control the volume and duration of the sound. By

the mid-eighteenth century, when the length of the strings

had become quite long, the excessive reverberations of the

strings created objectionable dissonant notes. This led to

the creation of damper activating mechanisms.


The Damper Pedal

Early pianos had hand stops for controlling the

dampers--pieces of firm felt that prevent the strings from

vibrating when sound is no longer desired. Through the use

of hand stops the performer could raise the dampers in

either the bass or the treble areas. This division of the

damper mechanism into treble and bass groups remained a

common feature of pianos until at least 1820.

Knee levers were introduced in Germany around 1765.

These were less cumbersome than hand stops and allowed the

pianist to maintain uninterrupted hand contact with the

keyboard.

In 1777 a divided pedal was added that controlled both

halves of the damper mechanism separately. Further refine-












ments resulted in a split pedal that enabled the performer

to activate dampers in the treble and bass registers simul-

taneously by depressing both halves of the pedal at the

same time. In the early nineteenth century, a short-lived

divided damper mechanism known as the Kunstpedal divided

the dampers into eight sections controlled by four divided

pedals. Split pedals continued to be built until around

1830, when they were replaced by the single damper pedal

found on today's grand pianos.

The placement of the damper mechanism underwent vari-

ous changes as well. It was placed alternately above and

below the strings, assuming the upper placement on most

grand pianos by the end of the nineteenth century. This

position utilizes gravity to help achieve rapid dampening.


The Pedal Piano

An independent pedal board was added to the piano to

create the pedal piano. A second set of strings was orig-

inally required to activate the mechanism, but in 1815 a

self-contained pedal board was developed. The pedal board

provided a means of expanding the compass of the bass notes

by enabling the pianist to double notes that were played by

the fingers or to sustain bass notes indefinitely. Al-

though the pedal piano is no longer extant, several com-

posers wrote compositions for this instrument, including

Schumann, Alkan, and Gounod.












The Una Corda Pedal

Two basic methods for reducing the dynamic level were

employed on various pianos of the early nineteenth century.

The oldest, the pianozug or feu celeste, was a Celestee

stop" that was first operated by hand and then later acti-

vated by the foot. It consisted of a thin strip of felt or

leather that came between the hammers and the strings to

produce a special soft effect.

The second pedal mechanism, known as the Verschiebung,

was introduced in 1726 by Cristofori and closely resembled

the una corda pedal in use today. When the Verschiebung

was depressed, the entire hammer mechanism shifted to the

right so that the hammers struck from one to three strings

per note, depending upon the depth to which the pedal was

depressed. This enabled pianists of the late eighteenth

and early nineteenth centuries to shift from the three

string (tre corde) position, to two strings (due corde),

and then to only one string (una corda). Many composers,

notably Beethoven, made use of this selective degree of

shifting, which is no longer possible on contemporary grand

pianos.


The Sostenuto Pedal

The sostenuto pedal is related to several earlier

damper activating mechanisms that allowed the pianist to

selectively sustain tones. It is the most recent of the












three pedals to be added to the piano. Although the first

true sostenuto mechanism appeared in 1844, it was not until

it was patented in 1874 by the American piano firm Steinway

and Sons that the sostenuto pedal began to attract atten-

tion. The sostenuto pedal sustains notes that are played

and held before it is activated.

The sostenuto pedal is not standard equipment on every

piano; many are built without it. European piano manufac-

turers have been reluctant to incorporate the sostenuto

pedal, and many of them include it only on nine-foot grand

pianos. Even American grands that are not built for con-

cert or professional use generally do not have a sostenuto

pedal. Some pianos have a "fake" sostenuto mechanism that

operates unselectively on all the dampers below middle "C."

This action duplicates the function of the damper pedal for

the lower portion of the keyboard, but it makes selective

sustaining of notes impossible. Frequently pianos are

found to have a malfunctioning sostenuto pedal or one that

is improperly regulated, and therefore it does not function

in the capacity of a true sostenuto pedal. Most upright

pianos omit this pedal entirely.


Additional Pedals

Numerous short-lived, bizarre pedal devices for modi-

fying the sound of the piano were developed and eventually

discarded. In the early nineteenth century pianos had as












many as six to eight pedals. Three of the best-known

devices were (1) the Janizary pedal which added rattling

noises and could activate a drumstick, ring bells, shake a

rattle, and create the effect of a cymbal crash; (2) the

"bassoon" pedal that created a buzzing noise through the

use of paper and silk; and (3) a cembalo stop that modified

the sound through the use of leather weights to resemble

the sound of the harpsichord. Other devices included the

crescendo and decrescendo pedals which raised and lowered

the lid of the piano or opened and closed slots in the

sides of the case, and a device that attempted to modify

the tone after the hammers had struck the strings by

forcing air across them.

This number of pedals provided a pianist with a

considerable repertoire of "effects," perhaps of doubtful

musical value. Sonorities could be weakened, strengthened,

or blended together, and sounds could be produced that

ranged from consonant to quite dissonant, depending upon

the artistry of the performer and the quality of the

particular piano.


Stylistic Factors in Pedaling


Pedaling cannot be taught correctly unless one is

aware of historical considerations and also has an under-

standing of performance practices relevant to various

musical styles. To achieve the correct use of the pedals,












a pianist not only must be able to use appropriate pedaling

techniques, but also must possess an understanding of the

composer's idiomatic treatment of the pedals. Without such

understanding, a mastery of pedaling techniques in itself

is of limited value.

Numerous problems exist regarding pedal markings in

the score. Because a composer does not call for pedaling

in the notation is no reason to assume that none should be

used. Indications were not provided in the music for the

knee levers or hand stops which were early means of pedal-

ing. Until the piano reached its full development during

the early part of the nineteenth century, many composers

omitted pedal markings entirely. Yet it is known from

various accounts of piano playing that several composers

used the pedals in performances of their own compositions.

Mozart, for instance, never placed pedal markings in any of

his solo piano works. However, in letters to his father he

described using the damper pedal freely, and mentioned how

he was overjoyed at finding one that was capable of releas-

ing the sounds completely. Haydn indicated the use of the

damper pedal only twice. Neither he nor Mozart provided

markings for the use of the una corda pedal.

The lack of adequate pedaling indications is not

limited to any particular style of music, however. For

example, the clarity of the contrapuntal lines in much

eighteenth century music can be easily obscured through












incorrect pedaling. Although written primarily for harp-

sichord or clavichord, this music requires some pedaling

when played on the piano. Many editions of Classical and

Romantic piano music contain very few or quite inadequate

pedal indications (Gebhard, 1963). An example of this

practice can be illustrated by Liszt's brief note to his

transcription of the Tannhauser Overture in which he

wrote, "VerstAndiger Pedalgebrauch wird vorausgesetz" ("It

is assumed that the pedal will be used with understand-

ing"), after which there is not a single pedal indication

in the music (Neuhaus, 1973, p. 159).

Likewise, relying solely on the printed page for

pedaling creates significant problems for the performer in

the music of Debussy and Ravel, whose scores are almost

devoid of such indications, and whose requirements for the

use of the pedal are made clear by means other than the

traditional pedal markings. While pedaling in twentieth-

century piano music is more varied, it presents fewer

problems in that it is usually marked by the composer.

Whenever pedaling has not been indicated in the music

of a period, both the stylistic practice of the period and

the musical context should be considered in determining how

and where to pedal. Every available technique should be

used by the performer to convey the composer's intent, as

far as it can be ascertained from the score. For example,

although the sostenuto pedal is a more recent invention,












pianists should not be prejudiced against using it in music

that was composed earlier. According to Bacon (1963),

there is no benefit in pushing historical verisimilitude

too far when the contemporary grand piano itself is so far

removed from the historical. For instance, the use of the

sostenuto pedal can enhance the performance of Impression-

istic piano music. However, Debussy did not have a piano

with a sostenuto mechanism and as far as can be determined

was unaware of its existence. Ravel had composed numerous

piano works before he became aware of this pedal. When

introduced to it, he reportedly exclaimed, "Why didn't

someone show me that such effects were possible with the

sustaining pedal? How many more possibilities it would

have suggested to me!" (Chasins, 1962, p. 76).

Even when pedal markings were placed by the composer

in the score, it is not always possible to execute them

accurately on contemporary grand pianos. The evolution of

the pedals enabled pianists to produce effects at one time

that can only be partially duplicated today. In addition,

pedals differed greatly from one instrument to another,

making it impossible to achieve much consistency. The tone

of early pianos was lighter than it is today, and the

ability of the instrument to sustain sounds was much less

than it is on modern instruments.

Composers often marked pedaling in a careless, in-

consistent, or incomplete manner. If followed exactly by











the performer, these markings could lead to confusing re-

sults. As a further complication, some editors have tried

to compensate for omissions of pedal markings, which has

further obscured a composer's intent. Therefore, even when

presented with what appear to be authentic pedal indica-

tions, a pianist is not obligated to follow them exactly.

According to Dumesnil (1958, p. 63), "printed pedal marks

mean practically nothing."

In addition to functions normally associated with

pedaling, some of the dynamic levels indicated in the music

of Beethoven, for example, are possible only through judi-

cious use of the pedal. Because Beethoven was one of the

first composers to indicate pedaling in the music, he is

sometimes referred to as the "father of pedaling." And

he did create new effects by sustaining low bass notes

throughout long passages and holding the damper pedal down

through rapidly articulated chords. Yet, after Beethoven

pedaling became even more complex.

Aside from the fact that numerous pedal markings are

in use today (a problem in itself), the correct use of the

pedals frequently is hindered by the layout of the music.

Notes and leger lines below the bass clef sometimes get in

the way of pedal markings, and when this happens the pedal

is usually moved to one side or another. The full capabil-

ities of the concert grand piano offer an infinite variety

of pedalings, some of which cannot be indicated in notation.












Delimitations


The subject of pedaling is an extensive one. There-

fore, several delimitations were imposed to keep the study

focused on pedagogical matters. These delimitations in-

clude the following: (1) Only standard works representa-

tive of eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth century com-

posers are cited as examples. No attempt has been made to

incorporate a comprehensive representation of all piano

literature. (2) Non-traditional pedaling techniques and

idiosyncratic uses of the pedal are not included. (3) Par-

ticular schools of pedaling are not compared or explained.

(4) Manuscripts or treatises are not examined for histori-

cal relevance or authenticity. (5) A comparison of various

editions of a particular composer's works is not included.


Definitions of Terminology


Unless otherwise stated, the discussion of pedaling

techniques is made in reference to the modern concert grand

piano. The term pedaling will refer to the damper pedal or

right pedal. The middle pedal will be referred to as the

sostenuto pedal. The left pedal will be referred to as the

una corda pedal. These pedals and their actions are

frequently designated by a variety of terms, including the

following:











Damper Pedal

English: damper pedal, loud pedal, open pedal, sustaining

pedal, amplifying pedal

French: avec pedale, la pedale forte, p6dale grande,

gardez la pedale

German: Aushaltepedal, Das Dampferpedal, Das

Dampfungspedal, Fortezug, Grosses Pedal, mit

Pedalgebrauch

Italian: col pedale, con pedale, il primo pedale, pedale,

pedale del forte, sempre pedale, senza sordini,

ped. simile


Release of the Damper Pedal

French: sec, sans pedale

German: kein Pedal, ohne Pedal

Italian: con sordini, senza pedale, secco, non ped.


Sostenuto Pedal

English: prolonging pedal, sostenuto pedal, Steinway

pedal, sustaining pedal, S.P., tonal pedal, Ped.

French: Prolongement, Pedale de prolongation, Prol. Ped.

German: Tonhaltepedal

Italian: II pedale tonale


Una Corda Pedal

English: soft pedal, shift pedal, muting pedal

French: une corde, sourdine, la pedale sourde, petite

pedale












German: mit Verschiebung, mit einer Saite, mit Dampfung

Italian: sordino, una corda, u.c., sul una corda, poco a

poco una corda


Release of the Una Corda Pedal

French: 3 cordes

German: ohne Verscheibung

Italian: tre corde, poco a poco tre corde, tutte le

corde, t.c., poco a poco tutte le corde, due

corde


Use of the Una Corda and Damper Pedals Simultaneously

English: Ped. 1 and 2

French: Les deux pedales, Tres enveloppe de p6dales

German: Mit beiden Pedalen, Beide Pedale

Italian: con 2 Pedale, 2 ped., due Ped., con sord e Ped.

1 due pedali


In this study the terms for pedaling actions are

employed as follows:

Full pedal refers to the complete retention of sound

accomplished when the dampers are raised fully from the

strings and the pedal descends to its maximum depth.

Partial release of the pedal refers to the partial

release of the damper sound that is determined by how far

above the strings the dampers are raised: (1) a 75 percent

release of sound occurs when the dampers just barely touch












the strings, (2) a 50 percent release of sound occurs when

the dampers rest very lightly on the strings, and (3) a 25

percent release of sound occurs when the dampers rest

almost completely on the strings.

The term catching notes in the pedal is used inter-

changeably with holding notes in the damper pedal.

Other pedal terminology based upon a combination of

full and partial pedaling techniques is defined at appro-

priate places in the teaching units.

The following definitions apply to the terminology

used to describe various components of the teaching units:

Technique is a body of technical skills related to the

use of the pedals on the piano.

Method refers to a systematic plan followed in pres-

enting material for instruction.

Procedure is a series of steps followed in introducing

the various pedaling concepts in an organized manner.

Unit refers to one constituent in a series of twenty-

one teaching segments that collectively comprise a system-

atic, pedagogical study of the three pedals of the piano.

















CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH AND WRITINGS


In his recently published book on pedaling, Banowetz

states:

Pedaling has suffered grossly from both ignorance and
neglect. The bibliography may give the im-
pression that references on pedaling are plentiful,
but that is somewhat misleading, for many entries are
very brief or elementary in content. Only a compara-
tive few show real depth or comprehensiveness.
(Banowetz, 1985, p. ix)

Several books in English have been written that are

entirely devoted to the subject of pedaling. The authors

include Banowetz (1985), Bowen (1936), Carreno (1919),

Ching (1930), Gebhard (1963), Riefling (1962), Schmitt

(1893), Schnabel (1950), and Wolfram (1965). These books

predominantly cover styles and musical considerations in

pedaling rather than pedagogical issues.

Very little space has been devoted to the subject of

pedaling in books on general piano playing. Pedaling, when

it is discussed at all, is generally treated only in a

cursory manner. Even books that contain pictures and

diagrams of the keyboard to illustrate certain pedagogical

problems usually omit the pedals (Lindo, 1922; Seroff,

1977).












Research on Teaching Pedaling


After an intensive search, no sizable systematic

research study of the teaching of piano pedaling was un-

covered. Searches of Dissertation Abstracts, the National

Union Catalogue, Eric, and RLIN produced no studies on the

teaching of pedaling. The Eric search and Dissertation

Abstracts Online did locate a few studies on bicycle

pedaling and several on organ pedaling. One thesis on

playing the piano without pedals (Castagnone, 1984) was

also cited.

Ferguson (1969) presents a study of the functions,

uses, and pedagogical methods of the pedals of the piano.

The final chapter of this thesis contains several peda-

gogical exercises derived from a number of sources for

introducing legato pedaling. Sheffet (1987) designed a

questionnaire to conceptualize the pedaling expertise of

ensemble pianists to formulate guidelines for pedaling

string duos, and Harrell (1976) investigates contemporary

non-traditional uses of the piano as an instrument.

Examples are provided of the new notational symbols

composers have developed, including those for pedaling.

Other studies are concerned primarily with historical

and performance situations. In a dissertation on technical

problems in piano performance, Hollis (1981) addresses the

application of the damper pedal in selected piano excerpts.











Hopkins (1980) uses musical examples from Bach's keyboard

Suites to demonstrate full and partial pedaling techniques

in her dissertation. In a dissertation on piano tone color

Brodsky (1985) mentions that the una corda pedal changes

the decay properties of a tone, and thereby significantly

affects the piano's tone quality.

A search was made of Music Index and Education Index

to find relevant articles on the teaching of pedaling.

While numerous writings have appeared on the use and func-

tion of the three pedals, many of these are no longer

available either because they have gone out of print or the

publications in which they appeared are no longer availa-

ble. Many articles and books contain only brief references

to pedaling and focus primarily on musical examples and

literature or historical matters rather than pedagogical

principles.


Writings on Teaching Pedaling


In addition to the books and articles entirely devoted

to pedaling, numerous books on the subject of piano teach-

ing were examined during the course of this study. Many

contained no references to pedaling at all. Of those that

did, the following examples are cited to provide insight

into the depth and extent to which the teaching of pedaling

was typically included.











Whiteside (1961) writes only briefly on the subject of

pedaling because she feels that in addition to good edit-

ing, too much has already been written on the subject of

pedaling to make a long discussion profitable in her book.

She acknowledges the damper pedal in six sentences, the una

corda in three, and the sostenuto pedal in one sentence.

After stating that beyond certain elementary require-

ments pedaling becomes merely an individual matter, Bacon

(1963) completes his chapter on pedaling in four and one-

half pages, covering the usage of all three pedals. Seven

sentences are devoted to the sostenuto pedal and four

sentences to the use of the una corda pedal. He provides

basic principles of pedaling regarding the application and

function of the three pedals. He states that because the

piano's normal tone is with the pedal, non-pedaling should

be conceived as a special color.

Newman (1956) covers pedaling in two and one-half

pages, devoting five sentences to the una corda pedal and

two sentences to the sostenuto pedal. He mentions three

techniques for the damper pedal: syncopated pedaling, half

pedaling, and pedal blurring. Newman stresses the impor-

tance of listening to what is being pedaled, and discusses

pedaling in the context of style, color, and performance

variables.

Multi-levels of pedaling are discussed by Neuhaus

(1973) in twelve pages devoted to pedaling, including six












sentences related to the use of the una corda pedal, but

nothing regarding the sostenuto pedal. According to

Neuhaus, artistic pedaling is inseparable from tone; a

primary use of the pedal is to remove some of the dryness

from the piano's distinctive tone. Several musical ex-

amples are cited in this book.

Last (1960) devotes a twenty-one page chapter to

pedaling and discusses a number of techniques for the

damper pedal including: legato and staccato pedaling, a

"touch" of pedal, pedaling scales, melodic and harmonic

pedaling, pedaling to enhance phrasing, half pedaling, half

damping, and "tremolo" pedaling. Thirteen sentences cover

the una corda pedal, while four sentences describe the use

of the sostenuto pedal.

Bastien (1977) discusses only the most elementary use

of pedaling in his text on teaching piano and covers the

basics of the damper pedal in two pages; the other pedals

are not mentioned. One exercise is provided for each of

the three types of pedaling that are mentioned: basic,

syncopated, and rhythmic syncopated. Four books on

elementary uses of the pedals are also listed. In a more

recent edition of the same text, Bastien (1988) does not

refer to the term "rhythmic syncopated" pedaling.

Enoch and Lyke (1977) offer two and one-half pages on

pedaling, devoting three sentences to the use of the una

corda pedal, while the sostenuto pedal is not mentioned. A












sequence for introducing pedaling is presented and experi-

mentation in pedaling is encouraged.

In their book on rhythm, dynamics, and pedal, Giese-

king and Leimer (1938) devote a sixteen-page chapter to the

damper pedal, one paragraph to the una corda pedal, and the

following sentence to the sostenuto pedal: "Many grand

pianos have a third (sustenuto) [sic] pedal which serves as

a prolonger of individual tones or chords" (Gieseking and

Leimer, 1938, p. 64). They stress the importance of "time-

treading" as opposed to "post-treading" or syncopated

pedaling. Various applications of pedaling are discussed

and presented along with musical examples.

In his chapter on pedaling, Kentner (1976) discusses

the element of timing in regard to depressing the damper

pedal either before, with, or after the notes are played.

He presents a couple of techniques for the damper pedal.

The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of historical

considerations regarding the una corda pedal and a mention

of the sostenuto pedal.

In his book on teaching, Booth (1971) discusses pedal-

ing in relation to how, when, and for how long the pedal

should be activated. He presents six pedaling exercises

for the damper pedal along with musical illustrations.

Other pedagogical aspects are presented as well.

A scholarly presentation on the use of the three

pedals can be found in the reference book on piano teaching











by Agay (1981) in the chapter on pedaling submitted by

Banowetz.


Lack of Systematic Studies on Teaching Pedaling


From the late eighteenth century on, an enormous

amount of teaching guides, materials, and methods were

written for piano teachers. Every important pedagogical

concept was included in detail, except knowledge of and

guidance in the use of the pedals.

In the "Foreword" of his volume on pedaling, Schmitt

(1893) states: "He who has talent will know how to use the

pedal; he who has no talent cannot be taught to use it

correctly." According to Mirovitch (1954), this statement

provides an accurate account of the substance of all pedal

knowledge and teaching prior to the mid-twentieth century.

Although Wells (1914) believed that pedaling had developed

into a fine art, "It would be no exaggeration to state that

there has been no pedal teaching" (Mirovitch, 1954 p. 1).

Schnabel confirms this view on the teaching of

pedaling when he states that

Little has been written, said or taught about the use
of the pedal. So little, that indeed many pianists do
not even realize how they use the pedal themselves. A
few rules, sometimes more harmful that helpful, are
known to them; the rest is guesswork, instinct, or
good--or bad--luck. (Schnabel, 1950, p. 3)

Riefling (1962, p. 1) calls the whole subject of

pedaling "terra incognita," and cites a passage from the











book Music Study in Germany (1881) by the American pianist

Amy Fay. After having studied with the great piano peda-

gogues Tausig, Kullak, and Liszt, Fay admitted to her

teacher Ludwig Deppe that none of her earlier renowned

teachers had taught her anything in particular about pedal-

ing, except to warn her not to use the pedal during runs.


Additional Studies

Very little progress has been made in recent decades,

according to Ferguson (1969), toward rectifying the lack of

systematic studies on the teaching of pedaling. As Kentner

states

It is remarkable that [pedaling] has been practically
ignored by music teachers except for some vague,
though well meant advice against "over-pedaling." Even
intelligent pianists often limit their comments on the
pedal to an indulgent and humorous admission that it
can hide a multitude of sins. What sins we are not
told. (Kentner, 1976, p. 69)

Gebhard concludes

It is strange that, with this fascinating and exten-
sive field fairly begging for recognition, only a few
fine musical scholars have written about it. The
artistic and tasteful use of the pedal is an
intrinsic part of interpretation [and] its neglect is
incomprehensible. (Gebhard, 1963, p. viii)

As Fetsch (1966) points out, most of what has appeared

in print concerns the use of the damper pedal. Compara-

tively little has been written on the use of the una corda

pedal, but its technique is less involved than the other

two pedals. Even less has been written on the use of the

sostenuto pedal, and most teachers and students are only











acquainted with the most basic techniques for this pedal.

Fetsch believes that this creates an urgent need for de-

tailed instruction in its use.


Conflicting Theories

The lack of systematic studies on the teaching of

piano pedaling has resulted in confusing and sometimes

conflicting theories about pedaling. Historical comments

that have been recorded on the subject of piano teaching in

past decades provide some insight into this area. Although

many examples can be cited, only a few will be given here.

Lindquist (1966) refers to two distinct schools of

pedaling: one that stresses clarity at all times and the

other that sacrifices clarity for color. This duality in

the teaching and use of the pedals has a long and continu-

ing history. The musicologist Riemann, for instance, be-

came the subject of severe criticism when he stated in his

Dictionary of Music (1882) that in playing the piano the

dampers should not usually remain in contact with the

strings. Martienssen (1930) strongly disputed this view,

saying that such theories about pedaling contributed to the

extraordinarily widespread lack of understanding of the

subject. The famous pedagogues Matthay (1913) and Lesche-

tizsky (Bree, 1902) both recognized this division of pian-

ists into two categories regarding methods of pedaling: the

small number of pianists who used very little pedal and











the great majority who kept the pedal depressed almost

constantly. Leschetizsky, however, believed that no rules

were needed for pedaling other than common sense and a good

ear (Bree, 1902).

A different type of confusion surrounded the manner in

which the damper pedal was depressed. For nearly eighty

years after the invention of the damper pedal, rhythmic

pedaling, or depressing the damper pedal simultaneously

with the notes, was the exclusive recognized form of pedal-

ing. According to Riefling (1962), Czerny (1839) was the

first composer to write fully and instructively about the

use of the pedal, and this was the only form of pedaling he

discussed. Syncopated pedaling, or depressing the pedal

after the notes have been played, is now considered to be

the most common method of pedaling. However, syncopated

pedaling was not used until after 1870 by composers such as

Liszt, Kullak, and Deppe, and it is mentioned in treatises

on the pedal dating from 1875 by both Schmitt and Kohler.

Pre-pedaling, or depressing the pedal before playing

the notes, is first mentioned in writings on the pedal

dating from the early twentieth century by Breithaupt

(1912), Caland (1922), and Kreutzer (1915). However, in

his book The Essence of Piano Technique, which was pub-

lished in 1923, Kreutzer does not mention this form of

pedaling and appears to reject it (Riefling, 1962).












In his treatise on pedaling, Frey (1939) states that

rhythmic pedaling was the most commonly used form of

pedaling. According to Riefling (1962), several renowned

piano teachers and writers pointed out that this was false

information, and that rhythmic pedaling was on the verge of

extinction as a form of recognized pedaling. Von Bulow

commented on the confusing situation surrounding the entire

subject of pedaling by stating that as a rule, pedaling was

"the expedient people employ to annihilate good taste"

(Riefling, 1962, p. 17).


Faults in Teaching Pedaling


The importance of good pedaling has long been recog-

nized, even though the teaching of pedaling has fallen

short. Faults that occur in the teaching of pedaling may

be either of commission or omission (Booth, 1971). Accord-

ing to various writings on the teaching of pedaling, the

most often cited fault is the lack of teaching. Other

pedagogical errors or oversights mentioned include improper

attention to the position of the foot (Bernstein, 1981),

introducing the use of the pedal too late, and neglect in

teaching pedaling with reference to harmony (Ching, 1930).


Results of Poor Teaching

The most commonly cited faults of students in em-

ploying the pedal include failing to change the pedal












frequently enough, too rapid or incomplete pedal releases

that create blurring, pedaling through phrasing and articu-

lation markings, too frequent pedal changes that do not

sustain the harmony, and failing to retain low bass notes

in the pedal (Booth, 1971); failing to change the pedal

quickly enough, and failing to use imperceptible pedal

blurring relative to stylistic playing (Neuhaus, 1973);

regulating the pedal with reference only to the left hand,

and considering the harmonic structure of the piece to the

exclusion of melodic forms of pedaling (Riefling, 1962);

allowing the damper pedal to become an outlet for rhythmic

expression (Whiteside, 1961); pedaling without listening

(Friskin, 1921); pedaling far too violently and noisily

(Last, 1960; Ohlsson, 1982); failing to gauge accurately

the height and depth of the pedal resulting in unclean

pedaling (Last, 1960); and assuming that copious amounts of

pedal will almost automatically create impressionistic

effects (Adams, 1988).

Neuhaus (1973, p. 166) speaks of a "sanitary pedal"

imposed by teachers who demand that the pedal be changed

with every melody note, even though the harmony remains

unchanged. But he states that "no good pianist ever uses

such a pedal." Lhevinne (1972) warns that so much latitude

can be taken in pedaling that the novice uses the pedal

like a brush with which to paint the back fence, rather

than with intelligence and definiteness.












Reasons for Incorrect Pedaling

Newman (1956) suggests several reasons why pedaling is

often cursorily treated by the teacher and seldom noticed

by the student. These include a lack of aural attention by

the student plus inadequate and misleading editorial sug-

gestions provided for pedaling. Ching (1930) cites four

reasons for incorrect pedaling: (1) bad teaching, (2) lack

of teaching, (3) complete lack of musical feeling, and (4)

carelessness. He concludes, however, that incorrect pedal-

ing is almost always due to either the first or second

reason.


Pedagogical Views on Teaching Pedaling


As Gieseking (1930) points out, young musicians almost

never understand how difficult it is to play exactly ac-

cording to the wishes of the composer. This perfection is

possible only by a complete mastery of all forms of tech-

nique.

Good pedal technique is defined by Ching (1930) as a

knowledge of when and how to use the pedal, as well as the

ability to perform automatically or subconsciously the

necessary pedal movements. Only when the performer has

this skill and knowledge, according to Ching, can the pedal

take its proper place as part of the student's general

technical equipment.












Methods of Instruction

Pedaling is sometimes of great concern to a composer,

but at other times it is hardly notated at all. Collins

(1986) suggests that the best method of instruction is for

the pianist to notice carefully how the composer has used

the pedal marks, and then to decide for himself or herself

how to interpret them. Ohlsson (1982) believes that

students should experiment with some of the more advanced

forms of pedaling (such as half pedaling and pedal vibrato)

on their own for fun and for the pleasure of learning.

But according to Ching (1930), although pedaling as a

form of musical interpretation must ultimately depend upon

musical experience and judgment, the foundations of most

forms of pedaling can be taught by fairly definite rules.

Such rules, he believes, are the surest way to acquire the

necessary experience and judgment for artistic pedaling.

Schnabel (1954) concurs with this view. Good tech-

nique, according to Schnabel, can be acquired by many

different means and methods. Some of these methods are

easy, some difficult, some short, and some are rather long.

But attempting to acquire a good pedal technique by ab-

staining from using the pedal, or by simply guessing and

experimenting with its use, is a long, inadequate, and un-

acceptable "method." The art of pedaling requires profound

study (Riefling, 1962).












Cooke (1976) believes that students should study care-

fully all the rules first, which may then be skillfully

broken to produce artistic effects.

Last (1960) recommends not only the study of pedaling

as a form of technique equal to that of the arms, hands,

and fingers, but also the practice of preliminary exercises

as a teaching tool before various pedaling techniques are

introduced into musical pieces.


Conflicting Views

Not all pedagogues share the same views on the teach-

ing of pedaling, or the relative importance of exercises in

developing good pedal technique. Booth (1971) concludes

that because good pedaling is a result of sound musical

judgment and an educated ear, any advice or pedagogical

exercises can only be regarded as preparatory and elemen-

tary. After a reasonable foundation in pedaling is ac-

quired, the rest should be determined solely by musical

taste. Bacon (1963) expresses a similar belief in stating

that beyond certain elementary requirements pedaling be-

comes an individual matter. Neuhaus (1973, p. 163) be-

lieves that there is no correct pedaling "in general," that

general rules about pedaling "have the same relation to

artistic pedaling as some chapter on syntax to poetic

language."











Pedaling as an Aid to Individual Interpretation

Great piano playing is an individual matter, and most

teachers recognize pedaling as an important aid to express-

ing this individuality. In a nearly identical performance

of the same musical composition by two pianists, quite dif-

ferent results can be produced solely through dissimilar

pedaling (Marsh, 1987; Riefling, 1962). In the opinion of

Marsh (1987), an intelligent early training in the art of

pedaling is an important key to developing an individually

unique sound in interpreting music.

According to Ching, most piano music imposes a limit

upon the freedom of individual interpretation,

but no such tradition [exists] with regard to the
pedal--or virtually none. Here the artist has free
scope, and provided he has the requisite knowledge and
skill he can use this freedom to express his individu-
ality and his art. (Ching, 1930, p. 36)


Difficulty in Teaching Pedaling

Pedaling is sometimes referred to as "the most diffi-

cult branch of higher piano study" (Cooke, 1976). Numerous

articles provide testimonials to this statement. Formsma

(1976, p. 45) writes that the pedagogical problems involved

in teaching pedaling have "provided inspiration for arti-

cles, problems for editors, and disagreement among perform-

ers, students, and teachers."

In his book on pedaling, Gieseking states that ade-

quate instruction in pedaling is very difficult because












the rules upon which we base our support can scarcely
be produced. The exceptions would most likely surpass
the rules. In many cases one could play as well with-
out the pedal as with the pedal, giving sound reasons
for the carrying out of either method. (Gieseking,
1930, p. 49)

According to Everhart (1958, p. 250), other than

achieving the artistic qualities of touch and tone, "there

is no greater challenge to the player than pedal effects."


Importance of Listening

Most writers stress the prime importance of listening

as a requisite to good pedal technique, saying that the ear

must be the ultimate guide in determining when and how much

pedal to use. Enoch (1977) urges teachers to take the time

to establish good pedaling with both the foot and the ear.

Booth (1971) believes that education in the use of the

pedal begins and ends with the ear, since the ear is the

only real medium of control. Everhart (1958) states that

no amount of discussion will result in effective pedaling

since pedaling is done by ear rather than by calculation.

Schnabel (1950), however, warns in his writings on pedaling

that while the ear should always be the final judge, the

ear alone cannot teach the specific methods and means by

which the various forms of pedaling are obtained. Lind-

quist (1968) concurs by stating that the well known cliche

"pedal with the ear, not the foot" is a risky oversimpli-

fication.












Gieseking (1930) calls the thorough training of the

ear a prerequisite to rapid progress and states that

listening to one's self is by far the most important factor

in all of music study. Leimer (1930), with whom Gieseking

studied, refers to trained ears that have been developed

through continuous self-hearing as the only way to achieve

self-control. Dilsner (1968) refers to Leschetizky's

belief that good pedaling depends on good listening to

one's own playing, as a summation of the desired goal of

all pedaling technique.

Most students do not hear all the sounds they produce,

creating a tone deafness that makes an intelligent and

convincing performance impossible (Friskin, 1921). Ac-

cording to Ching (1930), the longer a student practices a

certain work, the more intensely he or she must listen to

the pedaling and other effects that are produced, to guard

against complacency in listening.

Newman (1956, p. 70) repeatedly stresses the impor-

tance of careful listening, saying that beyond teaching the

student the basics of syncopated pedaling, the teacher's

best help "can be to remind and re-remind the student to

hear what he plays." Last (1960) shares similar views on

the importance of careful listening. As Grasty-Jones

(1988) points out, effective use of the damper pedal de-

mands aural skills that should be cultivated beginning with

a child's first experiences at the piano. Bacon (1963)












believes that nothing reveals a pianist's capacity to hear

himself more than pedaling. Everything that is played,

according to Friskin (1921), should constitute an exercise

in ear training.


Introducing the Pedals


Several different views exist on when and how to in-

troduce pedaling to students. In the following sections,

some of the prevailing beliefs on this topic are presented.


When to Introduce the Pedals

The teaching of pedaling is frequently withheld until

after the student has acquired a proficient keyboard tech-

nique. Many teachers are afraid of allowing young students

to use the pedal at all because they believe that pedaling

will only create unmusical blurs. According to Marsh

(1987), this is usually because the teachers themselves are

uncertain about the proper training techniques to use to

teach beginning students the correct use of the pedals.

Many writers lament this situation (Anson, 1966;

Bacon, 1963; Bernstein, 1981; Ching, 1930; Marsh, 1987) and

believe that pedaling technique should be taught along with

keyboard technique. If the student learns early to use the

pedals, he or she will learn that there is nothing mysteri-

ous about using them and pedaling will gradually become a

natural habit (Ching, 1930; Marsh, 1987; Riefling, 1962).












As Marsh points out, very young students (whose reflexes

are often quicker than those of older people) usually have

little trouble in learning to pedal. According to Anson

(1966), young pianists should begin using the pedals im-

mediately so that they can become a constantly functioning

part of the player's entire mechanism, along with the eyes,

ears, muscles, heart, and head. The right pedal should be

used at the first lesson, and the others added as soon as

possible.

Gieseking (1930, p. 40), however, advises studying

"foot technique with the greatest accuracy" only after the

pianist has acquired enough technique to interpret a compo-

sition fairly well. Ferguson (1969) believes that with the

exception of children and beginners, pedaling should be

practiced form the beginning of the study of a work as an

integral part of the piece, not added later as a separate

ingredient. Beginners are also advised by Riefling (1962)

to avoid using the pedal unless they are sufficiently

musical and gifted, and are capable of listening to them-

selves. Still others believe that pedaling should not

be introduced until after a good finger legato has been

achieved.

Bastien (1988) states that the correct use of the

pedal may be taught late in the second year or early in the

third year, whenever the child's foot is able to reach the












floor and a correct seated position can be maintained.

Prior to this, he recommends using the pedal at the end of

a piece, with chords, and in hand over hand arpeggios to

satisfy the child's eagerness to pedal. Last (1963) also

believes that pedaling can be introduced when the student

has reached approximately grade two or three, but that no

hard and fast rules can be made.

According to Agay (1981, p. 19), the student should be

able to meet certain physical and musical prerequisites

before being confronted with the challenge of pedaling.

These include the ability to: (1) reach the damper pedal

without sacrificing correct posture, (2) read notes quite

fluently, (3) coordinate hand and foot work, and (4) some

familiarity with basic theory and harmony.

In his chapter on pedaling, Booth (1971, p. 98) con-

cludes that the answer to the question of when pedaling

should be taught is "as early as possible, but as seldom as

possible."

Several teachers warn against abusing the una corda

pedal as a crutch, saying that it is preferable to rely on

touch quality created by the fingers rather than the feet

(Sandor, 1981). Whiteside (1961) believes that the una

corda pedal is of very little value when used only for

playing more softly and that it should be used more as a

violinist uses a mute.












Bernstein (1981) speaks of a guilt shared by many

pianists in using the pedals for fear of becoming dependent

upon them in playing legato and playing softly. He recom-

mends using both pedals from the beginning in learning a

new piece, since their use is indispensable in enhancing

skills that have been learned previously and in creating

coloristic effects.

As Grasty-Jones (1988) points out, most students will

have access to a piano with both a damper pedal and an una

corda pedal, but not many students will be fortunate enough

to have grand pianos equipped with sostenuto pedals. In

addition, since the sostenuto pedal often functions im-

properly if it works at all, she suggests that students not

only be taught how to use the sostenuto pedal, but also to

find alternative ways of pedaling that utilize the damper

pedal. Fetsch (1966) concludes that the decision of when

to use this pedal obviously lies with the pianist.


How to Introduce the Pedals

Werder (1978) presents exercises for introducing the

damper pedal that are geared toward students at four

different levels of ability. Since the pedal is rarely

used by young beginning students (because their legs are

often too short), he suggests that students at the most

elementary level depress the pedal only after the final

chord of a piece has been played. Providing that the












student is able to reach the pedals and maintain a correct

seated position and body alignment, depressing the pedal at

this point can be a good introduction to syncopated pedal-

ing. A student at the second level is capable of under-

standing the mechanical side of the damper pedal along with

syncopated pedaling. Werder suggests playing single notes

and counting in duple or triple meter to teach the timing

involved in syncopated pedaling at this level. The pedal

is released as the new note sounds. Third-level students

practice delaying the timing in syncopated pedaling, so

that the pedal is depressed after the new note sounds. At

the fourth level, pedaling is used within musical

compositions.

Ching (1930) believes that the use of the pedal de-

pends almost entirely upon the harmonic structure of the

music and, therefore, no knowledge of the pedal is of any

practical value without some understanding of the general

principles of harmony and chord formation. He advocates

beginning the study of pedaling with basic principles of

theory and types of chord formations. From there he com-

pares pedaling chord inversions and chord changes, and

refers to different levels of acceptable pedal blurs in

reference to stylistic considerations. The art of pedal-

ing, according to Sandor (1981), hinges on the ability to

blend harmonics with discretion.












Gieseking (1938, p. 48) recommends beginning the study

of pedaling by teaching a correct seated position. Next,

the student can practice "time treading" and syncopated

pedaling by studying suitable passages before working our

the pedal in musical compositions. As a recommended ex-

ercise he suggests depressing the pedal in advance of the

notes that are played.

Seroff (1977) believes that pianists should familiar-

ize themselves first with the piano as an instrument. He

feels that this is the most natural way to begin and that

every other instrumentalist follows this procedure except

pianists:

The pianist practices and accomplishes, and at the end
of perhaps twenty years finds himself dumfounded at a
child's questions of 'How do you make music on this
box?' I have yet to meet either pupil or teacher
who devoted his first lesson to these fundamental
questions, which should be the basis of good piano
playing. (Seroff, 1977, p. 2)

Agay (1981) and Enoch (1977) also suggest that the

first lesson in pedal include an examination of the pedal's

damper mechanism. They further suggest that the student be

taught to position the right foot correctly and to operate

the damper pedal silently. According to Agay, pedaling

should be studied at a comfortable and deliberate pace. He

feels that it is not advisable to introduce new aspects of

pedaling at each lesson, or to have the student learn

special pedaling exercises at each consecutive lesson.












Last (1960) suggests demonstrating the vibration of

strings to students by such simple methods as depressing

the pedal and yelling into the piano, a technique that

seems sure to get the students' attention. She also

suggests teaching students to treat the pedal as a very

sensitive mechanism and to learn the feel of the up-down

motions of the foot along with correct placement of the

feet on the pedals. She suggests testing for this feel on

all instruments before any performance.

In her subsequent book on pedaling, Last (1963) recom-

mends that students first understand the function of the

damper pedal and then practice pedaling technique away from

the keyboard. She mentions the correct positioning of the

foot and stresses the importance of listening. Suggested

exercises in pedaling include those in which the teacher

plays while the pupil pedals.

According to Booth (1971), the very first lesson in

the use of the pedal should demonstrate to the student that

the less movement made by the foot (either up or down), the

better the possibility of achieving sensitive results. The

student should also be taught that the sole of the right

foot always rests on the pedal and should never lose con-

tact with it. Booth refers to this manner of pedaling as

"invisible" pedaling (1971, p. 94).

Correct pedaling involves the use of natural tension

in that the resistance offered by the pedal must be met by












contracting the muscles in the leg and foot (Bernstein,

1981). Therefore, Bernstein recommends beginning the study

of pedaling by considering the posture of the feet and the

feel of pedal resistance. He suggests an exercise in which

the student places the right foot on the damper pedal and

the toes of the left foot over the right. A downward pres-

sure from the left toes as the pedal is activated exercises

a braking control and prevents the dampers from slapping

against the strings.

Before any pedal is used Anson (1966) suggests that

the teacher explain its use, demonstrate what happens with

the piano mechanism, and illustrate the sounds which then

result.


Teaching Techniques for the Damper Pedal


The easiest use of the damper pedal involves sustain-

ing the same chord for a period of time. The notes and

pedal are then released simultaneously. Pedaling in this

way is sometimes referred to as "direct pedaling." Ching

(1930) refers to this use of the pedal as a preparation for

legato pedaling.

Until the beginner knows exactly how to coordinate

pedaling, Marsh (1987) believes that it is extremely im-

portant for the teacher to mark precisely even the simplest

pedaling suggestions in everything that is used for pedal

practice. Marsh feels that in the early training years the












student needs the visual help of such markings at all

times.


Activating the Damper Pedal

Several books and articles refer to the manner in

which the damper pedal is depressed and released. The

damper pedal may be depressed either before, with, or after

the notes are played. It may be released either with the

notes or delayed by varying degrees.

As mentioned earlier, rhythmic pedaling, or depressing

the damper pedal simultaneously with the notes that are

played, was originally considered the accepted method of

pedaling. Today simultaneous pedaling is more likely to be

regarded as the exception to the rule. Releasing the dam-

per pedal in an appropriate manner is given more prominent

attention in the various writings, and it is widely con-

sidered to be of more importance than how or when it is

depressed. "The rule 'play first, pedal afterwards' is of

permanent and universal validity, but like all rules, it

has its exceptions" (Kentner, 1976, p. 72). Ching (1930)

provides a series of exercises based on a single chord

followed by musical examples to illustrate this concept.

Hamilton (1927) states that the pedal should always be

depressed to its full extent by a quick downward movement

made from the ankle joint and released by relaxing the

pressure as suddenly as it was applied. According to












Hamilton, it is a safe rule to depress the pedal after

sounding the note except when the note is very short or

stands alone.

The belief that the pedal should be either completely

down or completely up is also shared by Gebhard (1963).

According to Gebhard, the pedal is activated by a relaxed,

noiseless motion from the ankle. It is always pressed

down, and never struck by the foot.

Grasty-Jones (1988) believes students should learn

that pedaling to the floor is unnecessary. Placing only

the big toe on the pedal rather than the entire ball of the

foot helps to control the weight of the foot and eliminate

blurring. She further suggests that as students gain more

control of the damper pedal, they can experiment with

degrees of pedal and find out how little pedal is needed to

sustain tones.

Booth (1971) describes the "why and wherefore" of all

pedal technique as a summation of two basic movements: de-

pressing the pedal and releasing it. He further believes

the point at which the pedal is released is more important

than when or how it is depressed, which is a view also

shared by Last (1960) and Lindquist (1966). Booth gives

six exercises for teaching the student to correctly

activate the damper pedal.












Legato Pedaling

Legato pedaling is one of the most frequent uses of

the pedal and is the one most often introduced first. It

is also the form of pedaling that is frequently taught "to

the total exclusion of every other type" (Booth, 1971,

p. 101). Because legato pedaling involves syncopated

timing between depressing and releasing the keys and ac-

tivating the pedal, preparatory exercises and sometimes

suggested prior to introducing this technique.

Agay (1981) suggests teaching the syncopated element

of timing by having the student play single chords and

depress and release the pedal while counting in a very slow

quadruple meter.

Ching (1930) has the student practice rhythmical foot

movements away from the piano while counting. He then

combines foot movement with arm movements varying the

height that the arm is dropped and the portion of the arm

that is being used. He also provides musical illustrations

of legato pedaling. Ching believes that two things must be

considered in legato pedaling: the pitch or range of the

keyboard in which the passage is played, and the dynamic

level. The louder the tone and the lower the pitch, the

longer the damper pedal must be allowed to dampen the

sounds between the chords. He provides an interesting

exercise comprised of cadence chords played in different












registers and at different dynamic levels to illustrate

this point.

Hamilton (1927) suggests an exercise for developing

legato pedaling that consists of playing a series of as-

cending notes with one finger and coordinating the timing

of the pedal while counting. Pasquet (1981) recommends

playing the C major scale very slowly with one finger while

saying the words "up" and "down" to acquire the element of

timing.

After the student has learned a legato pedal technique

in conjunction with playing a series of slow chords, Marsh

(1987) suggests that Hanon exercises be used as a second

step in early pedal training. He believes that Hanon is

useful in training students to create a legato quality in

running passages. To avoid blurring the pedal, Marsh

suggests that the student first be able to play the exer-

cises at a tempo of at least 92 per quarter note. The

procedures he suggests for pedaling the exercises in Hanon

differ according to the meter and tempo of the exercise

that is played.

The exercises in the first book of Hanon (all in 2/4

time), can be pedaled by depressing the pedal immediately

after the first beat and lifting it exactly on the second

beat of the measure. For those exercises in the second

book (all in 4/4 time), the pedal can be depressed

immediately after the first and third beats, and raised












exactly on the second and fourth beats. At a metronome

marking of 120 or above, Marsh suggests that the pedal

should be depressed after the first beat but not raised

until the third beat. At speeds of 152 or above, the pedal

can be depressed for an entire measure, resulting in as

many as sixteen notes in a single pedal.

Pedaling in this manner is one form of accent pedal-

ing, whereby the lift of the pedal produces an automatic

accent. Marsh (1987, p. 50) refers to this type of accent

pedaling as "clipping," because releasing the pedal exactly

as the note is played "clips" the tone and creates a rhyth-

mic pulse.

Seroff (1977) recommends a listening experiment with

the damper pedal to illustrate two distinct tone qualities.

In the first illustration, the student is asked to play a

note and to depress the damper pedal while holding the note

down. Then the student is asked to repeat the process but

to lift the finger from the key as soon as the pedal is

depressed. Although the note is sustained by the pedal in

both examples, if the key is released while the pedal is

held, it allows the hammer to fall all the way back to its

starting position. This creates a wider range of vibration

of the strings and enhances the quality of the tone. When

the key is held down, the hammer only partially returns to

its original position. Seroff believes that this illustra-

tion is useful in indicating to the student that the fin-












gers do not always need to hold on to the notes when using

the damper pedal.

Bernstein (1981) recommends lifting the fingers for

another reason. Freeing the fingers from a finger legato

and connecting instead with the damper pedal enables the

pianist to control the exact dynamic level of each note.

This is useful if strain or discomfort prevents those

pianists with small hands from controlling the contour of

the dynamics. Although he states that some pianists regard

the practice of relying on the pedal for legato instead of

the fingers as an anathema, he points out that some of the

greatest pianists indulge in this practice.

Anson (1966) has the student play scales with the

third finger alone while playing and pedaling in various

meters. He suggests experimenting with the length of time

the pedal remain depressed.

Before the student attempts legato pedaling, Dumesnil

(1958) recommends five preparatory exercises to acquire a

syncopated motion between the hands and foot. These are

done while counting away from the piano.

Farjeon (1923) recommends an exercise to be played

first with finger legato and then with the third finger

alone while the pedal connects the notes. He suggests

varying the tempo and, when playing fast, to pull up

suddenly from the note to assure that the sound is clean.












Additional Pedaling Techniques


A number of writers discuss additional uses of the

damper pedal as well as the sostenuto and una corda pedals

but mostly from the standpoint of musical style. In his

book on pedaling, Banowetz (1985) includes some pedagogical

suggestions for various techniques for the use of the three

pedals and examples of how to pedal specific works of

selected composers. In earlier writings on the subject

Banowetz (1981) also relates pedaling techniques and peda-

gogical suggestions to musical examples and stylistic con-

siderations. Farjeon (1923) provides examples for the

various uses of the pedals, including a number of exercises

and studies.

The only way to distinguish between the various de-

grees of partial pedaling, according to Schnabel (1954),

is through critical listening. He suggests three exercises

or teaching the various positions of the damper pedal in

relation to the degree of released sound. To test whether

a certain position of the pedal produces the effect of a

quarter pedal or 25 percent of released sound, Schnabel

suggests playing a scale with the pedal slightly depressed

and listening to determine that no blurring occurs. To

test for half pedal or 50 percent of released sound,

staccato notes should be played first without the pedal and

then with the pedal depressed slightly so that some blur-












ring occurs. To test for three-quarters pedal or a 75

percent of released sound, a chord should continue to sound

when the pedal is partially depressed. However, the sound

should not be as resonant as when full pedaling is used.

Schnabel also describes three means of partial pedaling to

achieve a decrease in the dynamic level of a sustained

chord.

Pedaling for color has been described by some as the

least understood of the uses of the pedal. Slenczynska

(1969) describes several uses of the damper pedal for color

in Prokofieff's Visions Fugitives, Opus 22. Ching (1930)

introduces this technique by explaining sympathetic vibra-

tion through the overtone series and then illustrates its

use through musical examples. He treats staccato pedaling

as a form of pedaling for color, which he introduces by

playing chords and listening to the pedal release. He also

provides an exercise for half pedaling.

A comparison between dry and liquid staccato and dry

and liquid portamento is made by Gebhard (1963) to illus-

trate the difference between notes that are pedaled and

those that are not.


Sostenuto Pedaling

Randlett (1967) describes more advanced means of em-

ploying the sostenuto pedal through a process of control-

ling the level of the dampers of the unwanted tones. He












provides step-by-step procedures to achieve this effect in

musical examples.

Fetsch (1966) provides a sequence of steps that should

be observed when using the sostenuto pedal and illustrates

them through musical examples. He also provides examples

for the simultaneous use of all three pedals.


Una Corda Pedaling

Graham (1963) believes that the teacher should be the

one to show the student when to use the una corda pedal;

consequently, he does not provide markings for this pedal

in his pedal exercise book. Bilson (1982) recommends using

the una corda pedal as a voicing tool for a defense against

a piano with heavy grooves in the hammers. He suggests

depressing this pedal partially to avoid the tinny sound

that sometimes occurs.


Pedal Exercise Books


A few pedal exercise books have been published, some

of which are now out of print. The authors include Anson

(1966); Farjeon (1923); Graham (1963); Last (1963); Miro-

vitch (1954); Styron and Stevens (1964); and Podolsky,

Davison, and Schaub (1966). These books present various

approaches to introducing pedaling to the student. For

instance, in his volume on pedaling, Mirovitch (1954) il-

lustrates the role and function of the damper pedal in












piano repertoire. Graham (1963) employs a series of

original compositions to introduce pedal plans which are

markings for basic legato pedaling. One piece employs the

sostenuto pedal in combination with the damper pedal. Last

(1963) first presents exercises in which the teacher plays

and the pupil listens. After the pupil is able to play and

pedal, she introduces legato pedaling, rhythmic pedaling,

and staccato pedaling.

Anson (1966) states that nothing seems more futile

than the usual preliminary pedaling exercises in which the

student activates the pedal while counting but does not

depress the keys. He introduces legato pedaling, harmonic

and melodic pedaling, and illustrates various uses of the

three pedals through short pieces. Included are pedaling

for color, pedal blurring, accent pedaling, and pedaling

grace notes. One piece is provided for una corda pedaling

and another for sostenuto pedaling.


Introduction of the Pedals in Piano Methods Books

The introduction of pedaling into current piano

methods books, especially those frequently used in the

United States, was examined to provide insight into when

and how pedaling was introduced to students and what types

of pedaling techniques were employed.

The United States has produced more method books than

any other country (Bastien, 1988). When seen on display at












a major music store, the number of methods is overwhelming.

Therefore, only a few of the more frequently used methods

are examined for their treatment of the pedals.

The following charts indicate how and when the damper

pedal and una corda pedals are introduced, whether or not

preliminary exercises are included, and the pedaling tech-

niques that are employed. The various means of introducing

the pedals include: (1) photographs, drawings, illustra-

tions, and markings in the music--none of which contain

explanations, (2) abbreviated descriptions of the three

pedals, (3) brief explanations of pedaling techniques, and

(4) various introductory exercises.

Some methods present the concepts of a pedaling tech-

nique first, without reference to actual playing. Others

indicate the use of the pedal without verbal explanations.

In some, the pedal markings simply appear without prior

introduction. Additional methods were examined as well,

and similar instances were found to apply.

A wide diversity was found to exist in the continuity

of pedaling concepts presented in the various methods. A

divergence was found as well in the consistency with which

pedaling was employed once the concept had been introduced.

In general, the concept of pedaling did not appear to re-

ceive a high priority; neither did pedaling appear to be an

inegral part of the pedagogical sequence of the instruc-

tional materials.






















Book Pedal Exercises Technique


Photos 2 Damper


Illus-
tration,
Words



Illus-
tration


Illus- 1
tration 4


Aaron
Piano
Course
(1945)


Alfred
Basic
Library
(1984)


Alfred
Cr-eating
Music
(1972)


Bastien
Pia-no
Basics
(1985)


Bastien
Piano
Library
(1976)


Damper





Damper
11


No Syncopated


Legato
Syncopated
Finger



Legato
Syncopated


Damper No
SYes


1 Damper
4 "


Legato
Overlapping


Legato
Overlapping


(No pedal is used)


Bastien
Very Young
Pianist
(1970)


Picture B Damper






Drawing B Damper


No Direct






No Simultaneous


Figure 2-1


Introduction of the Pedals into Piano Methods Books


Without
playing


Clark,
Goss
Look &
Listen
(1962)


Clark,
Goss
Music
Tree
(1973)


Method How






















Method How


Fletcher
Piano
Course
(1973)


Gilbert
Music
for
Everyone
(1978)


Glover,
Ga r row
Piano
Student
(1967)


Glover,
Stewart
Method
for
Piano
(1988)


Medley
Way
(1181)


Noona
Gifted
Pianist
(1986)


Olson,
et al.
Music
Pathways
(1974)


Expla-
nation




In the
music





Drawing,
Sentence

Reintro-
duced


In the
music

Without
playing



Expla-
nation



Illus-
tration




Expla-
nation


Book Pedal


2 Damper





2 Damper


Damper


P* Damper &
Una Corda

1 Damper &
2 Una Corda



1 Damper




2 Damper
Una Corda




1-C Damper


Exercises Technique


Yes


Pre-ped
Syncopated


No Direct






No Direct


No



No Syncopated
depression


Syncopated




Syncopated


No Direct


Figure 2-1--continued


* Primer level






















Book Pedal


2 Damper
3

6



1 Damper





B Damper


E Una Corda


2 All 3
(Damper)

3 Una Corda


Method


Pace
Wiu5hc
for
Piano
(1981)


Royal
Conser-
vatory
(1975)


Schaum
Piano
Course
(1945)


Thompson
Modern
Piano
Course
(1937)


Waxman
Pageants
(1959)


Exercises


No
No

No


Technique



Overlapping

Non-tradition-
al notation


No Syncopated


Pedal in
rhythm


How


Brief
expla-
nation
No ex-
planation


In the
music




Without
playing




Illus-
tration

No ex-
planation


Syncopated


No Syncopated


Figure 2-1--continued


Most of the methods that were examined did introduce

the damper pedal, some used the una corda pedal either

alone or in combination with the damper pedal, but none

included examples for the use of the sostenuto pedal.


However, these method books are for beginning piano

students, and sostenuto pedaling generally is not required


until more advanced levels have been attained.


I


No


Yes


Damper


In the
music















CHAPTER 3
PEDAGOGICAL MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES


The pedals on the piano can be used in numerous ways

and for a variety of musical purposes. For example, in his

treatise on pedaling ("The Pianist's Guide to Pedaling"),

Banowetz (1985) describes twelve distinct techniques for

the damper pedal alone, plus additional techniques for each

of the other two pedals either alone or in combination with

other pedals. This study has developed a pedagogical

approach for each of the techniques discussed by Banowetz.

In addition, it presents four techniques not discussed in

Banowetz's treatise on pedaling.


Composition of the Units


Overview

Twenty instructional units were developed, one for

each of the pedaling techniques. Each unit includes a

step-by-step guide to the teaching of a pedaling technique,

as well as other useful related information. One addi-

tional unit was developed dealing with the pedagogical

sequence for introducing each pedaling concept. These

units form a comprehensive and systematic program of study











to help teachers teach their students to utilize the three

pedals of the piano correctly and effectively.

The units for the teaching of each pedaling technique

focus on pedagogical matters, with stylistic and notational

considerations mentioned when appropriate. They describe

the particular stage in a student's development at which he

or she can best be taught each technique.


Format and Content

Each of the first twenty teaching units consists of

the following format: (1) description of the technique, (2)

application, (3) teaching procedures, (4) teaching ex-

amples, and (5) appropriate exercises. Various concepts

are presented within each category according to the nature

of the technique described in that particular unit. Before

students can learn to pedal effectively, they need to

understand: (1) why pedaling is necessary, and (2) how the

mechanism of each pedal operates. The teaching units also

address these considerations.

Each unit begins with a description of the individual

pedaling technique that defines relevant terminology, de-

scribes the mechanical operation of the pedal as it is em-

ployed in the technique, and discusses the effect that the

activation and release of the pedal have upon the dampers.

The section concerned with the application of the

technique describes the function of the technique in












playing the piano and how it is accomplished. Suggestions

for implementing the various pedaling techniques into the

repertoire address the matters of how and when to employ a

technique. By developing a stylistic awareness the student

will be better able to apply each technique in an appro-

priate musical way.

The section on teaching procedures describes the

necessary prerequisite knowledge and skills required for a

student to learn each particular pedaling technique. A

student should possess appropriate physical development,

hand and foot coordination, and the ability to position the

body properly. In addition, students need to have suffi-

cient musical maturity to convey the intent of the music

and a desire to learn. In general, these prerequisite

conditions should be met before a student is taught the

intracacies of piano pedaling techniques.

Some similarities and overlap exist in the teaching

sequence for several of the teaching units, because each

unit was designed to stand on its own for review purposes

by the expert evaluators.

Teaching examples of each technique are described and

presented in an increasing order of difficulty. A step-by-

step process for executing the pedaling technique is pro-

vided for each example.

Additional exercises derived from musical examples are

suggested that may be used to train the foot and develop













specific techniques. Suggestions for contending with limi-

tations imposed by improperly functioning pedal mechanisms

are presented as well.

The twenty-first unit develops a systematic sequence

for implementing the first twenty pedaling units. From a

pedagogical standpoint, it is not always advisable or

practical to introduce the simplest pedaling techniques

first since the student may not encounter some of the tech-

niques until after certain levels of technical mastery have

been achieved.

Together the twenty-one units form a systematic peda-

gogical study of the three pedals of the piano.


Procedures for Developing the Units


The techniques and sequence suggested in the units

are a synthesis of available writings on pedaling and the

examination of the introduction of pedaling in various

piano method books, as well as the result of many years

of experimentation by the researcher. Standard teaching

repertoire was examined to determine when a student will

be most likely to encounter pieces that utilize various

pedaling skills. Exercise books on pedaling were also

examined to determine their effectiveness in aiding the

development of each technique.












Teaching Unit 1: Legato Pedaling


Description of Technique

Legato pedaling is also known as basic pedaling,

syncopated pedaling, or following pedaling. It is the most

fundamental of all pedaling techniques, and it is the one

most commonly used. Its name is derived from the smooth

legato connection of two or more successive notes or

chords. The term "pedaling" is frequently used in a

general sense to refer to this technique.

The damper pedal has three primary functions: (1) to

connect tones that cannot be held by the fingers alone,

(2) to prolong the sound, and (3) to add color. Legato

pedaling is concerned primarily with the first function.

Numerous variations of legato pedaling are possible.

In the simplest and most basic use of this technique legato

pedaling involves the full retention of sound between two

tones or chords. It is accomplished by fully depressing

the damper pedal so that the dampers are completely raised

from the strings. The pedal is released when the second

chord or tones are played, allowing the two notes or chords

to sound connected.

Depressing the pedal in this manner permits the pedal

to descend to its maximum depth which is referred to as

full pedal. Legato pedaling employs the concept of full

pedaling but carries its use one step further by applying












it to the actual connection of tones. Therefore, legato

pedaling differs from full pedal by incorporating the

element of timing. The importance placed on timing in

legato pedaling is reflected in the alternative names for

this technique: syncopated pedaling and following pedaling.

Legato pedaling involves timing the activation and release

of the damper pedal in coordination with depressing the

keys on the piano. This requires timing the (1) descent of

the pedal, (2) release of the pedal, and (3) reactivaton of

the pedal.

The amount of time allowed between depressing the keys

and activation and release of the pedal permits a great

variety of choice. As a result, many shadings of tone

color and effect are possible. These differences are

subtle and their use depends on certain stylistic factors,

as well as the pianist's own preference and skill. Vari-

ations on basic legato pedaling are covered in other units

such as those on legatissimo pedaling, portato pedaling,

and pre-pedaling.

Legato pedaling may be diagrammed as indicated on the

following page. This example illustrates a number of ways

in which the pedal may be used to achieve a legato connec-

tion of the notes. The amount of elapsed time between the

pedal changes is approximate and somewhat flexible.











Example A: Beethoven Variations on a Waltz Theme by
Diabelli


I I *I

S r Z


L_.J L.-_ L.J. L




Employing legato pedaling in this manner will permit

the notes to be connected smoothly and cleanly together

with no blurring from one harmony to the next and with no

break in the continuity of sound.


Application When Playing

Legato pedaling is usually taught before other pedal-

ing techniques are learned. Unfortunately, often it is the

only pedaling technique taught and the only one that is

regularly employed. While it is not easy to execute cor-

rectly, it demands less skill and coordination than many of

the other uses of the damper pedal. For this reason, the

temptation is to use it before the requisite knowledge and

skills for developing good pedaling techniques have been

sufficiently mastered by the student.


Teaching Procedures

Preliminary skills. It is important for the student

to learn correct body alignment and the proper positioning












of the feet in relation to the pedals before the pedals are

used. To position the body properly, adjust the height and

distance of the bench from the keyboard. Ask the student

to do the following:

1. Sit on the front half of the bench with both feet

resting on the floor. Place the right hand on the

keyboard. The forearm should be basically level, and the

elbow should come either to the side of the body or just

slightly in front. When these adjustments have been made,

rest both hands in the lap.

2. Place the ball of the right foot on the damper

pedal and the heel on the floor. The foot should be posi-

tioned directly in line with the damper pedal so that the

heel is not turned to either side.

Ask the student to stand without using the hands or

moving the feet. If this is not possible, adjust the

placement of the left foot. Generally the left foot will

need to be positioned closer to the bench so that the

weight rests a little more on the ball of the foot. A

correct seating position has been attained when the student

can sit and stand comfortably without moving either the

hands or the feet. The body is then free to move in either

direction.

Have the student experiment with depressing and

releasing the damper pedal silently. It is important that

the foot maintains contact with the pedal and the heel












rests on the floor throughout. Ask the student to do the

following:

1. Position the right foot on the damper pedal.

2. Slowly depress the pedal by placing weight on the

ball of the foot behind the toes. Keep the heel on the

floor.

3. Relax the foot and let the pedal rise. Keep the

toes on the pedal.

Preparatory exercises. The syncopated activation and

release of the damper pedal can be a difficult concept for

the student to grasp all at once. Have the student experi-

ment first with depressing the damper pedal in this manner.

A simple broken chord pattern or hand over hand arpeggio

can be used. Ask the student to

1. Play the first note of the arpeggio and hold it

with the finger.

2. Depress the damper pedal.

3. Continue to play the arpeggio while the damper

pedal remains depressed. Release the pedal at the conclu-

sion of the arpeggio.

When the damper pedal is employed in this manner, the

tones are sustained as long as the pedal remains depressed.

The student is concerned only with activating the pedal and

releasing it when pedaling is no longer desired. Timing is

not a consideration. This preparatory use of the pedal is

sometimes referred to as "direct" pedaling.












One of the more critical elements in training a

pianist to pedal correctly is to train the ear to listen

carefully to the sounds that are produced when the pedal is

used. One exercise in listening and timing the activation

of the damper pedal involves both teacher and student. The

teacher begins by playing a series of chords very slowly

while the student adds the pedal. Ask the student to

1. Depress the damper pedal immediately after the

first chord is played by the teacher.

2. Lift the pedal after the next chord is played to

clear the sound, then redepress the pedal.

3. Continue pedaling in this manner while the teacher

increases the relative tempo of the chord changes.

Teaching procedures for legato pedaling. In order to

connect two tones or chords in a clean legato manner using

the damper pedal, the following procedures are recommended.

Ask the student to

1. Play the first chord. While holding the notes on

the keyboard, fully depress the damper pedal.

2. Play the second chord. While holding the notes on

the keyboard, lift the pedal.

3. Redepress the pedal.

4. Listen to the second chord. The harmony should

now sound clean, without any retention of tones from the

first chord, because the dampers should have completely

stopped the sound of the first chord after the second chord












is played. The chords will sound clean if the damper pedal

is fully released.

5. Repeat the preceding procedures until the student

achieves the coordination between foot and hands and can

also produce a clean connection of the tones.

Before going on to the next step, have the student

practice until the time required between playing the two

chords and pedaling can be shortened. Then ask the student

to do the following:

1. Play the first chord again and catch it with the

pedal.

2. Play the second chord, and at the same time lift

the pedal. Let the pedal come up to meet the chord.

3. Listen this time not only for a clean sound, but

also for a smooth, unbroken connection between both chords.

While still holding the notes on the keyboard, ask the

student to

4. Depress the pedal once more.

5. Listen again to be sure that the chord sounds

clean. The new change of pedal should not retain any

sounds from the first chord. If the harmony is at all

blurred, this is an indication that the pedal was not fully

released at the time the second chord was played. This

condition does not allow the dampers to be completely

raised from the strings but causes them to remain par-










tially in contact with them. It also does not permit the
sound of the first chord to be completely stopped.

6. Repeat the above five procedures for each new
chord.

Teaching Examples
Legato pedaling may be tested in the following

examples:

Example B: Schumann Choral from Album for the Young


I


IA A A A A AA


Example C: Bach Chorale Prelude in F No. 234,
"Gott lebet noch"


I I J I F \ 1 I I I \i \
L__ LJ \^ i jj j I_ j n__


r r r r
j V 'I
^." as J


ail.
3" aJ


6z 4'


*I


I ^.












Example D: Tobias Matthay Pedaling Exercise

Andante


d J. j. j .I., j ,. J",j..j J j.
I A /_A AA A _A A-


Rhythm of pedal




A more advanced example of the same concept involves

delaying the timing of the damper pedal to avoid blurring

the notes in the right hand. The example below illustrates

this very syncopated use of the pedal to achieve legato

pedaling.


Example E: Handel Sarabande

Grave

Variation 2






r .iir- TTi J i 4


I I
U


LJU L~~JLJ LJU


I__ UI


" IU












Teaching Unit 2: Legatissimo Pedaling


Description of Technique

Legatissimo pedaling, also known as super legato

pedaling, derives its name from the Italian term meaning

that the tones should be very smoothly connected. In this

type of pedaling, the sounds from one chord to the next are

allowed to blur momentarily together before they are

cleared, creating an overlap of sound. This is accom-

plished by delaying the release of the damper pedal between

changes of harmony so that the dampers remain above the

strings as the new harmony is sounded.

Legatissimo pedaling is a type of legato pedaling. By

varying the amount of time between lifting and depressing

the damper pedal, many different effects and shadings of

color can be created. An illustration of approximate

rhythms created by changes of the damper pedal that can

produce nearly identical legato connections of chords is

given below. The different pedal markings produce a

difference in the amount of richness of sound, which is

determined by the amount of time the pedal remains de-

pressed. The longer the pedal is depressed, the fuller the

sound created by the surrounding partial. As the pedal is

released for longer periods of time, the surrounding par-

tials will be progressively diminished and the richness of

sound will decrease.











Approximate rhythms created by changes of the pedal in

using legato pedaling can be shown as follows:


Example A: Beethoven Variations on a Waltz Theme by
Diabelli





U(P)~



r Li r P .







The same principle can be applied to changes of the

pedal in legatissimo pedaling. The difference, however,

is a shift in the emphasis of thinking. Whereas in legato

pedaling the emphasis is placed on depressing the damper

pedal, in legatissimo pedaling the emphasis is placed on

releasing it. Therefore, in a comparison of the two dia-

grams of the Beethoven Variations, it becomes apparent that

the concern for the pianist is not in varying the amount of

time allowed before activating the pedal after a chord is

played, but rather with varying the amount of time that the

damper pedal is allowed to remain depressed after the chord

has been played and before the pedal is released.












Example B: Beethoven Variations on a Waltz Theme by
Diabelli


--AI A A-


Application When Playing

The exact amount of time allowed between changing the

pedal in any form of legato pedaling depends on stylistic

factors and the desire for color in a given passage.

Legatissimo pedaling is often used to portray special

effects such as atmospheric sonority, and smooth, unbroken

transitions of sound. When properly employed, legatissimo

pedaling can create the effect of one harmony growing out

of another. There are no sharp tonal attacks and no breaks

in the continuity of sound.

Although the desired effect is one of continuous

sound, if carried to an extreme, legatissimo pedaling can

create an unmusical blur of sound and obliterate the har-

monies entirely. Careful listening is required to prevent

this from happening and also to regulate the amount of

overlap permitted between the chords.


Teaching Procedures

Preparatory exercises. Because legatissimo pedaling

is derived from legato pedaling, it is necessary for a












student to be thoroughly familiar with the concept of

legato pedaling before this technique can be successfully

taught. Ask the student to do the following:

1. Play a chord on the piano. While holding the

notes fully depress the damper pedal.

2. Play a second chord, and while holding the notes

lift the pedal.

3. Listen to the second chord. The harmony should

sound clean, without any carry-over from the first chord.

The dampers should have completely stopped the sound of the

first chord after the second chord is played. The music

will sound clean if the damper pedal is fully released.

4. Repeat the above procedures until the student is

comfortable with the coordination between foot and hands

and can produce a clean connection of the tones. Before

going on to the next step, have the student practice until

the time required between playing the two chords and

pedaling is reduced.

5. Play the first chord again and catch it with the

pedal. Then play the second chord while lifting the pedal.

Listen not only for a clean sound, but also for a smooth,

unbroken connection between both chords.

6. While still holding the notes on the keyboard,

depress the pedal once more. Listen again to be sure that

the chord sounds clean and the new change of pedal does not

retain any notes of the first chord. If the harmony is at












all blurred, this is an indication that the pedal was not

fully released at the time the second chord was played,

preventing the dampers from being raised completely from

the strings so that the sound of the first chord is

cleared.

7. Repeat the last two procedures for each new chord

that is to be played using legato pedaling.

Legatissimo pedaling. The procedures for teaching

legatissimo pedaling are similar to those given above,

except that a slight blurring of the harmonies should be

heard. This is due to the momentary delay in lifting the

damper pedal after each new harmony. Although the pedal

release is delayed, it must not be done in a haphazard

manner. Have the student count while learning this

technique. Ask the student to

1. Play the first chord. Then, while holding the

notes, fully depress the damper pedal.

2. Play the second chord and keep the pedal de-

pressed. The resulting blur will be offensive to a

sensitive ear. Clear the pedal while still holding the

notes on the keyboard.

3. Repeat the above procedures while counting so

that the pedal will be released exactly at a predetermined

point. Play the first chord on the first count. On the

second count depress the damper pedal. Continue holding

through the third and fourth counts. At the return of the











first count, play the chord again. Change the pedal on the

second count.

Aside from stylistic and artistic considerations, the

actual time allowed between playing the chord and changing

the pedal is a matter of personal choice. This choice is

influenced by extraneous variables such as the tonal capa-

bilities of the individual piano and the acoustics of the

hall or room.


Teaching Example

One use of this technique is illustrated in the fol-

lowing passage. Legatissimo pedaling is used here in com-

bination with the una corda pedal to create the illusion of

sound floating in the distance. It should seem as if the

tones are suspended in time and arise out of nowhere--with

no beginning and no end. Both the damper pedal and the una

corda pedal should be depressed before the notes are

played.


Example C: Scriabin Sonata No. 1, Op. 6


A .4 _j J' J~ 1 ''
.. .. 9P Ea r P


I 'I I I

Ped. IA A A A A A_

u.c. I











Teaching Unit 3: Pedaling for Rhythmic Effects


Description of Technique

The activation and release of the damper pedal in-

fluences the fullness of the tone that is produced, by

determining the number of partial sounding at any given

moment. Therefore, a change in the basic texture of the

tone occurs when the damper pedal is used. Applying pedal

allows the tone to become richer and a corresponding in-

crease in the dynamic level can be heard. Likewise, when

the pedal is suddenly released, it will cause an abrupt

cessation of the surrounding partial, which diminishes the

sound and makes it less full and rich. Using the pedal for

rhythmic effects is another way to color the sound being

produced.

The pedal can be used to project both written and

unwritten rhythms. The amount and type of pedaling varies

according to the purpose for which it is being used. Three

primary uses of the pedal to project rhythm include: (1)

waltz pedal, (2) pedal as a means of accentuation, and (3)

pedal release for emphasis.


Application When Playing

Waltz pedal. The term "waltz" pedal refers to the

type of pedaling that can be applied to pieces related to

dance forms. Here pedaling is used to emphasize an appro-











private beat or rhythmic pulse. It can also help to bring

out the character of the particular dance.

Waltz pedal is often applied to pieces in triple

meter. The damper pedal is usually activated in one of two

ways. Either the pedal is depressed on the first beat and

released on the second beat, or the pedal is depressed on

both the first and third beats but is released in between

on the second beat. The first type of pedaling is commonly

used in waltzes, while the second, for instance, can bring

out the characteristic rhythm of a mazurka. This is not to

imply that other types of pedaling for such pieces do not

exist, but merely to suggest an appropriate way of pedaling

them.

Musical examples. The following musical examples

illustrate both types of waltz pedaling. Suggested pedal

markings are given below each example.


Example A: Chopin Grande Valse Brillante


I I


I_I


L--j










Example B: Chopin Mazurka in D, Op. 33, No. 2


VII ,^ ^ ~ s. 0 0










Accent pedaling. Pedaling the first beat of the
measure and releasing the pedal on the second provides a
lilt to the rhythm. It can emphasize the importance that
these two beats play in portraying the character of the
dance, and it can help project a subtle rubato between
them. The typical mazurka rhythm, with its characteristic
accent on the first and third beats, requires pedaling both
of these beats.
Pedaling as a means of accentuation, or accent pedal-
ing, is used to give added emphasis to notes by increasing
the number of partial that sound. Pedal is often added to
notes with a written accent or sforzando marking, or to
passages requiring an accented, heavy non-legato touch.
The use of the pedal in these situations depends
partially on a combination of the tempo of the piece, the
harmonic rhythm, and dynamic markings. In a fast tempo it
may not be possible to pedal quickly enough to clear the












notes between harmonic changes, especially if the texture

is thick and the notes lie in a low register. Rapid

changes of harmony can easily be obscured by too much

pedaling, especially in a fast tempo and when the dynamic

level is forte. Accent pedaling should be used cautiously

under these conditions since it can be difficult to damp

the inbetween sounds completely.

In addition, pedaling is often used to accentuate a

syncopated rhythm. Generally, tied syncopated notes jus-

tify some type of accent. After the hammer has struck the

strings, the tone on the piano quickly fades away, regard-

less of whether or not the notes are still held. In pas-

sages where a syncopated rhythm is difficult to project

over an extended period of time, the damper pedal may be

used to sustain the feeling of a regular pulse. When the

pedal is depressed, a change of color occurs in the sound,

and a slight crescendo is heard, due to the sounding of

sympathetic partial as the dampers are raised above the

strings.

Pedal release for emphasis. An accent may be achieved

not only by adding pedal for emphasis but also by an exact,

sudden pedal release on a note or chord. This technique is

used only before a rest since a release of the pedal im-

plies that the sound will cease.












Teaching Procedures

Cautions. While applying the damper pedal is not a

difficult task for a student who is already familiar with

the concept of pedaling, several problems are inherent in

rhythmic pedaling. In accent pedaling the dampers are

lifted simultaneously with the notes or chords being

played. This means that the pedal is depressed precisely

as the hands play the notes on the keyboard. This type of

pedaling affords the pianist the rare opportunity to keep

time with the pedal. Therefore, it carries a strong temp-

tation for the foot to hit or stomp the pedal.

Releasing the damper pedal incorrectly can also be

a source of unintended error. When the damper pedal is

suddenly released, the resulting silence resembles an

attack of its own. Frequently, the pedal is released

carelessly and is held over into the succeeding rest,

creating a misplaced accent. In addition, chords that

are played forte may require that the pedal be released

slightly early for the sound to stop completely at the

exact moment of the rest.

Preparatory exercise. All types of accent pedaling

require careful listening to determine when and how much

pedal should be used. Therefore, the first step in learn-

ing this technique involves listening. Experimenting with

different durations of pedaling and pedal release can help

the student gain an understanding of how the pedal is used












in these situations. First ask the student to do the

following:

1. Begin by playing single notes or chords without

using pedal. Listen to the sound as the notes are played

and as the dampers mute the strings when the notes are

released.

2. Play a chord and hold it, then depress the damper

pedal.

Notice that when the pedal is applied the following

changes occur: (1) Color and richness enhance the tone, and

(2) a slight swelling of sound gives the illusion of a

crescendo. These changes occur because of the added par-

tials sounding when the dampers are fully raised from the

strings. Therefore, the pedal can be useful in giving

added emphasis to accented notes, important harmonies, and

notes that are tied.

Pedal release for emphasis. Ask the student to:

1. Play any chord on the piano and depress the pedal

as the keys are played. The lifting of the dampers should

be simultaneous with the sounding of each chord.

2. Release both the pedal and the hand exactly

together so that the dampers mute the tones at the same

moment the notes are played.

To assure that the timing is exact, it can be useful

to have the student count aloud. Ask the student to count

one measure of 4/4 time and then:












3. Play the chord and depress the pedal on the first

beat; release both the chord and the pedal on the third

beat. Vary the dynamic level of the chords being played.

The release of the pedal and chord should happen very

quickly. Ask the student to notice the accent that occurs

at the moment of rest.

It is easier for the dampers to mute the tones com-

pletely when they are played softly than when they are

played fortissimo. Therefore, loud passages require care-

ful listening and special care in releasing the pedal. It

will be necessary to release the pedal a bit early--an

instant before the beat, to stop the sound precisely on the

rest.


Teaching Example

Apply the procedures suggested for pedal release to

the example below. Because of the dramatic nature of this

piece it is not necessary to depress the damper pedal si-

multaneously with each chord. Also because of the nature

of the piece, the chords should not be released too quick-

ly. Releasing the chords too quickly will destroy the

intensely dramatic character of this section. However, it

is important that the silence between each chord be very

rhythmic. The pedal is marked in this example so that the

dampers will mute the sound exactly on the third beat.











Example C: Liszt Sonata in B Minor

1,1, 1 i H fi | f iFf *

ff pesante



L, .I _,_-- LA_I I___ A!






Teaching Unit 4: Una Corda Pedaling

Description of Technique

Terminology. The left pedal, or una corda pedal, is

known by several names. These include the sordino, the
"muting" pedal, the "shifting" pedal, and the "soft" pedal.

The una corda pedal has two main functions, both of which

are tonal: to enable the pianist to achieve softer dynamic

levels than are possible by finger technique alone, and to

produce a more mellow, less percussive sound.

Activation of the una corda pedal is commonly indi-

cated by one of the following terms: una corda, u.c. (one

string), due corde (two strings), and sordini (mutes).

Other terminology include: une corde, sourdine, la pedale

sourde, petite pedale (French); mit Verschiebung, mit einer

Saite, mit Dampfung (German); and sordino, sul una corda,

and poco a poco una corda (Italian).











The release of the una corda pedal is indicated by one

of the following: tre corde (three strings), tutte corde,

tutte le corde, 3 cordes, ohne Verschiebung, t.c., poco a

poco tre corde, poco a poco tutte le corde, and due corde.

Use of both the una corda pedal and damper pedal

simultaneously is indicated by the following: Ped. 1 and

2, con 2 Pedale, 2 ped., 2 Ped., due Ped., Les deux

pedales, Mit beiden Pedalen, Beide Pedale, 1 due pedali,

Tres envelopp4 de p6dales, and con sord e Ped.

Operation. When the una corda pedal is depressed on a

grand piano, the keyboard and the entire hammer mechanism

shift slightly to the right so that on most notes the ham-

mers strike two strings instead of three. This produces a

decrease in dynamic level as well as a change in tone qual-

ity. In addition, the string that is not struck vibrates

sympathetically as the hammer comes in contact with the

other two strings. This vibration creates partial that

produce a sound completely free from percussion and that

contribute to an overall veiled sonority.

In a properly regulated piano, the shifting of the

hammer mechanism to the right allows the hammers to strike

the strings with a softer, less used portion of the felt.

With use, hammer heads receive impacted grooves that coin-

cide with points of contact with the strings. Unless they

are voiced regularly, hammers can become quite brittle and

produce a harsh tone. Playing between the grooves on the












head of the hammers produces a change in tone color that

softens any harsh effect.

On upright pianos there is no change in tone quality

when the left pedal is depressed, for no shifting action

occurs. The una corda pedal merely decreases the striking

distance of the hammers by moving them one half-inch closer

to the strings. While this can diminish the sound, it also

upsets the tonal and touch control. Consequently, there is

no resemblance between this action and the true function of

the una corda pedal. Its use in this capacity is not

considered here.

The term una corda is somewhat of a misnomer, origi-

nating from piano mechanisms of the late eighteenth and

early nineteenth centuries. On these instruments it was

possible to shift gradually from the una corda position (by

fully depressing the left pedal so that the hammer struck

only one string per note), to due corde (by depressing the

left pedal lightly so that the hammer struck two strings

per note), and finally to tre corde (by releasing the left

pedal entirely, and allowing the hammer to strike all three

strings per note). Beethoven often indicated una corda,

due corde, and tutte corde in his scores.

It is not possible to achieve a true una corda on

today's concert grand pianos. Contemporary instruments

do not shift quite as far to the right when the una corda

pedal is depressed, and the hammers clear only the left











string of each note. On some pianos, such as Bosendorfer

grands, the hammers continue to strike all three strings to

some extent. Thus, tre corde and due corde are possible on

most contemporary grand pianos, but una corda is not.

Applying the una corda pedal to low bass notes pro-

duces a slightly different effect. Bass notes have only

two strings per note while the lowest bass notes have only

one string each. Consequently, their volume is reduced

less by use of the una corda pedal than is the volume of

notes in the upper registers. The change in volume and

tone quality that occurs when the una corda pedal is ap-

plied to bass notes is due mainly to the shifting motion of

the hammers, causing a softer portion of the felt to come

in contact with the strings, and producing a more muted

effect.


Application When Playing

Function. The una corda pedal may be used for the

following purposes: (1) to color the tone, (2) to achieve

echo effects, (3) to lengthen a crescendo and diminuendo,

(4) to round-off slurs and phrase endings, (5) to soften an

accompaniment, and (6) to increase the intensity of the

tone.

The una corda pedal functions in much the same way as

a string player's mute. It should be used when a muted

sound is desired, and when a change of tone color is












appropriate in the music. One obvious use in achieving a

difference in tone is to use the una corda pedal in

creating a soft echo effect such as in the repetition of a

short phrase. This is very effective when applied within

an already quiet dynamic context. The echo effect may be

extended to include longer sections; for example, the

repeated sections in the various movements of keyboard

suites and partitas may be played with the una corda pedal

depressed.

It is often said that the una corda pedal should not

be activated during a diminuendo but immediately following,

since a noticeable change of tone color may occur. How-

ever, there are many exceptions to this. One instance

involves using the una corda pedal in combination with the

damper pedal to extend a crescendo and diminuendo. A

pianist may begin a crescendo by starting ppp with the una

corda pedal depressed (but not the damper pedal), increase

the volume gradually to mp where the una corda pedal is

removed, and build to fff with the damper pedal. A gradual

diminuendo can be accomplished the same way by applying the

una corda pedal again near the end of the phrase and ending

ppp as in the beginning with the una corda pedal only.

