identity of the Black vas usually established. In the
few cases when Friends forcibly rescued a fugitive,
the owner was generally reimbursed for the loss of his
During the years before the Civil War, the Anti-
Slavery Friends never lost interest in aiding Black
education. The minutes of many Yearly Meetings reflect
the concern of Friends in this field of endeavor. The
1845 Yearly Meeting of Anti-Slavery Friends not only
asked members for financial support in aiding the Black
schools, but requested young Friends to donate their
services as teachers. The 1855 Yearly Meeting of
Anti-Slavery Friends mentioned that a school for the
"People of Color" in Newport was largely attended and
that the Blacks paid most of the expenses through their
own subscriptions. The Committee on People of Color
that year reported that Black teachers were becoming
more common, that schools for religious instruction were
being established, and even that some Black children
24. Minutes of Indiana Yearly Meeting of Anti-Slavery
Friends (1845), p..14. Hereafter cited as Minutes,
A.S. Friends. The Minutes of the Yearly Meeting
of Anti-Slavery Friends were printed and distributed
in the same manner as those of Indiana Yearly
Meeting. A complete set of the Minutes of Anti-
Slavery Friends can be found in the Friends'
Collection at the Lily Library, Lariham College.
25. Minutes, A.S. Friends (1855), 6.
Although Levi Coffin was the best known worker on
the "Underground Railroad," many Friends from both
meetings did whatever they could to aid the fugitives.
Friends could be counted upon to contribute food,
clothing, shelter, and transportation, and usually a
set of directions given to a slave hunter were so vague
as to be of no help. The refusal of Friends to fight
would occasionally so infuriate a slave-hunter that he
would give up in frustration. Eli Osborn demonstrated
this when a group of Kentuckians looking for missing
slaves in Newport threatened to burn the town. When the
angry Kentuckians approached Eli, he told them, "he did
not believe in fighting', but if they would get down off .
their horses, he would be glad to play a game of marbles
During the years of aiding fugitives, very seldom
did Friends resort to violence. If a fugitive was
captured by his master, Friends usually took the matter
to court, hoping the expense of a legal battle would
discourage the slave-owner. Such measures were also
very valuable because they discouraged the kidnapping of
resident free Blacks, since in a court fight the true
steps toward actually establishing a home. Thirteen years
after the original bequest still no action had been taken,
although income from the funds provided $1,120 for
payments to needy individuals. Eventually, the estate
of James Moorman would be put to practical use, but during
the last decade of the nineteenth century there was
simply not sufficient need for such an institution to
justify immediate action.
One of the changes in the Yearly Meeting concerned
the role of women Friends. Traditionally, women met in a
separate Yearly Meeting of their own, separate from the
men. Minutes were kept of the womens meeting but were
not made a part of the printed minutes of the men's meeting,
although extracts were occasionally printed for distribution.
In 1884, if was decided that the minutes of the women's
meeting would be published as an appendix to the printed
Minutes. Usually, the women's minutes dealt with the
work of missionary and charitable societies with special
advice to women in matters of religion. On one occasion,
women were reminded that "women's ministry is just as
effectual in His hands as that of a man."
30. Minutes (1901), 122.
31. Minutes, Women Friends (1884), 102.
32.Minutes, Women Friends (1886), 103.
jails and prisons. Reporting the deplorable conditions
in prisons to the Yearly Meeting in 1867, concerned
Friends obtained creation of a committee specifically
designated for work in prison reform. For the next
forty-two years Indiana Friends were among the leaders
in that concern. The committee finally disbanded in
1909 after many successful years.
Until 1884, the committee was dominated by the
leadership of Charles and Rhoda Coffin, both dedicated
to the prison reform movement. A special concern of
Rhoda Coffin was the need for separate prison facilities
for women, a need she had discovered on a tour with her
husband of the state prisons at Jeffersonville and
Michigan City in 1868. Reporting to Governor Conrad
Baker the results of their investigation, the Coffins
obtained a legislative investigation of the situation
which supported their findings. Aided by Governor Baker,
Friends launched a campaign for separate facilities
for women inmates, which succeeded in obtaining legislative
approval in 1869. The Womens Reformatory was soon
3. Ibid. 86.
4. Mary Coffin Johnson, Rhoda M. Coffin (New York: The
Grafton Press, 1910), p. 150.
5. Ibid., 154.
Extracts from the Journal and Letters of Hannah
Chapman backhouse. London: Richard Barrett
Fifth Annual Report of the Home Mission Association
of Women Friends of Indiana Yearly Meeting HT7TT
Richmond, la.: Telegram Steam Printing Co., 1872.
Harding, Mary A. "The Early History of Education,
Public Schools, Colleges, Newspapers and Women's
Clubs of Indiana." Fort Wayne, 1916. Typewritten
MS. Indiana Division, Indiana State Library, Indian
Harvey, Henry. History of the Shawnee Indians.
Cincinnati: Ephraim Morgan & Sons, 1855.
Janney, Samuel M. An Examination of the Causes
Which Led to the Separation of the Religious Society
of Friends in America in 1027-1625"! Philadelphia:
T~. Elwood Lell, 186 6. .
Jay, Allen. Autobiography of Allen Jay. Philadelphia:
John C. Winston Co., 1910.
Johnson, Mary Coffin, ed. The Life of Elijah Coffin.
Cincinnati: E. Morgan S Sons, 186 3.
Kite, John L. Separation from the Religious Society
of Friends. Philadelphia, 1839.
Location and Days of Holding Indiana Yearly Meeting
and all of its Subordinate Meetings. Cincinnati:
Achilles Pugh, 18 35'.
Osborn, Charles. Journal of Charles Osborn.
Cincinnati: Achilles Pugh, 1854.
Osborn, Charles. Testimony Concerning the Separation
Which Occurred in Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends
in the Winter of 1843 and 1843; Together with
Sundry Remarks and Observations, Particularly on the
Subjects of War, Slavery, and Colonization. Center
ville, la.: R. Vaile, Printer, 1849.
Report of Indiana Yearly Meeting's Executive
Committee for the Relief of Colored Freedmen.
Richmond ia. : Holloway S Davis^ Printers 186 4 .
obtained calling for additional payments to- the Shawnee
for their property in Ohio. 9 Preparing to leave
Washington, Friends were elated by Secretary Casss offer
to pay their entire expenses for1 the trip, amounting to
$640 and by his gift of fifty dollars to each of the
By 1833, Friends had disposed of all their property
at Wapakoneta, and all of the Shawnee had been removed
to their new reservation. Friends did not, however,
lose their interest in the Shawnee; instead, three
Friends applied to Secretary Cass for permission to
visit the Indians at their new reservation. Cass
replied with praise for the work of the Friends, and
promised that officials in the Indian department would
aid them as much as possible. When the deputation
to the Shawnee returned, they reported that the Indians
had received good land, and seemed to be very happy with it.
29. Ibid., 213.
30. Ibid., 213-214.
31. Minutes (1833), 15. The three Friends were
Henry Harvey, Simon Hadley, and Solomon Hadden --
much of the problem abated with the conclusion of
hostilities in 1814, it continued to be a source of
friction between Friends and their neighbors.
Despite the occasional clashes with the non-Quaker
segment of the population, Indiana Friends not only
survived, but multiplied and prospered. In 1809,
Baltimore Yearly Meeting, which was the governing body for
Western Quakers, granted the Indiana Friends the right
to establish a Monthly Meeting, their membership having
grown to about 265. Such a meeting met once a month
and was allowed to send delegates to the Quarterly
Meeting, which in turn sent delegates to the annual
Yearly Meeting. During the earliest years Baltimore
Yearly Meeting supervised meetings in Indiana, but
this power was shifted to Ohio Yearly Meeting when
that body was established in 1813. As the number of
Indiana Friends grew, it was accompanied by the creation
of new meetings to supervise the religious life of the
Society. By 1820, the more than two thousand Indiana
Friends were eager to be free of Ohio Yearly Meeting
and set up their own complete organization. That year the
Ohio body granted the request of the Indiana Quarterly
11. Friends* Review, IX, 32 (1856), 507.
12. Friends* Review, IX, 37 (1856), 582
The entry of the Streets into the foreign mission
field provided the start of Indiana Friends' work for
foreign missions. The same year that the Madagascar
mission opened, Friends belonging to Indiana Yearly
Meeting organized the Friends' Foreign Mission Associa-
tion. Originally organized in 186 7 to provide aid fo.r
the Streets, the new Foreign Mission Association soon
broadened its fields of interest when Elkanah and Irena
Beard made plans in 1869 to work at a mission in India
under the control of British Friends.^ Soon after the
interest had been heightened by the Beards' decision to
work in India, the Foreign Mission Association was
contacted by Samuel A. Purdie from North Carolina, who
was seeking support to begin a mission in Mexico.
Finding Indiana Friends agreeable to his plans, Purdie
began studying Spanish and was sent out in 1871 to begin
the Mexico mission, accompanied by his wife Gulielma.
4. Ibid. p. 231.
5. Foreign Mission Work of American Friends (American
Friends Board of Foreign Missions, 1912) p. vii.
The Beards' mission to India ended in 1872 when
they were forced to leave due to the unhealthy
6. Johnson, 233.
7. Allen Jay, Autobiography of Allen Jay (Philadelphia:
John C. Winston CoT, 1910), p. 300.
After 1842, most of the work done by the Negro
Committee of the regular Yearly Meeting was concerned
with establishing Black schools. Blacks were encouraged
to establish their own schools, with members of their
own race as teachers. If that wasn't possible the
Black children were invited to attend the Friends'
school. In 1852, Friends helped to support thirty-one
schools for Blacks, with an enrollment of 632 students.
An additional eighty-two Black children were allowed to
attend Friends' schools. That same year Friends
maintained several "First-day" schools for religious
instruction and helped to establish a library, again on
a segregated basis.
On several occasions, Friends also continued their
efforts to free Blacks in the South who were illegally
held in bondage. In 1846, the Spiceland Quarterly
Meeting had sent a delegate to Georgia to free a Black
family illegally enslaved, but the effort did not
succeed. More successful were the efforts of two
subordinate meetings in 1850, which succeeded in rescuing
a Black in Texas after he had been illegally enslaved
41. Minutes (1852), 41.
43.Minutes (1846), 31
in excess of thirty thousand. The loss of the new
Yearly Meeting dropped membership to less than 25,000,
a figure which remained relatively stable for several
years. It is at this point that the years of rapid
expansion came to a close for Indiana Yearly Meeting.
Migration of Friends to Indiana had drawn nearly to an
end with the disappearance of inexpensive land, while the
number of Quaker births was barely equal to the number of
Indiana Friends themselves joining those moving farther
west. In 1859, there were thirteen Quarterly Meetings
in Indiana Yearly Meeting, the additions mostly coming
in the area of Iowa, where large numbers of Quakers had
settled in the past decade.^ The following year the
Yearly Meeting again agreed to the formation of a new
Yearly Meeting, this time in response to the request
of Friends in Iowa. The new Iowa Yearly Meeting was
to be composed of Red Cedar, Bangor, South River, Pleasant
Plain, and Salem Quarterly Meetings, and was scheduled
to begin operation in 1863.
11. Statement of Indiana Yearly Meeting and all the
Meeting, thereunto belonging (Cincinnati: Achilles
Pugh, 1859), p. ST
12. Minutes (1860), 20.
Among Indiana Quakers, Charles Osborn had supported
the idea of free produce for many years, but it was not
until 1842 that a substantial effort was made to support
the free produce movement. In January of that year, the
Wayne County Free Produce Association was formed under
the leadership of Benjamin Stanton, Henry Way, J. Unthank
J. Grave, and Levi Coffin, prominent leaders of the
Anti-Slavery Friends. The following month a free labor
convention met at the Salem Friends' Meeting House in
Union County and organized the Western Free Produce
The greatest difficulty encountered by the Western
Free Produce Society was a lack of merchandise produced
by free labor, especially cotton goods. Because of this,
free labor merchandise was also more expensive and often
not as attractive. The minutes of nearly every Anti-
Slavery Friends Meeting admonished members for buying the
more attractive slave produce. The 1849 Yearly Meeting
By 1838, Lundy had relocated the paper in Baltimore
and was a leading figure in both the free produce
and abolition movements.
6. Bernard Knollenberg, "Pioneer Sketches of the Upper
Whitewater Valley," Indiana Historical Society
Publications Voi. XV !Mo I (1949) p. 5 7 .
7. Free Labor Advocate and Anti-Slavery Chronicle,
February 24, 1842, p. 1.
growth in the number of Monthly Meetings and the
construction of a simple meeting house as soon as possible.
For several years Friends in the area of western
Indiana had desired a Yearly Meeting of their own, but
as early as 1849, Indiana Yearly Meeting rejected their
proposal for such an organization. The proposal was
renewed at the 1850 Yearly Meeting, only to be rejected
in a committee report the following year. Refusal of
such a project was based on the argument that Friends
in western Indiana were too few in number and lacked
sufficient organization to maintain their own organiza
tion. After several additional years of consideration
a committee appointed to deal with the subject finally
gave its approval, and the Yearly Meeting in 1855 gave
tentative approval for the creation of a new Yearly
Meeting to consist of Blue River, White Lick, Western,
Union, and Concord Quarterly Meetings.5 The first
meeting of the new Yearly Meeting was scheduled for
September, 1858. In 1856, communications from London,
Dublin, New England, New York, Baltimore, Ohio, and
14, Minutes (1851), 23.
(1855 ) ,
The absence of slavery and fugitive slaves as
objects of concern after the Civil War allowed Friends
to direct greater energies in other areas. Although
Friends were attracted to many worthy concerns, the
activities of Indiana Yearly Meeting centered on work
for prison reform, temperance, prohibition, peace and
arbitration. The interest of Friends in prison reform
began during the early years of the Society under the
leadership of George Fox, at a time when Quakers often
obtained first-hand knowledge of prison conditions.
The work for prison reform was a leading activity of
British Friends under such leaders as Elizabeth Fry,
and it soon appeared among Friends in America.
Friends active in prison reform were found in many
Yearly Meetings, but Indiana Yearly Meeting was alone in
establishing a committee solely for that purpose.^
Interest in prison conditions in Indiana resulted from
the Home Mission work, which included visitations to
1. Walter C. 'Woodward, Timothy Nicholson Master Quaker
(Richmond, la.: The Nicholson Press, 1927), p. 84.
During the years prior to the Civil War, Friends'
attempts at maintaining their own school system had
declined due to the improved condition of public
facilities. Although many Friends believed that use of
district schools was in violation of the Quaker concern
for a guarded education of the youth, the trend away
from Friends' schools continued at an accelerated pace.
In 1865, there were 4,089 Friends' children of school age,
the vast majority of which attended district schools,
although nearly ninety-five percent of them were still
taught by Friends.^ The trend toward placing Friends'
teachers in public schools had begun several years earlier
and continued to be accepted by Friends as a compromise
answer to the needs for a guarded education. Northern
Quarterly Meeting reported in 1867 that all of its
children were taught in district schools supported by
public funds, but also that Friends controlled all of the
schools. In 1870, the Executive Committee on Education
1. Minutes (1865), 59.
2. American Friend, I, 3 (March, 1867), p. 77.
After considering the request, the Yearly Meeting decided
that no action should be taken at that time. One of the
few successes came in 1895, when Indiana passed a
compulsory education law regarding the effect of alcohol
on the body. To encourage Friends in the discouraging
work for prohibition, the temperance committee ended its
report with the message:
Courage! Your work is holy,
God's errands never fail!
Sweep on, through storm and darkness,
The thunder and the hail!
Work on! Sail on! The morning comes,
The port you yet shall win!
And all the bells of God shall ring
The ship of Prohibition in!77
The election of 1896 provided a chance for voters to
use their influence for prohibition, but the temperance
committee sadly noted that gold, silver, and the tariff
adsorbed the attention of voters to the neglect of the
"most vital issue of all, the closing of the saloons and
the downfall of the liquor traffic." The mention of
opposing the saloon indicated a new direction soon taken in
the fight against alcohol by Friends. In 1896, the
Yearly Meeting accepted an invitation to send delegates to
the National anti-Saloon Convention meeting in Washington, D.C.
76. Minutes (1895), 35.
77. Ibid., 36.
78. Minutes (1896), 37.
dollar exemption fee, but the sale was postponed indefinitely,
which he later credited to the influence of Governor
Although Jay and others like him took the extreme
position against the war, many Friends did take
advantage of the various ways to avoid conflict with the
draft and the military. The Yearly Meeting avoided
taking a strong position on these matters, realizing
that in such unusual times it would be best to allow
Friends to follow their consciences as long as they
avoided actual military service. All of the Quarterly
Meetings reported, in 1364, that some members had paid
commutation money, bounty money, or other fines. Even
though the official Quaker position was against these
actions, the Yearly Meeting usually decided that strong
action against such offenders would do widespread
damage to the Society.
Rather than dwell on the actions of offenders to
the Discipline, the Yearly Meeting tried to stress the
positive activities in which Friends could participate
with a clear conscience. Members were encouraged to
visit military camps and prisons, to present their
testimony against war and to distribute tracts. Elijah
19. Jay, 96-97.
20. Minutes (1864), 12.
comparable to the group which supervised work for the
Indians. The United State's acquisitions from Spain opened
new areas for missionary work, especially in Cuba.
Friends had even received a special invitation from the
United Fruit Company to work among its employees in Cuba,
which was accepted. Plans for the future anticipated
missions in Puerto Rico and also the Phillipines. In
1903, the American Friends Board reported a total of
seventy-eight missionaries working in fifty-eight stations
and sub-stations, supported by donations of $58,263.
The most successful mission ever operated by Friends
began in 1901, the Friends' African Industrial Mission,
a joint project of several Yearly Meetings, including
Indiana Yearly Meeting. Planning to work among the
Kavirondo on the shores of Lake Victoria, a preliminary
party of three men went to Port Florence or> Lake Victoria
and returned with a positive report for the prospects of
a mission.^ The men who made that optimistic report
must have been gifted with rare insight, for eventually
that area became East Africa Yearly Meeting, with the
largest membership of any Yearly Meeting in the world.
Tatum, Lawrie. Our Red Brothers. Philadelphia:
John C. Winston Â£ Co.',' 1399.
Terrell, W.H.H. Indiana in the War of the Rebellion.
Report of the Adjutant General, 1869; Indiana
Historical Collections, LXI. Indianapolis:
Indiana Historical Bureau, 1960.
Thornbrough, Emma Lou. Indiana in the Civil War
Era 1850-1880. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical
Bureau 6 Indiana Historical Society, 1965.
Thornbrough, Emma Lou. The Negro in Indiana Before
1900. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Bureau,
Thornburg, Opal. Earlham. The Story of the
College 1847-1962. Richmond, la.: The Earlham
College Press, 1963.
Thornburg, Opal. Whitewater. Indiana's First
Monthly Meeting of Friends 1809-1959. Friends
Collection, Lily Library, Earlham College.
Tolies, Frederick B. Meeting House and Counting
House. The Quaker Merchants of Colonial Philadelphia
1682-1763. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North
Carolina Press, 1948.
Tolies, Frederick B. Quakers and the Atlantic
Culture. New York: The Macmillan Co. 196 0.
Tolies, Frederick B. and Alder Fer, E. Gordon, eds.
The Witness of William Penn. New York: The
Macmillan Co., 1957.
Trueblood, D. Elton. The People Called Quakers.
New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1966.
Trueblood, E. Elton. Robert Barclay. New York:
Harper Â£ Row, Publishers, 1968.
Tuke, Samuel. Selections from the Epistles of
George Fox. London: Edward Marsh, 1848.
Vann, Richard T. The Social Development of
English Quakerism 1655-1755. Cambridge, Mass.:
Harvard University Press, 1969.
For over ten years the Anti-Slavery Friends operated
independent of all other Quaker groups, including those
in Europe as well as those in the United States.