The una corda pedal can be effective in shaping the

endings of slurs and phrases, especially within an already

soft dynamic area and when the tone quality of the piano is

hard and bright. It may also be used to soften an accom-




Full Text
283
given, based upon the same five-point scale previously used
in tabulating the mean observations of the tapes.
Table 13
Overall Grand Mean Ratings of Tapes
Tapes; 1. 2^ _3 4 _5
5 5 5 5 5
General Comments
The panel of adjudicators was asked to provide addi
tional comments derived from their observations of the
tapes that were pertinent to the study. One adjudicator
wrote: "The five units we heard were very well worked up.
These would be extremely valuable for teacher-learning
refresher workshops."
The following comments were received for each of the
five pedaling technigues:
Pedaling one hand. "Excellent, clear teaching and
understanding by teacher and student;" "taught well
excellent!" "well taught segmentinstructions clear and
followed well by teacher and student. Resultsvery good!"
and "material uses an excellent example."
Pedal diminuendo. "The teacher has been very thorough
with four studentsvery evidently the learning took;" and
"very thorough."


265
Table 5
Grand Mean Ratings for Individual Teaching Units
Unit
Materia 1 s
Objectives
Application
Overall
1.
Leqato
pedaling
4.65
4.75
4.50
Mean
Ratinq
4.63
2.
Leqa-
tissimo
4.88
4.93
4.50
4.77
3.
Rhythmic
pedalinq
4.90
5.00
4.72
4.87
4.
Una corda
pedalinq
4.82
4.86
4.79
4.82
5.
Pre
pedaling
4.82
4.85
4.50
4.72
6.
Finger
pedalinq
4.99
5.00
4.67
4.89
7.
Staccato
pedalinq
4.68
4.75
4.37
4.60
8.
Portato
pedalinq
4.73
4.55
4.50
4.59
9.
Phrasing/
artic.
4.92
4.81
4.50
4.74
10.
Melodic
pedalinq
4.70
4.86
4.47
4.6e
11.
Half
dampinq
4.72
4.84
4.55
4.70
12.
Pedal
vibrato
4.80
4.95
5.00
4.92
13.
Pedal
dimin.
4.90
4.95
5.00
4.95
14.
Half
pedalinq
4.90
4.75
5.00
4.88
15.
Flutter
pedalinq
4.90
4.94
5.00
4.95
16.
Dynamic
pedalinq
4.83
4.90
5.00
4.91
17.
Pedal
blurrinq
4.82
4.97
4.92
4.90
18.
Harmonic
pedalinq
4.72
4.87
5.00
4.86
19.
Pedaling
one hand
4.75
4.88
4.92
4.85
20.
Sostenuto
pedalinq
4.80
4.67
5.00
4.82


144
and the harmonies would not blend together to create an im
pressionistic effect. Therefore, some form of half damping
is required. An approximate 50 percent release of pedaled
sound is suggested because of the soft dynamic level.
Example A; Debussy Jardins sous la pluie
Net et vlf
Teaching Unit 12: Pedal Vibrato
Description of Technique
Pedal vibrato, or vibrato pedaling, refers to the
rapid motion of the pedal that permits the dampers to come
partially in contact with the strings in such a way that
neither a full vibration of the strings nor a complete
damping of the sound will occur. This is accomplished by
using only a partial range of the pedal's full depth and
not allowing the pedal ever to be fully depressed nor
completely released.


65
Teaching Unit 1: Legato Pedaling
Description of Technique
Legato pedaling is also known as basic pedaling,
syncopated pedaling, or following pedaling. It is the most
fundamental of all pedaling techniques, and it is the one
most commonly used. Its name is derived from the smooth
legato connection of two or more successive notes or
chords. The term "pedaling" is frequently used in a
general sense to refer to this technique.
The damper pedal has three primary functions: (1) to
connect tones that cannot be held by the fingers alone,
(2) to prolong the sound, and (3) to add color. Legato
pedaling is concerned primarily with the first function.
Numerous variations of legato pedaling are possible.
In the simplest and most basic use of this technique legato
pedaling involves the full retention of sound between two
tones or chords. It is accomplished by fully depressing
the damper pedal so that the dampers are completely raised
from the strings. The pedal is released when the second
chord or tones are played, allowing the two notes or chords
to sound connected.
Depressing the pedal in this manner permits the pedal
to descend to its maximum depth which is referred to as
full pedal. Legato pedaling employs the concept of full
pedaling but carries its use one step further by applying


55
provides step-by-step procedures to achieve this effect in
musical examples.
Fetsch (1966) provides a sequence of steps that should
be observed when using the sostenuto pedal and illustrates
them through musical examples. He also provides examples
for the simultaneous use of all three pedals.
Una Corda Pedaling
Graham (1963) believes that the teacher should be the
one to show the student when to use the una corda pedal;
consequently, he does not provide markings for this pedal
in his pedal exercise book. Bilson (1982) recommends using
the una corda pedal as a voicing tool for a defense against
a piano with heavy grooves in the hammers. He suggests
depressing this pedal partially to avoid the tinny sound
that sometimes occurs.
Pedal Exercise Books
A few pedal exercise books have been published, some
of which are now out of print. The authors include Anson
(1966); Farjeon (1923); Graham (1963); Last (1963); Miro-
vitch (1954); Styron and Stevens (1964); and Podolsky,
Davison, and Schaub (1966). These books present various
approaches to introducing pedaling to the student. For
instance, in his volume on pedaling, Mirovitch (1954) il
lustrates the role and function of the damper pedal in


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Mary Ray Johnson was born in Galveston, Texas, on
November 18, 1944. When she was a year old the family
moved to Gainesville, Florida, where her father had ac
cepted a professorship at the University of Florida.
Ms. Johnson was educated in the public schools of
Gainesville and studied piano with Mrs. Bernice Hack.
During her school years she received many honors and awards
for piano performance, including top place winner of the
Florida State Music Teachers Association competition.
Upon graduation from Gainesville High School she was
offered full tuition scholarships to three schools: Font-
bonne College in St. Louis, the University of North Caro
lina, and the Eastman School of Music of the University of
Rochester. Dr. William S. Newman extended an offer from
the University of North Carolina for her to be one of ten
women students admitted for the first time, and to receive
the first out-of-state tuition scholarship ever to have
been offered.
In 1967 Ms. Johnson received a Bachelor of Music
degree with Distinction from the Eastman School of Music,
with a major in piano. She was awarded a two-year teaching
309


285
Conclusions
During the course of this study, several existing
conditions became increasingly apparent: (1) Little has
been written of a scholarly nature about piano pedaling
techniques, (2) even less has been written about the
teaching of piano pedaling, (3) little or no research has
been conducted on either of the above, and (4) no system
atic, comprehensive study exists on the teaching of piano
pedaling techniques.
Conclusions regarding the main thrust of the study can
be drawn in terms of three criteria. The materials and
concepts presented within the study should be: (1) system
atic, (2) thorough, and (3) appropriate for the piano
teachers who might use the materials.
Systematic
The study meets this criterion. Each of the twenty
units dealing with a pedaling technique follows a logical
format that includes: (1) a description of the technique,
(2) application of the technique, (3) teaching procedures,
(4) examples, and (5) appropriate exercises. The musical
examples in each unit are included as exemplars of the
possible use of the technique, as something teachers can
consider when they teach their students the correct use of
the pedals.


15
pianists should not be prejudiced against using it in music
that was composed earlier. According to Bacon (1963) ,
there is no benefit in pushing historical verisimilitude
too far when the contemporary grand piano itself is so far
removed from the historical. For instance, the use of the
sostenuto pedal can enhance the performance of Impression
istic piano music. However, Debussy did not have a piano
with a sostenuto mechanism and as far as can be determined
was unaware of its existence. Ravel had composed numerous
piano works before he became aware of this pedal. When
introduced to it, he reportedly exclaimed, "Why didn't
someone show me that such effects were possible with the
sustaining pedal? How many more possibilities it would
have suggested to me!" (Chasins, 1962, p. 76).
Even when pedal markings were placed by the composer
in the score, it is not always possible to execute them
accurately on contemporary grand pianos. The evolution of
the pedals enabled pianists to produce effects at one time
that can only be partially duplicated today. In addition,
pedals differed greatly from one instrument to another,
making it impossible to achieve much consistency. The tone
of early pianos was lighter than it is today, and the
ability of the instrument to sustain sounds was much less
than it is on modern instruments.
Composers often marked pedaling in a careless, in
consistent, or incomplete manner. If followed exactly by


269
Many of the responses received regarding the most
appropriate stage for teaching a technique were too vague
to be recorded accurately on this chart. Table 7 presents
the results as best as they can be determined. Many
teachers gave a generic response or answered in a very
general way. Some examples include: "when the music calls
for it why introduce any sooner?" "as it is needed?"
"little by little?" "when playing original Chopin?" "when
playing 'real literature'?" "before needed in the reper
toire?" and "when the student can do the prerequisites."
The responses in this table also indirectly confirmed
the sequential order of introducing the pedaling techniques
presented in teaching unit 21. Therefore, the results of
Table 7 further supported the findings of those who valida
ted the pedagogical sequence unit.
Table 8 indicates an overwhelming majority of the
respondents believed that it is very important to teach the
pedaling techniques that they had been sent. Yet, a com
parison of Table 8 with Table 6 indicates that the majority
of the teachers either had never or had seldom used these
techniques previously in their teaching! This finding
provides further confirmation of the need for instructional
materials on pedaling. As one respondent replied: "Your
project has clearly shown me, as I'm sure it will others,
that there is not enough instructional material on pedal
technique."


230
Take time to establish good pedaling with both the
foot and the ear, because the use of the ear is of prime
importance at this stage. Encourage students to listen to
each other's pedaling and to add pedal to examples played
by the teacher. Simple chord progressions can be used for
exercises, as well as hymn tunes and chorales.
Pedaling Techniques
Damper pedal. The damper pedal may be depressed in
one of three ways: before the note, with the note, or after
the note has been played. Simultaneous depression of the
foot and hands is easier to execute than legato pedaling,
which reguires a syncopated use of the pedal. However, a
number of reasons preclude introducing simultaneous pedal
activation first. Its use is limited and specialized, and
it necessitates careful listening to control the pedal
release. The majority of pedaling techniques require the
damper pedal to be depressed after the note has been
played. Depressing the pedal with the note then becomes a
common fault that should be corrected as soon as possible.
In addition, the damper pedal may be depressed either
fully or partially. The more basic techniques of pedaling
involve a full depression of the pedal, and these tech
niques are normally presented first.
The concepts involved in legato pedaling can be used
naturally to explain legatissimo pedaling. Legatissimo


260
Questionnaire for Teaching Units 1-20
A specific form was provided for each of the twenty
teaching units, and another form was provided for gathering
comments on the pedagogical sequence unit.
The respondents were asked to review the teaching
units and to critique them by examining the materials, by
using them, and by conferences with students. The respon
dents were also asked to consider the units according to:
(1) pedagogical materials, (2) objectives, (3) student
application, (4) order of presentation in terms of the
student's technical development, (5) pedagogical processes,
(6) importance and previous use made of the pedaling
technique, and (7) the ability of the teacher to implement
the technique according to the teaching unit.
The following scale was used by the respondents in
rating each of the first three categories:
5 Excellent
4 Very Good
3 Good
2 Fair
1 Poor
An analysis of the materials, objectives, and student
application follows for each teaching unit. The scores for
each category were summed and divided by the number of
respondents to provide a mean score for the category. The
mean ratings of the various aspects of each category are
presented in Table 1 for easier comparison.


235
the una corda pedal, especially when the dynamic marking of
the piece is pianissimo.
Sostenuto pedal. Sostenuto pedaling is generally
introduced later for a number of reasons. Many pianos do
not have a sostenuto pedal, and many of those that do have
one that is poorly regulated or that functions improperly.
Because a pianist cannot rely with certainty on the availa
bility of the sostenuto pedal for a performance, it is wise
to have an alternate means of pedaling available. Similar
effects can often be achieved through a combination of
partial pedaling techniques using the damper pedal.
The performer must often decide when it is effective
and appropriate to use the sostenuto pedal, since written
indications for its use are scarce. Sostenuto pedaling
utilizes a number of advanced techniques that require
careful coordination and timing. In addition, it is
sometimes necessary to employ the damper and una corda
pedals when using the sostenuto pedal, so that all three
pedals are activated simultaneously. These techniques
require the student to be both physically and musically
mature.
Conclusion
Beyond a certain point, a sequential order for
teaching pedaling techniques becomes less realistic and
practical than that of teaching finger technique. A


304
Cooke,J. (1976) Mastering Scales and Arpeggios. Bryn
Mawr, PA: Theodore Presser.
Crowder, L. (1967). Still More on the Sostenuto Pedal.
Clavier, 6, 44-45.
Czerny, C. (1839). Complete Theoretical and Practical
Pianoforte School, Op. 500. London: R. Crocks.
Dichter, M. (1987). In J. Noyle (Ed.), Pianists on Piano
Playing (p. 77). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.
Dilsner, L. (1968). Pedal Pointers for Piano Teachers.
Music Journal, 26, 38-40.
Dumesnil, M. (1932). How to Play and Teach Debussy. New
York: Schroeder and Gunther.
Dumesnil, M. (1958). Pedaling. In Handbook for Piano
Teachers (pp. 56-64). Evanston: Summy-Birchard.
Everhart, P. (1958). The Pianist's Art. Author: Atlanta.
Enoch, Y., & Lyke, J. (1977). Creative Piano Teaching.
Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing Co.
Farjeon, H. (1923). The Art of Piano Pedaling, 2 vols.
London: Joseph Williams, Limited.
Fay, A. (1881). F. Pierce (Ed.), Music Study in Germany.
New York: Macmillan.
Fetsch, W. (1966). What's That Extra Pedal For? Clavier,
5, 12-17.
Ferguson, K. (1969). The Pedals of the Piano. Un
published master's thesis, University of Wyoming,
Laramie, WY.
Fletcher, L. (1973). Piano Course. Buffalo: Montgomery
Music.
Formsma, R. (1976). The Use of the Pedal in Beethoven's
Sonatas. The Piano Quarterly, 24, 38, 40, 42-45.
Frey, E. (1939). W. Schuh (Ed.), Schweizer Musikbuch, ii.
Zurich: Schott's Sohne.
Friskin, J. (1921). The Principles of Pianoforte
Practice. New York: H. W. Gray.


229
well as an examination of the piano's damper mechanism.
Let the student look inside the piano in order to see and
hear what happens when the pedals are used. Demonstrate
the use of the pedal for the student as each one is intro
duced. If the student can understand a few elementary
principles of harmonics, then he or she can better appre
ciate why some combinations of sounds are harsher to listen
to than others and how good pedaling can overcome unneces
sary clashes of sounds.
A proper seating position and the correct placement of
the foot on the pedals are essential from the beginning.
Have the student practice depressing each pedal and re
leasing it without removing the foot from either the floor
or the pedal and making as little mechanical noise as
possible. When this is an easy movement, teach legato
pedaling.
The pedals are rarely used by very young students
because of physical limitations and because they are
occupied with note reading and fingering. One of the few
instances where the damper pedal might be used is for
sustaining the final chord of a section or composition.
Many piano methods coordinate the teaching of all aspects
of piano technique, including the introduction of the
pedals along with appropriate repertoire. Beginning
students should not go beyond pedaling the final chords of
pieces until they are able to execute finger legato.


150
Teaching Unit 13: Pedal Diminuendo
Description of Technique
Pedal diminuendo refers to the gentle ascent of the
damper pedal coupled with partial pedaling to produce a
gradual lessening of sound. These very small changes of
pedal gradually release the dampers partially from the
strings. The result is a diminuendo produced by the pedal.
Because the diminuendo concludes at a pianissimo level this
technique is most often used in combination with the una
corda pedal.
Pedal diminuendo is accomplished by using a combina
tion of full and partial pedaling. Depending upon the
desired effect, this technique may also involve half-
pedaling and flutter pedaling. Its use in combination with
these two techniques is presented in other teaching units.
Application When Playing
One use of pedal diminuendo is to produce a smooth
transition in a passage that makes a diminuendo while mov
ing from a low bass register to an upper register. It is
most effective when the music fades dramatically from a
full sonority to a pianissimo on a single note. If left to
finger technique alone, the sound may not diminish rapidly
enough. In addition, the accumulated sounds that occur if
the pedal remains depressed throughout can inadvertently
cause an unwanted crescendo.


249
they were asked to complete. (See Appendix C for the
validation form).
This portion of the intensive phase of the validation
process was accomplished during a nine-month period between
December, 1988 and September, 1989.
Review of the tapes. A panel of three certified MTNA
piano teachers was selected to act as adjudicators in
reviewing each of the four tapes together with the
researcher. The adjudicators met in September, 1989, to
analyze the tapes according to the categories of requisite
conditions, processes, and outcomes that were specified in
each teaching unit.
Sheets for analysis were prepared for their use. (See
Appendices E and F). Their analyses focused on the degree
of congruence between what the unit was intended to teach
and what the students actually accomplished with the
instructional unit.
Incorporation of the Results
Each of the validation procedures employed to validate
the pedagogical materials was analyzed independently. The
opinions of experts were based on the analysis of responses
to questionnaires, which were then grouped according to the
individual units and types of suggestions. Conclusions
were drawn regarding the pedagogical content and usefulness
of each of the teaching units.


101
1. Sit comfortably at the piano, and check to see
that the weight is not forced unnaturally on either foot.
2. Rest the foot lightly on the pedal or pedals to be
depressed.
3. Lean the body slightly forward into the keys, in a
natural, relaxed position. Place the hands over the notes
to be played. It is more effective as well as practical to
position the body before depressing the pedals. Otherwise,
the forward motion of the body as the pedals are depressed
could activate them too quickly and create a noise.
4. Have the student depress the pedal or pedals to be
used slowly and gently so that there is no sound.
A. A sudden lift in the dampers can create an
audible sympathetic vibration in the strings, which is
magnified when the damper pedal is depressed. If this
happens, a slower pedal descent is needed.
B. A forceful depression of the pedals can
produce a noise that then becomes amplified. If this
happens it is an indication that the pedals should be
depressed more gently.
C. If the una corda pedal is employed, it should
be activated carefully, just as the delicate texture of the
music for which it is being used would indicate. Any
extraneous motion or noise definitely detracts from the
intended musical effect.


303
Bernstein, S. (1981). With Your Own Two Hands. New York:
Schirmer Books.
Bilson, M. (1982). The Soft Pedal Revisited. The Piano
Quarterly, 30, 36-38.
Booth, V. (1971). We Piano Teachers. London: Hutchinson.
Bowen, Y. (1936). Pedaling the Modern Pianoforte.
London: Oxford University Press.
Bree, M. (1902). Groundwork of the Leschetizsky Method.
New York: G. Schirmer.
Breithaupt, R. (1912) Die naturliche Klaviertechnik.
Leipzig: C. F. Kahnt.
Brodsky, E. (1985) Piano Tone Color: Its Scientific
Foundations and Their Implicatons for the Performer.
Stanford University. Dissertation Abstracts Inter
national 46, 08-A, 2119.
Caland, E. (1922). Das Kunsterische Klavierspiel.
Stuttgart: Ebneresche Musikalienhandlung.
Carreno, T. (1919). Possibilities of Tone Color by Artis
tic Use of the Pedals. Cincinnati: The John Church Co.
Castagnone, C. (1984). Playing the Piano Without Pedals.
California State University. MAI, 23~ 01, 9"¡
Chasins, A. (1962). Speaking of Pianists. New York:
Knopf.
Ching, J. (1930). Points on Pedaling. London: Forsyth
Brothers.
Clark, F., Goss, L., and Kraehenbuehl, D. (1962). Look
and Listen. Princeton: Summy-Birchard.
Clark, F., and Goss, L. (1973). The Music Tree.
Evanston: Summy-Birchard.
Clark, F., and Goss, L. (1986). Music Maker. Princeton:
The New School for Music Study Press.
Collins, R. (1986). Piano Playing; A Positive Approach.
Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
Cooke, J. (1917). Great Pianists on Piano Playing.
Philadelphia: Theodore Presser Co.


247
processes, (5) musical development, and (6) stylistic
factors.
Categorization of the Units
The teaching units were grouped into four major cate
gories according to requisite and prerequisite pedaling
skills that the student should posses in order to learn
each pedaling technique correctly. The four major
categories and the related pedaling units within each one
are listed below:
Category One: full pedaling. This category includes
those pedal techniques that employ a basic use of the
damper pedal to connect the tones. The pedaling techniques
in this category are legato pedaling, legatissimo pedaling,
pre-pedaling, and pedaling one hand and not the other.
Category Two: partial pedaling. These pedaling
techniques require a partial release of the damper sound.
They include half-damping, pedal vibrato, pedal diminuendo,
flutter pedal, and half pedaling.
Category Three: pedaling to enhance rhythm, dynamics,
and phrasing. The pedaling in this category includes those
techniques that use the damper pedal in combination with
finger technique to enhance the rhythmic, dynamic, or
melodic elements. These techniques are pedaling for
rhythmic effects, staccato pedaling, portato pedaling,
finger pedaling, melodic pedaling, pedaling to enhance


I
45
Last (1960) suggests demonstrating the vibration of
strings to students by such simple methods as depressing
the pedal and yelling into the piano, a technique that
seems sure to get the students' attention. She also
suggests teaching students to treat the pedal as a very
sensitive mechanism and to learn the feel of the up-down
motions of the foot along with correct placement of the
feet on the pedals. She suggests testing for this feel on
all instruments before any performance.
In her subsequent book on pedaling, Last (1963) recom
mends that students first understand the function of the
damper pedal and then practice pedaling technique away from
the keyboard. She mentions the correct positioning of the
foot and stresses the importance of listening. Suggested
exercises in pedaling include those in which the teacher
plays while the pupil pedals.
According to Booth (1971), the very first lesson in
the use of the pedal should demonstrate to the student that
the less movement made by the foot (either up or down), the
better the possibility of achieving sensitive results. The
student should also be taught that the sole of the right
foot always rests on the pedal and should never lose con
tact with it. Booth refers to this manner of pedaling as
"invisible" pedaling (1971, p. 94).
Correct pedaling involves the use of natural tension
in that the resistance offered by the pedal must be met by


182
pedal, and the heel rests comfortably on the floor. This
also prevents the temptation to "hit" the pedal audibly.
Preliminary exercises. Have the student differentiate
between the amount of pressure required for full and
partial pedaling while pedaling behind the big toe rather
than the entire foot. Ask the student to
1. Depress the pedal fully, using the entire depth of
its range. Play any note on the piano and listen to the
full sound that is produced when the pedal is fully de
pressed.
2. Play the note again while depressing the pedal.
Remove the finger from the key, then slowly release the
pedal just to the point at which the sound is released.
This is the height above which the pedal should not rise in
order to retain all the notes.
3. Using both hands, play chords that encompass the
bass and treble registers of the keyboard. Hold these
chords in the pedal, but do not hold the keys down in the
hands. Do the following with each chord that is played:
A. Use a deep, initial descent of the pedal, then
let the pedal gradually rise.
B. As it rises, move the toes up and down very
slightly.
C. Listen carefully to the sound that is being
produced. All of the notes must be retained in the pedal.
If the bass notes are lost, this indicates that the ascent


219
In addition to sustaining tones, the sostenuto pedal
can greatly reduce their dynamic level. This is possible
by silently depressing notes and using harmonics while
activating the sostenuto pedal. When the sostenuto pedal
is used to sustain only a trace of sound, the effect is
similar to pedal blurring.
A vibrating string produces a pitch that consists of a
fundamental plus its overtones or partials. When a note is
played, the vibrating strings cause the strings of the
other notes in its particular overtone series to vibrate
sympathetically when the dampers are not resting on the
strings. Sympathetic vibration occurs also in reverse;
fundamentals below a given note will cause that note to
vibrate also and to produce a faint sound.
For example, the note "C" and its fundamentals are
shown:
1 2 3 4 8 7 8 C
To sustain the "C" faintly, ask the student to do the
following:
1. Depress one or more fundamentals silently.
2. Depress the sostenuto pedal.
3.Play the "C"
and release it.


58
Method
How
Book
Peda 1
Exercises
Aaron
Photos
2
Damper
No
Piano
Course
(1945)
Alfred
11lus-
1-B
Damper
No
Basic
tration,
3
II
No
Library
Words
6
.
No
(1984)
Alfred
11 lus-
2
Damper
Yes
Creating
tration
3
II
Yes
Music
(1972)
Bastien
11lus-
1
Damper
No
Piano
tration
4
"
Yes
Basics
(1985)
Bastien
Piano
Library
(1976)
Without
playing
1
4
Damper
II
No
Yes
Bastien
Very Young
Pianist
(1970)
(No pedal
is used
Clark,
Goss
Look &
Listen
(1962)
Picture
B
Damper
No
Clark,
Goss
Music
Tree
(1973)
Drawing
B
Damper
No
Figure 2-1
Introduction of the Pedals into Piano
Technique
Syncopated
Legato
Syncopated
Finger
Legato
Syncopated
Legato
Overlapping
Legato
Overlapping
Direct
Simultaneous
Methods Books


35
Cooke (1976) believes that students should study care
fully all the rules first, which may then be skillfully
broken to produce artistic effects.
Last (1960) recommends not only the study of pedaling
as a form of technique equal to that of the arms, hands,
and fingers, but also the practice of preliminary exercises
as a teaching tool before various pedaling techniques are
introduced into musical pieces.
Conflicting Views
Not all pedagogues share the same views on the teach
ing of pedaling, or the relative importance of exercises in
developing good pedal technique. Booth (1971) concludes
that because good pedaling is a result of sound musical
judgment and an educated ear, any advice or pedagogical
exercises can only be regarded as preparatory and elemen
tary. After a reasonable foundation in pedaling is ac
quired, the rest should be determined solely by musical
taste. Bacon (1963) expresses a similar belief in stating
that beyond certain elementary requirements pedaling be
comes an individual matter. Neuhaus (1973, p. 163) be
lieves that there is no correct pedaling "in general," that
general rules about pedaling "have the same relation to
artistic pedaling as some chapter on syntax to poetic
language."


218
the fingers or the pedal to the correct height. With
practice, however, it is possible to eliminate the prepara
tory step of full depression and to position the dampers
directly. While this is more difficult, it is eventually
faster and simpler because there is one less operation to
perform.
Special acoustical effects. A more sophisticated use
of the sostenuto pedal involves the use of harmonics. If a
veiled, atmospheric tone quality is desired, the pianist
may choose to let the harmonics of some notes sound
throughout the piece and envelop the other sonorities.
These notes are depressed silently and caught in the
sostenuto pedal before the piece begins. Through
sympathetic vibrations, the harmonics of the sustained
notes are reinforced. Bagpipe music and music box imita
tions employ this device. This technique is illustrated in
Bartk's "Harmonics."
Example M: Bartk "Mikrokosmos" vol. 4, "Harmonics"
Allagro non troppo, on pooo rnbato.
/ ^9 i i
17^1
) JT
1 k^-= =
i *
p doler
1,1
k
4=#=j
A
Jtti
1
Chord held down mute


69
rests on the floor throughout. Ask the student to do the
following:
1. Position the right foot on the damper pedal.
2. Slowly depress the pedal by placing weight on the
ball of the foot behind the toes. Keep the heel on the
floor.
3. Relax the foot and let the pedal rise. Keep the
toes on the pedal.
Preparatory exercises. The syncopated activation and
release of the damper pedal can be a difficult concept for
the student to grasp all at once. Have the student experi
ment first with depressing the damper pedal in this manner.
A simple broken chord pattern or hand over hand arpeggio
can be used. Ask the student to
1. Play the first note of the arpeggio and hold it
with the finger.
2. Depress the damper pedal.
3. Continue to play the arpeggio while the damper
pedal remains depressed. Release the pedal at the conclu
sion of the arpeggio.
When the damper pedal is employed in this manner, the
tones are sustained as long as the pedal remains depressed.
The student is concerned only with activating the pedal and
releasing it when pedaling is no longer desired. Timing is
not a consideration. This preparatory use of the pedal is
sometimes referred to as "direct" pedaling.


114
Staccato pedaling may be used to create an emphasis on
single notes, thereby enriching the sound without the use
of accents. The following two examples illustrate this use
Example B: Haydn Sonata in D, Hob. XVI: 37
AllagfO oon brio
r,

ff=f=f
r
*
rr
c 1
.1
i
u
u
Example C: Beethoven Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13, No. 8
Allegro di molto e con brio
Li LJ U LI U U LIU U ill


162
Teaching Unit 15: Flutter Pedaling
Description of Technigue
Flutter pedaling refers to the very fast, shallow
motion of the damper pedal that allows the dampers to
gently touch then release the strings in rapid succession.
Only a small portion of the pedal's range is used so that
the pedal is never fully depressed or completely released.
Comparison to pedal vibrato. Flutter pedaling is
similar to pedal vibrato. Both techniques are a form of
partial pedaling that involve a rapid motion of the damper
pedal. But flutter pedaling differs from pedal vibrato
regarding (1) the initial depth of the pedal's descent, (2)
the range in which the pedal is vibrated, (3) the speed of
the vibrato, and (4) the purpose for which it is used.
The following diagram is a comparison of flutter
pedaling and pedal vibrato in relation to the depth of the
pedal's full range.
Full Range Flutter Pedaling Pedal Vibrato
Figure 3-4


274
important parts are stressed and are applicable to other
examples. ... I like three points: 1) usually less is
better than more, 2) teach by negative example, and 3) the
most important element is the ear;" "this is a good way to
help train the ear;" "it tells me what I need to know;"
"it's good material;" "the teaching procedures were very
helpful and would provide the student with excellent
exercises to do when practicing;" "it is simple to do and
rewarding musically to the student and other listeners;"
"orderly sequencing and presentation of the materials helps
secure optimum results."
Validation of Pedagogical Sequence of Piano
Pedaling Technique!
The twenty-first teaching unit was also critiqued a
total of six times. Since this unit presented a pedagogi
cal sequence for implementing the twenty pedaling tech
niques rather than the teaching of a particular pedaling
technique, a slightly different format was used in seeking
the validation of this unit (see Appendix D). The results
of the questionnaire are tabulated for each question as
follows:
1. Do you agree with the views on the sequence of
presentation of pedaling techniques?
All six of the respondents agreed with the sequence of
presentation. No one offered changes or suggestions.


At each stage of the study the apparent need for this
type of research was reinforced. Results of both aspects
of the validation process were overwhelmingly positive.
The high consistency of the ratings gave further evidence
that the concepts and techniques presented within this
study are pedagogically sound.
IX


49
Legato Pedaling
Legato pedaling is one of the most frequent uses of
the pedal and is the one most often introduced first. It
is also the form of pedaling that is frequently taught "to
the total exclusion of every other type" (Booth, 1971,
p. 101). Because legato pedaling involves syncopated
timing between depressing and releasing the keys and ac
tivating the pedal, preparatory exercises and sometimes
suggested prior to introducing this technique.
Agay (1981) suggests teaching the syncopated element
of timing by having the student play single chords and
depress and release the pedal while counting in a very slow
quadruple meter.
Ching (1930) has the student practice rhythmical foot
movements away from the piano while counting. He then
combines foot movement with arm movements varying the
height that the arm is dropped and the portion of the arm
that is being used. He also provides musical illustrations
of legato pedaling. Ching believes that two things must be
considered in legato pedaling: the pitch or range of the
keyboard in which the passage is played, and the dynamic
level. The louder the tone and the lower the pitch, the
longer the damper pedal must be allowed to dampen the
sounds between the chords. He provides an interesting
exercise comprised of cadence chords played in different


197
7. Combine both hands with the pedal in the example
below.
Teaching Examples
Example A: Beethoven Sonata in A, Op. 2, No. 2,
(Largo Appassionato)
a j Unvto rrmpr*
rjr.ua ;i =rz==p= i =
VL? "4 1 Jj M A
d .J
V
^
9
~ t ~~- I
1 1 1!
1
SlSStS
staccato samvn .
t_r i_r i i i_r
The concept of pedaling one hand and not the other is
similar in many respects to delayed sycopated pedaling or
legato pedaling. The following example is indicative of
this similarity, and may be helpful for students who find
the pedaling in the previous example difficult to grasp at
first.
Example B: Paderewski Minuet in G


255
71 percent, requested the inclusion of easier teaching
examples. In comparison, this suggestion was made by only
11, or 28 percent, of those who teach students of all ages,
and by none of those who teach only college students.
General comments. Twenty-seven respondents, or 44
percent, did not comment directly on the questionnaire
itself, but wrote overall comments about the units on the
validation form they received for the various teaching
units. Therefore, comments about the units were gathered
from both the general questionnaire and the validation form
for each unit.
Comments and suggestions pertaining to the individual
teaching units are presented later in this chapter along
with each unit. The remaining more general comments are
grouped as follows. The number and percentage include only
those respondents who provided overall comments.
Favorable. Fifty-seven respondents, or 93 percent
expressed favorable overall comments regarding the teaching
units they had seen. A number of comments were repeated
frequently, however, only one example is cited from those
with marked similarity to avoid repetition. They are in
cluded as one phase of the validation process.
Examples of these comments include: "impressive;"
"meticulously organized and presented;" "fine paper;"
"masterful;" "very complete;" "logical;" "well written;"
"impressive clarity of description and sequencing of the


120
Application When Playing
The pedal may be used to enhance phrasing and articu
lation in the following ways: (1) to clarify a phrase, (2)
to "round off" the end of a phrase, (3) to define a porta
to, non legato, or staccato touch, (4) to clarify a tied
note, (5) to project a slur, (6) to contrast articulations,
and (7) to prolong a phrase through articulations and
rests.
Portato pedaling is used to round off the end of a
phrase and to define a portato, non legato, or staccato
touch. This is covered in a separate unit. However, some
overlap among the units cannot be avoided because certain
pedaling techniques have characteristics that affect more
than one use of the pedals. In these teaching materials,
each pedaling technique is placed within the category that
most clearly defines its basic function and use.
Certain limitations are always present when a pianist
relies on finger technique alone. One such instance occurs
with a change of register on the keyboard. In order for a
pianist to change from one register to another musically,
it is usually necessary to release the notes quickly. This
creates a break in the continuity of sound that can obscure
the phrasing. Using the pedal not only eliminates unwanted
breaks, it also enables the pianist to choose the exact
amount of separation between phrases. In other words, it


143
at this stage of the pedal's descent as it would if full
pedal were used.
Have the student vary the register and dynamic level
of the chords that are played. Less pressure may be needed
to sustain notes played loudly in the bass register than
those played very softly in the treble.
It is recommended that the student repeat the pre
ceding three steps using any scale or five note finger
pattern in place of the chord. Half damping is required
frequently for both scale passages and chords, and some
students may respond better aurally to one rather than
another.
Teaching Examples
The student should now be ready to apply the concept
of half damping to musical examples. Pedal actions can
vary greatly from one instrument to another. This makes it
impossible to predict the exact amount of sound that will
result when the damper pedal is partially depressed, es
pecially when performing on an unfamiliar instrument. How
ever, the desired amount of released damper sound should be
determined in advance and not be left to happenstance.
Fifty percent release of pedaled sound. Full pedaling
cannot be used in this example because the delicate lines
and texture of this piece would be obscured. Yet, without
any pedal this passage would be too dry, lack tonal color,


113
careful listening and special care in releasing the pedal.
It is necessary to release the pedal slightly before the
hands to mute the tones completely when the dynamic level
is fortissimo and full-textured chords are played in a low
bass register.
4. Play staccato chords in both the bass and treble
registers. Listen to the difference in the amount of time
required for the notes to cease sounding. Add staccato
pedaling to the chords. The student should notice that the
bass chords become less short with the addition of pedal.
5. Play only chords in the low bass register. This
time release the pedal slightly ahead of the hands. This
is not easy to execute correctly, but it preserves the
integrity of the staccato sound.
Teaching Examples
In the following example staccato pedaling is used to
accent the sforzando chords.
Example A: Beethoven Sonata in F Minor, Op. 2 No. 1


APPENDIX D
VALIDATION FORM FOR PEDAGOGICAL SEQUENCE
Do you agree with the views on the sequence of
presentation of pedaling techniques?
Yes No
If not, what changes or suggestions would you
recommend?
Do the suggestions on the sequence seem logical?
Yes No
In your opinion, how important is it to teach pedaling
concepts in a systematic order?
( ) Very important
( ) Quite important
( ) Somewhat important
( ) Slightly important
( ) Not important
Do you agree with the skills mentioned as being
prerequisite to pedaling techniques?
Yes No
In your opinion, should other skills be either added
to or deleted from the list of prerequisites?
Yes No
If yes, which ones?


67
Example A: Beethoven Variations on a Waltz Theme by
Diabelli
Employing legato pedaling in this manner will permit
the notes to be connected smoothly and cleanly together
with no blurring from one harmony to the next and with no
break in the continuity of sound.
Application When Playing
Legato pedaling is usually taught before other pedal
ing techniques are learned. Unfortunately, often it is the
only pedaling technique taught and the only one that is
regularly employed. While it is not easy to execute cor
rectly, it demands less skill and coordination than many of
the other uses of the damper pedal. For this reason, the
temptation is to use it before the requisite knowledge and
skills for developing good pedaling techniques have been
sufficiently mastered by the student.
Teaching Procedures
Preliminary skills. It is important for the student
to learn correct body alignment and the proper positioning


10
The Una Corda Pedal
Two basic methods for reducing the dynamic level were
employed on various pianos of the early nineteenth century.
The oldest, the pianozug or feu celeste, was a "celeste
stop" that was first operated by hand and then later acti
vated by the foot. It consisted of a thin strip of felt or
leather that came between the hammers and the strings to
produce a special soft effect.
The second pedal mechanism, known as the Verschiebung,
was introduced in 1726 by Cristofori and closely resembled
the una corda pedal in use today. When the Verschiebung
was depressed, the entire hammer mechanism shifted to the
right so that the hammers struck from one to three strings
per note, depending upon the depth to which the pedal was
depressed. This enabled pianists of the late eighteenth
and early nineteenth centuries to shift from the three
string (tre corde) position, to two strings (due corde),
and then to only one string (una corda). Many composers,
notably Beethoven, made use of this selective degree of
shifting, which is no longer possible on contemporary grand
pianos.
The Sostenuto Pedal
The sostenuto pedal is related to several earlier
damper activating mechanisms that allowed the pianist to
selectively sustain tones. It is the most recent of the


77
student to be thoroughly familiar with the concept of
legato pedaling before this technique can be successfully
taught. Ask the student to do the following:
1. Play a chord on the piano. While holding the
notes fully depress the damper pedal.
2. Play a second chord, and while holding the notes
lift the pedal.
3. Listen to the second chord. The harmony should
sound clean, without any carry-over from the first chord.
The dampers should have completely stopped the sound of the
first chord after the second chord is played. The music
will sound clean if the damper pedal is fully released.
4. Repeat the above procedures until the student is
comfortable with the coordination between foot and hands
and can produce a clean connection of the tones. Before
going on to the next step, have the student practice until
the time required between playing the two chords and
pedaling is reduced.
5. Play the first chord again and catch it with the
pedal. Then play the second chord while lifting the pedal.
Listen not only for a clean sound, but also for a smooth,
unbroken connection between both chords.
6. While still holding the notes on the keyboard,
depress the pedal once more. Listen again to be sure that
the chord sounds clean and the new change of pedal does not
retain any notes of the first chord. If the harmony is at


168
2. Keep the level of depth constant when vibrating
the pedal.
3. Listen to determine that all the notes in the
chord are retained as the pedal is vibrated and that the
chord itself is not suddenly lost.
Have the student continue to play chords while varying
the dynamic level, the rate of vibrato in the pedal, and
the range in which the chords are played.
Flutter pedaling. When the student is comfortable
with the above procedures, flutter pedaling can be applied
to runs or scalar passages. Ask the student to
1. Rapidly play a two octave ascending and descending
scale in the treble range of the keyboard at a soft dynamic
level. As the scale is played, flutter the pedal using an
appropriate depth that allows the clarity of the scale to
be maintained.
2. Continue playing the scale but gradually increase
the dynamic level. Notice that as the dynamic level in
creases, the motions of the pedal must become more rapid
and shallow in order to maintain the clarity of the scale.
3. Play the scale in various octaves throughout the
entire keyboard at different dynamic levels. Again, notice
the varying amounts of pressure on the pedal that are
required to maintain clarity as the dynamic level and range
constantly change.


193
Example B: Chopin Scherzo in Bb Minor, Op. 31
J
More frequently, however, harmonic pedaling combines a
number of pedaling techniques. This next example illus
trates the use of full pedaling, half pedaling, and finger
pedaling. An examination of the score reveals that the
harmonic and melodic changes do not always coincide with
the barline or with each other. The pedaling in this
example is more complex and several acceptable solutions
are possible. For this reason, two different pedal mark
ings are given. Finger pedaling is emphasized more in the
first one.
Example C: Chopin Ballade in Gm, Op. 23


287
units in actual piano lessons. The results of both aspects
of the validation process were overwhelmingly positive. As
the responses to the questionnaire about each of the units
indicate, the teachers had highly favorable opinions of the
work. The few suggestions that were received tended to
deal with points that were beyond the scope of this study.
For example, a few respondents made recommendations that
were more appropriate for a method book on pedaling for
piano students. While that may be a subsequent development
resulting from this study, the systematic study of the
teaching of pedaling is a necessary antecedent step. As
was previously indicated, a number of respondents did, in
fact, encourage the publication of the materials, and
several asked how they could purchase or acquire a copy of
the completed teaching units. A large percentage asked
permission to keep the materials that had been sent to
them.
At each stage of the study, the apparent need for
this type of research was reinforced. Not only did the
respondents express appreciation for the materials they
received, in their comments they also reflected their
awareness of the lack of pedagogical materials on pedaling.
The high consistency of the ratings gave further evidence
that the concepts and techniques are pedagogically sound.
Because each piano teacher did not review every
pedaling technique, it was not possible to determine from


CHAPTER 4
FIELD TESTING AND VALIDATION
One evaluation design proposed by Stake (1972) employs
the gathering of data from the systematic observation of
the use of materials and procedures. The information is
then recorded in both description and judgment matrices
according to observations made (1) before training or
requisite conditions, (2) during training or processes, and
(3) after training or outcomes.
Because no systematic materials currently exist for
the teaching of pedaling on the piano, a single program was
utilized. It met the following criteria: (1) it involved
both descriptive and judgmental data, (2) it emphasized a
combination of antecedent conditions, transactions, and
outcomes, and (3) it indicated the congruence between what
was intended and what occurred.
Pilot Validation
Prior to conducting validation procedures, the
materials were examined by twenty MTNA certified master
teachers to secure comments and suggestions that would be
useful in refining the pedagogical units developed for this
237


301
IV. Summary
1. How would you rate the overall
success of this teaching unit
based upon your analysis of the
tapes you have heard and the
materials you have seen.
2. Additional comments:


29
acquainted with the most basic techniques for this pedal.
Fetsch believes that this creates an urgent need for de
tailed instruction in its use.
Conflicting Theories
The lack of systematic studies on the teaching of
piano pedaling has resulted in confusing and sometimes
conflicting theories about pedaling. Historical comments
that have been recorded on the subject of piano teaching in
past decades provide some insight into this area. Although
many examples can be cited, only a few will be given here.
Lindquist (1966) refers to two distinct schools of
pedaling: one that stresses clarity at all times and the
other that sacrifices clarity for color. This duality in
the teaching and use of the pedals has a long and continu
ing history. The musicologist Riemann, for instance, be
came the subject of severe criticism when he stated in his
Dictionary of Music (1882) that in playing the piano the
dampers should not usually remain in contact with the
strings. Martienssen (1930) strongly disputed this view,
saying that such theories about pedaling contributed to the
extraordinarily widespread lack of understanding of the
subject. The famous pedagogues Matthay (1913) and Lesche-
tizsky (Bree, 1902) both recognized this division of pian
ists into two categories regarding methods of pedaling: the
small number of pianists who used very little pedal and


32
frequently enough, too rapid or incomplete pedal releases
that create blurring, pedaling through phrasing and articu
lation markings, too frequent pedal changes that do not
sustain the harmony, and failing to retain low bass notes
in the pedal (Booth, 1971); failing to change the pedal
quickly enough, and failing to use imperceptible pedal
blurring relative to stylistic playing (Neuhaus, 1973);
regulating the pedal with reference only to the left hand,
and considering the harmonic structure of the piece to the
exclusion of melodic forms of pedaling (Riefling, 1962) ;
allowing the damper pedal to become an outlet for rhythmic
expression (Whiteside, 1961) ; pedaling without listening
(Friskin, 1921); pedaling far too violently and noisily
(Last, 1960; Ohlsson, 1982); failing to gauge accurately
the height and depth of the pedal resulting in unclean
pedaling (Last, 1960) ; and assuming that copious amounts of
pedal will almost automatically create impressionistic
effects (Adams, 1988).
Neuhaus (1973, p. 166) speaks of a "sanitary pedal"
imposed by teachers who demand that the pedal be changed
with every melody note, even though the harmony remains
unchanged. But he states that "no good pianist ever uses
such a pedal." Lhevinne (1972) warns that so much latitude
can be taken in pedaling that the novice uses the pedal
like a brush with which to paint the back fence, rather
than with intelligence and definiteness.


11
three pedals to be added to the piano. Although the first
true sostenuto mechanism appeared in 1844, it was not until
it was patented in 1874 by the American piano firm Steinway
and Sons that the sostenuto pedal began to attract atten
tion. The sostenuto pedal sustains notes that are played
and held before it is activated.
The sostenuto pedal is not standard equipment on every
piano; many are built without it. European piano manufac
turers have been reluctant to incorporate the sostenuto
pedal, and many of them include it only on nine-foot grand
pianos. Even American grands that are not built for con
cert or professional use generally do not have a sostenuto
pedal. Some pianos have a "fake" sostenuto mechanism that
operates unselectively on all the dampers below middle "C."
This action duplicates the function of the damper pedal for
the lower portion of the keyboard, but it makes selective
sustaining of notes impossible. Frequently pianos are
found to have a malfunctioning sostenuto pedal or one that
is improperly regulated, and therefore it does not function
in the capacity of a true sostenuto pedal. Most upright
pianos omit this pedal entirely.
Additional Pedals
Numerous short-lived, bizarre pedal devices for modi
fying the sound of the piano were developed and eventually
discarded. In the early nineteenth century pianos had as


68
of the feet in relation to the pedals before the pedals are
used. To position the body properly, adjust the height and
distance of the bench from the keyboard. Ask the student
to do the following:
1. Sit on the front half of the bench with both feet
resting on the floor. Place the right hand on the
keyboard. The forearm should be basically level, and the
elbow should come either to the side of the body or just
slightly in front. When these adjustments have been made,
rest both hands in the lap.
2. Place the ball of the right foot on the damper
pedal and the heel on the floor. The foot should be posi
tioned directly in line with the damper pedal so that the
heel is not turned to either side.
Ask the student to stand without using the hands or
moving the feet. If this is not possible, adjust the
placement of the left foot. Generally the left foot will
need to be positioned closer to the bench so that the
weight rests a little more on the ball of the foot. A
correct seating position has been attained when the student
can sit and stand comfortably without moving either the
hands or the feet. The body is then free to move in either
direction.
Have the student experiment with depressing and
releasing the damper pedal silently. It is important that
the foot maintains contact with the pedal and the heel


40
As Marsh points out, very young students (whose reflexes
are often quicker than those of older people) usually have
little trouble in learning to pedal. According to Anson
(1966), young pianists should begin using the pedals im
mediately so that they can become a constantly functioning
part of the player's entire mechanism, along with the eyes,
ears, muscles, heart, and head. The right pedal should be
used at the first lesson, and the others added as soon as
possible.
Gieseking (1930, p. 40), however, advises studying
"foot technique with the greatest accuracy" only after the
pianist has acquired enough technique to interpret a compo
sition fairly well. Ferguson (1969) believes that with the
exception of children and beginners, pedaling should be
practiced form the beginning of the study of a work as an
integral part of the piece, not added later as a separate
ingredient. Beginners are also advised by Riefling (1962)
to avoid using the pedal unless they are sufficiently
musical and gifted, and are capable of listening to them
selves. Still others believe that pedaling should not
be introduced until after a good finger legato has been
achieved.
Bastien (1988) states that the correct use of the
pedal may be taught late in the second year or early in the
third year, whenever the child's foot is able to reach the


82
Example B; Chopin Mazurka in D, Op. 33, No. 2
Yln.ce
V
I
in a ryi
1 I ¡ r uf
f f V f f 1.-f-t
r c
£
Accent pedaling. Pedaling the first beat of the
measure and releasing the pedal on the second provides a
lilt to the rhythm. It can emphasize the importance that
these two beats play in portraying the character of the
dance, and it can help project a subtle rubato between
them. The typical mazurka rhythm, with its characteristic
accent on the first and third beats, requires pedaling both
of these beats.
Pedaling as a means of accentuation, or accent pedal
ing, is used to give added emphasis to notes by increasing
the number of partials that sound. Pedal is often added to
notes with a written accent or sforzando marking, or to
passages requiring an accented, heavy non-legato touch.
The use of the pedal in these situations depends
partially on a combination of the tempo of the piece, the
harmonic rhythm, and dynamic markings. In a fast tempo it
may not be possible to pedal quickly enough to clear the


75
Approximate rhythms created by changes of the pedal in
using legato pedaling can be shown as follows:
Example A: Beethoven Variations on a Waltz Theme by
Diabelli
The same principle can be applied to changes of the
pedal in legatissimo pedaling. The difference, however,
is a shift in the emphasis of thinking. Whereas in legato
pedaling the emphasis is placed on depressing the damper
pedal, in legatissimo pedaling the emphasis is placed on
releasing it. Therefore, in a comparison of the two dia
grams of the Beethoven Variations, it becomes apparent that
the concern for the pianist is not in varying the amount of
time allowed before activating the pedal after a chord is
played, but rather with varying the amount of time that the
damper pedal is allowed to remain depressed after the chord
has been played and before the pedal is released.


112
The following procedures are recommended for teaching
staccato pedaling. Ask the student to do the following:
1. Play any very short, staccato chord on the piano
and listen to the sound. The dampers should mute the sound
completely as the chord is released. All notes should
sound equally staccato. If they do not, either the action
of the piano is not properly regulated, or the student is
not releasing each finger at exactly the same moment.
2. Play the same chord again, but this time add a
staccato pedal. Depress the pedal exactly with the chord
and release it at the exact moment the hands release the
keys. This is important because very little time is
allowed for the pedal to raise the dampers completely off
the strings. Ask the student to hear mentally the desired
sound each time staccato pedaling is applied. Otherwise,
it is easy to become too enthusiastic in the application of
this technique and release the damper pedal with too much
force. This will cause an unmusical twang to be heard.
The next procedure is similar to one used in teaching
accent pedaling, which is covered in the unit pertaining to
pedaling for rhythmic effects. Ask the student to
3. Vary the dynamic level of the chords that are
played.
It is easier for the dampers to mute the tones com
pletely when they are played softly than when they are
played fortissimo. Therefore, loud passages require


152
simultaneously, (3) make a difference between full and
partial pedaling, and (4) correctly employ the use of both
these pedaling skills.
Preparatory exercises. Prior to teaching pedal
diminuendo ask the student to do the following:
1. Place the right foot on the floor. Keeping the
heel on the floor, move the toes up and down. Be aware of
the sensation behind the big toe, since this is the one
that will be used in pedaling. Vary the speed and vertical
height that the toes are allowed to move. Gradually
decrease this distance until the motion is barely visible.
2. Contrast this correct motion with moving the
entire front portion of the foot up and down. Although the
heel still remains on the floor, ask the student to notice
the difference in the muscles that are involved. The in
correct procedure utilizes the larger muscles of the entire
foot and calf of the leg. But pedaling just behind the toe
involves predominantly the toe muscles. Moving just the
toes allows for much greater sensitivity and agility.
3. Transfer these procedures to the damper pedal.
Check to be sure that the toes remain in contact with the
pedal, and the heel rests comfortably on the floor. Notice
the tendency to "hit" the pedal (which is audible) when the
incorrect procedure is used.
Teaching procedures for pedal diminuendo. To learn
this technique ask the student to do the following:


199
tain conditions must be met. These involve careful timing
and coordination. First, the sostenuto pedal must be de
pressed after the notes to be caught are played while the
fingers are still holding the keys. Second, the damper
pedal must not be activated until after the sostenuto pedal
is depressed, or all the dampers will be caught by the
sostenuto pedal. Third, the sostenuto pedal must remain
fully depressed throughout its use, or other unwanted tones
will be sustained.
Depressing the sostenuto pedal does not interfere with
the action of the remaining notes that are not caught. Al
so, once the sostenuto pedal is depressed the damper pedal
can be used to hold and change other harmonies. However,
the sostenuto pedal must remain fully depressed while the
damper pedal is activated, for if it rises even a small
distance other tones will be held.
The sostenuto pedal was patented in 1874 by the
American piano firm Steinway and Sons. It is the most
recent of the three pedals to be added to the piano.
However, unlike the damper pedal and the una corda pedal,
it is not standard equipment on every grand piano. Some
European piano manufacturers have been reluctant to in
corporate the sostenuto pedal, and many pianos are built
without it. Even American grands that are not intended for
concert or professional use often do not have a sostenuto
pedal. Unfortunately, some grand pianos have a "fake"


80
Teaching Unit 3: Pedaling for Rhythmic Effects
Description of Technique
The activation and release of the damper pedal in
fluences the fullness of the tone that is produced, by
determining the number of partials sounding at any given
moment. Therefore, a change in the basic texture of the
tone occurs when the damper pedal is used. Applying pedal
allows the tone to become richer and a corresponding in
crease in the dynamic level can be heard. Likewise, when
the pedal is suddenly released, it will cause an abrupt
cessation of the surrounding partials, which diminishes the
sound and makes it less full and rich. Using the pedal for
rhythmic effects is another way to color the sound being
produced.
The pedal can be used to project both written and
unwritten rhythms. The amount and type of pedaling varies
according to the purpose for which it is being used. Three
primary uses of the pedal to project rhythm include: (1)
waltz pedal, (2) pedal as a means of accentuation, and (3)
pedal release for emphasis.
Application When Playing
Waltz pedal. The term "waltz" pedal refers to the
type of pedaling that can be applied to pieces related to
dance forms. Here pedaling is used to emphasize an appro-


54
ring occurs. To test for three-quarters pedal or a 75
percent of released sound, a chord should continue to sound
when the pedal is partially depressed. However, the sound
should not be as resonant as when full pedaling is used.
Schnabel also describes three means of partial pedaling to
achieve a decrease in the dynamic level of a sustained
chord.
Pedaling for color has been described by some as the
least understood of the uses of the pedal. Slenczynska
(1969) describes several uses of the damper pedal for color
in Prokofieff's Visions Fugitives, Opus 22. Ching (1930)
introduces this technique by explaining sympathetic vibra
tion through the overtone series and then illustrates its
use through musical examples. He treats staccato pedaling
as a form of pedaling for color, which he introduces by
playing chords and listening to the pedal release. He also
provides an exercise for half pedaling.
A comparison between dry and liquid staccato and dry
and liquid portamento is made by Gebhard (1963) to illus
trate the difference between notes that are pedaled and
those that are not.
Sostenuto Pedaling
Randlett (1967) describes more advanced means of em
ploying the sostenuto pedal through a process of control
ling the level of the dampers of the unwanted tones. He


87
Example C; Liszt Sonata in B Minor
Teaching Unit 4; Una Corda Pedaling
Description of Technique
Terminology. The left pedal, or una corda pedal, is
known by several names. These include the sordino, the
"muting" pedal, the "shifting" pedal, and the "soft" pedal.
The una corda pedal has two main functions, both of which
are tonal: to enable the pianist to achieve softer dynamic
levels than are possible by finger technique alone, and to
produce a more mellow, less percussive sound.
Activation of the una corda pedal is commonly indi
cated by one of the following terms: una corda, u.c. (one
string), due corde (two strings), and sordini (mutes).
Other terminology include: une corde, sourdine, la pdale
sourde, petite pedale (French); mit Verschiebung, mit einer
Saite, mit Dampfung (German); and sordino, sul una corda,
and poco a poco una corda (Italian).


216
Example K: Messiaen "Canteyodjaya"
To teach this technique using the example above, ask
the student to do the following:
1. Play the first note in each hand.
2. Play the second note in the right hand. Slowly
let the key rise to the point where the damper first
touches the strings.
3. Depress the sostenuto pedal fully. This will
catch the low "C" but not the high "C#."
Due to the shortness of their strings, notes in the
treble register fade rapidly and can be tolerated more
easily with a sustained bass. It is suggested that the
student practice the first measure as a musical exercise,
playing the notes on the upper staves one octave and two
octaves lower than written.
Controlling the height of the dampers with the damper
pedal. In the following example, strict observation of the
score is possible only by using the sostenuto pedal in com
bination with the damper pedal.


Table 2
Mean Ratings for the Aspects of Teaching Units
Category 2: Objectives
Unit
Useful
Lgica 1
Clear
1.Legato
peda ling 4.82 4.64
2.Legatissimo
pedaling 4.90 5.00
3.Rhythmic
pedaling 5.00 5.00
4.Una corda
pedaling 5.00 4.B 8
5.Pre-
pedaling 4.89 4.89
6.Finger
pedaling 5.00 5.00
7.Staccato
pedaling 475 4.63
8.Portato
peda ling 4.79 4.43
9.Phrasing/
articulation 5.00 4.71
10.Melodic
pedaling 4.88 4.86
11.Half
damping 4.84 4.84
12.Pedal
vibrato 5.00 5.00
13.Pedal
diminuendo 5.00 5.00
14.Half
pedaling 5.00 4.88
15.Flutter
pedaling 5.00 4.83
16.Dynamic
pedaling 4.97 4.86
17.Pedal
blurring 5.00 5.00
18.Harmonic
pedaling 5.00 4.80
19.Pedaling
one hand 4.88 4.88
20.Sostenuto
pedaling- 4.90 4.55
4.80
4.90
5.00
4.71
4.78
5.00
4.86
4.43
4.71
4.83
4.84
4.86
4.86
4.38
5.00
4.86
4.90
4.80
4.66
4.56


105
a more legato effect. It is also a means of technical
fcillitation and of redistributing notes between the
hands. Silent substitution may or may not be indicated in
the music.
Sometimes it is necessary to finger pedal to sustain
an unbroken sonority in the accompaniment as the pedal is
changed because of the melody. Holding individual notes
while changing the pedal can blend harmonies together and
emphasize the harmonic structure of the music. When these
notes are part of a broken chord pattern, such as an "Al
berti bass," finger pedaling can give the effect of legato
pedaling and can add warmth and color to an otherwise
dry tonal quality.
Silently redepressing notes is another form of finger
pedaling that is used in a number of situations. Notes
that cannot be reached by one hand but still must be held
throughout a change of pedal can be redepressed silently
after they are played and still be retained in the pedal.
Silently redepressing notes then changing the pedal is one
way to differentiate between notes of different rhythmic
durations or between notes and rests.
Pianists borrow one form of finger pedaling from organ
technique known as "organ thumb." In organ thumb, the
thumb slides sideways along the surface of the keys pro
ducing a legato touch. Because of the sideways approach,
organ thumb is more effective in a soft dynamic context.


APPENDIX E
ANALYSIS OF TAPES: OBSERVATIONS
Category
No Yes
I.Antecedent Conditions
(Expected of student)
1. Cooperation
2. Adequate skills
3. Practice
II.Transactions
(Presentation of materials
by teacher)
1. Uses clear explana
tions
2. Follows suggested
procedures
3. Uses examples
provided
4. Makes clear
expectations
III.Outcomes
(Application by student)
1. Learned technique
Cannot be
determined
299


122
alone. The use of the pedal permits one line to be phrased
differently from another, and it enables passages with con
trasting articulations to be played simlutaneously.
The pedal may be used to project a slur in the follow
ing ways: (1) define the conclusion of a slur by gently
tapering the sound, (2) connect notes within a slur that
cannot be sustained by the fingers alone, and (3) achieve
rhythmic emphasis within the slur. Frequently the gentle
endings of slurs and phrases suggest the use of portato
pedal, or a gradual lifting of the pedal at the end of the
phrase to diminish the sound gradually.
Pedaling through articulation marks and rests can help
define a phrase that otherwise may be obscured. Hearing a
particular passage can help to clarify the intended effect,
as visual indications may appear to conflict with musical
phrasing. For instance, a composer will frequently place a
staccato or portato mark over notes that are to be brought
out. While it may appear at first glance that such notes
are to be played in a detached manner, careful inspection
may reveal that these markings refer to touch rather than
phrasing.
Likewise, some pieces contain numerous short slurs and
rests. Although these markings indicate various forms of
touch, such notes and slurs are often part of a larger
phrase. If one continuous phrase is intended, considerable
pedaling may be required for a musical rendition.


278
II Partial pedaling
13 Pedal diminuendo
15 Flutter pedaling
III Pedaling for rhythmic/
dynamic effects and
phrasing
7 Staccato
pedaling
IV Use of two or more pedals
simultaneously
20 Sostenuto
pedaling
Analysis of Tapes
The analysis of the taped lessons is divided into
three parts: antecedent conditions, transactions, and
outcomes. Expectations are set forth for each of these
three categories. The antecedent stage involves the basic
skills and conditions that should be present in order for
the student to learn the pedaling technique. The trans
actions part involves the presentation of the materials by
the teacher. The outcomes stage is concerned with the
application of the technique by the student. Conclusions
were drawn based upon a comparison of the amount of con
gruency between the observations and expectations during
each of the three stages.
The figure on the following page illustrates the basic
format that was used for this portion of the validation
process.


258
pedaling for the music they are working on; "I have never
been taught [these pedaling techniques] before; "no one
has ever bothered to teach much about pedaling;" "I con
gratulate you on selecting topics which are often misunder
stood or put on a back burner and not used any more than
one has to."
Overall comments related to teaching the units in
clude: "informative and provided immediate results when
followed closely;" "logical and provides better playing;"
"goodquick differences noted;" "the student had no
problems with the techniques;" "very much interest shown
after several practices, with a desire to perfect the
technique;" "it was fun for my studentsthey liked the
idea;" "very helpfulexcellent exercises;" "excellent,
typical musical examples in music commonly used with high
school students;" "logical and enhances quality of
performance;" "practical exampleseasily used;" "examples
are very well definedthe application and teaching tech
niques are good and workable;" and "I tried this material
with two studentsboth reacted quite favorably and
attained a better command of the technique in a shorter
time than I would have thought possible."
A number of respondents telephoned to express appre
ciation for the materials and to ask permission to copy
what they had received for their own use. Several asked


234
The damper pedal may be applied either melodically or
harmonically to a musical composition. Harmonic pedaling
requires an understanding of the harmonic structure of the
piece. It is an advanced form of pedaling that combines
musical knowledge with a number of pedaling skills.
One of the most difficult techniques to execute suc
cessfully is pedaling one hand and not the other. While
this may seem an impossibility at first, careful timing and
coordination between activation and release of the notes
and the pedal are required. In some musical passages,
sufficient time is allowed through rests to accomplish
this. But often this technique must be executed quite
rapidly.
Una corda pedal. Let the student experiment with the
use and mixture of sounds by using both pedals. The una
corda pedal is often introduced after the student has
mastered a few basic techniques for the damper pedal such
as legato pedaling and pedaling for rhythmic effects. By
then, the student will probably be studying repertoire that
warrants the use of the una corda pedal. This pedal should
not be introduced too soon, since there may be a temptation
for the student to use it as a crutch rather than to pro
duce the necessary changes in tone quality through finger
technique. However, a careful and limited use of the una
corda pedal can enhance the dynamic capabilities of finger
technique. Pre-pedaling is often combined with the use of


284
Flutter pedaling. "Excellent explanationsgood re
sults;" "teacher used example student was already working
onthis aided student in that she could concentrate on
pedal and did not have to learn the music;" "teacher
adapted flutter pedal to student's levelstudent re
sponded, showing she grasped the idea of partial pedaling
running passage;" and "excellent use of material by
teacher."
Staccato pedaling. "Very successfulgood teaching
and again, a very valuable teaching tool;" "excellent!"
and "used an example that was different from one provided
but was similar and very good. Very good unitwell
explainedresponsive student."
Sostenuto pedaling. "Excellent teachingprojection
remains at a high energy level, testing response of the
student as the lesson developed. Student showed she had
learned much from practice at home;" "excellent under
standingpractice beyond what was required;" "very
thorough teaching;" and "well formulated explanations,
teacher very thorough, highly motivated student."
In addition to the written comments, the panel unani
mously expressed a strong appreciation for the value of the
materials as teaching tools for both teachers and students.
They encouraged publication of the materials and presenta
tions at workshops and conventions.


42
Bernstein (1981) speaks of a guilt shared by many
pianists in using the pedals for fear of becoming dependent
upon them in playing legato and playing softly. He recom
mends using both pedals from the beginning in learning a
new piece, since their use is indispensable in enhancing
skills that have been learned previously and in creating
coloristic effects.
As Grasty-Jones (1988) points out, most students will
have access to a piano with both a damper pedal and an una
corda pedal, but not many students will be fortunate enough
to have grand pianos equipped with sostenuto pedals. In
addition, since the sostenuto pedal often functions im
properly if it works at all, she suggests that students not
only be taught how to use the sostenuto pedal, but also to
find alternative ways of pedaling that utilize the damper
pedal. Fetsch (1966) concludes that the decision of when
to use this pedal obviously lies with the pianist.
How to Introduce the Pedals
Werder (1978) presents exercises for introducing the
damper pedal that are geared toward students at four
different levels of ability. Since the pedal is rarely
used by young beginning students (because their legs are
often too short), he suggests that students at the most
elementary level depress the pedal only after the final
chord of a piece has been played. Providing that the


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Fine piano playing is impossible without the correct
use of the three pedals. Just as finger technique should
be analyzed methodically and mastered during the student's
course of study, the use of the pedals should receive simi
lar attention. Therefore, a systematic investigation of
pedaling techniques and how best to teach them is warranted
and needed.
Pedaling is a complex subject. Numerous techniques
exist for the use of each pedal, and different applications
can be made within each technique. In order to obtain the
best instructional results, teachers should follow a peda
gogical sequence for introducing each pedaling technique
that presents the various concepts in a logical, systematic
manner. In addition, they need to know what preliminary
exercises should be included to enable students to know
what they are doing with the pedal before it is introduced
into any piece of music. Teachers who are knowledgeable
about pedaling techniques are much more likely to teach
them effectively.
1


289
For those who may wish to pursue further research in
teaching piano pedaling, the following areas are a logical
extension to the current limitations of the present
study:
1. Make the pedagogical procedures more specific to
the age and/or musical development of the student.
2. Adjust the format of the units so that the
materials more closely resemble a piano method book on
pedaling.
3. Compile more musical examples for teachers who
might wish a compendium of potential musical works for
teaching pedaling.
4. For those who may wish to conduct further obser
vations and use of the materials, it is suggested that
videotaping the students' learning rather than audio taping
may provide more information. This will allow the observa
tion of posture, foot placement on the pedals, activation
of the pedals, and additional extraneous variables that may
hinder or help the student to learn the pedaling technique.
5. Conduct follow-up studies of an ethnographic or
qualitative nature to determine how artistic pedaling is
acquired through the use of these materials. Such a study
would provide a close examination of the efficacy of the
materials developed within the present study for teaching.
6. Conduct an ethnographic study of piano teachers to
determine how pedaling is currently being taught, and com-


117
pedaled and those that are not. Ask the student to do the
following:
1. Begin by playing any chord. Release the chord,
and listen carefully to the sound as the dampers mute the
strings. The cessation of sound should be uniform and
immediate.
2. Play the chord again and depress the pedal fully.
While keeping the pedal depressed, lift the fingers from
the keys.
3. Lift the damper pedal very slowly. Ask the
student to notice the sound gradually fading as the pedal
rises. The student should also listen for the slight
change of pitch that occurs as the pedal is slowly re
leased.
All the notes should be damped simultaneously by the
pedal. If certain tones continue to sound longer than
others after the pedal has been released, it is an indica
tion that the pedal mechanism is not properly adjusted.
Timing. Very little time should lapse between lifting
the hands and releasing the pedal in this technique. Also,
portato pedaling usually must be accomplished quickly with
in a very brief span of time. The student should practice
releasing the notes of the chord and the pedal in a rhyth
mic manner. Have the student play portato quarter-note
chords, and time the release of the notes and the pedal by
counting. Ask the student to


5
artists made references to pedaling, including Misha
Dichter, who stated
In my various experiences from teaching master classes
around the country, if I can cite the one single fail
ing with teaching in this country, it's that the pedal
is really short-changed in the teaching. It seems
almost to be an appendage that is just added after the
student has learned the piece. (Noyle, 1987, p. 51)
While performance situations cannot be duplicated
exactly in the studio, proper training can cultivate an
awareness that will lead to enhanced and improved pedal
techniques. Spontaneous reactions involving the pedal
can even be valuable during a performance, because many
pianists tend to rely heavily on the pedal when they be
lieve they are in difficulty. Yet, as Lhevinne (1972,
p. 47) indicates, "The best pedal effects in artistic
playing are those in which the audience does not realize
that there is a pedal at all." Pedaling techniques improp
erly applied without musical awareness only compound or
perpetrate errors. Ultimately, each pianist must let his
or her musical sensibilities be the final guide.
Purpose of the Study
The primary purpose of the study was the systematic
development and validation of pedagogical procedures for
teaching students the correct use of the three pedals on
the contemporary grand piano.
As has been pointed out on the preceding pages, the
knowledge and the use of the pedals and the pedagogical


256
tasks;" "good pedagogy!" "very well done;" "excellent;"
"enjoyable reading;" "very successful;" "most helpful;"
"great!" "interesting;" "really fine;" "carefully thought
out;" "brilliant!" "enjoyed;" "very exciting ideas!"
"appreciated;" "thank you;" "very clear;" "excellent
presentation;" "important;" "very good specifics;" "most
informative;" "beautiful, beautiful paper;" "valuable
teaching tools;" "well organized;" "explained very well;"
"very clear and logical;" "well thought out and developed
naturally;" "diagrams were perfect!" "very clear expla
nations;" "very well done;" "good description and orderly
development of exercises;" "no suggestionsit sounds
perfect to me;" "the objectives provide everything in
perfect order;" "very well presented!" "very clearly
and logically presented sequence;" "I approve;"
"very concise, logical, and easy to understand;" "no
suggestionsthe presentation is excellent;" "good;" "very
thorough research;" "musical examples and presentation of
the material is excellent;" "a wonderful teaching idea;"
"good luck!" "very clear and helpful;" "presentation is
clear, logical, and complete!" "very understandable and
easy to follow;" "you are addressing two important areas
pedaling and listening!" "certainly useful;" "presented in
a logical way;" "impressed by the clarity of description
and break-down and sequencing of the tasksgood pedagogy!"
"much needed information;" "I liked the teaching units


129
Teaching Unit 10: Melodic Pedaling
Description of Technique
Aside from the many specific techniques that exist for
the use of the damper pedal, it may be applied to a musical
composition in one of two basic ways: harmonically or me-
lodically. Melodic pedaling refers to pedaling primarily
those elements that enhance the melodic material. It pre
cludes the use of the damper pedal to treat melodies as
harmonic material.
Numerous factors influence the choice of pedaling for
a particular melody. Included are such things as the me
lodic direction, register, tempo, dynamic level, accompani
ment, harmony, articulation, phrasing, and style. These
elements may conflict with one another occassionally, and
at times the importance of one may take precedence over
another.
Because of these various considerations in choosing
the correct pedaling for a particular melody and because
each of these teaching units are concerned primarily with
pedagogical procedures, only general guidelines for pedal
ing various types of melodies are given here.
Application When Playing
The choice between melodic and harmonic pedaling is
often one of style as well as personal preference. In
melodic pedaling, the damper pedal is changed as nearly as


34
Methods of Instruction
Pedaling is sometimes of great concern to a composer,
but at other times it is hardly notated at all. Collins
(1986) suggests that the best method of instruction is for
the pianist to notice carefully how the composer has used
the pedal marks, and then to decide for himself or herself
how to interpret them. Ohlsson (1982) believes that
students should experiment with some of the more advanced
forms of pedaling (such as half pedaling and pedal vibrato)
on their own for fun and for the pleasure of learning.
But according to Ching (1930), although pedaling as a
form of musical interpretation must ultimately depend upon
musical experience and judgment, the foundations of most
forms of pedaling can be taught by fairly definite rules.
Such rules, he believes, are the surest way to acquire the
necessary experience and judgment for artistic pedaling.
Schnabel (1954) concurs with this view. Good tech
nique, according to Schnabel, can be acquired by many
different means and methods. Some of these methods are
easy, some difficult, some short, and some are rather long.
But attempting to acquire a good pedal technique by ab
staining from using the pedal, or by simply guessing and
experimenting with its use, is a long, inadequate, and un
acceptable "method." The art of pedaling requires profound
study (Riefling, 1962).


103
Teaching Unit 6; Finger Pedaling
Description of Technique
Finger pedaling is a useful technique that can aid
conventional pedaling, especially legato pedaling. It
refers to holding notes with the fingers while the damper
pedal is changed, or when no pedal is used. This gives the
illusion of longer periods of unbroken pedaling.
There are a number of situations in which finger
pedaling can be applied. These include finger pedaling to:
(1) sustain an accompaniment, (2) silently redepress notes,
(3) redistribute notes between the hands, (4) color broken
chord patterns, (5) emphasize the harmonic outline, and (6)
sound sympathetic partials. In addition, finger pedaling
is sometimes indicated by the composer. Composers indicate
finger pedaling by notes that are double stemmed, by notes
having a longer time value, or by written instructions in
the musical score.
Application When Playing
Finger pedaling is a form of pedaling that is often
neglected. It differs from other pedaling techniques in
three ways: It is executed by the fingers rather than the
foot, it is seldom indicated in the musical score, and when
it is indicated in the score it is usually marked carefully
and specifically.


140
Teaching Procedures
Preparatory exercises. It is important to make a dis
tinction among the various degrees of half damping by
sight, feel, and careful listening. Before applying this
technique the student should be able to (1) define the
amount of free play in the damper pedal, (2) distinguish
the point at which the tones first begin to be caught in
the pedal, and (3) determine the point at which the dampers
are fully raised from the strings.
Have the student stand in order to observe what is
happening to the dampers inside the piano. Ask the student
to do the following:
1. Slowly depress the damper pedal. Notice the small
amount of foot pressure that can be applied before the
dampers begin to move. This is the area of free play.
2. Continue slowly depressing the pedal until the
dampers rise just above the strings. Practice depressing
the pedal while remaining within these two boundaries.
Positioning the foot. The sensitivity required in
half damping is accomplished primarily by pedaling behind
the ball of the big toe. Therefore, it is important to
position the foot correctly before this technique can be
applied accurately. Ask the student to
1. Place the right foot on the pedal so that the ball
of the foot behind the big toe rests comfortably on the
front portion of the damper pedal. The foot should face


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I wish to extend my gratitude and sincere thanks to Dr.
Charles R. Hoffer, chairman of my committee, who has been
most generous in giving his time, support, and invaluable
knowledge to this project. I wish also to thank my committee^
members who read this paper and made helpful comments: Dr.
Russell Robinson, Professor Boaz Sharon, Dr. Linda Lamme,
Dr. William Hedges, and Dr. Donald Avila, who is now de
ceased.
For sustaining encouragement I thank my parents, Mr. and
Mrs. Raymond C. Johnson, Jr.
in


185
Example A: Chopin Nocturne in F# minor, Op. 48, No. 2
Example B; Chopin Nocturne in B, Op. 9, No. 3
The pedal markings in this example are by the
composer. Half pedal is effective in order to retain a
strong harmonic support in the bass.


147
sound has faded completely. The amount of time allowed to
prolong this effect is at the discretion of the performer.
Pedal vibrato employs a deep initial descent in order
to catch all the notes. After several deep, rather slow
vibrations, the pedal vibrations gradually become more
shallow and rapid, utilizing the upper half of the pedal's
range. As the tone begins to fade, the vibrations accord
ingly become slower and less pronounced, eventually stop
ping altogether.
Teaching Procedures
Preparatory exercises. Before using the pedal, have
the student practice tapping the toes of the right foot on
the floor, moving just the toes and not the entire foot.
Ask the student to do the following:
1. Rapidly move the toes, being aware of the
sensation behind the big toe, since this is the one that
will be used in pedaling.
2. Move the toes very slowly with the intention of
pressing down on the big toe, then relaxing to let it come
back up. (This is important since some students will have
a tendency to try to pull the toe up.)
3. Become aware of the sensations in the leg. The
muscles should not feel tight in any way. Unless they are
relaxed they will quickly tire, discouraging use of this
technique.


238
study. The pilot testing of the materials took place
during August and September of 1988.
The certified piano teachers were each sent eleven
sample teaching units to evaluate, along with a response
form to complete for each unit. The form called on them to
evaluate specific items, as well as to provide general
comments about the content and format. They were requested
to write directly on the units if necessary for clarifi
cation. The respondents then were asked to return all
materials in the stamped, self-addressed envelope that was
provided. They were also asked to indicate whether or not
they would be interested in receiving additional units to
evaluate.
Without exception, the comments were highly favorable
and reinforced the need for a systematic presentation of
pedaling techniques. As one teacher pointed out: "In all
my materials, I have virtually no instruction on pedaling.
This is a very needed technique that is lacking in adequate
instruction." Although the teaching units were still in a
formative stage and the respondents had seen only a repre
sentative sample, another teacher commented: "It is the
most complete set of materials on pedaling that I have ever
seen."
The respondents in general consistently commented that
the teaching units were clearly written and easy to follow.
They felt that the examples chosen were very clear and


223
Do not apply pressure to the toes to avoid activating the
sostenuto pedal.
B. Depress the sostenuto pedal by applying pres
sure from the right side of the foot with the toes. Do not
apply pressure from the left side of the foot so that the
una corda pedal is not activated.
5. Practice operating both pedals consecutively by
shifting the weight of the left foot from one pedal to the
other. Both pedals must remain firmly depressed throughout.
6. Depress and release both pedals simultaneously.
After the student is comfortable with the correct feel
for activating both pedals with the left foot, these
techniques can be applied to a few simple exercies. Ask
the student to repeat Steps 4, 5, and 6 slowly, while play
ing chords on the keyboard. When he or she becomes adept
at this add the damper pedal, changing it with each chord.
In the following example, the una corda pedal is
depressed first, at the beginning of the first measure.
The sostenuto pedal is depressed immediately after the
second note is played. The damper pedal is added last.
Example P: Ravel "Vaises nobles et sentimentales"


305
Gebhard, H. (1963). The Art of Pedaling. New York:
Galaxy Music.
Gieseking, W., & Leimer,
Pianistic Perfection.
K. (1930). The Shortest Way to
Philadelphia: Theodore Presser.
Gieseking, W., & Leimer,
Pedal. Philadelphia:
K. (1938). Rhythmics, Dynamics,
Theodore Presser.
Gieseking, W., & Leimer, K. (1972). Piano Technique. New
York: Dover.
Gilbert, G. (1978). Music for Everyone. Pacific, MO: Mel
Bay Publications.
Glover, D., and Garrow, L. (1967). The Piano Student.
Miami: Belwin.
Glover, D.C., and
Miami: Belwin.
Stewart, J.
(1988).
Method for
Piano.
Graham, R. (1963).
Fischer & Bro.
Piano Pedal
Solos.
Glen Rock:
NJ
Grasty-Jones, C. (1988). Getting Ready for Debussy.
Clavier, 48, 26-29.
Hamilton, C. (1927). Touch and Expression in Piano Play
ing. Boston: Oliver Ditson Co. Reprint ed. (1979) New
York: Theodore Presser.
Harrell, D. L. (1976). New Techniques in Twentieth-
Century Solo Piano Music. Dissertation Abstracts
International, (University Microfilms No. 76-26581).
Hanon, C.L. (1900). The Virtuoso Pianist. New York:
G. Schirmer.
Hollis, C. (1981). Ball State University. Dissertation
Abstracts International, 42, 12-A, 4968.
Hopkins, P. (1980). The Use of the Pedal in J.S. Bach's
French Suites, English Suites, and Partitas. Disserta
tion Abstracts International, 41, 01-A, 12.
Kentner, L. (1976). The Piano. New York: Schirmer
Books.
Kreutzer, L. (1915). Das nrmale klavierpedal vom
akustischen und asthetischen standpunkt, vol. 2.
Leipzig: Breitkopf und Hartel.


169
Teaching Example
The student should now be capable of applying these
concepts to examples found in the literature.
Example A; Chopin Etude in C# Minor, Op. 25, No. 7
Teaching Unit 16: Pedaling for Dynamic Effects
Description of Technigue
One of the primary functions of the damper pedal is to
enhance tone quality. When the damper pedal is depressed,
the dampers are raised above the strings. This creates
sympathetic vibrations of the partials in the strings sur
rounding those that are struck by the hammers. The sound
is affected in two ways: (1) The dynamic level increases
slightly, and (2) the tone becomes richer. The degree
to which the sound changes depends on how far above the
strings the dampers are raised. The higher they are
raised, the more noticeable the change in sound.


248
phrasing and articulation, and pedaling for dynamic
effects.
Category Four: the use of two or more pedals simul
taneously. These techniques include una corda pedaling,
sostenuto pedaling, pedaling for color and special effects,
and harmonic pedaling.
Intensive Review of the Pedagogical Units
Teaching the units. To emphasize the aspect of the
validation of the pedagogical units on pedaling, the
investigator selected four certified piano teachers to
teach at least one of the units each. The teachers each
selected from one to three students who were at the
appropriate stage to learn the pedaling technique. The
teacher incorporated the teaching of pedaling concepts into
those students' piano lessons. The teaching of that
portion of the lesson was recorded on audio tape for later
analysis by the researcher and a panel of two certified
MTNA piano teachers according to the categories previously
mentioned.
Observations were also recorded during a second les
son, after the student had practiced the technique for a
minimum of two hours. Validation consisted of conclusions
drawn that were based upon a compilation of data collected
from both observations, from telephone conversations with
the individual teachers, and from the response forms that


94
pedal limits the tone color that can be achieved through
muscular control. Most accomplished pianists can achieve a
variety of timbres and play pianissimo without relying on
the una corda pedal. Once muscular control has been de
veloped, dynamic and tonal capabilities can be expanded
greatly when the una corda pedal is applied.
The decision to use the una corda pedal is often one
of personal choice. The effect of the una corda pedal
varies greatly from piano to piano; therefore, its use may
not always be the best musical choice, even when called for
by the composer. Also, the habits and temperament of in
dividual pianists vary, and some pianists are much more
inclined to use this pedal than are others.
Teaching Procedures
Considerations. Unlike the other two pedals, the una
corda pedal is almost always depressed before the note is
played, not at the same time or afterwards. There are two
main reasons for this. First, the hammers must be posi
tioned to strike only one or two strings in advance if the
una corda pedal is to be effective. Second, if notes are
played while the shifting motion of the hammers occurs, a
noticeable change in timbre may result, along with an
unpleasant tone.
The tinny sound that is produced on some pianos when
the una corda pedal is activated is most noticeable in the


110
Staccato pedaling is used in the following situations:
(1) to enhance the sound of staccato notes or chords, (2)
to project a forte, (3) for accent, (4) for color, and (5)
to lengthen those tones slightly that otherwise would end
too abruptly.
Application When Playing
Staccato pedaling is limited to one main function:
adding a very quick pedal to staccato notes or chords. Its
use depends on (1) stylistic considerations, (2) dynamic
markings, (3) personal preference of the pianist, and (4)
the tempo of the music.
More time is needed for the sound of bass notes to
cease than is needed for treble notes. As the dynamic
levels increase or as more notes are added to the chords
being played, more time is required for the sound to die
away. Sufficient time must be allowed between the chords
for the sound to clear completely before the next chord is
played. The faster the tempo, the more cautious one should
become in applying this technique. If pedal is added to
forte chords played in a low register at a rather fast
tempo, only very short touches of pedal are required.
Staccato pedaling is not used when a composer has used
staccato markings to indicate a lightness of touch or where
the repetition of a sustained harmony indicates that anoth
er form of pedaling would be preferable. Therefore, this


33
Reasons for Incorrect Pedaling
Newman (1956) suggests several reasons why pedaling is
often cursorily treated by the teacher and seldom noticed
by the student. These include a lack of aural attention by
the student plus inadequate and misleading editorial sug
gestions provided for pedaling. Ching (1930) cites four
reasons for incorrect pedaling: (1) bad teaching, (2) lack
of teaching, (3) complete lack of musical feeling, and (4)
carelessness. He concludes, however, that incorrect pedal
ing is almost always due to either the first or second
reason.
Pedagogical Views on Teaching Pedaling
As Gieseking (1930) points out, young musicians almost
never understand how difficult it is to play exactly ac
cording to the wishes of the composer. This perfection is
possible only by a complete mastery of all forms of tech
nique .
Good pedal technique is defined by Ching (1930) as a
knowledge of when and how to use the pedal, as well as the
ability to perform automatically or subconsciously the
necessary pedal movements. Only when the performer has
this skill and knowledge, according to Ching, can the pedal
take its proper place as part of the student's general
technical equipment.


24
Whiteside (1961) writes only briefly on the subject of
pedaling because she feels that in addition to good edit
ing, too much has already been written on the subject of
pedaling to make a long discussion profitable in her book.
She acknowledges the damper pedal in six sentences, the una
corda in three, and the sostenuto pedal in one sentence.
After stating that beyond certain elementary require
ments pedaling becomes merely an individual matter, Bacon
(1963) completes his chapter on pedaling in four and one-
half pages, covering the usage of all three pedals. Seven
sentences are devoted to the sostenuto pedal and four
sentences to the use of the una corda pedal. He provides
basic principles of pedaling regarding the application and
function of the three pedals. He states that because the
piano's normal tone is with the pedal, non-pedaling should
be conceived as a special color.
Newman (1956) covers pedaling in two and one-half
pages, devoting five sentences to the una corda pedal and
two sentences to the sostenuto pedal. He mentions three
techniques for the damper pedal: syncopated pedaling, half
pedaling, and pedal blurring. Newman stresses the impor
tance of listening to what is being pedaled, and discusses
pedaling in the context of style, color, and performance
variables.
Multi-levels of pedaling are discussed by Neuhaus
(1973) in twelve pages devoted to pedaling, including six


74
Teaching Unit 2: Legatissimo Pedaling
Description of Technique
Legatissimo pedaling, also known as super legato
pedaling, derives its name from the Italian term meaning
that the tones should be very smoothly connected. In this
type of pedaling, the sounds from one chord to the next are
allowed to blur momentarily together before they are
cleared, creating an overlap of sound. This is accom
plished by delaying the release of the damper pedal between
changes of harmony so that the dampers remain above the
strings as the new harmony is sounded.
Legatissimo pedaling is a type of legato pedaling. By
varying the amount of time between lifting and depressing
the damper pedal, many different effects and shadings of
color can be created. An illustration of approximate
rhythms created by changes of the damper pedal that can
produce nearly identical legato connections of chords is
given below. The different pedal markings produce a
difference in the amount of richness of sound, which is
determined by the amount of time the pedal remains de
pressed. The longer the pedal is depressed, the fuller the
sound created by the surrounding partials. As the pedal is
released for longer periods of time, the surrounding par
tials will be progressively diminished and the richness of
sound will decrease.


134
Melodic pedaling is illustrated in the example below.
More or less pedaling may be required depending upon the
choice of fingering.
Example D: Beethoven Sonata in F, Op. 10, No. 2
(Allegretto)
Teaching Unit 11; Half Damping
Description of Technique
Half damping refers to the partial release of the
damper sound that occurs when the dampers are partially
raised from the strings. This is accomplished by de
pressing the damper pedal only partially down. Various
quantities of sound are then retained in the pedal, de
pending upon how far above the strings the dampers are
raised. Half damping is a form of partial pedaling.
Partial pedaling differs from full pedaling in that the
dampers are never completely raised above the strings.


173
pianist. This is no longer possible because of the much
greater resonance of today's pianos. In fact, on most
instruments of Beethoven's time, it would have been very
difficult to make a forte-piano effect relying solely on
the damper pedal alone.
The term echo pedaling refers to the sound that occurs
when notes that have been previously pedaled are silently
depressed before being pedaled again. Redepressing the
keys creates a very soft sound, which gives the effect of
an echo. Composers will sometimes specifically ask for
this technique, as in the following example from Britten's
Night-Piece. In reference to the notes which are to be
depressed silently in the last measure, Britten states:
"These notes should be silently pressed down before the
pedal is released."
Example A: Britten "Notturno"
>


210
in both the first and last sections of this piece. In
measure seven, the 'G#' octave is sustained throughout the
measure with changing harmonies on each eighth note above
it. Half pedaling may be employed, but the octave will not
be sustained fully.
Example F: Rachmaninoff Prelude in C# m, Op. 3, No. 2
Example G: MacDowell To The Sea (from "Sea Pieces"),
Op. 55, No. 1


142
2. Gradually let the pedal rise just to the point at
which the sound is released. This will be the height above
which the pedal should not ascend when employing the vari
ous forms of half damping.
3. Continue to play chords while depressing the pedal
fully, but experiment with the amount of released damper
sound by slowly and carefully controlling the height that
the pedal is allowed to ascend.
Half damping. Have the student reverse the above pro
cedures to determine the distance that the pedal can be
depressed to hold the chord with varying degrees of re
leased damper sound. This process relies heavily on good
listening skills. Ask the student to
1. Play a chord and hold it. Depress the damper
pedal very slowly to the point where the tones are barely
caught by the pedal. Release the chord completely with the
fingers. This is the area of a 25 percent release of dam
per sound.
2. Play the chord again. Depress the pedal a little
more deeply so that the tones of the chord are all defi
nitely held by the pedal, but the texture still remains
thin. This depth of the pedal's descent allows a 50 per
cent release of damper sound.
3. Play the chord once again. Depress the pedal
still further than before, but not to the point of its full
descent. The chord should sound full, but not as resonant


90
string of each note. On some pianos, such as Bosendorfer
grands, the hammers continue to strike all three strings to
some extent. Thus, tre corde and due corde are possible on
most contemporary grand pianos, but una corda is not.
Applying the una corda pedal to low bass notes pro
duces a slightly different effect. Bass notes have only
two strings per note while the lowest bass notes have only
one string each. Consequently, their volume is reduced
less by use of the una corda pedal than is the volume of
notes in the upper registers. The change in volume and
tone quality that occurs when the una corda pedal is ap
plied to bass notes is due mainly to the shifting motion of
the hammers, causing a softer portion of the felt to come
in contact with the strings, and producing a more muted
effect.
Application When Playing
Function. The una corda pedal may be used for the
following purposes: (1) to color the tone, (2) to achieve
echo effects, (3) to lengthen a crescendo and diminuendo,
(4) to round-off slurs and phrase endings, (5) to soften an
accompaniment, and (6) to increase the intensity of the
tone.
The una corda pedal functions in much the same way as
a string player's mute. It should be used when a muted
sound is desired, and when a change of tone color is


22
Research on Teaching Pedaling
After an intensive search, no sizable systematic
research study of the teaching of piano pedaling was un
covered. Searches of Dissertation Abstracts, the National
Union Catalogue, Eric, and RLIN produced no studies on the
teaching of pedaling. The Eric search and Dissertation
Abstracts Online did locate a few studies on bicycle
pedaling and several on organ pedaling. One thesis on
playing the piano without pedals (Castagnone, 1984) was
also cited.
Ferguson (1969) presents a study of the functions,
uses, and pedagogical methods of the pedals of the piano.
The final chapter of this thesis contains several peda
gogical exercises derived from a number of sources for
introducing legato pedaling. Sheffet (1987) designed a
questionnaire to conceptualize the pedaling expertise of
ensemble pianists to formulate guidelines for pedaling
string duos, and Harrell (1976) investigates contemporary
non-traditional uses of the piano as an instrument.
Examples are provided of the new notational symbols
composers have developed, including those for pedaling.
Other studies are concerned primarily with historical
and performance situations. In a dissertation on technical
problems in piano performance, Hollis (1981) addresses the
application of the damper pedal in selected piano excerpts.



PAGE 1

THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING THE VARIOUS USES OF THE PEDALS OF THE CONTEMPORARY GRAND PIANO BY MARY RAY JOHNSON A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1989

PAGE 2

Copyright 1989 by Mary Ray Johnson

PAGE 3

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to extend my gratitude and sincere thanks to Dr. Charles R. Hoffer, chairman of my committee, who has been most generous in giving his time, support, and invaluable knowledge to this project. I wish also to thank my committee. members who read this paper and made helpful comments: Dr. Russell Robinson, Professor Boaz Sharon, Dr. Linda Lamme, Dr. William Hedges, and Dr. Donald Avila, who is now de ceased. For sustaining encouragement I thank my parents, Mr. and Mrs. Raymond C. Johnson, Jr. iii

PAGE 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii LIST OF TABLES....................................... vi ABSTRACT............................................. vii CHAPTERS 1 INTRODUCTION.. . 1 Lack of Knowledge About Pedaling................ 2 Need for Knowledge of Pedaling.................. 4 Purpose of the Study ~.. 5 Development of the Pedals....................... 7 Stylistic Factors in Pedaling 12 Delimitations 17 Definitions of Terminology 17 2 REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH AND WRITINGS ......... 21 Research on Teaching Pedaling 22 Writings on Teaching Pedaling 23 Lack of Systematic Studies on Teaching Pedaling...................................... 27 Faults in Teaching Pedaling 31 Pedagogical Views on Teaching Pedaling 33 Introducing the Pedals 39 Teaching Techniques for the Damper Pedal 46 Additional Pedaling Techniques 53 Pedal Exercise Books 55 Introduction of the Pedals in Piano Methods Books 56 3 PEDAGOGICAL MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES ............ 61 Composition of the Units 61 Procedures for Developing the Units 64 Teaching Unit 1: Legato Pedaling 65 Teaching Unit 2: Legatissimo Pedaling 74 Teaching Unit 3: Pedaling for Rhythmic Effects. 80 Teaching Unit 4: Una Corda Pedaling 87 iv

PAGE 5

Teaching Unit 5: Pre-Pedaling Teaching Unit 6: Finger Pedaling Teaching Unit 7: Staccato Pedaling Teaching Unit 8: Portato Pedaling Teaching Unit 9: Pedaling to Enhance Phrasing and Articulation ............................. Teaching Unit Teaching Unit Teaching Unit Teaching Unit Teaching Unit Teaching unit Teaching Unit Teaching Unit 10: 11: 12: 13: 14: 15: 16: 17: Melodic Pedaling Half Damping Pedal Vibrato Pedal Diminuendo Half Pedaling Flutter Pedaling Pedaling for Dynamic Effects Pedal Blurring for Color 99 103 109 115 119 129 134 144 150 155 162 169 and Special Teaching Unit Teaching Unit Effects ........................... 178 18: Harmonic Pedaling 187 19: Pedaling One Hand and Not the Other ..................................... 194 Teaching Unit 20: Sostenuto Pedaling 198 Teaching Unit 21: Pedagogical Sequence for Implementing Piano Pedaling Techniques 226 4 FIELD TESTING AND VALIDATION 237 Pilot Validation ................................ 237 Validation of Materials 240 Incorporation of the Results 249 5 SUMMARY, RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................ 251 Summary ....................................... 252 Results of Extensive Validation 253 Questionnaire for Teaching Units 1 20 260 Validation of Pedagogical Sequence of Piano Pedaling Techniques 274 Results of Intensive Validation 276 Conclusions ..................................... 285 Recommendations and Application 288 APPENDICES A COVER LETTER. 2 9 2 B QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS 293 C VALIDATION FORM FOR TEACHING UNITS 294 D VALIDATION FORM FOR PEDAGOGICAL SEQUENCE 297 E ANALYSIS OF TAPES: OBSERVATIONS 299 F ANALYSIS OF TAPES: CONCLUSIONS 300 REFERENCES. . 3 0 2 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 309 V

PAGE 6

LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 Mean Ratings for the Aspects of Teaching Units Category 1: Materials 261 2 Mean Ratings for the Aspects of Teaching Units Ca t egory 2: Objectives 262 3 Mean Ratings for the Aspects of Teaching Units Category 3: Student Application 263 4 Combined Mean Ratings for the Aspects of Teaching Units 264 5 Grand Mean Ratings for Individual Teaching Units 265 6 Previous Use of Pedaling Technique According to Percentage of Responses 267 7 Stage of Development at which a Particular Pedaling Technique Should be Introduced According to Percentage of Responses 268 8 Importance of Teaching Individual Pedaling Techniques According to Percentage of Responses 270 9 Agreement with Concepts in Teaching Unit According to Percentage of Responses 271 10 Ability to Teach Pedaling Techniques Using Information Provided in Teaching Units According to Percentage of Responses 273 11 Analysis of Mean Ratings of Observations of Tapes....................................... 281 12 Analysis of Mean Ratings of Conclusions of of Tapes 282 13 Overall Grand Mean Ratings of Tapes 283 vi

PAGE 7

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING THE VARIOUS USES OF THE PEDALS OF THE CONTEMPORARY GRAND PIANO By Mary Ray Johnson December, 1989 Chairman: Dr. Charles R. Hoffer Major Department: Instruction and Curriculum The teaching of piano pedaling is one of the most neglected and misunderstood areas in piano pedagogy. De spite its recognized importance, few systematic studies exist in this area, and, until recently, no comprehensive source of pedaling techniques had been published. The purpose of the present study was the systematic development and validation of pedagogical procedures for teaching students the correct use of the three pedals of the contemporary grand piano. Secondary related purposes included (1) the development of preliminary exercises to foster prerequisite skills; (2) the classification of pedaling techniques according to related skills; and (3) the formulation of a pedagogical sequence for introducing pedaling techniques in a logical, systematic order. vii

PAGE 8

After identifying the various pedaling techniques, a series of pedagogical procedures was developed for the teaching of each technique. Twenty-one teaching units were formulated that collectively comprise a comprehensive and systematic program of study of the three pedals. The first twenty units follow a logical format that includes (1) a description of the technique; (2) application; (3) teaching procedures; (4) examples; and (5) appropriate exercises. In the final unit, the techniques are grouped into cate gories and presented in an instructional sequence. Most of the pedagogical procedures described in the teaching units have seldom been subjected to research analysis. Therefore, both extensive and intensive valida tion measures were employed to determine the appropriate ness of the materials. The validation process solicited the opinions from a sample of nationally certified teachers of piano and piano pedagogy of the Music Teachers National Association, and analyzed the teaching of the units in actual piano lessons. Conclusions regarding the main thrust of the study were drawn in terms of three criteria. Materials and concepts presented within the study were found to be (1) systematic, (2) thorough, and (3) appropriate for piano teachers who might use them. viii

PAGE 9

At each stage of the study the apparent need for this type of research was reinforced. Results of both aspects of the validation process were overwhelmingly positive. The high consistency of the ratings gave further evidence that the concepts and techniques presented within this study are pedagogically sound. ix

PAGE 10

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Fine piano playing is impossible without the correct use of the three pedals. Just as finger technique should be analyzed methodically and mastered during the student's course of study, the use of the pedals should receive simi lar attention. Therefore, a systematic investigation of pedaling techniques and how best to teach them is warranted and needed. Pedaling is a complex subject. Numerous techniques exist for the use of each pedal, and different applications can be made within each technique. In order to obtain the best instructional results, teachers should follow a peda gogical sequence for introducing each pedaling technique that presents the various concepts in a logical, systematic manner. In addition, they need to know what preliminary exercises should be included to enable students to know what they are doing with the pedal before it is introduced into any piece of music. Teachers who are knowledgeable about pedaling techniques are much more likely to teach them effectively. 1

PAGE 11

2 Lack of Knowledge About Pedaling Despite its recognized importance, many piano teachers ignore the teaching of musical and artistic pedaling (Bano wetz, 1985). It is a much neglected and misunderstood area of piano teaching, as well as one of the more controver sial. Compared to the other aspects of piano playing, the teaching of the correct use of the pedals is still in a disorganized state (Gebhard, 1963; Bernstein, 1981). While the exact percentage has not been documented, many piano teachers either do not adequately understand the concepts of pedaling or do not realize the numerous types of pedal ing that can be used. It appears that they were never taught more than the basic mechanical actions of the damper pedal: (1) pushing it down and letting it up and (2) pedal ing to connect notes. Other teachers lack sufficient knowledge of how to teach more than basic pedaling techniques, especially those for which there are no notated symbols. This lack of wareness, in turn, affects what is taught their students. Consequently, many students avoid pedaling or pedal largely by instinct, which usually results in inconsistent and un stylistic playing (Bernstein, 1981). To the extent that the student is not taught to use the pedals skillfully, the quality of that student's musical understanding and per formance is diminished.

PAGE 12

Several reasons exist for this present situation. First of all, very little research has been conducted on pedaling (Banowetz, 1985; Gebhard, 1963; Wolfram, 1965). 3 In addition, until recently no single comprehensive source of piano pedaling techniques had been published. Except for a few books or articles on this subject, when pedaling is discussed, it is often in a fragmentary manner. This situation leaves piano teachers with little to draw on other than their own personal experience, because they have no research findings or systematic studies with which to compare the strengths and weaknesses of a particular peda gogical approach to a pedaling technique. Another reason for the lack of a generally accepted standard is that pedaling is a highly individual matter, relying heavily on the musicianship of the particular performer. A rigid, unvarying concept of pedaling is not desirable, because the choice of pedaling is affected by a wide variety of factors. Many pianists fail to listen carefully to the musical effects of their pedaling, not only because of a lack of attention, but also because they use the pedals to mask a number of technical inaccuracies. This lack of aural attention is unfortunate, because pianists must rely on aural perception to compensate for the varying conditions of performance such as the particular instrument being played, the acoustics of the hall, additional performers in

PAGE 13

4 the group, and mistakes in performance which may occur, as well as the performer's choice of tempos, touch, dynamics, and balance of textures. Each of these conditions requires a response that is unique to the immediate situation. Need for Knowledge of Pedaling When Anton Rubinstein referred to pedaling as the "soul of piano playing," he expressed a regard for the pedals that is recognized by every outstanding pianist (Bernstein, 1981, p. 143). Appropriate pedaling is an art that conveys not only a thorough grasp of the composer's intent, but also the artistic intelligence of the perform er. As Chopin once stated: "The correct way of using the pedal remains a study for life" (Banowetz, 1985, p. 179). A thorough understanding and mastery of the use of each of the three pedals is essential for anyone who seeks to play at a high artistic level. Unfortunately, aside from the confusion surrounding the many functions of the damper pedal, both the una corda and sostenuto pedals are frequently misused or misunderstood. The una corda pedal is sometimes employed as a crutch when finger technique alone could be more effective, and the sostenuto pedal is often ignored completely. In interviews with a cross-section of twelve concert pianists, Noyle (1987) cites artistic concerns that express the gamut of piano practice and performance. Several

PAGE 14

artists made references to pedaling, including Misha Dichter, who stated 5 In my various experiences from teaching master classes around the country, if I can cite the one single fail ing with teaching in this country, it's that the pedal is really short-changed in the teaching. It seems almost to be an appendage that is just added after the student has learned the piece. (Noyle, 1987, p. 51) While performance situations cannot be duplicated exactly in the studio, proper training can cultivate an awareness that will lead to enhanced and improved pedal techniques. Spontaneous reactions involving the pedal can even be valuable during a performance, because many pianists tend to rely heavily on the pedal when they be lieve they are in difficulty. Yet, as Lhevinne (1972, p. 47) indicates, "The best pedal effects in artistic playing are those in which the audience does not realize that there is a pedal at all." Pedaling techniques improp erly applied without musical awareness only compound or perpetrate errors. Ultimately, each pianist must let his or her musical sensibilities be the final guide. Purpose of the Study The primary purpose of the study was the systematic development and validation of pedagogical procedures for teaching students the correct use of the three pedals on the contemporary grand piano. As has been pointed out on the preceding pages, the knowledge and the use of the pedals and the pedagogical

PAGE 15

6 practices for teaching this facet of piano playing lag far behind other aspects of piano playing and instruction. This study sought to deal with this situation in two phases. One was to compile and synthesize the available knowledge about the many techniques for the use of the three pedals. The extant writings and research are pres ented in Chapter 2. The procedures that were developed, which are presented in unit form in Chapter 3, consist of more than just a compilation of other writings. The re searcher also drew ori many years of dealing with the topic as a teacher and professor of piano, as well as systematic analysis, to expand on and organize the various pedaling techniques. The second purpose of the study was to develop peda gogical procedures for the teaching of pedaling. Inter estingly, less research and writings are available on the pedagogical aspects than on the nature of the techniques. Therefore, a significant amount of the pedagogical pro cedures presented in Chapter 3 is the result of systematic analysis and application of principles and ideas. Because many of the pedagogical procedures in that chapter have seldom been available for consideration, some validation of them was desirable. To accomplish this, both intensive and extensive procedures were utilized. The intensive portion of the validation process consisted of the tape recording of the procedures being taught by

PAGE 16

7 several piano teachers certified as "Master Teachers" by the Music Teachers National Association. These tapes were then analyzed by the researcher along with a panel of three certified piano teachers to verify that the students did in fact learn the particular pedaling technique. The exten sive portion of the validation process consisted of ques tionnaires sent to forty-two certified "Master Teachers" asking for their opinions and suggestions about the units on pedaling. These validation efforts are described in detail in Chapter 4. This study also had some secondary purposes related to the development of the units. These secondary purposes include (1) the development of preliminary exercises to foster prerequisite skills prior to teaching pedaling techniques; (2) the classification of pedaling techniques according to related skills that are employed in executing each technique; and (3) the formulation of a pedagogical sequence for introducing piano pedaling techniques in a logical, systematic order. Development of the Pedals A knowledge of the development of each of the pedals provides the performer with insight into performance prac

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8 tices of earlier periods; such knowledge can lead to a more artistic level of performance through their appropriate use. The historical development of the pedals is a compli cated evolution that spanned more than 150 years. As the piano increased in range and size, alterations were desired to help control the volume and duration of the sound. By the mid-eighteenth century, when the length of the strings had become quite long, the excessive reverberations of the strings created objectionable dissonant notes. This led to the creation of damper activating mechanisms. The Damper Pedal Early pianos had hand stops for controlling the dampers--pieces of firm felt that prevent the strings from vibrating when sound is no longer desired. Through the use of hand stops the performer could raise the dampers in either the bass or the treble areas. This division of the damper mechanism into treble and bass groups remained a common feature of pianos until at least 1820. Knee levers were introduced in Germany around 1765. These were less cumbersome than hand stops and allowed the pianist to maintain uninterrupted hand contact with the keyboard. In 1777 a divided pedal was added that controlled both halves of the damper mechanism separately. Further refine

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9 ments resulted in a split pedal that enabled the performer to activate dampers in the treble and bass registers simul taneously by depressing both halves of the pedal at the same time. In the early nineteenth century, a short-lived divided damper mechanism known as the Kunstpedal divided the dampers into eight sections controlled by four divided pedals. Split pedals continued to be built until around 1830, when they were replaced by the single damper pedal found on today's grand pianos. The placement of the damper mechanism underwent vari ous changes as well. It was placed alternately above and below the strings, assuming the upper placement on most grand pianos by the end of the nineteenth century. This position utilizes gravity to help achieve rapid dampening. The Pedal Piano An independent pedal board was added to the piano to create the pedal piano. A second set of strings was orig inally required to activate the mechanism, but in 1815 a self-contained pedal board was developed. The pedal board provided a means of expanding the compass of the bass notes by enabling the pianist to double notes that were played by the fingers or to sustain bass notes indefinitely. Al though the pedal piano is no longer extant, several com posers wrote compositions for this instrument, including Schumann, Alkan, and Gounod.

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10 The Una Corda Pedal Two basic methods for reducing the dynamic level were employed on various pianos of the early nineteenth century. The oldest, the pianozug or feu celeste, was a "celeste stop" that was first operated by hand and then later acti vated by the foot. It consisted of a thin strip of felt or leather that came between the hammers and the strings to produce a special soft effect. The second pedal mechanism, known as the Verschiebung, was introduced in 1726 by Cristofori and closely resembled the una corda pedal in use today. When the Verschiebung was depressed, the entire hammer mechanism shifted to the right so that the hammers struck from one to three strings per note, depending upon the depth to which the pedal was depressed. This enabled pianists of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to shift from the three string (tre corde) position, to two strings (due corde), and then to only one string (una corda). Many composers, notably Beethoven, made use of this selective degree of shifting, which is no longer possible on contemporary grand pianos. The Sostenuto Pedal The sostenuto pedal is related to several earlier damper activating mechanisms that allowed the pianist to selectively sustain tones. It is the most recent of the

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11 three pedals to be added to the piano. Although the first true sostenuto mechanism appeared in 1844, it was not until it was patented in 1874 by the American piano firm Steinway and Sons that the sostenuto pedal began to attract atten tion. The sostenuto pedal sustains notes that are played and held before it is activated. The sostenuto pedal is not standard equipment on every piano; many are built without it. European piano manufac turers have been reluctant to incorporate the sostenuto pedal, and many of them include it only on nine-foot grand pianos. Even American grands that are not built for con cert or professional use generally do not have a sostenuto pedal. Some pianos have a "fake" sostenuto mechanism that operates unselectively on all the dampers below middle "C." This action duplicates the function of the damper pedal for the lower portion of the keyboard, but it makes selective sustaining of notes impossible. Frequently pianos are found to have a malfunctioning sostenuto pedal or one that is improperly regulated, and therefore it does not function in the capacity of a true sostenuto pedal. Most upright pianos omit this pedal entirely. Additional Pedals Numerous short-lived, bizarre pedal devices for modi fying the sound of the piano were developed and eventually discarded. In the early nineteenth century pianos had as

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12 many as six to eight pedals. Three of the best-known devices were (1) the Janizary pedal which added rattling noises and could activate a drumstick, ring bells, shake a rattle, and create the effect of a cymbal crash; (2) the "bassoon" pedal that created a buzzing noise through the use of paper and silk; and (3) a cembalo stop that modified the sound through the use of leather weights to resemble the sound of the harpsichord. Other devices included the crescendo and decrescendo pedals which raised and lowered the lid of the piano or opened and closed slots in the sides of the case, and a device that attempted to modify the tone after the hammers had struck the strings by forcing air across them. This number of pedals provided a pianist with a considerable repertoire of "effects," perhaps of doubtful musical value. Sonorities could be weakened, strengthened, or blended together, and sounds could be produced that ranged from consonant to quite dissonant, depending upon the artistry of the performer and the quality of the particular piano. Stylistic Factors in Pedaling Pedaling cannot be taught correctly unless one is aware of historical considerations and also has an under standing of performance practices relevant to various musical styles. To achieve the correct use of the pedals,

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13 a pianist not only must be able to use appropriate pedaling techniques, but also must possess an understanding of the composer's idiomatic treatment of the pedals. Without such understanding, a mastery of pedaling techniques in itself is of limited value. Numerous problems exist regarding pedal markings in the score. Because a composer does not call for pedaling in the notation is no reason to assume that none should be used. Indications were not provided in the music for the knee levers or hand stops which were early means of pedal ing. Until the piano reached its full development during the early part of the nineteenth century, many composers omitted pedal markings entirely. Yet it is known from various accounts of piano playing that several composers used the pedals in performances of their own compositions. Mozart, for instance, never placed pedal markings in any of his solo piano works. However, in letters to his father he described using the damper pedal freely, and mentioned how he was overjoyed at finding one that was capable of releas ing the sounds completely. Haydn indicated the use of the damper pedal only twice. Neither he nor Mozart provided markings for the use of the una corda pedal. The lack of adequate pedaling indications is not limited to any particular style of music, however. For example, the clarity of the contrapuntal lines in much eighteenth century music can be easily obscured through

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14 incorrect pedaling. Although written primarily for harp sichord or clavichord, this music requires some pedaling when played on the piano. Many editions of Classical and Romantic piano music contain very few or quite inadequate pedal indications (Gebhard, 1963). An example of this practice can be illustrated by Liszt's brief note to his transcription of the Tannhauser Overture in which he wrote, "Verstindiger Pedalgebrauch wird vorausgesetz" ("It is assumed that the pedal will be used with understand ing"), after which there is not a single pedal indication in the music (Neuhaus, 1973, p. 159). Likewise, relying solely on the printed page for pedaling creates significant problems for the performer in the music of Debussy and Ravel, whose scores are almost devoid of such indications, and whose requirements for the use of the pedal are made clear by means other than the traditional pedal markings. While pedaling in twentieth century piano music is more varied, it presents fewer problems in that it is usually marked by the composer. Whenever pedaling has not been indicated in the music of a period, both the stylistic practice of the period and the musical context should be considered in determining how and where to pedal. Every available technique should be used by the performer to convey the composer's intent, as far as it can be ascertained from the score. For example, although the sostenuto pedal is a more recent invention,

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15 pianists should not be prejudiced against using it in music that was composed earlier. According to Bacon (1963), there is no benefit in pushing historical verisimilitude too far when the contemporary grand piano itself is so far removed from the historical. For instance, the use of the sostenuto pedal can enhance the performance of Impression istic piano music. However, Debussy did not have a piano with a sostenuto mechanism and as far as can be determined was unaware of its existence. Ravel had composed numerous piano works before he became aware of this pedal. When introduced to it, he reportedly exclaimed, "Why didn't someone show me that such effects were possible with the sustaining pedal? How many more possibilities it would have suggested to me!" (Chasins, 1962, p. 76). Even when pedal markings were placed by the composer in the score, it is not always possible to execute them accurately on contemporary grand pianos. The evolution of the pedals enabled pianists to produce effects at one time that can only be partially duplicated today. In addition, pedals differed greatly from one instrument to another, making it impossible to achieve much consistency. The tone of early pianos was lighter than it is today, and the ability of the instrument to sustain sounds was much less than it is on modern instruments. Composers often marked pedaling in a careless, in consistent, or incomplete manner. If followed exactly by

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16 the performer, these markings could lead to confusing re sults. As a further complication, some editors have tried to compensate for omissions of pedal markings, which has further obscured a composer's intent. Therefore, even when presented with what appear to be authentic pedal indica tions, a pianist is not obligated to follow them exactly. According to Dumesnil (1958, p. 63), "printed pedal marks mean practically nothing." In addition to functions normally associated with pedaling, some of the dynamic levels indicated in the music of Beethoven, for example, are possible only through judi cious use of the pedal. Because Beethoven was one of the first composers to indicate pedaling in the music, he is sometimes referred to as the "father of pedaling." And he did create new effects by sustaining low bass notes throughout long passages and holding the damper pedal down through rapidly articulated chords. Yet, after Beethoven pedaling became even more complex. Aside from the fact that numerous pedal markings are in use today (a problem in itself), the correct use of the pedals frequently is hindered by the layout of the music. Notes and leger lines below the bass clef sometimes get in the way of pedal markings, and when this happens the pedal is usually moved to one side or another. The full capabil ities of the concert grand piano offer an infinite variety of pedalings, some of which cannot be indicated in notation.

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17 Delimitations The subject of pedaling is an extensive one. There fore, several delimitations were imposed to keep the study focused on pedagogical matters. These delimitations in clude the following: (1) Only standard works representa tive of eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth century com posers are cited as examples. No attempt has been made to incorporate a comprehensive representation of all piano literature. (2) Non-traditional pedaling techniques and idiosyncratic uses of the pedal are not included. (3) Par ticular schools of pedaling are not compared or explained. (4) Manuscripts or treatises are not examined for histori cal relevance or authenticity. (5) A comparison of various editions of a particular composer's works is not included. Definitions of Terminology Unless otherwise stated, the discussion of pedaling techniques is made in reference to the modern concert grand piano. The term pedaling will refer to the damper pedal or right pedal. The middle pedal will be referred to as the sostenuto pedal. The left pedal will be referred to as the una corda pedal. These pedals and their actions are frequently designated by a variety of terms, including the following:

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18 Damper Pedal English: damper pedal, loud pedal, open pedal, sustaining pedal, amplifying pedal French: German: avec pedale, la pedale forte, pedale grande, gardez la pedale Aushaltepedal, Das Dampferpedal, Das Dampfungspedal, Fortezug, Grosses Pedal, mit Pedalgebrauch Italian: col pedale, con pedale, il primo pedale, pedale, pedale del forte, sempre pedale, senza sordini, ped. simile Release of the Damper Pedal French: sec, sans pedale German: kein Pedal, ohne Pedal Italian: con sordini, senza pedale, secco, non ped. Sostenuto Pedal English: French: German: Italian: prolonging pedal, sostenuto pedal, Steinway pedal, sustaining pedal, S.P., tonal pedal, Ped. Prolongement, Pedale de prolongation, Prol. Ped. Tonhaltepedal Il pedale tonale Una Corda Pedal English: soft pedal, shift pedal, muting pedal French: une corde, sourdine, la pedale sourde, petite pedale

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German: Italian: 19 mit Verschiebung, mit einer Saite, mit Dampfung sordino, una corda, u.c., sul una corda, poco a poco una corda Release of the Una Corda Pedal French: German: Italian: 3 cordes ohne Verscheibung tre corde, poco a poco tre corde, tutte le corde, t.c., poco a poco tutte le corde, due corde Use of the Una Corda and Damper Pedals Simultaneously English: Ped. 1 and 2 French: German: Italian: Les deux pedales, Tres enveloppe de pedales Mit beiden Pedalen, Beide Pedale con 2 Pedale, 2 ped., due Ped., con sord e Ped. 1 due pedali In this study the terms for pedaling actions are employed as follows: Full pedal refers to the complete retention of sound accomplished when the dampers are raised fully from the strings and the pedal descends to its maximum depth. Partial release of the pedal refers to the partial release of the damper sound that is determined by how far above the strings the dampers are raised: (1) a 75 percent release of sound occurs when the dampers just barely touch

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20 the strings, (2) a 50 percent release of sound occurs when the dampers rest very lightly on the strings, and (3) a 25 percent release of sound occurs when the dampers rest almost completely on the strings. The term catching notes in the pedal is used inter changeably with holding notes in the damper pedal. Other pedal terminology based upon a combination of full and partial pedaling techniques is defined at appro priate places in the teaching units. The following definitions apply to the terminology used to describe various components of the teaching units: Technique is a body of technical skills related to the use of the pedals on the piano. Method refers to a systematic plan followed in pres enting material for instruction. Procedure is a series of steps followed in introducing the various pedaling concepts in an organized manner. Unit refers to one constituent in a series of twenty one teaching segments that collectively comprise a system atic, pedagogical study of the three pedals of the piano.

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH AND WRITINGS In his recently published book on pedaling, Banowetz states: Pedaling has suffered grossly from both ignorance and neglect. The bibliography may give the im pression that references on pedaling are plentiful, but that is somewhat misleading, for many entries are very brief or elementary in content. Only a compara tive few show real depth or comprehensiveness. (Banowetz, 1985, p. ix) Several books in English have been written that are entirely devoted to the subject of pedaling. The authors include Banowetz (1985), Bowen (1936), Carreno (1919), Ching (1930), Gebhard (1963), Rief ling (1962), Schmitt (1893), Schnabel (1950), and Wolfram (1965). These books predominantly cover styles and musical considerations in pedaling rather than pedagogical issues. Very little space has been devoted to the subject of pedaling in books on general piano playing. Pedaling, when it is discussed at all, is generally treated only in a cursory manner. Even books that contain pictures and diagrams of the keyboard to illustrate certain pedagogical problems usually omit the pedals (Lindo, 1922; Seroff, 1977). 21

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22 Research on Teaching Pedaling After an intensive search, no sizable systematic research study of the teaching of piano pedaling was un covered. Searches of Dissertation Abstracts, the National Union Catalogue, Eric, and RLIN produced no studies on the teaching of pedaling. The Eric search and Dissertation Abstracts Online did locate a few studies on bicycle pedaling and several on organ pedaling. One thesis on playing the piano without pedals (Castagnone, 1984) was also cited. Ferguson (1969) presents a study of the functions, uses, and pedagogical methods of the pedals of the piano. The final chapter of this thesis contains several peda gogical exercises derived from a number of sources for introducing legato pedaling. Sheffet (1987) designed a questionnaire to conceptualize the pedaling expertise of ensemble pianists to formulate guidelines for pedaling string duos, and Harrell (1976) investigates contemporary non-traditional uses of the piano as an instrument. Examples are provided of the new notational symbols composers have developed, including those for pedaling. Other studies are concerned primarily with historical and performance situations. In a dissertation on technical problems in piano performance, Hollis (1981) addresses the application of the damper pedal in selected piano excerpts.

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23 Hopkins (1980) uses musical examples from Bach's keyboard Suites to demonstrate full and partial pedaling techniques in her dissertation. In a dissertation on piano tone color Brodsky (1985) mentions that the una corda pedal changes the decay properties of a tone, and thereby significantly affects the piano's tone quality. A search was made of Music Index and Education Index to find relevant articles on the teaching of pedaling. While numerous writings have appeared on the use and func tion of the three pedals, many of these are no longer available either because they have gone out of print or the publications in which they appeared are no longer availa ble. Many articles and books contain only brief references to pedaling and focus primarily on musical examples and literature or historical matters rather than pedagogical principles. Writings on Teaching Pedaling In addition to the books and articles entirely devoted to pedaling, numerous books on the subject of piano teach ing were examined during the course of this study. Many contained no references to pedaling at all. Of those that did, the following examples are cited to provide insight into the depth and extent to which the teaching of pedaling was typically included.

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24 Whiteside (1961) writes only briefly on the subject of pedaling because she feels that in addition to good edit ing, too much has already been written on the subject of pedaling to make a long discussion profitable in her book. She acknowledges the damper pedal in six sentences, the una corda in three, and the sostenuto pedal in one sentence. After stating that beyond certain elementary require ments pedaling becomes merely an individual matter, Bacon (1963) completes his chapter on pedaling in four and one half pages, covering the usage of all three pedals. Seven sentences are devoted to the sostenuto pedal and four sentences to the use of the una corda pedal. He provides basic principles of pedaling regarding the application and function of the three pedals. He states that because the piano's normal tone is with the pedal, non-pedaling should be conceived as a special color. Newman (1956) covers pedaling in two and one-half pages, devoting five sentences to the una corda pedal and two sentences to the sostenuto pedal. He mentions three techniques for the damper pedal: syncopated pedaling, half pedaling, and pedal blurring. Newman stresses the impor tance of listening to what is being pedaled, and discusses pedaling in the context of style, color, and performance variables. Multi-levels of pedaling are discussed by Neuhaus (1973) in twelve pages devoted to pedaling, including six

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25 sentences related to the use of the una corda pedal, but nothing regarding the sostenuto pedal. According to Neuhaus, artistic pedaling is inseparable from tone; a primary use of the pedal is to remove some of the dryness from the piano's distinctive tone. Several musical ex amples are cited in this book. Last (1960) devotes a twenty-one page chapter to pedaling and discusses a number of techniques for the damper pedal including: legato and staccato pedaling, a "touch" of pedal, pedaling scales, melodic and harmonic pedaling, pedaling to enhance phrasing, half pedaling, half damping, and "tremolo" pedaling. Thirteen sentences cover the una corda pedal, while four sentences describe the use of the sostenuto pedal. Bastien (1977) discusses only the most elementary use of pedaling in his text on teaching piano and covers the basics of the damper pedal in two pages; the other pedals are not mentioned. One exercise is provided for each of the three types of pedaling that are mentioned: basic, syncopated, and rhythmic syncopated. Four books on elementary uses of the pedals are also listed. In a more recent edition of the same text, Bastien (1988) does not refer to the term "rhythmic syncopated" pedaling. Enoch and Lyke (1977) offer two and one-half pages on pedaling, devoting three sentences to the use of the una corda pedal, while the sostenuto pedal is not mentioned. A

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26 sequence for introducing pedaling is presented and experi mentation in pedaling is encouraged. In their book on rhythm, dynamics, and pedal, Giese king and Leimer (1938) devote a sixteen-page chapter to the damper pedal, one paragraph to the una corda pedal, and the following sentence to the sostenuto pedal: "Many grand pianos have a third (sustenuto) [sic] pedal which serves as a prolonger of individual tones or chords" (Gieseking and Leimer, 1938, p. 64). They stress the importance of "time treading" as opposed to "post-treading" or syncopated pedaling. Various applications of pedaling are discussed and presented along with musical examples. In his chapter on pedaling, Kentner (1976) discusses the element of timing in regard to depressing the damper pedal either before, with, or after the notes are played. He presents a couple of techniques for the damper pedal. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of historical considerations regarding the una corda pedal and a mention of the sostenuto pedal. In his book on teaching, Booth (1971) discusses pedal ing in relation to how, when, and for how long the pedal should be activated. He presents six pedaling exercises for the damper pedal along with musical illustrations. Other pedagogical aspects are presented as well. A scholarly presentation on the use of the three pedals can be found in the reference book on piano teaching

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by Agay (1981) in the chapter on pedaling submitted by Banowetz. Lack of Systematic Studies on Teaching Pedaling From the late eighteenth century on, an enormous amount of teaching guides, materials, and methods were written for piano teachers. Every important pedagogical concept was included in detail, except knowledge of and guidance in the use of the pedals. 27 In the "Foreword" of his volume on pedaling, Schmitt (1893) states: "He who has talent will know how to use the pedal; he who has no talent cannot be taught to use it correctly." According to Mirovitch (1954), this statement provides an accurate account of the substance of all pedal knowledge and teaching prior to the mid-twentieth century. Although Wells (1914) believed that pedaling had developed into a fine art, "It would be no exaggeration to state that there has been no pedal teaching" (Mirovitch, 1954 p. 1). Schnabel confirms this view on the teaching of pedaling when he states that Little has been written, said or taught about the use of the pedal. So little, that indeed many pianists do not even realize how they use the pedal themselves. A few rules, sometimes more harmful that helpful, are known to them; the rest is guesswork, instinct, or good--or bad--luck. (Schnabel, 1950, p. 3) Riefling (1962, p. 1) calls the whole subject of pedaling "terra incognita," and cites a passage from the

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28 book Music Study in Germany (1881) by the American pianist Amy Fay. After having studied with the great piano peda gogues Tausig, Kullak, and Liszt, Fay admitted to her teacher Ludwig Deppe that none of her earlier renowned teachers had taught her anything in particular about pedal ing, except to warn her not to use the pedal during runs. Additional Studies Very little progress has been made in recent decades, according to Ferguson (1969), toward rectifying the lack of systematic studies on the teaching of pedaling. As Kentner states It is remarkable that [pedaling] has been practically ignored by music teachers except for some vague, though well meant advice against "over-pedaling." Even intelligent pianists often limit their comments on the pedal to an indulgent and humorous admission that it can hide a multitude of sins. What sins we are not told. (Kentner, 1976, p. 69) Gebhard concludes It is strange that, with this fascinating and exten sive field fairly begging for recognition, only a few fine musical scholars have written about it. The artistic and tasteful use of the pedal is an intrinsic part of interpretation [and] its neglect is incomprehensible. (Gebhard, 1963, p. viii) As Petsch (1966) points out, most of what has appeared in print concerns the use of the damper pedal. Compara tively little has been written on the use of the una corda pedal, but its technique is less involved than the other two pedals. Even less has been written on the use of the sostenuto pedal, and most teachers and students are only

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29 acquainted with the most basic techniques for this pedal. Fetsch believes that this creates an urgent need for de tailed instruction in its use. Conflicting Theories The lack of systematic studies on the teaching of piano pedaling has resulted in confusing and sometimes conflicting theories about pedaling. Historical comments that have been recorded on the subject of piano teaching in past decades provide some insight into this area. Although many examples can be cited, only a few will be given here. Lindquist (1966) refers to two distinct schools of pedaling: one that stresses clarity at all times and the other that sacrifices clarity for color. This duality in the teaching and use of the pedals has a long and continu ing history. The musicologist Riemann, for instance, be came the subject of severe criticism when he stated in his Dictionary of Music (1882) that in playing the piano the dampers should not usually remain in contact with the strings. Martienssen (1930) strongly disputed this view, saying that such theories about pedaling contributed to the extraordinarily widespread lack of understanding of the subject. The famous pedagogues Matthay (1913) and Lesche tizsky (Bree, 1902) both recognized this division of pian ists into two categories regarding methods of pedaling: the small number of pianists who used very little pedal and

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30 the great majority who kept the pedal depressed almost constantly. Leschetizsky, however, believed that no rules were needed for pedaling other than common sense and a good ear (Bree, 1902). A different type of confusion surrounded the manner in which the damper pedal was depressed. For nearly eighty years after the invention of the damper pedal, rhythmic pedaling, or depressing the damper pedal simultaneously with the notes, was the exclusive recognized form of pedal ing. According to Rief ling (1962), Czerny (1839) was the first composer to write fully and instructively about the use of the pedal, and this was the only form of pedaling he discussed. Syncopated pedaling, or depressing the pedal after the notes have been played, is now considered to be the most common method of pedaling. However, syncopated pedaling was not used until after 1870 by composers such as Liszt, Kullak, and Deppe, and it is mentioned in treatises on the pedal dating from 1875 by both Schmitt and Kohler. Pre-pedaling, or depressing the pedal before playing the notes, is first mentioned in writings on the pedal dating from the early twentieth century by Breithaupt (1912), Caland (1922), and Kreutzer (1915). However, in his book The Essence of Piano Technique, which was pub lished in 1923, Kreutzer does not mention this form of pedaling and appears to reject it (Rief ling, 1962).

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31 In his treatise on pedaling, Frey (1939) states that rhythmic pedaling was the most commonly used form of pedaling. According to Riefling (1962), several renowned piano teachers and writers pointed out that this was false information, and that rhythmic pedaling was on the verge of extinction as a form of recognized pedaling. Von Bulow commented on the confusing situation surrounding the entire subject of pedaling by stating that as a rule, pedaling was "the expedient people employ to annihilate good taste" (Riefling, 1962, p. 17). Faults in Teaching Pedaling The importance of good pedaling has long been recog nized, even though the teaching of pedaling has fallen short. Faults that occur in the teaching of pedaling may be either of comission or omission (Booth, 1971). Accord ing to various writings on the teaching of pedaling, the most often cited fault is the lack of teaching. Other pedagogical errors or oversights mentioned include improper attention to the position of the foot (Bernstein, 1981), introducing the use of the pedal too late, and neglect in teaching pedaling with reference to harmony (Ching, 1930). Results of Poor Teaching The most commonly cited faults of students in em ploying the pedal include failing to change the pedal

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32 frequently enough, too rapid or incomplete pedal releases that create blurring, pedaling through phrasing and articu lation markings, too frequent pedal changes that do not sustain the harmony, and failing to retain low bass notes in the pedal (Booth, 1971); failing to change the pedal quickly enough, and failing to use imperceptible pedal blurring relative to stylistic playing (Neuhaus, 1973); regulating the pedal with reference only to the left hand, and considering the harmonic structure of the piece to the exclusion of melodic forms of pedaling (Riefling, 1962); allowing the damper pedal to become an outlet for rhythmic expression (Whiteside, 1961); pedaling without listening (Friskin, 1921); pedaling far too violently and noisily (Last, 1960; Ohlsson, 1982); failing to gauge accurately the height and depth of the pedal resulting in unclean pedaling (Last, 1960); and assuming that copious amounts of pedal will almost automatically create impressionistic effects (Adams, 1988). Neuhaus (1973, p. 166) speaks of a "sanitary pedal" imposed by teachers who demand that the pedal be changed with every melody note, even though the harmony remains unchanged. But he states that "no good pianist ever uses such a pedal." Lhevinne (1972) warns that so much latitude can be taken in pedaling that the novice uses the pedal like a brush with which to paint the back fence, rather than with intelligence and definiteness.

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33 Reasons for Incorrect Pedaling Newman (1956) suggests several reasons why pedaling is often cursorily treated by the teacher and seldom noticed by the student. These include a lack of aural attention by the student plus inadequate and misleading editorial sug gestions provided for pedaling. Ching (1930) cites four reasons for incorrect pedaling: (1) bad teaching, (2) lack of teaching, (3) complete lack of musical feeling, and (4) carelessness. He concludes, however, that incorrect pedal ing is almost always due to either the first or second reason. Pedagogical Views on Teaching Pedaling As Gieseking (1930) points out, young musicians almost never understand how difficult it is to play exactly ac cording to the wishes of the composer. This perfection is possible only by a complete mastery of all forms of tech nique. Good pedal technique is defined by Ching (1930) as a knowledge of when and how to use the pedal, as well as the ability to perform automatically or subconsciously the necessary pedal movements. Only when the performer has this skill and knowledge, according to Ching, can the pedal take its proper place as part of the student's general technical equipment.

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34 Methods of Instruction Pedaling is sometimes of great concern to a composer, but at other times it is hardly notated at all. Collins (1986) suggests that the best method of instruction is for the pianist to notice carefully how the composer has used the pedal marks, and then to decide for himself or herself how to interpret them. Ohlsson (1982) believes that students should experiment with some of the more advanced forms of pedaling (such as half pedaling and pedal vibrato) on their own for fun and for the pleasure of learning. But according to Ching (1930), although pedaling as a form of musical interpretation must ultimately depend upon musical experience and judgment, the foundations of most forms of pedaling can be taught by fairly definite rules. Such rules, he believes, are the surest way to acquire the necessary experience and judgment for artistic pedaling. Schnabel (1954) concurs with this view. Good tech nique, according to Schnabel, can be acquired by many different means and methods. Some of these methods are easy, some difficult, some short, and some are rather long. But attempting to acquire a good pedal technique by ab staining from using the pedal, or by simply guessing and experimenting with its use, is a long, inadequate, and un acceptable "method." The art of pedaling requires profound study (Rief ling, 1962).

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35 Cooke (1976) believes that students should study care fully all the rules first, which may then be skillfully broken to produce artistic effects. Last (1960) recommends not only the study of pedaling as a form of technique equal to that of the arms, hands, and fingers, but also the practice of preliminary exercises as a teaching tool before various pedaling techniques are introduced into musical pieces. Conflicting Views Not all pedagogues share the same views on the teach ing of pedaling, or the relative importance of exercises in developing good pedal technique. Booth (1971) concludes that because good pedaling is a result of sound musical judgment and an educated ear, any advice or pedagogical exercises can only be regarded as preparatory and elemen tary. After a reasonable foundation in pedaling is ac quired, the rest should be determined solely by musical taste. Bacon (1963) expresses a similar belief in stating that beyond certain elementary requirements pedaling be comes an individual matter. Neuhaus (1973, p. 163) be lieves that there is no correct pedaling "in general," that general rules about pedaling "have the same relation to artistic pedaling as some chapter on syntax to poetic language."

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36 Pedaling as an Aid to Individual Interpretation Great piano playing is an individual matter, and most teachers recognize pedaling as an important aid to express ing this individuality. In a nearly identical performance of the same musical composition by two pianists, quite dif ferent results can be produced solely through dissimilar pedaling (Marsh, 1987; Rief ling, 1962). In the opinion of Marsh (1987), an intelligent early training in the art of pedaling is an important key to developing an individually unique sound in interpreting music. According to Ching, most piano music imposes a limit upon the freedom of individual interpretation, but no such tradition [exists] with regard to the pedal--or virtually none. Here the artist has free scope, and provided he has the requisite knowledge and skill he can use this freedom to express his individu ality and his art. (Ching, 1930, p. 36) Difficulty in Teaching Pedaling Pedaling is sometimes referred to as "the most diffi cult branch of higher piano study" (Cooke, 1976). Numerous articles provide testimonials to this statement. Formsma (1976, p. 45) writes that the pedagogical problems involved in teaching pedaling have "provided inspiration for arti cles, problems for editors, and disagreement among perform ers, students, and teachers." In his book on pedaling, Gieseking states that ade quate instruction in pedaling is very difficult because

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37 the rules upon which we base our support can scarcely be produced. The exceptions would most likely surpass the rules. In many cases one could play as well with out the pedal as with the pedal, giving sound reasons for the carrying out of either method. (Gieseking, 1930, p. 49) According to Everhart (1958, p. 250), other than achieving the artistic qualities of touch and tone, "there is no greater challenge to the player than pedal effects." Importance of Listening Most writers stress the prime importance of listening as a requisite to good pedal technique, saying that the ear must be the ultimate guide in determining when and how much pedal to use. Enoch (1977) urges teachers to take the time to establish good pedaling with both the foot and the ear. Booth (1971) believes that education in the use of the pedal begins and ends with the ear, since the ear is the only real medium of control. Everhart (1958) states that no amount of discussion will result in effective pedaling since pedaling is done by ear rather than by calculation. Schnabel (1950), however, warns in his writings on pedaling that while the ear should always be the final judge, the ear alone cannot teach the specific methods and means by which the various forms of pedaling are obtained. Lind quist (1968) concurs by stating that the well known cliche "pedal with the ear, not the foot" is a risky oversimpli fication.

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38 Gieseking (1930) calls the thorough training of the ear a prerequisite to rapid progress and states that listening to one's self is by far the most important factor in all of music study. Leimer (1930), with whom Gieseking studied, refers to trained ears that have been developed through continuous self-hearing as the only way to achieve self-control. Dilsner (1968) refers to Leschetizky's belief that good pedaling depends on good listening to one's own playing, as a summation of the desired goal of all pedaling technique. Most students do not hear all the sounds they produce, creating a tone deafness that makes an intelligent and convincing performance impossible (Friskin, 1921). Ac cording to Ching (1930), the longer a student practices a certain work, the more intensely he or she must listen to the pedaling and other effects that are produced, to guard against complacency in listening. Newman (1956, p. 70) repeatedly stresses the impor tance of careful listening, saying that beyond teaching the student the basics of syncopated pedaling, the teacher's best help "can be to remind and re-remind the student to hear what he plays." Last (1960) shares similar views on the importance of careful listening. As Grasty-Jones (1988) points out, effective use of the damper pedal de mands aural skills that should be cultivated beginning with a child's first experiences at the piano. Bacon (1963)

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39 believes that nothing reveals a pianist's capacity to hear himself more than pedaling. Everything that is played, according to Friskin (1921), should constitute an exercise in ear training. Introducing the Pedals Several different views exist on when and how to in troduce pedaling to students. In the following sections, some of the prevailing beliefs on this topic are presented. When to Introduce the Pedals The teaching of pedaling is frequently withheld until after the student has acquired a proficient keyboard tech nique. Many teachers are afraid of allowing young students to use the pedal at all because they believe that pedaling will only create unmusical blurs. According to Marsh (1987), this is usually because the teachers themselves are uncertain about the proper training techniques to use to teach beginning students the correct use of the pedals. Many writers lament this situation (Anson, 1966; Bacon, 1963; Bernstein, 1981; Ching, 1930; Marsh, 1987) and believe that pedaling technique should be taught along with keyboard technique. If the student learns early to use the pedals, he or she will learn that there is nothing mysteri ous about using them and pedaling will gradually become a natural habit (Ching, 1930; Marsh, 1987; Riefling, 1962).

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40 As Marsh points out, very young students (whose reflexes are often quicker than those of older people) usually have little trouble in learning to pedal. According to Anson (1966), young pianists should begin using the pedals im mediately so that they can become a constantly functioning part of the player's entire mechanism, along with the eyes, ears, muscles, heart, and head. The right pedal should be used at the first lesson, and the others added as soon as possible. Gieseking (1930, p. 40), however, advises studying "foot technique with the greatest accuracy" only after the pianist has acquired enough technique to interpret a compo sition fairly well. Ferguson (1969) believes that with the exception of children and beginners, pedaling should be practiced form the beginning of the study of a work as an integral part of the piece, not added later as a separate ingredient. Beginners are also advised by Riefling (1962) to avoid using the pedal unless they are sufficiently musical and gifted, and are capable of listening to them selves. Still others believe that pedaling should not be introduced until after a good finger legato has been achieved. Bastien (1988) states that the correct use of the pedal may be taught late in the second year or early in the third year, whenever the child's foot is able to reach the

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41 floor and a correct seated position can be maintained. Prior to this, he recommends using the pedal at the end of a piece, with chords, and in hand over hand arpeggios to satisfy the child's eagerness to pedal. Last (1963) also believes that pedaling can be introduced when the student has reached approximately grade two or three, but that no hard and fast rules can be made. According to Agay (1981, p. 19), the student should be able to meet certain physical and musical prerequisites before being confronted with the challenge of pedaling. These include the ability to: (1) reach the damper pedal without sacrificing correct posture, (2) read notes quite fluently, (3) coordinate hand and foot work, and (4) some familiarity with basic theory and harmony. In his chapter on pedaling, Booth (1971, p. 98) con cludes that the answer to the question of when pedaling should be taught is "as early as possible, but as seldom as possible." Several teachers warn against abusing the una corda pedal as a crutch, saying that it is preferable to rely on touch quality created by the fingers rather than the feet (Sandor, 1981). Whiteside (1961) believes that the una corda pedal is of very little value when used only for playing more softly and that it should be used more as a violinist uses a mute.

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42 Bernstein (1981) speaks of a guilt shared by many pianists in using the pedals for fear of becoming dependent upon them in playing legato and playing softly. He recom mends using both pedals from the beginning in learning a new piece, since their use is indispensable in enhancing skills that have been learned previously and in creating coloristic effects. As Grasty-Jones (1988) points out, most students will have access to a piano with both a damper pedal and an una corda pedal, but not many students will be fortunate enough to have grand pianos equipped with sostenuto pedals. In addition, since the sostenuto pedal often functions im properly if it works at all, she suggests that students not only be taught how to use the sostenuto pedal, but also to find alternative ways of pedaling that utilize the damper pedal. Petsch (1966) concludes that the decision of when to use this pedal obviously lies with the pianist. How to Introduce the Pedals Werder (1978) presents exercises for introducing the damper pedal that are geared toward students at four different levels of ability. Since the pedal is rarely used by young beginning students (because their legs are often too short), he suggests that students at the most elementary level depress the pedal only after the final chord of a piece has been played. Providing that the

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43 student is able to reach the pedals and maintain a correct seated position and body alignment, depressing the peda l at this point can be a good introduction to syncopated pedal ing. A student at the second level is capable of under standing the mechanical side of the damper pedal along with syncopated pedaling. Werder suggests playing single notes and counting in duple or triple meter to teach the timing involved in syncopated pedaling at this level. The pedal is released as the new note sounds. Third-level students practice delaying the timing in syncopated pedaling, so that the pedal is depressed after the new note sounds. At the fourth level, pedaling is used within musical compositions. Ching (1930) believes that the use of the pedal de pends almost entirely upon the harmonic structure of the music and, therefore, no knowledge of the pedal is of any practical value without some understanding of the general principles of harmony and chord formation. He advocates beginning the study of pedaling with basic principles of theory and types of chord formations. From there he com pares pedaling chord inversions and chord changes, and refers to different levels of acceptable pedal blurs in reference to stylistic considerations. The art of pedal ing, according to Sandor (1981), hinges on the ability to blend harmonics with discretion.

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44 Gieseking (1938, p. 48) recommends beginning the study of pedaling by teaching a correct seated position. Next, the student can practice "time treading" and syncopated pedaling by studying suitable passages before working our the pedal in musical compositions. As a recommended ex ercise he suggests depressing the pedal in advance of the notes that are played. Seroff (1977) believes that pianists should familiar ize themselves first with the piano as an instrument. He feels that this is the most natural way to begin and that every other instrumentalist follows this procedure except pianists: The pianist practices and accomplishes, and at the end of perhaps twenty years finds himself dumfounded at a child's questions of 'How do you make music on this box?' I have yet to meet either pupil or teacher who devoted his first lesson to these fundamental questions, which should be the basis of good piano playing. (Seroff, 1977, p. 2) Agay (1981) and Enoch (1977) also suggest that the first lesson in pedal include an examination of the pedal's damper mechanism. They further suggest that the student be taught to position the right foot correctly and to operate the damper pedal silently. According to Agay, pedaling should be studied at a comfortable and deliberate pace. He feels that it is not advisable to introduce new aspects of pedaling at each lesson, or to have the student learn special pedaling exercises at each consecutive lesson.

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45 Last (1960) suggests demonstrating the vibration of strings to students by such simple methods as depressing the pedal and yelling into the piano, a technique that seems sure to get the students' attention. She also suggests teaching students to treat the pedal as a very sensitive mechanism and to learn the feel of the up-down motions of the foot along with correct placement of the feet on the pedals. She suggests testing for this feel on all instruments before any performance. In her subsequent book on pedaling, Last (1963) recom mends that students first understand the function of the damper pedal and then practice pedaling technique away from the keyboard. She mentions the correct positioning of the foot and stresses the importance of listening. Suggested exercises in pedaling include those in which the teacher plays while the pupil pedals. According to Booth (1971), the very first lesson in the use of the pedal should demonstrate to the student that the less movement made by the foot (either up or down), the better the possibility of achieving sensitive results. The student should also be taught that the sole of the right foot always rests on the pedal and should never lose con tact with it. Booth refers to this manner of pedaling as "invisible" pedaling (1971, p. 94). Correct pedaling involves the use of natural tension in that the resistance offered by the pedal must be met by

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46 contracting the muscles in the leg and foot (Bernstein, 1981). Therefore, Bernstein recommends beginning the study of pedaling by considering the posture of the feet and the feel of pedal resistance. He suggests an exercise in which the student places the right foot on the damper pedal and the toes of the left foot over the right. A downward pres sure from the left toes as the pedal is activated exercises a braking control and prevents the dampers from slapping against the strings. Before any pedal is used Anson (1966) suggests that the teacher explain its use, demonstrate what h appens with the piano mechanism, and illustrate the sounds which then result. Teaching Techniques for the Damper Pedal The easiest use of the damper pedal involves sustain ing the same chord for a period of time. The notes and pedal are then released simultaneously. Pedaling in this way is sometimes referred to as "direct pedaling." Ching (1930) refers to this use of the pedal as a preparation for legato pedaling. Until the beginner knows exactly how to coordinate pedaling, Marsh (1987) believes that it is extremely im portant for the teacher to mark precisely even the simplest pedaling suggestions in everything that is used for pedal practice. Marsh feels that in the early training years the

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student needs the visual help of such markings at all times. Activating the Damper Pedal 47 Several books and articles refer to the manner in which the damper pedal is depressed and released. The damper pedal may be depressed either before, with, or after the notes are played. It may be released either with the notes or delayed by varying degrees. As mentioned earlier, rhythmic pedaling, or depressing the damper pedal simultaneously with the notes that are played, was originally considered the accepted method of pedaling. Today simultaneous pedaling is more likely to be regarded as the exception to the rule. Releasing the dam per pedal in an appropriate manner is given more prominent attention in the various writings, and it is widely con sidered to be of more importance than how or when it is depressed. "The rule 'play first, pedal afterwards' is of permanent and universal validity, but like all rules, it has its exceptions" (Kentner, 1976, p. 72). Ching (1930) provides a series of exercises based on a single chord followed by musical examples to illustrate this concept. Hamilton (1927) states that the pedal should always be depressed to its full extent by a quick downward movement made from the ankle joint and released by relaxing the pressure as suddenly as it was applied. According to

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Hamilton, it is a safe rule to depress the pedal after sounding the note except when the note is very short or stands alone. 48 The belief that the pedal should be either completely down or completely up is also shared by Gebhard (1963). According to Gebhard, the pedal is activated by a relaxed, noiseless motion from the ankle. It is always pressed down, and never struck by the foot. Grasty-Jones (1988) believes students should learn that pedaling to the floor is unnecessary. Placing only the big toe on the pedal rather than the entire ball of the foot helps to control the weight of the foot and eliminate blurring. She further suggests that as students gain more control of the damper pedal, they can experiment with degrees of pedal and find out how little pedal is needed to sustain tones. Booth (1971) describes the "why and wherefore" of all pedal technique as a summation of two basic movements: de pressing the pedal and releasing it. He further believes the point at which the pedal is released is more important than when or how it is depressed, which is a view also shared by Last (1960) and Lindquist (1966). Booth gives six exercises for teaching the student to correctly activate the damper pedal.

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49 Legato Pedaling Legato pedaling is one of the most frequent uses of the pedal and is the one most often introduced first. It is also the form of pedaling that is frequently taught "to the total exclusion of every other type" (Booth, 1971, p. 101). Because legato pedaling involves syncopated timing between depressing and releasing the keys and ac tivating the pedal, preparatory exercises and sometimes suggested prior to introducing this technique. Agay (1981) suggests teaching the syncopated element of timing by having the student play single chords and depress and release the pedal while counting in a very slow quadruple meter. Ching (1930) has the student practice rhythmical foot movements away from the piano while counting. He then combines foot movement with arm movements varying the height that the arm is dropped and the portion of the arm that is being used. He also provides musical illustrations of legato pedaling. Ching believes that two things must be considered in legato pedaling: the pitch or range of the keyboard in which the passage is played, and the dynamic level. The louder the tone and the lower the pitch, the longer the damper pedal must be allowed to dampen the sounds between the chords. He provides an interesting exercise comprised of cadence chords played in different

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registers and at different dynamic levels to illustrate this point. 50 Hamilton (1927) suggests an exercise for developing legato pedaling that consists of playing a series of as cending notes with one finger and coordinating the timing of the pedal while counting. Pasquet (1981) recommends playing the C major scale very slowly with one finger while saying the words "up" and "down" to acquire the element of timing. After the student has learned a legato pedal technique in conjunction with playing a series of slow chords, Marsh (1987) suggests that Hanon exercises be used as a second step in early pedal training. He believes that Hanon is useful in training students to create a legato quality in running passages. To avoid blurring the pedal, Marsh suggests that the student first be able to play the exer cises at a tempo of at least 92 per quarter note. The procedures he suggests for pedaling the exercises in Hanon differ according to the meter and tempo of the exercise that is played. The exercises in the first book of Hanon (all in 2/4 time), can be pedaled by depressing the pedal immediately after the first beat and lifting it exactly on the second beat of the measure. For those exercises in the second book (all in 4/4 time), the pedal can be depressed immediately after the first and third beats, and raised

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51 exactly on the second and fourth beats. At a metronome marking of 120 or above, Marsh suggests that the pedal should be depressed after the first beat but not raised until the third beat. At speeds of 152 or above, the pedal can be depressed for an entire measure, resulting in as many as sixteen notes in a single pedal. Pedaling in this manner is one form of accent pedal ing, whereby the lift of the pedal produces an automatic accent. Marsh (1987, p. 50) refers to this type of accent pedaling as "clipping," because releasing the pedal exactly as the note is played "clips" the tone and creates a rhyth mic pulse. Seroff (1977) recommends a listening experiment with the damper pedal to illustrate two distinct tone qualities. In the first illustration, the student is asked to play a note and to depress the damper pedal while holding the note down. Then the student is asked to repeat the process but to lift the finger from the key as soon as the pedal is depressed. Although the note is sustained by the pedal in both examples, if the key is released while the pedal is held, it allows the hammer to fall all the way back to its starting position. This creates a wider range of vibration of the strings and enhances the quality of the tone. When the key is held down, the hammer only partially returns to its original position. Seroff believes that this illustra tion is useful in indicating to the student that the fin

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52 gers do not always need to hold on to the notes when using the damper pedal. Bernstein (1981) recommends lifting the fingers for another reason. Freeing the fingers from a finger legato and connecting instead with the damper pedal enables the pianist to control the exact dynamic level of each note. This is useful if strain or discomfort prevents those pianists with small hands from controlling the contour of the dynamics~ Although he states that some pianists regard the practice of relying on the pedal for legato instead of the fingers as an anathema, he points out that some of the greatest pianists indulge in this practice. Anson (1966) has the student play scales with the third finger alone while playing and pedaling in various meters. He suggests experimenting with the length of time the pedal remain depressed. Before the student attempts legato pedaling, Dumesnil (1958) recommends five preparatory exercises to acquire a syncopated motion between the hands and foot. These are done while counting away from the piano. Farjeon (1923) recommends an exercise to be played first with finger legato and then with the third finger alone while the pedal connects the notes. He suggests varying the tempo and, when playing fast, to pull up suddenly from the note to assure that the sound is clean.

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53 Additional Pedaling Techniques A number of writers discuss additional uses of the damper pedal as well as the sostenuto and una corda pedals but mostly from the standpoint of musical style. In his book on pedaling, Banowetz (1985) includes some pedagogical suggestions for various techniques for the use of the three pedals and examples of how to pedal specific works of selected composers. In earlier writings on the subject Banowetz (1981) also relates pedaling techniques and peda gogical suggestions to musical examples and stylistic con siderations. Farjeon (1923) provides examples for the various uses of the pedals, including a number of exercises and studies. The only way to distinguish between the various de grees of partial pedaling, according to Schnabel (1954), is through critical listening. He suggests three exercises or teaching the various positions of the damper pedal in relation to the degree of released sound. To test whether a certain position of the pedal produces the effect of a quarter pedal or 25 percent of released sound, Schnabel suggests playing a scale with the pedal slightly depressed and listening to determine that no blurring occurs. To test for half pedal or 50 percent of released sound, staccato notes should be played first without the pedal and then with the pedal depressed slightly so that some blur

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54 ring occurs. To test for three-quarters pedal or a 75 percent of released sound, a chord should continue to sound when the pedal is partially depressed. However, the sound should not be as resonant as when full pedaling is used. Schnabel also describes three means of partial pedaling to achieve a decrease in the dynamic level of a sustained chord. Pedaling for color has been described by some as the least understood of the uses of the pedal. Slenczynska (1969) describes several uses of the damper pedal for color in Prokofieff's Visions Fugitives, Opus 22. Ching (1930) introduces this technique by explaining sympathetic vibra tion through the overtone series and then illustrates its use through musical examples. He treats staccato pedaling as a form of pedaling for color, which he introduces by playing chords and listening to the pedal release. He also provides an exercise for half pedaling. A comparison between dry and liquid staccato and dry and liquid portamento is made by Gebhard (1963) to illus trate the difference between notes that are pedaled and those that are not. Sostenuto Pedaling Randlett (1967) describes more advanced means of em ploying the sostenuto pedal through a process of control ling the level of the dampers of the unwanted tones. He

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55 provides step-by-step procedures to achieve this effect in musical examples. Fetsch (1966) provides a sequence of steps that should be observed when using the sostenuto pedal and illustrates them through musical examples. He also provides examples for the simultaneous use of all three pedals. Una Corda Pedaling Graham (1963) believes that the teacher should be the one to show the student when to use the~ corda pedal; consequently, he does not provide markings for this pedal in his pedal exercise book. Bilson (1982) recommends using the una corda pedal as a voicing tool for a defense against a piano with heavy grooves in the hammers. He suggests depressing this pedal partially to avoid the tinny sound that sometimes occurs. Pedal Exercise Books A few pedal exercise books have been published, some of which are now out of print. The authors include Anson (1966); Farjeon (1923); Graham (1963); Last (1963); Miro vitch (1954); Styron and Stevens (1964); and Podolsky, Davison, and Schaub (1966). These books present various approaches to introducing pedaling to the student. For instance, in his volume on pedaling, Mirovitch (1954) il lustrates the role and function of the damper pedal in

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56 piano repertoire. Graham (1963) employs a series of original compositions to introduce pedal plans which are markings for basic legato pedaling. One piece employs the sostenuto pedal in combination with the damper pedal. Last (1963) first presents exercises in which the teacher plays and the pupil listens. After the pupil is able to play and pedal, she introduces legato pedaling, rhythmic pedaling, and staccato pedaling. Anson (1966) states that nothing seems more futile than the usual preliminary pedaling exercises in which the student activates the pedal while counting but does not depress the keys. He introduces legato pedaling, harmonic and melodic pedaling, and illustrates various uses of the three pedals through short pieces. Included are pedaling for color, pedal blurring, accent pedaling, and pedaling grace notes. One piece is provided for una corda pedaling and another for sostenuto pedaling. Introduction of the Pedals in Piano Methods Books The introduction of pedaling into current piano methods books, especially those frequently used in the United States, was examined to provide insight into when and how pedaling was introduced to students and what types of pedaling techniques were employed. The United States has produced more method books than any other country (Bastien, 1988). When seen on display at

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57 a major music store, the number of methods is overwhelming. Therefore, only a few of the more frequently used methods are examined for their treatment of the pedals. The following charts indicate how and when the damper pedal and una corda pedals are introduced, whether or not preliminary exercises are included, and the pedaling tech niques that are employed. The various means of introducing the pedals include: (1) photographs, drawings, illustra tions, and markings in the music--none of which contain explanations, (2) abbreviated descriptions of the three pedals, (3) brief explanations of pedaling techniques, and (4) various introductory exercises. Some methods present the concepts of a pedaling tech nique first, without reference to actual playing. Others indicate the use of the pedal without verbal explanations. In some, the pedal markings simply appear without prior introduction. Additional methods were examined as well, and similar instances were found to apply. A wide diversity was found to exist in the continuity of pedaling concepts presented in the various methods. A divergence was found as well in the consistency with which pedaling was employed once the concept had been introduced. In general, the concept of pedaling did not appear to re ceive a high priority; neither did pedaling appear to be an inegral part of the pedagogical sequence of the instruc tional materials.

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58 Method H ow Book Pedal Exercises Technique Aaron Photos 2 Damper No Syncopated Piano Course (1945) Alfred Illus1-B Damper No Legato Basic tration, 3 No Syncopated Library W o rds 6 No Finger (1984) Alfr e d I l lus2 Damper Yes Legato Creatin g t ration 3 Yes Syncopated Music (1972) Bastien Illus1 Damper No Legato Pian o tration 4 Yes Overlapping Basics (1985) Bastien Without 1 Damper No Legato Piano playing 4 Yes Overlapping Library (1976 ) Bastien (No pedal is used) Very Y o ung Pianist (1970 ) Clark, Picture B Damper No Direct Goss Look & Listen (1962 ) Clark, Drawing B Damper No Simultaneous Goss Music Tree (1973) Figure 2-1 Introduction of the Pedals into Piano Methods Books

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59 Method How Book Pedal Exercises Technique Fletcher Expla2 Damper Yes Pre-ped Piano nation Syncopated Course (1973) Gilbert In the 2 Damper No Direct Music music for Everyone (1978) Glover, Drawing, 1 Damper No Direct Garrow Sentence Piano Student Reintro2 No ( 1967) duced Glover, In the P* Damper & No Syncopated Stewart music Una Corda depression ----Method for Without 1 Damper & No Piano playing 2 Una Corda ----(1988) Medley Expla1 Damper Yes Syncopated Way nation (1981) Noona Illus2 Damper Yes Syncopated Gifted tration Una Corda ----Pianist (1986) Olson, Expla1-C Damper No Direct et al. nation Music Pathways (1974) Figure 2-1--continued Primer level

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60 Method How Book Pedal Exercises Technique Pace Brief 2 Damper No Leg:ato Music expla3 No Overlapping for nation Piano No ex6 No Non-tradition(1981) planation al notation Royal In the 1 Damper No Syncopated Consermusic vatory (1975 ) Schaum Without B Damper Y es Pedal in Piano playing rhythm Course ( 1945) E Una Corda No --Thompson Illus2 All 3 Yes Syncopated Modern tration (Damper) Piano Course No ex3 Una Corda No --(1937) planation Waxman In the InDamper No Syncopated Pageants music tro ( 1959) Figure 2-1--continued Most of the methods that were examined did introduce the damper pedal, some used the una corda pedal either alone or in combination with the damper pedal, but none included examples for the use of the sostenuto pedal. However, these method books are for beginning piano students, and sostenuto pedaling generally is not required until more advanced levels have been attained.

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CHAPTER 3 PEDAGOGICAL MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES The pedals on the piano can be used in numerous ways and for a variety of musical purposes. For example, in his treatise on pedaling ("The Pianist's Guide to Pedaling"), Banowetz (1985) describes twelve distinct techniques for the damper pedal alone, plus additional techniques for each of the other two pedals either alone or in combination with other pedals. This study has developed a pedagogical approach for each of the techniques discussed by Banowetz. In addition, it presents four techniques not discussed i n Banowetz's treatise on pedaling. Composition of the Units Overview Twenty instructional units were developed, one for each of the pedaling techniques. Each unit includes a step-by-step guide to the teaching of a pedaling technique, as well as other useful related information. One addi tional unit was developed dealing with the pedagogical sequence for introducing each pedaling concept. These units form a comprehensive and systematic program of study 61

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62 to help teachers teach their students to utilize the three pedals of the piano correctly and effectively. The units for the teaching of each pedaling technique focus on pedagogical matters, with stylistic and notational considerations mentioned when appropriate. They describe the particular stage in a student's development at which he or she can best be taught each technique. Format and Content Each of the first twenty teaching units consists of the following format: (1) description of the technique, (2) application, (3) teaching procedures, (4) teaching ex amples, and (5) appropriate exercises. Various concepts are presented within each category according to the nature of the technique described in that particular unit. Before students can learn to pedal effectively, they need to understand: (1) why pedaling is necessary, and (2) how the mechanism of each pedal operates. The teaching units also address these considerations. Each unit begins with a description of the individual pedaling technique that defines relevant terminology, de scribes the mechanical operation of the pedal as it is em ployed in the technique, and discusses the effect that the activation and release of the pedal have upon the dampers. The section concerned with the application of the technique describes the function of the technique in

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63 playing the piano and how it is accomplished. Suggestions for implementing the various pedaling techniques into the repertoire address the matters of how and when to employ a technique. By developing a stylistic awareness the student will be better able to apply each technique in an appro priate musical way. The section on teaching procedures describes the necessary prerequisite knowledge and skills required for a student to learn each particular pedaling technique. A student should possess appropriate physical development, hand and foot coordination, and the ability to position the body properly. In addition, students need to have suffi cient musical maturity to convey the intent of the music and a desire to learn. In general, these prerequisite conditions should be met before a student is taught the intracacies of piano pedaling techniques. Some similarities and overlap exist in the teaching sequence for several of the teaching units, because each unit was designed to stand on its own for review purposes by the expert evaluators. Teaching examples of each technique are described and presented in an increasing order of difficulty. A step-by step process for executing the pedaling technique is pro vided for each example. Additional exercises derived from musical examples are suggested that may be used to train the foot and develop

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64 specific techniques. Suggestions for contending with limi tations imposed by improperly functioning pedal mechanisms are presented as well. The twenty-first unit develops a systematic sequence for implementing the first twenty pedaling units. From a pedagogical standpoint, it is not always advisable or practical to introduce the simplest pedaling techniques first since the student may not encounter some of the tech niques until after certain levels of technical mastery have been achieved. Together the twenty-one units form a systematic peda gogical study of the three pedals of the piano. Procedures for Developing the Units The techniques and sequence suggested in the units are a synthesis of available writings on pedaling and the examination of the introduction of pedaling in various piano method books, as well as the result of many years of experimentation by the researcher. Standard teaching repertoire was examined to determine when a student will be most likely to encounter pieces that utilize various pedaling skills. Exercise books on pedaling were also examined to determine their effectiveness in aiding the development of each technique.

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65 Teaching Unit 1: Legato Pedaling Description of Technique Legato pedaling is also known as basic pedaling, syncopated pedaling, or following pedaling. It is the most fundamental of all pedaling techniques, and it is the one most commonly used. Its name is derived from the smooth legato connection of two or more successive notes or chords. The term "pedaling" is frequently used in a general sense to refer to this technique. The damper pedal has three primary functions: (1) to connect tones that cannot be held by the fingers alone, (2) to prolong the sound, and (3) to add color. Legato pedaling is concerned primarily with the first function. Numerous variations of legato pedaling are possible. In the simplest and most basic use of this technique legato pedaling involves the full retention of sound between two tones or chords. It is accomplished by fully depressing the damper pedal so that the dampers are completely raised from the strings. The pedal is released when the second chord or tones are played, allowing the two notes or chords to sound connected. Depressing the pedal in this manner permits the pedal to descend to its maximum depth which is referred to as full pedal. Legato pedaling employs the concept of full pedaling but carries its use one step further by applying

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66 it to the actual connection of tones. Therefore, legato pedaling differs from full pedal by incorporating the element of timing. The importance placed on timing in legato pedaling is reflected in the alternative names for this technique: syncopated pedaling and following pedaling. Legato pedaling involves timing the activation and release of the damper pedal in coordination with depressing the keys on the piano. This requires timing the (1) descent of the pedal, (2) release of the pedal, and (3) reactivaton of the pedal. The amount of time allowed between depressing the keys and activation and release of the pedal permits a great variety of choice. As a result, many shadings of tone color and effect are possible. These differences are subtle and their use depends on certain stylistic factors, as well as the pianist's own preference and skill. Vari ations on basic legato pedaling are covered in other units such as those on legatissimo pedaling, portato pedaling, and pre-pedaling. Legato pedaling may be diagrammed as indicated on the following page. This example illustrates a number of ways in which the pedal may be used to achieve a legato connec tion of the notes. The amount of elapsed time between the pedal changes is approximate and somewhat flexible.

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Example A: Beethoven Variations on a Waltz Theme by Diabelli nt,~J J 1Jr d r r r r ' I I I L..-L.......J"---'"--'Lo-. _, '-'- U-Y '-'-' '67 Employing legato pedaling in this manner will permit the notes to be connected smoothly and cleanly together with no blurring from one harmony to the next and with no break in the continuity of sound. Application When Playing Legato pedaling is usually taught before other pedal ing techniques are learned. Unfortunately, often it is the only pedaling technique taught and the only one that is regularly employed. While it is not easy to execute cor rectly, it demands less skill and coordination than many of the other uses of the damper pedal. For this reason, the temptation is to use it before the requisite knowledge and skills for developing good pedaling techniques have been sufficiently mastered by the student. Teaching Procedures Preliminary skills. It is important for the student to learn correct body alignment and the proper positioning

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68 of the feet in relation to the pedals before the pedals are used. To position the body properly, adjust the height and distance of the bench from the keyboard. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Sit on the front half of the bench with both feet resting on the floor. Place the right hand on the keyboard. The forearm should be basically level, and the elbow should come either to the side of the body or just slightly in front. When these adjustments have been made, rest both hands in the lap. 2. Place the ball of the right foot on the damper pedal and the heel on the floor. The foot should be posi tioned directly in line with the damper pedal so that the heel is not turned to either side. Ask the student to stand without using the hands or moving the feet. If this is not possible, adjust the placement of the left foot. Generally the left foot will need to be positioned closer to the bench so that the weight rests a little more on the ball of the foot. A correct seating position has been attained when the student can sit and stand comfortably without moving either the hands or the feet. The body is then free to move in either direction. Have the student experiment with depressing and releasing the damper pedal silently. It is important that the foot maintains contact with the pedal and the heel

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69 rests on the floor throughout. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Position the right foot on the damper pedal. 2. Slowly depress the pedal by placing weight on the ball of the foot behind the toes. Keep the heel on the floor. 3. Relax the foot and let the pedal rise. Keep the toes on the pedal. Preparatory exercises. The syncopated activation and release of the damper pedal can be a difficult concept for the student to grasp all at once. Have the student experi ment first with depressing the damper pedal in this manner. A simple broken chord pattern or hand over hand arpeggio can be used. Ask the student to 1. Play the first note of the arpeggio and hold it with the finger. 2. Depress the damper pedal. 3. Continue to play the arpeggio while the damper pedal remains depressed. Release the pedal at the conclu sion of the arpeggio. When the damper pedal is employed in this manner, the tones are sustained as long as the pedal remains depressed. The student is concerned only with activating the pedal and releasing it when pedaling is no longer desired. Timing is not a consideration. This preparatory use of the pedal is sometimes referred to as "direct" pedaling.

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70 One of the more critical elements in training a pianist to pedal correctly is to train the ear to listen carefully to the sounds that are produced when the pedal is used. One exercise in listening and timing the activation of the damper pedal involves both teacher and student. The teacher begins by playing a series of chords very slowly while the student adds the pedal. Ask the student to 1. Depress the damper pedal immediately after the first chord is played by the teacher. 2. Lift the pedal after the next chord is played to clear the sound, then redepress the pedal. 3. Continue pedaling in this manner while the teacher increases the relative tempo of the chord changes. Teaching procedures for legato pedaling. In order to connect two tones or chords in a clean legato manner using the damper pedal, the following procedures are recommended. Ask the student to 1. Play the first chord. While holding the notes on the keyboard, fully depress the damper pedal. 2. Play the second chord. While holding the notes on the keyboard, lift the pedal. 3. Redepress the pedal. 4. Listen to the second chord. The harmony should now sound clean, without any retention of tones from the first chord, because the dampers should have completely stopped the sound of the first chord after the second chord

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71 is played. The chords will sound clean if the damper pedal is fully released. 5. Repeat the preceding procedures until the student achieves the coordination between foot and hands and can also produce a clean connection of the tones. Before going on to the next step, have the student practice until the time required between playing the two chords and pedaling can be shortened. Then ask the student to do the following: 1. Play the first chord again and catch it with the pedal. 2. Play the second chord, and at the same time lift the pedal. Let the pedal come up to meet the chord. 3. Listen this time not only for a clean sound, but also for a smooth, unbroken connection between both chords. While still holding the notes on the keyboard, ask the student to 4. Depress the pedal once more. 5. Listen again to be sure that the chord sounds clean. The new change of pedal should not retain any sounds from the first chord. If the harmony is at all blurred, this is an indication that the pedal was not fully released at the time the second chord was played. This condition does not allow the dampers to be completely raised from the strings but causes them to remain par

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72 tially in contact with them. It also does not permit the sound of the first chord to be completely stopped. 6. Repeat the above five procedures for each new chord. Teaching Examples Legato pedaling may be tested in the following examples: Example B: Schumann Choral from Album for the Young Example C: Bach Chorale Prelude in F No. 234, "Gott lebet noch"

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! Example b: Tobias Matthay Pedaling Exercise Andante Rhythm of pedal 73 A more advanced example of the same concept involves delaying the timing of the damper pedal to avoid blurring the notes in the right hand. The example below illustrates this very syncopated use of the pedal to achieve legato pedaling. Example E: Handel Sarabande Grave Variation 2 ,. u ;-f I I .; I ;: I I I u L_J u I q-6I ;: r I I L....J u L

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74 Teaching Unit 2: Legatissimo Pedaling Description of Technique Legatissimo pedaling, also known as super legato pedaling, derives its name from the Italian term meaning that the tones should be very smoothly connected. In this type of pedaling, the sounds from one chord to the next are allowed to blur momentarily together before they are cleared, creating an overlap of sound. This is accom plished by delaying the release of the damper pedal between changes of harmony so that the dampers remain above the strings as the new harmony is sounded. Legatissimo pedaling is a type of legato pedaling. By varying the amount of time between lifting and depressing the damper pedal, many different effects and shadings of color can be created. An illustration of approximate rhythms created by changes of the damper pedal that can produce nearly identical legato connections of chords is given below. The different pedal markings produce a difference in the amount of richness of sound, which is determined by the amount of time the pedal remains de pressed. The longer the pedal is depressed, the fuller the sound created by the surrounding partials. As the pedal is released for longer periods of time, the surrounding par tials will be progressively diminished and the richness of sound will decrease.

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75 Approximate rhythms created by changes of the pedal in using legato pedaling can be shown as follows: Example A: Beethoven Variations on a Waltz Theme by Diabelli f :,p?j J I J. ; r r r r ' ' L..-..11 '---''---' L-. _, L..I _, L-1-' L-1-' The same principle can be applied to changes of the pedal in legatissimo pedaling. The difference, however, is a shift in the emphasis of thinking. Whereas in legato pedaling the emphasis is placed on depressing the damper pedal, in legatissimo pedaling the emphasis is placed on releasing it. Therefore, in a comparison of the two dia grams of the Beethoven Variations, it becomes apparent that the concern for the pianist is not in varying the amount of time allowed before activating the pedal after a chord is played, but rather with varying the amount of time that the damper pedal is allowed to remain depressed after the chord has been played and before the pedal is released.