Although the Indiana Anti-Slavery Friends numbered, only
about two thousand, roughly ten percent of the original
Indiana Yearly Meeting, their membership included some of
the most important Friends in Indiana Yearly Meeting.36
Such men as Charles Osborn, Henry Way, Benjamin Stanton,
Levi Coffin, and Walter Edgerton left their positions of
leadership in the Indiana Yearly Meeting to give the
Anti-Slavery Friends a much greater influence than
would normally be expected.
The Indiana Yearly Meeting remained firm in its
stand against joining anti-slavery societies, but quickly
ended the proscriptive measures against anti-slavery
Friends which had caused the separation. There was
also a change made in the Discipline which made it easier
for former members to rejoin Indiana Yearly Meeting, in
hope that a conciliatory gesture would open the door
for reunion. And when the split in the Yearly Meeting
36. Bernard Knollengerg, "Pioneer Sketches of the Upper
Whitewater Valley," Indiana Historical Society
Publications, Vol. XV, ho. I (1349), p. 84"!
37. Coffin, 232.
38. Ibid., p. 233. The chances for reunion in 1843
were hindered by a pamphlet debate between the two
groups. In Both Sides of the Question. Address from
the Yearly Meeting for Suffering of Indiana Yearly
a personal faith, in practice Quakerism was a highly
corporate religion. The organization and the group
controlled the daily lives of the membership, with little
toleration for independent thought or action.
Having completed their organization and adopted
a Discipline, Indiana Friends seemed assured of both
peace and prosperity as a religious body. The future
did indeed have many years of prosperity in store for
Indiana Friends, but at the same time peace would prove
much more elusive
when 22,344 members were reported; the loss of Wilmington
Friends the following year reduced membership in 1892,
to 17,147, organized in fifteen Quarterly Meetings.
Four years after Wilmington Yearly Meeting was set
off, Indiana Yearly Meeting received another request for
a new Yearly Meeting. Marion, Fairmount, Wabash, and
Vandalia Quarterly Meetings wished to unite with Kokomo
and New London Quarterly Meetings of Western Yearly
Meeting to establish Marion Yearly Meeting. The request
was denied the following year, but was presented again in
1901. The second request was denied also, but as a
concession to the meetings desiring separation the
Yearly Meeting in 1902 was to be held at Marion, Indiana.
The request of Marion Friends was the last time the
Yearly Meeting had to deal with such a problem in the
nineteenth century, although it was not the last
instance of Friends wishing to separate from the Yearly
Meeting. The expansion of Friends farther west was no
longer under the control of Indiana Yearly Meeting, that
Minutes (1892), 35.
(1902 ) ,
their location rather than fight with the Separatists.
Some of the subordinate meetings were completely
dropped from membership because so many of the members
had accepted the views of Hicks. By the end of 1828,
the Hicksites had established twenty meetings in Indiana,
many of them with the same name as suboordinate meetings
of the Orthodox Friends. The immediate problem was
the ownership of meetinghouses, schools, and other
property. Usually the largest faction retained control
of the property with a settlement of some type awarded
to the minority. During the following year, order was
gradually restored and the Yearly Meeting resumed its
former activities. The only remaining difficulty was
the problem of deciding which meeting to recognize in
other areas where similar splits had taken place. The
- last mention of the Hicksites during this period appeared
in 1833, when Friends in Fairfield were going to aid a
group of Blacks, but decided against it because
they did not want to get involved with the Separatists
who were already aiding those Blacks. After this
period Orthodox and Hicksite bodies existed side by
14. Ibid., 15.
15. Willard Heiss, A List of All the Friends Meetings
That Exist or Ever Have Existed in Indiana
(Indianapolis 1961), pp^. 65-68 .
16. Minutes (1833), 12.
As agreed, the convention met on February seventh, in
Newport, a town which had been the center of radical
Quaker activities. At the end of the day the delegates
unanimously voted to form an independent body to be
known as the "Indiana Yearly Meeting of Anti-slavery
Friends." Such action was justified on the grounds
that the Indiana Yearly Meeting, had departed from the
"true and genuine principle of the Society" in regard
to slavery, and because of "its arbitrary, proscriptive,
and unchristian measures" toward anti-slavery Friends.
The new Yearly Meeting proceeded to organize on a basis
similar to the Indiana Yearly Meeting, setting the date
of its first Yearly Meeting for September of that year.
During the months that followed, local meetings
of anti-slavery Friends were organized in Indiana,
Ohio, Iowa, and Michigan. A total of thirty-seven meetings
viere formed: thirty-two in Indiana, three in Ohio, one
in Iowa, and one in Michigan. These meetings formed
the Indiana Yearly Meeting of Anti-Slavery Friends,
supported by the usual structure of quarterly and monthly
32. Edgerton, 73.
35. Heiss, 69-74.
During the nineteenth century this position would gradually
shift from one of temperance to that of total prohibition.
All members were expected to watch for any "lying,
drunkenness, swearing, cursing; together with every other
immoral or scandalous practice."
The Discipline was not only a guide for daily living
but literally prescribed nearly everything from birth
to death. The manner of recording births, the procedure
for marriage, and even the burial ceremony were all to be
in accord with the limitations stated in the Discipline.
Difficult as it might seem, Friends were expected to follow
every advice of the Discipline or be subject to disciplinary
action. Carefully following scripture, the procedure
was quite simple for dealing with an offending member:
"Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go
and tell him his fault between thee and him alone: if
he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. But if
he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two
more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every
word may be established. And if he shall neglect to hear
them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear
the church, let him be unto thee as a heathen man and
a publican" (Matt. 18: 15-17). Anyone who failed to
18. Discipline (1835), 18.
problem mostly for those Friends not living close to a
meeting place. If a member was repeatedly deficient in
these matters, his local meeting would appoint a
committee to deal with the offender.
The second answer to the queries concerned maintaining
love toward each other "as becomes our Christian
profession" and avoiding "tale-bearing and detractions."
The practice of maintaining a Christian love toward
others was generally upheld, although deficiency was
reported, as in the Minutes for 1836 and 1829. Tale
bearing and detractions were seldom a problem, although
again they were not without incidence, as mentioned in
The third answer was considered extremely important,
dealing with the proper and guarded education of children.
This, however, proved to be one of the most difficult
testimonies to maintain, as reported in nearly every
Yearly Meeting. The most frequently reported shortcoming
was regarding the religious instruction of children, while
the 1829 Minutes noted a deficiency regarding "plainness"
and the 1839 Minutes refered to a problem with the correct
21. Discipline (1835), 61.
22. Minutes (1836), Minutes (1839), 5.
23. Minutes (1838), 6.
I certify that I have read this study and that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
Micnael V". Gannon hair man
Associate Professor of
Religion and History
I certify that I have read this study and that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
David li. Chalmers
Professor of History
I certify that I have read this study and that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
By 1900 the years of religious innovation had ended.
Friends had broken with the past, but had stopped short
of becoming a formal church similar to neighboring Protes
tant bodies. At that time a crisis in membership appeared,
as a century of continuous growth come to a sudden halt.
Unable to hold the allegiance of younger and progressive
Friends, membership in Indiana Yearly Meeting steadily
by a committee and given counsel. If the person continued
in his deficiency, he would ultimately be removed from
membership. Discwnment was the most extreme measure,
subject to appeal to the Yearly Meeting, which had final
power of decision. The fact that most of the Yearly
Meetings had to decide at least one membership appeal
showed that Friends meetings did not hesitate to exercise
this extreme measure in maintaining the strict standards
of the Society.
The organizational apparatus adopted by Indiana
Yearly Meeting complied with traditional Quaker practice.
Basically the structure was a pyramid, with the annual
Yearly Meeting at the top and the local congregations at
the bottom. The local congregations were organized as
monthly meetings, with some also divided into preparatory
meetings. These met weekly for traditional Sabbath worship
and also conducted a mid-week service. Once a month a
business meeting would be held, the presiding officer
being termed the "clerk." The quarterly meeting was a
geographical unit, meeting four times a year. All
monthly meetings within the boundaries set for the
quarterly meeting would send representatives to the
meeting, which was primarily concerned with coordinating
and supervising the activities of the Society in that
area. The various quarterly meetings would in turn send
I certify that I have read this study and that
in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Doctor of
LMLe N. McAlister
Professor of History
I certify that I have read this study and that
in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Doctor of
Arthur L. Funk
Professor of History
I certify that I have read this study and that
in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Doctor of
Professor of Special
and publication was begun of the Maryville Monitor, a
weekly newspaper devoted to the interests of Freedmen,
education, and religion. The following year construc
tion was completed at a cost of $25,000 and Maryville
Institute was a reality, one of the fastest projects
ever completed by the usually slow moving Friends.
Due to the higher than anticipated cost of construction,
by 1875 the Maryville school was in financial trouble,
but needed funds were soon obtained from New England
Yearly Meeting, which agreed to cooperate in maintaining
the school. With the help of New England Yearly
Meeting, enrollment in the following year was up and
forty-two students had finished the schools program
to become teachers. In 1877, the New England Yearly
Meeting took over the entire support of the Maryville
school, and in 1878 obtained legal title to the property.
This ended the association of Indiana Yearly Meeting
with that school.
34. Ibid. 15.
35. Minutes (1873), 13.
36. Minutes (1875), 18.
37. Minutes (1876), 40.
38.' Minutes (1877), 40 Minutes (1878 ), 41.
THE ANTI-SLAVERY FRIENDS
After establishing their organization in 1843,
Anti-Slavery Friends took the lead in abolition activities
for Indiana Quakers. At the time of the separation in 1842,
the ideas of the free produce movement had been rapidly
gaining support among the anti-slavery Friends. The
basic goal of this movement was to organize a boycott
of all goods raised or manufactured through the use of
slave labor. The most obvious goods in this category
were cotton, sugar, rice and tobacco, all mainstays of the
Southern economy. It was thought that an efficient
boycott of these goods in the free states would drastically
reduce the value of slave labor, forcing the slaveholder
to free his slaves for purely economic reasons.
Although the ideas of free produce had been known
since the preceding century, the first organized movement
for the use of free produce was not begun until 1826.
In that year the Wilmington Society for the Encouragement
of Free Labor was organized in Delaware, followed the
"Minutes of the Committee of Indiana Yearly Meeting
of FriEnds on the Concerns of People of Color."
"Minutes of the General Committee on Education of
Indiana Yearly Meeting." 1844-1866.
"Minutes of the Proceedings of the Committee on
Indian Concerns." 1821-1855.
Proceedings of the General Conference of Friends
1887. Richmond, la.: Nicholson S Bro., Publishers
and Binders, 1887.
Proceedings of the Conference of Friends of America
1892. Richmond, la.: Nicholson Mfg. Co., Publishers
and Binders, 1892.
Proceedings of the Conference of Friends of America
1897. Philadelphia: The American Friend, 1898.
Books, Pamphlets, and Reports
A Few Particulars of the Correspondence between
the Committee appointed by the Friends Yearly
Fleetings and Isaac Crewdson. London: Hamilton,
Adams S Co., 13S.
An Epistle Addressed to the Members of the Yearly
Meeting of Friends for Pennsylvania, Nev; Jersey 8"
Co. Philadelphia: CL Gherman 8 Eons, I86 0'.
Act Incorporating Indiana Yearly Meeting of the
Religious Society of FriendsL Richmond, la.:
Daily Palladium team Printing House, 1850.
Address to the People of the United, and to the
Meinbers of Congress in Particular. Cincinnati,
Bates, Elisha. The Doctrines of Friends. Mount
Pleasant, Ohio, 1825.
Both Sides of the Question., Yearly Meeting for
Suffering of Indiana Yearly Meeting, 1843.
Unwilling to abandon what they had picked as their
lifes work, the Purdies returned to Mexico within a
year of their departure and continued the mission with
even greater zeal. With the aid of four native ministers
and William Walls, the work in Mexico was expanded to
Gomez Farias and encompassed seven separate religious
meetings in 1881. Purdie reported that the greatest
success in conversion had been among the middle classes,
especially those able to read and write, demonstrating
the value of the printing press. The favorable progress
was also attributed by Purdie to a desire of the people
to avoid the conflict between the government and Catholic
Church by turning to Protestantism.
As the work in Mexico expanded, so did the funds
required to support it. Beginning with a budget of a
few hundred dollars, by 1883 the annual expense to
Indiana Yearly Meeting was $3,425. Equally important
was the effort of Indiana Yearly Meeting to obtain the
support of other Yearly Meetings and organizations to
make expanded mission work possible in Mexico. Ohio
committee also directed the establishment of schools
for the Blacks for both children and adults.
Although Friends generally maintained an honest
concern for the Blacks, the early years of the Society
in Indiana were not without examples of racial prejudice.
Friends advocated equality of the races, but their
schools were usually established on a segregated basis.
School segregation was justified on the basis of the
educational gap between whites and Blacks but it is
also likely that it was in part a remnant of Friends'
earlier Southern upbringing and background. Further
evidence of prejudice can be found in a report on
"People of Color" in 1826 which mentioned that some
Friends were reluctant to encourage the migration of
large numbers of Blacks and that it was "desirable to
avoid an access of this class ... as neighbors."
A third suggestion of anti-Black feelings is the fact
that actual Black membership in the Society of Friends
was almost non-existent, especially during the ante
bellum years. Very often this is attributed to the
nature of the silent Quaker meeting, which Blacks did
not find as attractive as the services of other denominations.
While this may be partially true, it hardly seems possible
2. Minutes (1826), 13
used for those items desperately needed by the Freedmen,
the largest sums going for dry goods, shoes, blankets,
seeds, farm implements, furniture, and medicine.
The cost of the teachers and various agents, a total
of twenty-one persons, was only $3,027.73, which even
included their traveling expenses.
Although Friends' efforts for the Freedmen in 1864
had been seriously set back by illness, the following year
the Freedmen's Committee laid plans for even greater
endeavors. Ten Friends, including several who had
recovered from the illness encountered in their previous
work, were sent to areas along the Mississippi River to
renew work with the Freedmen. The Orphan Asylum at
Helena continued to prosper, providing support for about
eighty-five children. An Industrial School was opened
in Helena by Susan Horney in December, 1364, for the
benefit of Black women, teaching them such things as
sewing and cloth-making.^ Schools were maintained in
several locations. The Committee reported in 1865 that
over 1100 students had been taught in the various schools.
Yearly Meeting came in 1874, when Northern, Wabash, and
Mississinewa Quarterly Meetings asked that they be allowed
to join with Honey Creek Quarterly Meeting of Western
Yearly Meeting to become Northern Indiana Yearly Meeting.4
The committee appointed to consider the request did not
feel the meetings were justified in their request and
the proposal was officially denied in 1875.^
The setting off of a new Yearly Meeting was a sign
of Quaker growth in the Mid-West, but it also meant a
loss in membership to Indiana Yearly Meeting. The loss
of Iowa Friends dropped membership to less than twenty
thousand, and after the loss of Kansas Friends in 1872,
membership was reported at 15,259. Faced with the
challenge of finding new members, Friends responded by
winning converts from among non-Friends. By 1877, member
ship was up to 17,273, and three years later was 18,208,
including members at Matamoros and Southland.
For several decades Friends had used their original
structure for the Yearly Meeting, but in 1869, the
4. Minutes (1874), 9.
5. Minutes (1875), 56.
6. Minutes (1872), 25.
7. Minutes (1877), 20, Minutes (1880), 18.
emphasis on knowledge of the Bible required a literate
membership. Local meetings were advised to maintain
their own schools so as to insure a guarded education
for the youth and thus avoid the corrupting influence of
the outside world. Care was to be exercised in reading,
avoiding plays, novels, and romances."*"
All Friends were expected to avoid "Gaming and
Diversions" as they tended to "alienate the mind from
the counsel of divine wisdom and to foster those impure
dispositions which lead to debauchery and wickedness."
The Discipline also warned against "Defamation and
Detraction," well aware that gossip and loose talk were
frequent causes of unchristian feelings. Friends were
expected to avoid taverns and observe moderation and
temperance in all things, especially alcoholic drink.
Early Friends had no strong position against alcohol,
beer and wine even being served at some business meetings
14. Ibid., 14.
15. Ibid., 27.
16. Ibid, 22.
17. Auguste Jorns, The Quakers As Pioneer's in Social
Work, Trans. by Thomas Kite Brown, Jr. CPort
Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, Inc., 1931,
1969), p. 131.
the Shawnee. A noteworthy exception to this were Elkanah
and Irena Beard, whose long career in the mission field
would lead them to the Cheyenne Indians in 1880.
One final project of aid to the Indians in the
West began in 1897, with the formation ofthe Indian
Aid Society to help support a missionary to the Otoe
Indians in the Oklahoma Territory. Obtaining permis
sion from the government to use forty acres of land for
missionary purposes, a building was constructed and
David A. and Rhoda M. Outland were sent as missionaries
from Indiana Yearly Meeting. They reached the mission
in April, 1898. Supported largely by contributions
from the Indian Aid Association, the Outlands* mission
to the Otoe was soon established, although they faced
several problems. Government payments to the Otoe in
1900 had attracted a number of whites to the area who
sold whiskey to the Indians, encouraged them to gamble,
and quickly reduced the Indians to their former state of
poverty. Because of this and past incidents, Friends
usually took a position against money payments to the
FOUNDING A COLLEGE
During the earliest years of Indiana Yearly
Meeting's existence, many Friends entertained the
hope that someday they would have an institution of
higher learning within the limits of the Yearly Meeting.
Other Friends agreed, pointing out that already the shortage .
of competent teachers for Friends' schools demonstrated
an immediate need for such an institution. At the Yearly
Meeting in 1832, several Friends pointed out that other
Yearly Meetings had their own school where young Friends
were educated in the higher branches of learning, and so
a committee was appointed to look into the possibilities
of a "Boarding School." Having accepted the need for
a school, the Yearly Meeting wasted no time in
appointing a committee to receive contributions in hopes
that within a few years such an institution would be a
reality. During the following year the committee
1. Minutes (1832), 18.
2. Ibid., 24.
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QUAKERS IN INDIANA IN THE
JOHN WILLIAM BUYS
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Several years later, in 1896, Spiceland Quarterly
Meeting proposed that the separate meetings for men and
women should be ended. The committee from the mens
meeting approved the suggestion, but the women's
meeting said no, and the plan was dropped. The women
changed their minds, however, and the following year were
in favor of a united meeting, which was accepted by the
Yearly Meeting, with the understanding that men and women
would have equal powers and privileges. The last vestige
of difference between men and women ended in 1902, when it
was decided that the minutes of the women Friends would
be included m the regular Minutes.
The activities of annual queries and advices
continued much the same as in the past. Friends were
warned that "ball games, excursions, and kindred
diversions" on Sunday were "detrimental to the cause of
Christ." An outbreak of gossip in 1895 brought the
warning that "to circulate an evil, though .truthful
report, . can not be consistent with the spirit of
Christ." The Yearly Meeting wrote Governor Matthews
in 1893, thanking him for suppressing prize fighting and
(1896 ) ,
(1902 ) ,
of this study, but the ability of Friends to cope with
the situation is indicated by the fact that in 1972
Indiana Yearly Meeting had a membership of 10,920.
53. Minutes (1972). Statistics forthe Yearly Meeting
are now given in an insert to the printed Minutes
in fewer contributions. The severe drought of 1896 and
1397 in that area caused poor crops and many students
were unable to pay the cost of attending school. So
serious had the financial crisis become that the school's
teachers were forced to accept cuts in salary.
Further hardships for the school arose from a disastrous
fire which destroyed several buildings in 1900.
Enrollment by 1896 was down to 233, and the following
year it plunged to 173.Despite new facilities which
replaced those destroyed in 1900, by 1902 enrollment
was at its lowest point, with only one hundred students.
The school continued in operation with growing problems,
finally closing its doors permanently m 1925.