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Example B: Beethoven Variations on a Waltz Theme by Diabelli P. Ll I I J. r Application When Playing 76 The exact amount of time allowed between changing the pedal in any form of legato pedaling depends on stylistic factors and the desire for color in a given passage. Legatissimo pedaling is often used to portray special effects such as atmospheric sonority, and smooth, unbroken transitions of sound. When properly employed, legatissimo pedaling can create the effect of one harmony growing out of another. There are no sharp tonal attacks and no breaks in the continuity of sound. Although the desired effect is one of continuous sound, if carried to an extreme, legatissimo pedaling can create an unmusical blur of sound and obliterate the har monies entirely. Careful listening is required to prevent this from happening and also to regulate the amount of overlap permitted between the chords. Teaching Procedures Preparatory exercises. Because legatissimo pedaling is derived from legato pedaling, it is necessary for a

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77 student to be thoroughly familiar with the concept of legato pedaling before this technique can be successfully taught. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Play a chord on the piano. While holding the notes fully depress the damper pedal. 2. Play a second chord, and while holding the notes lift the pedal. 3. Listen to the second chord. The harmony should sound clean, without any carry-over from the first chord. The dampers should have completely stopped the sound of the first chord after the second chord is played. The music will sound clean if the damper pedal is fully released. 4. Repeat the above procedures until the student is comfortable with the coordination between foot and hands and can produce a clean connection of the tones. Before going on to the next step, have the student practice until the time required between playing the two chords and pedaling is reduced. 5. Play the first chord again and catch it with the pedal. Then play the second chord while lifting the pedal. Listen not only for a clean sound, but also for a smooth, unbroken connection between both chords. 6. While still holding the notes on the keyboard, depress the pedal once more. Listen again to be sure that the chord sounds clean and the new change of pedal does not retain any notes of the first chord. If the harmony is at

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78 all blurred, this is an indication that the pedal was not fully released at the time the second chord was played, preventing the dampers from being raised completely from the strings so that the sound of the first chord is cleared. 7. Repeat the last two procedures for each new chord that is to be played using legato pedaling. Legatissimo pedaling. The procedures for teaching legatissimo pedaling are similar to those given above, except that a slight blurring of the harmonies should be heard. This is due to the momentary delay in lifting the damper pedal after each new harmony. Although the pedal release is delayed, it must not be done in a haphazard manner. Have the student count while learning this technique. Ask the student to 1. Play the first chord. Then, while holding the notes, fully depress the damper pedal. 2. Play the second chord and keep the pedal de pressed. The resulting blur will be offensive to a sensitive ear. Clear the pedal while still holding the notes on the keyboard. 3. Repeat the above procedures while counting so that the pedal will be released exactly at a predetermined point. Play the first chord on the first count. On the second count depress the damper pedal. Continue holding through the third and fourth counts. At the return of the

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i 79 first count, play the chord again. Change the pedal on the second count. Aside from stylistic and artistic considerations, the actual time allowed between playing the chord and changing the pedal is a matter of personal choice. This choice is influenced by extraneous variables such as the tonal capa bilities of the individual piano and the acoustics of the hall or room. Teaching Example One use of this technique is illustrated in the fol lowing passage. Legatissimo pedaling is used here in com bination with the una corda pedal to create the illusion of sound floating in the distance. It should seem as if the tones are suspended in time and arise out of nowhere--with no beginning and no end. Both the damper pedal and the una corda pedal should be depressed before the notes are played. Example C: Scriabin Sonata No. 1, Op. 6 """ Ped. A I\ /\ A /\_ u.c.

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80 Teaching Unit 3: Pedaling for Rhythmic Effects Description of Technique The activation and release of the damper pedal in fluences the fullness of the tone that is produced, by determining the number of partials sounding at any given moment. Therefore, a change in the basic texture of the tone occurs when the damper pedal is used. Applying pedal allows the tone to become richer and a corresponding in crease in the dynamic level can be heard. Likewise, when the pedal is suddenly released, it will cause an abrupt cessation of the surrounding partials, which diminishes the sound and makes it less full and rich. Using the pedal for rhythmic effects is another way to color the sound being produced. The pedal can be used to project both written and unwritten rhythms. The amount and type of pedaling varies according to the purpose for which it is being used. Three primary uses of the pedal to project rhythm include: (1) waltz pedal, (2) pedal as a means of accentuation, and (3) pedal release for emphasis. Application When Playing Waltz pedal. The term "waltz" pedal refers to the type of pedaling that can be applied to pieces related to dance forms. Here pedaling is used to emphasize an appro

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81 priate beat or rhythmic pulse. It can also help to bring out the character of the particular dance. Waltz pedal is often applied to pieces in triple meter. The damper pedal is usually activated in one of two ways. Either the pedal is depressed on the first beat and released on the second beat, or the pedal is depressed on both the first and third beats but is released in between on the second beat. The first type of pedaling is commonly used in waltzes, while the second, for instance, can bring out the characteristic rhythm of a mazurka. This is not to imply that other types of pedaling for such pieces do not exist, but merely to suggest an appropriate way of pedaling them. Musical examples. The following musical examples illustrate both types of waltz pedaling. Suggested pedal markings are given below each example. Example A: Chopin Grande Valse Brillante A

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82 Example B: Chopin Mazurka in D, Op. 33, No. 2 Accent pedaling. Pedaling the first beat of the measure and releasing the pedal on the second provides a lilt to the rhythm. It can emphasize the importance that these two beats play in portraying the character of the dance, and it can help project a subtle rubato between them. The typical mazurka rhythm, with its characteristic accent on the first and third beats, requires pedaling both of these beats. Pedaling as a means of accentuation, or accent pedal ing, is used to give added emphasis to notes by increasing the number of partials that sound. Pedal is often added to notes with a written accent or sforzando marking, or to passages requiring an accented, heavy non-legato touch. The use of the pedal in these situations depends partially on a combination of the tempo of the piece, the harmonic rhythm, and dynamic markings. In a fast tempo it may not be possible to pedal quickly enough to clear the

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83 notes between harmonic changes, especially if the texture is thick and the notes lie in a low register. Rapid changes of harmony can easily be obscured by too much pedaling, especially in a fast tempo and when the dynamic level is forte. Accent pedaling should be used cautiously under these conditions since it can be difficult to damp the inbetween sounds completely. In addition, pedaling is often used to accentuate a syncopated rhythm. Generally, tied syncopated notes jus tify some type of accent. After the hammer has struck the strings, the tone on the piano quickly fades away, regard less of whether or not the notes are still held. In pas sages where a syncopated rhythm is difficult to project over an extended period of time, the damper pedal may be used to sustain the feeling of a regular pulse. When the pedal is depressed, a change of color occurs in the sound, and a slight crescendo is heard, due to the sounding of sympathetic partials as the dampers are raised above the strings. Pedal release for emphasis. An accent may be achieved not only by adding pedal for emphasis but also by an exact, sudden pedal release on a note or chord. This technique is used only before a rest since a release of the pedal im plies that the sound will cease.

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84 Teaching Procedures Cautions. While applying the damper pedal is not a difficult task for a student who is already familiar with the concept of pedaling, several problems are inherent in rhythmic pedaling. In accent pedaling the dampers are lifted simultaneously with the notes or chords being played. This means that the pedal is depressed precisely as the hands play the notes on the keyboard. This type of pedaling affords the pianist the rare opportunity to keep time with the pedal. Therefore, it carries a strong temp tation for the foot to hit or stomp the pedal. Releasing the damper pedal incorrectly can also be a source of unintended error. When the damper pedal is suddenly released, the resulting silence resembles an attack of its own. Frequently, the pedal is released carelessly and is held over into the succeeding rest, creating a misplaced accent. In addition, chords that are played forte may require that the pedal be released slightly early for the sound to stop completely at the exact moment of the rest. Preparatory exercise. All types of accent pedaling require careful listening to determine when and how much pedal should be used. Therefore, the first step in learn ing this technique involves listening. Experimenting with different durations of pedaling and pedal release can help the student gain an understanding of how the pedal is used

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in these situations. First ask the student to do the following: 85 1. Begin by playing single notes or chords without using pedal. Listen to the sound as the notes are played and as the dampers mute the strings when the notes are released. 2. Play a chord and hold it, then depress the damper pedal. Notice that when the pedal is applied the following changes occur: (1) Color and richness enhance the tone, and (2) a slight swelling of sound gives the illusion of a crescendo. These changes occur because of the added par tials sounding when the dampers are fully raised from the strings. Therefore, the pedal can be useful in giving added emphasis to accented notes, important harmonies, and notes that are tied. Pedal release for emphasis. Ask the student to: 1. Play any chord on the piano and depress the pedal as the keys are played. The lifting of the dampers should be simultaneous with the sounding of each chord. 2. Release both the pedal and the hand exactly together so that the dampers mute the tones at the same moment the notes are played. To assure that the timing is exact, it can be useful to have the student count aloud. Ask the student to count one measure of 4/4 time and then:

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86 3. Play the chord and depress the pedal on the first beat; release both the chord and the pedal on the third beat. vary the dynamic level of the chords being played. The release of the pedal and chord should happen very quickly. Ask the student to notice the accent that occurs at the moment of rest. It is easier for the dampers to mute the tones com pletely when they are played softly than when they are played fortissimo. Therefore, loud passages require care ful listening and special care in releasing the pedal. It will be necessary to release the pedal a bit early--an instant before the beat, to stop the sound precisely on the rest. Teaching Example Apply the procedures suggested for pedal release to the example below. Because of the dramatic nature of this piece it is not necessary to depress the damper pedal si multaneously with each chord. Also because of the nature of the piece, the chords should not be released too quick ly. Releasing the chords too quickly will destroy the intensely dramatic character of this section. However, it is important that the silence between each chord be very rhythmic. The pedal is marked in this example so that the dampers will mute the sound exactly on the third beat.

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87 Example C: Liszt Sonata in B Minor .ttf pes a nte L"-LI l _ h .__ -'IL] l __ -"-l Teaching Unit 4: Una Corda Pedaling Description of Technique Terminology. The left pedal, or una corda pedal, is known by several names. These include the sordino, the "muting" pedal, the "shifting" pedal, and the "soft" pedal. The una corda pedal has two main functions, both of which are tonal: to enable the pianist to achieve softer dynamic levels than are possible by finger technique alone, and to produce a more mellow, less percussive sound. Activation of the una corda pedal is commonly indi cated by one of the following terms: una corda, u.c. (one string), due corde (two strings), and sordini (mutes). Other terminology include: une corde, sourdine, la pedale sourde, petite pedale (French); mit Verschiebung, mit einer Saite, mit Dampfung (German); and sordino, sul una corda, and poco a poco una corda (Italian).

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88 The release of the una corda pedal is indicated by one of the following: tre corde (three strings), tutte corde, tutte le corde, 3 cordes, ohne Verschiebung, t.c., poco a poco tre corde, poco a poco tutte le corde, and due corde. Use of both the una corda pedal and damper pedal simultaneously is indicated by the following: Ped. 1 and 2, con 2 Pedale, 2 ped., 2 Ped., due Ped., Les deux pedales, Mit beiden Pedalen, Beide Pedale, 1 due pedali, Tres enveloppe de pedales, and con sord e Ped. Operation. When the una corda pedal is depressed on a grand piano, the keyboard and the entire hammer mechanism shift slightly to the right so that on most notes the ham mers strike two strings instead of three. This produces a decrease in dynamic level as well as a change in tone qual ity. In addition, the string that is not struck vibrates sympathetically as the hammer comes in contact with the other two strings. This vibration creates partials that produce a sound completely free from percussion and that contribute to an overall veiled sonority. In a properly regulated piano, the shifting of the hammer mechanism to the right allows the hammers to strike the strings with a softer, less used portion of the felt. With use, hammer heads receive impacted grooves that coin cide with points of contact with the strings. Unless they are voiced regularly, hammers can become quite brittle and produce a harsh tone. Playing between the grooves on the

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head of the hammers produces a change in tone color that softens any harsh effect. 89 On upright pianos there is no change in tone quality when the left pedal is depressed, for no shifting action occurs. The una corda pedal merely decreases the striking distance of the hammers by moving them one half-inch closer to the strings. While this can diminish the sound, it also upsets the tonal and touch control. Consequently, there is no resemblance between this action and the true function of the una corda pedal. Its use in this capacity is not considered here. The term una corda is somewhat of a misnomer, origi nating from piano mechanisms of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. On these instruments it was possible to shift gradually from the una corda position (by fully depressing the left pedal so that the hammer struck only one string per note), to due corde (by depressing the left pedal lightly so that the hammer struck two strings per note), and finally to tre corde (by releasing the left pedal entirely, and allowing the hammer to strike all three strings per note). Beethoven often indicated una corda, due corde, and tutte corde in his scores. It is not possible to achieve a true una corda on today's concert grand pianos. Contemporary instruments do not shift quite as far to the right when the una corda pedal is depressed, and the hammers clear only the left

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90 string of each note. On some pianos, such as Besendorfer grands, the hammers continue to strike all three strings to some extent. Thus, tre corde and due corde are possible on most contemporary grand pianos, but una corda is not. Applying the una corda pedal to low bass notes pro duces a slightly different effect. Bass notes have only two strings per note while the lowest bass notes have only one string each. Consequently, their volume is reduced less by use of the una corda pedal than is the volume of notes in the upper registers. The change in volume and tone quality that occurs when the una corda pedal is ap plied to bass notes is due mainly to the shifting motion of the hammers, causing a softer portion of the felt to come in contact with the strings, and producing a more muted effect. Application When Playing Function. The una corda pedal may be used for the following purposes: (1) to color the tone, (2) to achieve echo effects, (3) to lengthen a crescendo and diminuendo, (4) to round-off slurs and phrase endings, (5) to soften an accompaniment, and (6) to increase the intensity of the tone. The una corda pedal functions in much the same way as a string player's mute. It should be used when a muted sound is desired, and when a change of tone color is

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91 appropriate in the music. One obvious use in achieving a difference in tone is to use the una corda pedal in creating a soft echo effect such as in the repetition of a short phrase. This is very effective when applied within an already quiet dynamic context. The echo effect may be extended to include longer sections; for example, the repeated sections in the various movements of keyboard suites and partitas may be played with the una corda pedal depressed. It is often said that the una corda pedal should not be activated during a diminuendo but immediately following, since a noticeable change of tone color may occur. How ever, there are many exceptions to this. One instance involves using the una corda pedal in combination with the damper pedal to extend a crescendo and diminuendo. A pianist may begin a crescendo by starting ppp with the una corda pedal depressed (but not the damper pedal), increase the volume gradually to mp where the una corda pedal is removed, and build to fff with the damper pedal. A gradual diminuendo can be accomplished the same way by applying the una corda pedal again near the end of the phrase and ending PPP as in the beginning with the una corda pedal only. The una corda pedal can be effective in shaping the endings of slurs and phrases, especially within an already soft dynamic area and when the tone quality of the piano is hard and bright. It may also be used to soften an accom

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92 paniment, thereby giving it a different tone quality from the melody. In both these uses, careful listening is re quired to assure that the change in tone quality is not too extreme for the particular piano being used. Because the una corda pedal lessens the percussive element of the tone, it can be used in playing forte. This is effective in creating different levels of intensity, especially in a piece that is basically forte throughout. For instance, different intensities of forte can be created in a multi-sectional piece by playing the first section forte with the una corda pedal depressed, the second section forte without the una corda pedal, and the third section fortissimo. Use and misuse. The role of the una corda pedal is frequently misunderstood. As a result, it is often over used or ignored completely. Many pianists use the una corda pedal as a crutch, allowing it to remain depressed throughout an entire composition. One common mistake is to "ride" the left pedal, using it whenever a piano or pianis simo occurs in the music. This usually happens as a result of nervousness. There are many reasons why it is tempting to use the una corda pedal as a crutch. The piano sounds more gentle and is easier to control in softer passages when the left pedal is applied. The una corda pedal helps to eliminate the percussive element in the sound in a way that is not

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93 possible by muscular control alone. Depressing the una corda pedal can help prevent unpleasant surprises in sonor ity during a public performance, especially when it is necessary to play on an unfamiliar and imperfect instru ment. Sometimes the una corda pedal is a pianist's only defense against improperly regulated hammers. Depressing the una corda pedal only partially down allows it to be used as an aid in voicing. This position offers an alter native to playing in the grooves that have been created in the felt by the constant hitting of the hammers on the strings. It allows the pianist to alter the tone somewhat. Cautions. Careful listening is necessary when the una corda pedal is used in this manner. Any time the una corda pedal is applied, there is the possibility that an un wanted, slightly tinny sound may occur. This is more evi dent on some pianos than on others. It can result from the hammer striking the strings both slightly in the grooves and slightly on the hardened edges of the grooves at the same time when the una corda pedal is depressed only part way down. When the pedal is fully depressed, this tinny sound can result from the hammer striking strings one and two in grooves two and three. Whenever possible, it is preferable to produce a change in tone quality through finger technique rather than by una corda pedaling. An overdependence on the una corda

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94 pedal limits the tone color that can be achieved through muscular control. Most accomplished pianists can achieve a variety of timbres and play pianissimo without relying on the una corda pedal. Once muscular control has been de veloped, dynamic and tonal capabilities can be expanded greatly when the una corda pedal is applied. The decision to use the una corda pedal is often one of personal choice. The effect of the una corda pedal varies greatly from piano to piano; therefore, its use may not always be the best musical choice, even when called for by the composer. Also, the habits and temperament of in dividual pianists vary, and some pianists are much more inclined to use this pedal than are others. Teaching Procedures Considerations. Unlike the other two pedals, the una corda pedal is almost always depressed before the note is played, not at the same time or afterwards. There are two main reasons for this. First, the hammers must be posi tioned to strike only one or two strings in advance if the una corda pedal is to be effective. Second, if notes are played while the shifting motion of the hammers occurs, a noticeable change in timbre may result, along with an unpleasant tone. The tinny sound that is produced on some pianos when the una corda pedal is activated is most noticeable in the

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95 extreme upper registers of the keyboard. The degree to which this unpleasant sound is produced may be controlled by varying the descent of the una corda pedal. Relatively new hammers will respond well to a full depression of the pedal, while those that have deeply grooved surfaces may respond best to a partial pedal depression. In either case, careful listening and control is necessary. The mechanical application of the una corda pedal is not difficult. There are no complex pedaling techniques to master that require coordination and skill. What is in volved, however, is a careful and discriminating use of the una corda pedal. The task for the teacher is not so much one of teaching a skill, but of teaching discrimination within that skill. Positioning the foot. Since the una corda pedal is depressed with the left foot, it is important to position this foot correctly before beginning to play. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Sit correctly and comfortably at the piano. Place the left foot on the floor behind the una corda pedal, and check that the body is balanced. (When activating the una corda pedal care should be taken that no extraneous or distracting motions occur, such as lunging forward.) 2. Position the left foot on the una corda pedal so that the ball of the foot rests on the surface of the pedal, and the heel rests comfortably on the floor directly

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behind the pedal. Practice gliding the foot to and from this correct position. 3. Place the right foot on the damper pedal. 96 A. Depress the una corda pedal only, while playing chords in the middle register of the keyboard using both hands. B. Keeping the una corda pedal depressed, play chords in both the extreme upper and lower registers of the keyboard. Shift the position of the heel to counterbalance the body weight. When both hands are playing at the upper end of the keyboard, angle the heel slightly to the left; when both hands are playing in the bass, angle the heel more to the right. Activating the una corda pedal. Ask the student to place the right foot on the damper pedal and the left foot on the~ corda pedal. Both feet should remain in contact with the pedals at all times. Check for this and the acti vation of the una corda pedal. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Silently depress the una corda pedal by a gentle pressure coming from the ball of the foot behind the toes. 2. Release the pedal by relaxing the foot and toes. Avoid moving the entire foot, which encourages the heel to rise and sometimes causes an audible "hitting" of the pedal to occur.

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behind the pedal. Practice gliding the foot to and from this correct position. 3. Place the right foot on the damper pedal. 96 A. Depress the una corda pedal only, while playing chords in the middle register of the keyboard using both hands. B. Keeping the una corda pedal depressed, play chords in both the extreme upper and lower registers of the keyboard. Shift the position of the heel to counterbalance the body weight. When both hands are playing at the upper end of the keyboard, angle the heel slightly to the left; when both hands are playing in the bass, angle the heel more to the right. Activating the una corda pedal. Ask the student to place the right foot on the damper pedal and the left foot on the una corda pedal. Both feet should remain in contact with the pedals at all times. Check for this and the acti vation of the una corda pedal. Ask the student to do the following:

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97 Teaching Examples Most pianists have a favorite passage that can be used to test the una corda pedal. It is important to know, be fore beginning to play, whether or not the pedal is regu lated correctly, and whether or not the hammers are voiced so that no unpleasantness of tone will occur when the una corda pedal is activated. It is also important to hear the degree to which the una corda pedal influences the tone. The following example illustrates the concept of echo pedaling. It is useful in providing a comparison between the normal tone color of the instrument and that of the una corda pedal. Since both hands move up an octave in the repetition, the student may want to shift the position of the left heel slightly to counterbalance this effect. Example A: Beethoven Sonata in Eb, Op. 31, No. 3 1 Allegro L.: iJ. A I I .... .. ~V w r pp ? .. ,_. I.. .. -....J I lL ,. V I I V ' I I u.c. tre corde u.c. The next example calls for the una corda pedal to be used in combination with the damper pedal. The full tex

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ture and wide spacing provide an opportunity to check a greater range of sound. Ask the student to: 1. Pre-pedal both the una corda and damper pedals. 98 2. Play the passage as indicated. Listen carefully to the sound that is produced to determine whether the una corda pedal should be partially or fully depressed. It may be necessary to adjust the level of the una corda pedal according to the register and dynamics. 3. Repeat this passage in the upper and lower registers of the keyboard, and at various dynamic levels. Again, listen carefully to the sound to determine the correct depth that the una corda pedal should be depressed, which may vary in the different registers. Notice whether the heel should be shifted slightly for balance in either direction. Example B: Schubert Impromptu Op. 90, No. 3 Andante "' 3. Damper ped. _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-::_~-======-=.... ---_-_-:_-_-_-:_---l-+ u.c.

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99 Teaching Unit 5: Pre-Pedaling Description of Technique Pre-pedaling refers to the activation of one or more of the pedals before depressing the notes on the keyboard. In this unit the term refers to the damper pedal alone or in combination with the una corda pedal. Pre-pedaling can be used not only in the beginning of a piece but also within a movement or section as well. Application When Playing Pre-pedaling the damper pedal allows all of the dampers to be raised fully from the strings before any keyboard sound is produced by the hands. This technique provides a number of advantages. When the dampers are fully raised, all the other strings on the piano are per mitted to vibrate sympathetically with the strings that are struck by the hammers. The result is an enriched sound. Pre-pedaling can also allow for greater control over the sound, because without the weight of the dampers it is possible to achieve a lighter, more even touch. When the una corda pedal is activated, the hammer mechanism on a grand piano automatically shifts slightly to the right, so that on the majority of notes the hammers strike only two strings rather than all three. This has the effect of not only reducing the volume of sound, but also altering the tone. The slight shifting enables the

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100 hammer to strike the strings with a softer, less impacted part of its surface. In addition, a light vibration occurs in the string which is not struck by the hammer, creating a veiled sonority. If the una corda pedal is depressed before playing anything on the keyboard, the resulting sounds are softer, and there is less tendency to hear the initial attack. Depending on the dynamic level of the music, pre pedaling can help produce tones which seem to appear quietly out of nowhere or forte sounds that are even more resonant and full. Its use is generally limited to the following situations: (1) passages that begin forte but have very few opening notes to convey the effect, (2) forte chords that require the full support of the pedal, and (3) opening pianissimo passages, or those in which sufficient time exists to use the pre-pedal procedure without retain ing previous sounds in the pedals. In the latter case, both the damper and una corda pedals should be used. Teaching Procedures In the sense that pre-pedaling involves only depress ing the pedals before beginning to play, it may seem that nothing more needs to be said about this technique. How ever, there are certain points to guard against that can detract from its use. The following procedures are recom mended for teaching pre-pedaling. Ask the student to

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101 1. Sit comfortably at the piano, and check to see that the weight is not forced unnaturally on either foot. 2. Rest the foot lightly on the pedal or pedals to be depressed. 3. Lean the body slightly forward into the keys, in a natural, relaxed position. Place the hands over the notes to be played. It is more effective as well as practical to position the body before depressing the pedals. Otherwise, the forward motion of the body as the pedals are depressed could activate them too quickly and create a noise. 4. Have the student depress the pedal or pedals to be used slowly and gently so that there is no sound. A. A sudden lift in the dampers can create an audible sympathetic vibration in the strings, which is magnified when the damper pedal is depressed. If this happens, a slower pedal descent is needed. B. A forceful depression of the pedals can produce a noise that then becomes amplified. If this happens it is an indication that the pedals should be depressed more gently. C. If the una corda pedal is employed, it should be activated carefully, just as the delicate texture of the music for which it is being used would indicate. Any extraneous motion or noise definitely detracts from the intended musical effect.

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102 Teaching Examples Example A: Debussy La cathedrale engloutie ( Dans une brume doucen-ent sonore) -----------" -----Pre-pedaling is very appropriate in the preceding example because of the descriptive nature of the piece. The sounds should appear to arise out of nowhere, just as the cathedral will eventually emerge from the depths of the sea. Any displaced accents in the opening section will destroy the entire effect. Nothing should interfere with the profound calm that permeates throughout. A similar instance is found in the opening measures of Debussy's "Reflets dans l'eau." Depressing both pedals before beginning to play helps to create the image of tranquility, and enhances the delicate touch required to properly execute this piece. Example B: Debussy Reflets dans l'eau (tempo rubato) Ped.

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103 Teaching Unit 6: Finger Pedaling Description of Technique Finger pedaling is a useful technique that can aid conventional pedaling, especially legato pedaling. It refers to holding notes with the fingers while the damper pedal is changed, or when no pedal is used. This gives the illusion of longer periods of unbroken pedaling. There are a number of situations in which finger pedaling can be applied. These include finger pedaling to: (1) sustain an accompaniment, (2) silently redepress notes, (3) redistribute notes between the hands, (4) color broken chord patterns, (5) emphasize the harmonic outline, and (6) sound sympathetic partials. In addition, finger pedaling is sometimes indicated by the composer. Composers indicate finger pedaling by notes that are double stemmed, by notes having a longer time value, or by written instructions in the musical score. Application When Playing Finger pedaling is a form of pedaling that is often neglected. It differs from other pedaling techniques in three ways: It is executed by the fingers rather than the foot, it is seldom indicated in the musical score, and when it is indicated in the score it is usually marked carefully and specifically.

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104 Finger pedaling marked in the score. The simplest and most obvious use of finger pedaling occurs when composers specify notes that are to be held by writing longer note values or by double stemming. This is often done for har monic, melodic or dynamic emphasis. Sometimes composers indicate finger pedaling through written directions speci fying that certain chords are to be depressed silently, then held. This interesting technique utilizes the sound ing of sympathetic partials to create special effects. It may be accomplished both with and without the use of the damper pedal. Finger pedaling not marked in the score. The decision to use finger pedaling is sometimes a matter of personal preference as well as musical style, especially when it is not specifically marked in the score. It is determined by considerations such as the tempo of the piece, the reso nance of the particular piano being played, and the techni cal ability of the performer as well as the size of his or her hands. A technique sometimes referred to as "silent substi tution" is a form of finger pedaling. In silent substitu tion, notes that cannot be held in the same finger for the duration of the note are held by a substitute finger. While one finger is holding a note, a different finger slides onto the same note and continues to hold it. This technique is used to sustain a melodic line and create

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105 a more legato effect. It is also a means of technical facillitation and of redistributing notes between the hands. Silent substitution may or may not be indicated in the music. Sometimes it is necessary to finger pedal to sustain an unbroken sonority in the accompaniment as the pedal is changed because of the melody. Holding individual notes while changing the pedal can blend harmonies together and emphasize the harmonic structure of the music. When these notes are part of a broken chord pattern, such as an "Al berti bass," finger pedaling can give the effect of legato pedaling and can add warmth and color to an otherwise dry tonal quality. Silently redepressing notes is another form of finger pedaling that is used in a number of situations. Notes that cannot be reached by one hand but still must be held throughout a change of pedal can be redepressed silently after they are played and still be retained in the pedal. Silently redepressing notes then changing the pedal is one way to differentiate between notes of different rhythmic durations or between notes and rests. Pianists borrow one form of finger pedaling from organ technique known as "organ thumb." In organ thumb, the thumb slides sideways a l ong the surface of the keys pro ducing a legato touch. Because of the sideways approach, organ thumb is more effective in a soft dynamic context.

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106 Teaching Procedures Preliminary exercises. Many students first encounter the concept of finger pedaling as silent finger substitu tion indicated above one or two notes. Ask the student to carry this concept one step further and to 1. Play any descending scale in the right hand. Repeat it four times, varying the consecutive finger combinations each time. For example: 5--4-5--4-5--4-5--4-5--4-5--4-5--4-5; 4--3-4--3-4--3-4--3-4--3-4--3-4--3-4; and so forth. 2. Play any ascending scale in the right hand. Repeat it four times, varying the consecutive finger combinations each time. For example: 1--2-1--2-1--2-1--2-1--2-1--2-1--2-1; 2--3-2--3-2--3-2--3-2--3-2--3-2--3-2; and so forth. 3. Repeat the same procedures for the left hand using consecutive fingerings for descending and ascending scales that are the reverse of the right hand fingerings given in the first and second steps. Teaching Examples Have the student apply finger pedaling to the trills in the musical passage below, using the fingering that is marked.

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107 Example A: Chopin Polonaise in A 23 1323 t l > > cnsc. Organ thumb. Organ thumb works best when applied to descending consecutive notes in the right hand, and to ascending consecutive notes in the left hand. It is also executed more easily on the white keys. To teach organ thumb, tell the student play a C major descending scale in the right hand using the thumb only. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Place the right hand on the keyboard using a good hand position. (Guard against the tendency to straighten and stiffen the hand.) 2. Play "C" with the upper portion of the thumb. Slide the thumb forward to the first joint. At the same time turn the tip of the thumb to the left, so that it points towards "B". 3. Play "B" with the tip of the thumb in the sideways position. Slide the thumb forward while pivoting it to the right. (This will propel the hand forward toward the next

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108 note and place the thumb joint nearly at right angles with the key.) 4. Pivot on the thumb joint, and turn the tip of the thumb to the left so that it points towards the "A". 5. Repeat this procedure for the entire scale. (The action should become very smooth and executed without pause. Check to see that the notes are played from a side ways position, and that no lifting of the hand occurs that can interrupt the flow. When played correctly, the thumb joint will be approximately even with the edge of the keys.) 6. Reverse the procedure for the left hand, playing an ascending "C" major scale. Sustaining an accompaniment. The musical example below requires the left hand notes to be held while the pedal is changed because of the melody in the right hand. Example B: Liszt Etude in Db ("Un Sospiro") IMrumdo

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109 Silently redepressing notes. In the example below, finger pedaling by silently redepressing the notes of each chord makes the rests more apparent and creates a distinc tion between the two harmonic lines. Example C: Debussy "La cathedral engloutie" 8 ---1 1~ .. I I ~. __ ......, --A n -. : ..i ~1 ===-p piu p pp V -e> -8,L -e> # -e> : : b f ---f : b f----/f : b t: : ' r Silently re-depress notes Teaching Unit 7: Staccato Pedaling Description of Technique Staccato pedaling, as its name implies, refers to the very short, staccato activation of the damper pedal that permits the dampers to be momentarily raised fully from the strings. This action produces a fuller sonority than is possible by the fingers alone, since it allows all of the strings to vibrate sympathetically with those being struck by the hammers.

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110 Staccato pedaling is used in the following situations: (1) to enhance the sound of staccato notes or chords, (2) to project a forte, (3) for accent, (4) for color, and (5) to lengthen those tones slightly that otherwise would end too abruptly. Application When Playing Staccato pedaling is limited to one main function: adding a very quick pedal to staccato notes or chords. Its use depends on (1) stylistic considerations, (2) dynamic markings, (3) personal preference of the pianist, and (4) the tempo of the music. More time is needed for the sound of bass notes to cease than is needed for treble notes. As the dynamic levels increase or as more notes are added to the chords being played, more time is required for the sound to die away. Sufficient time must be allowed between the chords for the sound to clear completely before the next chord is played. The faster the tempo, the more cautious one should become in applying this technique. If pedal is added to forte chords played in a low register at a rather fast tempo, only very short touches of pedal are required. Staccato pedaling is not used when a composer has used staccato markings to indicate a lightness of touch or where the repetition of a sustained harmony indicates that anoth er form of pedaling would be preferable. Therefore, this

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111 technique cannot be applied indiscriminately to all notes or chords marked staccato. Staccato pedaling is sometimes used to slightly lengthen the final sound of staccato chords that otherwise might sound too abrupt. This use is sometimes referred to as "portato pedaling," since when it is applied the chords sound as if they are played slightly more portato than staccato. Staccato pedaling in this way closely resembles pedaling to enhance phrasing and articulation, which is discussed in a separate unit. Teaching Procedures Staccato pedaling is the simplest of all pedaling techniques to execute, because it complements the natural tendency to synchronize the motion of the foot with the hands. It involves an exact coordination between the pedal and the notes, as the damper pedal is depressed at exactly the same moment the hands depress the keys. Unless staccato pedal is used to lengthen the release of the tone slightly, no syncopation is involved between the pedal and hands as it is in every other pedaling technique. Most students are taught legato pedaling first, which is a syncopated form of pedaling. Therefore, the idea of depressing the pedal with the notes may seem somewhat for eign, initially. The student may be tempted to tap the foot on the pedal or to keep time with the foot.

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112 The following procedures are recommended for teaching staccato pedaling. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Play any very short, staccato chord on the piano and listen to the sound. The dampers should mute the sound completely as the chord is released. All notes should sound equally staccato. If they do not, either the action of the piano is not properly regulated, or the student is not releasing each finger at exactly the same moment. 2. Play the same chord again, but this time add a staccato pedal. Depress the pedal exactly with the chord and release it at the exact moment the hands release the keys. This is important because very little time is allowed for the pedal to raise the dampers completely off the strings. Ask the student to hear mentally the desired sound each time staccato pedaling is applied. Otherwise, it is easy to become too enthusiastic in the application of this technique and release the damper pedal with too much force. This will cause an unmusical twang to be heard. The next procedure is similar to one used in teaching accent pedaling, which is covered in the unit pertaining to pedaling for rhythmic effects. Ask the student to 3. Vary the dynamic level of the chords that are played. It is easier for the dampers to mute the tones com pletely when they are played softly than when they are played fortissimo. Therefore, loud passages require

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113 careful listening and special care in releasing the pedal. It is necessary to release the pedal slightly before the hands to mute the tones completely when the dynamic level is fortissimo and full-textured chords are played in a low bass register. 4. Play staccato chords in both the bass and treble registers. Listen to the difference in the amount of time required for the notes to cease sounding. Add staccato pedaling to the chords. The student should notice that the bass chords become less short with the addition of pedal. 5. Play only chords in the low bass register. This time release the pedal slightly ahead of the hands. This is not easy to execute correctly, but it preserves the integrity of the staccato sound. Teaching Examples In the following example staccato pedaling is used to accent the sforzando chords. Example A: Beethoven Sonata in F Minor, Op. 2 No. 1 LJ LJ LJ LJ LI u

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114 Staccato pedaling may be used to create an emphasis on single notes, thereby enriching the sound without the use of accents. The following two examples illustrate this use Example B: Haydn Sonata in D, Hob. XVI: 37 u u Example C: Beethoven Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13, No. 8 Allegro di molto econ brio u LI u u u u u u u L.J u u

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115 Teaching Unit 8: Portato Pedaling Description of Technique Portato pedaling is named after the Italian term portato, meaning somewhat detached. Portato pedaling re fers to the slow release of the damper pedal that permits the sound to fade away gradually. As the sound slowly diminishes it appears to be accompanied by a slight rise in pitch due to the diminishing accumulation of partials. The gradual lessening of sound along with the effect of a change in pitch produce a "rounding off" effect. Application When Playing Portato pedaling is used to enhance articulation and define a portato, non legato, or staccato touch. It is also used to round off the end of a phrase. The activation and release of the damper pedal, when combined with finger technique, can clarify articulation in a way that is not possible by the fingers alone. The damper pedal has the ability to modify the sound even after a note has been played. A slight increase of sound occurs when the pedal is depressed, while a gradual release of sound is possible when the pedal is raised slowly. Certain restrictions inherent in the use of finger technique alone can be overcome by the use of the damper pedal. One such limitation occurs when notes are released by the fingers without the use of the pedal. If the piano

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116 is properly regulated, an immediate cessation of sound oc curs as each note is released. This can produce an abrupt effect that may not be warranted by the music. Portato pedaling can be especially useful in rounding off the final note or chord of a phrase and in lessening the sound before a rest. A slow release of the pedal can prolong the sound while also diminishing it, thus avoiding the abrupt cessation of sound that occurs when a note or chord is released by the fingers alone. Notes that are played with a portato or non legato touch can often benefit from the addition of pedal, espe cially if they are followed by rests. These notes require only brief touches of pedal. The pedal can be used to re lease the sound gradually, an effect similar to rounding off the final notes of a phrase. Portato pedaling may be applied to any note or chord that requires a full texture or to those that require a gentle tapering of the sound. Loud, staccato notes or chords may need small amounts of pedal for increased so nority and color. Portato pedaling differs from staccato pedaling which is covered in a separate teaching unit. Teaching Procedures Prerequisite skills. The first requirement for teach ing portato pedaling involves the ability to hear the dif ference between the release of notes and chords that are

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117 pedaled and those that are not. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Begin by playing any chord. Release the chord, and listen carefully to the sound as the dampers mute the strings. The cessation of sound should be uniform and immediate. 2. Play the chord again and depress the pedal fully. While keeping the pedal depressed, lift the fingers from the keys. 3. Lift the damper pedal very slowly. Ask the student to notice the sound gradually fading as the pedal rises. The student should also listen for the slight change of pitch that occurs as the pedal is slowly re leased. All the notes should be damped simultaneously by the pedal. If certain tones continue to sound longer than others after the pedal has been released, it is an indica tion that the pedal mechanism is not properly adjusted. Timing. Very little time should lapse between lifting the hands and releasing the pedal in this technique. Also, portato pedaling usually must be accomplished quickly with in a very brief span of time. The student should practice releasing the notes of the chord and the pedal in a rhyth mic manner. Have the student play portato quarter-note chords, and time the release of the notes and the pedal by counting. Ask the student to

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1. Play a chord on the first count and depress the pedal. 118 2. Leaving the pedal down, release the hands on the "and" following the first count. 3. Release the pedal on the second count. Have the student continue this procedure until the timing becomes almost automatic, and the slight delay between lifting the hands and the pedal can be accomplished before the second count occurs. Teaching Examples Once the student can hear the differences described above and is comfortable with the coordination required be tween the hands and foot, portato pedaling may be applied to musical examples. The portato chord that appears in the first movement of Beethoven's Sonata Op. 2, No. 2 requires this type of pedaling. The rests allow sufficient time for the sound to clear between the chords. Since the dynamic marking is pianissimo, the una corda pedal should also be employed. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Play the first measure in the example given below. Quickly, but silently, depress the una corda pedal between the first and second measures before playing the pianissimo chords. 2. Play the first portato chord on count "one" and depress the damper pedal.

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I 119 3. While thinking of a subdivided count, release the fingers on the second subdivision of the first beat. 4. Release the pedal on the "and" of the first count. 5. Repeat the above procedure for each of the four portato chords in the example below. A Example A: Beethoven Sonata in A, Op. 2, No. 2 (Allegro vivace) -~ = IT : -~ 7 TTT 71Tt ~ n . : pp ~lan w y LJ Lt L/ Teaching Unit 9: Pedaling to Enhance Phrasing and Articulation Description of Technique d o The damper pedal can be used in combination with finger technique to project phrasing and articulation by a careful timing of its activation and release. The slight increase of sound that occurs when the damper pedal is de pressed, as well as the gradual release of the sound when the pedal is slowly raised, cannot be accomplished through the fingers alone.

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120 Application When Playing The pedal may be used to enhance phrasing and articu lation in the following ways: (1) to clarify a phrase, (2) to "round off" the end of a phrase, (3) to define a porta to, non legato, or staccato touch, (4) to clarify a tied note, (5) to project a slur, (6) to contrast articulations, and (7) to prolong a phrase through articulations and rests. Portato pedaling is used to round off the end of a phrase and to define a portato, non legato, or staccato touch. This is covered in a separate unit. However, some overlap among the units cannot be avoided because certain pedaling techniques have characteristics that affect more than one use of the pedals. In these teaching materials, each pedaling technique is placed within the category that most clearly defines its basic function and use. Certain limitations are always present when a pianist relies on finger technique alone. One such instance occurs with a change of register on the keyboard. In order for a pianist to change from one register to another musically, it is usually necessary to release the notes quickly. This creates a break in the continuity of sound that can obscure the phrasing. Using the pedal not only eliminates unwanted breaks, it also enables the pianist to choose the exact amount of separation between phrases. In other words, it

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121 allows phrasing by choice, rather than phrasing imposed or predetermined as a result of technical limitations. Another use of the pedal to clarify phrasing can be found when the ending note or chord is the same one that begins a new phrase. This is referred to as "dovetail" phrasing. Or, the last note of one phrase may be tied over to the first note of the new phrase. While it is generally acceptable to retain the same harmony in the pedal through out, proper attention to phrasing will often preclude this. For instance, a gentle lift of the pedal can create a small break in the melodic or harmonic line and emphasize the phrasing. The pedal can taper the ending of one phrase while giving a tonal emphasis to the other. Coupled with various pianistic techniques such as tone, touch, and re bato, the slight break created by lifting the pedal between the two phrases can produce a desirable musical effect. The application of this type of pedaling requires a knowledge of phrasing. It also involves careful listening to determine how much separation is desired between the two connecting phrases and whether the sound should taper be tween them. Although it is not desirable to conclude every phrase with a break in the sound, an occasional breath can deline ate the melodic line and add variety. The pedal can blend separate phrases into each other and add another dimension to phrasing that can seldom be achieved by the fingers

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122 alone. The use of the pedal permits one line to be phrased differently from another, and it enables passages with con trasting articulations to be played simlutaneously. The pedal may be used to project a slur in the follow ing ways: (1) define the conclusion of a slur by gently tapering the sound, (2) connect notes within a slur that cannot be sustained by the fingers alone, and (3) achieve rhythmic emphasis within the slur. Frequently the gentle endings of slurs and phrases suggest the use of portato pedal, or a gradual lifting of the pedal at the end of the phrase to diminish the sound gradually. Pedaling through articulation marks and rests can help define a phrase that otherwise may be obscured. Hearing a particular passage can help to clarify the intended effect, as visual indications may appear to conflict with musical phrasing. For instance, a composer will frequently place a staccato or portato mark over notes that are to be brought out. While it may appear at first glance that such notes are to be played in a detached manner, careful inspection may reveal that these markings refer to touch rather than phrasing. Likewise, some pieces contain numerous short slurs and rests. Although these markings indicate various forms of touch, such notes and slurs are often part of a larger phrase. If one continuous phrase is intended, considerable pedaling may be required for a musical rendition.

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Teaching Procedures Because the pedal is applied in slightly different ways to achieve various effects of phrasing and articu lation, only a few examples of this type of pedaling are presented here. However, the various forms of pedalings that may be used in applying this technique all contain certain similarities. Therefore, the pedagogical pro cedures are summarized and presented simultaneously. 123 Prerequisite skills. Before applying the pedal the student should be able to hear the difference between notes that are pedaled and those that are not. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Begin by playing single notes or chords without using pedal. Next, play a chord and while holding it down depress the damper pedal. Notice that when the pedal is applied the following changes occur: (1) color and richness enhance the tone, and (2) a slight swelling of sound gives the illusion of a crescendo. These changes occur because of the added partials which sound when the dampers are raised fully from the strings. Therefore, the pedal can be useful in giving added emphasis and color to ac cented notes, to important melodic and harmonic changes, and to notes which are tied. 2. Play a series of repeated chords softly while keeping the pedal depressed. Play each chord at the same

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124 dynamic level. Again notice the accumulation of sound that gives the impression of a crescendo. The fourth measure of Mendelssohn's Variations contains two repeated chords. The first chord concludes the opening phrase, while the second chord begins the next phrase. A brief lifting of the pedal at the end of the first phrase (between the two repeated chords) can produce a slight break in the melodic line and help delineate the two distinct phrases. On the other hand, no change of pedal in the fourth measure obscures the phrasing and increases the sound at the end of the first phrase rather than allowing it to fade. Example A: Mendelssohn "Variations serieuses," Op. 54 Adagio Preparatory exercises. The student should possess basic skills that include both full and partial pedaling techniques. For instance, it is necessary for the student

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125 to be able to execute correctly basic legato pedaling as well as rapid pedal changes. The student should also have the ability to apply the damper pedal briefly for touches of color, to half-damp or partially depress the pedal, and to execute effectively a slow release of the pedal to taper the sound. Each pedal technique serves a different func tion in achieving the various effects of phrasing and articulation. Ask the student to 1. Place the right foot on the floor. Keeping the heel on the floor, move the toes up and down. Be aware of the sensation behind the big toe, since this is the one that will be used in pedaling. Vary the speed and vertical height which the toes are allowed to move, and gradually decrease this distance until the motion is barely visible. 2. Place the right foot on the damper pedal, keeping the toes in contact with the pedal and the heel resting comfortably on the floor. Partial pedaling. Next, have the student differenti ate between the amount of pressure required for full and partial pedaling. Ask the student to 1. Depress the pedal fully, using the entire depth of its range. Play any note on the piano and listen to the full sound that is produced when it is caught entirely in the pedal. 2. Play the note again while depressing the pedal. Do not hold the note down with the finger. Release the

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126 pedal slowly, just to the point at which the sound is released. This will be the height above which the pedal should not rise in order to retain the sound. Likewise, this is also the depth to which the pedal must descend in order to sustain the tones. 3. Play a series of repeated chords and connect them by partially depressing the pedal. Practice catching notes and chords in this partial range until it becomes comfor table. 4. Depress the pedal fully and play a chord. Allow the pedal to rise slowly until the tones have ceased. Notice the gentle tapering of sound that is produced by a slow pedal release. 5. Depress the pedal fully and play a chord in the upper register and a low note in the bass register. Allow the pedal to rise partially no more than half the distance of the range determined in the fourth step given above so that all tones are completely retained. Make small, par tial changes of pedal, completely retaining the low bass tones but gradually diminishing the overall accumulation of sound. When the student can successfully complete the above exercises he or she should be ready to transfer this type of pedaling to musical examples similar to those given on the following pages.

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Teaching Examples The following two examples illustrate pedaling to enhance different aspects of phrasing. In the first example the pedal is used to clarify a tied note: in the second it is used to shape and taper the ending of a phrase. Both involve a modified release of the damper pedal after it has been fully depressed. Example B: Schubert Sonata Op. 64 (Allegro Vivace) LJ u .___ __ f>._J 127 Pedaling to clarify a tied note. The example above involves a change from a forte to a piano dynamic level along with a tied melody note in the upper voice. It is necessary to have a slight separation in the pedaling be tween the two phrases because the tied note must continue to sound after the fermata without being overpowered tonal ly by the lower notes, and the slight pedal separation will clarify the phrasing as two distinct units. Ask the student to do the following:

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128 1. Play the fermata "F's" and depress the pedal fully 2. Make a series of rapid, partial pedal changes without losing the tones, but with enough range to diminish the sound somewhat. 3. Slowly release the pedal at the conclusion of the ferrmata, immediately before beginning the new phrase. In the following example the dynamic level again changes from a forte to a piano at the end of the fermata. Ask the student to 1. Play the final chord and depress the pedal fully. 2. Keeping the pedal at least three-fourths depressed make a series of slow partial pedal changes. Listen care fully to determine that none of the bass tones are lost. 3. Let the pedal rise a little more and increase the motion of the partial pedal changes. Again listen that none of the tones are lost. 4. Release the pedal slowly. Example C: Brahms Rhapsody in G Minor, Op. 79, No. 2 LI LJ L,.,./

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129 Teaching Unit 10: Melodic Pedaling Description of Technique Aside from the many specific techniques that exist for the use of the damper pedal, it may be applied to a musical composition in one of two basic ways: harmonically or me lodically. Melodic pedaling refers to pedaling primarily those elements that enhance the melodic material. It pre cludes the use of the damper pedal to treat melodies as harmonic material. Numerous factors influence the choice of pedaling for a particular melody. Included are such things as the me lodic direction, register, tempo, dynamic level, accompani ment, harmony, articulation, phrasing, and style. These elements may conflict with one another occassionally, and at times the importance of one may take precedence over another. Because of these various considerations in choosing the correct pedaling for a particular melody and because each of these teaching units are concerned primarily with pedagogical procedures, only general guidelines for pedal ing various types of melodies are given here. Application When Playing The choice between melodic and harmonic pedaling is often one of style as well as personal preference. In melodic pedaling, the damper pedal is changed as nearly as

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130 possible with each melody note or chord, even though keep ing the pedal depressed may not blur the sounds. Changing the pedal in this manner permits the notes to be heard as a melody rather than as merely part of the overall harmony. Sometimes melodies outline chord structures, as in the example given below. The top notes of the right hand chords are also the melody. To emphasize them as melody notes, melodic pedaling rather than harmonic pedaling is preferable, and the pedal is changed with each chord. Example A: Schumann Etudes symphoniques When a melody and accompaniment are involved, the choice of pedaling is more complex. It then becomes necessary to preserve the clarity of the melodic line and sustain the harmony throughout as well. Pianists must rely on careful listening and "pedal with the ear" rather than the foot. The range of the melody is another determining factor in the amount of pedal that may be applied. Since there are no dampers in the extreme upper register of the key

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131 board, an ascending melody beginning in the upper-middle register can be pedaled more heavily than a descending one. In addition, more pedal is needed if the dynamic level increases. A decrease in dynamic level, even in an upper register, will usually require less pedal or more frequent pedal changes. Likewise, a full sonority in a low register will necessitate frequent changes of pedal. It is difficult to make generalizations about melodic pedaling since each situation is unique. Sometimes it is necessary for the performer to pedal successive measures of a melody differently, especially when the melodic direction changes frequently. It is also necessary to consider the melodic accompaniment. At times the accompaniment allows more liberal use of the pedal than at other times. For instance, a strong supporting accompaniment can benefit by longer pedals to maintain an unbroken harmonic sound, especially if the melody lies in a fairly high register of the keyboard and is separated from the accompaniment by several octaves. The choice of pedaling for melodic material must be determined by many different factors. However, the most important of these is the ear. Teaching Procedures No special pedaling technique exists for training the student to pedal melodically. If a passage is to be

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132 pedaled melodically it must be determined in advance which melody notes are to be pedaled. Very careful listening is required in performance to be sure the pedal is not de pressed too soon, or remains depressed too long. In melodic pedaling less is usually better than more. Generally, the less pedal used the clearer the melodic concept. If too much pedal is used, the pedaling tends to become more harmonically oriented. Teaching by negative example or by comparing melodic pedaling with harmonic pedaling of the same musical passage can be effective in showing the difference between the two. The following examples illustrate this point. Melodic pedaling, or no pedaling at all provides a more musical rendition and is more compatible with the composer's intent regarding phrasing and articulation. Teaching Examples Incorrect harmonic pedaling. The sixteenth notes do not require pedaling in the example below. Example B: Beethoven Sonata in A, Op. 2, No. 2 (Scherzo) Allegretto

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133 Incorrect harmonic pedaling is applied to the example below. Example C: Beethoven Sonata in F, Op. 10, No. 2 (Allegretto) I I I I ., .. .. I r~1 .. I j I I J J r r I r r I I I I I I r r I = r ._ __ _.('. ... _~ Pedaling this passage harmonically (even if the pedal were changed often enough so there were no resulting blurs), gives an incorrect rendition of the intended melodic concept. Melodic pedaling. The following steps are recommended in teaching melodic pedaling in this Beethoven sonata. Ask the student to 1. Study the score and determine which notes are to be treated melodically and which are to be played as part of the harmony. 2. Mark in the score where the pedal is to be depressed and released. 3. Play the passage very slowly with the pedal added, listening for melodic clarity throughout.

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134 Melodic pedaling is illustrated in the example below. More or less pedaling may be required depending upon the choice of fingering. Example D: Beethoven Sonata in F, Op. 10, No. 2 (Allegretto) A I I L I I V .,, # I F ~ l I I I I J l I I I I I I I --. r i I r i r r I u u l_J\_Jr Teaching Unit 11: Half Damping Description of Technique Half damping refers to the partial release of the damper sound that occurs when the dampers are partially raised from the strings. This is accomplished by de pressing the damper pedal only partially down. Various quantities of sound are then retained in the pedal, de pending upon how far above the strings the dampers are raised. Half damping is a form of partial pedaling. Partial pedaling differs from full pedaling in that the dampers are never completely raised above the strings.

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135 Partial pedaling. Before half damping can be fully understood and applied, the concept of partial pedaling should be clear. A difference of opinion exists among pianists regarding the various degrees of depth that the pedal can be depressed and still maintain a practical effect on the sound that is produced. Some say there are infinite possibilities, while others prefer to place an exact number on the various levels of the pedal's descent. For the sake of convenience, three approximate guide lines for partial pedaling are presented and are described as degrees of released pedaled sound. They are: (1) a 25 percent release of pedaled sound, (2) a 50 percent release of pedaled sound, and (3) a 75 percent release of pedaled sound. In relation to a full depression of the pedal, partial pedaling may be diagrammed as follows: Full Pedal 25% Release 50% Release 75% Release 1 Figure 3-1

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136 Released damper sound. The following descriptions refer to the amount of sound that is released by the dampers, not to the exact distance the pedal is depressed. This is because the two are seldom identical and because pedal actions will vary from one piano to the next. 1. A 25 percent release of pedaled sound occurs when the dampers rest almost completely on the strings. Al though this stage of the pedal's descent is sometimes referred to ~s "quarter pedal," this term can convey the erroneous impression that the pedal is depressed exactly one quarter of the way down. There should be only a very slight amount of foot pressure on the pedal. The exact amount of pressure will vary according to the particular instrument being played. 2. A 50 percent release of pedaled sound occurs when the dampers rest lightly on the strings. Only slightly more foot pressure is required to activate the pedal at this stage. 3. A 75 percent release of pedaled sound occurs when the dampers barely touch the strings. Comparison to half pedaling. Often the term "half pedaling" is confused with half damping, and the two are used interchangeably. Half pedaling and half damping are not the same thing. The term "half pedaling" is somewhat of a misnomer. It does not refer, as its name would seem to imply, to either a half-way depression of the damper

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137 pedal, or a 50 percent release of pedaled sound. Rather, half pedal is a combination of full pedal and partial pedaling in such a way that allows part of the notes that have been played to be retained in the damper pedal, and the other part to be partially released. Half pedaling is used most often to susta i n bass sonorities that cannot be held with the fingers alone. In comparison, half damping partially sustains every tone. Activation of the dampers. It is important to understand the relationship between the descent of the damper pedal and the activation of the dampers before applying the technique of half damping. It may be helpful to look inside a grand piano to actually see as well as hear what is happening. Most pedal mechanisms contain a certain amount of "play" that allows the damper pedal to be slightly depressed before the dampers actually begin to rise from the strings. Ideally, this area of free play should extend for about an eighth of an inch. If the pedal mechanism is poorly adjusted the dampers may begin to rise instantly once the slightest amount of pressure is applied to the pedal, or the dampers may not begin to leave the strings until the pedal is depressed half way or more. These situations can be very disconcerting when the use of half damping is required. The area between the point at which the dampers begin to rise and the point at which they fully clear the strings

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138 is the area employed in all forms of partial pedaling. The manner in which the damper pedal is activated within this area results in the various forms of partial pedaling and distinguishes one technique from another. Descent of the damper pedal. The degrees through which the damper pedal descends may be graphically illus trated by the following diagram: Height of pedal at rest 1. Area of free play 2. Range of partial pedaling 3. Dampers clear strings fully 4. Dampers raised higher 5. Maximum descent of pedal Application When Playing 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. J, 25% 50% 75% 100% Determining factors. Half damping can be applied effectively only when the pedal mechanism is adjusted properly. Although pedal adjustments can vary greatly from one instrument to another, an improperly adjusted pedal mechanism will render the application of this tech nique useless. Half damping is used when full pedaling would be in appropriate, for instance, when the resulting sound is too thick and unclear. This depends on a number of factors including: (1) the size of the instrument, (2) the desired tone color, and (3) stylistic considerations.

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139 The size of the instrument has a bearing on its sound since the length of the strings varies with the size and length of the piano. What sounds good on one instrument may not always sound equally good on another. The student should feel comfortable enough with this technique that he or she can make any necessary adjustments in pedaling that may be needed during performance. Functions of released damper sound. Half damping produces a completely different tonal effect than full pedaling. In addition, the differences in the various degrees of released damper sound affect the color and purpose for which each is used. A 25 percent release of damper sound is effective when (1) the tempo is too rapid to allow a pedal change on every note, (2) flutter pedal would produce too heavy a texture, or (3) a slightly richer tone color is desired to avoid a "dry" sound. A 50 percent release of damper sound can be used when (1) the harmony is retained but the dynamic level remains soft, (2) a hazy, atmospheric effect is desired, or (3) staccato notes need a slight lengthening. A 75 percent release of sound is used effectively when rapid musical passages must maintain their clarity in a full, resonant sonority.

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140 Teaching Procedures Preparatory exercises. It is important to make a dis tinction among the various degrees of half damping by sight, feel, and careful listening. Before applying this technique the student should be able to (1) define the amount of free play in the damper pedal, (2) distinguish the point at which the tones first begin to be caught in the pedal, and (3) determine the point at which the dampers are fully raised from the strings. Have the student stand in order to observe what is happening to the dampers inside the piano. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Slowly depress the damper pedal. Notice the small amount of foot pressure that can be applied before the dampers begin to move. This is the area of free play. 2. Continue slowly depressing the pedal until the dampers rise just above the strings. Practice depressing the pedal while remaining within these two boundaries. Positioning the foot. The sensitivity required in half damping is accomplished primarily by pedaling behind the ball of the big toe. Therefore, it is important to position the foot correctly before this technique can be applied accurately. Ask the student to 1. Place the right foot on the pedal so that the ball of the foot behind the big toe rests comfortably on the front portion of the damper pedal. The foot should face

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141 forward and not be turned outward or inward to either side. The heel should remain in contact with the floor, and the toes should remain in contact with the pedal at all times. 2. Place the left foot slightly closer to the bench so that it is possible to stand without using the hands or moving the feet. This position helps to balance the body and maintain correct body alignment. The amount of pressure applied to the pedal, which in turn affects the height of the dampers above the strings, will determine the percentage of pedaled sound that is released. The student should learn to gauge this distance by feel. To do this it is necessary to determine the height and depth of the pedal's range that is used in half damping. Comparison with full pedaling. One approach is to compare the various degrees of half damping with full pedaling. It can be helpful for the student to feel the difference between the amount of pressure required between full and partial pedaling, since the tendency to depress the pedal more than is necessary often causes unintentional pedal blurs. Ask the student to 1. Play any chord and depress the pedal fully. Release the chord. Listen to the full sound that is retained when the dampers are fully released from the strings.

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142 2. Gradually let the pedal rise just to the point at which the sound is released. This will be the height above which the pedal should not ascend when employing the vari ous forms of half damping. 3. Continue to play chords while depressing the pedal fully, but experiment with the amount of released damper sound by slowly and carefully controlling the height that the pedal is allowed to ascend. Half da~ping. Have the student reverse the above pro cedures to determine the distance that the pedal can be depressed to hold the chord with varying degrees of re leased damper sound. This process relies heavily on good listening skills. Ask the student to 1. Play a chord and hold it. Depress the damper pedal very slowly to the point where the tones are barely caught by the pedal. Release the chord completely with the fingers. This is the area of a 25 percent release of dam per sound. 2. Play the chord again. Depress the pedal a little more deeply so that the tones of the chord are a l l defi nitely held by the pedal, but the texture still remains thin. This depth of the pedal's descent allows a 50 per cent release of damper sound. 3. Play the chord once again. Depress the pedal still further than before, but not to the point of its full descent. The chord should sound full, but not as resonant

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at this stage of the pedal's descent as it would if full pedal were used. 143 Have the student vary the register and dynamic level of the chords that are played. Less pressure may be needed to sustain notes played loudly in the bass register than those played very softly in the treble. It is recommended that the student repeat the pre ceding three steps using any scale or five note finger pattern in place of the chord. Half damping is required frequently for both scale passages and chords, and some students may respond better aurally to one rather than another. Teaching Examples The student should now be ready to apply the concept of half damping to musical examples. Pedal actions can vary greatly from one instrument to another. This makes it impossible to predict the exact amount of sound that will result when the damper pedal is partially depressed, es pecially when performing on an unfamiliar instrument. How ever, the desired amount of released damper sound should be determined in advance and not be left to happenstance. Fifty percent release of pedaled sound. Full pedaling cannot be used in this example because the delicate lines and texture of this piece would be obscured. Yet, without any pedal this passage would be too dry, lack tonal color,

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144 and the harmonies would not blend together to create an im pressionistic effect. Therefore, some form of half damping is required. An approximate 50 percent release of pedaled sound is suggested because of the soft dynamic level. Example A: Debussy Jardins sous la pluie Net et vtr pp ... .. ------------------------Teaching Unit 12: Pedal Vibrato Description of Technique Pedal vibrato, or vibrato pedaling, refers to the rapid motion of the pedal that permits the dampers to come partially in contact with the strings in such a way that neither a full vibration of the strings nor a complete damping of the sound will occur. This is accomplished by using only a partial range of the pedal's full depth and not allowing the pedal ever to be fully depressed nor completely released.

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145 A distinction needs to be made between pedal vibrato and flutter pedaling. Whereas both refer to a rapid, rather shallow motion of the pedal, pedal vibrato differs from flutter pedaling in three ways: (1) the depth to which the pedal is initially depressed, (2) the range in which the pedal is vibrated, and (3) the purpose for which it is used. In comparison with the actual depth of the pedal's full range, pedal vibrato and flutter pedaling may be diagramed as follows: Full Range Pedal Vibrato Flutter Pedaling 1111 Figure 3-2 The remaining portion of this unit is concerned with pedal vibrato only. Flutter pedaling is presented in a separate teaching unit. Application When Playing One use of this technique is to achieve a rapid diminuendo of the tone. When applied at the end of a

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146 pianissimo section, the tone seems to disappear, and the musical result is very effective. Pedal vibrato is often used in conjunction with other pedaling techniques, es pecially pedal diminuendo. When properly employed, pedal vibrato can project a feeling of continuity and create a mood of unbroken stillness by giving the impression of a tonal evaporation of the sound. For this use, it is best employed in the concluding passages of a movement or a piece where nothing will follow which can detract from its use. Its effect is similar to that created when two people want to prolong a parting touch, and can be compared to holding hands or a gentle stroke on the arm. Rather than an abrupt release, if two people gradually diminish contact by slowly lessen ing the pressure between them so that only a very gentle touch remains before their fingertips finally part, the effect is that of almost not being aware of when contact ceased to exist. No extraneous motion should interfere with this technique, either in the hands or the feet of the pianist. All movements should be kept to a minimum, with care being taken not to interrupt the mood by prematurely releasing the hands on the keys or removing the foot from the pedal. As the tone is about to disappear, the motion of the pedal should become almost imperceptible and gradually cease. The hands and body should remain in place until after the

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147 sound has faded completely. The amount of time allowed to prolong this effect is at the discretion of the performer. Pedal vibrato employs a deep initial descent in order to catch all the notes. After several deep, rather slow vibrations, the pedal vibrations gradually become more shallow and rapid, utilizing the upper half of the pedal's range. As the tone begins to fade, the vibrations accord ingly become slower and less pronounced, eventually stop ping altogether. Teaching Procedures Preparatory exercises. Before using the pedal, have the student practice tapping the toes of the right foot on the floor, moving just the toes and not the entire foot. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Rapidly move the toes, being aware of the sensation behind the big toe, since this is the one that will be used in pedaling. 2. Move the toes very slowly with the intention of pressing down on the big toe, then relaxing to let it come back up. (This is important since some students will have a tendency to try to pull the toe up.) 3. Become aware of the sensations in the leg. The muscles should not feel tight in any way. Unless they are relaxed they will quickly tire, discouraging use of this technique.

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148 Positioning the feet. Have the student place the right foot on the damper pedal and repeat the above procedures. Check the position of the student's feet for proper body alignment and balance. Ask the student to 1. Position the right foot squarely on the damper pedal so that it is facing forward and not turned outward or inward to either side. The pedal should rest comfortably behind the big toe. 2. Position the left foot closer to the bench in such a way that it is possible to stand up comfortably without using the hands or moving the feet. As the student depresses the pedal, check to make sure that the heel remains in contact with the floor at all times and the toes remain in contact with the pedal so that they do not "tap" it from above. Pedal vibrato. Have the student determine the amount of pedal that will be used for pedal vibrato by comparing the above sensations with that of full pedaling. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Depress the pedal fully, using the entire depth and height of the range. Then, play any note on the piano and listen to the full sound that is produced when it is caught entirely in the pedal. 2. Play the note again while depressing the pedal, but do not hold the note with the fingers. Release the pedal slowly just to the point at which the sound is

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released. This will be the height above which the pedal should not rise when employing pedal vibrato. 149 Have the student practice catching notes in the pedal using this partial range until it becomes comfortable. Then ask the student to vibrate the pedal. 3. Experiment with pedal vibrato on various notes by varying the rate of speed and the depth of the pedal's descent. Listen closely to the tones as they fade so the desired effect may be obtained. Teaching Example In the following example, pedal vibrato can be used to diminish the sound at the end of the piece. Because the marking is pianissimo, the una corda pedal should also be employed. Care should be taken in this example not to vibrate the pedal so deeply at first that the bass will be lost. It is important to retain the full sonorities for as long as possible. Example A: Debussy "La fille aux cheveux de lin"

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150 Teaching Unit 13: Pedal Diminuendo Description of Technique Pedal diminuendo refers to the gentle ascent of the damper pedal coupled with partial pedaling to produce a gradual lessening of sound. These very small changes of pedal gradually release the dampers partially from the strings. The result is a diminuendo produced by the pedal. Because the diminuendo concludes at a pianissimo level this technique is most often used in combination with the una corda pedal. Pedal diminuendo is accomplished by using a combina tion of full and partial pedaling. Depending upon the desired effect, this technique may also involve half pedaling and flutter pedaling. Its use in combination with these two techniques is presented in other teaching units. Application When Playing One use of pedal diminuendo is to produce a smooth transition in a passage that makes a diminuendo while mov ing from a low bass register to an upper register. It is most effective when the music fades dramatically from a full sonority to a pianissimo on a single note. If left to finger technique alone, the sound may not diminish rapidly enough. In addition, the accumulated sounds that occur if the pedal remains depressed throughout can inadvertently cause an unwanted crescendo.

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151 In pedal diminuendo the sound is never abruptly lost. All sonorities of the original tones should continue to sound almost to the end of the diminuendo. Pedal diminuendo relies heavily on a good ear and keen listening skills. How much of the initial tone is to be retained depends on the texture of the music. In some passages the diminuendo extends to a single note, while in others there is merely a change in register or dynamics. Factors over which the pianist has no control may also influence the application of this technique. Each indi vidual piano has its own unique tonal capabilities. In addition, pedal mechanisms vary slightly from one piano to the next, requiring different amounts of pressure to acti vate the pedals. This means that the amount of tone that is retained will vary according to each individual piano. It will be noticeably easier to retain the bass notes on some pianos than on others. Also, the vertical height and depth of the pedal's range may vary. It is suggested that the student practice this tech nique on several different pianos. Teaching Procedures Pedal dimineundo is more complex than many of the other pedaling techniques because it combines several techniques. Prior to attempting such pedaling, the student should be able to: (1) pedal behind the big toe, (2) co ordinate both feet to operate independently two pedals

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152 simultaneously, (3) make a difference between full and partial pedaling, and (4) correctly employ the use of both these pedaling skills. Preparatory exercises. Prior to teaching pedal diminuendo ask the student to do the following: 1. Place the right foot on the floor. Keeping the heel on the floor, move the toes up and down. Be aware of the sensation behind the big toe, since this is the one that will be used in pedaling. Vary the speed and vertical height that the toes are allowed to move. Gradually decrease this distance until the motion is barely visible. 2. Contrast this correct motion with moving the entire front portion of the foot up and down. Although the heel still remains on the floor, ask the student to notice the difference in the muscles that are involved. The in correct procedure utilizes the larger muscles of the entire foot and calf of the leg. But pedaling just behind the toe involves predominantly the toe muscles. Moving just the toes allows for much greater sensitivity and agility. 3. Transfer these procedures to the damper pedal. Check to be sure that the toes remain in contact with the pedal, and the heel rests comfortably on the floor. Notice the tendency to "hit" the pedal (which is audible) when the incorrect procedure is used. Teaching procedures for pedal diminuendo. To learn this technique ask the student to do the following:

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153 1. Make a difference between the amount of pressure required for full and partial pedaling. This should be achieved by pedaling behind the big toe rather than with the entire foot. A. Depress the pedal fully, using the entire depth of the range. Play any note on the piano and listen to the full sound that is produced when it is caught en tirely in the pedal. B. Play the note again while depressing the pedal. Do not hold the note down with the finger. Release the pedal slowly, just to the point at which the sound is released. This will be the height above which the pedal should not rise to retain all the notes. 2. Using both hands, play chords that encompass the bass and treble registers of the piano. Practice catching these chords in the pedal without holding the keys down in the hands. Use a deep initial descent of the pedal, then let the pedal gradually rise. As it rises, move the toes up and down very slightly. Listen carefully to the sound that is being produced. It is important that all of the notes are retained in the pedal. The next two steps rely heavily on careful listening. Ask the student to do the following: 3. Repeat the above procedure. Listen to the texture of the sound to determine if it is too thick or too thin. It is too thick if the initial sound is fully retained so

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154 that no change occurs as a result of using the pedal. It is too thin if the bass notes have been lost. The entire harmony should remain caught in the pedal. If the bass sounds are lost, the ascent of the pedal was too rapid and abrupt. The pedal should slowly rise, but it should not come all the way up. Have the student practice making a pedal diminuendo that fades away into silence. Ask the student to 4. Repeat the above procedures, but rely on careful listening at the conclusion of the sounds to determine how much of the sonorities should be lost or retained at any given moment. It is important to retain the bass harmonies throughout the application of this technique. There should be no obvious break in the continuity of sound. Teaching Example In the following example, the pedal diminuendo fades into a single sonority. Depending on the amount of sound remaining in the pedal, it may be necessary for the pianist to vibrate the pedal a little when the last two notes are played. Example A: Debussy Arabesque No.l in E -.J.---.J----

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155 Teaching Unit 14: Half Pedaling Description of Technique Half pedaling (or half pedal), refers to the combi nation of full and partial pedaling that allows part of the notes that have been played to be retained in the damper pedal and the other part to be partially released. The notes that are held are usually in the bass clef, while those that are partially cleared are higher in pitch. A distinction should be made between half pedaling and half damping, because the two terms are often inaccurately used interchangeably. Actually, the term half pedaling is somewhat of a misnomer. It does not refer, as its name implies, to the half-way depression of the damper pedal or a 50 percent release of the dampers above the strings. These terms describe half damping. Instead, half pedaling is, in effect, catching and retaining only those sounds on half or a portion of the keyboard. The diagram below compares the action of the damper pedal in half pedaling and half damping. Half Pedaling Half Damping Figure 3-3

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156 The remaining portion of this section is concerned with half pedaling. Half damping is covered in a separate unit. Application When Playing Half pedaling is most often used to sustain a bass sonority that cannot be sustained by the fingers alone. This occurs when the bass is carried over as a pedal point into the next harmony while the left hand is occupied playing other notes. One use of this technique is to emphasize and prolong the notes of a supporting bass line, while the upper notes of the melody move freely. A bass line that is sustained by full pedal alone, without concern for the changing notes in the melody in the upper parts, usually results in un clean, muddy pedaling. Since the upper notes may deviate from the bass harmony, some degree of pedaling is necessary to keep all the sounds from blurring together. A composer often indicates that the bass is to be stressed by double stemming the important harmonic notes if they have the same time value, or by lengthening their duration. The degree of emphasis affects the choice of pedaling. Half pedaling is also used when various chord changes occur over a sustained bass pattern. This is somewhat more difficult to execute, unless the chords are in the upper

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157 register of the keyboard. It is easier to clear the harmonies in the upper register, since there are no dampers in the extreme upper range. Activating the damper pedal only catches the partials that are sounding in sympathetic vibration. The effectiveness of half pedaling decreases as more chords are played over the original bass. It becomes less effective as the dynamic level increases, especially if a number of chords are played in succession. Also, the closer the chords lie to the middle range of the keyboard, the more difficult it becomes to clear the sounds ade quately. Therefore, half pedaling is not effectively used in the bass and middle ranges of the piano exclusively. It requires sufficient separation between the bass and upper parts. Teaching Procedures Preparatory exercises. Since half pedaling involves the use of both full and partial pedaling, it is essential that the student be aware of the differences between these two techniques and be able to execute them correctly. Prior to teaching half pedaling it may be helpful to review with the student some basic preliminary exercises. These are the same procedures that can be used before teaching pedal diminuendo. Ask the student to do the following:

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158 1. Place the right foot on the floor. Keeping the heel on the floor, move the toes up and down. Be aware of the sensation behind the big toe, since this is the one that will be used in pedaling. Vary the speed and vertical height which the toes are allowed to move. Gradually decrease this distance until the motion is barely visible. 2. Contrast this motion with the incorrect motion of moving the entire front portion of the foot up and down. Although the heel still remains on the floor, ask the student to notice the difference in the muscles which are involved. The incorrect procedure utilizes the larger muscles of the entire foot and calf of the leg. Pedaling just behind the toes involves predominantly the smaller toe muscles. It should become obvious that moving just the toes allows for much greater sensitivity and agility. 3. Transfer these procedures to the damper pedal. Check to be sure that the toes remain in contact with the pedal and the heel rests comfortably on the floor. Notice the tendency to audibly "hit" the pedal when the incorrect procedure is used. Full and partial pedaling. The student is now ready to learn the techniques associated with full and partial pedaling. Ask the student to 1. Differentiate between the amount of pressure required for full and partial pedaling. Do this while pedaling behind the big toe rather than the entire foot.

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159 A. Depress the pedal fully, using the entire depth of the range. Play any note on the piano and listen to the full sound that is produced when it is caught en tirely in the pedal. B. Play the note again while depressing the pedal. Do not hold the note down with the finger. Release the pedal slowly just to the point at which the sound is released. This will be the height above which the pedal should not rise to retain all the notes. 2. Using both hands, play chords that encompass the bass and treble registers of the keyboard. Practice catching these chords in the pedal without holding the keys down in the hands. Use a deep initial descent of the pedal, then let the pedal gradually rise. As it rises, move the toes up and down very slightly. Listen carefully to the sound that is being produced. It is important that all of the notes are retained in the pedal. The next two steps rely on careful listening. 3. Repeat the above procedure and listen to the tex ture of the sound to determine if it is too thick or too thin. It is too thick if the initial sound is retained entirely so that no change occurs as a result of using the pedal. It is too thin if the bass notes cease to sound. The entire harmony should remain in the pedal. If the bass notes are lost, this indicates that the ascent of the pedal

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was too rapid and abrupt. The pedal should slowly rise, but should not come all the way up. 160 Half pedaling. At this point the student should have the technical skill to combine full and partial pedaling to achieve half pedal. Ask the student to 1. Play two low notes an octave apart and catch them in the pedal. Using both hands, play an octave softly in the upper register of the keyboard. Partially change the pedal after the octave so that the sound is cleared while the bass is retained. 2. Play the low bass octave again and catch it in the pedal. Increase the number of octaves played in the treble to four. After each octave is played, partially change the pedal so that the sound is cleared while still retaining the bass in the original pedal. 3. Repeat the above procedures, moving closer to the middle range of the keyboard. Gradually increase the dynamic level of the octaves. Have the student apply the preceding procedures to chords above the original bass rather than single octaves. Ask the student to do the following: 4. Play a low octave in the bass and catch it in the pedal. Using both hands, play a chord softly in the extreme upper register of the piano. Partially change the pedal after the chord so that the upper notes are cleared while the bass notes are retained. Increase the number of

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chords played to four above the original bass, while changing the pedal after each chord. 161 5. Repeat the procedure moving closer to the middle range of the keyboard. Gradually increase the dynamic level of the chords until at least a mezzo-forte can be reached and the chord changes remain clean. Teaching Example Apply the above principles to the following example. Example A: Debussy Clair de lune Tempo rubat~o~------,,.--I I It is generally not necessary to change the pedal immediately after the first few chords in the treble have been played. The fact that the bass is to be retained as a pedal is an indication that some dissonance will probably occur. How soon half pedaling is employed after playing the bass is a matter of personal preference. It is in fluenced by such variables as the dynamic level of the music, stylistic factors, and resonance of the instrument.

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162 Teaching Unit 15: Flutter Pedaling Description of Technique Flutter pedaling refers to the very fast, shallow motion of the damper pedal that allows the dampers to gently touch then release the strings in rapid succession. Only a small portion of the pedal's range is used so that the pedal is never fully depressed or completely released. Comparison to pedal vibrato. Flutter pedaling is similar to pedal vibrato. Both techniques are a form of partial pedaling that involve a rapid motion of the damper pedal. But flutter pedaling differs from pedal vibrato regarding (1) the initial depth of the pedal's descent, (2) the range in which the pedal is vibrated, (3) the speed of the vibrato, and (4) the purpose for which it is used. The following diagram is a comparison of flutter pedaling and pedal vibrato in relation to the depth of the pedal's full range. Full Range Flutter Pedaling Pedal Vibrato 1111 Figure 3-4

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Pedal vibrato employs a deep initial descent of the pedal that becomes progressively more and more shallow. The speed of the vibrations eventually cease altogether. Flutter pedaling, however, maintains a more or less constant rate of vibration throughout. The vibrations generally are contained within the same range of depth. 163 The remaining portion of this unit is concerned with flutter pedaling only. Pedal vibrato is covered in a separate teaching unit. Application When Playing Flutter pedaling is very effective in adding color and a fuller sonority to fast scale passages. When the dynamic marking is forte, this type of pedaling can help create a brilliant effect without obscuring the clarity of the line. It can also add color while maintaining the continuity of the sound, since no noticeable pedal changes occur when this technique is properly employed. In a pianissimo pas sage (especially one where the harmonies seem to avoid a cadence), flutter pedaling can be used to create an almost eerie effect. The depth of the pedal's descent and the rate of vibration depend on the amount of tone that is to be re tained by the pedal. This is influenced by the dynamic level and tempo of the piece, as well as the range in which flutter pedaling is employed. Bass notes are more resonant

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164 than those in the treble, and the tones take longer to fade. Therefore, when flutter pedaling is applied to a forte bass run, the depth of the pedal's descent should be rather shallow, and the rate of the small pedal changes should be quite rapid. When flutter pedaling is applied to runs in the treble or when the dynamic level of the passage is quite soft, a greater depth of the pedal's range can be employed, and the pedal vibrations do not need to be as fast. The application of flutter pedaling is generally left to the discretion of the pianist. Composers will sometimes indicate its use such as in the first movement of the Barber Piano Concerto, but such instances are uncommon. Teaching Procedures Preparatory exercises. Flutter pedaling is accom plished by rapidly moving the toes up and down rather than the entire foot. It is important that the student grasp the feel of pedaling behind the big toe correctly to avoid creating tension in these muscles. Have the student practice tapping the toes of the right foot on the floor, moving just the toes and not the entire foot. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Place the right foot on the floor behind the damper pedal. Using the ball of the foot as a pivot, rapidly move the toes up and down. Be aware of the

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sensation behind the big toe and the movement in these small muscles. 165 2. Now move the toes very slowly with the intention of pressing down on the big toe and relaxing to let it come back up. (Some students may have a tendency to try to pull the toes up, but this can create tension). Ask the student to be aware of the sensations in the leg. The muscles should feel relaxed and not tight in any way. Unless they are relaxed they will quickly tire, dis couraging use of this technique. Positioning the feet. Have the student place the right foot on the damper pedal and repeat the above pro cedures. Ask the student to 1. Position the right foot on the damper pedal so that the ball of the foot rests comfortably on the front portion of the pedal. The foot should face forward, and not be turned outward or inward to either side. The heel should remain in contact with the floor, and the toes should remain in contact with the pedal at all times. 2. Place the left foot somewhat closer to the bench so that it is possible to stand without using the hands or moving the feet. This position helps to balance the body and maintain correct body alignment. 3. Using the ball of the foot as a pivot, rapidly move the toes up and down. Strive to reduce any mechani cal noise in operating the pedal.

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166 Flutter pedaling can be introduced once the student has grasped the concept of pedaling behind the big toe. Since flutter pedaling uses only a partial range of the pedal's actual depth, it is necessary for the student to determine the relative depth of the pedal's descent that is used in employing this technique. Flutter pedaling can be introduced by sight, feel, and careful listening. Visual observation and tactile sensations. Have the student stand and observe the movement of the dampers inside a grand piano. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Watch the movement of the dampers while slowly depressing the pedal. Notice the amount of foot pressure that can be applied before the dampers begin to move. This is called the area of free play. Activation of the pedal in this area will not affect the sound. 2. Increase the amount of pressure until the dampers rise just above the strings. Flutter pedaling uses the range between the area of free play and the point at which the dampers clear the strings. 3. Vibrate the pedal within this defined range, making sure that the pedal is always silently depressed and released. Vary the speed of the vibrations. Have the student sit at the keyboard and practice vibrating the pedal in order to gauge the correct amount of foot pressure that is required for this technique.

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Addition of listening skills. Ask the student to remain standing in front of the keyboard and do the following: 1. Play a chord and hold it. 167 2. Depress the damper pedal very slowly to the point where the notes are barely retained in the pedal. 3. Release the chord completely with the fingers. (If the sound is accidentally lost, have the student repeat the chord as often as necessary but do not hold it in the hands.) 4. Look inside the piano while listening to the chord that has been played to aurally and visually determine the area that is used in flutter pedaling. 5. Play the chord again. Depress the damper pedal a little more fully so that all the notes of the chord are definitely retained in the pedal. 6. Look inside the piano again while listening to the chord to determine the full extent of the area that is used in flutter pedaling. Vibrating the pedal. Have the student sit at the keyboard and play a chord. Ask the student to depress the pedal to the point where all the notes are retained, then slowly vibrate the pedal. Then ask the student to 1. Listen carefully to the pedal vibrations. Try to maintain an even rate of speed.

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2. Keep the level of depth constant when vibrating the pedal. 3. Listen to determine that all the notes in the chord are retained as the pedal is vibrated and that the chord itself is not suddenly lost. 168 Have the student continue to play chords while varying the dynamic level, the rate of vibrato in the pedal, and the range in which the chords are played. Flutter pedaling. When the student is comfortable with the above procedures, flutter pedaling can be applied to runs or scalar passages. Ask the student to 1. Rapidly play a two octave ascending and descending scale in the treble range of the keyboard at a soft dynamic level. As the scale is played, flutter the pedal using an appropriate depth that allows the clarity of the scale to be maintained. 2. Continue playing the scale but gradually increase the dynamic level. Notice that as the dynamic level in creases, the motions of the pedal must become more rapid and shallow in order to maintain the clarity of the scale. 3. Play the scale in various octaves throughout the entire keyboard at different dynamic levels. Again, notice the varying amounts of pressure on the pedal that are required to maintain clarity as the dynamic level and range constantly change.

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Teaching Example The student should now be capable of applying these concepts to examples found in the literature. Example A: Chopin Etude in C# Minor, Op. 25, No. 7 I I Teaching Unit 16: Pedaling for Dynamic Effects Description of Technique 169 One of the primary functions of the damper pedal is to enhance tone quality. When the damper pedal is depressed, the dampers are raised above the strings. This creates sympathetic vibrations of the partials in the strings sur rounding those that are struck by the hammers. The sound ,, is affected in two ways: (1) The dynamic level increases slightly, and (2) the tone becomes richer. The degree to which the sound changes depends on how far above the strings the dampers are raised. The higher they are raised, the more noticeable the change in sound.

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170 In addition to being called the "sustaining pedal," the damper pedal is frequently referred to as the "loud pedal" or "forte pedal." These two names reflect the importance of the damper pedal in enriching the quality of the sound. Although the dampers do not extend the entire length of the keyboard (stopping at approximately the highest octave and a half), the use of the pedal allows sympathetic partials to vibrate in the strings below the pitch sounded. Application When Playing At times, the style or context of the piece appears to suggest that the fingers alone cannot effectively create the desired dynamic effect. This may happen for a number of reasons including technical, mechanical, and musical considerations. A pianist with small hands, for instance, may not have the power to execute rapid runs with the strength required in a fortissimo passage. The piano it self may not have sufficient resonance to project the tone effectively, or, conversely, it may be too "live." Some times a particular passage seems too dry without the color that the damper pedal can provide. At other times, all the resources of the piano may be needed to create the intended effect as, for example, in a piano concerto when the solo piano must answer the entire orchestra.

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171 The damper pedal may be used in the following ways to enhance dynamics: (1) create an accent, (2) crescendo, (3) diminuendo, (4) rapidly lose the sound on a sustained note or chord, (5) create forte-piano effects, and (6) create echo effects. In addition, the technique of pre-pedaling is predominantly used for its dynamic and tonal effects. Pre-pedaling, pedaling as a means of accentuation, and pedaling to create a long diminuendo are covered in other units and, therefore, they will not be discussed here. Composers sometimes indicate a slight increase of tone on a single note or chord that is tied. Once a note has been played on the piano, it is not possible to change the tone by means of touch alone. Depressing the damper pedal will accumulate additional partials and give the effect of a slight crescendo. Even when a single note is repeated, the pedal can be very effective in building the amount of sound. Frequently a crescendo is indicated in passages com prised of numerous fast moving notes such as tremolos, glissandos, and scales. The damper pedal can be particu larly effective when applied to ascending scale passages, and it can create a brilliant effect in glissandos and upward runs. The damper pedal can be applied either in short bursts or with an increasing depth to control the release of sound. The amount of pedal used depends on the dynamic level and the register of the keyboard. If the

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172 register is high, the pedal may be held throughout the entire run for added sonority. Runs that descend usually require considerably less pedal, as well as very careful listening by the pianist. In contrast to the slow damper release that is used to produce a pedal diminuendo, the damper pedal may be used to diminish the sound rapidly after a single note or chord has been played. There are times when it is necessary to damp the sound, even though a diminuendo is not marked in the music or the composer has indicated that the damper pedal should remain depressed throughout. Care must be taken not to cover soft sounds that occur immediately following a loud or strongly accented chord. Because of the resonance of contemporary grand pianos, a sudden change from a loud to a soft dynamic level in the music usually necessitates a separation between the sounds. This is accomplished either through a combination of full pedal and half pedal, whereby a reduction to half pedal on the softer sonorities enables the tones to be heard more clearly, or by a very quick re lease of the pedal after a loud or strongly accented chord. Likewise, a forte-piano indication for a sustained single note or chord is possible on contemporary grand pianos only through the use of the damper pedal. The rapid lessening of sound that occurred on early pianos after a note had been played enabled the sound from a forte attack to fade gradually to a piano without further help from the

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pianist. This is no longer possible because of the much greater resonance of today's pianos. In fact, on most instruments of Beethoven's time, it would have been very difficult to make a forte-piano effect relying solely on the damper pedal alone. 173 The term echo pedaling refers to the sound that occurs when notes that have been previously pedaled are silently depressed before being pedaled again. Redepressing the keys creates a very soft sound, which gives the effect of an echo. Composers will sometimes specifically ask for this technique, as in the following example from Britten's Night-Piece. In reference to the notes which are to be depressed silently in the last measure, Britten states: "These notes should be silently pressed down before the pedal is released." Example A: Britten "Notturno" L > ________________________ ___, L

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174 Teaching Procedures Forte-piano effects. At least three means of achiev ing a forte-piano effect are possible on the contemporary grand piano. Two of these involve the use of the damper pedal, while the third is accomplished by voicing and dyna mics alone. Teaching procedures for achieving a forte piano with the damper pedal using both techniques are presented here. The simplest means of executing a forte-piano chord involves a combination of full and partial pedaling. Prior to teaching this technique, however, the student should un derstand the difference between these two types of pedaling and be able to execute them successfully. Full and partial pedaling techniques are presented and contrasted in other teaching units, for instance, half-damping, half-pedaling, pedal vibrato, and pedal diminuendo. Consequently, they are not covered here. In the opening three measures of the Grave Intro duction of the Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 No. 8, Beethoven indicates three forte-piano chords. It is doubtful that Beethoven intended for these chords to be played using forte-piano pedal techniques. In fact, since the sonata was published in 1799, this type of pedaling would have been extremely difficult to execute on pianos of that time. Rather, a sudden lessening of tone occurred naturally after the initial attack of a note or chord. When forte-piano

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175 chords are performed on contemporary grand pianos, however, the resonance of the instrument does not allow sufficient time for the tone to diminish without the use of the damper pedal. First procedure for teaching a forte-piano effect. To teach the simplest means of achieving a forte-piano in this piece ask the student to do the following: 1. Play the opening chord forte as indicated. At the same time fully depress the damper pedal. 2. Immediately release the notes, but do not lift the pedal. The hands should remain in contact with the keys for the duration of the tied quarter note chord. 3. Using a series of partial pedal changes allow the dampers to brush the strings lightly several times, so that the sound becomes progressively softer. A. Listen carefully to the sound to be sure that the full chord is retained in the pedal. The partial pedal changes should always produce an even damping of the sound. Sudden damping of the tones at any given moment is to be avoided. B. Depending upon the register, it may be necessary to vary the depth that the pedal is depressed in the series of partial pedalings. Since it takes more time for the sound to desist in a low register, the initial partial changes of the pedal should vary correspondingly.

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176 Example B: Beethoven Sonata in Cm, Op. 13, No. 8 Grave Written Grava Played Second procedure for teaching a forte-piano effect. The same Beethoven sonata can be used to illustrate the second means of executing a forte-piano. This technique involves more complex timing between the hands and the foot. It also involves the concept of staccato within a legato texture. However, it enables a much sharper accent to be heard on the initial chord, which creates a greater dynamic contrast between the forte and piano. To execute this technique ask the student to 1. Pre-pedal by silently depressing the damper pedal fully.

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177 2. Play the opening chord forte and staccato. At the exact moment the chord is played, release the pedal. 3. Immediately depress the notes of the chord again silently, just far enough to raise the dampers without allowing the hammers to strike the strings audibly. Listen carefully to avoid the following inaccuracies: A. If the keys are depressed too far, the chord will sound again. B. If the keys are not depressed again quickly enough, the entire sound will be lost. 4. Redepress the damper pedal fully. Example C: Beethoven Sonata in Cm, Op. 13, No. 8 Grave Written Grave Played

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Teaching Unit 17: Pedal Blurring for Color and Special Effects Description of Technique 178 The damper pedal may be applied in a way that creates a deliberate blurring of the tones. When used discrimi nately in this manner, pedal blurring can enhance tonal color and create special effects. Pedal blurring is effective in a variety of situations, including: (1) cadenza figurations, (2) whole tone and pentatonic scales, (3) ostinato patterns, and (4) other special effects. In addition, pedal blurring is sometimes indicated in the musical score by the composer. Application When Playing Function. Using the damper pedal to deliberately create a blur is directly opposed to its use in nearly every other situation. Through a variety of pedaling techniques, the pianist has many options from which to choose pedaling that will enhance the clarity of a musical passage. Some of these same techniques can also be used to create pedal blurring. The difference between pedaling for clarity and blurring the pedal is the degree to which the pedal is applied and the length of time it remains de pressed. Ignorance of correct pedaling techniques is never an excuse to blur the pedal; the pedal must always be applied

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in an artistic manner. Pedal blurring is a unique tech nique that calls for a discriminating use of the damper pedal. Pedal blurring may be achieved in a number of ways. 179 These include applying the pedal in short bursts to runs, leaving the pedal either fully or partially depressed throughout scale passages, cadenza figurations, and ostina to patterns, and flutter pedaling to create a "jumbled" or "confused" sound. (For example, the pedal directions in Messiaen's "Regard de l'Eglise d'amour" are: "Brouille de pedale confus et menacant": or, "jumble the pedal" so the sound is "confused and menacing.") However, blurring the pedal (something that comes all too easily for a majority of pianists) is not the purpose of this technique. Rather, it is knowing how and when it is artistically correct to do so. Stylistic considerations. The concert grand piano as we know it today dates from the mid-nineteenth century. Prior to this time the effect of the pedal varied con siderably from one instrument to another. When pedal blurring did occur, it was frequently due to the fault of the particular instrument. Even what may appear to be a deliberate attempt by some composers to indicate pedal blurring is often no more than a result of the inherent differences in the construction of the older instruments. For example, in the Sonata in C, No.SO, Haydn indicates

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180 that the pedal is to be left unchanged throughout four measures of conflicting harmony. But since the tone of the older "forte-piano" was comparatively light, the pedal could be left down for longer periods of time than is possible on instruments of today. To blur the pedal con sistently in music of the classical period obscures the characteristic clarity of the texture and render an unmusical performance. Composers such as Chopin and Liszt made full use of the capabilities of the concert grand piano including the pedals and often indicated pedal blurring in the score. Pedal blurring is a characteristic of the piano music of Debussy and Ravel. Many twentieth-century composers in clude pedal blurring, along with other techniques, in an effort to expand the tonal capacities of the instrument. Teaching Procedures Pedal blurring utilizes both full and partial pedaling techniques. Partial pedaling is preferable when a full de pression of the damper pedal would create a sound that is too thick or unclear. The most commonly used forms of par tial pedaling to create pedal blurs are half damping, half pedal, and sometimes flutter pedaling. Partial pedaling produces a quite different tonal effect than full pedal. Whether to use full or partial pedaling depends on a number of factors such as the size of the instrument, the acous

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tics of the concert hall, the desired tone color, and stylistic considerations. 181 Prerequisite skills. Because pedal blurring combines both full and partial pedaling, it is necessary for the student to understand the basic differences between the two. While each of these skills are covered in depth in separate teaching units, the main pedagogical procedures are presented here. Ask the student to 1. Place the right foot on the floor. Keeping the heel on the floor, move the toes up and down. Be aware of the sensation behind the big toe since this is the one that will be used the most in pedaling. Vary the speed and the vertical height which the toes are allowed to move, and gradually decrease this distance until the motion is barely visible. 2. Contrast this motion with the more awkward motion of moving the entire front portion of the foot up and down. Although the heel still remains on the floor, ask the student to notice the difference in the muscles that are involved. Using the whole foot utilizes the larger muscles of the foot and calf of the leg, while pedaling just behind the toes involves predominantly the smaller toe muscles. It should become obvious that moving just the toes allows much greater sensitivity and agility. 3. Transfer these procedures to the damper pedal. Check to be sure that the toes remain in contact with the

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182 pedal, and the heel rests comfortably on the floor. This also prevents the temptation to "hit" the pedal audibly. Preliminary exercises. Have the student differentiate between the amount of pressure required for full and partial pedaling while pedaling behind the big toe rather than the entire foot. Ask the student to 1. Depress the pedal fully, using the entire depth of its range. Play any note on the piano and listen to the full sound that is produced when the pedal is fully de pressed. 2. Play the note again while depressing the pedal. Remove the finger from the key, then slowly release the pedal just to the point at which the sound is released. This is the height above which the pedal should not rise in order to retain all the notes. 3. Using both hands, play chords that encompass the bass and treble registers of the keyboard. Hold these chords in the pedal, but do not hold the keys down in the hands. Do the following with each chord that is played: A. Use a deep, initial descent of the pedal, then let the pedal gradually rise. B. As it rises, move the toes up and down very slightly. C. Listen carefully to the sound that is being produced. All of the notes must be retained in the pedal. If the bass notes are lost, this indicates that the ascent

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183 of the pedal was too rapid and abrupt. However, if the initial sound is retained entirely and no change occurs as a result of using the pedal, the texture of the sound is too thick. The height and depth of the range in partial pedaling should then be increased. Half damping. The amount of pressure applied to the pedal, which in turn affects the height of the dampers above the strings, will determine the amount of sound that will be released when the damper pedal is partially de pressed. The student should learn to gauge this distance by feel. However, since pedal actions can vary greatly from one instrument to another, it is impossible to predict the exact amount of sound that will result when the damper pedal is partially depressed. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the maximum height and depth of the pedal's range that is used in half damping. It may also be helpful to experiment on several different instruments. Have the student continue the process begun in step three above, then reverse the procedure to determine the depth of the pedal's descent. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Play a chord while depressing the pedal fully, but experiment with the amount of released damper sound by slowly and carefully controlling the height that the pedal is allowed to ascend and still retain all of the notes. 2. Play a chord, then slowly depress the damper pedal just to the point where the tones are barely sustained by

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184 the pedal. Play the chord several times again, each time depressing the pedal slightly farther but not allowing it to descend fully. Notice the change in the quality of the sound from a very thin texture to a more full sonority. Half pedaling. In half pedaling, only part of the notes that have been played are retained in the pedal while the others are released. In comparison, half damping sus tains every tone. Ask the student to 1. Play a low octave in the bass and depress the damper pedal. 2. While the pedal is still depressed, play a chord softly in the upper register of the piano. Release the fingers from the keys. 3. Partially change the pedal so that the notes of the chord are cleared while the bass octave is retained. 4. Repeat this procedure moving closer to the middle range of the keyboard. Gradually increase the dynamic level of the chords until at least a mezzo-forte is reached and the pedal changes remain clean. Teaching Examples Cadenza figurations and scales. The following two examples illustrate the use of half pedal to produce a blurring effect. In the first example, full pedal would obliterate the clarity of the scale and make the soft dynamic level difficult to achieve.

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185 Example A: Chopin Nocturne in F# minor, Op. 48, No. 2 :t /"----------~ I'------' Example B: Chopin Nocturne in B, Op. 9, No. 3 The pedal markings in this example are by the composer. Half pedal is effective in order to retain a strong harmonic support in the bass. ---lf .. ..... ... .... . ........ .. .. ..... ...... .. ... ..... .......... ............ _._ ... ...... ........... ........ ___ ... _.l ; dimin. rallent. pp --

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186 Color and atmospheric effects. The following examples use half damping to provide color and atmosphere. Example C: Rachmaninoff Etude Tableux in Eb m, Op. 39, No. 5 dtm -------------------Example D: Chopin Sonata in Bb m, Op. 35 (Presto) Half damping is necessary to maintain clarity yet provide an atmospheric effect to portray spirits hovering over the grave. It also facilitates the crescendo. lC:,fu1;.@ml;1m lm;mm I ______ J l

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187 Teaching Unit 18: Harmonic Pedaling Description of Technique Aside from the numerous techniques that exist for the use of the damper pedal, it may be applied to a musical composition in one of two basic ways: harmonically or melodically. Harmonic pedaling refers to pedaling a musical passage in such a way that the harmonic elements are emphasized and retained in the pedal. This requires an understanding of the harmonic structure of a musical composition. Harmonic pedaling does not refer to any one specific pedaling technique. Rather, it is a more advanced form of pedaling that combines a number of pedaling skills. Application When Playing Harmonic pedaling is often omitted or marked incor rectly in printed editions. Pedal indications are fre quently marked according to the meter of the music, with a change of pedal indicated on the first beat of each measure. Therefore, pedaling harmonically may appear to conflict with the musical score. For instance, harmonic pedaling often involves pedaling through rests, retaining notes in the pedal that have no pedal markings, and over lapping harmonies in a way that visually may seem to con flict with the rhythm or barline.

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188 Some of the more scholarly recent editions provide a number of different markings to distinguish among various types of pedaling. In these editions, harmonic pedaling is often marked quite well. Before a pianist attempts to apply harmonic pedaling to a musical composition, he or she must understand the harmonic structure of the piece. Artistic pedaling can be achieved only when the various components of the harmony and melody are understood, balanced, and integrated. Harmonic pedaling often involves retaining certain bass notes in the pedal while partially clearing those in the melody. As its name implies, it includes pedaling the accompaniment and underlying bass line, and at times providing the support of an unbroken sonority of sound. Correct harmonic pedaling involves a sensitivity to the relationship of the melody, the accompaniment, and the bass line. Teaching Procedures Preparatory exercises. Harmonic pedaling combines both full and partial pedaling techniques. Because of this, its use requires the student to posess certain basic prerequisite skills. These skills include legato pedaling and half pedaling. At times this may also involve the ability to execute rapid pedaling changes while depressing the pedal only partially down, the ability to pedal one

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189 hand and not the other, and even finger pedaling. These skills are covered in depth in separate teaching units, but the basic pedagogical procedures pertaining to harmonic pedaling are presented here. Prior to teaching harmonic pedaling it may be helpful to review with the student the fundamental differences between full and partial pedaling. Ask the student to: 1. Place the right foot on the floor. Keeping the heel on the floor, move the toes up and down. Be aware of the sensation behind the big toe, since this is the one that will be used the most in pedaling. Vary the speed and vertical height which the toes are allowed to move, and gradually decrease this distance until the motion is barely visible. 2. Contrast this motion with the more awkward motion of moving the entire front portion of the foot up and down. Although the heel still remains on the floor, ask the student to notice the difference in the muscles that are involved. Using the whole foot utilizes the larger muscles of the foot and calf of the leg, while pedaling just behind the toes involves predominantly the smaller toe muscles. It should become obvious that moving just the toes allows for much greater sensitivity and agility. 3. Transfer these procedures to the damper pedal. Check to be sure that the toes remain in contact with the

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190 pedal, and the heel rests comfortably on the floor. This also prevents the temptation to "hit" the pedal audibly. Full and partial pedaling. The student is now ready to learn the techniques associated with full and partial pedaling. Have the student differentiate between the amount of pressure that is required for full and partial pedaling while pedaling behind the big toe rather than the entire foot. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Depress the damper pedal fully, using the entire depth of its range. Play any note on the piano and listen to the full sound that is produced when the pedal is fully depressed. 2. Play the note again while depressing the pedal. Remove the finger from the key, then slowly release the pedal just to the point at which the sound is released. This is the height above which the pedal should not rise in order to retain all the notes. Have the student play chords in both hands that encompass the bass and treble registers of the keyboard. Ask the student to hold these chords in the pedal, but do not hold the keys down with the fingers. Do the following to each chord that is played: 1. Use a deep initial descent of the pedal, then let the pedal gradually rise. 2. As the pedal rises, move the toes up and down very slightly.

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191 3. Listen carefully to the sound that is being produced. All of the notes must be retained in the pedal. If the bass notes are lost, this indicates that the ascent of the pedal was too rapid and abrupt. However, if the initial sound is retained entirely and no change occurs as a result of using the pedal, the texture of the sound is too thick. The height and depth of the range in partial pedaling should be increased. Half pedaling. At this point the student should have the technical skill to combine full and partial pedaling in a way that can incorporate the concept of half pedaling. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Play a low octave in the bass and depress the damper pedal. 2. While the pedal is still depressed, play a chord softly in the upper register of the piano. Release the fingers from the keys. 3. Partially change the pedal so that the notes of the chord are cleared while the bass octave is retained. 4. Repeat this procedure moving closer to the middle range of the keyboard. Gradually increase the dynamic lev el of the chords until at least a mezzo-forte is reached and the pedal changes remain clean. Finger pedaling. Finger pedaling is a useful tech nique that can aid conventional pedaling. In finger pedaling, notes are held with the fingers while the pedal

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192 is changed. This gives the illusion of longer periods of unbroken pedaling. There are a number of different situations in which finger pedaling can be applied. However, one of the more frequent uses of finger pedaling in relation to harmonic pedal is to sustain the overall sonority of the accompani ment as the pedal is changed. Ask the student to pedal the following example as it is marked. Teaching Examples Example A: Liszt Etude in Db ("Un sospiro") Harmonic pedaling. The concept of harmonic pedaling varies from simple to complex. It involves first analyzing a musical score, then listening to determine where and for how long the pedal should be applied to retain the harmony. In its simplest form, it merely involves prolonging the harmony, as in the example below.

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193 Example B: Chopin Scherzo in Bb Minor, Op. 31 ,__ --------..... ~. ,-=" Ar ~= I Tl ...... .. .., I I r V I I ., otto vocw J J I I I I I I : : ., "II""" .,,.. .,,. .,,. .. More frequently, however, harmonic pedaling combines a number of pedaling techniques. This next example illus trates the use of full pedaling, half pedaling, and finger pedaling. An examination of the score reveals that the harmonic and melodic changes do not always coincide with the barline or with each other. The pedaling in this example is more complex and several acceptable solutions are possible. For this reason, two different pedal mark ings are given. Finger pedaling is emphasized more in the first one. Example C: Chopin Ballade in Gm, Op. 23 l ii A 3 ~---!~ ... b.~ ti ,.. p. I --== =s . --:-:---~I,,,..-;;:---L.~-~,,. LJ Or: ____ ___.A____J,... --,..__ .... ( ~----..Ji'---,'----''

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194 Teaching Unit 19: Pedaling One Hand and Not the Other Description of Technique Pedaling one hand and not the other consists of acti vating the damper pedal so that it sustains tones from only the keys played by one hand or in one or more parts simul taneously, while those in the other hand or other parts are released. Application When Playing It is often necessary to pedal the part played by only one hand. This occurs when one hand is marked legato and the other staccato or when one melodic line is phrased differently from the other. Successful application of this technique depends upon an understanding of the principle of non-simultaneous key release. Non-simultaneous key release occurs when two or more keys are released at different times. Usually this occurs because of different articu lations. In the example given on the next page, the three upper parts are marked "tenuto sempre" while the bass notes are marked "staccato sempre." Without the use of the pedal it is impossible to achieve the sustained legato line called for in the upper parts. Yet, pedaling should not infringe upon the staccato bass notes. Clearly, some pedal is needed, but where?

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195 To connect the upper voices while preserving the staccato articulation in the bass line, the pedal should be depressed during the fourth sixteenth rest of each beat, but prior to lifting the hands that are sustaining the chords. It is not necessary to depress the pedal all the way to the floor in such cases. Pedal changes must be very rapid, however, because very little time is allowed between the sixteenth rest and repeating the chords. The pedal should be released exactly with the staccato sixteenth notes in the bass line. This will allow the upper voices to sound legato while at the same time preserving the integrity of the staccato in the bass. Teaching Procedures Prerequisite skills. To achieve the delicate control needed to accomplish this technique, several conditions need to exist. The student should maintain proper body alignment, and correct position of both the right foot on the damper pedal and left foot on the floor. This action will provide balanced support for the body and alleviate tension, which can then free the feet and hands to operate independently. To teach pedaling one hand and not the other in the example provided, ask the student to do the following: 1. Begin by playing the left hand alone without the pedal. Each finger should be relaxed to obtain maximum

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196 finger independence for distinct articulation of parts. Be sure that the bass line is played staccatissimo. 2. Feel the legato sensation in the repeated notes played by the thumb. This is achieved by an outward rounded motion of the forearm as it drops into each of the repeated notes. (The straight up-down lifting of the forearm is to be avoided.) These physical actions will help create a feeling of continuity and project the forward motion of the melodic line. They will also provide the student with an important mental preparation for the legato concept in pedaling. Ask the student to 3. Hear mentally both the legato thumb line and the staccato bass as the left hand part is played alone. 4. Play the repeated chords consisting of the double notes played by the right hand in combination with the thumb of the left hand. Be sure these notes are sustained, since they must be held while the pedal is activated. 5. Pedal the chords using legato pedaling. Practice holding onto the chords and delaying the pedal changes until the very last moment to allow sufficient time for the staccato bass notes to stop sounding when the upper and lower parts are combined. 6. Combine the pedal with the left hand alone. Listen carefully so that the conclusions of the staccato bass notes are not obscured by the pedal.

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197 7. Combine both hands with the pedal in the example below. Teaching Examples Example A: Beethoven Sonata in A, Op. 2, No. 2, (Larqo Appassionato) .. .. 1tucato ,.,,.,,.. Lf 1-l w The concept of pedaling one hand and not the other is similar in many respects to delayed sycopated pedaling or legato pedaling. The following example is indicative of this similarity, and may be helpful for students who find the pedaling in the previous example difficult to grasp at first. Example B: Paderewski Minuet in G "'"' 21 I ,, I el ~,.!I.~ I!. .~. -I I I I L.J LJ u LJ L

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198 Teaching Unit 20: Sostenuto Pedaling Description of Technique The middle pedal, commonly referred to as the sostenuto pedal, has only one main function: to sustain selected notes while allowing other notes to be dampened. When this pedal is depressed, it will catch and hold any dampers that are raised from the strings. Operation. To properly employ the sostenuto pedal, it is necessary to know something about how it works. The sostenuto mechanism on a grand piano is controlled by a bar with a protruding edge that extends along the base of the dampers. Each damper contains a felt covered sostenuto tab. When the sostenuto pedal is depressed, the sostenuto bar rotates so that its protruding edge catches the tabs of the dampers that are raised. The dampers must be raised to a certain height before the tabs can be caught by the sostenuto bar. The sostenuto pedal does not affect other notes, nor does it interfere with the operation of the damper pedal. Releasing the sostenuto pedal unlocks the damper tabs and returns the damper action back to the normal position. Because the sostenuto bar catches only raised dampers, notes that are to be held by the sostenuto pedal must be played before this pedal is activated. In other words, in order for the middle pedal to sustain a note or notes, cer

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199 tain conditions must be met. These involve careful timing and coordination. First, the sostenuto pedal must be de pressed after the notes to be caught are played while the fingers are still holding the keys. Second, the damper pedal must not be activated until after the sostenuto pedal is depressed, or all the dampers will be caught by the sostenuto pedal. Third, the sostenuto pedal must remain fully depressed throughout its use, or other unwanted tones will be sustained. Depressing the sostenuto pedal does not interfere with the action of the remaining notes that are not caught. Al so, once the sostenuto pedal is depressed the damper pedal can be used to hold and change other harmonies. However, the sostenuto pedal must remain fully depressed while the damper pedal is activated, for if it rises even a small distance other tones will be held. The sostenuto pedal was patented in 1874 by the American piano firm Steinway and Sons. It is the most recent of the three pedals to be added to the piano. However, unlike the damper pedal and the una corda pedal, it is not standard equipment on every grand piano. Some European piano manufacturers have been reluctant to in corporate the sostenuto pedal, and many pianos are built without it. Even American grands that are not intended for concert or professional use often do not have a sostenuto pedal. Unfortunately, some grand pianos have a "fake"

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200 sostenuto pedal that raises all the dampers in the bass section below middle "C." This action duplicates the function of the damper pedal for the lower portion of the keyboard, and makes selective sustaining of notes impossi ble. A large percentage of upright pianos are built with only two pedals or do not have an authentic sostenuto pedal. Therefore, use of the sostenuto pedal is generally limited to the grand piano. Terminology. There is no consistent nomenclature for the sostenuto pedal. In English the sostenuto pedal is referred to as the prolonging pedal, Steinway pedal, sustaining pedal, S.P., tonal pedal, third pedal, and Ped. 3. Additional terminology include Prolongement, Pe dale de prolongation, and Prol. Ped. (French); Tonhalte pedal, and Tonhaltungspedal (German); and Il pedale tonale (Italian). Terminology and symbols directing the use of the sostenuto pedal are also inconsistent; there is no common practice for indicating this pedal. Except for a few twentieth-century composers, use of the sostenuto pedal is generally not marked in the score. When it is marked, however, its activation is more commonly indicated by S.P., Sos. ped., Sost. Ped., Ped. sost., or sostenuto pedal. These terms are sometimes accompanied by solid or dotted lines indicating the exact duration of sustaining. Other indications for the sostenuto pedal include SOS., SOS.

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(HOLD), CHANGE SOS., SOS. UP, prol. Ped., and Sust. Ped. In Bartok's Third Piano Concerto the sostenuto pedal is indicated by the words "sustain pedal" followed by note values, for instance: Application When Playing 201 Function. The performer must often decide when it is effective and appropriate to use the sostenuto pedal. Not only are written indications for this pedal scarce, but the composer may not actually specify notes to be held. At times these notes may be implied only through the harmonic context and style of the piece. The sostenuto pedal can be used effectively for the following purposes: (1) to hold bass pedal points, (2) to facilitate awkward technical passages, (3) to aid con trasting articulations, (4) to achieve a clear damper pedal change, (5) to create special effects, and (6) to selec tively sustain important harmonic or melodic notes. Like the damper pedal, the sostenuto pedal must be applied discriminately. Even when its use is indicated by the composer some modification may be necessary. For instance, the piano may have a malfunctioning sostenuto pedal, one that is improperly regulated, or none at all. Compromise solutions using the damper pedal should always be available to the performer. Often the desired sostenuto

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202 effect can be produced by a series of partial pedaling techniques using the damper pedal alone. But at times the damper pedal may create serious blurs in the musical line that preclude its use. Experimenting with both pedals not only provides alternative solutions to using the sostenuto pedal, it also enables the pianist to choose pedaling that best clarifies the composer's intent. Composers will sometimes provide additional means of pedaling when the music calls for the use of the sostenuto pedal. For instance, in his Piano Variations Copland indicates "Sust. Ped." But he also includes an alternate version "for pianos without Sustaining Pedal." Application. From the time of Beethoven on, there was a need for selective sustaining of notes to be accomplished by whatever means were available. The sostenuto pedal was not invented until after the death of several important Romantic composers including Schubert, Chopin, and Schu mann. Composers did not begin to indicate the use of the sostenuto pedal explicitly until nearly half a century after its invention. Even well into the twentieth-century the sostenuto pedal was generally ignored. The word "sostenuto" is found frequently in the music of Brahms and Chopin, but this is a tempo indication and does not refer to sustaining notes by either the fingers or the pedal. The need to selectively sustain notes reached a peak in the Impressionistic piano music of Debussy and Ravel.

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203 Yet Debussy did not have an instrument with a sostenuto mechanism and apparently was unaware of its existence. Ravel was not aware of the sostenuto pedal until many of his piano compositions had been written. Although there are hundreds of piano pieces in which there is no occasion to use the sostenuto pedal, there are numerous situations where it is extremely useful and even necessary. Composers and pianists have been slow to recognize the advantages of this pedal, but symbols for sostenuto pedaling are begin ning to appear with increasing frequency. Teaching Procedures and Examples The sostenuto pedal is normally depressed with the left foot. If the damper pedal is not used at all, it is possible for the right foot to manipulate the sostenuto pedal and the left foot to depress the una corda pedal. At times, however, it will be necessary for the left foot to depress both the una corda and sostenuto pedals simultane ously. The technique required for utilizing the sostenuto pedal involves careful timing and is more complex than that of the una corda pedal. Use of the sostenuto pedal alone Preliminary exercises. Notes that are to be retained in the sostenuto pedal must be played and held down by the fingers first, before the pedal is depressed. The effect of the sostenuto pedal is more pronounced when notes are

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held in the bass. Therefore, the following sequence of steps is recommended in teaching the use of this pedal. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Play a low octave in the bass. 2. While holding the notes depress the sostenuto pedal completely, using the left foot. 204 3. Release the fingers from the keys. (The low bass octave should be securely held in the sostenuto pedal.) 4. Release the sostenuto pedal. The second exercise involves experimenting with notes that are not held in the sostenuto pedal, such as shifting harmonies above a constant bass. Ask the student to repeat the first three steps given above, then do the following: 1. Play chords or single notes above and below the sustained octave. Listen to the sound that is produced. (While these tones should not be caught in the sostenuto pedal, a slight echoing sound may be heard due to the vibration of sympathetic partials.) 2. Release the sostenuto pedal. When this simple exercise is repeated in various registers of the keyboard, it becomes a good way to verify quickly if the sostenuto mechanism is operating properly. Sustaining bass pedals. The student should now be ready to transfer these procedures to musical examples using the sostenuto pedal alone. The following excerpt is from a transcription of an organ work by Bach, where

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frequent use is made of pedal points. The forte bass octave enhances the sostenuto effect. Example A: Bach Toccata in D minor for organ f A :;:=:r S.P. '-------Ask the student to do the following: 1. Play the bass octave "D". 2. Depress the sostenuto pedal with the left foot. Hold the bass long enough to secure the octave in the sostenuto pedal. 3. Release the octave and continue playing the remaining chords while the sostenuto pedal remains depressed. 4. Release the foot and hands at the rest. The student should learn to activate the sostenuto 205 pedal rapidly since it must be employed frequently in this manner. Contrasting articulations. In the following example, the sustained chord must be held through a series of staccato chords. The sostenuto pedal may be depressed with either foot since the damper pedal is not used in this passage.

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206 Example B: Bartok Allegro Barbaro S.P. Sostenuto pedal combined with the damper pedal Preliminary exercises. The sostenuto pedal can be combined with the damper pedal in various ways to achieve artistic results that otherwise may seem impossible. Before applying these techniques to musical examples, the student should be able to operate each pedal alone and in combination with the other. When the sostenuto pedal and damper pedal are used together, timing is very important. To help the student coordinate the timing of both pedals, the following exercise is recommended. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Play a low note in the bass. 2. While holding the note depress the sostenuto pedal completely with the left foot. 3. Release the note. Keep the sostenuto pedal depressed through Step 6.

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207 4. Play a chord using both hands. Hold the chord and depress the damper pedal fully. 5. Repeat Step 4, playing chords in both hands up and down the keyboard. Change the damper pedal after each chord is played. 6. Release the chords and the damper pedal. Listen to the sound. The low note should still be sounding in the sostenuto pedal. 7. Release the sostenuto pedal. The closing measures of Ravel's "Pavane" provide a musical extension of the above exercise. Example C: Ravel "Pavane pour une infante defunte" m.s. S.P. ___________ .,_ _____ '\..-'\...-"---..; The following examples combine the use of the damper pedal with the sostenuto pedal. They are chosen because the use of the sostenuto pedal is almost imperative. Sustaining bass pedals. In the following example, the opening "G" octave is held as a bass pedal throughout the

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208 first part and is only played twice again on the first page. It is not necessary to change the sostenuto pedal once the octave has been initially caught in it. The damper pedal can be operated normally after the sostenuto pedal is fully depressed. In fact, at any time during this section the hands and the damper pedal may be raised, but the "G" octave will continue to sound. Without the sostenuto pedal it is impossible to perform this work according to the written notation. Example D: Saint-Saens Second Piano Concerto, Op. 22 A P i oool) oJ s. ., ( A11da0tt s ost en utc i==== ~ 1 -b::dd S. P. ~'----------------ii ii

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209 There are at least two compositions by Debussy in which it is widely acknowledged that the use of the sostenuto pedal is necessary: the Prelude from his suite Pour le Piano, and "La Cathedrale engloutie" from book I of the Preludes for piano. In "La Cathedrale engloutie" it is very difficult to achieve a convincing climax of the main theme without using the sostenuto pedal. Because of the fortissimo dynamic level, half pedaling would lose the full sonority of the bass pedal point and blur the upper voices. The sostenuto pedal is helpful also in other sections of this composition. Example E: Debussy "La Cathedrale engloutie" S.P. --------------One of the most familiar examples is Rachmaninoff's Prelude in C-sharp minor. The sostenuto pedal is necessary

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210 in both the first and last sections of this piece. In measure seven, the 'G#' octave is sustained throughout the measure with changing harmonies on each eighth note above it. Half pedaling may be employed, but the octave will not be sustained fully. Example F: Rachmaninoff Prelude in C# m, Op. 3, No. 2 Lento Example G: MacDowell To The Sea (from "Sea Pieces"), Op. 55, No. 1 l p if :-:r ~F ~r=f ~r ~r=:r ~r ~f= 1 A A.._ _.A._ __,A'---"-S. P. ----------------

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211 Contrasting articulations. Debussy's marking of "tres net et tres sec" indicates that pedal must be used spari ng ly for the dry sonorities in the example below. However, the middle section of this work (which contains an allusion to Wagner's Tristan und Isolde) requires sostenuto pedaling to sustain the chord in the measures marked "a Tempo" without destroying the dry quality of the grace notes and staccato chords that follow. Example H: Debussy Golliwog's Cake Walk l ) ( A I Ii : .I\L ~d ::: I I p D a Tempo ------.. .'. _,;f PP !!.. ., : S.P. I I ~., I L . [__ r -r ., t ., -r ..... l I.,.. Cedez ~r'r .& : : p I I Cedez p ovee unt ~rondt imott'on t-, }_ I ) r J I I l a Tempo ~: f PP_ i i ., [ I Silent key depression. Sometimes the sostenuto pedal is needed to sustain a long note, but other notes or chords are played at the same time. If the sostenuto pedal is depressed while unwanted tones are being played, they are also caught in the pedal. It is often possible for the pianist to depress the note to be held silently in advance and catch it in the sostenuto pedal before it is needed.

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212 Such an opportunity may occur before the beginning of the piece or during a rest. A critical consideration in teaching this technique is to make certain that notes are depressed silently. If the keys are depressed completely to the bottom of the key "bed," an audible sound will probably result. However, if they are depressed only about two-thirds of the way down to the key "spot," or the point at which a slight resistance is felt, they will not sound. Preliminary exercise. To teach silent depression of notes, ask the student to do the following: 1. Play any note quickly. (The note should sound.) Notice that very little key resistance is felt. 2. Play the note again, but depress the key very slowly. Notice that A. Key resistance is noticeable. B. It is more difficult to produce an audible sound when the keys are depressed slowly. 3. Depress the note slowly, just to the point at which key resistance is felt. (This will prevent the hammer from lightly striking the string as the key is depressed, but it also is sufficient to raise the damper fully from the string.) 4. Depress the sostenuto pedal fully. 5. Play the note, then release the fingers. The note should continue to sound in the sostenuto pedal. If it does not, tell the student to repeat Step 2 until he or she

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213 can gauge the depth of the key "spot" more accurately. The exercise should be repeated until a feel for the exact distance becomes automatic. In the following transcription by Liszt of Bach's organ Prelude and Fugue in A minor, a low "A" pedal begins in measure 10 and is held through measure 23. The pianist can depress the low "A" silently before beginning the piece and catch the raised damper with the sostenuto pedal. Ask the student to 1. Silently depress the low "A" before beginning the piece. Depress the key slowly until a small resistance is felt, about two-thirds of the way down. 2. Depress the sostenuto pedal. Continue to hold the sostenuto pedal through measure 23. When the "A" is played in measure 10, the sound will be retained by the sostenuto pedal. Example I: Bach-Liszt Prelude and Fugue in A minor for organ S.P.

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214 The next example illustrates an opportunity to silent ly depress the keys during a rest. The two lowest notes are sustained for several measures, but the sostenuto pedal cannot be applied in the first measure since there is no way to prevent other notes in the upper two staves from also being sustained. The rest in the second measure presents an opportunity to apply the sostenuto pedal. The timing between depressing the keys and the pedals is as follows: 1. Play the first measure with the damper pedal depressed. 2. Silently depress the "D" and "A" in the left hand. Release the damper pedal. 3. Depress the sostenuto pedal. Example J: Debussy Preludes, Book II, No. 8, "Ondine" au Mou, l a----------;. f ..:.__7======-:...J ----1==---c::==::i----r S.P. -----------------

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215 Eliminating unwanted tones. The sostenuto pedaling techniques that have been presented up to this point have all utilized the normal operation of this pedal. In other words, notes that are to be retained in the sostenuto pedal are played before the pedal is activated, and the damper pedal is not applied until after the sostenuto pedal is de pressed fully. A more advanced use of the sostenuto pedal involves controlling the level of the dampers of unwanted tones. This enables the pianist to catch notes with the sostenuto pedal at the same time other notes are being played, and while the damper pedal is being used. The sostenuto mechanism of a well regulated grand piano catches only those dampers that are lifted above a certain critical height. Therefore, one of the main considerations in applying the sostenuto pedal artistically is to control the height of the dampers of those notes that are not sustained by the sostenuto pedal. Each damper is raised and lowered by an individual key. The entire set of dampers of the unwanted tones can be controlled either with the keys or with the damper pedal. This procedure is similar to silent key depression in reverse. Controlling the height of the dampers with the keys. The following example illustrates this more advanced usage of the sostenuto pedal, whereby the keys alone are employed to control the height of the dampers.

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216 Example K: Messiaen "Canteyodjaya" .... ,,.. ,.,_ ,llrtff, "'.,,..,. ., ,.,.,,.,uu, ~-fl .. 11.-., -----:r-, ,u 11P .ff ~A l ,u ref f p JI--a:.. ,_ JI I I S.P. To teach this technique using the example above, ask the student to do the following: 1. Play the first note in each hand. 2. Play the second note in the right hand. Slowly let the key rise to the point where the damper first touches the strings. 3. Depress the sostenuto pedal fully. This will catch the low "C" but not the high "C#." Due to the shortness of their strings, notes in the treble register fade rapidly and can be tolerated more easily with a sustained bass. It is suggested that the student practice the first measure as a musical exercise, playing the notes on the upper staves one octave and two octaves lower than written. Controlling the height of the dampers with the damper pedal. In the following example, strict observation of the score is possible only by using the sostenuto pedal in combination with the damper pedal.

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Example L: Paul Dukas Piano Sonata p J J 217 To teach this advanced technique in the example above, ask the student to 1. Play the first chord and depress the damper pedal fully. Release both hands. 2. Slowly let the damper pedal rise until the chord fades slightly. Hold the pedal in this position through Step 5, which will set the dampers at the proper height. 3. Play the next chord. Hold the "Ab" bass octave firmly depressed through Step 5. 4. Release the right hand chord. 5. Depress the sostenuto pedal. This secures the bass octave in the sostenuto pedal, and the damper pedal can be used normally. No unwanted tones have been sustained. It is always possible to set the proper position of the dampers to eliminate unwanted tones by first depressing the key or the damper pedal fully, and then slowly lifting

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218 the fingers or the pedal to the correct height. With practice, however, it is possible to eliminate the prepara tory step of full depression and to position the dampers directly. While this is more difficult, it is eventually faster and simpler because there is one less operation to perform. Special acoustical effects. A more sophisticated use of the sostenuto pedal involves the use of harmonics. If a veiled, atmospheric tone quality is desired, the pianist may choose to let the harmonics of some notes sound throughout the piece and envelop the other sonorities. These notes are depressed silently and caught in the sostenuto pedal before the piece begins. Through sympathetic vibrations, the harmonics of the sustained notes are reinforced. Bagpipe music and music box imita tions employ this device. This technique is illustrated in Bartok's "Harmonics." Example M: Bartok "Mikrokosmos" vol. 4, "Harmonics" lll.e9ro DOD t:roppo, un pooo rubato. II ,. ,,-:: I .: . !tr tJ I I I p dok, I /I .. \ t) ll''?K .AK ~\.. _At;_ _nt: Chord held down mute

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219 In addition to sustaining tones, the sostenuto pedal can greatly reduce their dynamic level. This is possible by silently depressing notes and using harmonics while activating the sostenuto pedal. When the sostenuto pedal is used to sustain only a trace of sound, the effect is similar to pedal blurring. A vibrating string produces a pitch that consists of a fundamental plus its overtones or partials. When a note is played, the vibrating strings cause the strings of the other notes in its particular overtone series to vibrate sympathetically when the dampers are not resting on the strings. Sympathetic vibration occurs also in reverse; fundamentals below a given note will cause that note to vibrate also and to produce a faint sound. For example, the note "C" and its fundamentals are shown: I@ 9: 9 JM ... 1 2 :J .. a 7 8 CJ To sustain the "C" faintly, ask the student to do the following: 1. Depress one or more fundamentals silently. 2. Depress the sostenuto pedal. 3. Play the "C" and release it.

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220 The "C" will continue to sound softly as an overtone. The fewer fundamentals that are held, the softer the resulting overtones will be. Using this concept, it is possible to depress silently a note or a group of notes not actually sounded in the piece and to catch them in the sostenuto pedal before beginning to play. If these notes are fundamentals of the notes being sounded above, the sympathetic partials will produce an atmospheric haze of sound. This procedure is illustrated in Debussy's Voiles, which is based on the whole-tone scale, "G#" down to "Ab" as shown below: 8 lipe ii I Example N: Debussy Preludes, Book I, No. 2, "Voiles" (Depress silently before beginning to play) a. I I I Hodire ( 1': H) (Dau 11 r7tll nu J I ..:Y--~ .. :..-. .... I I,' I ..J,, .. .. II tm tio;;:; i....--==--,, .. p illt ap S.P ..__ ______________________

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221 The whole-tone scale can be faintly sustained through out the piece by depressing silently one or more fundamen tals before the piece begins and catching them in the sostenuto pedal. To teach this concept in the following example, ask the student to 1. Depress silently a group of fundamentals such as the one suggested above. 2. Depress the sostenuto pedal and hold it throughout the piece. Facilitating awkward technical passages. The sostenuto pedal can be used to help pianists with small hands sustain notes that they cannot reach. Example 0: Beethoven Rondo in G, Op. 51, No. 2 Andante cantabile e grazioso 1111 .. -.... & 11t1oJc. I J I j 7 .J l r--1 S.P. If a pianist cannot reach the left hand tenth, two options are available. 1. Depress the low "G" silently and catch it in the sostenuto pedal before beginning the piece. Or:

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222 2. Play the low "G" very slightly in advance of the "G" and "B" above it and rapidly catch it in the sostenuto pedal. Sostenuto pedal combined with the damper pedal and the una corda pedal Occasionally the simultaneous use of all three pedals is necessary. This advanced technique is most frequently needed in Impressionistic compositions. When all three pedals are used together, the left foot manipulates both the sostenuto and una corda pedals, and the right foot operates the damper pedal. Preliminary exercise. The left foot must be positioned correctly over both pedals before they can be activated properly. To teach the correct placement of the left foot, ask the student to 1. Place the left heel on the floor slightly to the left of the una corda pedal. Angle the heel to the left, away from the direction of the damper pedal. 2. Place the ball (or arch) of the foot on the una corda pedal. 3. Place the toes on the sostenuto pedal. Point them toward the damper pedal. 4. Practice depressing each pedal separately in this position: A. Depress and release the una corda pedal by applying pressure with the ball or arch of the left foot.

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223 Do not apply pressure to the toes to avoid activating the sostenuto pedal. B. Depress the sostenuto pedal by applying pres sure from the right side of the foot with the toes. Do not apply pressure from the left side of the foot so that the una corda pedal is not activated. 5. Practice operating both pedals consecutively by shifting the weight of the left foot from one pedal to the other. Both pedals must remairi firmly depressed throughout. 6. Depress and release both pedals simultaneously. After the student is comfortable with the correct feel for activating both pedals with the left foot, these techniques can be applied to a few simple exercies. Ask the student to repeat Steps 4, 5, and 6 slowly, while play ing chords on the keyboard. When he or she becomes adept at this add the damper pedal, changing it with each chord. In the following example, the una corda pedal is depressed first, at the beginning of the first measure. The sostenuto pedal is depressed immediately after the second note is played. The damper pedal is added last. Example P: Ravel "Valses nobles et sentimentales" Sourdine p '------' S.P.

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224 The closing measures of the second movement of Ravel's Sonatine utilize all three pedals and employ a number of techniques. If this passage is played by using partial pedal changes instead of the sostenuto pedal, much of the sonority and effect is lost. Besides coordinating all three pedals, the pianist must employ the technique of silent key depression and control the level of the dampers with the keys and the damper pedal. The most problematic spot in this example involves sustaining the fifth in the bass during the last two measures. The fifth can be sustained by the sostenuto pedal, but other notes are being played at the same time, and the damper pedal is being used. Both hands release the keys in the second measure at the fermata. While this is an ideal place for the fifth to be depressed silently and caught in the sostenuto pedal, additional techniques are needed because the pedal resonance of the previous measure continues into this measure. The following suggestions are recommended in teaching the use of all three pedals in this passage. Ask the student to do the following: 1. Play the first measure using a full depression of the damper pedal. Gently vibrate the pedal at the fermata to enhance and diminish the tones slightly. 2. Continue the gentle pedal vibrato, but slowly and gradually let the pedal rise to the point at which the

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! sound begins to taper a little. Hold the pedal in this position. 225 3. Silently depress the "Db" "Ab" fifth in the left hand. 4. Depress the sostenuto pedal. When the fifth is played later, it will be sustained automatically in the sostenuto pedal. Example Q: Ravel Sonatine r.,.. i ~. : ,-,/ S.P. One of the most familiar musical examples employing the use of all three pedals is "Clair de lune" by Debussy. Because of the wide separation between the low bass octave and the high register of the upper voices, this passage is frequently performed using just the una corda and the dam per pedals. However, the wide spacing also facilitates the use of the sostenuto pedal. While it is not easy to manip ulate all three pedals at once, every available technique should be used to convey the composer's written intent.

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Example R: Debussy "Clair de lune" from Suite Bergamasque Tempo ruba:,:::t;:,o ________ ,,-,......, ,__----~~ Teaching Unit 21: Pedagogical Sequence for Implementing Piano Pedaling Techniques 226 Artistic pedaling is based upon an understanding and command of basic pedaling techniques. Just as finger technique should be analyzed methodically and mastered during the student's course of study, the use of the pedals should receive similar attention. Fine piano playing is impossible without the correct use of the three pedals. A careful examination of pedaling techniques is necessary to decide how and when to use the pedals correctly. The study of pedaling should begin early in the student's musical training. However, if it is introduced too early, bad habits may be formed that will have to be corrected at a later date. For example, if a child is allowed to put one foot under the heel of another in order

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227 to reach the pedals, that habit will need to be corrected later. On the other hand, if the student is not taught to pedal correctly in the beginning, a haphazard use of the pedals will probably result, which can damage the student's musical performance and his or her aural perception. Prerequisites In general, the student should be able to meet certain physical and musical requirements before being taught to use the pedals. These include the ability to: (1) reach the pedals without sacrificing correct posture at the key board, (2) coordinate hand and foot work, and (3) operate each finger independently. A familiarity with the more rudimentary concepts of elementary harmony is also helpful. The teacher can capitalize on a student's natural curiosity and introduce techniques and concepts of pedaling as the need arises and as they are encountered within each piece. However, pedaling is a complex subject. Numerous techniques exist for the use of each pedal, and various applications can be made within each technique. A teacher who is thoroughly familiar with pedaling techniques will be better able to implement them at times appropriate for ~ach student. Pedagogical Sequence In order to obtain the best teaching and learning results, the teacher should follow a pedagogical sequence

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228 for introducing each pedaling technique that presents the concepts in a logical, systematic order. However, no hard and fast rules can be made. After considering the age and maturity of the student, the teacher must carefully in troduce the various concepts of pedaling, as well as the subtleties within each concept. It is not necessary to introduce new aspects of pedaling at each consecutive lesson, nor is this advisable. The student should be given sufficient time to become comfortable with each technique and to allow each new step to sink in. Despite its recognized importance, the teaching of musical and artistic pedaling has frequently been ignored by many piano teachers. Perhaps one reason is the belief that ultimately the ear is the best and only judge of how much pedal to use, and every piano and every hall is different, to say nothing of the personality of the per former. While this is true, to the extent that the student is not taught each facet of piano playing, the quality of his or her musical understanding and performance is diminished. Preliminary Studies Before a student is introduced to the various pedaling techniques, he should posses certain basic skills and knowledge. The first lesson in pedaling should include a brief explanation of the function of the three pedals as

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229 well as an examination of the piano's damper mechanism. Let the student look inside the piano in order to see and hear what happens when the pedals are used. Demonstrate the use of the pedal for the student as each one is intro duced. If the student can understand a few elementary principles of harmonics, then he or she can better appre ciate why some combinations of sounds are harsher to listen to than others and how good pedaling can overcome unneces sary clashes of sounds. A proper seating position and the correct placement of the foot on the pedals are essential from the beginning. Have the student practice depressing each pedal and re leasing it without removing the foot from either the floor or the pedal and making as little mechanical noise as possible. When this is an easy movement, teach legato pedaling. The pedals are rarely used by very young students because of physical limitations and because they are occupied with note reading and fingering. One of the few instances where the damper pedal might be used is for sustaining the final chord of a section or composition. Many piano methods coordinate the teaching of all aspects of piano technique, including the introduction of the pedals along with appropriate repertoire. Beginning students should not go beyond pedaling the final chords of pieces until they are able to execute finger legato.

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230 Take time to establish good pedaling with both the foot and the ear, because the use of the ear is of prime importance at this stage. Encourage students to listen to each other's pedaling and to add pedal to examples played by the teacher. Simple chord progressions can be used for exercises, as well as hymn tunes and chorales. Pedaling Techniques Damper pedal. The damper pedal may be depressed in one of three ways: before the note, with the note, or after the note has been played. Simultaneous depression of the foot and hands is easier to execute than legato pedaling, which requires a syncopated use of the pedal. However, a number of reasons preclude introducing simultaneous pedal activation first. Its use is limited and specialized, and it necessitates careful listening to control the pedal release. The majority of pedaling techniques require the damper pedal to be depressed after the note has been played. Depressing the pedal with the note then becomes a common fault that should be corrected as soon as possible. In addition, the damper pedal may be depressed either fully or partially. The more basic techniques of pedaling involve a full depression of the pedal, and these tech niques are normally presented first. The concepts involved in legato pedaling can be used naturally to explain legatissimo pedaling. Legatissimo

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231 pedaling can be applied in many of the same situations as legato pedaling, but the student will be required to listen more closely to differentiate between the two. Using the pedal for rhythmic effects such as accents and for a waltz type bass is perhaps the logical extension of applying pedal to chorales and hymns. Before progressing much farther in the use of the pedals, the student should be able to produce a good legato connection using the fingers alone, without the use of the damper pedal. The student may have encountered this con cept earlier in his repertoire, but, if not, it should be introduced now. It may seem logical to teach finger pedaling prior to teaching legatissimo pedaling so that the overlapping legato effect is produced first by the fingers alone. However, finger pedaling requires a coor dination and technical independence of the fingers that is not required in the other pedaling techniques. Also, the overlapping effect of the harmonies can be reproduced only by the pedal and does not require the fingers to sustain each tone. If finger pedaling is introduced too soon, it may detract from, rather than support, finger independence. Staccato pedaling can easily be taught next, since the student's aural perception should be sufficiently acute to enable him to play and pedal with clarity. Staccato pedal ing requires the pedal to be activated and released with the notes being played. This involves careful timing.

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232 Staccato pedaling can be followed by portato pedaling, which also involves a careful but more gradual release of the pedal. The damper pedal can be used in combination with finger technique to project phrasing and articulation by a careful timing of its activation and release. Pedaling to enhance phrasing and articulation employs several types of pedaling, especially portato pedaling. It can provide a good introduction to partial pedaling because at times it is necessary to vibrate the damper pedal slightly. Melodic pedaling does not refer to one specific tech nique but to pedaling primarily those elements that enhance the melodic material. It precludes using the pedal in a harmonic function and requires very careful listening skills. Partial pedaling. When the student has mastered these techniques for full pedaling, he or she can progress to the more sophisticated uses of the damper pedal for partial pedaling. Of these five techniques, half-damping, or depressing the damper pedal only partially, is perhaps the least complex. Pedal vibrato, pedal diminuendo, and half pedaling all involve combinations of both full and partial pedaling. Taught in this order, a logical, progressive sequence of concepts is established. Pedal diminuendo utilizes the vibrating motion of pedal vibrato but requires a gradual ascent of the pedal to diminish the sound. Half

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233 pedaling is more difficult to execute, since the initial full depression of the pedal retains those notes in the lower portion of the keyboard, while partial pedaling releases those in the upper register. A careful control of the pedal's ascent is imperative in this technique. Flutter pedaling is one of the more difficult forms of partial pedaling to execute. This technique requires more physical skill in that it utilizes very rapid motions of the toe. It also requires a certain amount of stamina to maintain. At this point, the student has learned all of the specific techniques for utilizing the damper pedal. Through combinations of these techniques, the damper pedal may be applied in various ways to achieve specific effects. Pedaling for dynamic effects capitalizes on the damper pedal's ability to enhance tone quality. While this capacity is one of the more basic functions of the damper pedal, its use in this technique involves a complex coordination between the hands and the pedal as well as careful timing between depressing and releasing the notes. Using the damper pedal to deliberately create a blur is contradictory to its use in nearly every other situa tion. Pedal blurring is a technique that is obviously delayed until after the student is able to apply the pedal in an artistic manner. This technique calls for a dis criminating use of the damper pedal.

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234 The damper pedal may be applied either melodically or harmonically to a musical composition. Harmonic pedaling requires an understanding of the harmonic structure of the piece. It is an advanced form of pedaling that combines musical knowledge with a number of pedaling skills. One of the most difficult techniques to execute suc cessfully is pedaling one hand and not the other. While this may seem an impossibility at first, careful timing and coordination between activation and release of the notes and the pedal are required. In some musical passages, sufficient time is allowed through rests to accomplish this. But often this technique must be executed quite rapidly. Una corda pedal. Let the student experiment with the use and mixture of sounds by using both pedals. The una corda pedal is often introduced after the student has mastered a few basic techniques for the damper pedal such as legato pedaling and pedaling for rhythmic effects. By then, the student will probably be studying repertoire that warrants the use of the una corda pedal. This pedal should not be introduced too soon, since there may be a temptation for the student to use it as a crutch rather than to pro duce the necessary changes in tone quality through finger technique. However, a careful and limited use of the una corda pedal can enhance the dynamic capabilities of finger technique. Pre-pedaling is often combined with the use of

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235 the una corda pedal, especially when the dynamic marking of the piece is pianissimo. Sostenuto pedal. Sostenuto pedaling is generally introduced later for a number of reasons. Many pianos do not have a sostenuto pedal, and many of those that do have one that is poorly regulated or that functions improperly. Because a pianist cannot rely with certainty on the availa bility of the sostenuto pedal for a performance, it is wise to have an alternate means of pedaling available. Similar effects can often be achieved through a combination of partial pedaling techniques using the damper pedal. The performer must often decide when it is effective and appropriate to use the sostenuto pedal, since written indications for its use are scarce. Sostenuto pedaling utilizes a number of advanced techniques that require careful coordination and timing. In addition, it is sometimes necessary to employ the damper and una corda pedals when using the sostenuto pedal, so that all three pedals are activated simultaneously. These techniques require the student to be both physically and musically mature. Conclusion Beyond a certain point, a sequential order for teaching pedaling techniques becomes less realistic and practical than that of teaching finger technique. A

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236 pianistic course of study is not generally planned around a sequential introduction of pedaling techniques. Most of these concepts will need to be taught with the repertoire as they are encountered. This may involve the teaching of more than one pedaling concept at a time, because musical compositions usually require the use of more than one pedaling technique. Individual preferences for pedaling differ greatly between artists. This may account for some of the reason why the sound produced by one pianist can be so different from that produced by another, even when their skills and instrument are the same. Nevertheless, a teacher should not leave pedaling to the intuition of the student until the student has completely mastered a step-by-step process of thinking, listening, and planning in the practice of pedaling techniques.

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CHAPTER 4 FIELD TESTING AND VALIDATION One evaluation design proposed by Stake (1972) employs the gathering of data from the systematic observation of the use of materials and procedures. The information is then recorded in both description and judgment matrices according to observations made (1) before training or requisite conditions, (2) during training or processes, and (3) after training or outcomes. Because no systematic materials currently exist for the teaching of pedaling on the piano, a single program was utilized. It met the following criteria: (1) it involved both descriptive and judgmental data, (2) it emphasized a combination of antecedent conditions, transactions, and outcomes, and (3) it indicated the congruence between what was intended and what occurred. Pilot Validation Prior to conducting validation procedures, the materials were examined by twenty MTNA certified master teachers to secure comments and suggestions that would be useful in refining the pedagogical units developed for this 237

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study. The pilot testing of the materials took place during August and September of 1988. 238 The certified piano teachers were each sent eleven sample teaching units to evaluate, along with a response form to complete for each unit. The form called on them to evaluate specific items, as well as to provide general comments about the content and format. They were requested to write directly on the units if necessary for clarifi cation. The respondents then were asked to return all materials in the stamped, self-addressed envelope that was provided. They were also asked to indicate whether or not they would be interested in receiving additional units to evaluate. Without exception, the comments were highly favorable and reinforced the need for a systematic presentation of pedaling techniques. As one teacher pointed out: "In all my materials, I have virtually no instruction on pedaling. This is a very needed technique that is lacking in adequate instruction." Although the teaching units were still in a formative stage and the respondents had seen only a repre sentative sample, another teacher commented: "It is the most complete set of materials on pedaling that I have ever seen." The respondents in general consistently commented that the teaching units were clearly written and easy to follow. They felt that the examples chosen were very clear and

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239 illustrative of each technique. They commented that the information, organization, and presentation of the material was was well-thought out, well-presented, and very thor ough. One respondent stated: "I applaud your thoroughness and artistry in attempting to categorize pedaling tech niques." Some of the respondents commented that they felt inadequate or unable to offer suggestions. As one teacher replied: "You have taught me more than I can help you." Several encouraged the publication of this study, calling it "masterful" and "impressive." A few suggestions were offered by several of the respondents, and those were incorporated into the revision of the teaching units. The suggestions were to (1) in clude more examples, (2) include easier examples as well, (3) clarify some of the diagrams, (4) include some examples of "direct" pedaling to precede legato pedaling, and (5) stress the importance of listening. As a result, more examples were added, and examples representative of different levels of achievement were incorporated as well. Several diagrams were revised. Preliminary exercises involving "direct" pedaling were added prior to teaching legato pedaling. Finally, more attention was placed upon the importance of aural aware ness, and additional exercises involving listening skills were included as well.

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240 Validation of Materials Validation Procedures The pedagogical procedures that were developed in the teaching units have seldom been available for consideration by piano teachers. Therefore, validation was desirable, as is pointed out in Chapter One. A process of validation was employed that utilized dual means of securing the views of a group of experts about the usefulness and quality of the materials. The pedagogical materials for teaching pedaling were validated in two ways. One was extensive in nature. They were examined and validated by a representative sample of piano teachers who are certified by the Music Teachers National Association (MTNA). The other was intensive. Each of the twenty pedagogical units was subjected to a structured analysis as to its effectiveness when actually used with students. This procedure was undertaken to provide a thorough, systematic study of the strengths and weaknesses of the various units when applied in instruc tion. The information gained from both types of validation provided the dual dimensions of breadth and depth. Many curriculum project evaluators are adopting the definition of evaluation that includes not only the traditional description of pupil achievement, but also the description of instruction and the relationships that exist

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241 between them (Stake, 1972). In his paper, "Evaluation for Course Improvement," Cronbach (1963) proposes that the main objective for evaluation is to uncover durable relation ships that are appropriate for guiding future educational programs. Scriven (1967) suggests that evaluators have the responsibility for passing on the merit of an educational practice and that evaluation cannot take place until judg ment has been passed. In his view, both judgment data and descriptive data are essential to the evaluation of educa tional programs. Extensive Review of the Teaching Units The extensive phase of the validation process was accomplished during a five-month period from April to September, 1989. The procedures described below were followed to secure expert opinion about the materials during this time. Sample. The 1987-88 Directory of Nationally Certified Teachers published by the Music Teachers National Associa tion was used to provide the list of certified teachers from which a random sample of names was drawn on the computer. The Directory includes the seven MTNA divisions and encompasses the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. The Music Teachers National Association, founded in 1876, is the oldest professional music teachers' organi

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242 zation in the United States. Its membership includes concert artists, faculty members of universities, colleges, and other musical institutions, as well as independent teachers of applied music. One of the important programs sponsored by MTNA is teacher certification, which is offered to members on a voluntary basis. A primary goal of this program is to strengthen the profession of private music teaching by establishing a required body of knowledge to be mastered and setting up requirements and awards for current and prospective teachers to encourage professional growth. Certification may be granted in all generally recognized areas of music study. The MTNA Certification program was established on the principle that while performing ability and musical knowl edge are prerequisites for good teaching, these capabili ties alone are insufficient to confer the ability to teach well. The requirements and tests of certification are mainly concerned with those skills and experiences that improve the teacher as a teacher. MTNA certification affirms that a teacher has met a national standard in a designated field. Therefore, those teachers holding certification from MTNA comprise the "backbone" of quality piano teaching in the United States. MTNA offers four types of certificates: the Pro fessional Certificate (initially called the MTNA National Certificate), the Master Teacher Certificate, the Associate

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243 Certificate, and the College Faculty Certificate. With the exception of the College Faculty Certificate, in order to achieve this level of certification teachers must success fully complete comprehensive written, oral, and performance examinations in music theory, history and literature, peda gogy, and performance. These examinations are prepared, administered, and evaluated by the National Certification Board of MTNA. In addition to the above, a lifetime Emeritus Certificate may be awarded to those certified teachers who reach the age of sixty-five. The Professional and Associate Certificates are based on earned degrees from accredited institutions of higher learning. The Professional Certificate is awarded to candidates who hold a valid state certificate and meet one of the following requirements: (1) hold a bachelor's degree in music with a specified number of hours in the desired area of certification, (2) serve full or part-time on the music faculty of a nationally accredited institution for at least two years, or (3) successfully complete the MTNA Professional Certificate Examination. This certificate is valid for five years but remains valid for full-time faculty for the duration of their employment. The Associate Certificate correlates with associate degree programs and music curricula of two-year community colleges. All applicants for the Associate Certificate must successfully complete the MTNA Pedagogy Examination.

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244 A teacher may submit application in one applied performance medium only, and according to one of two requirements: (1) successful completion of the Associate Certificate Examination, or (2) graduation from an approved institution with a specified number of credits earned in designated areas, along with submission of a 35-minute tape of a performance by the applicant and by at least two of the applicant's students. The Associate Certificate is valid for five years. The Master Teacher Certificate is designed to recognize accomplishments of leaders in the music teaching profession. It is the highest level of certification in MTNA. The Master Teacher Certificate is available to active members who have had a minimum of ten years teaching experience in the area of certification. It is awarded on the basis of points allotted for achieveme n t in two or more of the following categories: (1) advanced degrees, (2) independent study with an artist teacher, (3) public performance, and (4) professional activities. The Master Teacher Certificate is valid as long as the teacher maintains active membership in MTNA. The College Faculty Certificate is the most recent addition to the national certification program. It is awarded to candidates who are full-time college faculty members of no less than five years at an accredited institution. This certificate does not require renewal,

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245 and is valid as long as the teacher maintains MTNA membership and is employed full-time by an institution of higher learning. The College Faculty Certificate had not been implemented at the writing of this dissertation and was therefore not considered. All three available levels of certification were included in this study to ensure a more representative sample of the various levels of teaching. According to the Directory, 4,000 teachers are currently certified in various fields of music teaching. By far the largest percentage of these are professional certified teachers. Less than two hundred teachers (or about 5 percent) hold the Master Teacher Certificate, and only six teachers (or about .15 percent) hold the Associate Certificate. While professional certified teachers reside in every state, thirteen states are not represented by master certified teachers. Only those teachers holding professional, associate, and master certification in piano and piano pedagogy were utilized in this study. Sample of expert opinion. Sixty-three names were randomly selected from a total population of 2,763 from the 1987-88 Directory of Nationally Certified Teachers. The twenty teaching units plus the summary were considered collectively for purposes of validation as comprising a total of twenty-one distinct units. The twenty-one units

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246 were randomly divided so that two of the units were randomly assigned to each respondent. By using sixty-three experts, each unit's validity was assessed six times. A random sequence was devised to select names in addition to the original sixty-three, in order to achieve at least a 90 percent response rate. Each nationally certified teacher was first sent a stamped, self-addressed return postcard to indicate whether or not he or she would be willing to participate in the study. The writer requested that the postcards be acknowl edged by return mail. Non-respondents or those who did not wish to take part in the study were replaced by additional names from the MTNA list. A period of two to three weeks was requested for the return of the completed forms. After this time, all non respondents were sent a follow-up letter. Respondents who made unclear suggestions or who indicated that they would like to communicate further were contacted by telephone. Validation forms and procedures. Identical explanatory cover letters and response questionnaires were sent to each respondent. (See Appendices A and B). A separate validation form was included for each unit. (See Appendix C). The respondents were asked to examine the materials and to validate them according to (1) ideas, (2) pedagogical materials, (3) order of presentation in terms of the student's technical development, (4) pedagogical

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processes, (5) musical development, and (6) stylistic factors. Categorization of the Units 247 The teaching units were grouped into four major cate gories according to requisite and prerequisite pedaling skills that the student should posses in order to learn each pedaling technique correctly. The four major categories and the related pedaling units within each one are listed below: Category One: full pedaling. This category includes those pedal techniques that employ a basic use of the damper pedal to connect the tones. The pedaling techniques in this category are legato pedaling, legatissimo pedaling, pre-pedaling, and pedaling one hand and not the other. Category Two: partial pedaling. These pedaling techniques require a partial release of the damper sound. They include half-damping, pedal vibrato, pedal diminuendo, flutter pedal, and half pedaling. Category Three: pedaling to enhance rhythm, dynamics, and phrasing. The pedaling in this category includes those techniques that use the damper pedal in combination with finger technique to enhance the rhythmic, dynamic, or melodic elements. These techniques are pedaling for rhythmic effects, staccato pedaling, portato pedaling, finger pedaling, melodic pedaling, pedaling to enhance

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phrasing and articulation, and pedaling for dynamic effects. 248 Category Four: the use of two or more pedals simul taneously. These techniques include una corda pedaling, sostenuto pedaling, pedaling for color and special effects, and harmonic pedaling. Intensive Review of the Pedagogical Units Teaching the units. To emphasize the aspect of the validation of the pedagogical units on pedaling, the investigator selected four certified piano teachers to teach at least one of the units each. The teachers each selected from one to three students who were at the appropriate stage to learn the pedaling technique. The teacher incorporated the teaching of pedaling concepts into those students' piano lessons. The teaching of that portion of the lesson was recorded on audio tape for later analysis by the researcher and a panel of two certified MTNA piano teachers according to the categories previously mentioned. Observations were also recorded during a second les son, after the student had practiced the technique for a minimum of two hours. Validation consisted of conclusions drawn that were based upon a compilation of data collected from both observations, from telephone conversations with the individual teachers, and from the response forms that

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they were asked to complete. validation form). (See Appendix C for the 249 This portion of the intensive phase of the validation process was accomplished during a nine-month period between December, 1988 and September, 1989. Review of the tapes. A panel of three certified MTNA piano teachers was selected to act as adjudicators in reviewing each of the four tapes together with the researcher. The adjudicators met in September, 1989, to analyze the tapes according to the categories of requisite conditions, processes, and outcomes that were specified in each teaching unit. Sheets for analysis were prepared for their use. (See Appendices E and F). Their analyses focused on the degree of congruence between what the unit was intended to teach and what the students actually accomplished with the instructional unit. Incorporation of the Results Each of the validation procedures employed to validate the pedagogical materials was analyzed independently. The opinions of experts were based on the analysis of responses to questionnaires, which were then grouped according to the individual units and types of suggestions. Conclusions were drawn regarding the pedagogical content and usefulness of each of the teaching units.

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250 The tape recordings of the teaching portion of the representative units were analyzed according to specified categories. The information from the analysis sheets was grouped according to the type of suggestions that were offered. The information obtained from both the extensive and intensive reviews of the material was then incorporated into the study, depending on the amount and nature of the suggestions offered. When several respondents mentioned the same point in the pilot testing of the units, changes were made in the original material incorporating those suggestions. Because only a few suggestions were offered in the validation processes, those comments and suggestions are included in a summary of respondent comments in the following chapter.

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CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS One of the most neglected and misunderstood areas in piano pedagogy is the teaching of piano pedaling tech niques. Despite its recognized importance, the teaching of the correct use of the pedals is in a fragmentary state (Bernstein, 1981) due to both ignorance and neglect (Banowetz, 1985). The most commonly cited fault in this area is the lack of teaching. Pedaling is sometimes referred to as the most diffi cult branch of higher piano study (Cooke, 1976). Appro priate pedaling is an art that conveys not only a thorough grasp of the composer's intent, but also the artistic intelligence of the performer. Therefore, a thorough understanding and mastery of the use of each of the three pedals is essential for anyone who seeks to play at a high artistic level. As indicated in Chapter 2, few systematic studies exist on the teaching of piano pedaling or the teaching of pedaling techniques. Until the publication of Banowetz's book on pedaling in 1985, no single comprehensive source of pedaling techniques had been published. References on pedaling appear plentiful, but only a comparative few show 251

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252 much depth or comprehensiveness. The lack of systematic studies on pedaling has resulted in confusing and sometimes conflicting theories. Summary The purpose of the present study was the systematic development and validation of pedagogical procedures for teaching students the correct use of the three pedals of the contemporary grand piano. Secondary related purposes included (1) the development of preliminary exercises to foster prerequisite skills prior to teaching pedaling techniques, (2) the classification of pedaling techniques according to related skills employed in executing each technique, and (3) the formulation of a pedagogical se quence for introducing piano pedaling techniques in a logical, systematic order. The first step in the development of the study was to compile and synthesize the available knowledge about the many techniques that exist for the use of the three pedals. After identifying the various techniques, a series of pedagogical procedures was developed for the teaching of each pedaling technique. Twenty-one teaching units were developed that collectively form a comprehensive and systematic program of study of the three pedals of the piano. These units are the heart of this study, and they comprise most of Chapter 3.

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253 The first twenty of these units each describe the function, application, teaching procedures, and pedagogical aspects of one pedaling technique. The twenty-first unit presents a systematic sequence for introducing the previous twenty pedaling techniques to students in a logical, sys tematic order. Most of the pedagogical procedures described in the teaching units have seldom been subjected to research analysis. Therefore, some examination of them by expert piano teachers seemed desirable. The validation of the teaching units was accomplished using two types of vali dation: extensive and intensive. Results of Extensive Validation Sixty-three master piano teachers were randomly selected to participate in this phase of the validation process. They represented a cross-section of the 2,763 nationally certified MTNA teachers of piano and piano pedagogy. Of the sixty-three expert piano teachers who were sent the teaching materials, sixty-one responded and participated in the study, for a rate of 97 percent. In order to achieve this response rate, the teachers were first sent an introductory letter explaining the purpose of the study (see Appendix A), along with a stamped, self-addressed post card to indicate their willingness to participate in the study. A follow-up

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254 letter was sent to non-respondents and to those who did not return the material by the deadline. Telephone calls were also made to secure additional respondents. The results of the extensive validation are comprised of a compilation of data from (1) the general questionnaire asking opinions about the overall value of the units, and (2) the questionnaire for each individual teaching unit (see Appendices Band C). The data were then collated and analyzed accordingly. General Questionnaire The questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part sought to determine the average ages of students taught by the respondents. This information was secured to determine if there were differences in the teaching units among respondents who teach younger students, those who teach older ones, and those who teach students of all ages. The second part of the questionnaire obtained general comments from the respondents about the materials. Average age of students. Forty of those who respond ed, or 66 percent, indicated that they teach students of all ages. Seventeen, or 28 percent, teach students in grades one through twelve, and 4, or 7 percent, teach only college students. With one exception, the same types of comments were received from teachers in each of the three age levels. Of those who taught younger students, 12, or

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255 71 percent, requested the inclusion of easier teaching examples. In comparison, this suggestion was made by only 11, or 28 percent, of those who teach students of all ages, and by none of those who teach only college students. General comments. Twenty-seven respondents, or 44 percent, did not comment directly on the questionnaire itself, but wrote overall comments about the units on the validation form they received for the various teaching units. Therefore, comments about the units were gathered from both the general questionnaire and the validation form for each unit. Comments and suggestions pertaining to the individual teaching units are presented later in this chapter along with each unit. The remaining more general comments are grouped as follows. The number and percentage include only those respondents who provided overall comments. Favorable. Fifty-seven respondents, or 93 percent expressed favorable overall comments regarding the teaching units they had seen. A number of comments were repeated frequently, however, only one example is cited from those with marked similarity to avoid repetition. They are in cluded as one phase of the validation process. Examples of these comments include: "impressive;" "meticulously organized and presented;" "fine paper;" "masterful;" "very complete;" "logical;" "well written;" "impressive clarity of description and sequencing of the

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256 tasks;" "good pedagogy!" "very well done;" "excellent;" "enjoyable reading;" "very successful;" "most helpful;" "great!" "interesting;" "really fine;" "carefully thought out;" "brilliant!" "enjoyed;" "very exciting ideas!" "appreciated;" "thank you;" "very clear;" "excellent presentation;" "important;" "very good specifics;" "most informative;" "beautiful, beautiful paper;" "valuable teaching tools;" "well organized;" "explained very well;" "very clear and logical;" "well thought out and developed naturally;" "diagrams were perfect!" "very clear expla nations;" "very well done;" "good description and orderly development of exercises;" "no suggestions--it sounds perfect to me;" "the objectives provide everything in perfect order;" "very well presented!" "very clearly and logically presented sequence;" "I approve;" "very concise, logical, and easy to understand;" "no suggestions--the presentation is excellent;" "good;" "very thorough research;" "musical examples and presentation of the material is excellent;" "a wonderful teaching idea;" "good luck!" "very clear and helpful;" "presentation is clear, logical, and complete!" "very understandable and easy to follow;" "you are addressing two important areaspedaling and listening!" "certainly useful;" "presented in a logical way;" "impressed by the clarity of description and break-down and sequencing of the tasks--good pedagogy!" "much needed information;" "I liked the teaching units

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257 very, very much;" "materials are of a superior quality--the explanations and suggestions are written in a clear, con cise form [and are] easy to understand and follow;" "fan tastic endeavor;" "thorough without being overly 'wordy';" "sequence and articulation of this material make it very clear to understand and to apply;" "information presented is most in depth and is written in a most comprehensive manner;" "fills a very definite need;" "very complete and informative--would be extremely useful to teachers and students alike;" "very interesting and useful material for teachers and advanced piano students;" "worthwhile proj ect;" "materials show much careful consideration of this teaching problem;" "a lot of brain work;" "congratulations on an excellent pedagogical paper!" "fantastic!" "a labor of love;" "thrilled!" "never seen anything like it;" and "techniques are brilliantly presented!" Several expressed the wish that they had received instruction in pedaling in their early pianistic training, or that more teachers recognize its importance. Examples include: "I wish that I had been taught with this kind of information and logical detail;" "I wish I had had this kind of training when I first started lessons;" "I've had thirteen piano teachers and not one taught me how to pedal!" "this provides a logical explanation--many teachers give no attention to pedaling at all;" "this inspires me to spend more time with students helping them achieve the best

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258 pedaling for the music they are working on;" "I have never been taught [these pedaling techniques] before;" "no one has ever bothered to teach much about pedaling;" "I con gratulate you on selecting topics which are often misunder stood or put on a back burner and not used any more than one has to." Overall comments related to teaching the units in clude: "informative and provided immediate results when followed closely;" "logical and provides better playing;" "good--quick differences noted;" "the student had no problems with the techniques;" "very much interest shown after several practices, with a desire to perfect the technique;" "it was fun for my students--they liked the idea;" "very helpful--excellent exercises;" "excellent, typical musical examples in music commonly used with high school students;" "logical and enhances quality of performance;" "practical examples--easily used;" "examples are very well defined--the application and teaching tech niques are good and workable;" and "I tried this material with two students--both reacted quite favorably and attained a better command of the technique in a shorter time than I would have thought possible." A number of respondents telephoned to express appre ciation for the materials and to ask permission to copy what they had received for their own use. Several asked

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259 how they could purchase a copy of the completed work. A few expressed a desire to have a workshop or master class on the materials. Several others indicated that they felt privileged to have been included in the study. Many respondents urged publication of the materials. A few examples are cited here: "This material must be compiled and sold to piano teachers and pianists every where;" "if you prepare a book it would be most helpful to teachers;" "show publishers of method books your work that they might incorporate your techniques into their series;" "this is the basis for a valuable article;" "would love to see the entire work--do you have plans for publishing it?" "hope that it will be published and that it will be readily available;" "would love to purchase a copy;" "concise, well written, and will be of great value to both teachers and students;" and "if you have any problems getting a pub lisher, let me know." Less favorable. Four respondents, or 7 percent, expressed comments that were less favorable. These in clude: "a bit dry:" "I felt somewhat frustrated with the concepts even though I understood them and could see a need--it was a different viewpoint:" "the explanations are excellent for the teacher, but there are too many negatives to mention in a lesson:" and "I think the subject is not of enough substance to base your thesis on. [it] is given too much emphasis."

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260 Questionnaire for Teaching Units 1 20 A specific form was provided for each of the twenty teaching units, and another form was provided for gathering comments on the pedagogical sequence unit. The respondents were asked to review the teaching units and to critique them by examining the materials, by using them, and by conferences with students. The respon dents were also asked to consider the units according to: (1) pedagogical materials, (2) objectives, (3) student application, (4) order of presentation in terms of the student's technical development, (5) pedagogical processes, (6) importance and previous use made of the pedaling technique, and (7) the ability of the teacher to implement the technique according to the teaching unit. The following scale was used by the respondents in rating each of the first three categories: 5 Excellent 4 Very Good 3 Good 2 Fair 1 Poor An analysis of the materials, objectives, and student application follows for each teaching unit. The scores for each category were summed and divided by the number of respondents to provide a mean score for the category. The mean ratings of the various aspects of each category are presented in Table 1 for easier comparison.

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261 Table 1 Mean Ratin9:s for the Aspects of Teachin9: Units Category 1 : Materials Unit Explanation Application Procedures Examples Exercises 1. P ng 4.73 4.82 4.82 4.33 4.56 --2. Lega~ tissimo 4.80 4.90 4.70 5.00 5.00 ----3. Rhythmic pedaling 5.00 5.00 5.00 4.67 4.83 ----4. Una corda pedaling 5.00 5.0 0 4.88 4.5 0 4.71 ------5. Prepedaling 4.89 4.72 4.78 5.00 4.71 ----6. Finger pedaling 5.00 5.0 0 5.00 4.93 5.00 ------7. Staccato pedaling 4.88 4.63 4.71 4.57 4.60 --8. Portato pedaling 4.71 4.71 4.71 4.71 4.83 9. Phrasing / artic. 4.86 4.86 5.00 4.86 5.00 ----10. Melodic pedaling 4.50 4.75 4.63 4.75 4.86 ----11. Half damping 4.79 4.75 4.75 4.58 4.75 ----12. Pedal vibrato 4.86 4.8 3 4.67 4.83 4.83 --13. Pedal dimin. 5.00 4.88 4.88 4.75 5.00 ------14. Half pedaling 4.88 4.88 4.88 5.00 4.85 ----15. Flutter pedaling 5.00 4.83 4.83 4.83 5.00 ----16. Dynamic pedaling 4.86 4.71 --4.86 4.86 4.86 17. Pedal blurring 4.90 4.80 4.80 4.60 18. Harmonic pedaling 4.84 4.6 7 4.67 4.70 4.70 19. Pedaling one hand 4.50 4.7 5 4.7 5 4.88 4.88 20. Sostenuto pedaling 4.90 4.73 4.80 4.80 4.75 ------

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Table 2 Mean Ratings for the Aspects of Teaching Units Category 2: 1. 2. 3 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Unit peoaTing Legatissimo pedaling Rhythmic pedaling Una corda pedaTiii"g Pre pedaling Finger pedaling Staccat o pedaling Portat o peda li ng Phrasing / articulation 10. Melod ic pedaling 11. Half damping 12. Peda l vibrat o 13. Peda l diminuend o 14. Half pedaling 15. Flutter pedaling 16. Dynamic pedaling 17. Pedal blurring 18. Harmonic pedaling 19. Pedaling one han d 20. Sostenut o pedaling Useful 4.82 --4.9 0 5.00 --5.00 4.89 5.00 4.75 4.79 --5.00 --4.88 4.84 5.00 5.0 0 5.00 --5.00 --4.97 5.00 --5.0 0 4.8 8 --4.9 0 Objectives Logical Clear 4.64 4.8 0 5.00 4,90 5.0 0 5.0 0 4.8 8 4.71 4.8 9 4.78 5.00 5.0 0 4.63 4.88 4.43 4.43 4.71 4.71 4.86 4.8 3 4.84 4.84 5.0 0 4,8 6 5.00 4.8 6 4.88 4.38 4.83 5.0 0 4.8 6 4.86 5.0 0 4.9 0 4.8 0 4.8 0 4.8 8 4.8 8 4.5 5 4.5 6 262

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263 Table 3 Mean Ratings for the Aspects of Teaching Units Category 3: Student Application Unit Interest Understanding Beneficia l 1. Legato pedaling 4.50 4.50 4.50 2. Leaatissimo pe ahng 4.50 4.50 4.5 0 3. Rhythmic pedaling 4.50 4.67 5.0 0 4. Una corda pedaling 4.75 4.75 4.88 5. Prepedaling 4.33 4.50 4.6 7 6. Finger pedaling 4.50 4.50 5.00 7. Staccat o pedaling 4.40 4.30 4.4 0 8. Portat o pedaling 4.5 0 4.5 0 4.5 0 9. Phrasing / articulatio n 4.50 4.50 4.5 0 10. Melodic pedaling 4.6 0 4.2 0 4.6 0 11. Half damping 5.00 4.3 3 4.3 3 12. Pedal vibrat o 5.00 5.00 5.0 0 13. Pedal diminuend o 5.00 5.00 5.0 0 14. Half pedaling 5.00 5.00 5.0 0 15. Flutter pedaling 4.50 4.50 4.5 0 16. Dynamic pedaling 5.0 0 5.00 5.0 0 17. Pedal blurring 4.5 0 4.50 5.0 0 18. Harmoni c pedaling 5.0 0 5.00 5.0 0 19. Pedaling one hand 5.0 0 4.75 5.0 0 20. Sostenut o peoa ling 5.0 0 5.00 5.0 0

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264 The majority of teachers who responded did not try the materials with students. The reason most often given was that they were not teaching during the time the material was sent to them. Therefore, the data in Table 3 reflect only about a 40 percent response. Table 4 Combined Mean Ratings for the Aspects of Teaching Units Categories Grand Mean Score I. Materials 1. Explanation 4.85 2. Application 4.81 3. Procedures 4.81 4. Examples 4.73 5. Exercises 4.84 I I. Objectives 1. Useful 4.93 2. Logical 4.83 3 Clear 4.80 III. Student Application 1. Interest 4.63 2. Understanding 4.58 3. Beneficia l 4.72

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265 Table 5 Grand Mean Ratings for Individual Teaching Units Unit Materials Objectives Application Overall Mean Raung l. P ng 4.65 4.75 4.50 4.63 2. Lega-:tJ.SSJ.mO 4.88 4.93 4.50 4.77 --3. Rhythmic pedaling 4.90 5.00 4.72 4.87 --4. Una corda pedaling 4.82 4.86 4.79 4.82 5. Prepedaling 4.82 4.85 4.50 4. 72 ----6. Finger pedaling 4.99 5.00 4.67 4.89 ----7. Staccato pedaling 4.68 4.75 4.37 4.60 --8. Portato pedaling 4.73 4.55 4.50 4.59 ------9. Phrasing/ artic. 4.92 4.81 4.50 4.74 --10. Melodic pedaling 4.70 4.86 4.47 4.68 --11. Half damping 4.72 4.84 4.55 4.70 ------12. Pedal vibrato 4.8 0 4.95 5.00 4.92 --13. Pedal dimin. 4.90 4.95 5.00 4.95 14. Half pedaling 4.90 4.75 5.00 4.88 15. Flutter pedaling 4.90 4.94 5.00 4.95 16. Dynamic pedaling 4.83 4.90 5.00 4.91 --17. Pedal blurring 4.82 4.97 --4.92 4.90 18. Harmonic pedaling 4.72 4.87 5.00 4.86 --19. Pedaling one hand 4.75 4.88 ...!.:_g_ 4.85 20. Sostenuto pedaling 4.80 4.67 5.00 4.82 --

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266 Tables 6 10 indicate the general responses to teaching units 1 through 20. Not all respondents answered every question. The results are tabluated and expressed as percentages based upon the actual number of teachers who responded to each question. Out of the sixty-one possible responses, fifty-eight or more answered each item. Table 6 reconfirms the importance and use of legato pedaling as the one pedaling technique used most frequently by the majority of piano teachers. It also shows that a majority of the piano teachers either had never used the pedaling technique they had been sent, or had made very little use of it. It was not always easy to determine the exact extent, if any, to which the teacher was previously familiar with the technique. Several teachers indicated that they had sometimes used portions of a technique or had applied the technique in only a few of the suggested ways. For ex ample, several indicated that they taught "rhythmic pedal ing" but had applied the pedal only for accentuation or to project a waltz-type bass. At other times it was clear that the respondents were confusing terminology which may have produced an inappropriate response. For example, 60 percent indicated that they taught harmonic pedaling either quite often or to some extent. But an examination of their responses shows that they were only pedaling chords, which is more appropriately indicated as legato pedaling.