While Southland College was faced with growing
problems, the religious work in the area proved more
successful. In 1878, membership in Southland Monthly
Meeting was 175; in six years that number more than
52. Minutes (18 96 ) 82 Minutes (1897), 100 .
53. Minutes (1896), 82.
54. Minutes (1900), 130.
55. Minutes (1896), 80j Minutes (1897), 100.
5 6. Minutes (19 02), 50.
57. Richard P. Ratcliff, Our Special Heritage Sesquicen-
tennial History of Indiana Yearly Meeting of FriencTs,
1821-1971 (Mew Castle, la.: Community Printing
"Company, 1970), p. 72.
letters were a statement of the Anti-Slavery Friends'
position on a matter of controversy, or an appeal for1
action against a particular law or institution. The
1844 Yearly Meeting of Anti-Slavery Friends prepared such
a letter on the topic of slavery, which set forth a doctrine
of civil disobedience:
We boldly and unhesitatingly take the ground,
that every enactment of Conventions or
Legislatures, giving sanction to the claim
of property in man, is at war with the
unchangeable and eternal principles of justice,
or in other words with the lav/ of God,
v/ritten upon the tablet of the heart of every
intelligent being, and that consequently,
according to a principle of common law,
acknowledged in all courts of justice in
Christian lands, all such enactments are
null and void, and that no man, neither
the slave nor the freeman, is under any
moral obligation to obey them.
The object of this letter was to encourage abolitionists
to help slaves escape their bondage. That Friends
honestly believed in such action is illustrated in the
same meeting by a report that three Friends, Thompson,
Burr, and Work, were being held in the Missouri State
Prison for attempting to assist slaves escaping to the
North. The meeting went down on record as saying
that the three men were, doing nothing more than "obeying
35. Minutes, A.S. Friends (1844), 24.
and Welfare of the Negroes and chairman pro. tern of the
Associated Executive Committee on Indian Affairs.64
The establishment of the Five Years Meeting was hoped
by many Friends to be the answer to the problems within the
Society. Joined together in a common body, with the
same Discipline, it was believed that a stabilizing effect
would result for the good of the entire Society. In fact,
it did help to unite Friends and the Yearly Meetings, but
it was not sufficient to restore the steady growth of
Friends that had occurred during the nineteenth century.
Nor did it provide the religious solidarity hoped for
among Friends; in 1902, North Carolina Yearly Meeting
suffered a separation over adoption of the "Uniform
Discipline," and future years of the Five Years Meeting
would bring continued disputes and separations. The
Five Years Meeting was "a new experiment in Quaker
history and polity," but it never achieved the goals
Friends had envisioned for it.
64. Ibid., 49, 71.
65. Woodward, 197
of the staff shortage, although a small school was
maintained. There also occurred at this time one of
the rare instances of Friends and Indians becoming
involved in a dispute over ownership of land. Friends
had legally purchased 320 acres of reservation land for
a farm at an earlier date, but the Indians claimed
the transaction was illegal. Friends attempts at
negotiating the matter with the Indians failed and by
1860, both sides were planning to take their case to
Washington. At the same time Friends noticed a
decline in the religious and moral state of the Indians,
attributed to the influence of "reckless whites who
were moving into the area. So discouraged were
Friends that a special delegation was sent to
investigatethe situation and decide if perhaps the
entire venture should be completely discontinued.
In May, 1860, Elijah Coffin and Ephraim Morgan were
sent to Washington to try and obtain a clear title
to the mission land in Kansas. After conferring with
83. Minutes (1858), 30.
84. Minutes (i860), 41.
86. Ibid., 39.
87. Ibid., 41.
88. Mary C. Johnson, ed., The Life of Elijah Coffin
(Cincinnatti: E. Morgan 6 Sons, 186 3 ), p. 194.
number already depleted, the remaining Indians requested
that the school be reopened, which Friends did in 1827,
for the benefit of about fifteen students. In
addition to the students at the mission school, four
Indian boys were sent to school in Springfield, Ohio,
at the request of their parents.
The Hicksite separations of 1828 also caused major
disruptions of the Indian work, Prior to that year,
funds for the work had been provided by the Ohio
committee which received them from the funds controlled
by Baltimore Yearly Meeting. When the majority of
Baltimore Yearly Meeting went with the Hicksites,
the income from the Indian fund' was lost to the work
at Wapakoneta, which remained under the control of
the Orthodox Ohio and Indiana Yearly Meetings. Having
made a commitment to the Indians, Indiana Yearly Meeting
decided in 1828 that it would assume the responsibility
for supplying the funds to continue the Indian work.^
Acting immediately, in December of that year the Indian
committee decided to renew the Indian school and
13. Minutes (1827), 10.
15.Minutes (1828), 16
The nine Quarterly Meetings reported a total of seventy
Friends' schools taught during the past year, leaving
about fifty neighborhoods still lacking a Friends'
school. A few of the schools were in operation for
the entire year, but the majority of them operated for
periods of time extending from two to nine months.
There were 5,743 children reported in membership, with
2,868 of them attending Friends' schools, 1,873 attending
non-Friends' schools, and 1,002 not attending any
By 1840 the Yearly Meeting had expanded to twelve
Quarterly Meetings, with 7,651 children of school
age. Friends schools taught 4,32 7 of those children; .
2,061 were taught by non-Friends; and only 319 were
reported as not attending any school."' The Monthly
Meetings had maintained thirty-seven schools with an
enrollment of 1,707, while the other 2,620 were taught
by Friends in neighborhood schools not under control
of the Society. This was a remarkable record in
9. Minutes (1834), 9.
12. Minutes (1840), 9.
and a Prayer Meeting on Friday nights. Friends also
concerned themselves with aiding orphans, widows, cholera
victims, and anyone else in need of comfort or aid.
During the next five years the work at Richmond
continued and news of it led to the start of similar
activities by Friends in other areas, usually women.
At the time of the Yearly Meeting in 1866 a meeting was
held on the subject which was attended by seven hundred
women and resulted in the formation of the Home Mission
Association of Women of Indiana Yearly Meeting, with
Rhoda Coffin as president. Still independent from the
Yearly Meeting, the local associations organized "cottage
prayer meetings," visited jails, prisons, and poor houses,
distributed tracts, and performed a variety of other
charitable work. For several years the local
associations enjoyed growing support among Friends and
operated many successful charitable activities, although
in some areas they did not always succeed. One group was
discouraged in attempts to work with "fallen women',
reporting that they had "visited a young but fallen girl;
she seemed to realize she was living a life of sin; said
medicine that had been obtained through the aid of
Colonel Thomas. Besides the considerable physical
suffering of the Freedmen, they were also in constant
fear of attack by guerrilla bands of Southern sympathizers.
One missionary family from Iowa, including three children,
were fired upon by guerrilas, leaving both parents dead.
The problem of guerrella attack was heightened in
February, 1864, with the removal of military protection
from the camp, causing a brief general panic among the
Deciding on the need for Freedmen to engage in
agriculture, Beard accepted the responsibility of super
vising two thousand acres of land to be cultivated by
Freedmen. Besides producing badly needed food and
supplies, Beard also hoped that such a project would
"show the Slave Oligarchy of the surrounding country
here that the Negro can and will work without a driver,
or a cowhide incentive to action." Farming in the
area was difficult due to the occasional guerrilla
Although the Indians new land was satisfactory, other
dealings with the government proved less than
satisfactory. A good example of this was a gift of
buffalo rifles from the government to aid the Indians
to shoot elk and buffalo, for when the Shawnee arrived
in Kansas they discovered there were "no buffalo or elk
within two hundred miles." In addition the Shawnee
were forced to pay for mills on their land that had been
promised as free.^
Shortly after the deputation reported to the Yearly
Meeting in 1833, a committee was appointed to draw up
a new plan of aid to the Shawnee. The plan set forth
by the. committee called for joint action by the Yearly
Meetings if Indiana, Ohio, and Baltimore, the last named
representing the Orthodox minority in that area.
Baltimore Yearly Meeting was included in the plan, but
the active part of the business was to be conducted by
a joint committee from the Ohio and Indiana Yearly
Meetings. The first step was to establish a school among
the Shawnee at their new reservation on the Arkansas
River. To put the plan into operation, the committee
34. Harvey, 222.
3 6. Minutes (1834), 13.
A new mission vas opened in April, 1864, in response
to request of General Buford for Friends to establish a
Black orphan asylum in Helena. To operate the asylum,
the committee sent Calvin and Alida Clark, with Susan
L. Horney and Martha Ann Macey as teachers. Joined
in Helena by Lucinda Jenkins, the asylum was soon
opened for the benefit of fifty children and a school
. 4 9
put into operation soon thereafter.
The Union victory at Chattanooga in December, 1863,
resulted in a large number of Freedmen reaching Union
lines, most of whom were in desperate need of help.
Learning of their situation, the Indiana Committee sent
out a special appeal for help and sent V/alter C. Carpenter
to visit the area and then locate in Nashville to act
as the agent for relief goods. ^ Receiving a request
for a school from Freedmen in Pulsaki, Tennessee,
Carpenter asked the Indiana Committee to send the
necessary teachers to operate such a school.^ In a
short time, Daniel Hill, Mahlon Thomas, and Oliver White
arrived and opened a school for about 250 students.^
47. Ibid., 34.
50. Ibid. 10.
51. Ibid., 11.
other Yearly Meetings with the problem of deciding which
group properly represented New England Yearly Meeting.
With the problem out in the open, problems similar
to those in New England soon developed in other Yearly
Meetings as well. Although a middle party or
"compromisers" appeared in Ohio and Philadelphia Yearly
Meetings, most Yearly Meetings saw the smaller Wilburite
parties leave to set up their own organizations. The
Gurney party held a large majority in all the Yearly
Meetings except Ohio and Philadelphia, where bitter-
struggles for control took place. Philadelphia Yearly
Meeting tended toward the Wilbur position, viewing
Gurney as more an "Episcopalian" than Quaker, but a
determined and very capable Gurney minority prevented
any decisive action from being taken. Ohio Yearly
Meeting was in turmoil for a period of ten years before
a visit to the 1854 Yearly Meeting by Gurney's widow
ultimately forced a decision and separation. The smaller
19. Ibid., 526.
20. William Hodgson, The Society of Friends in the
Nineteenth Century^ Vol. II (Philadelphia: Smith,
English, 6 Co., 1876), p. 118.
21. John L. Kite, Separation from the Religious Society
of Friends (Philadelphia, 1859), p. 2.
22. Jones, Later Periods of Quakerism, 534.
become a college and cleared of debt, leaving the future
open but with no guarantee of success. During the war
years Earlham sustained a steady growth, with the aid
of yearly increases in tuition. Enrollment in 1865 set
a record high, with 167 students in the winter session,
and 168 in the summer session. Tuition by that time
was eighty-five dollars a session in the preparatory
department and ninety-five dollars a session in the
collegiate department, with non-Friends paying an
additional fifteen dollars.
Evidently many young Friends found attending
Earlham an attractive alternative to participation in the
war, for the end of the Civil War brought a decline in
attendance. Average enrollment was down to 133 in 1869,
and despite another rise in tuition, the college had
again gone into debt. Although enrollment declined,
progress was made in other areas as a new building was
erected to accommodate the staff and the holdings of the
library were doubled to 2,500 volumes. Earlham also
named its first President, in the person of Barnabas C.
Hobbs, who held that position in 1868, before leaving to
21. Minutes (1865), 39.
22. Minutes (1864), 40.
23. Minutes (1869), 34.
24. Minutes (1867), 17, Minutes (1869), 34.
treasurer. The following year, the treasurer, Benjamin
Webb, reported the assets of the Yearly Meeting to be
$280,735.14, which explained the need for professional
aid. The treasurer was responsible for supervising the
funds in nine separate endowment funds with total assets
of over $100,000 plus the investments and annual income
of the Yearly Meeting. It was also necessary to audit
the income .and expenses of eleven committees and
organizations of the Yearly Meeting.
Despite the seeming wealth of the Yearly Meeting,
fund raising to meet yearly expenses often presented a
problem. The annual budget was apportioned to the
Quarterly Meetings in accordance to their size and wealth,
with assessments ranging from two percentto 18.5 percent.
Occasionally a Quarterly Meeting would ask that its
assessment be lowered, saying its members lacked the
wealth to provide the funds or that some meetings
refused to pay their share. When subordinate meetings
refused to pay their assessment, it was usually in protest
of some activity of the Yearly Meeting, such as the cost
of new meeting house or expenses for committee activities
(1882 ) ,
help of considerable aid. Much of the aid had been
sent by a special Friends' relief committee operating
under the superivdsxon of Thomas Wells, but other
religious denominations and the Indian agency had also
supplied relief. That summer the school prospered,
with a total enrollment of fifty-six Indian children,
crops and livestock were reported back to normal, and
a general spirit of optimism prevailed among both
Friends and Indians.^
A special deputation of the Indian Committee, sent
in 1846 visited the Indians and was surprised to see
how far the Indians had progressed in giving up their
nomadic way of life. Most of the Indians had their
own farms, had built permanent homes, and desired that
their children receive an education. The deputation
even brought back four Indian children to Indiana
and Ohio to be educated and civilized, at the request
of their parents. A matter of special pride to the
Friends was Joel Johnson, a young Indian who had lived
work to which, as a people, we are called, demands
increased intelligence and mental power, as well as
increased consecration and faith."^
Taken from an address of President Mills in 1884,
quoted from Woodward, 165.
received that, in 1884, the Congress again asked her to
present an address, the topic for the second occasion
being womens prisons. Her second appearance was an
even greater success than her first, the Congress asking
her to repeat it the following year, when the assembly
was presided over by former President Rutherford Bi
Hayes. Charles and Rhoda Coffin moved from the limits
of Indiana Yearly Meeting to Chicago in 1884, but the
leadership of the prison reform committee was ably taken
up by Timothy Nicholson, a well known Richmond Friend
and original member of the prison committee.
Under the guidance of Nicholson the committee placed
special importance on obtaining a supervisory board of
control for state institutions, finally succeeding in
1889. When the Board of State Charities was established,
Timothy Nicholson was appointed as a member, a position
he continued to fill until 1908. Early politicians who
referred derisively to prison reform as "Quaker measures"
finally had to admit defeat at the hands of the unyielding
Friends. *'1+ Continued efforts by Friends and other groups
basis for a "General Meeting" to be held in that area, with
the purpose of teaching the gospel and explaining doctrine.^
Originally planned as a means of reaching Friends in distant
areas of the Yearly Meeting, the General Meeting in 1867
became in fact a Friends' revival meeting with Quaker
evangelists in charge. Placed under the direction of a
special committee, there were nine such meetings reported
in 1874; from three to ten days in duration each, they
resulted m hundreds of conversions. Spurred on by
success, the General Meetings continued; in 1880 there
were ten such meetings, some lasting as long as eighteen
Revival meetings proved to be an important source
of new members for the Yearly Meeting, but by 1880 it
was apparent that many of the converts had been lost.
The Meeting of Ministers and Elders in 1880 decided that
positive action must be taken to follow the conversions
with continued work to ensure their remaining in the
Society. To remedy the situation, a Committee on Ministry
was established which was to direct the evangelistic work
and care for the new members.
11. Walter C. Woodward, Timothy Nicholson Master Quaker
(Richmond, la.: The Nicholson Press, 1927), p. 18S.
12. Minutes (1874), 62.
13. Minutes (1880), 55.
14. Ibid., 21.
15. Opal Thornburg, Whitewater. Indiana's First Monthly
Meeting of Friends 1809-1959, p. TXT '
would denounce them as "fit subjects for the lash of the
slave driver." Julian then told the Southern
representatives that "their newly vamped Fugitive Slave
bill cannot be executed in that portion of Indiana"
which he had the honor of representing. In 1852,
Julian spoke to a group of Friends in Westfield and
"was gratified to learn that all of the Fiiends except
four" were right on politics. It was unfortunate for
the Friends that their staunchest ally failed to be
re-elected at that time.
At the Yearly Meeting in 1844, the Anti-Slavery
Friends appointed a committee to petition Congress
"for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia
and the territories as well as that of the interstate
slave trade. The petition also called for repeal of
all laws "making a distinction on account of color"
and for repeal of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1793.
27. Congressional Globe, Vol. XXII (1850), p. 1302.
29. Grace Julian Clarke, George W. Julian Indiana
Biographical Series., Vol. I (Indianapolis: Indiana
Historical Commission, 1923), p. 135.
30. Minutes, A.S. Friends (1844), 2.
next year by the Free Produce Society of Pennsylvania.'1'
During the next ten years many local free produce
societies were organized, mostly in Pennsylvania and New
Jersey. In 1838, the various free produce and anti
slavery organizations realized the need for some type of
organization to coordinate the activities of the local
meetings. For this purpose the Requited Labor Convention
was held in Philadelphia, meeting in the newly erected
Pennsylvania Hall. Disregarding a hostile mob which
after two days burned down their meeting hall, the
convention delegates succeeded in establishing the
American Free Produce Association. Through the
American Free Produce Association and the support of
Benjamin Lundy1s Genius of Universal Emancipation,
The attempt at a national boycott of slave produce had begun.
1. Ruth K. Nuermberger, The Free Produce Movement
(Durham, N.C., 1942), pp. 13-14.
2. Ibid. 24.
3. Ibid., 2 3.
5. Ibid., 21. Benjamin- Lundy (1789-1839) was one of the
"first Friends to join the anti-slavery cause. Lundy
was the first contributer to Charles Osborns The
Philanthropist, when it began publication in 1816 in
Mount Pleasant, Ohio. The Philanthropist was significant
as the first periodical in the United States to come
out clearly for immediate and unconditional emancipation.
After a short period as joint editer of The Philanthro
pist Lundy began publication of The Genius of
Universal emancipation in 1821 at Mount Pleasant, Ohio.
Meetings that they be allowed to form Indiana Yearly
Meeting of Friends, the first meeting to be held the
following year in the town of Whitewater. Proud of
having arrived at maturity after only fifteen years
Indiana Friends looked to the future with confidence.
13. Minutes of Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends
[hereafter cited as Minutes! (1821), p. TI The
complete minutes of every Yearly Meeting were carefully
recorded and then printed for distribution to the
local meetings and members. A standing committee
of the Yearly Meeting was in charge of collecting
the minutes and having them printed. The actual
printing was done by the printer that submitted
the lowest bid for the job. Since the majority
of Friends were unable to spare the time or travel
the distance to the Yearly Meeting, the printed
Minutes provided a newsletter which contained a
report on all the activities of the Yearly Meeting.
A complete collection of the Minutes for Indiana
Yearly Meeting can be found in the Friends'
Collection at the Lily Library, Earlham College,
in Richmond, Indiana.
department was equally proud of its new apparatus.
Attendance was considered sufficient, with seventy-three
students at the winter session, and fifty of the
summer session. For the next three years the school
continued to prosper, serving notice to even the most
sceptical that Friends' Boarding School was there to stay.
Encouraged by the initial success of the school,
Friends were ready to undertake new construction in
1851. Reviving their early plans, the Quarterly
Meetings were directed to raise sixteen thousand
dollars in the next four years to pay for completion
of the original plans. Two years later, in 1853, the
entire sixteen thousand dollars had been pledged by
Friends for completion of the school. With nearly
all the necessary funds promised, the committee again
contracted with John B. Posey to finish the school, at
a cost of $19 ,445.
While Friends were busy planning new construction,
the Boarding School itself had continued to prosper.
In 1853, the school found that rising expenses made it
raids and there was also a danger of flooding since the
camps v;ere located close to the river. The camps had
to be situated close to the river so they could be
protected from guerrilla raids by Northern gunboats.
Concern for the education of the Freedmen was also
uppermost in the minds of Friends, and schools were soon
established to achieve this goal. In December, 1863,
Lucinda B. Jenkins and Mary E. Pinkham were sent by the
Indiana Executive Committee as teachers to join the
effort started by Lizzie Bond, who had joined the Beards
a short time earlier. A few months later, in February,
1864, James and Sarah Smith also arrived to help the
Beards with their work. The arrival of new
workers made it possible to expand the work, but in April,
1864, guerrilla raids had become so frequent that the
Friends were forced to close their schools and move
to Helena for safety. During the short time the
schools had been in operation Friends found the Freedmen
to be excellent pupils. Using pine boards and charcoal
in the absence of black-boards and chalk, Lucinda Jenkins
reported that already she had taught 187 Freedmen and
their children how to read.