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Table 6 Previous Use of Pedaling Technique According to Percentage of Responses Unit None Very Little Some Muc h 1. Legat o pedaling --10 0 --2. Lega-:tissim o 75 25 --3. Rhythmic pedaling 45 25 3 0 --4. Una corda pedaling 2 5 2 5 50 --5. Prepedaling 29 29 14 2 e ----6. Finge r pedaling 17 83 7. Staccat o pedaling 1 7 33 33 17 8. Portat o pedaling --75 25 9. Phrasing / artic. 50 5 0 10. Melodic pedaling 6 7 33 --11. Half damping 3 3 33 33 12. Peda l vibrat o 10 0 13. Pedal dimi n 33 67 --14. Half pedaling 5 0 50 15. Flutte r pedaling 67 33 16. Dynamic pedaling 50 2 5 2 5 17. Pedal blurring 100 18. Harmonic pedaling 2 0 20 20 40 --19. Pedaling one han d 2 9 5 7 14 --20. Sostenut o pedaling 17 5 0 33 --267

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Table 7 Stage of Development at which a Particular Pedaling Technique Should be Introduced, According to Percentage of Responses Unit Beginning Elementary Intermediate Advanced 1. P ng 43 57 --2. Lega-:tl.SSl.mO 100 3. Rhythmic pedaling --100 --4. Una corda peaall.ng 33 67 --5. Prepedaling 33 67 --6. Finger pedaling 33 33 33 7. Staccato peclaiing --_7_5_ _2_5_ B, Portato pedaling --75 _2_5_ 9. Phrasing/ artic. 80 20 --10. Melodic pedaling --BO 20 11. Half damping --100 12. Pedal vibrato --20 80 13. Pedal dimin. 100 14. Half pedaling 20 80 15. Flutter pedaling _s_o_ so 16. Dynamic pedaling so so 17. Pedal blurring --100 18. Harmonic pedaling 20 60 _2_0_ --19. Pedaling one hand 17 83 20. Sostenuto peaall.ng 20 80 268

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269 Many of the responses received regarding the most appropriate stage for teaching a technique were too vague to be recorded accurately on this chart. Table 7 presents the results as best as they can be determined. Many teachers gave a generic response or answered in a very general way. Some examples include: "when the music calls for it why introduce any sooner?" "as it is needed:" "little by little:" "when playing original Chopin:" "when playing 'real literature':" "before needed in the reper toire:" and "when the student can do the prerequisites." The responses in this table also indirectly confirmed the sequential order of introducing the pedaling techniques presented in teaching unit 21. Therefore, the results of Table 7 further supported the findings of those who valida ted the pedagogical sequence unit. Table 8 indicates an overwhelming majority of the respondents believed that it is very important to teach the pedaling techniques that they had been sent. Yet, a com parison of Table 8 with Table 6 indicates that the majority of the teachers either had never or had seldom used these techniques previously in their teaching! This finding provides further confirmation of the need for instructional materials on pedaling. As one respondent replied: "Your project has clearly shown me, as I'm sure it will others, that there is not enough instructional material on pedal technique."

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Table 8 Importance of Teaching Individual Pedaling Techniques Acording to Percentage of Responses Unit Not Very Somewhat Very l. P ng 100 2. Legatissimo pedaling 25 75 3. Rhythmic pedaling _ill_ 4. Una corda pedaling 100 --5. Prepedaling --22 78 --6. Finger pedaling 100 --7. Staccato pedaling 100 --8. Portato pedaling --20 BO 9. Phrasing/ articulation 100 ----10. Melodic pedaling --100 --11. Half damping --100 --12. Pedal vibrato 17 50 33 --13. Pedal diminuendo 17 83 --14. Half pedaling 100 --15. Flutter pedaling 67 33 16. Dynamic pedaling 20 BO --17. Pedal blurring --20 BO 18. Harmonic pedaling --20 BO --19. Pedaling one hand 100 ----20. Sostenuto pedaling 17 83 --270

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271 Table 9 Agreement with Concepts in Teaching Units According to Percentage of Responses Unit No Yes 1. Legato pedaling 100 2. Le 3 atissimo pe allng 100 3. Rhythmic pedaling --100 4. Una corda pedaling 100 s. Prepedaling --100 6. Finger pedaling --100 7. Staccato pedaling --100 8. Portato pedaling --100 9. Phrasing/ articulation --100 10. Melodic pedaling --100 11. Half damping 100 12. Pedal vibrato 100 --13. Pedal diminuendo 100 --14. Half pedaling 100 15. Flutter pedaling 100 16. Dynamic pedaling 100 17. Pedal blurring 100 --18. Harmonicpedaling 100 19. Pedaling one hand 100 20. Sostenuto pedaling --_!.QQ_

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272 The results of Table 9 indicate strong agreement with the concepts in the units. Although the majority of teachers had not used the pedaling techniques before, Table 10 indicates that they overwhelmingly would feel comfortable in teaching the pedaling techniques with the information provided in the teaching units and transferring its use to other examples. Some responses include: "transfer should be easy;" "yes, I am anxious to start;" "yes, very;" "yes, although I would have to practice [the technique] myself!" and "I would feel comfortable teaching it as soon as I can develop some expertise myself." Other affirmative indications include "yes" because: "the techniques are explained precisely and I recognize the difference pedaling makes;" "it provides a logical explana tion;" "this technique is well presented;" "the presenta tion is very clear;" "having this detailed procedure in print is excellent;" "concepts are well explained and would be easy to use on other material;" "this information might be the tool with which a student might excel in his ex pression of his art;" "it really works--you have explained it very well;" "it is easily grasped and usable in many [instances];" "good pedaling is a combination of knowledge and skill, [therefore] I would not hesitate to teach this technique as explained in this material;" "it teaches the way I do;" "I like the way you have presented this;" "the

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273 Table 10 Ability to Teach Pedaling Techniques Using Information Provided in Teaching Units According to Percentage of Responses Unit No Yes 1. Leaal P ng 100 2. Leaatissimo 100 pe all.ng 3. Rhythmic pedaling 100 4. Una corda pedaling 100 5. Prepedaling 100 6. Finger pedaling 100 7. Staccato pedaling 100 8. Portato pedaling 100 9. Phrasing / articulation 100 10. Melodic pedaling 100 11. Half damping 100 12. Pedal vibrato 100 13. Pedal diminuendo 100 14. Half pedaling _!.Q_ 15. Flutter pedaling 100 16. Dynamic pedaling 100 17. Pedal blurring 100 18. Harmonic pedaling 100 19. Pedaling one hand 100 20. Sostenuto pedaling 100

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274 important parts are stressed and are applicable to other examples I like three points: 1) usually less is better than more, 2) teach by negative example, and 3) the most important element is the ear;" "this is a good way to help train the ear;" "it tells me what I need to know;" "it's good material;" "the teaching procedures were very helpful and would provide the student with excellent exercises to do when practicing;" "it is simple to do and rewarding musically to the student and other listeners;" "orderly sequencing and presentation of the materials helps secure optimum results." Validation of Pedagogical Sequence of Piano Pedaling Techniques The twenty-first teaching unit was also critiqued a total of six times. Since this unit presented a pedagogi cal sequence for implementing the twenty pedaling tech niques rather than the teaching of a particular pedaling technique, a slightly different format was used in seeking the validation of this unit (see Appendix D). The results of the questionnaire are tabulated for each question as follows: 1. Do you agree with the views on the sequence of presentation of pedaling techniques? All six of the respondents agreed with the sequence of presentation. No one offered changes or suggestions.

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275 2. Do the suggestions on the sequence seem logical? All six answered "yes" to this question. 3. In your opinion, how important is it to teach pedaling concepts in a systematic order? The respondents were asked to indicate their response to this question by checking one of five choices: "very important," "quite important," "somewhat important," "slightly important," and "not important." Five of the six respondents, or 83 percent answered that it is "very important" to teach pedaling concepts in a systematic order. The sixth respondent felt that it is "quite important." 4. Do you agree with the skills mentioned as being prerequisite to pedaling techniques, and should others be either added to or deleted from this list? All six respondents answered "yes," they did agree with the list of prerequisite skills and that the list is complete as it is presented. 5. Do you have any comments or suggestions regarding the teaching or implementation of these techniques? No suggestions were offered, and only positive comments were received. One respondent wrote: "I think there is a definite need for information such as this, since so many teachers have never really tried to identify and explain the various techniques."

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276 Results of Intensive Validation The twenty teaching units were grouped into four major categories: (1) Category One: full pedaling which includes legato pedaling, legatissimo pedaling, pre-pedaling, and pedaling one hand and not the other; (2) Category Two: par tial pedaling which includes half-damping, pedal vibrato, pedal diminuendo, flutter pedaling, and half pedaling; (3) Category Three: pedaling to enhance rhythm, dynamics, and phrasing which includes rhythmic pedaling, staccato pedal ing, portato pedaling, finger pedaling, melodic pedaling, pedaling to enhance phrasing and articulation, and pedaling for dynamic effects; (4) Category Four: use of two or more pedals simultaneously which includes una corda pedaling, sostenuto pedaling, pedaling for color and special effects, and harmonic pedaling. One or two teaching units were chosen as a representa tive sample from each major category, and four nationally certified piano teachers were selected to teach at least one unit each from the category they were given. The teachers then selected between one to three students who were at the appropriate stage to learn one of the pedaling techniques. The four teachers collectively taught five teaching units to a total of eleven different students. The portion of the lesson in which the chosen pedaling technique was taught was recorded. The portion of the

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277 lesson a week later in which the student demonstrated his or her accomplishment in pedaling after two hours of prac tice was also recorded. These recordings were then ana lyzed by the researcher and a panel of four MTNA nation ally certified teachers. One adjudicator, however, tended to rate the teachers on their general teaching rather than on their application of the material in the units. There fore, it was deemed advisable to omit the ratings of that particular adjudicator, even though they were generally very favorable. Prior to listening to the tapes, the researcher met with the adjudicators for a training session. General procedures for listening to the tapes, completing the forms, and assigning ratings were reviewed. The adjudi cators also examined the teaching units that they would be hearing on tape. In this way they could study the materi als in advance and have an opportunity to ask questions. Categories of Tapes The tapes that were analyzed consisted of representa tive teaching units from each category: Category I Full pedaling Teaching Unit 19 Pedaling one hand and not the other

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II Partial pedaling III Pedaling for rhythmic/ dynamic effects and phrasing IV Use of two or more pedals simultaneously Analysis of Tapes 278 13 Pedal diminuendo 15 Flutter pedaling 7 Staccato pedaling 20 Sostenuto pedaling The analysis of the taped lessons is divided into three parts: antecedent conditions, transactions, and outcomes. Expectations are set forth for each of these three categories. The antecedent stage involves the basic skills and conditions that should be present in order for the student to learn the pedaling technique. The trans actions part involves the presentation of the materials by the teacher. The outcomes stage is concerned with the application of the technique by the student. Conclusions were drawn based upon a comparison of the amount of con gruency between the observations and expectations during each of the three stages. The figure on the following page illustrates the basic format that was used for this portion of the validation process.

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279 Expectations O bservations Conclusions Antecedents Prerequu,ite Skills and Conditions for Student T ransactions Presentation o f Materia l s by the Teacher Outcomes Application by the Student Over a 11 Effectiveness of Teaching unit Figure 5-1 Model for Analysis of Tapes Expectations. In the antecedent stage, the following expectations are set forth: (1) the student does not know the particular pedaling technique, (2) the student is at the appropriate level to learn the technique, (3) the student is willing to practice and learn, (4) the student possesses the basic prerequisite skills to learning the technique, and (5) before coming to the second lesson the student will practice the technique for a minimum of two hours.

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280 Transactions. The transactions stage concerns the presentation of the material by the teacher. At this stage the teacher should: (1) review the correct positioning of the body and feet on the pedals, (2) follow the steps out lined in the teaching unit, using the examples provided, and (3) at the second lesson review the main concepts presented during the previous week's lesson. Outcomes. The outcomes stage involves the achievement of the technique by the student. It determines if the student: (1) has a clear understanding of the pedaling technique, and (2) after having practiced the technique demonstrates that he or she has learned it. The tapes were subjected to analysis by a committee to determine whether the following criteria were met: (1) The requisite conditions necessary for learning the technique were met by the student, (2) the teacher followed the suggestions in the teaching unit and was clear in doing so, and (3) the student did in fact learn the pedaling tech nique as demonstrated at his or her lesson the following week. Observations of Tapes The observations made by the committee were recorded on a separate form (see Appendix E). The results of the observations are tabled and presented on the following page:

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281 Table 11 Analysis of Mean Ratings of Observations of Tapes 0 = No 1 = Yes Categories Tapes 1 2 3 4 5 I. Antecedents (Student) 1. Cooperation 1 1 1 1 1 2. Adequate skills 1 1 1 1 1 3. Practice 1 1 1 1 1 II. Transactions (Teacher) 1. Clear explanations 1 1 1 1 1 2. Followed procedures 1 1 1 1 1 3. Used examples 1 1 1 1 1 4. Clear expectations 1 1 1 1 1 111. Outcomes (Student) 1. Learned technique 1 1 1 1 1 Conclusions A separate form was used to record the conclusions (see Appendix F). Conclusions were drawn based upon a comparison of the observations of the tape recorded lessons with the expectations for the antecedent conditions, the transactions, and the outcomes. The panel of adjudicators

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282 determined how well the conditions were met at each stage, and how successfully each stage was accomplished. The following scale was used to record the conclu sions: 5 = Excellent 4 = Very Good 3 = Good 2 = Fair 1 = Poor Table 12 Analysis of Mean Ratings of Conclusions of Tapes Categories Tapes I. Antecedents: Prerequisite skills 1. Were met by the student II. Transactions: Teacher presentation 1. Followed procedure 2. Explanations/expec tations made clear I I I. Outcomes: Student application 1. Learned technique 1 5 5 5 5 2 5 5 5 5 3 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 The panel of adjudicators determined the overall success and effectiveness of each of the six tea c hing units based upon an analysis of the tapes they had heard and t he materials they had seen. Their combined mean scores are

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283 given, based upon the same five-point scale previously used in tabulating the mean observations of the tapes. Table 13 Overall Grand Mean Ratings of Tapes Tapes: 1 2 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 General Comments The panel of adjudicators was asked to provide addi tional comments derived from their observations of the tapes that were pertinent to the study. One adjudicator wrote: "The five units we heard were very well worked up. These would be extremely valuable for teacher-learning refresher workshops." The following comments were received for each of the five pedaling techniques: Pedaling one hand. "Excellent, clear teaching and understanding by teacher and student~" "taught wellexcellent!" "well taught segment--instructions clear and followed well by teacher and student. Results--very good!" and "material uses an excellent example." Pedal diminuendo. "The teacher has been very thorough with four students--very evidently the learning took~" and "very thorough."

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284 Flutter pedaling. "Excellent explanations--good resultsr" "teacher used example student was already working on--this aided student in that she could concentrate on pedal and did not have to learn the musicr" "teacher adapted flutter pedal to student's level--student re sponded, showing she grasped the idea of partial pedaling running passager" and "excellent use of material by teacher." Staccato pedaling. "Very successful--good teaching and again, a very valuable teaching toolr" "excellent!" and "used an example that was different from one provided but was similar and very good. Very good unit--well explained--responsive student." Sostenuto pedaling. "Excellent teaching--projection remains at a high energy level, testing response of the student as the lesson developed. Student showed she had learned much from practice at homer" "excellent under standing--practice beyond what was requiredr" "very thorough teaching," and "well formulated explanations, teacher very thorough, highly motivated student." In addition to the written comments, the panel unani mously expressed a strong appreciation for the value of the materials as teaching tools for both teachers and students. They encouraged publication of the materials and presenta tions at workshops and conventions.

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285 Conclusions During the course of this study, several existing conditions became increasingly apparent: (1) Little has been written of a scholarly nature about piano pedaling techniques, (2) even less has been written about the teaching of piano pedaling, (3) little or no research has been conducted on either of the above, and (4) no system atic, comprehensive study exists on the teaching of piano pedaling techniques. Conclusions regarding the main thrust of the study can be drawn in terms of three criteria. The materials and concepts presented within the study should be: (1) system atic, (2) thorough, and (3) appropriate for the piano teachers who might use the materials. Systematic The study meets this criterion. Each of the twenty units dealing with a pedaling technique follows a logical format that includes: (1) a description of the technique, (2) application of the technique, (3) teaching procedures, (4) examples, and (5) appropriate exercises. The musical examples in each unit are included as exemplars of the possible use of the technique, as something teachers can consider when they teach their students the correct use of the pedals.

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In addition, the sequencing of the units was also systematically determined by the researcher. The units were grouped into logical categories and presented in a sequence in which one skill becomes a foundation for the next skill to be learned. Thorough 286 The study also meets this criterion. It presents twenty units on different pedaling techniques. Banowetz in his treatise on pedaling mentions only sixteen. Therefore, it is fair to say that the study is thorough in its cover age of pedaling techniques. In terms of its pedagogical materials, there is no similar yardstick against which to compare the study, because so little has been written on the teaching of pedaling. Pedagogical recommendations are contained in each unit. It is possible, of course, that additional pedagogical ideas could have been presented, but the ones that are included appear more than adequate for the particular technique. In addition, one unit is included on the sequencing of the teaching units, which adds to the pedagogical thoroughness of the study. Appropriate for Intended Users The determination of appropriateness was the purpose of the validation process, which solicited the opinions of MTNA certified teachers and analyzed the teaching of the

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287 units in actual piano lessons. The results of both aspects of the validation process were overwhelmingly positive. As the responses to the questionnaire about each of the units indicate, the teachers had highly favorable opinions of the work. The few suggestions that were received tended to deal with points that were beyond the scope of this study. For example, a few respondents made recommendations that were more appropriate for a method book on pedaling for piano students. While that may be a subsequent development resulting from this study, the systematic study of the teaching of pedaling is a necessary antecedent step. As was previously indicated, a number of respondents did, in fact, encourage the publication of the materials, and several asked how they could purchase or acquire a copy of the completed teaching units. A large percentage asked permission to keep the materials that had been sent to them. At each stage of the study, the apparent need for this type of research was reinforced. Not only did the respondents express appreciation for the materials they received, in their comments they also reflected their awareness of the lack of pedagogical materials on pedaling. The high consistency of the ratings gave further evidence that the concepts and techniques are pedagogically sound. Because each piano teacher did not review every pedaling technique, it was not possible to determine from

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288 this study how many techniques each teacher was familiar with or had used previously in his or her teaching. Nor was it the purpose of this study to uncover this infor mation. However, a number of piano teachers did indicate that they were unaware of the many techniques for the use of the three pedals. Several teachers either had not used all three pedals in their teaching, or they were not familiar with the pedaling technique they had been given. The audio tapes of the teaching of the units also produced favorable results. The students learned when they followed the procedures. Several teachers expressed sur prise at how quickly and efficaciously the students were able to learn and apply the concepts. In both the opinion of the teachers who examined the teaching units and the results obtained from application in actual instruction, the study meets the criterion of being appropriate for its intended use. Recommendations and Application Due to the lack of systematic studies on the teaching of piano pedaling, the present study can provide the basis of future research into this area. The pedagogical con cepts described in each teaching unit provide points for departure for other researchers who are interested in teaching this topic.

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289 For those who may wish to pursue further research in teaching piano pedaling, the following areas are a logical extension to the current limitations of the present study: 1. Make the pedagogical procedures more specific to the age and/or musical development of the student. 2. Adjust the format of the units so that the materials more closely resemble a piano method book on pedaling. 3. Compile more musical examples for teachers who might wish a compendium of potential musical works for teaching pedaling. 4. For those who may wish to conduct further obser vations and use of the materials, it is suggested that videotaping the students' learning rather than audio taping may provide more information. This will allow the observa tion of posture, foot placement on the pedals, activation of the pedals, and additional extraneous variables that may hinder or help the student to learn the pedaling technique. 5. Conduct follow-up studies of an ethnographic or qualitative nature to determine how artistic pedaling is acquired through the use of these materials. Such a study would provide a close examination of the efficacy of the materials developed within the present study for teaching. 6. Conduct an ethnographic study of piano teachers to determine how pedaling is currently being taught, and com

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290 pile the methods that are being used. The study could also examine the manner in which pedaling concepts are inte grated in the sequence of instructional materials. The researcher would suggest to others who may wish to replicate portions of the validation process that more emphasis be placed on teaching the materials. A separate form could be provided for the actual teaching of the units. More respondents could be asked specifically to teach the materials in addition to those who respond to the questionnaire. Additional teachers could be acquired to study the pedagogical sequence and could examine the grouping of the units into the various categories as well. Several re spondents indicated that they would like to see more of the units and would like to know where the technique they had examined fit into the teaching sequence. It may also be beneficial to have several teachers teach all of the units to one or two students in the suggested order to further validate the pedagogical sequence. The results of the present study indicate a need for piano teachers to read more about pedaling and to keep current in this developing field (many teachers were not even aware of the various types of pedaling). The re sponses also indicate a need for teachers to reflect upon how they teach pedaling, and to modify their teaching of pedaling concepts and techniques to incorporate more than

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291 just basic elementary skills. A need exists for teachers not only to be aware of the various pedaling techniques, but also to possess the ability to demonstrate them competently to their students. The need for organized and sequential pedagogical materials on the teaching of piano pedaling became readily apparent during the course of this study. A method book on the teaching of pedaling should be developed, along with a series of instructional books on pedaling for students. In this way, the materials and concepts that have been presented and validated within this study can become more easily accessible to the majority of piano teachers and students who strive to pedal in a more artistic manner.

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Dear Colleague: APPENDIX A COVER LETTER I am conducting research on the subject of piano pedaling. As part of my study I would like to include an evaluation from a small, select sample of nationally certified MTNA teachers of piano and piano pedagogy regarding the teaching of various piano pedaling techniques. Because I am also a nationally certified member of MTNA, I recognize the high standards that achieving this level of certification represents. I am also aware of the demands placed on your time. Therefore, I have devised a response form that should take only a few minutes to complete. It involves your looking over some materials and examples for the teaching of two pedaling techniques, and completing a brief form for each based on your own expertise. Would you please indicate your willingness to participate in this study by returning the enclosed stamped, self-addressed postcard by return mail. The materials will be sent to you upon receipt of your postcard. Thank you in advance for your time and cooperation. Sincerely, Mary Ray Johnson Assistant Professor of Music Chair of Keyboard Area (Phone number enclosed) 292

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Name: Phone: APPENDIX B QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS What ages of students do you teach? Evaluation can be made on the basis of such evidence as examination of the materials, use of the materials, ob servations, and conferences with students. The follow i ng scale may be used in rating each of the items on the en closed evaluation forms. 5 = Excellent 4 = Very Good 3 = Good 2 = Fair 1 = Poor Please be sure to return this form along with your evaluations. Thank you very much. Do you have any questions or general comments regard ing the materials you have seen? 293

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APPENDIX C VALIDATION FORM FOR TEACHING UNITS Pedaling Technique Being Evaluated Based on your experience, how would you evaluate the following: I. Materials 1. Explanation of pedaling technique 2. Application and use of technique 3. Pedagogical procedures and suggestions 4. Musical examples cited 5. Suggested exercises Comments or suggestions: II. Objectives To what extent do the materials appear to provide: 1. Useful information 2. Logical, sequential presentation 3. Clear, articulate explanations Comments or suggestions: 294

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295 III. Student Application Please answer this section only if you have tried the enclosed material with one or more of your students: 1. Did students seem interested in technique as demonstrated by general attitude and eagerness to learn? 2. Did students appear to understand the application and use of technique? 3. Did technique appear to be beneficial to students as perceived in increased knowledge, musical understanding, and performance? Comments or suggestions: IV. General Response and Evaluation 1. Have you previously used this technique in your teaching? 2. If so, how much use have you made of it? 3. In your opinion, how important is it that your students learn this technique? 4. At what stage of development in playing the piano do you think this particular technique should be introduced? 5. How important do you think it is to teach this particular technique? Very important Somewhat important Not very important

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6. Do you agree with the: A. Concepts presented? B. Pedagogical sequencing and procedures? C. Application of the technique? If not, please describe any points of disagreement. 7. With the information provided, would you feel comfortable in teaching this technique and applying its use to other examples? Why or why not? 296 8. What general comments or suggestions do you have regarding either the musical examples provided or presentation of the material?

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APPENDIX D VALIDATION FORM FOR PEDAGOGICAL SEQUENCE 1. Do you agree with the views on the sequence of presentation of pedaling techniques? Yes No If not, what changes or suggestions would you recommend? 2. Do the suggestions on the sequence seem logical? Yes No 3. In your opinion, how important is it to teach pedaling concepts in a systematic order? Very important Quite important Somewhat important Slightly important Not important 4. Do you agree with the skills mentioned as being prerequisite to pedaling techniques? Yes No 5. In your opinion, should other skills be either added to or deleted from the list of prerequisites? Yes No If yes, which ones? 297

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298 6. Do you have any comments or suggestions regarding the teaching or implementation of these techniques?

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APPENDIX E ANALYSIS OF TAPES: OBSERVATIONS Category I. Antecedent Conditions (Expected of student) 1. Cooperation 2. Adequate skills 3. Practice II. Transactions (Presentation of materials by teacher) 1. Uses clear explana tions 2. Follows suggested procedures 3. Uses examples provided 4. Makes clear expectations III. Outcomes {Application by student) 1. Learned technique 299 No Yes Cannot be determined

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APPENDIX F ANALYSIS OF TAPES: CONCLUSIONS You are asked to draw conclusions based upon a com parison of your observations with the expectations for each of the three basic categories: antecedents, transactions, and outcomes. Determine how well the conditions were met at each stage and how successfully each stage was accom plished. Please use the following scale to record your conclusions: 5 4 3 2 1 Categories I. Antecedents Prerequisite skills = = = = = Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor 1. Prerequisite conditions were met by student II. Transactions Teacher presentation 1. Followed recommended procedure 2. Explanations/expectations were clear III. Outcomes Student application 1. How well had student learned the technique 300 Ratings

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IV. Summary 1. How would you rate the overall success of this teaching unit based upon your analysis of the tapes you have heard and the materials you have seen. 2. Additional comments: 301

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Aaron, M. Adams, J. Works. REFERENCES {1945). Piano Course. Miami: Belwin. {1988). Debussy: Part Two; the Later Piano The Piano Quarterly, 138, 48-50_Agay, Denes. (1981). Teaching Piano, 2 vols. New York: Yorktown Music Press. Ahresn, C. & Atkinson, G. (1955). For All Piano Teachers. Oakville, Ontario: Frederick Harris Music. Anson, G. (1966). Pedal Pushers. Cincinnati: Willis Music Co. Bacon, Ernst. (1963). Notes On the Piano. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press. Banowetz, J. (1981). Pedaling Technique. In Agay, D. {Ed.), Teaching Piano: Vol. 1 (pp. 91-122). Park Ridge, IL: General Words and Music. Banowetz, J. (1985). The Pianist's Guide to Pedaling. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Bastien, J. (1977). How to Teach Piano Successfully (2nd ed.). San Diego: Neil A. KJOS. Bastien, J. (1988). How to Teach Piano Successfully. (3rd ed.). San Diego: Neil A. Kjos. Bastien, J., and Bastien, J. (1964). Music Through the Piano Library. Park Ridge, IL: Neil A. Kjos. Bastien, J., and Bastien, J. {1970). The Very Young Pianist. Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos. Bastien, J., and Bastien, J. (1976). Bastien Piano Library. San Diego: Neil A. Kjos. Bastien, J., and Bastien, J. (1985). Piano Basics. San Diego: Neil A. Kjos. 302

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303 Bernstein, s. (1981). With Your Own Two Hands. New York: Schirmer Books. Bilson, M. (1982). The Soft Pedal Revisited. The Piano Quarterly, 30, 36-38. Booth, v. (1971). We Piano Teachers. London: Hutchinson. Bowen, Y. (1936). Pedaling the Modern Pianoforte. London: Oxford University Press. Bree, M. (1902). Groundwork of the Leschetizsky Method. New York: G. Schirmer. Breithaupt, R. (1912). Die naturliche Klaviertechnik. Leipzig: C. F. Kahnt. Brodsky, E. (1985). Piano Tone Color: Its Scientific Foundations and Their Implicatons for the Performer. Stanford University. Dissertation Abstracts Inter national,~, 08-A, 2119. Caland, E. (1922). Das Kunsterische Klavierspiel. Stuttgart: Ebneresche Musikalienhandlung. Carreno, T. (1919). Possibilities of Tone Color by Artis tic Use of the Pedals. Cincinnati: The John Church Co. Castagnone, C. (1984). Playing the Piano Without Pedals. California State University. MAI, ll, 01, 9. Chasins, A. (1962). Speaking of Pianists. New York: Knopf. Ching, J. (1930). Points on Pedaling. London: Forsyth Brothers. Clark, F., Goss, L., and Kraehenbuehl, D. (1962). Look and Listen. Princeton: Summy-Birchard. Clark, F., and Goss, L. (1973). The Music Tree. Evanston: Summy-Birchard. Clark, F., and Goss, L. (1986). Music Maker. Princeton: The New School for Music Study Press. Collins, R. (1986). Piano Playing; A Positive Approach. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. Cooke, J. (1917). Great Pianists on Piano Playing. Philadelphia: Theodore Presser Co.

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Cooke,J. (1976). Mastering Scales and Arpeggios. Bryn Mawr, PA: Theodore Presser. Crowder, L. (1967}. Still More on the Sostenuto Pedal. Clavier, 6, 44-45. Czerny, C. (1839}. Complete Theoretical and Practical Pianoforte School, Op. 500. London: R. Crocks. 304 Dichter, M. (1987). Playing (p. 77}. In J. Noyle (Ed.), Pianists on Piano Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. Dilsner, L. (1968}. Pedal Pointers for Piano Teachers. Music Journal, 26, 38-40. Dumesnil, M. (1932). How to Play and Teach Debussy. New York: Schroeder and Gunther. Dumesnil, M. (1958}. Pedaling. In Handbook for Piano Teachers (pp. 56-64}. Evanston: Summy-Birchard. Everhart, P. (1958}. The Pianist's Art. Author: Atlanta. Enoch, Y., & Lyke, J. (1977}. Creative Piano Teaching. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing Co. Farjeon, H. (1923}. The Art of Piano Pedaling, 2 vols. London: Joseph Williams, Limited. Fay, A. (1881). F. Pierce (Ed.), Music Study in Germany. New York: Macmillan. Fetsch, W. (1966). What's That Extra Pedal For? Clavier, 5, 12-17. Ferguson, K. (1969). The Pedals of the Piano. Un published master's thesis, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY. Fletcher, L. Music. Formsma, R. Sonatas. (1973). Piano Course. Buffalo: Montgomery (1976). The Use of the Pedal in Beethoven's The Piano Quarterly,..!, 38, 40, 42-45. Frey, E. (1939). W. Schuh (Ed.), Schweizer Musikbuch, ii. Zurich: Schott's Sohne. Friskin, J. Practice. (1921). The Principles of Pianoforte New York: H. w. Gray.

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305 Gebhard, H. (1963). The Art of Pedaling. New York: Galaxy Music. Gieseking, W., & Leimer, K. (1930). The Shortest Way to Pianistic Perfection. Philadelphia: Theodore Presser. Gieseking, w., & Leimer, K. (1938). Rhythmics, Dynamics, Pedal. Philadelphia: Theodore Presser. Gieseking, w., & Leimer, K. (1972). Piano Technique. New York: Dover. Gilbert, G. (1978). Music for Everyone. Pacific, MO: Mel Bay Publications. Glover, D., and Garrow, L. (1967). The Piano Student. Miami: Belwin. Glover, D.C., and Stewart, J. (1988). Method for Piano. Miami: Belwin. Graham, R. (1963). Piano Pedal Solos. Glen Rock: NJ Fischer & Bro. Grasty-Jones, C. (1988). Getting Ready for Debussy. Clavier,~, 26-29. Hamilton, C. (1927). Touch and Expression in Piano Play ing. Boston: Oliver Ditson Co. Reprint ed. (1979) New York: Theodore Presser. Harrell, D. L. (1976). New Techniques in Twentieth Century Solo Piano Music. Dissertation Abstracts International, (University Microfilms No. 76-26581). Hanon, C.L. (1900). The Virtuoso Pianist. New York: G. Schirmer. Hollis, C. (1981). Ball State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 12-A, 4968. Hopkins, P. (1980). The Use of the Pedal in J.S. Bach's French Suites, English Suites, and Partitas. Disserta tion Abstracts International,.!!_, 01-A, 12. Kentner, L. (1976). The Piano. New York: Schirmer Books. Kreutzer, L. (1915). Das normale klavierpedal vom akustischen und asthetischen standpunkt, vol. 2. Leipzig: Breitkopf und Hartel. -

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Kreutzer, L. (1923). The Essence of Piano Technique. Berlin: M. Hesse. Last, J. (1960). Interpretation for the Piano Student. London: Oxford University Press. Last, J. (1963). Introduction to Pedalling. New York: Galaxy Music. Lhevinne, J. Playing. (1972). Basic Principles in Pianoforte New York: Dover. Lindo, A. (1922). Pedalling in Pianoforte Music. N ew York: E.P. Dutton & Co. 306 Lindquist, o. (1966). Pedaling: Using the Damper Pedal to Achieve Legato. Clavier, 5, 48-50. Lindquist, o. (1968). Pedaling: Subtleties in the Use of the Damper Pedal; Watching for Clarity. Clavier, 7, 34-37. Marsh, o. (1987). The Pianist's Spectrum. Wolfeboro, NH: Longwood Academic. Martienssen, C. (1930). Die individuelle Klaviertechnik auf den Grundlage des schopferischen Klangwillens. Leipzig: C. F. Kahnt. Matthay, T. (1913). (1903). The Act of Touch in All its Diversity. London: Bosworth & Co. Matthay, T. (1913). Musical Interpretation, Its Laws and Principles, and Their Application in Teaching and Performing. Boston: Boston Music. Medley Way. (1981). Milwaukee: Hal Leonard. Merrick, F. (1960). Practising the Piano. London: Barrie and Rockliff. Mirovitch, A. (1954). The Pedal. New York: Belwin. Music Teachers National Association. (1989). Handbook. Cincinnati: MTNA. Neuhaus, H. (1973). The Art of Piano Playing. (K. A. Leibovitch, Trans.). New York: Praeger Publishers.

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307 Newman, W. (1956). The Pianist's Problems. New York: Harper & Row. Noona, W., and Noona, C. (1986). The Gifted Pianist. Dayton: Roger Dean Publishing Co. Noyle, L. (1987). Pianists on Piano Playing. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. Ohlsson, G. (1982). Pedalling Hints and Habits. Key board, 8 6 6 Olson, L., Bianchi, L., and Blickenstaff, M. (1974). Music Pathways. New York: Carl Fischer. Pace, R. (1981). Music for Piano. Katonah, NY: Lee Roberts Music. Palmer, w., Manus, M., and Lethco, A. (1972). Creating Music at the Piano. Van Nuys, CA: Alfred. Palmer, w., Manus, M., and Lethco, A. (1984). Alfred's Basic Piano Library. Van Nuys, CA: Alfred. Pasquet, J. (1981). The Pedals: Three or More. The Piano Quarterly,~, 29-30. Podolsky, L., Davison, J., and Schaub A. (1966). Principles of Pedaling. New York: Boosey and Hawkes. Randlett, s. (1967). More on the Sostenuto Pedal. Clavier 6, 50-52. Riefling, R. Piano Pedalling. (1962). (K. Dale, Trans.). New York: Oxford University Press. Riemann, H. (1882). Musik-Lexikon. A. Einstein (Ed.), Leipzig: Max Hesse. Royal Conservatory of Music. (1975). Toronto, Ontario: Frederick Harris Music. Sandor, Gyorgy. (1981). On Piano Playing. New York: Schirmer Books. Schaum, J. (1945). Piano Course. Miami: Belwin. Schmitt, H. (1893). The Pedals of the Piano-Forte. (K. Dale, Trans.). London: Oxford University Press.

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Schnabel, K. (1950). Modern Technique of the Pedal. Oakville, Ontario: Frederick Harris Music. Seroff, V. ( 1977). Common Sense in Piano Study. New York: Crescendo Publishing. 308 Sheffet, A. (1987). Pedaling in the Duo Sonatas for Piano and Strings of Johannes Brahms. Dissertation Abstracts International,~, 1142A. Slenczynska, R. Techniques. (1969). Added Color from Special Pedal Clavier, 8, 19. Styron, S., and Stevens, E. (1964). Start Pedaling! Evanston: Summy-Birchard. Thompson, J (1937). Modern Piano Course. Cincinnati: Willis Music Co. Tollefson, A. 22-33. (1970). Debussy's Pedaling. Clavier, 9, Waxman, D. (1959). Pageants for Piano. New York: G. Schirmer. Wells, H. (1914). Ears, Brain and Fingers. Boston: Oliver Ditson Co. Werder, R. (1978). The Ups and Down of Pedaling. Clavier, 17, 28-32. Whiteside, A. (1961). Indispensables of Piano Playing. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Wolfram, V. (1965). The Sostenuto Pedal. Stillwater: Oklahoma State University.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Mary Ray Johnson was born in Galveston, Texas, on November 18, 1944. When she was a year old the family moved to Gainesville, Florida, where her father had ac cepted a professorship at the University of Florida. Ms. Johnson was educated in the public schools of Gainesville and studied piano with Mrs. Bernice Hack. During her school years she received many honors and awards for piano performance, including top place winner of the Florida State Music Teachers Association competition. Upon graduation from Gainesville High School she was offered full tuition scholarships to three schools: Font bonne College in St. Louis, the University of North Caro lina, and the Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester. Dr. William S. Newman extended an offer from the University of North Carolina for her to be one of ten women students admitted for the first time, and to receive the first out-of-state tuition scholarship ever to have been offered. In 1967 Ms. Johnson received a Bachelor of Music degree with Distinction from the Eastman School of Music, with a major in piano. She was awarded a two-year teaching 309

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assistantship in piano and theory. In 1969 she received the Master of Music degree in performance and literature from Eastman. She has received additional training in piano pedagogy, piano literature, musicology and music education at Brigham Young University. 310 Ms. Johnson received a number of awards during her years at Eastman: in 1965 the Alumni Association granted her an award for excellence; she was on the Dean's list each year of attendance; and she was recognized for achieving the highest scholastic average of graduating members of Sigma Theta chapter of Sigma Alpha Iota. While at Eastman she studied piano with Cecile Staub Genhart for six years. In 1969 Ms. Johnson accepted a one-year position as assistant professor of music at Winthrop College in Rock Hill, South Carolina. In 1970 she was offered a position at Weber State College in Ogden, Utah, where she is currently employed as director of keyboard studies. In addition to private and class piano, Ms. Johnson has taught courses in keyboard pedagogy, keyboard literature, piano ensemble, accompanying, music theory and sight-singing, introduction to music, and music essentials. She also developed a series of pedagogical courses for music teachers. Ms. Johnson performs frequently as soloist and accompanist, presents workshops and lecture recitals, and

PAGE 321

311 adjudicates extensively throughout the intermountain area. She has performed as pianist and harpsichordist for the Weber State faculty trio and is head carillonneur for the Stewart Bell Tower. In addition, she created a state-wide piano festival which is held annually at Weber. In 1986 Ms. Johnson took a sabbatical leave to begin doctoral studies at the University of Florida where she studied piano with Boaz Sharon. She received a graduate assistantship in piano during 1986-87, and was awarded the Edith Pitts Piano Scholarship from 1986 to 1988. While at the University she performed with the University Symphony Orchestra. She was an adjunct professor of music at Santa Fe Community College in Gainesville during 1987-88, and taught private and class piano and humanities while pur suing her doctoral degree. Ms. Johnson is affiliated with many professional organizations: Kappa Delta Pi; Pi Kappa Lambda; Sigma Alpha Iota; American Association of University Professors; American Association of University Women; Utah Music Teach ers Association, Florida State Music Teachers Association, Gainesville Music Teachers Association; Music Educators National Conference; Utah Music Educators Association; and Florida Music Educators Association. She is a nationally certified member of the Music Teachers National Association and has held various positions in this organization in cluding state certification committee member, state chair

PAGE 322

312 man of collegiate artists auditions, and cochairman of the South-East Division auditions. Ms. Johnson has appeared on several television and radio programs and has performed a number of times with various orchestras. She is listed in the International Directory of Distinguished Leadership, the Directory of International Biography, and the World Who's Who of Musicians.

PAGE 323

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Charles R. Hof Professor of Musc I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. William D. Hedges Professor of Educational Leadership I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Linda L. Lamme Professor of Instruction and Curriculum I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

PAGE 324

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. aron sor of Music This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Education and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. December, 1989 Dean, Graduate School

PAGE 325

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA II I II IIIIII Ill Ill lllll lllll II IIIIII IIII II llllll 11111111111111111 3 1262 08557 1049


163
Pedal vibrato employs a deep initial descent of the
pedal that becomes progressively more and more shallow.
The speed of the vibrations eventually cease altogether.
Flutter pedaling, however, maintains a more or less
constant rate of vibration throughout. The vibrations
generally are contained within the same range of depth.
The remaining portion of this unit is concerned with
flutter pedaling only. Pedal vibrato is covered in a
separate teaching unit.
Application When Playing
Flutter pedaling is very effective in adding color and
a fuller sonority to fast scale passages. When the dynamic
marking is forte, this type of pedaling can help create a
brilliant effect without obscuring the clarity of the line.
It can also add color while maintaining the continuity of
the sound, since no noticeable pedal changes occur when
this technique is properly employed. In a pianissimo pas
sage (especially one where the harmonies seem to avoid a
cadence), flutter pedaling can be used to create an almost
eerie effect.
The depth of the pedal's descent and the rate of
vibration depend on the amount of tone that is to be re
tained by the pedal. This is influenced by the dynamic
level and tempo of the piece, as well as the range in which
flutter pedaling is employed. Bass notes are more resonant


138
is the area employed in all forms of partial pedaling. The
manner in which the damper pedal is activated within this
area results in the various forms of partial pedaling and
distinguishes one technique from another.
Descent of the damper pedal. The degrees through
which the damper pedal descends may be graphically illus
trated by the following diagram:
Height of pedal at rest
1 >
'
1. Area of free play
25%
50%
2. Ranqe of partial pedaling 2. N
, 75%
3. J
100%
3. Dampers clear strings fully 4.
/
5-
C
4. Dampers raised higher
5. Maximum descent of pedal
Application When Playing
Determining factors. Half damping can be applied
effectively only when the pedal mechanism is adjusted
properly. Although pedal adjustments can vary greatly
from one instrument to another, an improperly adjusted
pedal mechanism will render the application of this tech
nique useless.
Half damping is used when full pedaling would be in
appropriate, for instance, when the resulting sound is too
thick and unclear. This depends on a number of factors
including: (1) the size of the instrument, (2) the desired
tone color, and (3) stylistic considerations.


CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH AND WRITINGS
In his recently published book on pedaling, Banowetz
states:
Pedaling has suffered grossly from both ignorance and
neglect. The bibliography may give the im
pression that references on pedaling are plentiful,
but that is somewhat misleading, for many entries are
very brief or elementary in content. Only a compara
tive few show real depth or comprehensiveness.
(Banowetz, 1985, p. ix)
Several books in English have been written that are
entirely devoted to the subject of pedaling. The authors
include Banowetz (1985), Bowen (1936), Carreno (1919),
Ching (1930), Gebhard (1963), Riefling (1962), Schmitt
(1893), Schnabel (1950), and Wolfram (1965). These books
predominantly cover styles and musical considerations in
pedaling rather than pedagogical issues.
Very little space has been devoted to the subject of
pedaling in books on general piano playing. Pedaling, when
it is discussed at all, is generally treated only in a
cursory manner. Even books that contain pictures and
diagrams of the keyboard to illustrate certain pedagogical
problems usually omit the pedals (Lindo, 1922; Seroff,
1977) .
21


165
sensation behind the big toe and the movement in these
small muscles.
2. Now move the toes very slowly with the intention
of pressing down on the big toe and relaxing to let it
come back up. (Some students may have a tendency to try to
pull the toes up, but this can create tension).
Ask the student to be aware of the sensations in the
leg. The muscles should feel relaxed and not tight in any
way. Unless they are relaxed they will quickly tire, dis
couraging use of this technique.
Positioning the feet. Have the student place the
right foot on the damper pedal and repeat the above pro
cedures. Ask the student to
1. Position the right foot on the damper pedal so
that the ball of the foot rests comfortably on the front
portion of the pedal. The foot should face forward, and
not be turned outward or inward to either side. The heel
should remain in contact with the floor, and the toes
should remain in contact with the pedal at all times.
2. Place the left foot somewhat closer to the bench
so that it is possible to stand without using the hands or
moving the feet. This position helps to balance the body
and maintain correct body alignment.
3. Using the ball of the foot as a pivot, rapidly
move the toes up and down. Strive to reduce any mechani
cal noise in operating the pedal.


263
Table 3
Mean Ratings for the Aspects of Teaching Units
Category 3: Student Application
Unit
Interest
Understanding
Beneficial
1.
Leqato
pedalinq
4.50
4.50
4.50
2.
Leqatissimo
pedalinq
4.50
4.50
4.50
3.
Rhythmic
pedalinq
4.50
4.67
5.00
4.
Una corda
pedalinq
4.75
4.75
4.88
5.
Pre
pedaling
4.33
4.50
4.67
6.
Finger
pedalinq
4.50
4.50
5.00
7.
Staccato
peda 1inq
4.40
4.30
4.40
B.
Portato
peda 1inq
4.50
4.50
4.50
9.
Phrasing/
articulation
4.50
4.50
4.50
10.
Melodic
pedalinq
4.60
4.20
4.60
11.
Half
damping
5.00
4.33
4.33
12.
Pedal
vibrato
5.00
5.00
5.00
13.
Peda 1
diminuendo
5.00
5.00
5.00
14.
Half
pedalinq
5.00
5.00
5.00
15.
Flutter
pedalinq
4.50
4.50
4.50
16.
Dynamic
pedalinq
5.00
5.00
5.00
17.
Pedal
blurring
4.50
4.50
5.00
18.
Harmonic
pedalinq
5.00
5.00
5.00
19.
Pedaling
one hand
5.00
4.75
5.00
20.
Sostenuto
pedalinq
5.00
5.00
5.00


135
Partial pedaling. Before half damping can be fully
understood and applied, the concept of partial pedaling
should be clear. A difference of opinion exists among
pianists regarding the various degrees of depth that the
pedal can be depressed and still maintain a practical
effect on the sound that is produced. Some say there are
infinite possibilities, while others prefer to place an
exact number on the various levels of the pedal's descent.
For the sake of convenience, three approximate guide
lines for partial pedaling are presented and are described
as degrees of released pedaled sound. They are: (1) a 25
percent release of pedaled sound, (2) a 50 percent release
of pedaled sound, and (3) a 75 percent release of pedaled
sound. In relation to a full depression of the pedal,
partial pedaling may be diagrammed as follows:
Full Pedal 25% Release 50% Release 75% Release
Figure 3-1


37
the rules upon which we base our support can scarcely
be produced. The exceptions would most likely surpass
the rules. In many cases one could play as well with
out the pedal as with the pedal, giving sound reasons
for the carrying out of either method. (Gieseking,
1930, p. 49)
According to Everhart (1958, p. 250), other than
achieving the artistic qualities of touch and tone, "there
is no greater challenge to the player than pedal effects."
Importance of Listening
Most writers stress the prime importance of listening
as a requisite to good pedal technique, saying that the ear
must be the ultimate guide in determining when and how much
pedal to use. Enoch (1977) urges teachers to take the time
to establish good pedaling with both the foot and the ear.
Booth (1971) believes that education in the use of the
pedal begins and ends with the ear, since the ear is the
only real medium of control. Everhart (1958) states that
no amount of discussion will result in effective pedaling
since pedaling is done by ear rather than by calculation.
Schnabel (1950), however, warns in his writings on pedaling
that while the ear should always be the final judge, the
ear alone cannot teach the specific methods and means by
which the various forms of pedaling are obtained. Lind
quist (1968) concurs by stating that the well known cliche
"pedal with the ear, not the foot" is a risky oversimpli
fication.


192
is changed. This gives the illusion of longer periods of
unbroken pedaling.
There are a number of different situations in which
finger pedaling can be applied. However, one of the more
frequent uses of finger pedaling in relation to harmonic
pedal is to sustain the overall sonority of the accompani
ment as the pedal is changed. Ask the student to pedal the
following example as it is marked.
Teaching Examples
Example A: Liszt Etude in Db ("Un sospiro")
Harmonic pedaling. The concept of harmonic pedaling
varies from simple to complex. It involves first analyzing
a musical score, then listening to determine where and for
how long the pedal should be applied to retain the harmony.
In its simplest form, it merely involves prolonging the
harmony, as in the example below.


188
Some of the more scholarly recent editions provide a
number of different markings to distinguish among various
types of pedaling. In these editions, harmonic pedaling is
often marked quite well. Before a pianist attempts to
apply harmonic pedaling to a musical composition, he or
she must understand the harmonic structure of the piece.
Artistic pedaling can be achieved only when the various
components of the harmony and melody are understood,
balanced, and integrated.
Harmonic pedaling often involves retaining certain
bass notes in the pedal while partially clearing those in
the melody. As its name implies, it includes pedaling the
accompaniment and underlying bass line, and at times
providing the support of an unbroken sonority of sound.
Correct harmonic pedaling involves a sensitivity to the
relationship of the melody, the accompaniment, and the bass
line.
Teaching Procedures
Preparatory exercises. Harmonic pedaling combines
both full and partial pedaling techniques. Because of
this, its use requires the student to posess certain basic
prerequisite skills. These skills include legato pedaling
and half pedaling. At times this may also involve the
ability to execute rapid pedaling changes while depressing
the pedal only partially down, the ability to pedal one


308
Schnabel, K. (1950). Modern Technique of the Pedal.
Oakville, Ontario: Frederick Harris Music.
Seroff, V. (1977). Common Sense in Piano Study. New
York: Crescendo Publishing.
Sheffet, A. (1987). Pedaling in the Duo Sonatas for Piano
and Strings of Johannes Brahms. Dissertation Abstracts
International, 48, 1142A.
Slenczynska, R. (1969). Added Color from Special Pedal
Techniques. Clavier, 8^, 19.
Styron, S., and Stevens, E. (1964). Start Pedaling!
Evanston: Summy-Birchard.
Thompson, J. (1937). Modern Piano Course. Cincinnati:
Willis Music Co.
Tollefson, A. (1970). Debussy's Pedaling. Clavier, 9,
22-33.
Waxman, D. (1959). Pageants for Piano. New York: G.
Schirmer.
Wells, H. (1914). Ears, Brain and Fingers. Boston:
Oliver Ditson Co.
Werder, R. (1978). The Ups and Down of Pedaling.
Clavier, 17, 28-32.
Whiteside, A. (1961). Indispensables of Piano Playing.
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
Wolfram, V. (1965). The Sostenuto Pedal. Stillwater:
Oklahoma State University.


141
forward and not be turned outward or inward to either
side. The heel should remain in contact with the floor,
and the toes should remain in contact with the pedal at all
times.
2. Place the left foot slightly closer to the bench
so that it is possible to stand without using the hands or
moving the feet. This position helps to balance the body
and maintain correct body alignment.
The amount of pressure applied to the pedal, which in
turn affects the height of the dampers above the strings,
will determine the percentage of pedaled sound that is
released. The student should learn to gauge this distance
by feel. To do this it is necessary to determine the
height and depth of the pedal's range that is used in half
damping.
Comparison with full pedaling. One approach is to
compare the various degrees of half damping with full
pedaling. It can be helpful for the student to feel the
difference between the amount of pressure reguired between
full and partial pedaling, since the tendency to depress
the pedal more than is necessary often causes unintentional
pedal blurs. Ask the student to
1. Play any chord and depress the pedal fully.
Release the chord. Listen to the full sound that is
retained when the dampers are fully released from the
strings.


16
the performer, these markings could lead to confusing re
sults. As a further complication, some editors have tried
to compensate for omissions of pedal markings, which has
further obscured a composer's intent. Therefore, even when
presented with what appear to be authentic pedal indica
tions, a pianist is not obligated to follow them exactly.
According to Dumesnil (1958, p. 63), "printed pedal marks
mean practically nothing."
In addition to functions normally associated with
pedaling, some of the dynamic levels indicated in the music
of Beethoven, for example, are possible only through judi
cious use of the pedal. Because Beethoven was one of the
first composers to indicate pedaling in the music, he is
sometimes referred to as the "father of pedaling." And
he did create new effects by sustaining low bass notes
throughout long passages and holding the damper pedal down
through rapidly articulated chords. Yet, after Beethoven
pedaling became even more complex.
Aside from the fact that numerous pedal markings are
in use today (a problem in itself), the correct use of the
pedals frequently is hindered by the layout of the music.
Notes and leger lines below the bass clef sometimes get in
the way of pedal markings, and when this happens the pedal
is usually moved to one side or another. The full capabil
ities of the concert grand piano offer an infinite variety
of pedalings, some of which cannot be indicated in notation.


83
notes between harmonic changes, especially if the texture
is thick and the notes lie in a low register. Rapid
changes of harmony can easily be obscured by too much
pedaling, especially in a fast tempo and when the dynamic
level is forte. Accent pedaling should be used cautiously
under these conditions since it can be difficult to damp
the inbetween sounds completely.
In addition, pedaling is often used to accentuate a
syncopated rhythm. Generally, tied syncopated notes jus
tify some type of accent. After the hammer has struck the
strings, the tone on the piano quickly fades away, regard
less of whether or not the notes are still held. In pas
sages where a syncopated rhythm is difficult to project
over an extended period of time, the damper pedal may be
used to sustain the feeling of a regular pulse. When the
pedal is depressed, a change of color occurs in the sound,
and a slight crescendo is heard, due to the sounding of
sympathetic partials as the dampers are raised above the
strings.
Pedal release for emphasis. An accent may be achieved
not only by adding pedal for emphasis but also by an exact,
sudden pedal release on a note or chord. This technique is
used only before a rest since a release of the pedal im
plies that the sound will cease.


56
piano repertoire. Graham (1963) employs a series of
original compositions to introduce pedal plans which are
markings for basic legato pedaling. One piece employs the
sostenuto pedal in combination with the damper pedal. Last
(1963) first presents exercises in which the teacher plays
and the pupil listens. After the pupil is able to play and
pedal, she introduces legato pedaling, rhythmic pedaling,
and staccato pedaling.
Anson (1966) states that nothing seems more futile
than the usual preliminary pedaling exercises in which the
student activates the pedal while counting but does not
depress the keys. He introduces legato pedaling, harmonic
and melodic pedaling, and illustrates various uses of the
three pedals through short pieces. Included are pedaling
for color, pedal blurring, accent pedaling, and pedaling
grace notes. One piece is provided for una corda pedaling
and another for sostenuto pedaling.
Introduction of the Pedals in Piano Methods Books
The introduction of pedaling into current piano
methods books, especially those frequently used in the
United States, was examined to provide insight into when
and how pedaling was introduced to students and what types
of pedaling techniques were employed.
The United States has produced more method books than
any other country (Bastien, 1988). When seen on display at


CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY, RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
One of the most neglected and misunderstood areas in
piano pedagogy is the teaching of piano pedaling tech
niques. Despite its recognized importance, the teaching
of the correct use of the pedals is in a fragmentary state
(Bernstein, 1981) due to both ignorance and neglect
(Banowetz, 1985). The most commonly cited fault in this
area is the lack of teaching.
Pedaling is sometimes referred to as the most diffi
cult branch of higher piano study (Cooke, 1976). Appro
priate pedaling is an art that conveys not only a thorough
grasp of the composer's intent, but also the artistic
intelligence of the performer. Therefore, a thorough
understanding and mastery of the use of each of the three
pedals is essential for anyone who seeks to play at a high
artistic level.
As indicated in Chapter 2, few systematic studies
exist on the teaching of piano pedaling or the teaching of
pedaling techniques. Until the publication of Banowetz's
book on pedaling in 1985, no single comprehensive source of
pedaling techniques had been published. References on
pedaling appear plentiful, but only a comparative few show
251


57
a major music store, the number of methods is overwhelming.
Therefore, only a few of the more frequently used methods
are examined for their treatment of the pedals.
The following charts indicate how and when the damper
pedal and una corda pedals are introduced, whether or not
preliminary exercises are included, and the pedaling tech
niques that are employed. The various means of introducing
the pedals include: (1) photographs, drawings, illustra
tions, and markings in the musicnone of which contain
explanations, (2) abbreviated descriptions of the three
pedals, (3) brief explanations of pedaling techniques, and
(4) various introductory exercises.
Some methods present the concepts of a pedaling tech
nique first, without reference to actual playing. Others
indicate the use of the pedal without verbal explanations.
In some, the pedal markings simply appear without prior
introduction. Additional methods were examined as well,
and similar instances were found to apply.
A wide diversity was found to exist in the continuity
of pedaling concepts presented in the various methods. A
divergence was found as well in the consistency with which
pedaling was employed once the concept had been introduced.
In general, the concept of pedaling did not appear to re
ceive a high priority; neither did pedaling appear to be an
inegral part of the pedagogical sequence of the instruc
tional materials.


25
sentences related to the use of the una corda pedal, but
nothing regarding the sostenuto pedal. According to
Neuhaus, artistic pedaling is inseparable from tone; a
primary use of the pedal is to remove some of the dryness
from the piano's distinctive tone. Several musical ex
amples are cited in this book.
Last (1960) devotes a twenty-one page chapter to
pedaling and discusses a number of techniques for the
damper pedal including; legato and staccato pedaling, a
"touch" of pedal, pedaling scales, melodic and harmonic
pedaling, pedaling to enhance phrasing, half pedaling, half
damping, and "tremolo" pedaling. Thirteen sentences cover
the una corda pedal, while four sentences describe the use
of the sostenuto pedal.
Bastien (1977) discusses only the most elementary use
of pedaling in his text on teaching piano and covers the
basics of the damper pedal in two pages; the other pedals
are not mentioned. One exercise is provided for each of
the three types of pedaling that are mentioned; basic,
syncopated, and rhythmic syncopated. Four books on
elementary uses of the pedals are also listed. In a more
recent edition of the same text, Bastien (1988) does not
refer to the term "rhythmic syncopated" pedaling.
Enoch and Lyke (1977) offer two and one-half pages on
pedaling, devoting three sentences to the use of the una
corda pedal, while the sostenuto pedal is not mentioned. A


203
Yet Debussy did not have an instrument with a sostenuto
mechanism and apparently was unaware of its existence.
Ravel was not aware of the sostenuto pedal until many of
his piano compositions had been written. Although there
are hundreds of piano pieces in which there is no occasion
to use the sostenuto pedal, there are numerous situations
where it is extremely useful and even necessary. Composers
and pianists have been slow to recognize the advantages of
this pedal, but symbols for sostenuto pedaling are begin
ning to appear with increasing frequency.
Teaching Procedures and Examples
The sostenuto pedal is normally depressed with the
left foot. If the damper pedal is not used at all, it is
possible for the right foot to manipulate the sostenuto
pedal and the left foot to depress the una corda pedal. At
times, however, it will be necessary for the left foot to
depress both the una corda and sostenuto pedals simultane
ously. The technique required for utilizing the sostenuto
pedal involves careful timing and is more complex than
that of the una corda pedal.
Use of the sostenuto pedal alone
Preliminary exercises. Notes that are to be retained
in the sostenuto pedal must be played and held down by the
fingers first, before the pedal is depressed. The effect
of the sostenuto pedal is more pronounced when notes are


was too rapid and abrupt. The pedal should slowly rise,
but should not come all the way up.
160
Half pedaling. At this point the student should have
the technical skill to combine full and partial pedaling to
achieve half pedal. Ask the student to
1. Play two low notes an octave apart and catch them
in the pedal. Using both hands, play an octave softly in
the upper register of the keyboard. Partially change the
pedal after the octave so that the sound is cleared while
the bass is retained.
2. Play the low bass octave again and catch it in the
pedal. Increase the number of octaves played in the treble
to four. After each octave is played, partially change the
pedal so that the sound is cleared while still retaining
the bass in the original pedal.
3. Repeat the above procedures, moving closer to the
middle range of the keyboard. Gradually increase the
dynamic level of the octaves.
Have the student apply the preceding procedures to
chords above the original bass rather than single octaves.
Ask the student to do the following:
4. Play a low octave in the bass and catch it in the
pedal. Using both hands, play a chord softly in the
extreme upper register of the piano. Partially change the
pedal after the chord so that the upper notes are cleared
while the bass notes are retained. Increase the number of


240
Validation of Materials
Validation Procedures
The pedagogical procedures that were developed in the
teaching units have seldom been available for consideration
by piano teachers. Therefore, validation was desirable, as
is pointed out in Chapter One. A process of validation was
employed that utilized dual means of securing the views of
a group of experts about the usefulness and quality of the
materials.
The pedagogical materials for teaching pedaling were
validated in two ways. One was extensive in nature. They
were examined and validated by a representative sample of
piano teachers who are certified by the Music Teachers
National Association (MTNA). The other was intensive.
Each of the twenty pedagogical units was subjected to a
structured analysis as to its effectiveness when actually
used with students. This procedure was undertaken to
provide a thorough, systematic study of the strengths and
weaknesses of the various units when applied in instruc
tion. The information gained from both types of validation
provided the dual dimensions of breadth and depth.
Many curriculum project evaluators are adopting the
definition of evaluation that includes not only the
traditional description of pupil achievement, but also the
description of instruction and the relationships that exist




312
man of collegiate artists auditions, and cochairman of the
South-East Division auditions.
Ms. Johnson has appeared on several television and
radio programs and has performed a number of times with
various orchestras. She is listed in the International
Directory of Distinguished Leadership, the Directory of
International Biography, and the World Who's Who of
Musicians.


195
To connect the upper voices while preserving the
staccato articulation in the bass line, the pedal should be
depressed during the fourth sixteenth rest of each beat,
but prior to lifting the hands that are sustaining the
chords. It is not necessary to depress the pedal all the
way to the floor in such cases. Pedal changes must be very
rapid, however, because very little time is allowed between
the sixteenth rest and repeating the chords. The pedal
should be released exactly with the staccato sixteenth
notes in the bass line. This will allow the upper voices
to sound legato while at the same time preserving the
integrity of the staccato in the bass.
Teaching Procedures
Prerequisite skills. To achieve the delicate control
needed to accomplish this technique, several conditions
need to exist. The student should maintain proper body
alignment, and correct position of both the right foot on
the damper pedal and left foot on the floor. This action
will provide balanced support for the body and alleviate
tension, which can then free the feet and hands to operate
independently.
To teach pedaling one hand and not the other in the
example provided, ask the student to do the following:
1. Begin by playing the left hand alone without the
pedal. Each finger should be relaxed to obtain maximum


95
extreme upper registers of the keyboard. The degree to
which this unpleasant sound is produced may be controlled
by varying the descent of the una corda pedal. Relatively
new hammers will respond well to a full depression of the
pedal, while those that have deeply grooved surfaces may
respond best to a partial pedal depression. In either
case, careful listening and control is necessary.
The mechanical application of the una corda pedal is
not difficult. There are no complex pedaling techniques to
master that require coordination and skill. What is in
volved, however, is a careful and discriminating use of the
una corda pedal. The task for the teacher is not so much
one of teaching a skill, but of teaching discrimination
within that skill.
Positioning the foot. Since the una corda pedal is
depressed with the left foot, it is important to position
this foot correctly before beginning to play. Ask the
student to do the following:
1. Sit correctly and comfortably at the piano. Place
the left foot on the floor behind the una corda pedal, and
check that the body is balanced. (When activating the una
corda pedal care should be taken that no extraneous or
distracting motions occur, such as lunging forward.)
2. Position the left foot on the una corda pedal so
that the ball of the foot rests on the surface of the
pedal, and the heel rests comfortably on the floor directly


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
aron
sor of Music
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate
Faculty of the College of Education and to the Graduate
School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
December, 1989 /)#Audi
Dean, College of Educarfion
Dean, Graduate School


206
Example B: Bartk Allegro Barbaro
S.P. L
Sostenuto pedal combined with the damper pedal
Preliminary exercises. The sostenuto pedal can be
combined with the damper pedal in various ways to achieve
artistic results that otherwise may seem impossible.
Before applying these technigues to musical examples, the
student should be able to operate each pedal alone and in
combination with the other. When the sostenuto pedal and
damper pedal are used together, timing is very important.
To help the student coordinate the timing of both pedals,
the following exercise is recommended. Ask the student to
do the following:
1. Play a low note in the bass.
2. While holding the note depress the sostenuto pedal
completely with the left foot.
3. Release the note. Keep the sostenuto pedal
depressed through Step 6.


226
Example R: Debussy "Clair de lune" from
Suite Bergamasque
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Teaching Unit 21: Pedagogical Sequence for
Implementing Piano Pedaling Techniques
Artistic pedaling is based upon an understanding and
command of basic pedaling techniques. Just as finger
technique should be analyzed methodically and mastered
during the student's course of study, the use of the pedals
should receive similar attention. Fine piano playing is
impossible without the correct use of the three pedals. A
careful examination of pedaling techniques is necessary to
decide how and when to use the pedals correctly.
The study of pedaling should begin early in the
student's musical training. However, if it is introduced
too early, bad habits may be formed that will have to be
corrected at a later date. For example, if a child is
allowed to put one foot under the heel of another in order


250
The tape recordings of the teaching portion of the
representative units were analyzed according to specified
categories. The information from the analysis sheets was
grouped according to the type of suggestions that were
offered.
The information obtained from both the extensive and
intensive reviews of the material was then incorporated
into the study, depending on the amount and nature of the
suggestions offered. When several respondents mentioned
the same point in the pilot testing of the units, changes
were made in the original material incorporating those
suggestions. Because only a few suggestions were offered
in the validation processes, those comments and suggestions
are included in a summary of respondent comments in the
following chapter.


246
were randomly divided so that two of the units were
randomly assigned to each respondent. By using sixty-three
experts, each unit's validity was assessed six times. A
random sequence was devised to select names in addition to
the original sixty-three, in order to achieve at least a
90 percent response rate.
Each nationally certified teacher was first sent a
stamped, self-addressed return postcard to indicate whether
or not he or she would be willing to participate in the
study. The writer requested that the postcards be acknowl
edged by return mail. Non-respondents or those who did not
wish to take part in the study were replaced by additional
names from the MTNA list.
A period of two to three weeks was requested for the
return of the completed forms. After this time, all non
respondents were sent a follow-up letter. Respondents who
made unclear suggestions or who indicated that they would
like to communicate further were contacted by telephone.
Validation forms and procedures. Identical
explanatory cover letters and response questionnaires were
sent to each respondent. (See Appendices A and B). A
separate validation form was included for each unit. (See
Appendix C). The respondents were asked to examine the
materials and to validate them according to (1) ideas, (2)
pedagogical materials, (3) order of presentation in terms
of the student's technical development, (4) pedagogical


200
sostenuto pedal that raises all the dampers in the bass
section below middle "C." This action duplicates the
function of the damper pedal for the lower portion of the
keyboard, and makes selective sustaining of notes impossi
ble. A large percentage of upright pianos are built with
only two pedals or do not have an authentic sostenuto
pedal. Therefore, use of the sostenuto pedal is generally
limited to the grand piano.
Terminology. There is no consistent nomenclature for
the sostenuto pedal. In English the sostenuto pedal is
referred to as the prolonging pedal, Steinway pedal,
sustaining pedal, S.P., tonal pedal, third pedal, and
Ped. 3. Additional terminology include Prolongement, Pe-
dale de prolongation, and Prol. Ped. (French); Tonhalte-
pedal, and Tonhaltungspedal (German); and II pedale tonale
(Italian).
Terminology and symbols directing the use of the
sostenuto pedal are also inconsistent; there is no common
practice for indicating this pedal. Except for a few
twentieth-century composers, use of the sostenuto pedal is
generally not marked in the score. When it is marked,
however, its activation is more commonly indicated by S.P.,
Sos. ped., Sost. Ped., Ped. sost., or sostenuto pedal.
These terms are sometimes accompanied by solid or dotted
lines indicating the exact duration of sustaining. Other
indications for the sostenuto pedal include SOS.,
SOS.


296
6.Do you agree with the:
A. Concepts presented?
B. Pedagogical sequencing and procedures?
C. Application of the technique?
If not, please describe any points of
disagreement.
7.With the information provided, would you feel
comfortable in teaching this technique and
applying its use to other examples? Why or why
not?
8.What general comments or suggestions do you have
regarding either the musical examples provided or
presentation of the material?


Copyright 1989
by
Mary Ray Johnson


215
Eliminating unwanted tones. The sostenuto pedaling
techniques that have been presented up to this point have
all utilized the normal operation of this pedal. In other
words, notes that are to be retained in the sostenuto pedal
are played before the pedal is activated, and the damper
pedal is not applied until after the sostenuto pedal is de
pressed fully. A more advanced use of the sostenuto pedal
involves controlling the level of the dampers of unwanted
tones. This enables the pianist to catch notes with the
sostenuto pedal at the same time other notes are being
played, and while the damper pedal is being used.
The sostenuto mechanism of a well regulated grand
piano catches only those dampers that are lifted above a
certain critical height. Therefore, one of the main
considerations in applying the sostenuto pedal artistically
is to control the height of the dampers of those notes that
are not sustained by the sostenuto pedal. Each damper is
raised and lowered by an individual key. The entire set of
dampers of the unwanted tones can be controlled either with
the keys or with the damper pedal. This procedure is
similar to silent key depression in reverse.
Controlling the height of the dampers with the keys.
The following example illustrates this more advanced usage
of the sostenuto pedal, whereby the keys alone are employed
to control the height of the dampers.


84
Teaching Procedures
Cautions. While applying the damper pedal is not a
difficult task for a student who is already familiar with
the concept of pedaling, several problems are inherent in
rhythmic pedaling. In accent pedaling the dampers are
lifted simultaneously with the notes or chords being
played. This means that the pedal is depressed precisely
as the hands play the notes on the keyboard. This type of
pedaling affords the pianist the rare opportunity to keep
time with the pedal. Therefore, it carries a strong temp
tation for the foot to hit or stomp the pedal.
Releasing the damper pedal incorrectly can also be
a source of unintended error. When the damper pedal is
suddenly released, the resulting silence resembles an
attack of its own. Frequently, the pedal is released
carelessly and is held over into the succeeding rest,
creating a misplaced accent. In addition, chords that
are played forte may require that the pedal be released
slightly early for the sound to stop completely at the
exact moment of the rest.
Preparatory exercise. All types of accent pedaling
require careful listening to determine when and how much
pedal should be used. Therefore, the first step in learn
ing this technique involves listening. Experimenting with
different durations of pedaling and pedal release can help
the student gain an understanding of how the pedal is used


220
The "C" will continue to sound softly as an overtone.
The fewer fundamentals that are held, the softer the
resulting overtones will be. Using this concept, it is
possible to depress silently a note or a group of notes not
actually sounded in the piece and to catch them in the
sostenuto pedal before beginning to play. If these notes
are fundamentals of the notes being sounded above, the
sympathetic partials will produce an atmospheric haze of
sound.
This procedure is illustrated in Debussy's Voiles,
which is based on the whole-tone scale, "G#" down to "Ab"
as shown below:
..
Example N: Debussy Preludes, Book I, No. 2, "Voiles"
(Depress silently before beginning to play)
/
I
I
I Modre (^= 88 )
/ (0*u uo rytke tea* rlpneer el cereiteet.)
/
/
/
/
I
si?
S.P. I


39
believes that nothing reveals a pianist's capacity to hear
himself more than pedaling. Everything that is played,
according to Friskin (1921), should constitute an exercise
in ear training.
Introducing the Pedals
Several different views exist on when and how to in
troduce pedaling to students. In the following sections,
some of the prevailing beliefs on this topic are presented.
When to Introduce the Pedals
The teaching of pedaling is frequently withheld until
after the student has acquired a proficient keyboard tech
nique. Many teachers are afraid of allowing young students
to use the pedal at all because they believe that pedaling
will only create unmusical blurs. According to Marsh
(1987), this is usually because the teachers themselves are
uncertain about the proper training techniques to use to
teach beginning students the correct use of the pedals.
Many writers lament this situation (Anson, 1966;
Bacon, 1963; Bernstein, 1981; Ching, 1930; Marsh, 1987) and
believe that pedaling technique should be taught along with
keyboard technique. If the student learns early to use the
pedals, he or she will learn that there is nothing mysteri
ous about using them and pedaling will gradually become a
natural habit (Ching, 1930; Marsh, 1987; Riefling, 1962).


64
specific techniques. Suggestions for contending with limi
tations imposed by improperly functioning pedal mechanisms
are presented as well.
The twenty-first unit develops a systematic sequence
for implementing the first twenty pedaling units. From a
pedagogical standpoint, it is not always advisable or
practical to introduce the simplest pedaling techniques
first since the student may not encounter some of the tech
niques until after certain levels of technical mastery have
been achieved.
Together the twenty-one units form a systematic peda
gogical study of the three pedals of the piano.
Procedures for Developing the Units
The techniques and sequence suggested in the units
are a synthesis of available writings on pedaling and the
examination of the introduction of pedaling in various
piano method books, as well as the result of many years
of experimentation by the researcher. Standard teaching
repertoire was examined to determine when a student will
be most likely to encounter pieces that utilize various
pedaling skills. Exercise books on pedaling were also
examined to determine their effectiveness in aiding the
development of each technique.


REFERENCES
Aaron, M. (1945). Piano Course. Miami: Belwin.
Adms, J. (1988). Debussy: Part Two; the Later Piano
Works. The Piano Quarterly, 138, 48-50.
Agay, Denes. (1981). Teaching Piano, 2 vols. New York:
Yorktown Music Press.
Ahresn, C. & Atkinson, G. (1955). For All Piano Teachers
Oakville, Ontario: Frederick Harris Music.
Anson, G. (1966). Pedal Pushers. Cincinnati: Willis
Music Co.
Bacon, Ernst. (1963). Notes On the Piano. Syracuse:
Syracuse University Press.
Banowetz, J. (1981). Pedaling Technique. In Agay, D.
(Ed.), Teaching Piano: Vol. 1 (pp. 91-122). Park Ridge
IL: General Words and Music.
Banowetz, J. (1985). The Pianist's Guide to Pedaling.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Bastien, J. (1977). How to Teach Piano Successfully
(2nd ed.). San Diego: Neil A. Kjos.
Bastien, J. (1988). How to Teach Piano Successfully.
(3rd ed.). San Diego: Neil A. Kjos.
Bastien, J., and Bastien, J. (1964). Music Through the
Piano Library. Park Ridge, IL: Neil A. Kjos.
Bastien, J.,
Pianist.
and Bastien, J. (1970). The Very Young
Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos.
Bastien, J., and
Library. San
Bastien, J., and
Diego: Neil A
Bastien, J. (1976).
Diego: Neil A. Kjos.
Bastien, J. (1985) .
Kjos.
Bastien Piano
Piano Basics. San
302


9
ments resulted in a split pedal that enabled the performer
to activate dampers in the treble and bass registers simul
taneously by depressing both halves of the pedal at the
same time. In the early nineteenth century, a short-lived
divided damper mechanism known as the Kunstpedal divided
the dampers into eight sections controlled by four divided
pedals. Split pedals continued to be built until around
1830, when they were replaced by the single damper pedal
found on today's grand pianos.
The placement of the damper mechanism underwent vari
ous changes as well. It was placed alternately above and
below the strings, assuming the upper placement on most
grand pianos by the end of the nineteenth century. This
position utilizes gravity to help achieve rapid dampening.
The Pedal Piano
An independent pedal board was added to the piano to
create the pedal piano. A second set of strings was orig
inally required to activate the mechanism, but in 1815 a
self-contained pedal board was developed. The pedal board
provided a means of expanding the compass of the bass notes
by enabling the pianist to double notes that were played by
the fingers or to sustain bass notes indefinitely. Al
though the pedal piano is no longer extant, several com
posers wrote compositions for this instrument, including
Schumann, Alkan, and Gounod.


281
Table 11
Analysis of Mean Ratings of Observations of Tapes
0 = No
1 = Yes
Categories Tapes 1 2 3 £ .5
I. Antecedents
(Student)
1. Cooperation
2. Adequate skills
3. Practice
II. Transactions
(Teacher)
1. Clear explanations
2. Followed procedures
3. Used examples
4. Clear expectations
III. Outcomes
(Student)
1. Learned technique
Conclusions
A separate form was used to record the conclusions
(see Appendix F). Conclusions were drawn based upon a
comparison of the observations of the tape recorded lessons
with the expectations for the antecedent conditions, the
transactions, and the outcomes. The panel of adjudicators


242
zation in the United States. Its membership includes
concert artists, faculty members of universities, colleges,
and other musical institutions, as well as independent
teachers of applied music. One of the important programs
sponsored by MTNA is teacher certification, which is
offered to members on a voluntary basis. A primary goal of
this program is to strengthen the profession of private
music teaching by establishing a required body of knowledge
to be mastered and setting up requirements and awards for
current and prospective teachers to encourage professional
growth. Certification may be granted in all generally
recognized areas of music study.
The MTNA Certification program was established on the
principle that while performing ability and musical knowl
edge are prerequisites for good teaching, these capabili
ties alone are insufficient to confer the ability to teach
well. The requirements and tests of certification are
mainly concerned with those skills and experiences that
improve the teacher as a teacher. MTNA certification
affirms that a teacher has met a national standard in a
designated field. Therefore, those teachers holding
certification from MTNA comprise the "backbone" of quality
piano teaching in the United States.
MTNA offers four types of certificates: the Pro
fessional Certificate (initially called the MTNA National
Certificate), the Master Teacher Certificate, the Associate


236
pianistic course of study is not generally planned around a
sequential introduction of pedaling techniques. Most of
these concepts will need to be taught with the repertoire
as they are encountered. This may involve the teaching of
more than one pedaling concept at a time, because musical
compositions usually require the use of more than one
pedaling technique.
Individual preferences for pedaling differ greatly
between artists. This may account for some of the reason
why the sound produced by one pianist can be so different
from that produced by another, even when their skills and
instrument are the same. Nevertheless, a teacher should
not leave pedaling to the intuition of the student until
the student has completely mastered a step-by-step process
of thinking, listening, and planning in the practice of
pedaling techniques.


APPENDIX A
COVER LETTER
Dear Colleague:
I am conducting research on the subject of piano
pedaling. As part of my study I would like to include an
evaluation from a small, select sample of nationally
certified MTNA teachers of piano and piano pedagogy
regarding the teaching of various piano pedaling
techniques. Because I am also a nationally certified
member of MTNA, I recognize the high standards that
achieving this level of certification represents.
I am also aware of the demands placed on your time.
Therefore, I have devised a response form that should take
only a few minutes to complete. It involves your looking
over some materials and examples for the teaching of two
pedaling techniques, and completing a brief form for each
based on your own expertise.
Would you please indicate your willingness to
participate in this study by returning the enclosed
stamped, self-addressed postcard by return mail. The
materials will be sent to you upon receipt of your
postcard.
Thank you in advance for your time and cooperation.
Sincerely,
Mary Ray Johnson
Assistant Professor of Music
Chair of Keyboard Area
(Phone number enclosed)
292


After identifying the various pedaling techniques, a
series of pedagogical procedures was developed for the
teaching of each technique. Twenty-one teaching units were
formulated that collectively comprise a comprehensive and
systematic program of study of the three pedals. The first
twenty units follow a logical format that includes (1) a
description of the technique; (2) application; (3) teaching
procedures; (4) examples; and (5) appropriate exercises.
In the final unit, the techniques are grouped into cate
gories and presented in an instructional sequence.
Most of the pedagogical procedures described in the
teaching units have seldom been subjected to research
analysis. Therefore, both extensive and intensive valida
tion measures were employed to determine the appropriate
ness of the materials. The validation process solicited
the opinions from a sample of nationally certified teachers
of piano and piano pedagogy of the Music Teachers National
Association, and analyzed the teaching of the units in
actual piano lessons.
Conclusions regarding the main thrust of the study
were drawn in terms of three criteria. Materials and
concepts presented within the study were found to be (1)
systematic, (2) thorough, and (3) appropriate for piano
teachers who might use them.
viii


51
exactly on the second and fourth beats. At a metronome
marking of 120 or above, Marsh suggests that the pedal
should be depressed after the first beat but not raised
until the third beat. At speeds of 152 or above, the pedal
can be depressed for an entire measure, resulting in as
many as sixteen notes in a single pedal.
Pedaling in this manner is one form of accent pedal
ing, whereby the lift of the pedal produces an automatic
accent. Marsh (1987, p. 50) refers to this type of accent
pedaling as "clipping," because releasing the pedal exactly
as the note is played "clips" the tone and creates a rhyth
mic pulse.
Seroff (1977) recommends a listening experiment with
the damper pedal to illustrate two distinct tone qualities.
In the first illustration, the student is asked to play a
note and to depress the damper pedal while holding the note
down. Then the student is asked to repeat the process but
to lift the finger from the key as soon as the pedal is
depressed. Although the note is sustained by the pedal in
both examples, if the key is released while the pedal is
held, it allows the hammer to fall all the way back to its
starting position. This creates a wider range of vibration
of the strings and enhances the quality of the tone. When
the key is held down, the hammer only partially returns to
its original position. Seroff believes that this illustra
tion is useful in indicating to the student that the fin-


81
priate beat or rhythmic pulse. It can also help to bring
out the character of the particular dance.
Waltz pedal is often applied to pieces in triple
meter. The damper pedal is usually activated in one of two
ways. Either the pedal is depressed on the first beat and
released on the second beat, or the pedal is depressed on
both the first and third beats but is released in between
on the second beat. The first type of pedaling is commonly
used in waltzes, while the second, for instance, can bring
out the characteristic rhythm of a mazurka. This is not to
imply that other types of pedaling for such pieces do not
exist, but merely to suggest an appropriate way of pedaling
them.
Musical examples. The following musical examples
illustrate both types of waltz pedaling. Suggested pedal
markings are given below each example.
Example A: Chopin Grande Valse Brillante
A
; f r f
r> fj f ;
TTpb
Mi
pH-J 1
¡Vil, if f
i**1
-M-
&
f
W 1 T 1
I 1 I I
I I


43
student is able to reach the pedals and maintain a correct
seated position and body alignment, depressing the pedal at
this point can be a good introduction to syncopated pedal
ing. A student at the second level is capable of under
standing the mechanical side of the damper pedal along with
syncopated pedaling. Werder suggests playing single notes
and counting in duple or triple meter to teach the timing
involved in syncopated pedaling at this level. The pedal
is released as the new note sounds. Third-level students
practice delaying the timing in syncopated pedaling, so
that the pedal is depressed after the new note sounds. At
the fourth level, pedaling is used within musical
compositions.
Ching (1930) believes that the use of the pedal de
pends almost entirely upon the harmonic structure of the
music and, therefore, no knowledge of the pedal is of any
practical value without some understanding of the general
principles of harmony and chord formation. He advocates
beginning the study of pedaling with basic principles of
theory and types of chord formations. From there he com
pares pedaling chord inversions and chord changes, and
refers to different levels of acceptable pedal blurs in
reference to stylistic considerations. The art of pedal
ing, according to Sandor (1981), hinges on the ability to
blend harmonics with discretion.