THE CONTINUED MISSION TO THE INDIANS
When last seen in 1860, the Friends mission to the
Shawnee Indians had run into numerous problems, including
a breakdown in the relations with the Indians. Toe investi
gate the situation first-hand a committee was sent to visit
the Shawnee mission and to determine the nature of the
problem. Reporting to the Yearly Meeting in 1861, the
committee pointed out that the mission school for the Shawnee
was a failure; with between two hundred and 250 children in
the area, only seven attended the Friends' school.^ Part of
the blame for the school's failure was directed at the
Shawnee, who lived on government doles, no longer worked,
and were sinking into a state of vice and degeneracy. The
committee also reported what they described as a "natural
carelessness" among the Shawnee in regard to education.
The role of the Friends at the mission also received
its share of criticism. The committee found that there was
1. Minutes (1861), 26.
2. Ibid. 2 7
English Friends subscribed approximately $31,500 for
Indian aid. About $13,000 of this sum was invested in
bank stock in Baltimore under the control of the
Baltimore Yearly Meeting and the income of the funds
was designated for the Indian work. In 1810,
Baltimore Yearly Meeting accepted a request for aid
from a group of Shawnee Indians living at Wapakoneta
on the Auglaize River in Western Ohio. Active
work had no sooner begun than it was forced to a halt
by the uprising of the Prophet at the Battle of
Tippicanoe in 1811 and the War of 1812, although aid
was renewed at the conclusion of hostilities in 1815.
Following the addition of Indiana Yearly Meeting
to the Indian work, a joint committee from the three
Yearly Meetings visited the community of Shawnee at
Wapakoneta in 1822, and bought a piece of land
adjoining the reservation. A farm was cleared, and
a house and cabin school-house were quickly erected,
2. Rayner Wickersham Kylsey, Friends and the Indians
1655-1917 (Philadelphia: the Associated
Executive Committee of Friends on Indian Affairs,
1917), Footnote pp. 139-140.
4. Ibid., 137.
5. Ibid., 138.
6.Minutes (1822), 6-7.
As the Friends were uniting in support of
Blacks, the majority of Indiana's population was
uniting against Blacks, although it was opposed to
slavery. In 1829, Governor James B. Ray expressed
concern over the influx of Black people into the state,
voicing a fear that was spreading throughout southern
Indiana. Although the free Black population in 1830
was only 3,629, over two thousand of these Blacks had
entered the state since 1820, suggesting to many white
inhabitants that the slave-holding states were freeing
the old and disabled slaves and sending them into the
free states to become wards of the local government.
To put a stop to this undesirable immigration, a
"Black Law of 1831" required all Black immigrants
to post a bond for good behavior and self-support.
Fortunately for the Blacks, this law was seldom enforced,
with the result that the Black population doubled in the
next ten years, rising to over seven thousand by 1840.
6. Thornbrough, 39.
7. DeBow, ed., Statistical View of the United States
(Washington, 1854) p. ix.
8. Thornbrough, 39.
9. DeBow, ix.
alternates to attend the coming conference, again being
held in Indianapolis, The committee to select delegates
to the "Quinquennial Conference" also sent a proposal
with the delegates that the conference should consider
obtaining delegated authority from the Yearly Meetings so
that future decisions would be binding on all participants.
The third conference proved to be the largest of all,
with 129 delegates representing thirteen Yearly Meetings
in the United States and Canada. Acting on the proposal
of Indiana Friends, the conference decided to establish
a formal union of the Yearly Meetings under a central
organization. A committee was appointed to work
after the conference closed and draw up the formal plan
of union. A similar committee was appointed to draw up
a uniform discipline, which would be used by all Yearly
Meetings agreeing to join the new organization. The
52. Minutes (1896), 90.
53. Minutes (1897), 79.
54. Proceedings of the Conference of Friends of America,
l8~3 7 (Philadelphia: The American Friend, 1898),
pp. 4-5, 36.
55. Ibid.., 36. If all the Orthodox Yearly Meetings in
the united States had joined the association at that
time, it would have had a total membership of
90,436. There were also in the United States at that
time 21,992 Hicksite Friends, and 4,329 Wilburite
Friends. Western Work [Oskaloosa, Iowa], I, 1
(J anuary, 1897), 1.
. Ibid. ,
Meeting to be forwarded to Congress. At Baltimore,
two members of its own Indian Committee and noted Friend,
John Joseph Gurney, were appointed to go in person to
Washington and they succeeded in gaining an audience
with the Secretary of War and President Martin VanBuren.
Both men apparently respected the Friends viewpoint, for
the Shawnee were returned to their reservation within
a few months.^ Aroused by this unjust use of the
Indians, the Indian Committee also prepared an "Address
to the citizens of the United States, and to the Members
of Congress in particular, on behalf of the Aborigines
of our Country." It asked Congress for better
protection for the Indians west of the Missouri and
Arkansas Rivers; to allow them a delegate in the
popular branch of Congress; and that more care be
taken in the matter of treaties. To make these demands
known to the general public, the committee had 25,000
copies of the "Address" printed for distribution
throughout the United States, and also a copy appended
little success. The first progress in paying the debt
came in 1898, when Friends attending the Yearly Meeting
subscribed $2,452.55, to help pay off the debt, which
amounted to over ten thousand dollars. The following
year, the debt was removed through further contributions
and the sale of property owned by the Yearly Meeting.
Friends were further relieved the following year when,
for the first time in thirty years, contributions for
the year were sufficient to pay all expenses.
The concluding years of the nineteenth century were
the last time that Indiana Yearly Meeting experienced a
period of growth. The year after setting off Wilmington
Yearly Meeting membership was reported at 18,472, and
five years later, in 1898, was close to twenty thousand.
The greatest source of advance was the continued success
in winning new members from among non-Friends. In 1894,
981 new members were received by request; the following
year, 826 were added in the same manner, with other
years in that period producing similar increases.
Membership reached its peak during the years 1898 to
1900, with 20,793 recorded members in 1898, including
in Center, Indiana, for a period of four years, during
which time he had learned the boot and shoe trade.
The report of this deputation confirmed Friends in their
belief that the Indian could adapt to civilized ways,
and strengthened their resolve to continue the mission
During the next few years the school encountered
few problems, the greatest concern being caused by an
outbreak of cholera among the Indians in 1849.
By 1840, religious instruction among the Indians also
seemed to be making some progress. A "First-day School"
and worship meeting were maintained by the staff, to
which all Indians were invited. To prevent any
possible opposition to Indians joining the Society,
the Yearly Meeting made the definitive statement that,
"The way is and ever has been open for them, or any
other people who are convinced of our principles, to be
received into membership." It was also mentioned
that any Indian children who desired to come and live
with Friends in Indiana would be welcomed. Two
years, he attended Purdue University and received the
Master of Arts degree in American History in January,
1968. Deciding to continue his education, he then
entered the University of Florida at Gainesville in
September, 1968. Since that time he has been enrolled
in a graduate program in American History at that
Fox, an elaborate code of behavior had evolved which
was codified in the Discipline. The basis for this
,code came from the Bible and observation of the ills
of contemporary society. Many of the basic attitudes
can be traced directly to the teachings of Fox, but
later Quaker leaders such as Isaac Penington, Robert
Barclay and William Penn added to and refined much of
the original Quaker stand.
Besides the importance of the Inner Light, Friends
had to subscribe to certain other views in order to be
considered "sound" in practice. The Discipline warned
that no one should "deny the divinity of our Lord and
Savior Jesus Christ, the immediate revelation of the
Holy Spirit, or the authenticity of the scriptures."
Fox himself had been an avid student of the Bible and
often quoted scripture to support his teachings. His
belief that the Scriptures were valuable for doctrine
and instruction in "righteousness" was maintained in
the Discipline. Friends were advised to read often from
both the Old and New Testaments.
3. Discipline of the Society of Friends of Indiana
Yearly Meeting (Cincinnati: Mirror Press, 1835),
pT 19. The 1835 Discipline was still in the
adopted form taken from the Ohio Yearly Meeting
version of 1819.
When the struggle ended in 1829 the Society of
Friends was permanently divided into Orthodox and
Hicksite bodies. The Hicksite groups in Philadelphia,
New York and Baltimore Yearly Meetings emerged with
majorities and took control of those meetings, the
Orthodox minority leaving to set up new organizations.
The Orthodox Friends retained a majority in the
remaining Yearly Meetings giving them a numerical
superiority in the total Friends membership. By 1829,
approximately one-third of the 95,000 Friends in the
United States and Europe had gone with the Hicksites*
Indiana Yearly Meeting fell victim to the schism
also, despite its isolated position on the frontier.
One-third of the nearly fourteen thousand members
joined the Hicksite group and set up a rival
organization. Aware of the growing problem in 1827,
the Yearly Meeting had appended to the Minutes of that
year "A Testimony and Epistle of Advice" which contained
a rebuttal of Hicks' ideas, but which only served to
convince the Hicksites that compromise was impossible.
The 1828 Yearly Meeting was a scene of confusion due
7. Hodgson, I, 226.
8. Luke Woodward, A Historical Sketch of the Schism
in the Friends Church in the Years 1827-1828 Known
as the "Hicksite Separation,1' (Plainfield, la. ,
9.Minutes (1827), appendix.
that Blacks would be unanimous in rejecting the religion
of a group that had done so much for them, unless they
were actually encouraged to seek another denomination.
This appears to have been the situation, since most
Blacks in Indiana formed their own Methodist or Baptist
meetings even while under Friends' care and support.
Despite the slight prejudice noticeable in Friends
activities the dominant body of Friends was sincerely
united in a program of aid to Blacks, both free and
slave. Even the meeting that in 1826 warned against
Blacks as neighbors stated: "We are concerned to
impress it on the minds of all, that our prejudices
should yield when the interest and happiness of our
fellow-beings are at stake." Friends were already
aiding the Blacks before this admonition, sending aid,
in 1823, to a group of impoverished Blacks in Brown
County, Ohio. And in 1825, several kidnapped free
Blacks had been rescued from Southern states through
the efforts of Indiana Friends. Although the Hicksites
troubles disrupted efforts to aid Blacks, by 1830 the
Indiana Friends were again organized to act on behalf
of the "People of Color."
4. Minutes (1823), 11.
5. Minutes (1825), 12.
THE QUAKER BACKGROUND
The story of any Quaker group is best started with
a retrospective mention of George Fox, founder of the
Quaker movement. Fenny Drayton is a small hamlet in
Leicestershire having little claim upon English history
other than as being the birthplace of George Fox in
1624.1 Early records being sparse, little is known of
Foxs childhood other than that he was brought up in
a religious atmosphere, the son of a poor but honest
weaver who was known to his neighbors as "Righteous
Christer." Apprenticed to a shoemaker in Nottingham,
1. Rufus M. Jones, George Fox. Seeker and Friend
(London: George Allen 8 Unwin, Ltd., 1930), p.
16. This small volume by Jones is an excellent
introduction to the person of George Fox and the
early Quaker movement. For additional information
on Fox and the rise of Quakerism in England
see also Rachel Knight, The Founder of Quakerism
(New York: George H. Doran Company, 1923);
Vernon Nobles, The Man in Leather Breeches
(New York: The Philosophical Library, 1953);
William C. Braithwaite, The Beginnings of Quakerism
(London: Macmillan & Co."^ Ltd. 1912), and The
Second Period of Quakerism .(London: Macmillan 8 Co.,
Ltd., 1919); Luella M. Wright, The Literary Life of
The Early Friends 1650-1725 (New York: Columbia
University fress, 1932); and Richard T. Vann, The
Social Development of English Quakerism 1655-1755
(Cambridge,Mass.: Harvard University Press, 19d9T.
2. Jones, 17.
on Ministry reported the same year that it was "more than
ever convinced of the need for a complete pastoral system
m our Yearly Meeting.To substantiate the need for
ministers, it was pointed out that in the past ten years
there were 10,321 membership applications, but the
membership gain for the same period was only 3,798, which
was blamed on the shortage of ministers.
Support for the pastoral system reached the point,
in 1896, that Walnut Ridge, Wabash, and Winchester
Quarterly Meetings requested that the system be officially
endorsed by the Yearly Meeting. After careful considera
tion it was decided to give a cautious approval of the
pastoral system, warning that "Pastors are not in any
sense to be regarded as being masters or dictators over
congregations." The following year, the pastoral system
was more formally established, with the Yearly Meeting
encouraging the use of paid ministers wherever they were
needed, provided there was no interference with the belief
in the priesthood of all believers. The committee on
Ministry had been aware of the growing acceptance of the
pastoral system and in 1892 changed its name to Evangelistic
24. Ibid., 54.
26. Minutes (1896), 16-17.
of thirty-nine; by 1873 that number had increased to
sixty-one, sufficient for it to become a regular
Monthly Meeting of the Yearly Meeting. Three years
later, the meeting had 142 members, all "colored"
except nine, and had also established a subordinate
meeting known as Hickory Ridge Preparative Meeting.
Besides expanding the work at Southland, the
Missionary Board in 1872 began a new area of endeavor
in eastern Tennessee. Coming to the aid of schools
in Maryville being run by Yardley Warner, a Friend
from Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, plans were made for
a permanent normal institute for the benefit of Black
and white students. Thirty acres of land were
purchased and titled in the name of Indiana Yearly
Meeting, with a school building to be erected at an
anticipated cost of twelve thousand dollars. In
addition, a library of four hundred volumes was purchased
30. Minutes (1873), 9, 16.
31. Minutes (1876), 33.
32. Minutes (1872), 14. For additional information on
the activity of Yardley Warner see Stafford Allen
Warner, Yardley Warner, The Freedmen1s Friend
(Didcot, England: The Wessex Fress, 1957).
33. Ibid., 14-15.
The purpose of this study is to present a general
history of the Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends in the
nineteenth century.1 Too often Quaker history is
viewed in terms of Friends in the eastern United States,
but for many years of the nineteenth century, Indiana
Friends constituted the largest concentration of
Quakers in the United States. Previous studies of
Quakers have taken brief note of Indiana Friends, but
there has not been a detailed study devoted to the
activities and growth of Indiana Yearly Meeting.
This is not intended to be a study of all Quakers
in Indiana, but only of that group which was designated
Orthodox after the separation that took place in 1828,
1. The term "Yearly Meeting" refers to a central
controlling body for Friends within a defined
geographical area and dees not necessarily
coincide with state boundaries. Indiana Yearly
Meeting at various times had within its limits
Friends in Indiana, parts of Ohio and Michigan,
as well as all Friends in settlements farther
west. The expression, "Indiana Friends" is
used in reference to the membership of the
Yearly Meeting, regardless of the state in which
the commutation money to avoid military service, a
problem discussed at the Yearly Meeting in 1863.
To help the Friends' position as conscientious
objectors, the Yearly Meeting in 1863 sent four of its
members to a conference of Friends in Baltimore which
was to discuss the role of Friends and the war. At
that conference Charles F. Coffin of Indiana Yearly
Meeting, Francis T. King of Baltimore Yearly Meeting,
and Samuel Boyd Tobey of hew England Yearly Meeting were
appointed to visit Washington to have an interview with
Secretary Stanton. When the three men explained the
Friends' position on the commutation fee, Stanton
expressed little sympathy for their beliefs, and said
the lav; would stand. ^ Perhaps Stanton was more
favorably disposed to the Friends' cause than he admitted
to them, since a short time later, orders came from the
War Department that conscientious objectors who refused
to pay the commutation fee were to be paroled until
7. Minutes (1863), 20.
8. Opal Thornburg, Whitewater. Indiana's First Monthly
Meeting of Friends 1809-1959 (privately printed,
1959), p. 13.
9. Edward Needles Wright, Conscientious Objectors
in the Civil War (Philadelphia: University of
Pennsylvania Press, 1931), p. 74.
or political controversy, but shall the negro be
sufficiently educated to cash up his own accounts,
and manage his own business."^
One direction taken in the attempt to aid the
Blacks economically in the area of Southland was to
encourage them to buy their own land. This failed
owing to the practice of mortgaging crops before
the harvest, since a bad harvest would open the way for
creditors to claim the land. Also there was a general
prejudice against Black ownership. At the school
itself there was a change in direction as a new
emphasis on vocational training appeared. In 1896, the
school's superintendent William Russell wrote to the
Yearly Meeting asking for funds for the vocational
department, referring to the "great need of industrial
training along with the literary." Russell firmly
believed that "the greatest help that can be given
this people is to help them to help themselves.
Also during this decade the school began a decline
in enrollment due to several factors. Interest in the
school had declined among its supporters and this resulted
(1890 ) ,
(1896 ) ,
was under construction. The following year, school
construction was completed and in 1863, the school was in
operation under Isaac and Elizabeth Jones as Super-
intendents. During the first years of operation the
school was run on a small scale, caring for a small
number of homeless and orphan children, including some
Indians. Following the concept of a manual labor school,
it was decided to follow the plan of the Ohio Reform
School, which called for the children to operate the
farm. Until 1882, the number of children at the school
was never greater than twenty-four. Friends were
careful not to overtax the schools facilities. One
problem encountered in maintaining the school was to
find a superintendent competent as both a farmer and
educator, causing a rapid turnover in that office.
Another reason which dictated a cautious expansion was
the uncertainty of the farms productivity. Crop failure
and animal sickness were constant hazards. In 1870, the
(1865 ) ,
FREE BLACKS AND SLAVERY
The concern for the Indian was an activity which
most Friends experienced second-hand through the work
of the Yearly Meeting's Indian Committee and its
local branches, but aiding the Blacks afforded most
Friends a more immediate field of endeavor. As mentioned
earlier, the protest against slavery was a basic
testimony of the Discipline, and one which Friends
seldom ignored. At the very first Yearly Meeting in
1821, a "Committee on the concerns of People of Color"
was appointed and remained active until the years of
the Civil War.* Usually this committee did as much as
possible to help the 31acks obtain the rights due them
under law and provide assistance to those in need. The
1. Emma Lou Thornbrough, Negro in Indiana Before 1900
(Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Bureau, 1957),
p. 34. Additional information on abolition and
the condition of 31acks in the North can be found
in Leon F. Litwack, North of Slavery (Chicago:
The University of Chicago Press, 1961); Dwight L.
Dumond, Antislavery Origins of the Civil War in
the United States (Ann Arbor: The University of
Michigan Press, 1961); Gilbert H. Barnes, The
Anti-Slavery Impulse (New York: Appleton-Century
Co., 1933); and Thomas E. Drake, Quakers and
Slavery in America (New Haven, Connecticut, 1950).
support went down to the point that publication of the
Christian Arbitrator and Messenger of Peace Was discontinued
in 1895, due to a lack of funds. Indiana Friends were
no exception to the prevailing mood of apathy, the Yearly
Meeting committee reported that the subject was 'entirely
too unpopular even in our own church." War with Spain
in 1898 revived the issue of peace and support rose to
the point that publication of the Peace Association's
newspaper was resumed. In addition to addressing the
President concerning the war, Friends were extremely
enthusiastic over the proposal of the Russian Czar for
disarmament and international peace. Friends obtained
ten thousand names on a petition to be sent to Czar
Nicholas II, and Peace Association President William
Hubbard presented a special memorial to the Russian
ambassador in Washington, D.C.
The conclusion of war with Spain brought a slight
decline in peace activity, but by 1902, Friends were
active in several areas working for peace. Professor
Cyrus W. Hodgin of Ear'lhan} College, Elbert Russell of the
University of Chicago, and William Hubbard were active in
Minister of the Gospel in the Society of Friends, one
of the few Blacks ever to attain that position in the
The asylum continued to expand and developed by
1870 into a normal school. Construction of a new
building was planned, with five thousand dollars of
the cost to be paid by the Freedmen's Bureau. When the
new building was completed the following year at a cost
of six-thousand dollars, the Missionary Board received
word from General Oliver 0. Howard, head of the Freed-
nen's Bureau, that the Bureau could only give three
thousand dollars of its promised support, placing the
school in debt. To help with the financial situation,
it was decided to sell the Friends' property at Little
Rock, a decision also supported by Friends, estimate that
improved public education had ended the need for
continued work there, despite the fact that the Little
Rock School Board was paying the salaries of the
The progress of the normal school continuedto.. be
satisfactory, its graduates already being well received
22. Ibid. 10.
23. Minutes (1871), 12.
In 1842, the committee was again plagued with
trouble over construction and finance. The walls and
roof had finally been oompleted, but all additional
work was again halted due to a lack of funds. One
possible solution was mentioned in a report on using
the manual labor system. It was proposed that only the
oldest applicants be accepted and that their labor to be
used to finish and furnish the building. The
committee saw the possibilities of student labor, but
decided there was still too much basic construction to
be done before any students could be accepted. The lack
of donations had forced the committee to borrow funds,
resulting in an indebtedness of $2,350.' Reflecting a
typical Quaker concern for debts, the next three years
saw little progress in construction, but nearly all of
the deficit was paid. A plea for funds in 1845 finally
obtained substantial results and the Quarterly Meetings
raised subscriptions totaling $4,365.27 for completion
of the school.
Cheered by the renewed financial support, the
committee reported in 1848 in a spirit of optimism.,
2 3 Minutes (184 2), 14.
24. Ibid., 13.
25. Ibid., 14.
26.Minutes (1845), 17.
prominent anti-slavery Quakers rarely found themselves
entrusted with committees, resulting in a "strained
and unfriendly feeling." In 1839 and 1840, Charles
Osborn visited Friends in New England and New York,
remarking in his journal that many of the meetings he
visited were divided into hostile factions over the
abolition question.^ Osborn also noted that in New
England Yearly Meeting the anti-abolition faction was
"denouncing abolitionism with greater zeal than they do
slavery itself." He was also impressed by the "worldly
grandeur and pompous show" exhibited by the Friends'
leaders who opposed the abolitionist faction.
The first indication of disagreement within Indiana
Yearly Meeting came in 1836, when it was suggested that
maybe it was time Quakers stopped joining other
associations, even if Friends agreed with their aim.
4. Ibid., 359.
5. Charles Osborn, Journal of Charles Osborn (Cincinnati
Achilles Pugh, 1854 ) p. 409.
6. Ibid. 408.
7. Charles Osborn, Testimony Concerning the Separation
which Occurred in Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends
in the Winter of 142 and 43 (Centerville, 19. i
ITT Vaile Printer, 1849), p. d5.
8. Walter Edgerton, A History of the Separation in
Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends (Cincinnati, 18*56) ,
within its operation, would powerfully militate against
that testimony of our Society, which has for its
object the guarded Education of the rising generation."
During the next few years Friends did their utmost
to build up a system of schools under the guidance and
control of the Society. One difficulty encountered
was brought up at the 1831 Yearly Meeting, mentioning
that the scattered location of Friends homes made it
difficult for them to unite in supporting a local school.
Another serious problem mentioned the following year was
a lack of competent teachers among Society members,
although the report did add optimistically that a
considerable number of schools had been taught during
the past year. By 1833, the situation had noticeably
improved, the report stating that "the number of schools
appears to be nearly or quite equal to the number of
monthly meetings," although there was still a shortage
of qualified teachers.
In 1834 the first comprehensive report on the
school situation was presented to the Yearly Meeting.
6. Minutes (1831), 9.
7. Minutes (1832), 11.
8. Minutes (1833), 9
Although the report indicated a possible need for an
asylum, the project was set back by the committee's
revelation that of its previously reported fund of
$488.75, only $110 was in cash, the rest being in
subscriptions of dubious value. The following year,
the Yearly Meeting decided that since all of the
reported insane people were being cared for, the project
was abandoned and the money returned to the donors and
. 2 3
the subscriptions cancelled.
Although the plight of the insane proved to be
more imagined than real, Indiana Friends were very
much aware of two other groups genuinely in need of
aid. These were the Indians and Blacks. To help them
become the center of Quaker activity during the
ante-bellum years, relegating other activities to minor
importance. This concern was not just a matter of
principle argued in tracts and pamphlets. It was,
rather, a deep personal commitment by Indiana Friends
that resulted in one of the outstanding chapters of
Indiana Friends' history during ante-bellum years.
22. Ibid. 20.
23. Minutes (1843), 25.
Friends were not content merely with abstaining
from what they considered the sins of the world, but
they also believed it their duty to speak out against
the evils of society. The early Indiana Friends were
most vocal over what they considered the four greatest
evils of society: intemperance, war, slavery, and
capital punishment. These problems were considered to
be world-wide in nature and opposition to them was
held in common by all Friends, including those in
Europe. A fifth issue unique to the United States was
what Friends considered the offensive treatment afforded
the Indians by Anglo-Americans.
Friends could have been more successful than they
were in reform activity had they banded together in national
organizations, but this proved impossible. Early attempts
at general meetings and conferences were unsuccessful due
to fears and suspicions generated by the doctrinal disputes
over the teachings of Hicks and then Gurney. In addition,
most Yearly Meetings were extremely jealous of their
autonomous positions and refused to relinquish any
authority to a central body composed of the various
terrible crime could be committed "without the sting of
alcohol and the spur of a maddened brain."
By 1900, the demand for temperance and prohibition
was a widespread national movement in which Friends had
only a small role. This became true in Indiana also
as increasing numbers of people supported the prohibition
movement. Indian Friends could be proud that their
long standing position against alcohol had been accepted
on such a wide level in their native state. The strength
of Quaker leadership in Indiana was revealed in the
person of Timothy Nicholson, who was elected president of
the Indiana Anti-Saloon League in 1898, and continued in
that capacity until 1921 when he was ninety-three years old.
82. Minutes (1902), p. 40.
83. Woodward, 143
small libraries maintained by some of the local Friends'
The need for the Book and Tract Committee had
gradually been undermined by the availability of periodical
literature devoted to special topics such as peace and
temperance. After 1875, a decline in the amount of
material put out by the committee was noticeable. A
decrease in financial support from the Yearly Meeting and
members was also apparent, causing the committee to
comment, in 1887, that, "Our members seem to measure their
voluntary liberality by the illiberality of the Yearly
Meeting." By that year output of the committee had
dropped to less than one million pages.
Continuing to supply the demand for tracts and
distribute needed books, by 1900, the Book and Tract
Committee had declined even more. Financial support
was so small that printing of tracts had been stopped,
although a considerable number had been purchased. After
fifty years of service the committee reported, it had
distributed 65,160,000 pages of tracts since 1850.
Although its greatest achievements were in the past, the
Book and Tract Committee must have influenced the thoughts
16. Minutes (1887), 6.
18.Minutes (1900), 9.
Bible Institute an excellent reputation and wide-spread
popularity. To accomodate all interested persons it
was even necessary to begin extension work. The extension
work offered in 1902 had eighty-five people enrolled
from seven states, with all material exchanged through
the mail. Through such efforts as the Bible Schools'
and the Bible Institute Friends were assured that their
children would still be taught the correct religious
values and beliefs by experienced and capable teachers,
and that a guarded education was in part maintained.
The continued work of the Book and Tract Committee
was also a method of directing the education of Friends,
in 1860, the committee had printed and purchased over one
million pages of tracts; by 1870, that had increased to
well over two million pages.^ Material supplies by the
Book and Tract Committee was used by many other committees
to educate the public in many areas, while Friends used
them in their Bible schools and distributed them to
individual Friends at the Weekly meetings. Books were
also provided for some public institutions and for the
13. Jane Addams (1860-1935) was a leader in the movement
for social reform at that time. She was best known
as the Founder of Hull House in Chicago, a settle-
. ment house for the benefit of recent immigrants to
the United States in that city.
14. Minutes (1902), 38.
15. Minutes (1860), 29, Minutes (1870), 14.
proposing that the school begin actual operation on
April 1, 1847. John B. Posey, a local Richmond builder,
had been contracted for the completion of construction,
which was to be accomplished by January 1, 1847. A
plan of operation had been formulated, with authority
over the new school given to a new created "General
Boarding School Committee." Provisions were to be
made for a school for each sex, with accommodations for
sixty males and forty females. In addition it was
suggested that all teachers must be Friends, and that a
worship meeting must be held twice a week. At last,
Indiana Friends were to have an institution of higher
learning within the limits of the Yearly Meeting. A
dream was to be realized after fifteen long frustrating
years of planning and construction.
The following summer in 1847 the Friends! Boarding
School opened its doors to students for the first time,
and conducted a fifteen-week session with thirty-six
stepped 5-nto the ministers pulpit and in the name of
the trustees demanded that everyone leave the building.
Denied the use of the meeting house, the group dispersed
after agreeing to meet the next day in Newport. The
meeting at Newport made plans for a convention of anti
slavery Friends to be held in February of the coming
At thi-s time Quaker meetings in several other states
were also disrupted by disputes over abolition. Disown-
ment of abolitionists and the formation of anti-slavery
Quaker groups occurred in Massachusetts, New York,
Pennsylvania, and Ohio. The Hicksites in Indiana
experienced problems identical to those of the Indiana
Yearly Meeting. In 1842, a group of liberal and anti
slavery Hicksites under the leadership of Joseph A.
Dugdale split from the main body and established the
That winter Friends throughout Indiana waited
anxiously to see if the proposed convention would take
place, and if it did, what would be its course of action.
30. Aptheker, 360-361.
31. Willard Heiss, A List of All the Friends Meetings
that Exist or Ever Have Existed in Indiana
(Indianapolis, 1961), p. 82.
MOVING IN NEW DIRECTIONS
Contrary to the expectations of Friends in 1860,
the future would in many ways be a totally new
experience as compared to the past. Denied the growth
from new settlers, Indiana Friends would explore new
methods to maintain the vitality of the Yearly Meeting.
Religious change would come with alarming suddenness, as
the Quaker religious silence would be disrupted by
singing, music, and, ultimately, the minister's voice.
By 1900, the only tradition remaining virtually intact
would be the Friends' zeal for humanitarian reform.
condone participation in the military, no matter how
righteous the cause.
After the first full year of war, the Yearly Meeting
reported in 1862 that,"a considerable number of our
members have engaged in bearing arms and military service.
Five of the Quarterly Meetings reported that one hundred
of their members were involved in military service,
while the remaining Quarterly Meetings mentioned similar
problems. Because of disagreement among Friends and
unfavorable public opinion, the Yearly Meeting prepared
the following statement of its position:
We love our country and highly appreciate
the excellent government under which we have
enjoyed so large a share of liberty and security
to person and property, and look with heart
felt sorrow upon the efforts to destroy it,
but we have been made especially to feel the
great evil of war, the horrors of the battle
field, the terrible suffering connected
therewith, and the fearful consequences
attendant upon it, and cannot believe that
any cause is sufficient to justify such
scenes or warrant us in violating what we
believe to be the law of our Lord.4
Although the first year of war produced the majority of
Friends who volunteered for the military, their
continued service was a constant source of regret to
Indiana Friends. Also the problem did increase slightly
2. Minutes (1862), 14.
3. Ibid. 16.
4. Ibid. 15.
reach the Indians, who had neglected their farms while
preparing to move. Only considerable aid from
Friends enabled the Indians to survive without the
promised supplies, although the suffering still was
often severe. To further aid the Indians, two Friends,
Henry Harvey and David Bailey, accompanied four of the
Shawnee chiefs to Washington to help them bring their
grievances before Congress. When they reached
Washington a friend of the cause was found in the person
of Representative Joseph Vance of Ohio, who introduced
them to Secretary of War, Lewis Cass. Secretary
Cass was sympathetic with the cause and tried to get
the Shawnee a new treaty, but could not do so because
of the opposition of President Andrew Jackson.
Stopped by Jackson, who gave the group the impression
that he cared very little for the Indians or their rights,
attempts were made to work through Congress. Again
with the aid of Secretary Cass, a measure was successfully
25. Ibid., 14-15.
26. Henry Harvey, History of the Shawnee Indians
(Cincinnati: Emphraim Morgan & Sons, 1855 ),
p. 208. The four chiefs were Wayweleapy,
Blackhoof, John Perry, and Spybuck; Francis
Duchequate and Joseph Parks, went.as interpreters.
27. Ibid., 210.
This thesis was submitted to the Department of History
in the College of Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate
Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Dean, Graduate School
for supplies, where H. Howard Smith served as the
committee 1s agent. The month following the committees
birth, Friends in the South started their mission to
the Freedmen. Rather than spread their work too thin,
Indiana Friends undertook nearly all of their relief
efforts in the area known as the "Department of the
Tennessee and State of Arkansas," which was under the
authority of Colonel John Eaton, Jr., General Super-
. 2 0
intendant of Freedmen for that area. The area
included the cities of Memphis, Vicksburg, Natchez,
and Little Rock and had a Black population of about
770,000. Indiana Friends found Eaton very helpful
in establishing this work and they were also given
considerable aid by Colonel Samuel Thomas, the Assistant
General Superintendant, and Major W.G. Sargent, officer
at Little Rock.
The outstanding Indiana Friend in ..this work and
first actually in the field was Elkanah Beard, accompanied
by his wife, Irena. Finding transportation through the
aid of Major Sargent, in November, 1863, the Beards
visited Freedmen camps and then notified Colonel Thomas
they had decided upon Youngs Point as the site for
25.' Ibid. 4.
26. Report of the General Superintendant Freedmen, Depart
ment of the Tennessee and State of Arkansas for 1864,
by Col. John Eaton, Jr. (Memphis, 1865).
2 7. Ibid. 3.
Peace Society, had delivered seventy-three peace lectures
and distributed 250,000 pages of tracts. Besides
financially supporting a share of the Peace Association
work, the Yearly Meeting supported local peace activities
similar to those carried out by the larger body,
primarily lectures and distribution of tracts.
During the following years, the Peace Association
continued to be quite successful, although the initial
enthusiasm for its work had somewhat subsided. In 1872,
publication began of the Messenger of Peace, which was
sent out monthly to a circulation of about 3,400.
29. Ibid., 55-56.
30. Ibid., 5 3.
31. Minutes (1872), 40, Minutes (1873), 61. The
Messenger of Peace carried news of various peace
activities and other worthy causes such as
temperance. Since Friends were seldom personally
acquainted with the horrors of war, some
articles used vivid description to awaken
a horror of war in the reader: "Where are your
hearts, if you can think of broken legs ,
splintored bones, heads smashed in, brains
blown out, bowels torn, hearts gushing
with gore, ditches full of blood, and heaps
of limbs and carcases of mangled men?"
Messenger of Peace, II, 8 (May 1, 1872),
maintain a guarded education for the children, for of
the 3,699 students in district schools, 2,069 of them
were still being taught by members of the Society,
The main reason for this was that the practical-
minded Friend could see no reason for supporting two
schools; so he sent both his children and their teacher
to the district school and obtained the same education for
one-half the original cost.
Indiana Yearly Meeting was also active in other
areas of education, such as the opportunity which
occurred in 1851, to begin plans for the operation of
two manual labor schools. That year a wealthy Philadelphia
Quaker, Josiah White, left forty thousand dollars in his
will to the Indiana Yearly Meeting for the establishment
of two such schools. The bequest was accepted and a
committee appointed to study the matter. The following
year the committee recommended that one of the schools
be built in Indiana and the other in Iowa, Friends in
Iowa still being under the supervision of Indiana
Yearly Meeting. The funds were divided accordingly
and separate committees formed to supervise the
establishment of their respective schools.
all ceremony and the introduction of the silent meeting.
Early meetings of this type often led to emotional
excesses which introduced a state of "quaking" among
the participants, thus originating the early name of
Having formulated his basic ideas, Fox soon met
with greater success in winning adherents to his beliefs.
The first notable triumph came in Yorkshire, where a
large body of seekers had long awaited a prophet to
lead them. In 1651, Fox first came into contact with
these people and was quickly accepted by hundreds as the
prophet for whom they had been waiting. It is at
this point that the actual history of the Society of
Friends began. Previous to this time Fox had been
alone preaching his message, but shortly thereafter
sixty men and women were actively assisting to spread
the Quaker message.
Following the initial success of 1651, Fox
rapidly acquired a large number of new members for his
group. Despite persecution and frequent imprisonment
Fox guided his followers until they numbered between
seventy to eighty thousand at the time of his death
8. Ibid., 66.
9. Ibid. 67.
at San Salvador on August 6, 1897. To replace Purdie
at the Friends' missions, W. Irving Kelsey was appointed
as superintendent of the Mexico missions, where he stressed
the need for unity and cooperation between all missionary
endeavors. The need for cooperation and unity stemmed
from the fact that eleven Protestant denominations were
working in Mexico by 1897. That year Friends also
achieved a .greater unity in their work: a conference of
Friends' meetings in Mexico met in Mexico City and approved
a plan of union for all Friends' churches in Mexico.
Under the direction of Kelsey the Friends' missions
continued prosperous. In 1898 they included nine
organized churches in an area of approximately 11,250
square miles, with over five hundred members. Kelsey
also made a favorable impression on Mexican officals,
who awarded him a chair of English at the State College
and a position on the State Board of Education. By
1900 Friends' membership at the Mexico missions had
grown to 600 and all aspects of the work appeared
prosperous. The schools at Matamoros and Victoria
(1896 ) ,
. Friends (1897)
(1900 ) ,
NEW DIRECTIONS IN MISSION WORK
During the years immediately following the end of
the Civil War a series of events took place which led
to new directions in Friends missionary activity.
Largely through the activities of British Friends, the
need for missionaries in all parts of the world had come
to the attention of Louis and Sarah Street, both Friends
residing in Richmond, Indiana. Feeling a call to work
in Madagascar, the Streets obtained the support of London
Yearly Meeting for such a mission and made plans to leave
on December 1, 1856.'* Accompanied by their two children,
the Streets left port on schedule, only to be ship-
wrecked their first night at sea. Surviving the
mishap without injury, they obtained new passage and
on December 8, 1866 sailed safely reaching their destination,
where they established a mission at Antananarivo, and
remained in the field for twelve years.
1. Mary Coffin Johnson, Rhoda M. Coffin (New York:
The Grafton Press, 1910), p. 226 .
3. Ibid., 226 ,230.
wheat crop was a failure and the hogs died from cholera;
the same problem occurred with the hogs in 1877, and in
the same year the flax crop was destroyed by fire.
After many years of little or no growth, the
trustees of the school decided in 1882 that it was time
to expand. The farm had become prosperous and additional
land had been cleared for cultivation, so that a greater
number of students could be provided for at the school.
Although a request to allow a number of Indian children
to attend the school in 1882 was refused due to a lack
of facilities, in March, 1883, twenty-seven Indian
children arrived at the school and were housed in a new
building constructed specifically for that purpose.^
The following year, another new building was erected
at a cost of $7,700, of which $6,700 was paid by the
Associated Executive Committee on Indian Affairs, and
the number of Indian children at the school increased
to fifty-eight, with twelve white children also attending
While attending the school the children aided in the
running of the farm and raised the crops of wheat, corn,
oats, flax seed, potatoes, turnips, and fruits. They
42, Minutes (1877), 43.
Battey, Thomas C. A Quaker Among the Indians.
Boston: Lee and Shepard, Fublishers, 18 7 5.
Boone, Richard 6. A History of Education in
Indiana. New York: DO Appleton and Company, 1892.
Braithwaite, William C. The Beginnings of Quakerism.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Fress, 1961.
First edition 1912.
Cadbury, Anna Moore. "Joseph Moore." Quaker
Biographies. Series II, Vol. IV, 1-37. Friends'
Collection, Lily Library, Earlham College.