275
2. Do the suggestions on the sequence seem logical?
All six answered "yes" to this question.
3. In your opinion, how important is it to teach pedaling
concepts in a systematic order?
The respondents were asked to indicate their response
to this question by checking one of five choices:
"very important," "quite important," "somewhat
important," "slightly important," and "not important."
Five of the six respondents, or 83 percent answered
that it is "very important" to teach pedaling concepts
in a systematic order. The sixth respondent felt that
it is "quite important."
4. Do you agree with the skills mentioned as being
prerequisite to pedaling techniques, and should others
be either added to or deleted from this list?
All six respondents answered "yes," they did agree
with the list of prerequisite skills and that the
list is complete as it is presented.
5. Do you have any comments or suggestions regarding the
teaching or implementation of these techniques?
No suggestions were offered, and only positive
comments were received. One respondent wrote: "I
think there is a definite need for information such as
this, since so many teachers have never really tried
to identify and explain the various techniques."


266
Tables 6-10 indicate the general responses to
teaching units 1 through 20. Not all respondents answered
every question. The results are tabluated and expressed as
percentages based upon the actual number of teachers who
responded to each question. Out of the sixty-one possible
responses, fifty-eight or more answered each item.
Table 6 reconfirms the importance and use of legato
pedaling as the one pedaling technique used most frequently
by the majority of piano teachers. It also shows that a
majority of the piano teachers either had never used the
pedaling technique they had been sent, or had made very
little use of it.
It was not always easy to determine the exact extent,
if any, to which the teacher was previously familiar with
the technique. Several teachers indicated that they had
sometimes used portions of a technique or had applied the
technique in only a few of the suggested ways. For ex
ample, several indicated that they taught "rhythmic pedal
ing" but had applied the pedal only for accentuation or to
project a waltz-type bass. At other times it was clear
that the respondents were confusing terminology which may
have produced an inappropriate response. For example, 60
percent indicated that they taught harmonic pedaling either
quite often or to some extent. But an examination of their
responses shows that they were only pedaling chords, which
is more appropriately indicated as legato pedaling.


177
2. Play the opening chord forte and staccato. At the
exact moment the chord is played, release the pedal.
3. Immediately depress the notes of the chord again
silently, just far enough to raise the dampers without
allowing the hammers to strike the strings audibly. Listen
carefully to avoid the following inaccuracies:
A. If the keys are depressed too far, the chord
will sound again.
B. If the keys are not depressed again quickly
enough, the entire sound will be lost.
4. Redepress the damper pedal fully.
Example C: Beethoven Sonata in C m, Op. 13, No. 8
Written
Grava
Grava
Played


106
Teaching Procedures
Preliminary exercises. Many students first encounter
the concept of finger pedaling as silent finger substitu
tion indicated above one or two notes. Ask the student to
carry this concept one step further and to
1. Play any descending scale in the right hand.
Repeat it four times, varying the consecutive finger
combinations each time. For example:
5 4-54-54-5 4-54-5 4-54-5;
4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4;
and so forth.
2. Play any ascending scale in the right hand.
Repeat it four times, varying the consecutive finger
combinations each time. For example:
1-2-12-1 2-12-12-1 2-12-1;
2 3-2 3-23-23-23-23-23-2;
and so forth.
3. Repeat the same procedures for the left hand using
consecutive fingerings for descending and ascending scales
that are the reverse of the right hand fingerings given in
the first and second steps.
Teaching Examples
Have the student apply finger pedaling to the trills
in the musical passage below, using the fingering that is
marked.


36
Pedaling as an Aid to Individual Interpretation
Great piano playing is an individual matter, and most
teachers recognize pedaling as an important aid to express
ing this individuality. In a nearly identical performance
of the same musical composition by two pianists, quite dif
ferent results can be produced solely through dissimilar
pedaling (Marsh, 1987; Riefling, 1962). In the opinion of
Marsh (1987), an intelligent early training in the art of
pedaling is an important key to developing an individually
unique sound in interpreting music.
According to Ching, most piano music imposes a limit
upon the freedom of individual interpretation,
but no such tradition [exists] with regard to the
pedalor virtually none. Here the artist has free
scope, and provided he has the requisite knowledge and
skill he can use this freedom to express his individu
ality and his art. (Ching, 1930, p. 36)
Difficulty in Teaching Pedaling
Pedaling is sometimes referred to as "the most diffi
cult branch of higher piano study" (Cooke, 1976). Numerous
articles provide testimonials to this statement. Formsma
(1976, p. 45) writes that the pedagogical problems involved
in teaching pedaling have "provided inspiration for arti
cles, problems for editors, and disagreement among perform
ers, students, and teachers."
In his book on pedaling, Gieseking states that ade
quate instruction in pedaling is very difficult because


221
The whole-tone scale can be faintly sustained through
out the piece by depressing silently one or more fundamen
tals before the piece begins and catching them in the
sostenuto pedal. To teach this concept in the following
example, ask the student to
1. Depress silently a group of fundamentals such as
the one suggested above.
2. Depress the sostenuto pedal and hold it throughout
the piece.
Facilitating awkward technical passages. The
sostenuto pedal can be used to help pianists with small
hands sustain notes that they cannot reach.
Example 0: Beethoven Rondo in G, Op. 51, No. 2
Andante cantabile e grazioso
S.P. .
If a pianist cannot reach the left hand tenth, two
options are available.
1. Depress the low "G" silently and catch it in the
sostenuto pedal before beginning the piece. Or:


196
finger independence for distinct articulation of parts. Be
sure that the bass line is played staccatissimo.
2. Feel the legato sensation in the repeated notes
played by the thumb. This is achieved by an outward
rounded motion of the forearm as it drops into each of the
repeated notes. (The straight up-down lifting of the
forearm is to be avoided.)
These physical actions will help create a feeling of
continuity and project the forward motion of the melodic
line. They will also provide the student with an important
mental preparation for the legato concept in pedaling. Ask
the student to
3. Hear mentally both the legato thumb line and the
staccato bass as the left hand part is played alone.
4. Play the repeated chords consisting of the double
notes played by the right hand in combination with the
thumb of the left hand. Be sure these notes are sustained,
since they must be held while the pedal is activated.
5. Pedal the chords using legato pedaling. Practice
holding onto the chords and delaying the pedal changes
until the very last moment to allow sufficient time for
the staccato bass notes to stop sounding when the upper and
lower parts are combined.
6. Combine the pedal with the left hand alone.
Listen carefully so that the conclusions of the staccato
bass notes are not obscured by the pedal.


3
Several reasons exist for this present situation.
First of all, very little research has been conducted on
pedaling (Banowetz, 1985; Gebhard, 1963; Wolfram, 1965).
In addition, until recently no single comprehensive source
of piano pedaling techniques had been published. Except
for a few books or articles on this subject, when pedaling
is discussed, it is often in a fragmentary manner. This
situation leaves piano teachers with little to draw on
other than their own personal experience, because they have
no research findings or systematic studies with which to
compare the strengths and weaknesses of a particular peda
gogical approach to a pedaling technique.
Another reason for the lack of a generally accepted
standard is that pedaling is a highly individual matter,
relying heavily on the musicianship of the particular
performer. A rigid, unvarying concept of pedaling is not
desirable, because the choice of pedaling is affected by a
wide variety of factors.
Many pianists fail to listen carefully to the musical
effects of their pedaling, not only because of a lack of
attention, but also because they use the pedals to mask a
number of technical inaccuracies. This lack of aural
attention is unfortunate, because pianists must rely on
aural perception to compensate for the varying conditions
of performance such as the particular instrument being
played, the acoustics of the hall, additional performers in


86
3. Play the chord and depress the pedal on the first
beat; release both the chord and the pedal on the third
beat. Vary the dynamic level of the chords being played.
The release of the pedal and chord should happen very
quickly. Ask the student to notice the accent that occurs
at the moment of rest.
It is easier for the dampers to mute the tones com
pletely when they are played softly than when they are
played fortissimo. Therefore, loud passages require care
ful listening and special care in releasing the pedal. It
will be necessary to release the pedal a bit earlyan
instant before the beat, to stop the sound precisely on the
rest.
Teaching Example
Apply the procedures suggested for pedal release to
the example below. Because of the dramatic nature of this
piece it is not necessary to depress the damper pedal si
multaneously with each chord. Also because of the nature
of the piece, the chords should not be released too quick
ly. Releasing the chords too quickly will destroy the
intensely dramatic character of this section. However, it
is important that the silence between each chord be very
rhythmic. The pedal is marked in this example so that the
dampers will mute the sound exactly on the third beat.


137
pedal, or a 50 percent release of pedaled sound. Rather,
half pedal is a combination of full pedal and partial
pedaling in such a way that allows part of the notes that
have been played to be retained in the damper pedal, and
the other part to be partially released. Half pedaling is
used most often to sustain bass sonorities that cannot be
held with the fingers alone. In comparison, half damping
partially sustains every tone.
Activation of the dampers. It is important to
understand the relationship between the descent of the
damper pedal and the activation of the dampers before
applying the technique of half damping. It may be helpful
to look inside a grand piano to actually see as well as
hear what is happening. Most pedal mechanisms contain a
certain amount of "play" that allows the damper pedal to be
slightly depressed before the dampers actually begin to
rise from the strings. Ideally, this area of free play
should extend for about an eighth of an inch. If the pedal
mechanism is poorly adjusted the dampers may begin to rise
instantly once the slightest amount of pressure is applied
to the pedal, or the dampers may not begin to leave the
strings until the pedal is depressed half way or more.
These situations can be very disconcerting when the use of
half damping is required.
The area between the point at which the dampers begin
to rise and the point at which they fully clear the strings


154
that no change occurs as a result of using the pedal. It
is too thin if the bass notes have been lost. The entire
harmony should remain caught in the pedal. If the bass
sounds are lost, the ascent of the pedal was too rapid and
abrupt. The pedal should slowly rise, but it should not
come all the way up.
Have the student practice making a pedal diminuendo
that fades away into silence. Ask the student to
4. Repeat the above procedures, but rely on careful
listening at the conclusion of the sounds to determine how
much of the sonorities should be lost or retained at any
given moment. It is important to retain the bass harmonies
throughout the application of this technique. There should
be no obvious break in the continuity of sound.
Teaching Example
In the following example, the pedal diminuendo fades
into a single sonority. Depending on the amount of sound
remaining in the pedal, it may be necessary for the pianist
to vibrate the pedal a little when the last two notes are
played.
Example A: Debussy Arabesque No.l in E


204
held in the bass. Therefore, the following sequence of
steps is recommended in teaching the use of this pedal.
Ask the student to do the following:
1. Play a low octave in the bass.
2. While holding the notes depress the sostenuto
pedal completely, using the left foot.
3. Release the fingers from the keys. (The low bass
octave should be securely held in the sostenuto pedal.)
4. Release the sostenuto pedal.
The second exercise involves experimenting with notes
that are not held in the sostenuto pedal, such as shifting
harmonies above a constant bass. Ask the student to repeat
the first three steps given above, then do the following:
1. Play chords or single notes above and below the
sustained octave. Listen to the sound that is produced.
(While these tones should not be caught in the sostenuto
pedal, a slight echoing sound may be heard due to the
vibration of sympathetic partials.)
2. Release the sostenuto pedal.
When this simple exercise is repeated in various
registers of the keyboard, it becomes a good way to verify
quickly if the sostenuto mechanism is operating properly.
Sustaining bass pedals. The student should now be
ready to transfer these procedures to musical examples
using the sostenuto pedal alone. The following excerpt is
from a transcription of an organ work by Bach, where


225
sound begins to taper a little. Hold the pedal in this
position.
3. Silently depress the "Db" "Ab" fifth in the left
hand.
4. Depress the sostenuto pedal.
When the fifth is played later, it will be sustained
automatically in the sostenuto pedal.
Example Q: Ravel Sonatine
s.p. L
One of the most familiar musical examples employing
the use of all three pedals is "Clair de lune" by Debussy.
Because of the wide separation between the low bass octave
and the high register of the upper voices, this passage is
frequently performed using just the una corda and the dam
per pedals. However, the wide spacing also facilitates the
use of the sostenuto pedal. While it is not easy to manip
ulate all three pedals at once, every available technique
should be used to convey the composer's written intent.


213
can gauge the depth of the key "spot more accurately. The
exercise should be repeated until a feel for the exact
distance becomes automatic.
In the following transcription by Liszt of Bach's
organ Prelude and Fugue in A minor/ a low "A" pedal begins
in measure 10 and is held through measure 23. The pianist
can depress the low "A" silently before beginning the piece
and catch the raised damper with the sostenuto pedal. Ask
the student to
1. Silently depress the low "A" before beginning the
piece. Depress the key slowly until a small resistance is
felt, about two-thirds of the way down.
2. Depress the sostenuto pedal. Continue to hold the
sostenuto pedal through measure 23. When the "A" is played
in measure 10, the sound will be retained by the sostenuto
pedal.
Example I: Bach-Liszt Prelude and Fugue in A minor
for organ


116
is properly regulated, an immediate cessation of sound oc
curs as each note is released. This can produce an abrupt
effect that may not be warranted by the music.
Portato pedaling can be especially useful in rounding
off the final note or chord of a phrase and in lessening
the sound before a rest. A slow release of the pedal can
prolong the sound while also diminishing it, thus avoiding
the abrupt cessation of sound that occurs when a note or
chord is released by the fingers alone.
Notes that are played with a portato or non legato
touch can often benefit from the addition of pedal, espe
cially if they are followed by rests. These notes require
only brief touches of pedal. The pedal can be used to re
lease the sound gradually, an effect similar to rounding
off the final notes of a phrase.
Portato pedaling may be applied to any note or chord
that requires a full texture or to those that require a
gentle tapering of the sound. Loud, staccato notes or
chords may need small amounts of pedal for increased so
nority and color. Portato pedaling differs from staccato
pedaling which is covered in a separate teaching unit.
Teaching Procedures
Prerequisite skills. The first requirement for teach
ing portato pedaling involves the ability to hear the dif
ference between the release of notes and chords that are


167
Addition of listening skills. Ask the student to
remain standing in front of the keyboard and do the
following:
1. Play a chord and hold it.
2. Depress the damper pedal very slowly to the point
where the notes are barely retained in the pedal.
3. Release the chord completely with the fingers.
(If the sound is accidentally lost, have the student repeat
the chord as often as necessary but do not hold it in the
hands.)
4. Look inside the piano while listening to the chord
that has been played to aurally and visually determine the
area that is used in flutter pedaling.
5. Play the chord again. Depress the damper pedal a
little more fully so that all the notes of the chord are
definitely retained in the pedal.
6. Look inside the piano again while listening to the
chord to determine the full extent of the area that is used
in flutter pedaling.
Vibrating the pedal. Have the student sit at the
keyboard and play a chord. Ask the student to depress the
pedal to the point where all the notes are retained, then
slowly vibrate the pedal. Then ask the student to
1. Listen carefully to the pedal vibrations. Try to
maintain an even rate of speed.


268
Table 7
Stage of Development at which a Particular Pedaling
Technique Should be Introduced, According to
Percentage of Responses
Unit
Beqinninq
Elementary
Intermediate
Advanced
1. Leqato
pedalinq
43
57
2. Lega-
tissimo
100
3. Rhythmic
pedaling
100
4. Una corda
pedalinq
33
67
5. Pre-
pedalinq
33
67
6. Finger
pedalinq
33
33
33
7. Staccato
pedaling
75
25
8. Portato
pedalinq
75
25
9. Phrasing/
artic.
80
20
10. Melodic
pedalinq
80
20
11. Half
damping
100
12. Pedal
vibrato
20
80
13. Pedal
dimin.
100
14. Half
pedaling
20
80
15. Flutter
pedalinq
50
50
16. Dynamic
pedaling
50
50
17. Pedal
blurrinq
100
18. Harmonic
pedalinq
20
60
20
19. Pedaling
one hand
17
83
20. Sostenuto
pedalinq
20
80


46
contracting the muscles in the leg and foot (Bernstein,
1981). Therefore, Bernstein recommends beginning the study
of pedaling by considering the posture of the feet and the
feel of pedal resistance. He suggests an exercise in which
the student places the right foot on the damper pedal and
the toes of the left foot over the right. A downward pres
sure from the left toes as the pedal is activated exercises
a braking control and prevents the dampers from slapping
against the strings.
Before any pedal is used Anson (1966) suggests that
the teacher explain its use, demonstrate what happens with
the piano mechanism, and illustrate the sounds which then
result.
Teaching Techniques for the Damper Pedal
The easiest use of the damper pedal involves sustain
ing the same chord for a period of time. The notes and
pedal are then released simultaneously. Pedaling in this
way is sometimes referred to as "direct pedaling." Ching
(1930) refers to this use of the pedal as a preparation for
legato pedaling.
Until the beginner knows exactly how to coordinate
pedaling, Marsh (1987) believes that it is extremely im
portant for the teacher to mark precisely even the simplest
pedaling suggestions in everything that is used for pedal
practice. Marsh feels that in the early training years the


66
it to the actual connection of tones. Therefore, legato
pedaling differs from full pedal by incorporating the
element of timing. The importance placed on timing in
legato pedaling is reflected in the alternative names for
this technique: syncopated pedaling and following pedaling.
Legato pedaling involves timing the activation and release
of the damper pedal in coordination with depressing the
keys on the piano. This requires timing the (1) descent of
the pedal, (2) release of the pedal, and (3) reactivaton of
the pedal.
The amount of time allowed between depressing the keys
and activation and release of the pedal permits a great
variety of choice. As a result, many shadings of tone
color and effect are possible. These differences are
subtle and their use depends on certain stylistic factors,
as well as the pianist's own preference and skill. Vari
ations on basic legato pedaling are covered in other units
such as those on legatissimo pedaling, portato pedaling,
and pre-pedaling.
Legato pedaling may be diagrammed as indicated on the
following page. This example illustrates a number of ways
in which the pedal may be used to achieve a legato connec
tion of the notes. The amount of elapsed time between the
pedal changes is approximate and somewhat flexible.


291
just basic elementary skills. A need exists for teachers
not only to be aware of the various pedaling techniques,
but also to possess the ability to demonstrate them
competently to their students.
The need for organized and sequential pedagogical
materials on the teaching of piano pedaling became readily
apparent during the course of this study. A method book on
the teaching of pedaling should be developed, along with a
series of instructional books on pedaling for students.
In this way, the materials and concepts that have been
presented and validated within this study can become more
easily accessible to the majority of piano teachers and
students who strive to pedal in a more artistic manner.


244
A teacher may submit application in one applied performance
medium only, and according to one of two requirements: (1)
successful completion of the Associate Certificate
Examination, or (2) graduation from an approved institution
with a specified number of credits earned in designated
areas, along with submission of a 35-minute tape of a
performance by the applicant and by at least two of the
applicant's students. The Associate Certificate is valid
for five years.
The Master Teacher Certificate is designed to
recognize accomplishments of leaders in the music teaching
profession. It is the highest level of certification in
MTNA. The Master Teacher Certificate is available to
active members who have had a minimum of ten years teaching
experience in the area of certification. It is awarded on
the basis of points allotted for achievement in two or more
of the following categories: (1) advanced degrees, (2)
independent study with an artist teacher, (3) public
performance, and (4) professional activities. The Master
Teacher Certificate is valid as long as the teacher
maintains active membership in MTNA.
The College Faculty Certificate is the most recent
addition to the national certification program. It is
awarded to candidates who are full-time college faculty
members of no less than five years at an accredited
institution. This certificate does not require renewal,


270
Table 8
Importance of Teaching Individual Pedaling Techniques
Acording to Percentage of Responses
Unit
Not Very
Somewhat
Very
1. Legato
pedaling 100
2. Legatissimo
pedaling
25
75
3. Rhythmic
pedaling
100
4. Una corda
pedaling
100
5. Pre
pedaling
22
78
6. Finger
pedaling
100
7. Staccato
pedaling
100
8. Portato
pedaling
20
80
9. Phrasing/
articulation
100
10. Melodic
pedaling
100
11. Half
damping
100
12. Pedal
vibrato 17
50
33
13. Pedal
diminuendo 17
83
14. Half
pedaling
100
15. Flutter
pedaling
67
33
16. Dynamic
pedaling
20
80
17. Pedal
blurring
20
80
18. Harmonic
peda 1ing
20
80
19. Pedaling
one hand
100
20. Sostenuto
pedaling
17
83


161
chords played to four above the original bass, while
changing the pedal after each chord.
5. Repeat the procedure moving closer to the middle
range of the keyboard. Gradually increase the dynamic
level of the chords until at least a mezzo-forte can be
reached and the chord changes remain clean.
Teaching Example
Apply the above principles to the following example.
Example A; Debussy Clair de lune
It is generally not necessary to change the pedal
immediately after the first few chords in the treble have
been played. The fact that the bass is to be retained as a
pedal is an indication that some dissonance will probably
occur. How soon half pedaling is employed after playing
the bass is a matter of personal preference. It is in
fluenced by such variables as the dynamic level of the
music, stylistic factors, and resonance of the instrument.


13
a pianist not only must be able to use appropriate pedaling
techniques, but also must possess an understanding of the
composer's idiomatic treatment of the pedals. Without such
understanding, a mastery of pedaling techniques in itself
is of limited value.
Numerous problems exist regarding pedal markings in
the score. Because a composer does not call for pedaling
in the notation is no reason to assume that none should be
used. Indications were not provided in the music for the
knee levers or hand stops which were early means of pedal
ing. Until the piano reached its full development during
the early part of the nineteenth century, many composers
omitted pedal markings entirely. Yet it is known from
various accounts of piano playing that several composers
used the pedals in performances of their own compositions.
Mozart, for instance, never placed pedal markings in any of
his solo piano works. However, in letters to his father he
described using the damper pedal freely, and mentioned how
he was overjoyed at finding one that was capable of releas
ing the sounds completely. Haydn indicated the use of the
damper pedal only twice. Neither he nor Mozart provided
markings for the use of the una corda pedal.
The lack of adequate pedaling indications is not
limited to any particular style of music, however. For
example, the clarity of the contrapuntal lines in much
eighteenth century music can be easily obscured through


194
Teaching Unit 19; Pedaling One Hand and Not the Other
Description of Technique
Pedaling one hand and not the other consists of acti
vating the damper pedal so that it sustains tones from only
the keys played by one hand or in one or more parts simul
taneously, while those in the other hand or other parts are
released.
Application When Playing
It is often necessary to pedal the part played by only
one hand. This occurs when one hand is marked legato and
the other staccato or when one melodic line is phrased
differently from the other. Successful application of this
technique depends upon an understanding of the principle of
non-simultaneous key release. Non-simultaneous key release
occurs when two or more keys are released at different
times. Usually this occurs because of different articu
lations .
In the example given on the next page, the three upper
parts are marked "tenuto sempre" while the bass notes are
marked "staccato sempre. Without the use of the pedal it
is impossible to achieve the sustained legato line called
for in the upper parts. Yet, pedaling should not infringe
upon the staccato bass notes. Clearly, some pedal is
needed, but where?


Damper Pedal
English:
French:
German:
Italian:
damper pedal, loud pedal, open pedal, sustaining
pedal, amplifying pedal
avec pdale, la pedale forte, pedale grande,
gardez la pedale
Aushaltepedal, Das Dampferpedal, Das
Dampfungspedal, Fortezug, Grosses Pedal, mit
Pedalgebrauch
col pedale, con pedale, il primo pedale, pedale,
pedale del forte, sempre pedale, senza sordini,
ped. simile
Release of the Damper Pedal
French: sec, sans pedale
German: kein Pedal, ohne Pedal
Italian: con sordini, senza pedale, secco, non ped.
Sostenuto Pedal
English:
prolonging pedal,
sostenuto pedal, Steinway
pedal, sustaining
pedal, S.P., tonal pedal,
Ped
French:
Prolongement, Pedale de prolongation, Prol.
Ped
German:
Tonhaltepedal
Italian:
11 pedale tonale
Una Corda Pedal
English: soft pedal, shift pedal, muting pedal
French: unecorde, sourdine, la pedale sourde, petite
pedale


280
Transactions. The transactions stage concerns the
presentation of the material by the teacher. At this stage
the teacher should: (1) review the correct positioning of
the body and feet on the pedals, (2) follow the steps out
lined in the teaching unit, using the examples provided,
and (3) at the second lesson review the main concepts
presented during the previous week's lesson.
Outcomes. The outcomes stage involves the achievement
of the technique by the student. It determines if the
student: (1) has a clear understanding of the pedaling
technique, and (2) after having practiced the technique
demonstrates that he or she has learned it.
The tapes were subjected to analysis by a committee to
determine whether the following criteria were met: (1) The
requisite conditions necessary for learning the technique
were met by the student, (2) the teacher followed the
suggestions in the teaching unit and was clear in doing so,
and (3) the student did in fact learn the pedaling tech
nique as demonstrated at his or her lesson the following
week.
Observations of Tapes
The observations made by the committee were recorded
on a separate form (see Appendix E). The results of the
observations are tabled and presented on the following
page:


20
the strings, (2) a 50 percent release of sound occurs when
the dampers rest very lightly on the strings, and (3) a 25
percent release of sound occurs when the dampers rest
almost completely on the strings.
The term catching notes in the pedal is used inter
changeably with holding notes in the damper pedal.
Other pedal terminology based upon a combination of
full and partial pedaling techniques is defined at appro
priate places in the teaching units.
The following definitions apply to the terminology
used to describe various components of the teaching units:
Technique is a body of technical skills related to the
use of the pedals on the piano.
Method refers to a systematic plan followed in pres
enting material for instruction.
Procedure is a series of steps followed in introducing
the various pedaling concepts in an organized manner.
Unit refers to one constituent in a series of twenty-
one teaching segments that collectively comprise a system
atic, pedagogical study of the three pedals of the piano.


63
playing the piano and how it is accomplished. Suggestions
for implementing the various pedaling techniques into the
repertoire address the matters of how and when to employ a
technique. By developing a stylistic awareness the student
will be better able to apply each technique in an appro
priate musical way.
The section on teaching procedures describes the
necessary prerequisite knowledge and skills required for a
student to learn each particular pedaling technique. A
student should possess appropriate physical development,
hand and foot coordination, and the ability to position the
body properly. In addition, students need to have suffi
cient musical maturity to convey the intent of the music
and a desire to learn. In general, these prerequisite
conditions should be met before a student is taught the
intracacies of piano pedaling techniques.
Some similarities and overlap exist in the teaching
sequence for several of the teaching units, because each
unit was designed to stand on its own for review purposes
by the expert evaluators.
Teaching examples of each technique are described and
presented in an increasing order of difficulty. A step-by-
step process for executing the pedaling technique is pro
vided for each example.
Additional exercises derived from musical examples are
suggested that may be used to train the foot and develop


123
Teaching Procedures
Because the pedal is applied in slightly different
ways to achieve various effects of phrasing and articu
lation, only a few examples of this type of pedaling are
presented here. However, the various forms of pedalings
that may be used in applying this technique all contain
certain similarities. Therefore, the pedagogical pro
cedures are summarized and presented simultaneously.
Prerequisite skills. Before applying the pedal the
student should be able to hear the difference between notes
that are pedaled and those that are not. Ask the student
to do the following:
1. Begin by playing single notes or chords without
using pedal. Next, play a chord and while holding it down
depress the damper pedal. Notice that when the pedal is
applied the following changes occur: (1) color and rich
ness enhance the tone, and (2) a slight swelling of sound
gives the illusion of a crescendo. These changes occur
because of the added partials which sound when the dampers
are raised fully from the strings. Therefore, the pedal
can be useful in giving added emphasis and color to ac
cented notes, to important melodic and harmonic changes,
and to notes which are tied.
2. Play a series of repeated chords softly while
keeping the pedal depressed. Play each chord at the same


78
all blurred, this is an indication that the pedal was not
fully released at the time the second chord was played,
preventing the dampers from being raised completely from
the strings so that the sound of the first chord is
cleared.
7. Repeat the last two procedures for each new chord
that is to be played using legato pedaling.
Legatissimo pedaling. The procedures for teaching
legatissimo pedaling are similar to those given above,
except that a slight blurring of the harmonies should be
heard. This is due to the momentary delay in lifting the
damper pedal after each new harmony. Although the pedal
release is delayed, it must not be done in a haphazard
manner. Have the student count while learning this
technique. Ask the student to
1. Play the first chord. Then, while holding the
notes, fully depress the damper pedal.
2. Play the second chord and keep the pedal de
pressed. The resulting blur will be offensive to a
sensitive ear. Clear the pedal while still holding the
notes on the keyboard.
3. Repeat the above procedures while counting so
that the pedal will be released exactly at a predetermined
point. Play the first chord on the first count. On the
second count depress the damper pedal. Continue holding
through the third and fourth counts. At the return of the


245
and is valid as long as the teacher maintains MTNA
membership and is employed full-time by an institution of
higher learning. The College Faculty Certificate had not
been implemented at the writing of this dissertation and
was therefore not considered.
All three available levels of certification were
included in this study to ensure a more representative
sample of the various levels of teaching. According to the
Directory, 4,000 teachers are currently certified in
various fields of music teaching. By far the largest
percentage of these are professional certified teachers.
Less than two hundred teachers (or about 5 percent) hold
the Master Teacher Certificate, and only six teachers (or
about .15 percent) hold the Associate Certificate. While
professional certified teachers reside in every state,
thirteen states are not represented by master certified
teachers.
Only those teachers holding professional, associate,
and master certification in piano and piano pedagogy were
utilized in this study.
Sample of expert opinion. Sixty-three names were
randomly selected from a total population of 2,763 from the
1987-88 Directory of Nationally Certified Teachers. The
twenty teaching units plus the summary were considered
collectively for purposes of validation as comprising a
total of twenty-one distinct units. The twenty-one units


212
Such an opportunity may occur before the beginning of the
piece or during a rest. A critical consideration in
teaching this technique is to make certain that notes are
depressed silently. If the keys are depressed completely
to the bottom of the key "bed," an audible sound will
probably result. However, if they are depressed only about
two-thirds of the way down to the key "spot," or the point
at which a slight resistance is felt, they will not sound.
Preliminary exercise. To teach silent depression of
notes, ask the student to do the following:
1. Play any note quickly. (The note should sound.)
Notice that very little key resistance is felt.
2. Play the note again, but depress the key very
slowly. Notice that
A. Key resistance is noticeable.
B. It is more difficult to produce an audible
sound when the keys are depressed slowly.
3. Depress the note slowly, just to the point at
which key resistance is felt. (This will prevent the
hammer from lightly striking the string as the key is
depressed, but it also is sufficient to raise the damper
fully from the string.)
4. Depress the sostenuto pedal fully.
5. Play the note, then release the fingers. The note
should continue to sound in the sostenuto pedal. If it
does not, tell the student to repeat Step 2 until he or she


174
Teaching Procedures
Forte-piano effects. At least three means of achiev
ing a forte-piano effect are possible on the contemporary
grand piano. Two of these involve the use of the damper
pedal, while the third is accomplished by voicing and dyna
mics alone. Teaching procedures for achieving a forte
piano with the damper pedal using both techniques are
presented here.
The simplest means of executing a forte-piano chord
involves a combination of full and partial pedaling. Prior
to teaching this technique, however, the student should un
derstand the difference between these two types of pedaling
and be able to execute them successfully. Full and partial
pedaling techniques are presented and contrasted in other
teaching units, for instance, half-damping, half-pedaling,
pedal vibrato, and pedal diminuendo. Consequently, they
are not covered here.
In the opening three measures of the Grave Intro
duction of the Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 No. 8, Beethoven
indicates three forte-piano chords. It is doubtful that
Beethoven intended for these chords to be played using
forte-piano pedal techniques. In fact, since the sonata
was published in 1799, this type of pedaling would have
been extremely difficult to execute on pianos of that time.
Rather, a sudden lessening of tone occurred naturally after
the initial attack of a note or chord. When forte-piano


126
pedal slowly, just to the point at which the sound is
released. This will be the height above which the pedal
should not rise in order to retain the sound. Likewise,
this is also the depth to which the pedal must descend in
order to sustain the tones.
3. Play a series of repeated chords and connect them
by partially depressing the pedal. Practice catching notes
and chords in this partial range until it becomes comfor
table .
4. Depress the pedal fully and play a chord. Allow
the pedal to rise slowly until the tones have ceased.
Notice the gentle tapering of sound that is produced by a
slow pedal release.
5. Depress the pedal fully and play a chord in the
upper register and a low note in the bass register. Allow
the pedal to rise partially no more than half the distance
of the range determined in the fourth step given above so
that all tones are completely retained. Make small, par
tial changes of pedal, completely retaining the low bass
tones but gradually diminishing the overall accumulation
of sound.
When the student can successfully complete the above
exercises he or she should be ready to transfer this type
of pedaling to musical examples similar to those given on
the following pages.


98
ture and wide spacing provide an opportunity to check a
greater range of sound. Ask the student to:
1. Pre-pedal both the una corda and damper pedals.
2. Play the passage as indicated. Listen carefully
to the sound that is produced to determine whether the una
corda pedal should be partially or fully depressed. It may
be necessary to adjust the level of the una corda pedal
according to the register and dynamics.
3. Repeat this passage in the upper and lower
registers of the keyboard, and at various dynamic levels.
Again, listen carefully to the sound to determine the
correct depth that the una corda pedal should be depressed,
which may vary in the different registers. Notice whether
the heel should be shifted slightly for balance in either
direction.
Example B: Schubert Impromptu Op. 90, No. 3
Andame
Damper ped.
u.c.


180
that the pedal is to be left unchanged throughout four
measures of conflicting harmony. But since the tone of the
older "forte-piano" was comparatively light, the pedal
could be left down for longer periods of time than is
possible on instruments of today. To blur the pedal con
sistently in music of the classical period obscures the
characteristic clarity of the texture and render an
unmusical performance.
Composers such as Chopin and Liszt made full use of
the capabilities of the concert grand piano including the
pedals and often indicated pedal blurring in the score.
Pedal blurring is a characteristic of the piano music of
Debussy and Ravel. Many twentieth-century composers in
clude pedal blurring, along with other techniques, in an
effort to expand the tonal capacities of the instrument.
Teaching Procedures
Pedal blurring utilizes both full and partial pedaling
techniques. Partial pedaling is preferable when a full de
pression of the damper pedal would create a sound that is
too thick or unclear. The most commonly used forms of par
tial pedaling to create pedal blurs are half damping, half
pedal, and sometimes flutter pedaling. Partial pedaling
produces a quite different tonal effect than full pedal.
Whether to use full or partial pedaling depends on a number
of factors such as the size of the instrument, the acous-


139
The size of the instrument has a bearing on its sound
since the length of the strings varies with the size and
length of the piano. What sounds good on one instrument
may not always sound equally good on another. The student
should feel comfortable enough with this technique that he
or she can make any necessary adjustments in pedaling that
may be needed during performance.
Functions of released damper sound. Half damping
produces a completely different tonal effect than full
pedaling. In addition, the differences in the various
degrees of released damper sound affect the color and
purpose for which each is used.
A 25 percent release of damper sound is effective when
(1) the tempo is too rapid to allow a pedal change on every
note, (2) flutter pedal would produce too heavy a texture,
or (3) a slightly richer tone color is desired to avoid a
"dry" sound.
A 50 percent release of damper sound can be used when
(1) the harmony is retained but the dynamic level remains
soft, (2) a hazy, atmospheric effect is desired, or (3)
staccato notes need a slight lengthening.
A 75 percent release of sound is used effectively when
rapid musical passages must maintain their clarity in a
full, resonant sonority.


52
gers do not always need to hold on to the notes when using
the damper pedal.
Bernstein (1981) recommends lifting the fingers for
another reason. Freeing the fingers from a finger legato
and connecting instead with the damper pedal enables the
pianist to control the exact dynamic level of each note.
This is useful if strain or discomfort prevents those
pianists with small hands from controlling the contour of
the dynamics. Although he states that some pianists regard
the practice of relying on the pedal for legato instead of
the fingers as an anathema, he points out that some of the
greatest pianists indulge in this practice.
Anson (1966) has the student play scales with the
third finger alone while playing and pedaling in various
meters. He suggests experimenting with the length of time
the pedal remain depressed.
Before the student attempts legato pedaling, Dumesnil
(1958) recommends five preparatory exercises to acquire a
syncopated motion between the hands and foot. These are
done while counting away from the piano.
Farjeon (1923) recommends an exercise to be played
first with finger legato and then with the third finger
alone while the pedal connects the notes. He suggests
varying the tempo and, when playing fast, to pull up
suddenly from the note to assure that the sound is clean.


Ill
technique cannot be applied indiscriminately to all notes
or chords marked staccato.
Staccato pedaling is sometimes used to slightly
lengthen the final sound of staccato chords that otherwise
might sound too abrupt. This use is sometimes referred to
as "portato pedaling, since when it is applied the chords
sound as if they are played slightly more portato than
staccato. Staccato pedaling in this way closely resembles
pedaling to enhance phrasing and articulation, which is
discussed in a separate unit.
Teaching Procedures
Staccato pedaling is the simplest of all pedaling
techniques to execute, because it complements the natural
tendency to synchronize the motion of the foot with the
hands. It involves an exact coordination between the pedal
and the notes, as the damper pedal is depressed at exactly
the same moment the hands depress the keys. Unless
staccato pedal is used to lengthen the release of the tone
slightly, no syncopation is involved between the pedal and
hands as it is in every other pedaling technique.
Most students are taught legato pedaling first, which
is a syncopated form of pedaling. Therefore, the idea of
depressing the pedal with the notes may seem somewhat for
eign, initially. The student may be tempted to tap the
foot on the pedal or to keep time with the foot.


47
student needs the visual help of such markings at all
times.
Activating the Damper Pedal
Several books and articles refer to the manner in
which the damper pedal is depressed and released. The
damper pedal may be depressed either before, with, or after
the notes are played. It may be released either with the
notes or delayed by varying degrees.
As mentioned earlier, rhythmic pedaling, or depressing
the damper pedal simultaneously with the notes that are
played, was originally considered the accepted method of
pedaling. Today simultaneous pedaling is more likely to be
regarded as the exception to the rule. Releasing the dam
per pedal in an appropriate manner is given more prominent
attention in the various writings, and it is widely con
sidered to be of more importance than how or when it is
depressed. "The rule 'play first, pedal afterwards' is of
permanent and universal validity, but like all rules, it
has its exceptions" (Kentner, 1976, p. 72). Ching (1930)
provides a series of exercises based on a single chord
followed by musical examples to illustrate this concept.
Hamilton (1927) states that the pedal should always be
depressed to its full extent by a quick downward movement
made from the ankle joint and released by relaxing the
pressure as suddenly as it was applied. According to


7
several piano teachers certified as "Master Teachers" by
the Music Teachers National Association. These tapes were
then analyzed by the researcher along with a panel of three
certified piano teachers to verify that the students did in
fact learn the particular pedaling technique. The exten
sive portion of the validation process consisted of ques
tionnaires sent to forty-two certified "Master Teachers"
asking for their opinions and suggestions about the units
on pedaling. These validation efforts are described in
detail in Chapter 4.
This study also had some secondary purposes related
to the development of the units. These secondary purposes
include
(1) the development of preliminary exercises to
foster prerequisite skills prior to teaching pedaling
techniques;
(2) the classification of pedaling techniques
according to related skills that are employed in executing
each technique; and
(3) the formulation of a pedagogical sequence for
introducing piano pedaling techniques in a logical,
systematic order.
Development of the Pedals
A knowledge of the development of each of the pedals
provides the performer with insight into performance prac-


214
The next example illustrates an opportunity to silent
ly depress the keys during a rest. The two lowest notes
are sustained for several measures, but the sostenuto pedal
cannot be applied in the first measure since there is no
way to prevent other notes in the upper two staves from
also being sustained. The rest in the second measure
presents an opportunity to apply the sostenuto pedal. The
timing between depressing the keys and the pedals is as
follows:
1. Play the first measure with the damper pedal
depressed.
2. Silently depress the "D" and "A" in the left hand.
Release the damper pedal.
3. Depress the sostenuto pedal.
Example J: Debussy Preludes, Book II, No. 8, "Ondine"
u Mouv4


176
Example B; Beethoven
Written
Sonata in C m, Op. 13, No. 8
Grava
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p
1
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p=|
VS
i J
i'1
* V
-m -li-
u
<=i

( 7 Oil
it]
f^
;
hit
T
Played
Second procedure for teaching a forte-piano effect.
The same Beethoven sonata can be used to illustrate the
second means of executing a forte-piano. This technique
involves more complex timing between the hands and the
foot. It also involves the concept of staccato within a
legato texture. However, it enables a much sharper accent
to be heard on the initial chord, which creates a greater
dynamic contrast between the forte and piano. To execute
this technique ask the student to
1. Pre-pedal by silently depressing the damper pedal
fully.


259
how they could purchase a copy of the completed work. A
few expressed a desire to have a workshop or master class
on the materials. Several others indicated that they felt
privileged to have been included in the study.
Many respondents urged publication of the materials.
A few examples are cited here: "This material must be
compiled and sold to piano teachers and pianists every
where;" "if you prepare a book it would be most helpful to
teachers;" "show publishers of method books your work that
they might incorporate your techniques into their series;"
"this is the basis for a valuable article;" "would love to
see the entire workdo you have plans for publishing it?"
"hope that it will be published and that it will be readily
available;" "would love to purchase a copy;" "concise, well
written, and will be of great value to both teachers and
students;" and "if you have any problems getting a pub
lisher, let me know."
Less favorable. Four respondents, or 7 percent,
expressed comments that were less favorable. These in
clude: "a bit dry;" "I felt somewhat frustrated with the
concepts even though I understood them and could see a
needit was a different viewpoint;" "the explanations are
excellent for the teacher, but there are too many negatives
to mention in a lesson;" and "I think the subject is not of
enough substance to base your thesis on [it] is given
too much emphasis."


128
1. Play the fermata "F's" and depress the pedal fully
2. Make a series of rapid, partial pedal changes
without losing the tones, but with enough range to diminish
the sound somewhat.
3. Slowly release the pedal at the conclusion of the
ferrmata, immediately before beginning the new phrase.
In the following example the dynamic level again
changes from a forte to a piano at the end of the fermata.
Ask the student to
1. Play the final chord and depress the pedal fully.
2. Keeping the pedal at least three-fourths depressed
make a series of slow partial pedal changes. Listen care
fully to determine that none of the bass tones are lost.
3. Let the pedal rise a little more and increase the
motion of the partial pedal changes. Again listen that
none of the tones are lost.
4. Release the pedal slowly.
Example C; Brahms Rhapsody in G Minor, Op. 79, No. 2


311
adjudicates extensively throughout the intermountain area.
She has performed as pianist and harpsichordist for the
Weber State faculty trio and is head carillonneur for the
Stewart Bell Tower. In addition, she created a state-wide
piano festival which is held annually at Weber.
In 1986 Ms. Johnson took a sabbatical leave to begin
doctoral studies at the University of Florida where she
studied piano with Boaz Sharon. She received a graduate
assistantship in piano during 1986-87, and was awarded the
Edith Pitts Piano Scholarship from 1986 to 1988. While at
the University she performed with the University Symphony
Orchestra. She was an adjunct professor of music at Santa
Fe Community College in Gainesville during 1987-88, and
taught private and class piano and humanities while pur
suing her doctoral degree.
Ms. Johnson is affiliated with many professional
organizations: Kappa Delta Pi; Pi Kappa Lambda; Sigma
Alpha Iota; American Association of University Professors;
American Association of University Women; Utah Music Teach
ers Association, Florida State Music Teachers Association,
Gainesville Music Teachers Association; Music Educators
National Conference; Utah Music Educators Association; and
Florida Music Educators Association. She is a nationally
certified member of the Music Teachers National Association
and has held various positions in this organization in
cluding state certification committee member, state chair-


53
Additional Pedaling Techniques
A number of writers discuss additional uses of the
damper pedal as well as the sostenuto and una corda pedals
but mostly from the standpoint of musical style. In his
book on pedaling, Banowetz (1985) includes some pedagogical
suggestions for various techniques for the use of the three
pedals and examples of how to pedal specific works of
selected composers. In earlier writings on the subject
Banowetz (1981) also relates pedaling techniques and peda
gogical suggestions to musical examples and stylistic con
siderations. Farjeon (1923) provides examples for the
various uses of the pedals, including a number of exercises
and studies.
The only way to distinguish between the various de
grees of partial pedaling, according to Schnabel (1954),
is through critical listening. He suggests three exercises
or teaching the various positions of the damper pedal in
relation to the degree of released sound. To test whether
a certain position of the pedal produces the effect of a
quarter pedal or 25 percent of released sound, Schnabel
suggests playing a scale with the pedal slightly depressed
and listening to determine that no blurring occurs. To
test for half pedal or 50 percent of released sound,
staccato notes should be played first without the pedal and
then with the pedal depressed slightly so that some blur-


171
The damper pedal may be used in the following ways to
enhance dynamics: (1) create an accent, (2) crescendo, (3)
diminuendo, (4) rapidly lose the sound on a sustained note
or chord, (5) create forte-piano effects, and (6) create
echo effects. In addition, the technique of pre-pedaling
is predominantly used for its dynamic and tonal effects.
Pre-pedaling, pedaling as a means of accentuation, and
pedaling to create a long diminuendo are covered in other
units and, therefore, they will not be discussed here.
Composers sometimes indicate a slight increase of tone
on a single note or chord that is tied. Once a note has
been played on the piano, it is not possible to change the
tone by means of touch alone. Depressing the damper pedal
will accumulate additional partials and give the effect of
a slight crescendo. Even when a single note is repeated,
the pedal can be very effective in building the amount of
sound.
Frequently a crescendo is indicated in passages com
prised of numerous fast moving notes such as tremolos,
glissandos, and scales. The damper pedal can be particu
larly effective when applied to ascending scale passages,
and it can create a brilliant effect in glissandos and
upward runs. The damper pedal can be applied either in
short bursts or with an increasing depth to control the
release of sound. The amount of pedal used depends on the
dynamic level and the register of the keyboard. If the


APPENDIX C
VALIDATION FORM FOR TEACHING UNITS
Pedaling Technique Being Evaluated
Based on your experience, how would you evaluate the
following:
I. Materials
( ) 1.
( ) 2.
( ) 3.
( ) 4.
( ) 5.
Explanation of pedaling technique
Application and use of technique
Pedagogical procedures and suggestions
Musical examples cited
Suggested exercises
Comments or suggestions:
II. Objectives To what extent do the materials appear to
provide:
( ) 1. Useful information
( ) 2. Logical, sequential presentation
( ) 3. Clear, articulate explanations
Comments or suggestions:
294


71
is played. The chords will sound clean if the damper pedal
is fully released.
5. Repeat the preceding procedures until the student
achieves the coordination between foot and hands and can
also produce a clean connection of the tones.
Before going on to the next step, have the student
practice until the time required between playing the two
chords and pedaling can be shortened. Then ask the student
to do the following:
1. Play the first chord again and catch it with the
pedal.
2. Play the second chord, and at the same time lift
the pedal. Let the pedal come up to meet the chord.
3. Listen this time not only for a clean sound, but
also for a smooth, unbroken connection between both chords.
While still holding the notes on the keyboard, ask the
student to
4. Depress the pedal once more.
5. Listen again to be sure that the chord sounds
clean. The new change of pedal should not retain any
sounds from the first chord. If the harmony is at all
blurred, this is an indication that the pedal was not fully
released at the time the second chord was played. This
condition does not allow the dampers to be completely
raised from the strings but causes them to remain par-


88
The release of the una corda pedal is indicated by one
of the following: tre corde (three strings), tutte corde,
tutte le corde, 3 cordes, ohne Verschiebung, t.c., poco a
poco tre corde, poco a poco tutte le corde, and due corde.
Use of both the una corda pedal and damper pedal
simultaneously is indicated by the following: Ped. 1 and
2, con 2 Pedale, 2 ped., 2 Ped., due Ped., Les deux
pedales, Mit beiden Pedalen, Beide Pedale, 1 due pedali,
Tres envelopp de pedales, and con sord e Ped.
Operation. When the una corda pedal is depressed on a
grand piano, the keyboard and the entire hammer mechanism
shift slightly to the right so that on most notes the ham
mers strike two strings instead of three. This produces a
decrease in dynamic level as well as a change in tone qual
ity. In addition, the string that is not struck vibrates
sympathetically as the hammer comes in contact with the
other two strings. This vibration creates partials that
produce a sound completely free from percussion and that
contribute to an overall veiled sonority.
In a properly regulated piano, the shifting of the
hammer mechanism to the right allows the hammers to strike
the strings with a softer, less used portion of the felt.
With use, hammer heads receive impacted grooves that coin
cide with points of contact with the strings. Unless they
are voiced regularly, hammers can become quite brittle and
produce a harsh tone. Playing between the grooves on the


104
Finger pedaling marked in the score. The simplest and
most obvious use of finger pedaling occurs when composers
specify notes that are to be held by writing longer note
values or by double stemming. This is often done for har
monic, melodic or dynamic emphasis. Sometimes composers
indicate finger pedaling through written directions speci
fying that certain chords are to be depressed silently,
then held. This interesting technique utilizes the sound
ing of sympathetic partials to create special effects. It
may be accomplished both with and without the use of the
damper pedal.
Finger pedaling not marked in the score. The decision
to use finger pedaling is sometimes a matter of personal
preference as well as musical style, especially when it is
not specifically marked in the score. It is determined by
considerations such as the tempo of the piece, the reso
nance of the particular piano being played, and the techni
cal ability of the performer as well as the size of his or
her hands.
A technique sometimes referred to as "silent substi
tution" is a form of finger pedaling. In silent substitu
tion, notes that cannot be held in the same finger for
the duration of the note are held by a substitute finger.
While one finger is holding a note, a different finger
slides onto the same note and continues to hold it. This
technique is used to sustain a melodic line and create


222
2.Play the low "G" very slightly in advance of the
"G" and "B" above it and rapidly catch it in the sostenuto
pedal.
Sostenuto pedal combined with the damper pedal and the una
corda pedal
Occasionally the simultaneous use of all three pedals
is necessary. This advanced technique is most frequently
needed in Impressionistic compositions. When all three
pedals are used together, the left foot manipulates both
the sostenuto and una corda pedals, and the right foot
operates the damper pedal.
Preliminary exercise. The left foot must be
positioned correctly over both pedals before they can be
activated properly. To teach the correct placement of the
left foot, ask the student to
1. Place the left heel on the floor slightly to the
left of the una corda pedal. Angle the heel to the left,
away from the direction of the damper pedal.
2. Place the ball (or arch) of the foot on the una
corda pedal.
3. Place the toes on the sostenuto pedal. Point them
toward the damper pedal.
4. Practice depressing each pedal separately in this
position:
A. Depress and release the una corda pedal by
applying pressure with the ball or arch of the left foot.


189
hand and not the other, and even finger pedaling. These
skills are covered in depth in separate teaching units, but
the basic pedagogical procedures pertaining to harmonic
pedaling are presented here.
Prior to teaching harmonic pedaling it may be helpful
to review with the student the fundamental differences
between full and partial pedaling. Ask the student to:
1. Place the right foot on the floor. Keeping the
heel on the floor, move the toes up and down. Be aware of
the sensation behind the big toe, since this is the one
that will be used the most in pedaling. Vary the speed and
vertical height which the toes are allowed to move, and
gradually decrease this distance until the motion is barely
visible.
2. Contrast this motion with the more awkward motion
of moving the entire front portion of the foot up and down.
Although the heel still remains on the floor, ask the
student to notice the difference in the muscles that are
involved. Using the whole foot utilizes the larger muscles
of the foot and calf of the leg, while pedaling just behind
the toes involves predominantly the smaller toe muscles.
It should become obvious that moving just the toes allows
for much greater sensitivity and agility.
3. Transfer these procedures to the damper pedal.
Check to be sure that the toes remain in contact with the


115
Teaching Unit 8: Portato Pedaling
Description of Technique
Portato pedaling is named after the Italian term
portato, meaning somewhat detached. Portato pedaling re
fers to the slow release of the damper pedal that permits
the sound to fade away gradually. As the sound slowly
diminishes it appears to be accompanied by a slight rise
in pitch due to the diminishing accumulation of partials.
The gradual lessening of sound along with the effect of a
change in pitch produce a "rounding off" effect.
Application When Playing
Portato pedaling is used to enhance articulation and
define a portato, non legato, or staccato touch. It is
also used to round off the end of a phrase. The activation
and release of the damper pedal, when combined with finger
technique, can clarify articulation in a way that is not
possible by the fingers alone. The damper pedal has the
ability to modify the sound even after a note has been
played. A slight increase of sound occurs when the pedal
is depressed, while a gradual release of sound is possible
when the pedal is raised slowly.
Certain restrictions inherent in the use of finger
technique alone can be overcome by the use of the damper
pedal. One such limitation occurs when notes are released
by the fingers without the use of the pedal. If the piano


102
Teaching Examples
Example A: Debussy La cathedrale engloutie
Profondement calma (Dans une brume doucement sonore)
Pre-pedaling is very appropriate in the preceding
example because of the descriptive nature of the piece.
The sounds should appear to arise out of nowhere, just as
the cathedral will eventually emerge from the depths of the
sea. Any displaced accents in the opening section will
destroy the entire effect. Nothing should interfere with
the profound calm that permeates throughout.
A similar instance is found in the opening measures of
Debussy's "Reflets dans l'eau." Depressing both pedals
before beginning to play helps to create the image of
tranquility, and enhances the delicate touch required to
properly execute this piece.
Example B: Debussy Reflets dans l'eau
>n Ped.


76
Example B: Beethoven Variations on a Waltz Theme by
Diabelli
Ip?"
' f *
r
r r
l A A
Application When Playing
The exact amount of time allowed between changing the
pedal in any form of legato pedaling depends on stylistic
factors and the desire for color in a given passage.
Legatissimo pedaling is often used to portray special
effects such as atmospheric sonority, and smooth, unbroken
transitions of sound. When properly employed, legatissimo
pedaling can create the effect of one harmony growing out
of another. There are no sharp tonal attacks and no breaks
in the continuity of sound.
Although the desired effect is one of continuous
sound, if carried to an extreme, legatissimo pedaling can
create an unmusical blur of sound and obliterate the har
monies entirely. Careful listening is required to prevent
this from happening and also to regulate the amount of
overlap permitted between the chords.
Teaching Procedures
Preparatory exercises. Because legatissimo pedaling
is derived from legato pedaling, it is necessary for a


149
released. This will be the height above which the pedal
should not rise when employing pedal vibrato.
Have the student practice catching notes in the pedal
using this partial range until it becomes comfortable.
Then ask the student to vibrate the pedal.
3. Experiment with pedal vibrato on various notes by
varying the rate of speed and the depth of the pedal's
descent. Listen closely to the tones as they fade so the
desired effect may be obtained.
Teaching Example
In the following example, pedal vibrato can be used to
diminish the sound at the end of the piece. Because the
marking is pianissimo, the una corda pedal should also be
employed. Care should be taken in this example not to
vibrate the pedal so deeply at first that the bass will be
lost. It is important to retain the full sonorities for as
long as possible.
Example A; Debussy "La filie aux cheveux de lin"


175
chords are performed on contemporary grand pianos, however,
the resonance of the instrument does not allow sufficient
time for the tone to diminish without the use of the damper
pedal.
First procedure for teaching a forte-piano effect. To
teach the simplest means of achieving a forte-piano in this
piece ask the student to do the following:
1. Play the opening chord forte as indicated. At the
same time fully depress the damper pedal.
2. Immediately release the notes, but do not lift the
pedal. The hands should remain in contact with the keys
for the duration of the tied quarter note chord.
3. Using a series of partial pedal changes allow the
dampers to brush the strings lightly several times, so that
the sound becomes progressively softer.
A. Listen carefully to the sound to be sure that
the full chord is retained in the pedal. The partial pedal
changes should always produce an even damping of the sound.
Sudden damping of the tones at any given moment is to be
avoided.
B. Depending upon the register, it may be
necessary to vary the depth that the pedal is depressed in
the series of partial pedalings. Since it takes more time
for the sound to desist in a low register, the initial
partial changes of the pedal should vary correspondingly.


288
this study how many techniques each teacher was familiar
with or had used previously in his or her teaching. Nor
was it the purpose of this study to uncover this infor
mation. However, a number of piano teachers did indicate
that they were unaware of the many techniques for the use
of the three pedals. Several teachers either had not used
all three pedals in their teaching, or they were not
familiar with the pedaling technique they had been given.
The audio tapes of the teaching of the units also
produced favorable results. The students learned when they
followed the procedures. Several teachers expressed sur
prise at how quickly and efficaciously the students were
able to learn and apply the concepts. In both the opinion
of the teachers who examined the teaching units and the
results obtained from application in actual instruction,
the study meets the criterion of being appropriate for its
intended use.
Recommendations and Application
Due to the lack of systematic studies on the teaching
of piano pedaling, the present study can provide the basis
of future research into this area. The pedagogical con
cepts described in each teaching unit provide points for
departure for other researchers who are interested in
teaching this topic.


APPENDIX B
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS
Name:
Phone:
What ages of students do you teach?
Evaluation can be made on the basis of such evidence
as examination of the materials, use of the materials, ob
servations, and conferences with students. The following
scale may be used in rating each of the items on the en
closed evaluation forms.
5 = Excellent
4 = Very Good
3 = Good
2 = Fair
1 = Poor
Please be sure to return this form along with your
evaluations. Thank you very much.
Do you have any questions or general comments regard
ing the materials you have seen?
293


89
head of the hammers produces a change in tone color that
softens any harsh effect.
On upright pianos there is no change in tone quality
when the left pedal is depressed, for no shifting action
occurs. The una corda pedal merely decreases the striking
distance of the hammers by moving them one half-inch closer
to the strings. While this can diminish the sound, it also
upsets the tonal and touch control. Consequently, there is
no resemblance between this action and the true function of
the una corda pedal. Its use in this capacity is not
considered here.
The term una corda is somewhat of a misnomer, origi
nating from piano mechanisms of the late eighteenth and
early nineteenth centuries. On these instruments it was
possible to shift gradually from the una corda position (by
fully depressing the left pedal so that the hammer struck
only one string per note), to due corde (by depressing the
left pedal lightly so that the hammer struck two strings
per note), and finally to tre corde (by releasing the left
pedal entirely, and allowing the hammer to strike all three
strings per note). Beethoven often indicated una corda,
due corde, and tutte corde in his scores.
It is not possible to achieve a true una corda on
today's concert grand pianos. Contemporary instruments
do not shift quite as far to the right when the una corda
pedal is depressed, and the hammers clear only the left


183
of the pedal was too rapid and abrupt. However, if the
initial sound is retained entirely and no change occurs as
a result of using the pedal, the texture of the sound is
too thick. The height and depth of the range in partial
pedaling should then be increased.
Half damping. The amount of pressure applied to the
pedal, which in turn affects the height of the dampers
above the strings, will determine the amount of sound that
will be released when the damper pedal is partially de
pressed. The student should learn to gauge this distance
by feel. However, since pedal actions can vary greatly
from one instrument to another, it is impossible to predict
the exact amount of sound that will result when the damper
pedal is partially depressed. Therefore, it is necessary
to determine the maximum height and depth of the pedal's
range that is used in half damping. It may also be helpful
to experiment on several different instruments. Have the
student continue the process begun in step three above,
then reverse the procedure to determine the depth of the
pedal's descent. Ask the student to do the following:
1. Play a chord while depressing the pedal fully, but
experiment with the amount of released damper sound by
slowly and carefully controlling the height that the pedal
is allowed to ascend and still retain all of the notes.
2. Play a chord, then slowly depress the damper pedal
just to the point where the tones are barely sustained by


133
Incorrect harmonic pedaling is applied to the example
below.
Example C: Beethoven Sonata in F, Op. 10, No. 2
(Allegretto)
Pedaling this passage harmonically (even if the pedal
were changed often enough so there were no resulting
blurs), gives an incorrect rendition of the intended
melodic concept.
Melodic pedaling. The following steps are recommended
in teaching melodic pedaling in this Beethoven sonata. Ask
the student to
1. Study the score and determine which notes are to
be treated melodically and which are to be played as part
of the harmony.
2. Mark in the score where the pedal is to be
depressed and released.
3. Play the passage very slowly with the pedal added,
listening for melodic clarity throughout.


179
in an artistic manner. Pedal blurring is a unique tech
nique that calls for a discriminating use of the damper
pedal.
Pedal blurring may be achieved in a number of ways.
These include applying the pedal in short bursts to runs,
leaving the pedal either fully or partially depressed
throughout scale passages, cadenza figurations, and ostina-
to patterns, and flutter pedaling to create a "jumbled" or
"confused" sound. (For example, the pedal directions in
Messiaen's "Regard de l'Eglise d'amour" are: "Brouille de
pedale confus et menacant"; or, "jumble the pedal" so the
sound is "confused and menacing.") However, blurring the
pedal (something that comes all too easily for a majority
of pianists) is not the purpose of this technique. Rather,
it is knowing how and when it is artistically correct to do
so.
Stylistic considerations. The concert grand piano as
we know it today dates from the mid-nineteenth century.
Prior to this time the effect of the pedal varied con
siderably from one instrument to another. When pedal
blurring did occur, it was frequently due to the fault of
the particular instrument. Even what may appear to be a
deliberate attempt by some composers to indicate pedal
blurring is often no more than a result of the inherent
differences in the construction of the older instruments.
For example, in the Sonata in C, No.50, Haydn indicates


Table 6
Previous Use of Pedaling Technique According to
Percentage of Responses
Unit
None
Little
Some
Much
1.
Leqato
pedaling
2.
Lega-
tissimo
3.
Rhythmic
pedaling
4.
Una corda
pedaling
5.
Pre-
pedalinq
6.
Finger
pedalinq
7.
Staccato
pedalinq
8.
Portato
pedalinq
9.
Phrasing/
artic.
10.
Melodic
pedalinq
11.
Half
dampinq
12.
Pedal
vibrato
13.
Pedal
dimin.
14.
Half
pedalinq
15.
Flutter
pedalinq
16.
Dynamic
pedalinq
17.
Pedal
blurrinq
75
45
25
29
17
50
100
33
67
25
25
25
29
33
50
67
33
33
50
100
18. Harmonic
pedaling 20 20
19. Pedaling
one hand 29 57
20. Sostenuto
pedaling 17 50
100
30
50
14
26
17
83
33
17
75
25
33
33
33
67
50
50
25
25
20
40
14
33


201
(HOLD), CHANGE SOS., SOS. UP, prol. Ped., and Sust. Ped.
In Bartk's Third Piano Concerto the sostenuto pedal is
indicated by the words "sustain pedal" followed by note
values, for instance:
1
Application When Playing
Function. The performer must often decide when it is
effective and appropriate to use the sostenuto pedal. Not
only are written indications for this pedal scarce, but the
composer may not actually specify notes to be held. At
times these notes may be implied only through the harmonic
context and style of the piece.
The sostenuto pedal can be used effectively for the
following purposes: (1) to hold bass pedal points, (2) to
facilitate awkward technical passages, (3) to aid con
trasting articulations, (4) to achieve a clear damper pedal
change, (5) to create special effects, and (6) to selec
tively sustain important harmonic or melodic notes.
Like the damper pedal, the sostenuto pedal must be
applied discriminately. Even when its use is indicated by
the composer some modification may be necessary. For
instance, the piano may have a malfunctioning sostenuto
pedal, one that is improperly regulated, or none at all.
Compromise solutions using the damper pedal should always
be available to the performer. Often the desired sostenuto


92
paniment, thereby giving it a different tone quality from
the melody. In both these uses, careful listening is re
quired to assure that the change in tone quality is not too
extreme for the particular piano being used.
Because the una corda pedal lessens the percussive
element of the tone, it can be used in playing forte. This
is effective in creating different levels of intensity,
especially in a piece that is basically forte throughout.
For instance, different intensities of forte can be created
in a multi-sectional piece by playing the first section
forte with the una corda pedal depressed, the second
section forte without the una corda pedal, and the third
section fortissimo.
Use and misuse. The role of the una corda pedal is
frequently misunderstood. As a result, it is often over
used or ignored completely. Many pianists use the una
corda pedal as a crutch, allowing it to remain depressed
throughout an entire composition. One common mistake is to
"ride" the left pedal, using it whenever a piano or pianis
simo occurs in the music. This usually happens as a result
of nervousness.
There are many reasons why it is tempting to use the
una corda pedal as a crutch. The piano sounds more gentle
and is easier to control in softer passages when the left
pedal is applied. The una corda pedal helps to eliminate
the percussive element in the sound in a way that is not


202
effect can be produced by a series of partial pedaling
techniques using the damper pedal alone. But at times the
damper pedal may create serious blurs in the musical line
that preclude its use. Experimenting with both pedals not
only provides alternative solutions to using the sostenuto
pedal, it also enables the pianist to choose pedaling that
best clarifies the composer's intent.
Composers will sometimes provide additional means of
pedaling when the music calls for the use of the sostenuto
pedal. For instance, in his Piano Variations Copland
indicates "Sust. Ped." But he also includes an alternate
version "for pianos without Sustaining Pedal."
Application. From the time of Beethoven on, there was
a need for selective sustaining of notes to be accomplished
by whatever means were available. The sostenuto pedal was
not invented until after the death of several important
Romantic composers including Schubert, Chopin, and Schu
mann. Composers did not begin to indicate the use of the
sostenuto pedal explicitly until nearly half a century
after its invention. Even well into the twentieth-century
the sostenuto pedal was generally ignored. The word
"sostenuto" is found frequently in the music of Brahms and
Chopin, but this is a tempo indication and does not refer
to sustaining notes by either the fingers or the pedal.
The need to selectively sustain notes reached a peak
in the Impressionistic piano music of Debussy and Ravel.


62
to help teachers teach their students to utilize the three
pedals of the piano correctly and effectively.
The units for the teaching of each pedaling technique
focus on pedagogical matters, with stylistic and notational
considerations mentioned when appropriate. They describe
the particular stage in a student's development at which he
or she can best be taught each technique.
Format and Content
Each of the first twenty teaching units consists of
the following format: (1) description of the technique, (2)
application, (3) teaching procedures, (4) teaching ex
amples, and (5) appropriate exercises. Various concepts
are presented within each category according to the nature
of the technique described in that particular unit. Before
students can learn to pedal effectively, they need to
understand: (1) why pedaling is necessary, and (2) how the
mechanism of each pedal operates. The teaching units also
address these considerations.
Each unit begins with a description of the individual
pedaling technique that defines relevant terminology, de
scribes the mechanical operation of the pedal as it is em
ployed in the technique, and discusses the effect that the
activation and release of the pedal have upon the dampers.
The section concerned with the application of the
technique describes the function of the technique in


232
Staccato pedaling can be followed by portato pedaling,
which also involves a careful but more gradual release of
the pedal.
The damper pedal can be used in combination with
finger technique to project phrasing and articulation by a
careful timing of its activation and release. Pedaling to
enhance phrasing and articulation employs several types of
pedaling, especially portato pedaling. It can provide a
good introduction to partial pedaling because at times it
is necessary to vibrate the damper pedal slightly.
Melodic pedaling does not refer to one specific tech
nique but to pedaling primarily those elements that enhance
the melodic material. It precludes using the pedal in a
harmonic function and requires very careful listening
skills.
Partial pedaling. When the student has mastered these
techniques for full pedaling, he or she can progress to the
more sophisticated uses of the damper pedal for partial
pedaling. Of these five techniques, half-damping, or
depressing the damper pedal only partially, is perhaps the
least complex. Pedal vibrato, pedal diminuendo, and half-
pedaling all involve combinations of both full and partial
pedaling. Taught in this order, a logical, progressive
sequence of concepts is established. Pedal diminuendo
utilizes the vibrating motion of pedal vibrato but requires
a gradual ascent of the pedal to diminish the sound. Half-


272
The results of Table 9 indicate strong agreement with
the concepts in the units.
Although the majority of teachers had not used the
pedaling techniques before, Table 10 indicates that they
overwhelmingly would feel comfortable in teaching the
pedaling techniques with the information provided in the
teaching units and transferring its use to other examples.
Some responses include: "transfer should be easy;" "yes, I
am anxious to start;" "yes, very;" "yes, although I would
have to practice [the technique] myself!" and "I would feel
comfortable teaching it as soon as I can develop some
expertise myself."
Other affirmative indications include "yes" because:
"the techniques are explained precisely and I recognize the
difference pedaling makes;" "it provides a logical explana
tion;" "this technique is well presented;" "the presenta
tion is very clear;" "having this detailed procedure in
print is excellent;" "concepts are well explained and would
be easy to use on other material;" "this information might
be the tool with which a student might excel in his ex
pression of his art;" "it really worksyou have explained
it very well;" "it is easily grasped and usable in many
[instances];" "good pedaling is a combination of knowledge
and skill, [therefore] I would not hesitate to teach this
technique as explained in this material;" "it teaches the
way I do;" "I like the way you have presented this;" "the


31
In his treatise on pedaling, Frey (1939) states that
rhythmic pedaling was the most commonly used form of
pedaling. According to Riefling (1962), several renowned
piano teachers and writers pointed out that this was false
information, and that rhythmic pedaling was on the verge of
extinction as a form of recognized pedaling. Von Bulow
commented on the confusing situation surrounding the entire
subject of pedaling by stating that as a rule, pedaling was
"the expedient people employ to annihilate good taste"
(Riefling, 1962, p. 17).
Faults in Teaching Pedaling
The importance of good pedaling has long been recog
nized, even though the teaching of pedaling has fallen
short. Faults that occur in the teaching of pedaling may
be either of comission or omission (Booth, 1971). Accord
ing to various writings on the teaching of pedaling, the
most often cited fault is the lack of teaching. Other
pedagogical errors or oversights mentioned include improper
attention to the position of the foot (Bernstein, 1981),
introducing the use of the pedal too late, and neglect in
teaching pedaling with reference to harmony (Ching, 1930).
Results of Poor Teaching
The most commonly cited faults of students in em
ploying the pedal include failing to change the pedal


79
first count, play the chord again. Change the pedal on the
second count.
Aside from stylistic and artistic considerations, the
actual time allowed between playing the chord and changing
the pedal is a matter of personal choice. This choice is
influenced by extraneous variables such as the tonal capa
bilities of the individual piano and the acoustics of the
hall or room.
Teaching Example
One use of this technique is illustrated in the fol
lowing passage. Legatissimo pedaling is used here in com
bination with the una corda pedal to create the illusion of
sound floating in the distance. It should seem as if the
tones are suspended in time and arise out of nowherewith
no beginning and no end. Both the damper pedal and the una
corda pedal should be depressed before the notes are
played.
Example C; Scriabin Sonata No. 1, Op. 6


211
Contrasting articulations. Debussy's marking of "tres
net et tres sec" indicates that pedal must be used sparing
ly for the dry sonorities in the example below. However,
the middle section of this work (which contains an allusion
to Wagner's Tristan und Isolde) reguires sostenuto pedaling
to sustain the chord in the measures marked "a Tempo"
without destroying the dry quality of the grace notes and
staccato chords that follow.
Example H: Debussy Golliwog's Cake Walk
Cdez
Silent key depression. Sometimes the sostenuto pedal
is needed to sustain a long note, but other notes or chords
are played at the same time. If the sostenuto pedal is
depressed while unwanted tones are being played, they are
also caught in the pedal. It is often possible for the
pianist to depress the note to be held silently in advance
and catch it in the sostenuto pedal before it is needed.


44
Gieseking (1938, p. 48) recommends beginning the study
of pedaling by teaching a correct seated position. Next,
the student can practice "time treading" and syncopated
pedaling by studying suitable passages before working our
the pedal in musical compositions. As a recommended ex
ercise he suggests depressing the pedal in advance of the
notes that are played.
Seroff (1977) believes that pianists should familiar
ize themselves first with the piano as an instrument. He
feels that this is the most natural way to begin and that
every other instrumentalist follows this procedure except
pianists:
The pianist practices and accomplishes, and at the end
of perhaps twenty years finds himself dumfounded at a
child's questions of 'How do you make music on this
box?' ... I have yet to meet either pupil or teacher
who devoted his first lesson to these fundamental
questions, which should be the basis of good piano
playing. (Seroff, 1977, p. 2)
Agay (1981) and Enoch (1977) also suggest that the
first lesson in pedal include an examination of the pedal's
damper mechanism. They further suggest that the student be
taught to position the right foot correctly and to operate
the damper pedal silently. According to Agay, pedaling
should be studied at a comfortable and deliberate pace. He
feels that it is not advisable to introduce new aspects of
pedaling at each lesson, or to have the student learn
special pedaling exercises at each consecutive lesson.


254
letter was sent to non-respondents and to those who did not
return the material by the deadline. Telephone calls were
also made to secure additional respondents.
The results of the extensive validation are comprised
of a compilation of data from (1) the general questionnaire
asking opinions about the overall value of the units, and
(2) the questionnaire for each individual teaching unit
(see Appendices B and C). The data were then collated and
analyzed accordingly.
General Questionnaire
The questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first
part sought to determine the average ages of students
taught by the respondents. This information was secured to
determine if there were differences in the teaching units
among respondents who teach younger students, those who
teach older ones, and those who teach students of all ages.
The second part of the questionnaire obtained general
comments from the respondents about the materials.
Average age of students. Forty of those who respond
ed, or 66 percent, indicated that they teach students of
all ages. Seventeen, or 28 percent, teach students in
grades one through twelve, and 4, or 7 percent, teach only
college students. With one exception, the same types of
comments were received from teachers in each of the three
age levels. Of those who taught younger students, 12, or


2
Lack of Knowledge About Pedaling
Despite its recognized importance, many piano teachers
ignore the teaching of musical and artistic pedaling (Bano-
wetz, 1985). It is a much neglected and misunderstood area
of piano teaching, as well as one of the more controver
sial. Compared to the other aspects of piano playing, the
teaching of the correct use of the pedals is still in a
disorganized state (Gebhard, 1963; Bernstein, 1981). While
the exact percentage has not been documented, many piano
teachers either do not adequately understand the concepts
of pedaling or do not realize the numerous types of pedal
ing that can be used. It appears that they were never
taught more than the basic mechanical actions of the damper
pedal: (1) pushing it down and letting it up and (2) pedal
ing to connect notes.
Other teachers lack sufficient knowledge of how to
teach more than basic pedaling techniques, especially those
for which there are no notated symbols. This lack of a-
wareness, in turn, affects what is taught their students.
Consequently, many students avoid pedaling or pedal largely
by instinct, which usually results in inconsistent and un-
stylistic playing (Bernstein, 1981) To the extent that
the student is not taught to use the pedals skillfully, the
quality of that student's musical understanding and per
formance is diminished.


Do you have any comments or suggestions regarding the
teaching or implementation of these techniques?


130
possible with each melody note or chord, even though keep
ing the pedal depressed may not blur the sounds. Changing
the pedal in this manner permits the notes to be heard as a
melody rather than as merely part of the overall harmony.
Sometimes melodies outline chord structures, as in
the example given below. The top notes of the right hand
chords are also the melody. To emphasize them as melody
notes, melodic pedaling rather than harmonic pedaling is
preferable, and the pedal is changed with each chord.
Example A; Schumann Etudes symphoniques
When a melody and accompaniment are involved, the
choice of pedaling is more complex. It then becomes
necessary to preserve the clarity of the melodic line and
sustain the harmony throughout as well. Pianists must rely
on careful listening and "pedal with the ear" rather than
the foot.
The range of the melody is another determining factor
in the amount of pedal that may be applied. Since there
are no dampers in the extreme upper register of the key-


14
incorrect pedaling. Although written primarily for harp
sichord or clavichord, this music requires some pedaling
when played on the piano. Many editions of Classical and
Romantic piano music contain very few or quite inadequate
pedal indications (Gebhard, 1963). An example of this
practice can be illustrated by Liszt's brief note to his
transcription of the Tannhuser Overture in which he
wrote, "Verstndiger Pedalgebrauch wird vorausgesetz" ("It
is assumed that the pedal will be used with understand
ing"), after which there is not a single pedal indication
in the music (Neuhaus, 1973, p. 159).
Likewise, relying solely on the printed page for
pedaling creates significant problems for the performer in
the music of Debussy and Ravel, whose scores are almost
devoid of such indications, and whose requirements for the
use of the pedal are made clear by means other than the
traditional pedal markings. While pedaling in twentieth-
century piano music is more varied, it presents fewer
problems in that it is usually marked by the composer.
Whenever pedaling has not been indicated in the music
of a period, both the stylistic practice of the period and
the musical context should be considered in determining how
and where to pedal. Every available technique should be
used by the performer to convey the composer's intent, as
far as it can be ascertained from the score. For example,
although the sostenuto pedal is a more recent invention,


108
note and place the thumb joint nearly at right angles with
the key.)
4. Pivot on the thumb joint, and turn the tip of the
thumb to the left so that it points towards the "A".
5. Repeat this procedure for the entire scale. (The
action should become very smooth and executed without
pause. Check to see that the notes are played from a side
ways position, and that no lifting of the hand occurs that
can interrupt the flow. When played correctly, the thumb
joint will be approximately even with the edge of the
keys.)
6. Reverse the procedure for the left hand, playing
an ascending "C" major scale.
Sustaining an accompaniment. The musical example
below requires the left hand notes to be held while the
pedal is changed because of the melody in the right hand.
Example B; Liszt Etude in Db ("Un Sospiro")
m
jorro roer
lnfuertdo
' wit '^ rfuTP
i
A.


85
in these situations. First ask the student to do the
following:
1. Begin by playing single notes or chords without
using pedal. Listen to the sound as the notes are played
and as the dampers mute the strings when the notes are
released.
2. Play a chord and hold it, then depress the damper
pedal.
Notice that when the pedal is applied the following
changes occur: (1) Color and richness enhance the tone, and
(2) a slight swelling of sound gives the illusion of a
crescendo. These changes occur because of the added par-
tials sounding when the dampers are fully raised from the
strings. Therefore, the pedal can be useful in giving
added emphasis to accented notes, important harmonies, and
notes that are tied.
Pedal release for emphasis. Ask the student to:
1. Play any chord on the piano and depress the pedal
as the keys are played. The lifting of the dampers should
be simultaneous with the sounding of each chord.
2. Release both the pedal and the hand exactly
together so that the dampers mute the tones at the same
moment the notes are played.
To assure that the timing is exact, it can be useful
to have the student count aloud. Ask the student to count
one measure of 4/4 time and then:


26
sequence for introducing pedaling is presented and experi
mentation in pedaling is encouraged.
In their book on rhythm, dynamics, and pedal, Giese-
king and Leimer (1938) devote a sixteen-page chapter to the
damper pedal, one paragraph to the una corda pedal, and the
following sentence to the sostenuto pedal: "Many grand
pianos have a third (sustenuto) [sic] pedal which serves as
a prolonger of individual tones or chords" (Gieseking and
Leimer, 1938, p. 64). They stress the importance of "time-
treading" as opposed to "post-treading" or syncopated
pedaling. Various applications of pedaling are discussed
and presented along with musical examples.
In his chapter on pedaling, Kentner (1976) discusses
the element of timing in regard to depressing the damper
pedal either before, with, or after the notes are played.
He presents a couple of techniques for the damper pedal.
The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of historical
considerations regarding the una corda pedal and a mention
of the sostenuto pedal.
In his book on teaching, Booth (1971) discusses pedal
ing in relation to how, when, and for how long the pedal
should be activated. He presents six pedaling exercises
for the damper pedal along with musical illustrations.
Other pedagogical aspects are presented as well.
A scholarly presentation on the use of the three
pedals can be found in the reference book on piano teaching


279
Expectations Observations Conclusions
Antecedents
Prerequisite Skills and Conditions for Student -
Transactions
Presentation of Materials by the Teacher -
Outcomes
Application by the Student -
- Overall Effectiveness of Teaching Unit -
Figure 5-1
Model for Analysis of Tapes
Expectations. In the antecedent stage, the following
expectations are set forth: (1) the student does not know
the particular pedaling technique, (2) the student is at
the appropriate level to learn the technique, (3) the
student is willing to practice and learn, (4) the student
possesses the basic prerequisite skills to learning the
technique, and (5) before coming to the second lesson the
student will practice the technique for a minimum of two
hours.


208
first part and is only played twice again on the first
page. It is not necessary to change the sostenuto pedal
once the octave has been initially caught in it. The
damper pedal can be operated normally after the sostenuto
pedal is fully depressed. In fact, at any time during this
section the hands and the damper pedal may be raised, but
the "G" octave will continue to sound. Without the
sostenuto pedal it is impossible to perform this work
according to the written notation.
Example D: Saint-Saens Second Piano Concerto, Op. 22


273
Table 10
Ability to Teach Pedaling Techniques Using Information
Provided in Teaching Units According to
Percentage of Responses
Unit
No
Yes
1.
Leqato
peda ling
100
2.
Leqatissimo
pedaling
100
3.
Rhythmic
pedaling
100
4.
Una corda
pedaling
100
5.
Pre
pedaling
100
6.
Finger
pedaling
100
7.
Staccato
pedaling
100
8.
Portato
pedaling
100
9.
Phrasing/
articulation
100
10.
Melodic
pedaling
100
11.
Half
damping
100
12.
Peda 1
vibrato
100
13.
Peda 1
diminuendo
100
14.
Half
pedaling
100
15.
Flutter
pedaling
100
16.
Dynamic
pedaling
100
17.
Pedal
blurring
100
18.
Harmonic
pedaling
100
19.
Pedaling
one hand
100
20.
Sostenuto
pedaling
100


109
Silently redepressing notes. In the example below,
finger pedaling by silently redepressing the notes of each
chord makes the rests more apparent and creates a distinc
tion between the two harmonic lines.
Example C: Debussy "La cathedral engloutie"
Silently re-depress notes
Teaching Unit 7: Staccato Pedaling
Description of Technique
Staccato pedaling, as its name implies, refers to the
very short, staccato activation of the damper pedal that
permits the dampers to be momentarily raised fully from the
strings. This action produces a fuller sonority than is
possible by the fingers alone, since it allows all of the
strings to vibrate sympathetically with those being struck
by the hammers.


73
Example D: Tobias Matthay Pedaling Exercise
Andante
Rhythm of pedal
A more advanced example of the same concept involves
delaying the timing of the damper pedal to avoid blurring
the notes in the right hand. The example below illustrates
this very syncopated use of the pedal to achieve legato
pedaling.
Example E: Handel Sarabande
Grave
Variation 2
-
J
-9 ft
\
u
7
JLL
e-
r*
# *
Ip*: ^
0
ri- 1 u w m~ 1 = w n u m
'i. i u- .r 11 i ^ u w r __1 r u f wmwr Mr mr-m
I
m r
i u m
1
r* ] -i
m 1
i
\
1 ft
I J
11
[- -
1_
u
I I u
u
I I u


97
Teaching Examples
Most pianists have a favorite passage that can be used
to test the una corda pedal. It is important to know, be
fore beginning to play, whether or not the pedal is regu
lated correctly, and whether or not the hammers are voiced
so that no unpleasantness of tone will occur when the una
corda pedal is activated. It is also important to hear the
degree to which the una corda pedal influences the tone.
The following example illustrates the concept of echo
pedaling. It is useful in providing a comparison between
the normal tone color of the instrument and that of the una
corda pedal. Since both hands move up an octave in the
repetition, the student may want to shift the position of
the left heel slightly to counterbalance this effect.
Example A: Beethoven Sonata in Eb, Op. 31, No. 3
The next example calls for the una corda pedal to be
used in combination with the damper pedal. The full tex-


198
Teaching Unit 20: Sostenuto Pedaling
Description of Technique
The middle pedal, commonly referred to as the
sostenuto pedal, has only one main function: to sustain
selected notes while allowing other notes to be dampened.
When this pedal is depressed, it will catch and hold any
dampers that are raised from the strings.
Operation. To properly employ the sostenuto pedal, it
is necessary to know something about how it works. The
sostenuto mechanism on a grand piano is controlled by a bar
with a protruding edge that extends along the base of the
dampers. Each damper contains a felt covered sostenuto
tab. When the sostenuto pedal is depressed, the sostenuto
bar rotates so that its protruding edge catches the tabs of
the dampers that are raised. The dampers must be raised to
a certain height before the tabs can be caught by the
sostenuto bar. The sostenuto pedal does not affect other
notes, nor does it interfere with the operation of the
damper pedal. Releasing the sostenuto pedal unlocks the
damper tabs and returns the damper action back to the
normal position.
Because the sostenuto bar catches only raised dampers,
notes that are to be held by the sostenuto pedal must be
played before this pedal is activated. In other words, in
order for the middle pedal to sustain a note or notes, cer-


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING THE VARIOUS USES
OF THE PEDALS OF THE CONTEMPORARY GRAND PIANO
By
Mary Ray Johnson
December, 1989
Chairman: Dr. Charles R. Hoffer
Major Department: Instruction and Curriculum
The teaching of piano pedaling is one of the most
neglected and misunderstood areas in piano pedagogy. De
spite its recognized importance, few systematic studies
exist in this area, and, until recently, no comprehensive
source of pedaling techniques had been published.
The purpose of the present study was the systematic
development and validation of pedagogical procedures for
teaching students the correct use of the three pedals of
the contemporary grand piano. Secondary related purposes
included (1) the development of preliminary exercises to
foster prerequisite skills; (2) the classification of
pedaling techniques according to related skills; and (3)
the formulation of a pedagogical sequence for introducing
pedaling techniques in a logical, systematic order.
vi 1


166
Flutter pedaling can be introduced once the student
has grasped the concept of pedaling behind the big toe.
Since flutter pedaling uses only a partial range of the
pedal's actual depth, it is necessary for the student to
determine the relative depth of the pedal's descent that is
used in employing this technique. Flutter pedaling can be
introduced by sight, feel, and careful listening.
Visual observation and tactile sensations. Have the
student stand and observe the movement of the dampers
inside a grand piano. Ask the student to do the following:
1. Watch the movement of the dampers while slowly
depressing the pedal. Notice the amount of foot pressure
that can be applied before the dampers begin to move. This
is called the area of free play. Activation of the pedal
in this area will not affect the sound.
2. Increase the amount of pressure until the dampers
rise just above the strings. Flutter pedaling uses the
range between the area of free play and the point at which
the dampers clear the strings.
3. Vibrate the pedal within this defined range,
making sure that the pedal is always silently depressed and
released. Vary the speed of the vibrations.
Have the student sit at the keyboard and practice
vibrating the pedal in order to gauge the correct amount of
foot pressure that is required for this technique.