Cady, Edwin H. John Woolman: The Mind of the Quaker
Saint. New York"! Washington Square Press, lTToFI
Clarke, Grace Julian. George W. Julian. Indiana
Biographical Series, VoII TT Indianapolis:
Indiana Historical Commission, 1923.
Comfort, William Wistar. The Quaker Persuasion.
Philadelphia: Frederick Hi Gloecknerj HJFbk
DeGarmo, James M., The Hicksite Quakers and Their
Doctrines. New York! The Christian Literature
Co. 18 97.
Doherty, Robert W. The Hicksite Separation. New
Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1967.
Dumond, Dwight Lowell. Antislavery Origins of the
Civil War in the United States. Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan Press, 1939.
Dye, Charity. Some Torch Bearers in Indiana.
Indianapolis: The Hollenbeck Press, 1917.
Elliott, Errol T. Quakers on the American Frontier.
Richmond, la.: The Friends United Press, 1969.
Foreign Mission Work of American Friends. American
Friends Board of; Foreign Missions, 1912.
Furnas, Seth E., Sr. A History of Indiana Yearly
Meeting (Hicksite) Indiana Yearly Meeting Religious
Society of Friends, 1968.
"The Progress of Civilization among the Indian Tribes in the West under the Care
Children -in School
Number who can read
Acres cultivated by Indians
Bushels of corn raised by Indiana
Potatoes raised by Indians
Tons of hay cut by Indians
Horses owned by Indians
Cattle owned by Indians
Hogs owned by Indians
Houses occupied by Indians
2. Minutes (1879), 45
Despite the ever present financial troubles, the
school continued to expand as an institution of higher
learning. By 1B56, the school boasted a faculty of
eight, and collegiate courses were offered in hopes of
granting .diplomas m the future. To help the course
in astronomy an acromatic telescope had been purchased
at a price of $630, an impressive addition for a small
school. With the financial troubles clearing and
the future promising, it was decided in 1859 that the
school should become a college. The college program
would be based on the four year course of study started
in 1856, and a two year scientific program, with
separate degrees for each. The school was
60. Minutes (1856), 22,25.
61. Ibid., 24.
62. "Minutes of the Acting Committee of the Boarding
School" (1846-1870), p. 156. This volume is the
manuscript minutes of the Boarding School
Committee of Indiana Yearly Meeting and can be
found in the Friends' Collection at the Lily
Library, Earlham College. The important decisions
made by the committee were also reported in the
Yearly Meeting Minutes.
63. Minutes (1859), 26.
Edward Clark, attorney for the Shawnee, and Commissioner
of Indian Affairs Greenwood, the two Friends learned
that a treaty change would be necessary before Friends
could obtain any possible satisfaction. Efforts to
aid the Indian had fallen to their lowest point in
forty years, but.Indiana Friends would recover their-
zeal in later years and carry on the tradition begun
not usually been slave holders due to their economic
status, but still accepted the major Southern attitudes
toward the Blacks. Those early settlers had even
petitioned Congress to allow slavery for a period of ten
years on the pretense that it was necessary for the
development of new land, although in fact Indiana was
unsurted for slavery.
Since slavery had been outlawed in the Northwest
Ordinance and the state constitution of 1816, the Quaker
settlers had expected to completely escape any signs of
that odious institution, but such was not the case.
Actually slavery had existed in Indiana territory and
continued to exist after statehood was achieved in 1816.
Numerically slavery was unimportant. The census of 1810
counted in Indiana only 237 slaves; the census of 1820
cited 190 slaves; and by 1840 there were only three slaves
remaining in the state. This continued existence of
slavery testified to the apathy and anti-Black feeling
which characterized the majority of Indiana's inhabitants.
The Quaker stand against slavery and sympathy for the
Blacks therefore alienated them from the non-Quaker.
This difference of opinion was heightened by Friends'
7. Edward E. Moore, A Century of Indiana (New York,
1910), p. 86.
8. J.D.B. DeBow, ed., Statistical View of the United
States (Washington, 1854), p. ix.
In 1882, there were 2,700 meetings held with four thousand
reported conversions and 750 applications for membership
in the Society. After eight years of work the committee
reported that evangelism had obtained 22,420 professed
conversions and 9,158 applications for membership.
The tremendous numbers of new members joining the
Society brought with them an acceptance of many practices
alien to Quaker tradition. Gradually, the attitude of the
recent converts, supported by younger and progressive
Friends, brought about the introduction of hymn singing,
later supported by music from pianos and organs. Although
not sanctioned by the Yearly Meeting, the use of music
was unofficially left up to the preference of the local
meetings. A second and much more drastic change was
the gradual introduction of a paid clergy and the
pastoral system. Traditionally a foremost testimony of
the Discipline, the stand against a "hireling ministry"
was gradually eroded as conversions mounted in number.
The new members were accustomed to the leadership of a
professional clergy of some type, and progressive
Friends believed that the only way successfully to follow
up the revival work Was to provide regular pastors for
19. Minutes (1882), 23.
20. Minutes (1888), 49.
students in attendance. Construction was finished
and all debts paid; there was even a balance of $42.36
after meeting the expenses of the first year's operation
English Friends were so impressed by this accomplishment
they sent a donation of $1,406.65, of which one thousand
. 3 h
dollars was designated for a library. Plans for the
coming year were made with high expectation, calling
for two sessions of twenty-three weeks each, and a
raise in tuition from twenty to thirty-five dollars a
During 1848, the operation of the school was a
complete success, the income from the farm, donations,
and tuition being so great that a profit was realized.
Because of this, the committee decided to modify the
price of tuition: students at the lower level were to
pay thirty dollars a session, and students in the higher
mathematics and the classics were to pay thirty-five
dollars a session. The library proudly announced it
already had seven hundred volumes, while the science
one of the fundamental precepts of the gospel, . .
and that therefore their imprisonment is a violation of
During those years Anti-Slavery Friends directed
their communications to a variety of people. Several
Yearly Meetings addressed themselves to the "Christian
professors" in the United States on the subjects of
temperance, capital punishment, free produce, and
slavery. Unlike the regular Indiana Yearly Meeting,
the Anti-Slavery Friends also sent communications to
other religious denominations, such as the Methodist,
Episcopal, Baptist, United Brethren, and Wesleyan
Methodist. Those letters seem to have been ignored by .
each denomination, with the exception of the Wesleyan
Methodist, who replied with a polite but non-commital
address from its Champlain Yearly Conference.
Special letters were also drafted for the inhabitants of
Indiana, with the white and Black inhabitants occasionally
being addressed separately.
The first years after the separation saw little
change in the two groups. After the initial organization
in 1843, the Anti-Slavery Friends managed a slight gain
38. Minutes, A.S, Friends -(1847), 2 .
necessary to raise tuition to forty-five dollars a
session for all students. The following year
attendance was up to eighty-five students at the winter
session and sixty-one at the summer session, considered
very satisfactory in view of the fact that tuition had
again been raised, to fifty dollars a session.^
Conditions appeared so promising to the managing
committee that they approved plans for hot and cold
running water in.the girl's section, purchasing an
engine, boiler, and pump for that purpose.
Financial troubles again beset the Friends' Boarding
School in 1855. Because of several fires a slate roof
and lighting rods had to be added to the main building.
Since the cause of the fires was traced to the open
fires used for winter heating, it was decided that
some sort of central heating system would be necessary
in the near future, which would also add considerably
to the school's indebtedness. The following year,
the Quarterly Meetings were directed to raise ten
Minutes (185 3),
prohibition law had been rendered ineffective by
dcisions of the state courts. Not dismayed by
failure, continued efforts the following year brought
another success in the temperance battle: the Indiana
legislature passed a restrictive license law in response
to a Friends' petition. Hindered by the opposition of
an active liquor lobby and an apathetic public,Friends'
efforts ultimately failed despite an occasional fleeting
success. The struggle was never abandoned, however, and
in later decades would increase to greater endeavor.
One of the most prominent methods used by Friends
in their criticism of public morals was the distribution
of selected books and tracts. At first, the Yearly
Meeting began the practice of printing copies of
"epistles", or communications, from other Yearly
Meetings of special interest, as in 1832, when three
thousand copies of the London Yearly Meeting's epistle
were printed for distribution to the membership.
Since Indiana Yearly Meeting took much of its religious
direction from London-based Friends, the epistle of
London Yearly Meeting was regularly reprinted for the
7. Minutes (1856), 36.
8. Minutes (1857), 16.
9. Minutes (1832), 3.
prescribed for Friends, changes taking place according
. . 9
to style and fashion within the limitations of plainness.
Perhaps the only garmet which became a distinctive item
of apparrel was the famous Quaker bonnet worn by the
women; which "became literally a snare, a fetish, a sort
of class distinction."
The names of the days of the week and months were
not to be used because they were derived from heathen
dieties. Nor were Friends to participate in "public
^ ^ ..11
fasts, feasts, or wnat are termed holy days, ..."
In matters of business Friends were expected to be honest
and always pay their debts on time. If a dispute arose
which could not be settled by the involved parties,
they wer1 expected to seek settlement through "friendly"
arbitration rather than seek redress in the public courts.
Friends were even advised to have a will in the event of
death, thereby avoiding disputes over distribution of
the deceased's estate.
Education was encouraged for all members of the
Society, necessary since the lack of a clergy and the
9. Amelia Mott Gummere, The Quakers. A Study in Costume
(Philadelphia: Ferris S Leach, Publishers, 1901),
p 19 0.
10. Ibid., 227.
11. Discipline (1835), 21.
12 Ibid., 8.
13. Ibid., 75
to the minutes of the Yearly Meeting, of which several
thousand were usually printed.
During the next few years the committee reports
indicated that the school was progressing as well as
could be expected. The Indian children proved excellent
pupils. Superintendent Henry Harvey wrote in 1340 that
the Indian children seemed to learn equally as well as
white children. In 1842, a total of forty-six Indian
children had attended school that year, with daily
attendance between thirty to thirty-five. The staff
had increased to eight Friends, who were responsible
for managing the farm and operating the school. Their
salaries, which totaled twelve hundred dollars a year,
were paid jointly by the participating Yearly Meetings,
although the Indiana Yearly Meeting was contributing near
one-half of the total amount. The surplus from the farm
also contributed to the payment of expenses, but most of
the produce was necessary for the provisions of the staff.
largest Quaker population in the state, also contained
the largest number of Black families of any county in
Assistance in Black education was also excellent
proof of Friends' sincerity and the fact that Friends
were more than dreaming idealists. Friends realized
that if the Black was successfully to adapt to his
environment, he must obtain the rudiments of an
education as soon as possible. As early as 1830, New
Garden Friends had provided schooling for Black children,
a situation duplicated in several other meetings that
same year. Several years later, in 1835, Friends
in Miami County went so far as to pay the cost of
sending twenty-five Blacks to school in Cincinnati.
And in 1842, Friends in West Branch Quarterly Meeting
reported plans to visit every Black family in the area,
to encourage education and provide them with a copy of
27. Carter G. Woodson, Free Negro Heads of Families in
the United States in 18 3 0 (Washington, 1925) ,
28. Minutes (1830), 17.
29. Minutes (1835), 13.
30. "Minutes of West Branch Quarterly Meeting Committee
on the Concern of People of Color" (1827-1868) ,pp. 23-24.
This is an unpublished manuscript volume of minutes
that is' in the Friends' Collection at the Lily Library,
Coffin, Charles F. 11 Anti-Slavery Friends."
Bulletin of Friends' Historical Society of
Philadelphia, IV, 2 (March, 1912), 100-103.
Coffin, Charles F. "Indiana Yearly Meeting."
Bulletin of Friends* Historical Society of
Philadelphia II, 1 (March 1908 ) 2^-8 .
Coffin, Charles F. "North Carolina to Indiana
in 1824." Bulletin of Friends Historical Society
of Philadelphia. Ill, 2 (June, 1909), 91-95.
Comfort, William Wistar. "Quaker Visitors to
American Presidents in the Nineteenth Century."
Bulletin of the Friends* Historical Association,
XXXVIII, 2 (Autumn, 1949), 63-74.
Emerson, Elizabeth H. ,rBarnabas C. Hobbs: Mid
western Quaker Minister and Educator." Bulletin
of Friends' Historical Association, IL, I (Spring,
Heiss, Willard C. "Hiram Mendenhall and the Union
Home Community." Bulletin of Friends' Historical
Association, XLIV, 1 (Spring, 195571 43^50.
Huff, O.N. "Unnamed Anti-Slavery Heroes of Old
Newport." Indiana Magazine of History, III, 3
(September, 1907), 133-143.
Julian, George W. "The Rank of Charles Osborn."
Indiana Historical Society Publications, II, 6
Knollenberg, Bernard. "Pioneer Sketches of the
Upper Whitewater Valley." Indiana Historical Society
Publications, XV, 1 (1949).
Lindley, Harlow. "A Century of Indiana Yearly
Meeting." Bulletin of Friends' Historical
Society of Philadelphia, XII, 1 (Spring, 1923),
Lindley, Harlow. "The Quakers in the Old Northwest.
Proceedings of the Mississippi Valley Historical
Association, V (1911-1912), 60-72.
McDaniel, Ethel Hittle. "The Contribution of the
Society of Friends to Education in Indiana."
Indiana Historical Society Publications, XIII, 2
their own buildings. It was also decided that the
government food supplies given to the asylums was
"unsuitable," being only a small amount of "contraband
ration," primarily meat and bread. To improve on that
situation, Friends agreed to make their asylums branches
of the government hospitals under the direction of the
District Surgeon, which would mean better food in the form
of "hospital rations" and also reduced expenses.
Cooperation with the Freedmen's Bureau helped economize
on expenses, but a continued reduction in support from
the Yearly Meeting members in 1868 forced the committee
to discontinue its support of the Asylum at Lauderdale,
which was taken over by the Freedmen's Bureau. Work
in education for the Freedmen was also declining due to
a shortage of funds and improvements in the public
school systems. New state education laws in Arkansas, put
into operation in 1869, greatly reduced the demand for
Friends' schools. In the Helena district school atten
dance rose to six thousand, of which five thousand had never
before been to school.In that year, rhe Yearly Meeting
Meetings in the United States. In addition to beginning
of a new era of cooperation, it was also another sort
of turning point for Indiana Yearly Meeting. The start
of the twentieth century marked the end of growth for
Indiana Friends as a religious body. Membership in
the Yearly Meeting, which reached a high point during
the last years of the nineteenth century, began a
downward movement that has Â¡Continued unabated to the
AIDING THE INDIANS
Friends in North America have had a long history
of interest in the American Indian. Since the days of
William Penn, Quakers have been noted for the unusually
good relationship they maintained with the Indians.
The basic reason for this was that Quakers were
scrupulously honest in all their transactions with the
Indians, believing that the Indians were entitled to the
same basic rights and respect as a white man. As the
Indians were gradually forced off their native land by
the surging tide of white settlement, the Friends were
one of the earliest voices to protest and to found agencies
for Indian relief.
Indiana Friends were no exception to general Quaker
practice in this respect and at the first Yearly Meeting
in 1821 set up an Indian committee which was to
cooperate with similar committees of the Ohio and
Baltimore Yearly Meetings."*" The endeavor Indiana Friends
were about to join had originated in 1806 and 1807 when
1. Minutes (1821), 10.
benefit of 120 children. With the aid of Lucinda
Jenkins, the Vales' first attention was directed to
improving the health of their wards, where illness had
reached epidemic proportions. In the first year twenty-
five of the children died of cholera, and the health of
Mrs. Vales suffered to the point that it was necessary
to hire a young Friend named Ann Nichols as her assistant.14
Friends were especially proud of the asylum at Helena,
which had been built by the 56th Colored Regiment on
thirty acres of land donated by the Yearly Meeting.^
The other asylum at Little Rock had not fared so well
and it was closed at the end of 1866. The total number of
children in the three asylums in 1866 was about 250. All
of the expenses were paid by Friends except for a small
amount of government aid in the form of food.
The largest aspect of Friends' aid at this time was
education, reflecting their belief that "the most
important necessity of the Freedmen at this time is education."
4. American Friend, Vol. I, No. 1 (Richmond, Indiana:
T. Harrison and E. and M. Jay, January, 1867), p.l;
Minutes (1866), 33.
5. Minutes (1866), 34
6. American Friend, I, 1 (January, 1867), 1.
7. Minutes, (1866), 35.
Seventh query. Are Friends careful to live within the
bounds of their circumstances, and to avoid involving
themselves in business beyond their ability to manage?
Are they just in their dealings, and punctual in complying
with their engagements? And where any give reasonable
grounds for fear in these respects, is due care extended
Eighth query. Are Friends careful to bear testimony
against slavery? Do they provide, in a suitable manner,
for those under their direction, who have had their
freedom secured; and are they instructed in useful
Ninth query. Is care taken to deal with offenders
seasonably and impartially, and to endeavor to evince
to those who will not be reclaimed, the spirit of
meekness and love, before judgment is placed upon them?
migration in large numbers of Eastern and Southern
Quakers to the rich expanses of Indiana and areas
farther west. The gains in membership also came from
natural increase through birth. Quaker children were
considered members from birth and they nearly always
remained loyal to the Society upon reaching maturity.
The reason why so few Friends left the Society at this
time can be traced to the tight corporate type of
organization and to the tendency of Friends to settle
in their own communities, avoiding relations with
peoples of other denominations.
One further means of increasing membership is
conspicuous for its absence: that of gaining converts
from among non-Friends. Undoubtedly, the nature of the
discipline was a primary reason the Indiana Society of
Friends gained so fev; converts in frontier Indiana.
The testimony against intemperance, dancing,and other
worldly diversions were obvious deterrents. The
tavern had long been accepted as a social institution in
American life, while the making of whiskey often fit
into the economics of farming. Dancing was one of the
few diversions available from the rigorous routine of
the early settlers; to make it a sin could hardly be a
popular notion. The testimony against a paid minister
also detracted from the Friends meeting. Host people
in 1338, Friends in Newport (Wayne County) went so far
as to establish a library of anti-slavery publications.
That same year in Henry County and adjoining areas,
Friends were forming local anti-slavery societies.
Many Friends' meetings attempted to aid free
Blacks that had been kidnapped into slavery. In 1831,
Friends of Miami were trying to help a Black youth who
had been taken to Kentucky and sold as a slave.
The following year Friends of Whitewater branch sent two
men in pursuit of an eleven year old Black who had been
kidnapped in Richmond, Indiana, taken to St. Louis and
sold as a slave. The two men eventually succeeded
in rescuing the boy, but at a cost of nearly two
hundred dollars to the Whitewater Friends. In 1835,
White Lick Friends were engaged in attempts to rescue
a Black girl kidnapped from Hendricks County and sold
18. Levi Coffin, Reminiscences of Levi Coffin
(Cincinnati: Western Tract Society, 1876), p. 224.
19. Charity Dye, Some Torch Bearers in Indiana
(Indianapolis, 1917), p. 69.
20. Minutes (1831), 13.
21. Minutes (1832), 17.
22. Ibid. __
Query number six mentioned several troublesome
areas for Friends, particularly regarding oaths, military
service, and a hireling ministry. The subject of military
service was often a problem because of state laws
requiring participation in the militia and complicated by
the fact that Friends were also forbidden to pay the fine
levied against those persons unwilling to serve.
Fortunately, the Quakers had won the respect of non-
Friends in the state and were seldom made to suffer for
their pacifist views. The problem of oath-taking was
complicated by laws which required an oath for some
legal functions. This too was usually settled amicably
due to the Quaker reputation for honesty; the Friends'
"Yea, yea" or "Nay, nay" deemed sufficient. The most
persistent problem was that of a hireling ministry,
mentioned in the Minutes of many Yearly Meetings. One
reason for this was that many of the smaller meetings
did not have a capable member who could speak with some
eloquence at the local meeting. Rather than listen to
some of their own somewhat inarticulate members or sit
in silence, such meetings would give in to the temptation
of paying a preacher to come and deliver a sermon.
Possibly those meetings looked at such action as the
lesser of two evils: a choice between the sin of a
hireling ministry or the sin of drowsiness.
received contributions totaling only $135, not a large
amount, but a start. For the next three years Friends
seemed to have lost interest in the project, contributing
the negligible sum of $18.50 during that time.
The project seemed destined to failure, but in
1837 the activity of the determined committee gave the
boarding school new life. That year, the committee
contacted New England, Philadelphia, and North Carolina
Yearly Meetings for information about their boarding
schools. The committee also went on to recommend that
the school be built on a farm owned by the Yearly Meeting,
and that male and female students be instructed in the
same house. The plans called for a school building
large enough to accommodate three hundred students, to
be constructed at a cost of sixteen thousand dollars.
To finance the construction, the plan called for the
Quarterly Meetings to raise twelve thousand dollars in
3. Minutes (1833), 16.
4. Minutes (1834), 10, Minutes (1835), 15, Minutes
"(1835 ), 19.
5. Minutes (1837), 18.
and that close to one hundred Friends used it personally.
While the Yearly Meeting appealed to members to rid them
selves of the offensive practice, the temperance committee
began a drive for state laws to control the problem,
addressing a memorial to the Indiana State Legislature
asking for restrictive laws controlling the manufacture
and sale of intoxicating liquors. Women Friends were
cautioned "in the preparation of food to avoid everything
that may cultivate a taste for strong drink," and the
young women were asked to use their "power of influence
over young men" for the temperance cause.^
Friends believed that the growing world-wide support
of the temperance cause indicated that in the near future
the problem would end. The report of the temperance
committee in 1873 was very optimistic, noting that England,
France, Germany, and Austria had become concerned with the
53. Minutes (1872), 47. Friends were aroused to greater
effort in temperance work by such items as the
following statistics. Intemperance annually caused
60,000 lives to be destroyed, 100,000 men and
women to be sent to prison, 200,000 children to be
sent to poor-houses, and 600,000 drunkards.
Christian Worker, II, 8 (August 15, 1872), 152.
54. Ibid. 49.
55. Extracts of Women Friends (1872), 10-11.
A second area of concentrated Friends' endeavor
for reform was the work for peace and arbitration. The
experience of the Civil War had revitalized Friends'
testimony for peace and led to a Peace Conference of
Friends held in Baltimore in November, 1866. The first
conference found the representatives agreed upon the
need for an organization to promote peace and it planned
a second conference at which formal action could be taken.
The second conference met in March, 1867, in Richmond,
Indiana attended by delegates from New York, Baltimore,
Ohio, Western, North Carolina, and Indiana Yearly
Meetings. After discussing the possibility of a
Congress of Nations to settle disputes, the conference
set up an Executive Committee which was to devise a
plan for unified Friends' action for peace and arbitration.
The actual organization was formally established-at a
meeting of the Executive Committee in November, 1867, at
Damascus, Ohio, as the Peace Association of Friends in
America, with Daniel Hill of Indiana Yearly Meeting as
president. The goal of the new association was
20. American Friend I, 4 (April, 1867), 88.
21. Ibid. .. .
22. Ibid., 90, 92.
23. American Friend, I, 12 (December, 1867), 285.
obtained further changes in the prison system in Indiana.
The state prison at Jeffersonville became the Indiana
Reformatory for inmates between the ages of sixteen to
thirty, with a stress on vocational training and early
parole. In addition, the state prisons were no longer
to accept Federal court prisoners and the system if
contract prison labor was to be abolished.
The prison committee reported, in 1901, that Friends'
support of the parole system seemed to be justified by a
recidivism rate of only sixteen percent during the past
four years. Final recognition of Friends' work for
prison reform came in 1903 when the President of the
Indiana State Conference on Charities and Corrections
asked that Indiana Yearly Meeting be officially
represented at the conference. Further recognition of
Friends' leadership came in 1901, when the National
Conference of Charities and Corrections chose Timothy
Nicholson to be its president for the coming year.
Prison reform had become one of the finest achievements
of Friends' concern for social reform in the nineteenth
EARLY YEARS IN INDIANA
The early decades of the nineteenth century witnessed
an unbroken movement of Quakers leaving the coastal
states to establish new homes in the West. A great
many of these Quakers found their way to the infant
state of Indiana where they would eventually become the
center of American Quakerism. Early in 1806, five
young Friends, natives of North Carolina who had recently
moved to Ohio, visited the Whitewater area of southwest
Indiana which was later to become the site for the
town of Richmond in Wayne County.*' Their glowing accounts
of the rolling fertile land encouraged friends and
relatives to settle in the area later that same year,
all of whom were Quakers. Others followed those first
few and in the summer of 1807, Friends began holding
a regular worship meeting in the settlement of Whitewater,
which was later renamed Richmond. By September of that
year, eighty-four Friends were living in the vicinity of
Whitewater, a number sufficiently large to require the
building of a regular meeting-house, which was
completed in 1808.
1. Rufus M. Jones, The Later Periods of Quakerism, Vol.I
(London: Macmillan and Col, Ltd., 1921), p. 47.
2. Ibid., 420.
of extension courses. There were even attempts to connect
the scholastic endeavors with the practical problems of
the community. In 1903, the Department of Applied
Mathematics used such an approach to find a solution for
water pollution caused by refuse from strawboard
During its history some conservative Friends had
questioned the growth of the school to the point where
it granted diplomas, which they thought violated the
Discipline s injunction against plainness and equality,
the degree implying a distinction. Other Friends
questioned some of the activities at the school, such as
the May Day celebration. Many thought the event was
introducing dancing to young Friends, but others agreed
with Timothy Nicholson, who pronounced it harmless -
not dancing but just lightly stepping around."54
Gradually, nearly all Friends came to accept Earlham .
College and to take pride in its accomplishments,
agreeing with th.e position of President Mills that "the
54. Walter C. Woodward, Timothy Nicholson. Master Quaker
(Richmond, la.: The Nicholson Press, 1927 ), p. 116.
tracts was usually accomplished by individual Friends
who obtained them at their local meetings. The 1855
Minutes noted that 44,000 tracts were put into circulation
that year Friends distributed them on railroad cars,
steamboats, at hotels, and to travelers and immigrants.
The majority of the tracts were placed in Indiana, with
some being sent to isolated meetings or missionary
groups in other states. The 1857 Yearly Meeting reported
that several thousand tracts had been sent to Maine,
Canada, Minnesota, and Tennessee.
By 1860, the Central Book and Tract Committee had
become one of the most powerful means of protest
for Indiana Quakers. That year the committee obtained
122,608 tracts, with a total of over one million pages.
In a period and area where reading material was often
scarce, it is likely that these tracts reached a large
audience in spite of their religious tone. In addition
to tracts, Friends' books had been placed in every country
library in Indiana, the standard volumes being Robert
Barclay's Apology, George Fox's Journal, and Jonathan
(1855 ) ,
meeting to be held at the time of the Yearly Meeting,
but when they suggested this at the Yearly Meeting,
it was defeated by the opposing anti-abolition group.
When Charles Osborn and seven others refused to
follow the advice of the meeting, they were disqualified
from the positions of leadership which they held in the
Society. George Julian, an early biographer of
Charles Osborn, wrote that such action by the Yearly
Meeting"showed that the power of slavery, . had
at last crept into the society, and was dictating
its actions. Many of the rulers of the denomination . .
had their ears filled with cotton."
During the following year the gap between the two
groups became even wider. Anti-slavery Friends were
encouraged in their beliefs by the publication of two
anti-slavery journals, the Protectionist and the Free
Labor Advocate and Anti-Slavery Chronicle, both printed
in Newport, Indiana. The Protectionist was edited by
Arnold Buffurn, a Massachusetts Friend who had come to
Indiana in 1840 after his own meeting in Smithfield
disowned him for being an abolitionist. The Free
Labor Advocate and Anti-Slavery Chronicle was edited
by Henry W. Way and Benjamin Stanton, both leading
14. Edgerton, 47.
15. Julian, 242.
small number of Friends who felt that slaves were not
ready for freedom and some who preferred colonization.
At the Yearly Meeting of 1840, the abolitionists
suddenly found that the anti-abolition Friends were in
charge of the meeting. The result vas that Friends
were officially prohibited from joining with others in
anti-slavery associations. This same meeting also
rejected a proposal to support a free produce movement,
which would have boycotted all merchandise produced by
or connected with slavery.^
In 1841, the anti-abolition party increased its
control of the Yearly Meeting. A letter of advice was
sanctioned which forbid the use of meeting houses for
anti-slavery lectures, and also forbid Friends to join
anti-slavery organizations which did not "profess to
wait for Divine direction in such important concerns."
The meeting further advised that no Friend should publish
anti-slavery writings without first submitting them to
examination by a meeting. Prior to this meeting, a
convention of Friends of the Spiceland Quarterly
discussed the idea of free produce and planned a large
11. Edgerton, 48.
12. George W. Julian, "The Rank of Charles Osborn,"
Indiana Historical Society Publications, Vol. II,
Ho. 61 (1897), p. 242.
reported that, "Public Schools have almost entirely
taken the place of Friends' Schools."
The end of Friends' schools at the primary level
opened the way for a greater interest in higher education
under Friends' control. Attendance during the primary
grades at public schools had become an accepted practice
by 1881, although it was still noted that "many of those
schools are virtually under the control of Friends,"
either as teachers, trustees, or directors. The emphasis
on Friends' schools by that time had been transferred to
advanced schools or academies, the level of instruction
being comparable to a public high school. Friends were
encouraged to send their children to such academies as
those at Amboy, Spiceland, Carthage, Rich Square, and
Mississenewa, all of which were Quaker schools.5 Besides
the opportunity for a guarded education at the advanced
level, the graduates of Friends' academies were also vital
if Friends hoped to continue control of public schools
through the placement of Friends' teachers. The attitude
of Friends on a guarded education had completely
3. Minutes (1870), 47.
4. Minutes (1881), 73.
One explanation for the inability of Friends to hold
new members was the lack of leadership to guide and direct
recent converts. The position of leadership was usually
given to those members recorded as ministers of the
Society, and their number was unequal to the task.
There were 215 recorded ministers in 1897, but in 1902,
that number had dropped to 178, with forty-one local
meetings reporting no minister to guide them. The
decline in ministers also revealed that younger members
of the Society were not sufficiently zealous in thir
faith to advance their status in the Society and assume
positions of responsibility. As the established
leadership became either too old or passed away, there
were too few to follow in their footsteps. This critical
situation reached at the dawn of a new century had been
brought about by a series of changes within the
Yearly Meeting and by the impact of a changing society
around it. Whether or not Friends could successfully
adapt to meet the crisis would be answered in the
future. The events of the twentieth century constitute
a new era in Friends history and are beyond the scope
52. Minutes (1897), 58, Minutes (1902), 57
A few short years following the successful
beginning of Indiana Yearly Meeting a series of events
took place which Rufus M. Jones called "the greatest
tragedy of Quaker history."1 Usually referred to as
the Hicksite Separation, this tragedy witnessed varying
degrees of permanent divisions within the Yearly
Meetings forming the Society of Friends. Polarized
about the views of Elias Hicks, a Friends' minister
from New York, every Yearly Meeting was torn by the
tragic climax in the years 1827 and 1828.
Although Elias Hicks is usually considered as the
cause of separation, unsettling tendencies within the
Society had been apparent for many years prior to Hicks
becoming the center of controversy. At the end of the
eighteenth century much of the Society was characterized
by a state of lethargy, lifelessly maintaining the outward
forms of Quakerism. In matters of theology there had
been a trend toward religious orthodoxy, with greater
1. Rufus M. Jones, The Later Periods of Quakerism,
Vol. I (London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1921),
To provide the basics of vocational training Friends oper
ated "Industrial Schools at Helena, Little Rock, and Vicks-
burg. Common schools were maintained in Pine Bluff, Little
Rock, Helena, and Camden, Arkansas; Vicksburg, Jackson, and
Lauderdale, Mississippi; and Beards Levee, Louisiana. 10
With a total enrollment of about 2700 pupils, Friends'
schools stressed the learning of reading, writing, arithmetic,
oral geography, and scriptures.11 Despite the apparent
success of Friends work for the Freedmen, the committee in
charge was disappointed that it could not do more, having
been restricted by the fact that the Quarterly Meetings had
raised only $17,209.63 of the thirty-thousand dollars
In 1867, Friends maintained a total of nineteen
workers in the South, although support for the Freedmen
work had again declined in the Yearly Meeting. To
economize on expenses Friends found it profitable to
cooperate more with the Freedmens Bureau. Friends
accepted the chance to run two schools built in Arkansas
by the Freedmen's Bureau, saving the expense of providing
9. Ibid., 34.
12. Ibid., 33.
Minutes (1867), 7.
The early Friends who moved to Indiana were not
alone in their migration, but were part of a surge
westward that marked the opening decades of the nineteenth
century. The same time that Friends joined together
for their early meetings, Methodists, Presbyterians, and
Baptists also began to populate Indiana in considerable
numbers. To find a congenial atmosphere among those of
the same religious persuasion, early Friends usually
attempted to settle in areas already populated by
Quakers. That resulted in the rise of a number of small
settlements which were dominated by Quakers. In those
isolated communities Friends avoided the impact of the
"Second Awakening" which affected other frontier denominations.
Content with their communal isolation in settlements in
Southwest Indiana, Friends avoided active participation
in state and national affairs, except when their religious
beliefs were threatened.
The success of the first Quaker settlement was the
signal for others to follow and by 1815 the number of
3. Friends in the early decades of the nineteenth century
avoided association with all non-Friends. This was
based on the belief that outside influences would
corrupt their religious ideals and practices. A
more detailed examination of this attitude is
given in Chapter III.
regulating religious groups; even ringing a church bell
necessitated care since the law limited successive rings
to no more than ten. Political anarchy in some areas
was a constant problem; the mission at Sota La Marina
under Western Yearly Meeting was given up because
anarchy there made it unsafe for Protestant missionaries.
The success of Friends and Presbyterian missions also
led to Catholic opposition. In 1887, Friends in Matamoros
reported that "The people are forbidden by their priest
to have any social or business relations with the
Protestants, or even to speak to them on the streets,
under pain of excommunication." That same year
Samuel Purdie reported that "Catholic incendiaries" had
burned down the mission at Santa Barbara. It is also
likely that opposition to the Santa Barbara mission was
heightened by social class differences, since the meeting
there was known as La Misa de los ricos -"the Mass of the
27. Minutes (1885), p. 58.
28. Ibid., p. 57.
29. Minutes of Indiana Yearly Meeting of Women Friends
(1887) p. ITT. Appended to regular Minutes .
In 1884 it was decided that the minutes of the
Women Friends' Yearly Meeting would be printed and
appended to the regular Minutes.
30. Minutes (1887), 32.
31. Minutes (1885), 60.
Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate
Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
QUAKERS IN INDIANA IN THE
John William Buys
Dr. Michael V. Gannon
Department of History
The purpose of this study is to present a general
history of the Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends in the
nineteenth century. It is not intended to be a study
of all Quakers in Indiana, but only of that group which
was designated Orthodox after the separation that
took place in 1828 over the doctrines of Elias Hicks.
The Orthodox body also adhered to the views of British
Friend Joseph John Gurney in a series of doctrinal
disputes which followed soonafter the Hicksite separation.
Toward the end of the century Indiana Yearly Meeting was
instrumental in events leading to the formation, in 1902,
of the Five Years Meeting, which later became the Friends
appropriately named Earlham College in honor of Joseph
John Gurneys home in England known as Earlham Hall.
The following year saw work begin on an observatory
for the telescope and a record number of students in
attendance -- 140 students at the winter session and
eighty-four at the summer session. Earlham College had
become an established fact in Indiana history, a lasting
monument to the determination and drive of the early
Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends.
64. Minutes (1860), 22. An excellent history of Earlham
College is Opal Thornburgs Earlham The Story of the
College 1847-1962 (Richmond, la.: The Earlham
College Press, 1863).
Christ was not divine, but merely a model man who lived
without sin. Christ was important only as an example
of the possibilities man can attain by following the
Inner Light. Basically Hicks believed that everything
concerning the spiritual life of man took place within
the soul through the working of the Inner Light.
Everything external was of secondary importance,
including the Scriptures and the historical Christ.
Traveling widely and presenting his views without
reserve, Hicks soon became the object of bitter debate
throughout the Society. Early ranters and dissenters
became his most outspoken supporters, while those of
orthodox convictions under British guidance soon
looked upon him as a fallen person. The decade prior
to 1828 saw most meetings divide sharply over the
Hicksite dilemma, polarizing on the issue of authority,
that of the Inner Light versus that of the Bible.
Although this problem had actually existed since the
beginning of Quakerism, this was the first time Friends
were forced to make a decision. With both sides assuming
an unyielding position, open separation erupted in
1827 and 1828. Throughout the country meetings divided,
with both parties claiming to be the true Society of
Friends. Debates over authority, property, and member
ship resulted in hard feelings and even occasional
violence as the two groups fought for supremacy.
momopoly." It was also pointed out that the liquor
traffic "is by far the most widespread, destructive
and demoralizing evil now sanctioned by law, and hence
removable by law." In view of such facts, the
committee declared it was a Christian's duty to exercise
his ballot in the interest of prohibition. Possibly
the strong stand taken in 1890 was spurred by the fact
that an attempt was made that year to open a saloon across
the street from the meeting house of the Yearly Meeting in
Richmond. Friends' protest had led to the saloon's
license application being rejected, but the saloon owner
was appealing the case to the circuit court.
Despite the strong stand taken by the committee,
Friends continued to be divided on methods and on the
question, should they promote temperance or total prohi
bition? In 1833, Walnut Ridge Quarterly Meeting asked
that the Discipline be changed on the subject, and that
the words "total prohibition" be substituted for "careful use.
70. Minutes (1890), 15.
71. Ibid. 16.
73. Ibid., 6.
75.Minutes (1893), 22
committee working on a new discipline found, it difficult
to satisfy the many requests of the Yearly Meetings involved,
but after three years the "Uniform Discipline" was completed
and eventually accepted by eleven Yearly Meetings. The
new Discipline was similar to that already used by Indiana
and other Yearly Meetings, with the changes affirmed at
the Richmond Conference in 1887. One other feature was
a provision for "associate membership" for children,
which negated the traditional practice of birthright
membership. Yearly Meetings adopting the new Discipline
were also allowed to add to it other provisions they
felt appropriate. Plans for the new organization were
also completed, with the first meeting scheduled for 190.2
to be known as the "Five Years Meeting."
When the Five Years Meeting did meet in Indianapolis,
the Yearly Meetings of New England, New York, Baltimore,
North Carolina, Indiana, Western, Iowa, Kansas, Wilmington,
Oregon, and California had already agreed to membership
in the new body. Ohio and Canada Yearly Meetings had
not joined but sent "fraternal delegates," while Phila-
delphia and London Yearly Meetings sent"visitors." The
57. Woodward, 197.
60.Minutes (1903), 125
Coffin led the way in this work in May and June, 1861,
visiting military encampments and handing out hundreds
of testaments and tracts to the soldiers. In 1862,
the Book and Tract Committee handled over one and one-
half million pages of tracts, many of which were for
distribution in the army and to prisoners of war.
Despite the fact that the Friends' literature opposed
war, it was well accepted by military officials who even
allowed its distribution by army chaplains. So great was
the need for tracts as the war progressed that by 1865
the Book and Tract Committee handled nearly two and one-
half million pages of literature.
As the war progressed, Indiana Friends became aware
of the extreme needs of the Freedmen in the South. In
October, 1863, the Yearly Meeting established a Committee
for the Relief of Colored Freedmen to supervise the
relief work. To facilitate the distribution of relief
goods, Cincinnati was designated as the collection point
21. Mary C. Johnson, ed., The Life of Elijah Coffin
(E. Morgan Â£ Sons, 186 3 ) p. 240.