38
Gieseking (1930) calls the thorough training of the
ear a prerequisite to rapid progress and states that
listening to one's self is by far the most important factor
in all of music study. Leimer (1930), with whom Gieseking
studied, refers to trained ears that have been developed
through continuous self-hearing as the only way to achieve
self-control. Dilsner (1968) refers to Leschetizky's
belief that good pedaling depends on good listening to
one's own playing, as a summation of the desired goal of
all pedaling technique.
Most students do not hear all the sounds they produce,
creating a tone deafness that makes an intelligent and
convincing performance impossible (Friskin, 1921). Ac
cording to Ching (1930) the longer a student practices a
certain work, the more intensely he or she must listen to
the pedaling and other effects that are produced, to guard
against complacency in listening.
Newman (1956, p. 70) repeatedly stresses the impor
tance of careful listening, saying that beyond teaching the
student the basics of syncopated pedaling, the teacher's
best help "can be to remind and re-remind the student to
hear what he plays." Last (1960) shares similar views on
the importance of careful listening. As Grasty-Jones
(1988) points out, effective use of the damper pedal de
mands aural skills that should be cultivated beginning with
a child's first experiences at the piano. Bacon (1963)


APPENDIX F
ANALYSIS OF TAPES: CONCLUSIONS
You are asked to draw conclusions based upon a com
parison of your observations with the expectations for each
of the three basic categories: antecedents, transactions,
and outcomes. Determine how well the conditions were met
at each stage and how successfully each stage was accom
plished. Please use the following scale to record your
conclusions:
5 = Excellent
4 = Very Good
3 = Good
2 = Fair
1 = Poor
Categories Ratings
I. Antecedents
Prerequisite skills
1. Prerequisite conditions were
met by student
II. Transactions
Teacher presentation
1. Followed recommended procedure
2. Explanations/expectations were
clear
III.Outcomes
Student application
1. How well had student learned
the technique
300


191
3. Listen carefully to the sound that is being
produced. All of the notes must be retained in the pedal.
If the bass notes are lost, this indicates that the ascent
of the pedal was too rapid and abrupt. However, if the
initial sound is retained entirely and no change occurs as
a result of using the pedal, the texture of the sound is
too thick. The height and depth of the range in partial
pedaling should be increased.
Half pedaling. At this point the student should have
the technical skill to combine full and partial pedaling in
a way that can incorporate the concept of half pedaling.
Ask the student to do the following:
1. Play a low octave in the bass and depress the
damper pedal.
2. While the pedal is still depressed, play a chord
softly in the upper register of the piano. Release the
fingers from the keys.
3. Partially change the pedal so that the notes of
the chord are cleared while the bass octave is retained.
4. Repeat this procedure moving closer to the middle
range of the keyboard. Gradually increase the dynamic lev
el of the chords until at least a mezzo-forte is reached
and the pedal changes remain clean.
Finger pedaling. Finger pedaling is a useful tech
nique that can aid conventional pedaling. In finger
pedaling, notes are held with the fingers while the pedal


148
Positioning the feet. Have the student place the
right foot on the damper pedal and repeat the above
procedures. Check the position of the student's feet for
proper body alignment and balance. Ask the student to
1. Position the right foot squarely on the damper
pedal so that it is facing forward and not turned outward
or inward to either side. The pedal should rest
comfortably behind the big toe.
2. Position the left foot closer to the bench in such
a way that it is possible to stand up comfortably without
using the hands or moving the feet.
As the student depresses the pedal, check to make sure
that the heel remains in contact with the floor at all
times and the toes remain in contact with the pedal so
that they do not "tap" it from above.
Pedal vibrato. Have the student determine the amount
of pedal that will be used for pedal vibrato by comparing
the above sensations with that of full pedaling. Ask the
student to do the following:
1. Depress the pedal fully, using the entire depth
and height of the range. Then, play any note on the piano
and listen to the full sound that is produced when it is
caught entirely in the pedal.
2. Play the note again while depressing the pedal,
but do not hold the note with the fingers. Release the
pedal slowly just to the point at which the sound is


227
to reach the pedals, that habit will need to be corrected
later. On the other hand, if the student is not taught to
pedal correctly in the beginning, a haphazard use of the
pedals will probably result, which can damage the student's
musical performance and his or her aural perception.
Prerequisites
In general, the student should be able to meet certain
physical and musical requirements before being taught to
use the pedals. These include the ability to: (1) reach
the pedals without sacrificing correct posture at the key
board, (2) coordinate hand and foot work, and (3) operate
each finger independently. A familiarity with the more
rudimentary concepts of elementary harmony is also helpful.
The teacher can capitalize on a student's natural
curiosity and introduce techniques and concepts of pedaling
as the need arises and as they are encountered within each
piece. However, pedaling is a complex subject. Numerous
techniques exist for the use of each pedal, and various
applications can be made within each technique. A teacher
who is thoroughly familiar with pedaling techniques will be
better able to implement them at times appropriate for each
student.
Pedagogical Sequence
In order to obtain the best teaching and learning
results, the teacher should follow a pedagogical sequence


27
by Agay (1981) in the chapter on pedaling submitted by
Banowetz.
Lack of Systematic Studies on Teaching Pedaling
From the late eighteenth century on, an enormous
amount of teaching guides, materials, and methods were
written for piano teachers. Every important pedagogical
concept was included in detail, except knowledge of and
guidance in the use of the pedals.
In the "Foreword" of his volume on pedaling, Schmitt
(1893) states: "He who has talent will know how to use the
pedal; he who has no talent cannot be taught to use it
correctly." According to Mirovitch (1954), this statement
provides an accurate account of the substance of all pedal
knowledge and teaching prior to the mid-twentieth century.
Although Wells (1914) believed that pedaling had developed
into a fine art, "It would be no exaggeration to state that
there has been no pedal teaching" (Mirovitch, 1954 p. 1).
Schnabel confirms this view on the teaching of
pedaling when he states that
Little has been written, said or taught about the use
of the pedal. So little, that indeed many pianists do
not even realize how they use the pedal themselves. A
few rules, sometimes more harmful that helpful, are
known to them; the rest is guesswork, instinct, or
goodor badluck. (Schnabel, 1950, p. 3)
Riefling (1962, p. 1) calls the whole subject of
pedaling "terra incognita," and cites a passage from the


282
determined how well the conditions were met at each stage,
and how successfully each stage was accomplished.
The following scale was used to record the conclu
sions :
5 = Excellent
4 = Very Good
3 = Good
2 = Fair
1 = Poor
Table 12
Analysis of Mean Ratings of~Conclusions of Tapes
Categories
Tapes
1 2 3 4 5
I. Antecedents:
Prerequisite skills
1. Were met by
the student
II. Transactions:
Teacher presentation
1. Followed procedure
2. Explanations/expec
tations made clear
III. Outcomes:
Student application
1. Learned technique
5 5 5 5 5
5 5 5 5 5
5
5 5 5 5
5 5 5
5 5
The panel of adjudicators determined the overall
success and effectiveness of each of the six teaching units
based upon an analysis of the tapes they had heard and the
materials they had seen. Their combined mean scores are


131
board, an ascending melody beginning in the upper-middle
register can be pedaled more heavily than a descending one.
In addition, more pedal is needed if the dynamic level
increases. A decrease in dynamic level, even in an upper
register, will usually require less pedal or more frequent
pedal changes. Likewise, a full sonority in a low register
will necessitate frequent changes of pedal.
It is difficult to make generalizations about melodic
pedaling since each situation is unique. Sometimes it is
necessary for the performer to pedal successive measures of
a melody differently, especially when the melodic direction
changes frequently. It is also necessary to consider the
melodic accompaniment. At times the accompaniment allows
more liberal use of the pedal than at other times. For
instance, a strong supporting accompaniment can benefit by
longer pedals to maintain an unbroken harmonic sound,
especially if the melody lies in a fairly high register of
the keyboard and is separated from the accompaniment by
several octaves.
The choice of pedaling for melodic material must be
determined by many different factors. However, the most
important of these is the ear.
Teaching Procedures
No special pedaling technique exists for training
the student to pedal melodically. If a passage is to be


276
Results of Intensive Validation
The twenty teaching units were grouped into four major
categories: (1) Category One: full pedaling which includes
legato pedaling, legatissimo pedaling, pre-pedaling, and
pedaling one hand and not the other; (2) Category Two: par
tial pedaling which includes half-damping, pedal vibrato,
pedal diminuendo, flutter pedaling, and half pedaling; (3)
Category Three: pedaling to enhance rhythm, dynamics, and
phrasing which includes rhythmic pedaling, staccato pedal
ing, portato pedaling, finger pedaling, melodic pedaling,
pedaling to enhance phrasing and articulation, and pedaling
for dynamic effects; (4) Category Four: use of two or more
pedals simultaneously which includes una corda pedaling,
sostenuto pedaling, pedaling for color and special effects,
and harmonic pedaling.
One or two teaching units were chosen as a representa
tive sample from each major category, and four nationally
certified piano teachers were selected to teach at least
one unit each from the category they were given. The
teachers then selected between one to three students who
were at the appropriate stage to learn one of the pedaling
techniques. The four teachers collectively taught five
teaching units to a total of eleven different students.
The portion of the lesson in which the chosen pedaling
technique was taught was recorded. The portion of the


145
A distinction needs to be made between pedal vibrato
and flutter pedaling. Whereas both refer to a rapid,
rather shallow motion of the pedal, pedal vibrato differs
from flutter pedaling in three ways: (1) the depth to which
the pedal is initially depressed, (2) the range in which
the pedal is vibrated, and (3) the purpose for which it is
used.
In comparison with the actual depth of the pedal's
full range, pedal vibrato and flutter pedaling may be
diagramed as follows:
Full Range Pedal Vibrato Flutter Pedaling
III
Figure 3-2
The remaining portion of this unit is concerned with
pedal vibrato only. Flutter pedaling is presented in a
separate teaching unit.
Application When Playing
One use of this technique is to achieve a rapid
diminuendo of the tone. When applied at the end of a


Method
How
Book
Pedal ]
Exercises
Technique
Fletcher
Piano
Course
(1973)
Expla
nation
2
Damper
Yes
Pre-ped
Syncopated
Gilbert
Music
for
Everyone
(1978)
In the
music
2
Damper
No
Direct
Glover,
Garrow
Piano
Drawing,
Sentence
1
Damper
No
Direct
Student
(1967)
Reintro
duced
2
II
No
Glover,
Stewart
Method
In the
music
P*
Damper &
Una Corda
No
Syncopated
depression
for
Without
1
Damper &
No
n
Piano
(1988)
playing
2
Una Corda
ti
Medley
Way
(1981)
Expla
nation
1
Damper
Yes
Syncopated
Noona
Gifted
Pianist
(1986)
11 lus
tration
2
Damper
Una Corda
Yes
Syncopated
Olson,
et al.
Music
Pathways
(1974)
Expla
nation
1-C
Damper
No
Direct
Figure 2-1continued
* Primer level


159
A. Depress the pedal fully, using the entire
depth of the range. Play any note on the piano and listen
to the full sound that is produced when it is caught en
tirely in the pedal.
B. Play the note again while depressing the
pedal. Do not hold the note down with the finger. Release
the pedal slowly just to the point at which the sound is
released. This will be the height above which the pedal
should not rise to retain all the notes.
2. Using both hands, play chords that encompass the
bass and treble registers of the keyboard. Practice
catching these chords in the pedal without holding the keys
down in the hands. Use a deep initial descent of the
pedal, then let the pedal gradually rise. As it rises,
move the toes up and down very slightly. Listen carefully
to the sound that is being produced. It is important that
all of the notes are retained in the pedal.
The next two steps rely on careful listening.
3. Repeat the above procedure and listen to the tex
ture of the sound to determine if it is too thick or too
thin. It is too thick if the initial sound is retained
entirely so that no change occurs as a result of using the
pedal. It is too thin if the bass notes cease to sound.
The entire harmony should remain in the pedal. If the bass
notes are lost, this indicates that the ascent of the pedal


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
William D. Hedges
Professor of Educational Leadership
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Linda L. Lamme
Professor of Instruction and Curriculum
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Russell L. Robinson
Associate Professor of Music


30
the great majority who kept the pedal depressed almost
constantly. Leschetizsky, however, believed that no rules
were needed for pedaling other than common sense and a good
ear (Bree, 1902).
A different type of confusion surrounded the manner in
which the damper pedal was depressed. For nearly eighty
years after the invention of the damper pedal, rhythmic
pedaling, or depressing the damper pedal simultaneously
with the notes, was the exclusive recognized form of pedal
ing. According to Riefling (1962) Czerny (1839) was the
first composer to write fully and instructively about the
use of the pedal, and this was the only form of pedaling he
discussed. Syncopated pedaling, or depressing the pedal
after the notes have been played, is now considered to be
the most common method of pedaling. However, syncopated
pedaling was not used until after 1870 by composers such as
Liszt, Kullak, and Deppe, and it is mentioned in treatises
on the pedal dating from 1875 by both Schmitt and Kohler.
Pre-pedaling, or depressing the pedal before playing
the notes, is first mentioned in writings on the pedal
dating from the early twentieth century by Breithaupt
(1912), Caland (1922), and Kreutzer (1915). However, in
his book The Essence of Piano Technique, which was pub
lished in 1923, Kreutzer does not mention this form of
pedaling and appears to reject it (Riefling, 1962).


271
Table 9
Agreement with Concepts in Teaching Units According to
Percentage of Responses
Unit
No
Yes
1. Legato
pedaling
100
2. Leqatissimo
pedaling 100
3. Rhythmic
pedaling 100
4. Una corda
pedaling
100
5. Pre-
pedaling
100
6. Finger
pedaling
100
7. Staccato
pedaling
100
8. Portato
pedaling
100
9. Phrasing/
articulation
100
10. Melodic
pedaling
100
11. Half
damping
100
12. Pedal
vibrato
100
13. Pedal
diminuendo
100
14. Half
pedaling
100
15. Flutter
pedaling
100
16. Dynamic
pedaling
100
17. Pedal
blurring
100
18. Harmonic
pedaling
100
19. Pedaling
one hand
100
20. Sostenuto
peda ling
100


295
III. Student Application Please answer this section only
if you have tried the enclosed material with one or
more of your students:
( ) 1. Did students seem interested in technique as
demonstrated by general attitude and
eagerness to learn?
( ) 2. Did students appear to understand the
application and use of technique?
( ) 3. Did technique appear to be beneficial to
students as perceived in increased
knowledge, musical understanding, and
performance?
Comments or suggestions:
IV. General Response and Evaluation
1.Have you previously used this technique in your
teaching?
2.If so, how much use have you made of it?
3.In your opinion, how important is it that your
students learn this technique?
4.At what stage of development in playing the piano
do you think this particular technique should be
introduced?
5.How important do you think it is to teach this
particular technique?
( ) Very important
( ) Somewhat important
( ) Not very important


306
Kreutzer, L. (1923) The Essence of Piano Technique.
Berlin: M. Hesse.
Last, J. (1960). Interpretation for the Piano Student.
London: Oxford University Press.
Last, J. (1963). Introduction to Pedalling. New York:
Galaxy Music.
Lhevinne, J. (1972) Basic Principles in Pianoforte
Playing. New York: Dover.
Lindo, A. (1922) Pedalling in Pianoforte Music. New
York: E.P. Dutton & Co.
Lindguist, 0. (1966) Pedaling: Using the Damper Pedal to
Achieve Legato. Clavier, 5^ 48-50.
Lindguist, 0. (1968) Pedaling: Subtleties in the Use of
the Damper Pedal; Watching for Clarity. Clavier, 1_,
34-37.
Marsh, 0. (1987). The Pianist's Spectrum. Wolfeboro, NH:
Longwood Academic.
Martienssen, C. (1930). Die individuelle Klaviertechnik
auf den Grundlage des schopferischen Klangwillens.
Leipzig: C. F. Kahnt.
Matthay, T. (1913). (1903). The Act of Touch in All its
Diversity. London: Bosworth & Co.
Matthay, T. (1913) Musical Interpretation, Its Laws and
Principles, and Their Application in Teaching and
Performing. Boston: Boston Music.
Medley Way. (1981). Milwaukee: Hal Leonard.
Merrick, F. (1960) Practising the Piano. London: Barrie
and Rockliff.
Mirovitch, A. (1954) The Pedal. New York: Belwin.
Music Teachers National Association. (1989). Handbook.
Cincinnati: MTNA.
Neuhaus, H. (1973). The Art of Piano Playing.
(K. A. Leibovitch, Trans.). New York: Praeger
Publishers.


264
The majority of teachers who responded did not try the
materials with students. The reason most often given was
that they were not teaching during the time the material
was sent to them. Therefore, the data in Table 3 reflect
only about a 40 percent
response.
Combined Mean Ratings
Table 4
for the Aspects of Teaching Units
Categories
Grand Mean Score
I. Materials
1. Explanation
4.85
2. Application
4.81
3. Procedures
4.81
4. Examples
4.73
5. Exercises
4.84
II. Objectives
1. Useful
4.93
2. Logical
4.83
3. Clear
4.80
III. Student Application
1. Interest
4.63
2. Understanding
4.58
3. Beneficial
4.72


286
In addition, the sequencing of the units was also
systematically determined by the researcher. The units
were grouped into logical categories and presented in a
sequence in which one skill becomes a foundation for the
next skill to be learned.
Thorough
The study also meets this criterion. It presents
twenty units on different pedaling techniques. Banowetz in
his treatise on pedaling mentions only sixteen. Therefore,
it is fair to say that the study is thorough in its cover
age of pedaling techniques.
In terms of its pedagogical materials, there is no
similar yardstick against which to compare the study,
because so little has been written on the teaching of
pedaling. Pedagogical recommendations are contained in
each unit. It is possible, of course, that additional
pedagogical ideas could have been presented, but the ones
that are included appear more than adequate for the
particular technique. In addition, one unit is included on
the sequencing of the teaching units, which adds to the
pedagogical thoroughness of the study.
Appropriate for Intended Users
The determination of appropriateness was the purpose
of the validation process, which solicited the opinions of
MTNA certified teachers and analyzed the teaching of the


132
pedaled melodically it must be determined in advance which
melody notes are to be pedaled. Very careful listening is
required in performance to be sure the pedal is not de
pressed too soon, or remains depressed too long.
In melodic pedaling less is usually better than more.
Generally, the less pedal used the clearer the melodic
concept. If too much pedal is used, the pedaling tends to
become more harmonically oriented. Teaching by negative
example or by comparing melodic pedaling with harmonic
pedaling of the same musical passage can be effective in
showing the difference between the two. The following
examples illustrate this point. Melodic pedaling, or no
pedaling at all provides a more musical rendition and is
more compatible with the composer's intent regarding
phrasing and articulation.
Teaching Examples
Incorrect harmonic pedaling. The sixteenth notes do
not require pedaling in the example below.
Example B: Beethoven -
Sonata in A, Op. 2, No. 2
(Scherzo)
Allegretto
£


124
dynamic level. Again notice the accumulation of sound that
gives the impression of a crescendo.
The fourth measure of Mendelssohn's Variations
contains two repeated chords. The first chord concludes
the opening phrase, while the second chord begins the next
phrase. A brief lifting of the pedal at the end of the
first phrase (between the two repeated chords) can produce
a slight break in the melodic line and help delineate the
two distinct phrases. On the other hand, no change of
pedal in the fourth measure obscures the phrasing and
increases the sound at the end of the first phrase rather
than allowing it to fade.
Example A: Mendelssohn "Variations serieuses," Op. 54
Adagio
Preparatory exercises. The student should possess
basic skills that include both full and partial pedaling
techniques. For instance, it is necessary for the student


8
tices of earlier periods; such knowledge can lead to a more
artistic level of performance through their appropriate
use.
The historical development of the pedals is a compli
cated evolution that spanned more than 150 years. As the
piano increased in range and size, alterations were desired
to help control the volume and duration of the sound. By
the mid-eighteenth century, when the length of the strings
had become quite long, the excessive reverberations of the
strings created objectionable dissonant notes. This led to
the creation of damper activating mechanisms.
The Damper Pedal
Early pianos had hand stops for controlling the
damperspieces of firm felt that prevent the strings from
vibrating when sound is no longer desired. Through the use
of hand stops the performer could raise the dampers in
either the bass or the treble areas. This division of the
damper mechanism into treble and bass groups remained a
common feature of pianos until at least 1820.
Knee levers were introduced in Germany around 1765.
These were less cumbersome than hand stops and allowed the
pianist to maintain uninterrupted hand contact with the
keyboard.
In 1777 a divided pedal was added that controlled both
halves of the damper mechanism separately. Further refine-


253
The first twenty of these units each describe the
function, application, teaching procedures, and pedagogical
aspects of one pedaling technique. The twenty-first unit
presents a systematic sequence for introducing the previous
twenty pedaling techniques to students in a logical, sys
tematic order.
Most of the pedagogical procedures described in the
teaching units have seldom been subjected to research
analysis. Therefore, some examination of them by expert
piano teachers seemed desirable. The validation of the
teaching units was accomplished using two types of vali
dation: extensive and intensive.
Results of Extensive Validation
Sixty-three master piano teachers were randomly
selected to participate in this phase of the validation
process. They represented a cross-section of the 2,763
nationally certified MTNA teachers of piano and piano
pedagogy. Of the sixty-three expert piano teachers who
were sent the teaching materials, sixty-one responded and
participated in the study, for a rate of 97 percent.
In order to achieve this response rate, the teachers
were first sent an introductory letter explaining the
purpose of the study (see Appendix A), along with a
stamped, self-addressed post card to indicate their
willingness to participate in the study. A follow-up


157
register of the keyboard. It is easier to clear the
harmonies in the upper register, since there are no dampers
in the extreme upper range. Activating the damper pedal
only catches the partials that are sounding in sympathetic
vibration.
The effectiveness of half pedaling decreases as more
chords are played over the original bass. It becomes less
effective as the dynamic level increases, especially if a
number of chords are played in succession. Also, the
closer the chords lie to the middle range of the keyboard,
the more difficult it becomes to clear the sounds ade
quately. Therefore, half pedaling is not effectively used
in the bass and middle ranges of the piano exclusively. It
requires sufficient separation between the bass and upper
parts.
Teaching Procedures
Preparatory exercises. Since half pedaling involves
the use of both full and partial pedaling, it is essential
that the student be aware of the differences between these
two techniques and be able to execute them correctly.
Prior to teaching half pedaling it may be helpful to review
with the student some basic preliminary exercises. These
are the same procedures that can be used before teaching
pedal diminuendo. Ask the student to do the following:


239
illustrative of each technique. They commented that the
information, organization, and presentation of the material
was was well-thought out, well-presented, and very thor
ough. One respondent stated: "I applaud your thoroughness
and artistry in attempting to categorize pedaling tech
niques "
Some of the respondents commented that they felt
inadequate or unable to offer suggestions. As one teacher
replied: "You have taught me more than I can help you."
Several encouraged the publication of this study, calling
it "masterful" and "impressive."
A few suggestions were offered by several of the
respondents, and those were incorporated into the revision
of the teaching units. The suggestions were to (1) in
clude more examples, (2) include easier examples as well,
(3) clarify some of the diagrams, (4) include some examples
of "direct" pedaling to precede legato pedaling, and (5)
stress the importance of listening.
As a result, more examples were added, and examples
representative of different levels of achievement were
incorporated as well. Several diagrams were revised.
Preliminary exercises involving "direct" pedaling were
added prior to teaching legato pedaling. Finally, more
attention was placed upon the importance of aural aware
ness, and additional exercises involving listening skills
were included as well.


207
4. Play a chord using both hands. Hold the chord and
depress the damper pedal fully.
5. Repeat Step 4, playing chords in both hands up and
down the keyboard. Change the damper pedal after each
chord is played.
6. Release the chords and the damper pedal. Listen
to the sound. The low note should still be sounding in the
sostenuto pedal.
7. Release the sostenuto pedal.
The closing measures of Ravel's "Pavane" provide a
musical extension of the above exercise.
Example C: Ravel "Pavane pour une infante defunte1'
The following examples combine the use of the damper
pedal with the sostenuto pedal. They are chosen because
the use of the sostenuto pedal is almost imperative.
Sustaining bass pedals. In the following example, the
opening "G" octave is held as a bass pedal throughout the


310
assistantship in piano and theory. In 1969 she received
the Master of Music degree in performance and literature
from Eastman. She has received additional training in
piano pedagogy, piano literature, musicology and music
education at Brigham Young University.
Ms. Johnson received a number of awards during her
years at Eastman: in 1965 the Alumni Association granted
her an award for excellence; she was on the Dean's list
each year of attendance; and she was recognized for
achieving the highest scholastic average of graduating
members of Sigma Theta chapter of Sigma Alpha Iota. While
at Eastman she studied piano with Cecile Staub Genhart for
six years.
In 1969 Ms. Johnson accepted a one-year position as
assistant professor of music at Winthrop College in Rock
Hill, South Carolina. In 1970 she was offered a position
at Weber State College in Ogden, Utah, where she is
currently employed as director of keyboard studies. In
addition to private and class piano, Ms. Johnson has taught
courses in keyboard pedagogy, keyboard literature, piano
ensemble, accompanying, music theory and sight-singing,
introduction to music, and music essentials. She also
developed a series of pedagogical courses for music
teachers.
Ms. Johnson performs frequently as soloist and
accompanist, presents workshops and lecture recitals, and


Teaching Unit 5: Pre-Pedaling 99
Teaching Unit 6: Finger Pedaling 103
Teaching Unit 7: Staccato Pedaling 109
Teaching Unit 8: Portato Pedaling 115
Teaching Unit 9: Pedaling to Enhance Phrasing
and Articulation 119
Teaching Unit 10: Melodic Pedaling 129
Teaching Unit 11: Half Damping 134
Teaching Unit 12: Pedal Vibrato 144
Teaching Unit 13: Pedal Diminuendo 150
Teaching Unit 14: Half Pedaling 155
Teaching unit 15: Flutter Pedaling 162
Teaching Unit 16: Pedaling for Dynamic Effects.. 169
Teaching Unit 17: Pedal Blurring for Color
and Special Effects 178
Teaching Unit 18: Harmonic Pedaling 187
Teaching Unit 19: Pedaling One Hand and Not
the Other 194
Teaching Unit 20: Sostenuto Pedaling 198
Teaching Unit 21: Pedagogical Sequence for
Implementing Piano Pedaling Techniques 226
4 FIELD TESTING AND VALIDATION 237
Pilot Validation 237
Validation of Materials 240
Incorporation of the Results 249
5 SUMMARY, RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS 251
Summary 252
Results of Extensive Validation 253
Questionnaire for Teaching Units 1 20 260
Validation of Pedagogical Sequence of
Piano Pedaling Techniques 274
Results of Intensive Validation 276
Conclusions 285
Recommendations and Application 288
APPENDICES
A COVER LETTER 292
B QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS 293
C VALIDATION FORM FOR TEACHING UNITS 294
D VALIDATION FORM FOR PEDAGOGICAL SEQUENCE 297
E ANALYSIS OF TAPES: OBSERVATIONS 299
F ANALYSIS OF TAPES: CONCLUSIONS 300
REFERENCES 302
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 309
v


277
lesson a week later in which the student demonstrated his
or her accomplishment in pedaling after two hours of prac
tice was also recorded. These recordings were then ana
lyzed by the researcher and a panel of four MTNA nation
ally certified teachers. One adjudicator, however, tended
to rate the teachers on their general teaching rather than
on their application of the material in the units. There
fore, it was deemed advisable to omit the ratings of that
particular adjudicator, even though they were generally
very favorable.
Prior to listening to the tapes, the researcher met
with the adjudicators for a training session. General
procedures for listening to the tapes, completing the
forms, and assigning ratings were reviewed. The adjudi
cators also examined the teaching units that they would be
hearing on tape. In this way they could study the materi
als in advance and have an opportunity to ask questions.
Categories of Tapes
The tapes that were analyzed consisted of representa
tive teaching units from each category:
Category
Teaching Unit
19 Pedaling one
hand and not the
other
I
Full pedaling


60
Method
How
Book
Peda 1
Exercises
Technique
Pace
Brief
2
Damper
No
Legato
MUSC
for
expla
nation
3
No
Overlapping
Piano
(1981)
No ex
planation
6
II
No
Non-tradition'
al notation
Roya 1
Conser-
In the
music
1
Damper
No
Syncopated
vatory
(1975)
Schaura
Piano
Without
playing
B
Damper
Yes
Pedal in
rhythm
Course
(1945)
E
Una Corda
No
Thompson
Modern
11 lus
tration
2
All 3
(Damper)
Yes
Syncopated
Piano
Course
(1937)
No ex
planation
3
Una Corda
No

Waxman
Pageants
In the
music
In
tro
Damper
No
Syncopated
(1959)
Figure 2-1continued
Most of the methods that were examined did introduce
the damper pedal, some used the una corda pedal either
alone or in combination with the damper pedal, but none
included examples for the use of the sostenuto pedal.
However, these method books are for beginning piano
students, and sostenuto pedaling generally is not required
until more advanced levels have been attained.


224
The closing measures of the second movement of Ravel's
Sonatine utilize all three pedals and employ a number of
techniques. If this passage is played by using partial
pedal changes instead of the sostenuto pedal, much of the
sonority and effect is lost. Besides coordinating all
three pedals, the pianist must employ the technique of
silent key depression and control the level of the dampers
with the keys and the damper pedal.
The most problematic spot in this example involves
sustaining the fifth in the bass during the last two
measures. The fifth can be sustained by the sostenuto
pedal, but other notes are being played at the same time,
and the damper pedal is being used. Both hands release the
keys in the second measure at the fermata. While this is
an ideal place for the fifth to be depressed silently and
caught in the sostenuto pedal, additional techniques are
needed because the pedal resonance of the previous measure
continues into this measure.
The following suggestions are recommended in teaching
the use of all three pedals in this passage. Ask the
student to do the following:
1. Play the first measure using a full depression of
the damper pedal. Gently vibrate the pedal at the fermata
to enhance and diminish the tones slightly.
2. Continue the gentle pedal vibrato, but slowly and
gradually let the pedal rise to the point at which the


127
Teaching Examples
The following two examples illustrate pedaling to
enhance different aspects of phrasing. In the first
example the pedal is used to clarify a tied note; in the
second it is used to shape and taper the ending of a
phrase. Both involve a modified release of the damper
pedal after it has been fully depressed.
Example B; Schubert Sonata Op. 64 (Allegro Vivace)
Pedaling to clarify a tied note. The example above
involves a change from a forte to a piano dynamic level
along with a tied melody note in the upper voice. It is
necessary to have a slight separation in the pedaling be
tween the two phrases because the tied note must continue
to sound after the fermata without being overpowered tonal
ly by the lower notes, and the slight pedal separation will
clarify the phrasing as two distinct units. Ask the
student to do the following:


186
Color and atmospheric effects. The following
examples use half damping to provide color and atmosphere.
Example C: Rachmaninoff Etude Tableux in Eb m, Op. 39,
No. 5
Example D: Chopin Sonata in Bb m, Op. 35 (Presto)
Half damping is necessary to maintain clarity yet
provide an atmospheric effect to portray spirits hovering
over the grave. It also facilitates the crescendo.


121
allows phrasing by choice, rather than phrasing imposed or
predetermined as a result of technical limitations.
Another use of the pedal to clarify phrasing can be
found when the ending note or chord is the same one that
begins a new phrase. This is referred to as "dovetail"
phrasing. Or, the last note of one phrase may be tied over
to the first note of the new phrase. While it is generally
acceptable to retain the same harmony in the pedal through
out, proper attention to phrasing will often preclude this.
For instance, a gentle lift of the pedal can create a small
break in the melodic or harmonic line and emphasize the
phrasing. The pedal can taper the ending of one phrase
while giving a tonal emphasis to the other. Coupled with
various pianistic techniques such as tone, touch, and re
bato, the slight break created by lifting the pedal between
the two phrases can produce a desirable musical effect.
The application of this type of pedaling requires a
knowledge of phrasing. It also involves careful listening
to determine how much separation is desired between the two
connecting phrases and whether the sound should taper be
tween them.
Although it is not desirable to conclude every phrase
with a break in the sound, an occasional breath can deline
ate the melodic line and add variety. The pedal can blend
separate phrases into each other and add another dimension
to phrasing that can seldom be achieved by the fingers


119
3. While thinking of a subdivided count, release the
fingers on the second subdivision of the first beat.
4. Release the pedal on the "and" of the first count.
5. Repeat the above procedure for each of the four
portato chords in the example below.
Example A: Beethoven Sonata in A, Op. 2, No. 2
(Allegro vivace)
Teaching Unit 9: Pedaling to Enhance
Phrasing and Articulation
Description of Technique
The damper pedal can be used in combination with
finger technique to project phrasing and articulation by
a careful timing of its activation and release. The slight
increase of sound that occurs when the damper pedal is de
pressed, as well as the gradual release of the sound when
the pedal is slowly raised, cannot be accomplished through
the fingers alone.


LIST OF TABLES
Table page
1 Mean Ratings for the Aspects of Teaching Units
Category Is Materials 261
2 Mean Ratings for the Aspects of Teaching Units
Category 2: Objectives 262
3 Mean Ratings for the Aspects of Teaching Units
Category 3: Student Application 263
4 Combined Mean Ratings for the Aspects of
Teaching Units 264
5 Grand Mean Ratings for Individual
Teaching Units 265
6 Previous Use of Pedaling Technique According to
Percentage of Responses 267
7 Stage of Development at which a Particular Pedaling
Technique Should be Introduced According to
Percentage of Responses 268
8 Importance of Teaching Individual Pedaling
Techniques According to Percentage
of Responses 270
9 Agreement with Concepts in Teaching Unit
According to Percentage of Responses 271
10 Ability to Teach Pedaling Techniques Using
Information Provided in Teaching Units
According to Percentage of Responses 273
11 Analysis of Mean Ratings of Observations
of Tapes 281
12 Analysis of Mean Ratings of Conclusions of
of Tapes 282
13 Overall Grand Mean Ratings of Tapes 283
vi


164
than those in the treble, and the tones take longer to
fade. Therefore, when flutter pedaling is applied to a
forte bass run, the depth of the pedal's descent should be
rather shallow, and the rate of the small pedal changes
should be quite rapid. When flutter pedaling is applied to
runs in the treble or when the dynamic level of the passage
is quite soft, a greater depth of the pedal's range can be
employed, and the pedal vibrations do not need to be as
fast.
The application of flutter pedaling is generally left
to the discretion of the pianist. Composers will sometimes
indicate its use such as in the first movement of the
Barber Piano Concerto, but such instances are uncommon.
Teaching Procedures
Preparatory exercises. Flutter pedaling is accom
plished by rapidly moving the toes up and down rather than
the entire foot. It is important that the student grasp
the feel of pedaling behind the big toe correctly to avoid
creating tension in these muscles. Have the student
practice tapping the toes of the right foot on the floor,
moving just the toes and not the entire foot. Ask the
student to do the following:
1. Place the right foot on the floor behind the
damper pedal. Using the ball of the foot as a pivot,
rapidly move the toes up and down. Be aware of the


172
register is high, the pedal may be held throughout the
entire run for added sonority. Runs that descend usually
require considerably less pedal, as well as very careful
listening by the pianist.
In contrast to the slow damper release that is used to
produce a pedal diminuendo, the damper pedal may be used to
diminish the sound rapidly after a single note or chord has
been played. There are times when it is necessary to damp
the sound, even though a diminuendo is not marked in the
music or the composer has indicated that the damper pedal
should remain depressed throughout. Care must be taken not
to cover soft sounds that occur immediately following a
loud or strongly accented chord. Because of the resonance
of contemporary grand pianos, a sudden change from a loud
to a soft dynamic level in the music usually necessitates a
separation between the sounds. This is accomplished either
through a combination of full pedal and half pedal, whereby
a reduction to half pedal on the softer sonorities enables
the tones to be heard more clearly, or by a very quick re
lease of the pedal after a loud or strongly accented chord.
Likewise, a forte-piano indication for a sustained
single note or chord is possible on contemporary grand
pianos only through the use of the damper pedal. The rapid
lessening of sound that occurred on early pianos after a
note had been played enabled the sound from a forte attack
to fade gradually to a piano without further help from the


243
Certificate, and the College Faculty Certificate. With the
exception of the College Faculty Certificate, in order to
achieve this level of certification teachers must success
fully complete comprehensive written, oral, and performance
examinations in music theory, history and literature, peda
gogy, and performance. These examinations are prepared,
administered, and evaluated by the National Certification
Board of MTNA. In addition to the above, a lifetime
Emeritus Certificate may be awarded to those certified
teachers who reach the age of sixty-five.
The Professional and Associate Certificates are based
on earned degrees from accredited institutions of higher
learning. The Professional Certificate is awarded to
candidates who hold a valid state certificate and meet one
of the following requirements: (1) hold a bachelor's degree
in music with a specified number of hours in the desired
area of certification, (2) serve full or part-time on the
music faculty of a nationally accredited institution for at
least two years, or (3) successfully complete the MTNA
Professional Certificate Examination. This certificate is
valid for five years but remains valid for full-time
faculty for the duration of their employment.
The Associate Certificate correlates with associate
degree programs and music curricula of two-year community
colleges. All applicants for the Associate Certificate
must successfully complete the MTNA Pedagogy Examination.


153
1. Make a difference between the amount of pressure
required for full and partial pedaling. This should be
achieved by pedaling behind the big toe rather than with
the entire foot.
A. Depress the pedal fully, using the entire
depth of the range. Play any note on the piano and listen
to the full sound that is produced when it is caught en
tirely in the pedal.
B. Play the note again while depressing the
pedal. Do not hold the note down with the finger. Release
the pedal slowly, just to the point at which the sound is
released. This will be the height above which the pedal
should not rise to retain all the notes.
2. Using both hands, play chords that encompass the
bass and treble registers of the piano. Practice catching
these chords in the pedal without holding the keys down in
the hands. Use a deep initial descent of the pedal, then
let the pedal gradually rise. As it rises, move the toes
up and down very slightly. Listen carefully to the sound
that is being produced. It is important that all of the
notes are retained in the pedal.
The next two steps rely heavily on careful listening.
Ask the student to do the following:
3. Repeat the above procedure. Listen to the texture
of the sound to determine if it is too thick or too thin.
It is too thick if the initial sound is fully retained so


178
Teaching Unit 17: Pedal Blurring for Color
and Special Effects-
Description of Technique
The damper pedal may be applied in a way that creates
a deliberate blurring of the tones. When used discrimi
nate^ in this manner, pedal blurring can enhance tonal
color and create special effects.
Pedal blurring is effective in a variety of situa
tions, including: (1) cadenza figurations, (2) whole tone
and pentatonic scales, (3) ostinato patterns, and (4) other
special effects. In addition, pedal blurring is sometimes
indicated in the musical score by the composer.
Application When Playing
Function. Using the damper pedal to deliberately
create a blur is directly opposed to its use in nearly
every other situation. Through a variety of pedaling
techniques, the pianist has many options from which to
choose pedaling that will enhance the clarity of a musical
passage. Some of these same techniques can also be used to
create pedal blurring. The difference between pedaling for
clarity and blurring the pedal is the degree to which the
pedal is applied and the length of time it remains de
pressed .
Ignorance of correct pedaling techniques is never an
excuse to blur the pedal; the pedal must always be applied


155
Teaching Unit 14: Half Pedaling
Description of Technique
Half pedaling (or half pedal), refers to the combi
nation of full and partial pedaling that allows part of the
notes that have been played to be retained in the damper
pedal and the other part to be partially released. The
notes that are held are usually in the bass clef, while
those that are partially cleared are higher in pitch.
A distinction should be made between half pedaling and
half damping, because the two terms are often inaccurately
used interchangeably. Actually, the term half pedaling is
somewhat of a misnomer. It does not refer, as its name
implies, to the half-way depression of the damper pedal
or a 50 percent release of the dampers above the strings.
These terms describe half damping. Instead, half pedaling
is, in effect, catching and retaining only those sounds on
half or a portion of the keyboard.
The diagram below compares the action of the damper
pedal in half pedaling and half damping.
Half Pedaling Half Damping
1
11 4 1
4/ _
Or ^
Or
Figure 3-3


17
Delimitations
The subject of pedaling is an extensive one. There
fore, several delimitations were imposed to keep the study
focused on pedagogical matters. These delimitations in
clude the following: (1) Only standard works representa
tive of eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth century com
posers are cited as examples. No attempt has been made to
incorporate a comprehensive representation of all piano
literature. (2) Non-traditiona1 pedaling techniques and
idiosyncratic uses of the pedal are not included. (3) Par
ticular schools of pedaling are not compared or explained.
(4) Manuscripts or treatises are not examined for histori
cal relevance or authenticity. (5) A comparison of various
editions of a particular composer's works is not included.
Definitions of Terminology
Unless otherwise stated, the discussion of pedaling
techniques is made in reference to the modern concert grand
piano. The term pedaling will refer to the damper pedal or
right pedal. The middle pedal will be referred to as the
sostenuto pedal. The left pedal will be referred to as the
una corda pedal. These pedals and their actions are
frequently designated by a variety of terms, including the
following:


228
for introducing each pedaling technique that presents the
concepts in a logical, systematic order. However, no hard
and fast rules can be made. After considering the age and
maturity of the student, the teacher must carefully in
troduce the various concepts of pedaling, as well as the
subtleties within each concept. It is not necessary to
introduce new aspects of pedaling at each consecutive
lesson, nor is this advisable. The student should be given
sufficient time to become comfortable with each technique
and to allow each new step to sink in.
Despite its recognized importance, the teaching of
musical and artistic pedaling has frequently been ignored
by many piano teachers. Perhaps one reason is the belief
that ultimately the ear is the best and only judge of how
much pedal to use, and every piano and every hall is
different, to say nothing of the personality of the per
former. While this is true, to the extent that the student
is not taught each facet of piano playing, the quality
of his or her musical understanding and performance is
diminished.
Preliminary Studies
Before a student is introduced to the various pedaling
techniques, he should posses certain basic skills and
knowledge. The first lesson in pedaling should include a
brief explanation of the function of the three pedals as


307
Newman, W. (1956) The Pianist's Problems. New York:
Harper & Row.
Noona, W. and Noona, C. (1986). The Gifted Pianist.
Dayton: Roger Dean Publishing Co.
Noyle, L. (1987). Pianists on Piano Playing. Metuchen,
NJ: Scarecrow Press.
Ohlsson, G. (1982) Pedalling Hints and Habits. Key
board, 8^ 66.
Olson, L., Bianchi, L., and Blickenstaff, M. (1974).
Music Pathways. New York: Carl Fischer.
Pace, R. (1981). Music for Piano. Katonah, NY: Lee
Roberts Music.
Palmer, W., Manus, M., and Lethco, A. (1972). Creating
Music at the Piano. Van Nuys, CA: Alfred.
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Pasquet, J. (1981) The Pedals: Three or More. The
Piano Quarterly, 29, 29-30.
Podolsky, L., Davison, J., and Schaub A. (1966).
Principles of Pedaling. New York: Boosey and Hawkes.
Randlett, S. (1967). More on the Sostenuto Pedal.
Clavier jj, 50-52.
Riefling, R. Piano Pedalling. (1962). (K. Dale, Trans.).
New York: Oxford University Press.
Riemann, H. (1882). Musik-Lexikon. A. Einstein (Ed.),
Leipzig: Max Hesse.
Royal Conservatory of Music. (1975). Toronto, Ontario:
Frederick Harris Music.
Sandor, Gyorgy. (1981). On Piano Playing. New York:
Schirmer Books.
Schaum, J. (1945) Piano Course. Miami: Belwin.
Schmitt, H. (1893). The Pedals of the Piano-Forte.
(K. Dale, Trans.). London: Oxford University Press.


19
German:
mit Verschiebung, mit einer Saite
, mit Dampfung
Italian:
sordino, una corda, u.c., sul una
corda, poco a
poco una corda
Release of
the Una Corda Pedal
French:
German:
Italian:
3 cordes
ohne Verscheibung
tre corde, poco a poco tre corde,
tutte le
corde, t.c., poco a poco tutte le
corde, due
corde
Use of the
Una Corda and Damper Pedals Simultaneously
English:
Ped. 1 and 2
French:
Les deux pedales, Tres enveloppe
de pedales
German:
Mit beiden Pedalen, Beide Pedale
Italian:
con 2 Pedale, 2 ped., due Ped., con sord e Ped.
1 due pedali
In this study the terms for pedaling actions are
employed as follows:
Full pedal refers to the complete retention of sound
accomplished when the dampers are raised fully from the
strings and the pedal descends to its maximum depth.
Partial release of the pedal refers to the partial
release of the damper sound that is determined by how far
above the strings the dampers are raised: (1) a 75 percent
release of sound occurs when the dampers just barely touch


158
1. Place the right foot on the floor. Keeping the
heel on the floor, move the toes up and down. Be aware of
the sensation behind the big toe, since this is the one
that will be used in pedaling. Vary the speed and vertical
height which the toes are allowed to move. Gradually
decrease this distance until the motion is barely visible.
2. Contrast this motion with the incorrect motion of
moving the entire front portion of the foot up and down.
Although the heel still remains on the floor, ask the
student to notice the difference in the muscles which are
involved. The incorrect procedure utilizes the larger
muscles of the entire foot and calf of the leg. Pedaling
just behind the toes involves predominantly the smaller toe
muscles. It should become obvious that moving just the
toes allows for much greater sensitivity and agility.
3. Transfer these procedures to the damper pedal.
Check to be sure that the toes remain in contact with the
pedal and the heel rests comfortably on the floor. Notice
the tendency to audibly "hit" the pedal when the incorrect
procedure is used.
Full and partial pedaling. The student is now ready
to learn the techniques associated with full and partial
pedaling. Ask the student to
1. Differentiate between the amount of pressure
required for full and partial pedaling. Do this while
pedaling behind the big toe rather than the entire foot.


146
pianissimo section, the tone seems to disappear, and the
musical result is very effective. Pedal vibrato is often
used in conjunction with other pedaling techniques, es
pecially pedal diminuendo.
When properly employed, pedal vibrato can project a
feeling of continuity and create a mood of unbroken
stillness by giving the impression of a tonal evaporation
of the sound. For this use, it is best employed in the
concluding passages of a movement or a piece where nothing
will follow which can detract from its use. Its effect is
similar to that created when two people want to prolong a
parting touch, and can be compared to holding hands or a
gentle stroke on the arm. Rather than an abrupt release,
if two people gradually diminish contact by slowly lessen
ing the pressure between them so that only a very gentle
touch remains before their fingertips finally part, the
effect is that of almost not being aware of when contact
ceased to exist.
No extraneous motion should interfere with this
technique, either in the hands or the feet of the pianist.
All movements should be kept to a minimum, with care being
taken not to interrupt the mood by prematurely releasing
the hands on the keys or removing the foot from the pedal.
As the tone is about to disappear, the motion of the pedal
should become almost imperceptible and gradually cease.
The hands and body should remain in place until after the


209
There are at least two compositions by Debussy in
which it is widely acknowledged that the use of the
sostenuto pedal is necessary: the Prelude from his suite
Pour le Piano, and "La Cathedrale engloutie" from book I of
the Preludes for piano. In "La Cathedrale engloutie" it is
very difficult to achieve a convincing climax of the main
theme without using the sostenuto pedal. Because of the
fortissimo dynamic level, half pedaling would lose the full
sonority of the bass pedal point and blur the upper voices.
The sostenuto pedal is helpful also in other sections of
this composition.
Example E: Debussy "La Cathedrale engloutie"
One of the most familiar examples is Rachmaninoff's
Prelude in C-sharp minor. The sostenuto pedal is necessary


100
hammer to strike the strings with a softer, less impacted
part of its surface. In addition, a light vibration occurs
in the string which is not struck by the hammer, creating a
veiled sonority. If the una corda pedal is depressed
before playing anything on the keyboard, the resulting
sounds are softer, and there is less tendency to hear the
initial attack.
Depending on the dynamic level of the music, pre
pedaling can help produce tones which seem to appear
guietly out of nowhere or forte sounds that are even more
resonant and full. Its use is generally limited to the
following situations: (1) passages that begin forte but
have very few opening notes to convey the effect, (2) forte
chords that require the full support of the pedal, and (3)
opening pianissimo passages, or those in which sufficient
time exists to use the pre-pedal procedure without retain
ing previous sounds in the pedals. In the latter case,
both the damper and una corda pedals should be used.
Teaching Procedures
In the sense that pre-pedaling involves only depress
ing the pedals before beginning to play, it may seem that
nothing more needs to be said about this technique. How
ever, there are certain points to guard against that can
detract from its use. The following procedures are recom
mended for teaching pre-pedaling. Ask the student to


257
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explanations and suggestions are written in a clear, con
cise form [and are] easy to understand and follow;" "fan
tastic endeavor;" "thorough without being overly 'wordy';"
"sequence and articulation of this material make it very
clear to understand and to apply;" "information presented
is most in depth and is written in a most comprehensive
manner;" "fills a very definite need;" "very complete and
informativewould be extremely useful to teachers and
students alike;" "very interesting and useful material for
teachers and advanced piano students;" "worthwhile proj
ect;" "materials show much careful consideration of this
teaching problem;" "a lot of brain work;" "congratulations
on an excellent pedagogical paper!" "fantastic!" "a labor
of love;" "thrilled!" "never seen anything like it;" and
"techniques are brilliantly presented!"
Several expressed the wish that they had received
instruction in pedaling in their early pianistic training,
or that more teachers recognize its importance. Examples
include: "I wish that I had been taught with this kind of
information and logical detail;" "I wish I had had this
kind of training when I first started lessons;" "I've had
thirteen piano teachers and not one taught me how to
pedal!" "this provides a logical explanationmany teachers
give no attention to pedaling at all;" "this inspires me to
spend more time with students helping them achieve the best


96
behind the pedal. Practice gliding the foot to and from
this correct position.
3. Place the right foot on the damper pedal.
A. Depress the una corda pedal only, while
playing chords in the middle register of the keyboard using
both hands.
B. Keeping the una corda pedal depressed, play
chords in both the extreme upper and lower registers of the
keyboard. Shift the position of the heel to counterbalance
the body weight. When both hands are playing at the upper
end of the keyboard, angle the heel slightly to the left;
when both hands are playing in the bass, angle the heel
more to the right.
Activating the una corda pedal. Ask the student to
place the right foot on the damper pedal and the left foot
on the una corda pedal. Both feet should remain in contact
with the pedals at all times. Check for this and the acti
vation of the una corda pedal. Ask the student to do the
following:
1. Silently depress the una corda pedal by a gentle
pressure coming from the ball of the foot behind the toes.
2. Release the pedal by relaxing the foot and toes.
Avoid moving the entire foot, which encourages the heel to
rise and sometimes causes an audible "hitting" of the pedal
to occur.


48
Hamilton, it is a safe rule to depress the pedal after
sounding the note except when the note is very short or
stands alone.
The belief that the pedal should be either completely
down or completely up is also shared by Gebhard (1963).
According to Gebhard, the pedal is activated by a relaxed,
noiseless motion from the ankle. It is always pressed
down, and never struck by the foot.
Grasty-Jones (1988) believes students should learn
that pedaling to the floor is unnecessary. Placing only
the big toe on the pedal rather than the entire ball of the
foot helps to control the weight of the foot and eliminate
blurring. She further suggests that as students gain more
control of the damper pedal, they can experiment with
degrees of pedal and find out how little pedal is needed to
sustain tones.
Booth (1971) describes the "why and wherefore" of all
pedal technigue as a summation of two basic movements: de
pressing the pedal and releasing it. He further believes
the point at which the pedal is released is more important
than when or how it is depressed, which is a view also
shared by Last (1960) and Lindquist (1966). Booth gives
six exercises for teaching the student to correctly
activate the damper pedal.


156
The remaining portion of this section is concerned
with half pedaling. Half damping is covered in a separate
unit.
Application When Playing
Half pedaling is most often used to sustain a bass
sonority that cannot be sustained by the fingers alone.
This occurs when the bass is carried over as a pedal point
into the next harmony while the left hand is occupied
playing other notes.
One use of this technique is to emphasize and prolong
the notes of a supporting bass line, while the upper notes
of the melody move freely. A bass line that is sustained
by full pedal alone, without concern for the changing notes
in the melody in the upper parts, usually results in un
clean, muddy pedaling. Since the upper notes may deviate
from the bass harmony, some degree of pedaling is necessary
to keep all the sounds from blurring together.
A composer often indicates that the bass is to be
stressed by double stemming the important harmonic notes if
they have the same time value, or by lengthening their
duration. The degree of emphasis affects the choice of
pedaling.
Half pedaling is also used when various chord changes
occur over a sustained bass pattern. This is somewhat more
difficult to execute, unless the chords are in the upper


233
pedaling is more difficult to execute, since the initial
full depression of the pedal retains those notes in the
lower portion of the keyboard, while partial pedaling
releases those in the upper register. A careful control of
the pedal's ascent is imperative in this technique.
Flutter pedaling is one of the more difficult forms of
partial pedaling to execute. This technique requires more
physical skill in that it utilizes very rapid motions of
the toe. It also requires a certain amount of stamina to
maintain.
At this point, the student has learned all of the
specific techniques for utilizing the damper pedal.
Through combinations of these techniques, the damper pedal
may be applied in various ways to achieve specific effects.
Pedaling for dynamic effects capitalizes on the damper
pedal's ability to enhance tone quality. While this
capacity is one of the more basic functions of the damper
pedal, its use in this technique involves a complex
coordination between the hands and the pedal as well as
careful timing between depressing and releasing the notes.
Using the damper pedal to deliberately create a blur
is contradictory to its use in nearly every other situa
tion. Pedal blurring is a technique that is obviously
delayed until after the student is able to apply the pedal
in an artistic manner. This technique calls for a dis
criminating use of the damper pedal.


107
Example A; Chopin Polonaise in A
1323 13 23 1323
Organ thumb. Organ thumb works best when applied
to descending consecutive notes in the right hand, and to
ascending consecutive notes in the left hand. It is also
executed more easily on the white keys. To teach organ
thumb, tell the student play a C major descending scale in
the right hand using the thumb only. Ask the student to
do the following:
1. Place the right hand on the keyboard using a good
hand position. (Guard against the tendency to straighten
and stiffen the hand.)
2. Play "C" with the upper portion of the thumb.
Slide the thumb forward to the first joint. At the same
time turn the tip of the thumb to the left, so that it
points towards "B".
3. Play "B" with the tip of the thumb in the sideways
position. Slide the thumb forward while pivoting it to the
right. (This will propel the hand forward toward the next


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205
frequent use is made of pedal points. The forte bass
octave enhances the sostenuto effect.
Example A: Bach Toccata in D minor for organ
S.P. L
Ask the student to do the following:
1. Play the bass octave "D".
2. Depress the sostenuto pedal with the left foot.
Hold the bass long enough to secure the octave in the
sostenuto pedal.
3. Release the octave and continue playing the
remaining chords while the sostenuto pedal remains
depressed.
4. Release the foot and hands at the rest.
The student should learn to activate the sostenuto
pedal rapidly since it must be employed frequently in this
manner.
Contrasting articulations. In the following example,
the sustained chord must be held through a series of
staccato chords. The sostenuto pedal may be depressed with
either foot since the damper pedal is not used in this
passage.


50
registers and at different dynamic levels to illustrate
this point.
Hamilton (1927) suggests an exercise for developing
legato pedaling that consists of playing a series of as
cending notes with one finger and coordinating the timing
of the pedal while counting. Pasquet (1981) recommends
playing the C major scale very slowly with one finger while
saying the words "up" and "down" to acquire the element of
timing.
After the student has learned a legato pedal technique
in conjunction with playing a series of slow chords, Marsh
(1987) suggests that Hanon exercises be used as a second
step in early pedal training. He believes that Hanon is
useful in training students to create a legato quality in
running passages. To avoid blurring the pedal, Marsh
suggests that the student first be able to play the exer
cises at a tempo of at least 92 per quarter note. The
procedures he suggests for pedaling the exercises in Hanon
differ according to the meter and tempo of the exercise
that is played.
The exercises in the first book of Hanon (all in 2/4
time), can be pedaled by depressing the pedal immediately
after the first beat and lifting it exactly on the second
beat of the measure. For those exercises in the second
book (all in 4/4 time), the pedal can be depressed
immediately after the first and third beats, and raised


261
Table 1
Mean Ratings for the Aspects of Teaching Units
Category 1: Materials
Unit Explanation
Application
Procedures
Examples
Exercises
1.
Leqato
pedaling
4.73
4.82
4.82
4.33
4.56
2.
Lega-
tissimo
4.80
4.90
4.70
5.00
5.00
3.
Rhythmic
pedalinq
5.00
5.00
5.00
4.67
4.83
4.
Una corda
pedalinq
5.00
5.00
4.88
4.50
4.71
5.
Pre-
pedalinq
4.89
4.72
4.78
5.00
4.71
6.
Finger
pedalinq
5.00
5.00
5.00
4.93
5.00
7.
Staccato
peda 1inq
4.88
4.63
4.71
4.57
4.60
8.
Portato
peda 1inq
4.71
4.71
4.71
4.71
4.83
9.
Phrasing/
artic.
4.86
4.86
5.00
4.86
5.00
10.
Melodic
peda 1inq
4.50
4.75
4.63
4.75
4.86
11.
Half
dampinq
4.79
4.75
4.75
4.58
4.75
12.
Peda 1
vibrato
4.86
4.83
4.67
4.83
4.83
13.
Pedal
dimin.
5.00
4.88
4.88
4.75
5.00
14.
Half
pedalinq
4.88
4.88
4.88
5.00
4.85
15.
Flutter
pedalinq
5.00
4.83
4.83
4.83
5.00
16.
Dynamic
pedalinq
4.86
4.71
4.86
4.86
4.86
17.
Peda 1
blurrinq
4.90
4.80
4.80
4.60
5.00
18.
Harmonic
pedalinq
4.84
4.67
4.67
4.70
4.70
19.
Pedalinq
one hand
4.50
4.75
4.75
4.88
4.88
20.
Sostenuto
pedalinq
4.90
4.73
4.80
4.80
4.75


72
tially in contact with them. It also does not permit the
sound of the first chord to be completely stopped.
6. Repeat the above five procedures for each new
chord.
Teaching Examples
Legato pedaling may be tested in the following
examples:
Example B: Schumann Choral from Album for the Young
Example C: Bach Chorale Prelude in F No. 234,
"Gott lebet noch
iS
A A
r
I A_
7
M
UA
f==f
J:
r\
J-r
£AA
7
J\ A A I


181
tics of the concert hall, the desired tone color, and
stylistic considerations.
Prerequisite skills. Because pedal blurring combines
both full and partial pedaling, it is necessary for the
student to understand the basic differences between the
two. While each of these skills are covered in depth in
separate teaching units, the main pedagogical procedures
are presented here. Ask the student to
1. Place the right foot on the floor. Keeping the
heel on the floor, move the toes up and down. Be aware of
the sensation behind the big toe since this is the one
that will be used the most in pedaling. Vary the speed and
the vertical height which the toes are allowed to move, and
gradually decrease this distance until the motion is barely
visible.
2. Contrast this motion with the more awkward motion
of moving the entire front portion of the foot up and down.
Although the heel still remains on the floor, ask the
student to notice the difference in the muscles that are
involved. Using the whole foot utilizes the larger muscles
of the foot and calf of the leg, while pedaling just behind
the toes involves predominantly the smaller toe muscles.
It should become obvious that moving just the toes allows
much greater sensitivity and agility.
3. Transfer these procedures to the damper pedal.
Check to be sure that the toes remain in contact with the


28
book Music Study in Germany (1881) by the American pianist
Amy Fay. After having studied with the great piano peda
gogues Tausig, Kullak, and Liszt, Fay admitted to her
teacher Ludwig Deppe that none of her earlier renowned
teachers had taught her anything in particular about pedal
ing, except to warn her not to use the pedal during runs.
Additional Studies
Very little progress has been made in recent decades,
according to Ferguson (1969) toward rectifying the lack of
systematic studies on the teaching of pedaling. As Kentner
states
It is remarkable that [pedaling] has been practically
ignored by music teachers except for some vague,
though well meant advice against "over-pedaling." Even
intelligent pianists often limit their comments on the
pedal to an indulgent and humorous admission that it
can hide a multitude of sins. What sins we are not
told. (Kentner, 1976, p. 69)
Gebhard concludes
It is strange that, with this fascinating and exten
sive field fairly begging for recognition, only a few
fine musical scholars have written about it. The
artistic and tasteful use of the pedal ... is an
intrinsic part of interpretation [and] its neglect is
incomprehensible. (Gebhard, 1963, p. viii)
As Fetsch (1966) points out, most of what has appeared
in print concerns the use of the damper pedal. Compara
tively little has been written on the use of the una corda
pedal, but its technigue is less involved than the other
two pedals. Even less has been written on the use of the
sostenuto pedal, and most teachers and students are only


190
pedal, and the heel rests comfortably on the floor. This
also prevents the temptation to "hit" the pedal audibly.
Full and partial pedaling. The student is now ready
to learn the techniques associated with full and partial
pedaling. Have the student differentiate between the
amount of pressure that is required for full and partial
pedaling while pedaling behind the big toe rather than the
entire foot. Ask the student to do the following:
1. Depress the damper pedal fully, using the entire
depth of its range. Play any note on the piano and listen
to the full sound that is produced when the pedal is fully
depressed.
2. Play the note again while depressing the pedal.
Remove the finger from the key, then slowly release the
pedal just to the point at which the sound is released.
This is the height above which the pedal should not rise
in order to retain all the notes.
Have the student play chords in both hands that
encompass the bass and treble registers of the keyboard.
Ask the student to hold these chords in the pedal, but do
not hold the keys down with the fingers. Do the following
to each chord that is played:
1. Use a deep initial descent of the pedal, then let
the pedal gradually rise.
2. As the pedal rises, move the toes up and down very
slightly.


CHAPTER 3
PEDAGOGICAL MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
The pedals on the piano can be used in numerous ways
and for a variety of musical purposes. For example, in his
treatise on pedaling ("The Pianist's Guide to Pedaling"),
Banowetz (1985) describes twelve distinct techniques for
the damper pedal alone, plus additional techniques for each
of the other two pedals either alone or in combination with
other pedals. This study has developed a pedagogical
approach for each of the techniques discussed by Banowetz.
In addition, it presents four techniques not discussed in
Banowetz's treatise on pedaling.
Composition of the Units
Overview
Twenty instructional units were developed, one for
each of the pedaling techniques. Each unit includes a
step-by-step guide to the teaching of a pedaling technique,
as well as other useful related information. One addi
tional unit was developed dealing with the pedagogical
sequence for introducing each pedaling concept. These
units form a comprehensive and systematic program of study
61


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES vi
ABSTRACT vii
CHAPTERS
1 INTRODUCTION 1
Lack of Knowledge About Pedaling 2
Need for Knowledge of Pedaling 4
Purpose of the Study 5
Development of the Pedals 7
Stylistic Factors in Pedaling 12
Delimitations 17
Definitions of Terminology 17
2 REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH AND WRITINGS 21
Research on Teaching Pedaling 22
Writings on Teaching Pedaling 23
Lack of Systematic Studies on Teaching
Pedaling 27
Faults in Teaching Pedaling 31
Pedagogical Views on Teaching Pedaling 33
Introducing the Pedals 39
Teaching Techniques for the Damper Pedal 46
Additional Pedaling Techniques 53
Pedal Exercise Books 55
Introduction of the Pedals in Piano
Methods Books 56
3 PEDAGOGICAL MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES 61
Composition of the Units 61
Procedures for Developing the Units 64
Teaching Unit 1: Legato Pedaling 65
Teaching Unit 2: Legatissimo Pedaling 74
Teaching Unit 3: Pedaling for Rhythmic Effects. 80
Teaching Unit 4: Una Corda Pedaling 87
IV


91
appropriate in the music. One obvious use in achieving a
difference in tone is to use the una corda pedal in
creating a soft echo effect such as in the repetition of a
short phrase. This is very effective when applied within
an already quiet dynamic context. The echo effect may be
extended to include longer sections; for example, the
repeated sections in the various movements of keyboard
suites and partitas may be played with the una corda pedal
depressed.
It is often said that the una corda pedal should not
be activated during a diminuendo but immediately following,
since a noticeable change of tone color may occur. How
ever, there are many exceptions to this. One instance
involves using the una corda pedal in combination with the
damper pedal to extend a crescendo and diminuendo. A
pianist may begin a crescendo by starting ppp with the una
corda pedal depressed (but not the damper pedal), increase
the volume gradually to mp where the una corda pedal is
removed, and build to fff with the damper pedal. A gradual
diminuendo can be accomplished the same way by applying the
una corda pedal again near the end of the phrase and ending
ppp as in the beginning with the una corda pedal only.
The una corda pedal can be effective in shaping the
endings of slurs and phrases, especially within an already
soft dynamic area and when the tone quality of the piano is
hard and bright. It may also be used to soften an accom-


217
Example L; Paul Dukas Piano Sonata
To teach this advanced technique in the example above,
ask the student to
1. Play the first chord and depress the damper pedal
fully. Release both hands.
2. Slowly let the damper pedal rise until the chord
fades slightly. Hold the pedal in this position through
Step 5, which will set the dampers at the proper height.
3. Play the next chord. Hold the "Ab bass octave
firmly depressed through Step 5.
4. Release the right hand chord.
5. Depress the sostenuto pedal. This secures the
bass octave in the sostenuto pedal, and the damper pedal
can be used normally. No unwanted tones have been
sustained.
It is always possible to set the proper position of
the dampers to eliminate unwanted tones by first depressing
the key or the damper pedal fully, and then slowly lifting


99
Teaching Unit 5: Pre-Pedaling
Description of Technique
Pre-pedaling refers to the activation of one or more
of the pedals before depressing the notes on the keyboard.
In this unit the term refers to the damper pedal alone or
in combination with the una corda pedal. Pre-pedaling can
be used not only in the beginning of a piece but also
within a movement or section as well.
Application When Playing
Pre-pedaling the damper pedal allows all of the
dampers to be raised fully from the strings before any
keyboard sound is produced by the hands. This technique
provides a number of advantages. When the dampers are
fully raised, all the other strings on the piano are per
mitted to vibrate sympathetically with the strings that
are struck by the hammers. The result is an enriched
sound. Pre-pedaling can also allow for greater control
over the sound, because without the weight of the dampers
it is possible to achieve a lighter, more even touch.
When the una corda pedal is activated, the hammer
mechanism on a grand piano automatically shifts slightly to
the right, so that on the majority of notes the hammers
strike only two strings rather than all three. This has
the effect of not only reducing the volume of sound, but
also altering the tone. The slight shifting enables the


118
1. Play a chord on the first count and depress the
pedal.
2. Leaving the pedal down, release the hands on the
"and" following the first count.
3. Release the pedal on the second count.
Have the student continue this procedure until the
timing becomes almost automatic, and the slight delay
between lifting the hands and the pedal can be accomplished
before the second count occurs.
Teaching Examples
Once the student can hear the differences described
above and is comfortable with the coordination required be
tween the hands and foot, portato pedaling may be applied
to musical examples. The portato chord that appears in the
first movement of Beethoven's Sonata Op. 2, No. 2 requires
this type of pedaling. The rests allow sufficient time for
the sound to clear between the chords. Since the dynamic
marking is pianissimo, the una corda pedal should also be
employed. Ask the student to do the following:
1. Play the first measure in the example given below.
Quickly, but silently, depress the una corda pedal between
the first and second measures before playing the pianissimo
chords.
2. Play the first portato chord on count "one" and
depress the damper pedal.


231
pedaling can be applied in many of the same situations as
legato pedaling, but the student will be required to listen
more closely to differentiate between the two. Using the
pedal for rhythmic effects such as accents and for a waltz-
type bass is perhaps the logical extension of applying
pedal to chorales and hymns.
Before progressing much farther in the use of the
pedals, the student should be able to produce a good legato
connection using the fingers alone, without the use of the
damper pedal. The student may have encountered this con
cept earlier in his repertoire, but, if not, it should be
introduced now. It may seem logical to teach finger
pedaling prior to teaching legatissimo pedaling so that
the overlapping legato effect is produced first by the
fingers alone. However, finger pedaling requires a coor
dination and technical independence of the fingers that is
not required in the other pedaling techniques. Also, the
overlapping effect of the harmonies can be reproduced only
by the pedal and does not require the fingers to sustain
each tone. If finger pedaling is introduced too soon, it
may detract from, rather than support, finger independence.
Staccato pedaling can easily be taught next, since the
student's aural perception should be sufficiently acute to
enable him to play and pedal with clarity. Staccato pedal
ing requires the pedal to be activated and released with
the notes being played. This involves careful timing.


70
One of the more critical elements in training a
pianist to pedal correctly is to train the ear to listen
carefully to the sounds that are produced when the pedal is
used. One exercise in listening and timing the activation
of the damper pedal involves both teacher and student. The
teacher begins by playing a series of chords very slowly
while the student adds the pedal. Ask the student to
1. Depress the damper pedal immediately after the
first chord is played by the teacher.
2. Lift the pedal after the next chord is played to
clear the sound, then redepress the pedal.
3. Continue pedaling in this manner while the teacher
increases the relative tempo of the chord changes.
Teaching procedures for legato pedaling. In order to
connect two tones or chords in a clean legato manner using
the damper pedal, the following procedures are recommended.
Ask the student to
1. Play the first chord. While holding the notes on
the keyboard, fully depress the damper pedal.
2. Play the second chord. While holding the notes on
the keyboard, lift the pedal.
3. Redepress the pedal.
4. Listen to the second chord. The harmony should
now sound clean, without any retention of tones from the
first chord, because the dampers should have completely
stopped the sound of the first chord after the second chord


23
Hopkins (1980) uses musical examples from Bach's keyboard
Suites to demonstrate full and partial pedaling techniques
in her dissertation. In a dissertation on piano tone color
Brodsky (1985) mentions that the una corda pedal changes
the decay properties of a tone, and thereby significantly
affects the piano's tone quality.
A search was made of Music Index and Education Index
to find relevant articles on the teaching of pedaling.
While numerous writings have appeared on the use and func
tion of the three pedals, many of these are no longer
available either because they have gone out of print or the
publications in which they appeared are no longer availa
ble. Many articles and books contain only brief references
to pedaling and focus primarily on musical examples and
literature or historical matters rather than pedagogical
principles.
Writings on Teaching Pedaling
In addition to the books and articles entirely devoted
to pedaling, numerous books on the subject of piano teach
ing were examined during the course of this study. Many
contained no references to pedaling at all. Of those that
did, the following examples are cited to provide insight
into the depth and extent to which the teaching of pedaling
was typically included.


125
to be able to execute correctly basic legato pedaling as
well as rapid pedal changes. The student should also have
the ability to apply the damper pedal briefly for touches
of color, to half-damp or partially depress the pedal, and
to execute effectively a slow release of the pedal to taper
the sound. Each pedal technique serves a different func
tion in achieving the various effects of phrasing and
articulation. Ask the student to
1. Place the right foot on the floor. Keeping the
heel on the floor, move the toes up and down. Be aware of
the sensation behind the big toe, since this is the one
that will be used in pedaling. Vary the speed and vertical
height which the toes are allowed to move, and gradually
decrease this distance until the motion is barely visible.
2. Place the right foot on the damper pedal, keeping
the toes in contact with the pedal and the heel resting
comfortably on the floor.
Partial pedaling. Next, have the student differenti
ate between the amount of pressure required for full and
partial pedaling. Ask the student to
1. Depress the pedal fully, using the entire depth of
its range. Play any note on the piano and listen to the
full sound that is produced when it is caught entirely in
the pedal.
2. Play the note again while depressing the pedal.
Do not hold the note down with the finger. Release the


41
floor and a correct seated position can be maintained.
Prior to this, he recommends using the pedal at the end of
a piece, with chords, and in hand over hand arpeggios to
satisfy the child's eagerness to pedal. Last (1963) also
believes that pedaling can be introduced when the student
has reached approximately grade two or three, but that no
hard and fast rules can be made.
According to Agay (1981, p. 19), the student should be
able to meet certain physical and musical prerequisites
before being confronted with the challenge of pedaling.
These include the ability to: (1) reach the damper pedal
without sacrificing correct posture, (2) read notes quite
fluently, (3) coordinate hand and foot work, and (4) some
familiarity with basic theory and harmony.
In his chapter on pedaling, Booth (1971, p. 98) con
cludes that the answer to the question of when pedaling
should be taught is "as early as possible, but as seldom as
possible."
Several teachers warn against abusing the una corda
pedal as a crutch, saying that it is preferable to rely on
touch quality created by the fingers rather than the feet
(Sandor, 1981). Whiteside (1961) believes that the una
corda pedal is of very little value when used only for
playing more softly and that it should be used more as a
violinist uses a mute.


THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING THE VARIOUS USES
OF THE PEDALS OF THE CONTEMPORARY GRAND PIANO
BY
MARY RAY JOHNSON
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1989


136
Released damper sound. The following descriptions
refer to the amount of sound that is released by the
dampers, not to the exact distance the pedal is depressed.
This is because the two are seldom identical and because
pedal actions will vary from one piano to the next.
1. A 25 percent release of pedaled sound occurs when
the dampers rest almost completely on the strings. Al
though this stage of the pedal's descent is sometimes
referred to as "guarter pedal, this term can convey the
erroneous impression that the pedal is depressed exactly
one quarter of the way down. There should be only a very
slight amount of foot pressure on the pedal. The exact
amount of pressure will vary according to the particular
instrument being played.
2. A 50 percent release of pedaled sound occurs when
the dampers rest lightly on the strings. Only slightly
more foot pressure is required to activate the pedal at
this stage.
3. A 75 percent release of pedaled sound occurs when
the dampers barely touch the strings.
Comparison to half pedaling. Often the term "half
pedaling" is confused with half damping, and the two are
used interchangeably. Half pedaling and half damping are
not the same thing. The term "half pedaling" is somewhat
of a misnomer. It does not refer, as its name would seem
to imply, to either a half-way depression of the damper


252
much depth or comprehensiveness. The lack of systematic
studies on pedaling has resulted in confusing and sometimes
conflicting theories.
Summary
The purpose of the present study was the systematic
development and validation of pedagogical procedures for
teaching students the correct use of the three pedals of
the contemporary grand piano. Secondary related purposes
included (1) the development of preliminary exercises to
foster prerequisite skills prior to teaching pedaling
techniques, (2) the classification of pedaling techniques
according to related skills employed in executing each
technique, and (3) the formulation of a pedagogical se
quence for introducing piano pedaling techniques in a
logical, systematic order.
The first step in the development of the study was to
compile and synthesize the available knowledge about the
many techniques that exist for the use of the three pedals.
After identifying the various techniques, a series of
pedagogical procedures was developed for the teaching of
each pedaling technique. Twenty-one teaching units were
developed that collectively form a comprehensive and
systematic program of study of the three pedals of the
piano. These units are the heart of this study, and they
comprise most of Chapter 3.


151
In pedal diminuendo the sound is never abruptly lost.
All sonorities of the original tones should continue to
sound almost to the end of the diminuendo.
Pedal diminuendo relies heavily on a good ear and keen
listening skills. How much of the initial tone is to be
retained depends on the texture of the music. In some
passages the diminuendo extends to a single note, while in
others there is merely a change in register or dynamics.
Factors over which the pianist has no control may also
influence the application of this technique. Each indi
vidual piano has its own unique tonal capabilities. In
addition, pedal mechanisms vary slightly from one piano to
the next, requiring different amounts of pressure to acti
vate the pedals. This means that the amount of tone that
is retained will vary according to each individual piano.
It will be noticeably easier to retain the bass notes on
some pianos than on others. Also, the vertical height and
depth of the pedal's range may vary.
It is suggested that the student practice this tech
nique on several different pianos.
Teaching Procedures
Pedal dimineundo is more complex than many of the
other pedaling techniques because it combines several
techniques. Prior to attempting such pedaling, the student
should be able to: (1) pedal behind the big toe, (2) co
ordinate both feet to operate independently two pedals


187
Teaching Unit 18: Harmonic Pedaling
Description of Technique
Aside from the numerous techniques that exist for the
use of the damper pedal, it may be applied to a musical
composition in one of two basic ways: harmonically or
melodically. Harmonic pedaling refers to pedaling a
musical passage in such a way that the harmonic elements
are emphasized and retained in the pedal. This requires
an understanding of the harmonic structure of a musical
composition.
Harmonic pedaling does not refer to any one specific
pedaling technique. Rather, it is a more advanced form of
pedaling that combines a number of pedaling skills.
Application When Playing
Harmonic pedaling is often omitted or marked incor
rectly in printed editions. Pedal indications are fre
quently marked according to the meter of the music, with
a change of pedal indicated on the first beat of each
measure. Therefore, pedaling harmonically may appear to
conflict with the musical score. For instance, harmonic
pedaling often involves pedaling through rests, retaining
notes in the pedal that have no pedal markings, and over
lapping harmonies in a way that visually may seem to con
flict with the rhythm or barline.


12
many as six to eight pedals. Three of the best-known
devices were (1) the Janizary pedal which added rattling
noises and could activate a drumstick, ring bells, shake a
rattle, and create the effect of a cymbal crash; (2) the
"bassoon" pedal that created a buzzing noise through the
use of paper and silk; and (3) a cembalo stop that modified
the sound through the use of leather weights to resemble
the sound of the harpsichord. Other devices included the
crescendo and decrescendo pedals which raised and lowered
the lid of the piano or opened and closed slots in the
sides of the case, and a device that attempted to modify
the tone after the hammers had struck the strings by
forcing air across them.
This number of pedals provided a pianist with a
considerable repertoire of "effects," perhaps of doubtful
musical value. Sonorities could be weakened, strengthened,
or blended together, and sounds could be produced that
ranged from consonant to quite dissonant, depending upon
the artistry of the performer and the quality of the
particular piano.
Stylistic Factors in Pedaling
Pedaling cannot be taught correctly unless one is
aware of historical considerations and also has an under
standing of performance practices relevant to various
musical styles. To achieve the correct use of the pedals,


290
pile the methods that are being used. The study could also
examine the manner in which pedaling concepts are inte
grated in the sequence of instructional materials.
The researcher would suggest to others who may wish to
replicate portions of the validation process that more
emphasis be placed on teaching the materials. A separate
form could be provided for the actual teaching of the
units. More respondents could be asked specifically to
teach the materials in addition to those who respond to the
questionnaire.
Additional teachers could be acquired to study the
pedagogical sequence and could examine the grouping of the
units into the various categories as well. Several re
spondents indicated that they would like to see more of the
units and would like to know where the technique they had
examined fit into the teaching sequence. It may also be
beneficial to have several teachers teach all of the units
to one or two students in the suggested order to further
validate the pedagogical sequence.
The results of the present study indicate a need for
piano teachers to read more about pedaling and to keep
current in this developing field (many teachers were not
even aware of the various types of pedaling). The re
sponses also indicate a need for teachers to reflect upon
how they teach pedaling, and to modify their teaching of
pedaling concepts and techniques to incorporate more than


4
the group, and mistakes in performance which may occur, as
well as the performer's choice of tempos, touch, dynamics,
and balance of textures. Each of these conditions requires
a response that is unique to the immediate situation.
Need for Knowledge of Pedaling
When Anton Rubinstein referred to pedaling as the
"soul of piano playing," he expressed a regard for the
pedals that is recognized by every outstanding pianist
(Bernstein, 1981, p. 143). Appropriate pedaling is an art
that conveys not only a thorough grasp of the composer's
intent, but also the artistic intelligence of the perform
er. As Chopin once stated: "The correct way of using the
pedal remains a study for life" (Banowetz, 1985, p. 179).
A thorough understanding and mastery of the use of
each of the three pedals is essential for anyone who seeks
to play at a high artistic level. Unfortunately, aside
from the confusion surrounding the many functions of the
damper pedal, both the una corda and sostenuto pedals are
frequently misused or misunderstood. The una corda pedal
is sometimes employed as a crutch when finger technique
alone could be more effective, and the sostenuto pedal is
often ignored completely.
In interviews with a cross-section of twelve concert
pianists, Noyle (1987) cites artistic concerns that express
the gamut of piano practice and performance. Several


6
practices for teaching this facet of piano playing lag far
behind other aspects of piano playing and instruction.
This study sought to deal with this situation in two
phases. One was to compile and synthesize the available
knowledge about the many techniques for the use of the
three pedals. The extant writings and research are pres
ented in Chapter 2. The procedures that were developed,
which are presented in unit form in Chapter 3, consist of
more than just a compilation of other writings. The re
searcher also drew on many years of dealing with the topic
as a teacher and professor of piano, as well as systematic
analysis, to expand on and organize the various pedaling
techniques.
The second purpose of the study was to develop peda
gogical procedures for the teaching of pedaling. Inter
estingly, less research and writings are available on the
pedagogical aspects than on the nature of the techniques.
Therefore, a significant amount of the pedagogical pro
cedures presented in Chapter 3 is the result of systematic
analysis and application of principles and ideas.
Because many of the pedagogical procedures in that
chapter have seldom been available for consideration, some
validation of them was desirable. To accomplish this, both
intensive and extensive procedures were utilized. The
intensive portion of the validation process consisted of
the tape recording of the procedures being taught by


241
between them (Stake, 1972) In his paper, "Evaluation for
Course Improvement," Cronbach (1963) proposes that the main
objective for evaluation is to uncover durable relation
ships that are appropriate for guiding future educational
programs. Scriven (1967) suggests that evaluators have the
responsibility for passing on the merit of an educational
practice and that evaluation cannot take place until judg
ment has been passed. In his view, both judgment data and
descriptive data are essential to the evaluation of educa
tional programs.
Extensive Review of the Teaching Units
The extensive phase of the validation process was
accomplished during a five-month period from April to
September, 1989. The procedures described below were
followed to secure expert opinion about the materials
during this time.
Sample. The 1987-88 Directory of Nationally Certified
Teachers published by the Music Teachers National Associa
tion was used to provide the list of certified teachers
from which a random sample of names was drawn on the
computer. The Directory includes the seven MTNA divisions
and encompasses the continental United States, Alaska, and
Hawaii.
The Music Teachers National Association, founded in
1876, is the oldest professional music teachers' organi-


93
possible by muscular control alone. Depressing the una
corda pedal can help prevent unpleasant surprises in sonor
ity during a public performance, especially when it is
necessary to play on an unfamiliar and imperfect instru
ment.
Sometimes the una corda pedal is a pianist's only
defense against improperly regulated hammers. Depressing
the una corda pedal only partially down allows it to be
used as an aid in voicing. This position offers an alter
native to playing in the grooves that have been created in
the felt by the constant hitting of the hammers on the
strings. It allows the pianist to alter the tone somewhat.
Cautions. Careful listening is necessary when the una
corda pedal is used in this manner. Any time the una corda
pedal is applied, there is the possibility that an un
wanted, slightly tinny sound may occur. This is more evi
dent on some pianos than on others. It can result from the
hammer striking the strings both slightly in the grooves
and slightly on the hardened edges of the grooves at the
same time when the una corda pedal is depressed only part
way down. When the pedal is fully depressed, this tinny
sound can result from the hammer striking strings one and
two in grooves two and three.
Whenever possible, it is preferable to produce a
change in tone quality through finger technique rather than
by una corda pedaling. An overdependence on the una corda


170
In addition to being called the "sustaining pedal,"
the damper pedal is frequently referred to as the "loud
pedal" or "forte pedal." These two names reflect the
importance of the damper pedal in enriching the quality of
the sound. Although the dampers do not extend the entire
length of the keyboard (stopping at approximately the
highest octave and a half), the use of the pedal allows
sympathetic partials to vibrate in the strings below the
pitch sounded.
Application When Playing
At times, the style or context of the piece appears to
suggest that the fingers alone cannot effectively create
the desired dynamic effect. This may happen for a number
of reasons including technical, mechanical, and musical
considerations. A pianist with small hands, for instance,
may not have the power to execute rapid runs with the
strength required in a fortissimo passage. The piano it
self may not have sufficient resonance to project the tone
effectively, or, conversely, it may be too "live." Some
times a particular passage seems too dry without the color
that the damper pedal can provide. At other times, all the
resources of the piano may be needed to create the intended
effect as, for example, in a piano concerto when the solo
piano must answer the entire orchestra.


184
the pedal. Play the chord several times again, each time
depressing the pedal slightly farther but not allowing it
to descend fully. Notice the change in the quality of the
sound from a very thin texture to a more full sonority.
Half pedaling. In half pedaling, only part of the
notes that have been played are retained in the pedal while
the others are released. In comparison, half damping sus
tains every tone. Ask the student to
1. Play a low octave in the bass and depress the
damper pedal.
2. While the pedal is still depressed, play a chord
softly in the upper register of the piano. Release the
fingers from the keys.
3. Partially change the pedal so that the notes of
the chord are cleared while the bass octave is retained.
4. Repeat this procedure moving closer to the middle
range of the keyboard. Gradually increase the dynamic
level of the chords until at least a mezzo-forte is reached
and the pedal changes remain clean.
Teaching Examples
Cadenza figurations and scales. The following two
examples illustrate the use of half pedal to produce a
blurring effect. In the first example, full pedal would
obliterate the clarity of the scale and make the soft
dynamic level difficult to achieve.