22. Minutes (1862), 26-27.
23. Minutes (1865), 20.
24. Report of the Indiana Yearly Meeting's Executive
Committee for the Relief of Colored Freedmen
(Richmond, Indiana: Holloway 6 Davis, Printers,
1864), p. 3. Hereafter cited as Executive Freedmen*s
Committee. The Committee on the Concerns of People".
the new congregations. So strong was sentiment for a
paid clergy that in 1878 the Discipline was revised,
omitting the annual query regarding a hireling ministry,
although the Yearly Meeting gave no official sanction
to the use of a paid clergy.
Actual introduction of a paid clergy was a slow
process that evolved from the need for full time workers
among new congregations. In 1882, the Committee on
Ministry was still opposed to the full-time paid clergy,
but did feel partial support was justified if a minister's
work did not allow sufficient time to support a family.
In effect, this was authorizing a part-time paid clergy,
assuming a minister would also be partially employed in
some type of trade of occupation. Several years later,
the growing need for pastoral guidance for Friends'
congregations led to demands for a complete pastoral
system. Reports from Quarterly Meetings in 1890 reflected
that of Winchester Quarterly Meeting, which stated,
"many of our meetings feel they need pastors who could
give their entire time to that service." The committee
21. Thornburg, 11.
22. Minutes (1882), 25.
23.Minutes (1890), 52
Herald of Peace. Ill 12 (July 15, 1869).
Messenger of Peace. II, 8 (May 1, 1872).
Miscellaneous Repository. Editorial "The Separation
m the West.'* 12 (August, 1828).
Non-Slaveholder. HI, 11 (November, 1848).
Western Friend. II, 1 (January 1, 1849).
Western Work. I, 1 (January, 1897).
Allen Jay Papers. Letter to Allen Jay from
Josiah Simms. February 2, 1886. MS.
Coffin, Charles F. "Reminiscences of Charles F.
Coffin." MS. Charles F. Coffin Papers.
Huddleston, David. "Journal of David Huddleston."
Eook 7. MS.
Timothy Nicholson Papers. Letters to Timothy
Hicholson from his brother William Nicholson.
September 26, 1879, and February 27, 1880. MS.
Alley, Robert Judson, and Alley, Max. The Story
of Indiana. Chicago: O.P. Barnes, Publisher, 1912.
Bacon, Margaret H. The Quiet Rebels. The Story
of the Quakers in America. New York: Basic Books,
Inc., Publishers, 1969.
their mission. Located on the west side of the
Mississippi River ten miles above Vicksburg, the Young's
Point camp had about three thousand Freedmen. The
Beard's arrival at the camp was witnessed by Thomas,
who later wrote of it: "I remember well the cold,
windy Sabbath morning when they put up a tent, which I
had given them, on the bank of the river, in front of
the camp, and cheerfully began their work, without any
of the comforts,, and with but few of the necessaries
Directing his first attentions to the state of
religion among the Freedmen, Beard decided that the best
measure would be "the establishment of a nondenominational
Union Camp Church by the Black preachers. On December
6, 1863, such a church was formally organized with a
membership of'.'.125 and Beard was elected pastor by the
members. At the same time, the Beards did as much as
possible to alleviate the physical suffering of the
Freedmen, distributing supplies of clothing, food, and
28. Executive Freedmen*s Committee, 5, 21.
of which they did not approve. Such actions by local
meetings reveal a break in the corporate structure of the
Society, and also a spirit of opposition to a number of
changes taking place at that time, which will be discussed
in the following chapter. In 1885, requests from
several Quarterly Meetings resulted in a new apportion
ment of the budget, and new methods of fund raising were
discussed, .though none was accepted other than to advise
members to read the tract on "Christian Giving.
Evidently, a number of Friends ignored the advice on
Christian giving, for in 1886 the amount received from
the Quarterly Meetings was deficient by $3,084.
While many members were reluctant to contribute,
the growth in membership continued as a healthy sign for
the Yearly Meeting. The most important source of new
members was the continued work among non-Friends. In
1881, 635 non-friends were received into membership, in
1883 the number was 1,132, and in 1884 it was 939. The
influx of new members and the changes in the Society also
led to an increase in Friends leaving the Society; in 1884,
CHAPTER V: SOCIAL REFORM 223
CHAPTER VI: EDUCATIONAL ENDEAVORS 245
CHAPTER VII: THE YEARLY MEETING 261
CHAPTER VIII: RELIGIOUS CHANGE 277
CHAPTER IX: CONCLUSION 300
APPENDIX I 307
APPENDIX II 309
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 310
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ... 324
the lecture field, while two delegates attended the
International Congress of Peace in Glasgow, Scotland.51
Friends also actively campaigned for an amendment to
the Militia Act of 1902 to allow for conscientious
objectors. Their efforts succeeded largely through the
support of Senator Beveridge, who had met with Timothy
Nicholson and other Friends in Indianapolis. As
tension heightened in Europe and elsewhere, Friends
continued their active support of the peace movement
despite the apparent impossibility of the task.
The third area of Friends reform activity was temper
ance and prohibition, begun during the ante-bellum years
and continued with greater zeal after the war. The Civil
War period and the years immediately following found Friends
coming in contact with non-Friends to a much greater
extent than previously, and provided them with a more
intimate knowledge of the evils of alcohol. Realizing that
Friends must be free of the problem before they could
instruct others, the Yearly Meeting strengthened its stand
against the sale and use of alcoholic beverages and
established an Executive Committee on Temperance. A
survey by the temperance committee in 1872 estimated
that about twenty Friends were guilty of selling alcohol
51. Minutes (1802), 12.
52. Woodward, 155
Another result of the concern over Black immigration
was the formation of the Indiana Colonization Society
in 1829.^ Since the ideas of colonization admitted
positions against both slavery and Black equality, the
majority of Indianas inhabitants gave enthusiastic
support to the movement, with much of the financial
support coming from religious organizations and churches.^
Until 1838, the Indiana Colonization Society was an
active force in discouraging Blacks from entering the
state, and encouraging those already in Indiana to
leave. After that year colonization died out until a
revival in 1845.
During this decade of widespread public support of
colonization in Indiana, the Quakers stood nearly alone
in their protests against any and all plans of colonization.
10. Thornbrough, 75. The American Colonization Society
was organized in 1817 for the purpose of encouraging
and assisting free Blacks to leave the United States
and settle in Africa. Advocates of colonization
were staunch believers in the racial inferiority of
Blacks. They argued that Blacks would be better
off in Africa where they would not face the
burden of competing with the superior white race.
It was also: argued that colonization would serve
as an inducement for Southerners to free their
slaves and ultimately contribute to the demise
11. Ibid. 76.
Emma Lou Thornbrough, Indiana in the Civil War Era
(Indianapolis, 1965), pp. 16-17.
The Committee on Ministry in its first year supervised
over one thousand meetings in one hundred different
locations, which led to 2,500 conversions and seven hundred
requests for membership in the Society of Friends.
Despite its initial success, the committee was deeply
disturbed by the opposition to its activities on the part
of many conservative Friends. Much criticism had been
leveled at the revival techniques of the evangelists, but
the committee replied that "it has seemed to us far better
not to throw trammels around these devoted Friends [the
evangelists] as to minor points of practice." So long
as no major tenets of Friends' belief were violated, it
was felt that the number of converts justified a few
extraordinary means. There was also concern that many
Friends refused to associate with and to work with the
new members to keep them within the Society. The committee
noticed: "In some cases the results of the labour have
either been dissapated or gathered by other churches from
the open or quiet opposition of leading members."
The Committee on Ministry continued to expand its
work, believing that the results justified the revival work.
16. Minutes (1881), 40.
18. Ibid., 41.
and Pastoral Committee. Two years later, the committee
reported it had helped sixty-seven ministers obtain
financial support for their services, and by 1897 there
were thirty-seven full-time and thirty-four part-time
pastors in the Yearly Meeting. When the Yearly Meeting
approved the pastoral system in 1897, it was actually
recognizing the fact that the system was already a
reality. The action of the Yearly Meeting did encourage
the system, and in 1898 it was reported that more
meetings were employing permanent pastors and that ten
meetings even had parsonages.
At the same time the pastoral system was gaining
acceptance, the drive for new members was declining. Many
members had become disillusioned with the revival work due
to increasing numbers who had left the Society in recent
years. The Evangelistic and Pastoral Committee admitted,
in 1901, that it had lost much of its original zeal and
that the general membership showed little interest in the
evangelistic work. In 1902, only 112 meetings were held,
a significant drop from the accomplishments of former years
28. Minutes (1892), 50.
29. Minutes (1894), 59, Minutes (1897), 76.
30. Minutes (1898), 68.
31. Minutes (1901), 93-94.
32. Minutes (1902), 101.
additional one thousand copies being printed for general
distribution. These early communications on general
moral issues were largely ineffective, Friends being too
few in number and too isolated to bring any real pressure
on the law makers in Washington.
Indiana Friends were, however, better situated to
bring pressure to bear upon the state legislatures of
Indiana and neighboring states, the best example ocurring
during the struggle for a temperance law in the 1850s.
The 1853 Yearly Meeting appointed a committee to prepare
a memorial to the state legislatures of Indiana, Ohio,
Illinois, and Iowa, appealing for a temperance law.
Two years later the Yearly Meeting was happy to report
that its temperance petition presented to the Indiana
legislature had been well received, and that a
prohibition law had been passed.^ The petition presented
to the Iowa legislature also obtained favorable results
in the form of a prohibition law similar to that in
Indiana. This initial success was short-lived, however;
the 1856 Yearly Meeting reported that the Indiana
3. Minutes (1846), 32.
4. Minutes (1843), 23.
5. Minutes (1855), 22.
sent a superintendent, who was to supervise the construction
of buildings on the Indian land. The second phase
of the plan took notice of a government promise to employ
a sub-agent and blacksmith among the Indians, positions
which the committee hoped to obtain for Friends. By
filling these positions the committee felt there would be
a sufficient number of Friends in the area to hold a small
religious meeting, to which the Indians would be invited.
The plan was agreed to bythe Yearly Meetings concerned
and immediately thereafter was sent to the Secretary of
War for his approval. The assent of the War
Department was readily obtained, and a delegate to the
Indians succeeded in getting their permission to use
Although plans called for a family to be among the
Shawnee in 1836, the committee found it was unable to
act due to a lack of funds. By the end of the year,
however, generous donations had given the committee
over four thousand dollars, which was considered
39. Ibid., 14.
41. Minutes (1835), 13.
42. Ibid., 13-14.
representatives to the annual Yearly Meeting, a week-long
affair at which issues of the highest importance were
decided. The Yearly Meeting was legally incorporated
and was the official voice for Quakers in the state of
The local meetings not only held weekly services
for worship, but were generally responsible for guiding
the lives of the memhers. All vital statistics such as
births, deaths, and marriages were recorded by the
meeting. Consent of the meeting was required before
Friends were allowed to marry. Often permission of the
meeting was required before members were allowed to
travel or relocate in new areas beyond the limits of the.
Yearly Meeting. The business and various activities of
the meeting were all handled by committees, with
members often being appointed for indefinite service.
Decisions reached by a committee or meeting were usually
unanimous, if even a small opposition existed no action
was taken. The merit of the system was to prevent division
or discord in the Society, but the negative aspect was
that progress or change of any sort was quite slow. Also
negative was the fact that progressive Friends became
impatient and occasionally left the Society to find a more
congenial atmosphere elsewhere. From this can be seen
that although belief in the Inner Light seemed to dictate
of German settlers that had moved to Indiana in recent
years. The temperance committee even printed a portion
of its tracts in German, and issued a special tract in
response to a convention of German citizens in Indianapolis
that advocated free whiskey and the end of restrictive
Sabbath laws. Following the emotional peak reached in
1874, interest in temperance subsided among both the general
public and Friends.
The Yearly Meeting continued its activities, but with
little success for several years. The temperance committee
also aimed at eliminating a second evil the use of
tobacco, which was quite common, even among Friends.
The committee estimated in 1877 that Indiana Friends had
spent over fourteen thousand dollars on tobacco in the
previous year. The opposition to the use of tobacco, was
based on its demoralizing influence and the pecuniary loss.
The testimony against tobacco was always a part of the
committee's activity, but was relegated to a secondary
role compared to. the stand against alcohol. Friends were
united in opposition to alcohol, but the use of tobacco
among Friends continued unabated.
61. Minutes (1874), 44.
62. Minutes (1877), 80
in Kentucky. These are but a few of many instances
in which Friends sacrificed time and money to protect
the free Blacks from illegal enslavement.
Indiana Friends also assisted in the transportation
of Blacks who were seeking new homes in the free states
or Canada. In 1829, a committee of the Yearly Meeting
was entrusted with funds for the relief of the "People
of Color" being removed from Cincinnati to Canada.
The Yearly Meeting of 1834 agreed to raise money for
the aid of Blacks in North Carolina who were trying to
move to land in the free states; it also stated it would
welcome any Blacks that wanted to settle within the
limits of the Indiana Yearly Meeting. The following
year, in 1835, Friends in Center removed two free Blacks
from North Carolina who had been in danger of enslavement.
This policy of aiding and encouraging Black settlement
near Quaker communities was always sincere, never mere
sentiment unaccompanied by action. Proof of this can
be found as early as 1830; when Wayne County, with the
(1835 ) ,
arithmetic, grammar, and geography, a total output of
810,000 pages for the year 1888.
Despite frequent opposition from many sides, the
Friends' mission in Mexico continued to grow, limited
only by the inability to obtain more missionaries.
After twenty years of labor there were five monthly
meetings in Mexico and several preparative meetings.
To facilitate religious growth the Yearly Meeting
permitted the establishment of a general conference of
the Mexico meetings, which was to have the status of a
Quarterly Meeting and the authority to designate
ministers in the Society. There was also an increasing
support for the missions of other Yearly Meetings to
join with those of Indiana Yearly Meeting and establish
a Mexico Yearly Meeting.
After twenty-five years of service in Mexico
Purdie ended his work with the Friends' mission to take
a position with the Central American Board of Missions
in 1896. Continuing his dedication to the mission
field, Purdie worked in Central America until his death
37. Ibid. 38.
38. Minutes (1891), 40.
39. Ibid., 3 9.
40. Minutes of Women Friends (1896), 118,
41.Minutes (1896), 48-49
Foxs early years provide little indication of the
religious turmoil that would possess the young man
in later years.^
The turning point in the life of George Fox came
in 1643 when a sudden emotional insight led him to the
conclusion that Christianity as practiced in England
was empty and meaningless. At the age of nineteen
Fox became a "seeker," searching after a type of
religion that would fill the void created by his
rejection of contemporary Christianity. Three years
of seeking were brought to a fruitful conclusion by
a sudden mystical experience in which Fox came to the
realization that Christ's "work for mans salvation
did not terminate on the Cross, but that He is
operating continuously as a real presence in the world,
and that all spiritual processes have their sphere
within the soul of man."
During the next few years Fox alternately plied
his trade as a shoemaker and preached his religious
views. Gradually the central aspect of Fox's views
emerged as a belief in an "Inner Light" in man, a
notion that cannot be credited to the originality of
3. Ibid. 22.
4. Ibid., 26.
5. Ibid., 30.
During its first forty years of existence Indiana
Yearly Meeting had changed very little in religious
practice, but beginning in 1860, a series of events
began that would cause sudden, change and turmoil in
the Society of Friends. After many years of protest
against "formalism" in other religions, by 1860 Indiana
Yearly Meeting had itself become very formal. The
church as a whole had lost much of its vitality and its
life was sapped by a system of "thou shalt nots."'*'
Aware that the system had become too representative,
especially for younger Friends, Eli and Naomi Coffin
Charles and Rhoda Coffin, Harriet Steer, John Henry
Douglas, Murray Shipley,and Dr. David Judkins met during
the time of the Yearly Meeting in 1860 to discuss the
problem. Deciding on the need to work with young
Friends, the group askedthe Yearly Meeting for permission
to hold an evening meeting for young people. Over the
1. Mary Coffin Johnson, Rhoda M. Coffin (New York:
The Grafton Press, 1910), p. *79.
2. Ibid. 80.
attended district schools and participated in public funds
This work was one activity on which the Anti-Slavery and
regular Friends could find grounds for agreement.
The importance of these schools for the Black was
not the actual number of schools and pupils, but rather
the example they set for the rest of Indiana's white
population. At a time when a Black could not generally
attend a public school even if he paid his own tuition,
the opportunity afforded by the Quakers dispelled many
preconceived notions of the Hegroes capabilities. As
soon as Indiana's white population realized the Black
wanted an education and would work to pay for it, the
opposition would begin to diminish, though never
Since the Anti-Siavei'y Friends constituted only a
very small segment of Indiana's booming population, they
had relatively little political strength. To offset
its weakness in politics, nearly every Yearly Meeting
felt obligated to petition the state or federal
governments. Anti-Slavery Friends were greatly aided
in this by the eloquence of pleas penned by such members
as Coffin, Osborn, Stanton, Way, and Edgerton. In
continued successful, while the publications department
maintained a constant flow of textbooks and religious
While Friends were attempting to unify the work of
all the Yearly Meetings in Mexico, a similar effort had
taken place among the Yearly Meetings to direct mission
activities throughout the world. An American Friends
Board of Foreign Missions had been tentatively organized
several years earlier, ,but it was not until 18 95 that
such a body compiled its first annual report and assumed
its responsibilities. The first report revealed that
Friends in the United States had missions in Mexico,
Japan, Alaska, Palestine, Jamaica, Syria, China, and
India. Those missions represented the efforts of
fourteen Yearly Meetings and an outlay of $34,661.43
for the year 18 94-18 95.^ The total amount received
for foreign missions by all the Yearly Meetings since
the work began afterthe Civil War was $334,132.01, of
which Indiana Yearly Meeting had received $96 ,388.^
As the American Friends' Board expanded its activity
it undertook the supervision of new missions, supported
b y aid from the various Yearly Meetings, in a way
49. Minutes (1895), 60.
50. Ibid., 61.
51. Ibid., 52. The amount did not include Kansas and
New York Yearly Meetings.
doubled, to 378. Much of the credit for religious
expansion must be given to Daniel Drew, who was an active
preacher who traveled widely in search of new members.
In addition to the original Southland meeting, by 1886
there were also meetings at Hickory Ridge and Beaver
Bayou, with a total membership of 390, all of whom were
Black except four. By 1891 membership was up to 429
despite losses at Hickory Ridge over political dissent
and the fact that the Beaver Bayou meeting closed down
after to the death of its minister and many members left
the area. By 1899 the Southland Monthly Meeting
membership was 563, divided into two local meetings, with
four members recorded officially as Ministers of the
Society.0_L Friends had succeeded in establishing a
meeting among the Blacks and had also put to rest the
notion that the absence of Black membership in the
Society of Friends was due to the unemotional Quaker
(1878 ) ,
32, Minutes (1884), 9.
(1886 ) ,
(190G ) ,
North Carolina Yearly Meetings all approved the idea
and formal approval was given by Indiana Yearly Meeting.
To help the new Western Yearly Meeting get started, it
was decided to raise six thousand dollars for the
construction of its meeting house and to allow its
members equal privileges in the Friends' Boarding School.
According to plan, the first meeting of Western Yearly
Meeting was held in September, 1858, in Plainfield,
Indiana, with a membership of approximately eight
thousand, or about one-fourth of Indiana Yearly Meeting.0
At that first meeting the Discipline of Indiana Yearly
Meeting was adopted and an organization was set up on the
same lines as those existing in Indiana Yearly Meeting.10
From its inception Vies tern Yearly Meeting would be very
close to Indiana Yearly Meeting in its development, often
sharing and cooperating in common goals and activities
in the years that followed. Immediately prior to the
"setting off" of Western Yearly Meeting the membership
of Indiana Yearly Meeting reached its highest point, well
7. Minutes (1856), 6-7.
8. Ibid. 44.
9. Minutes of Western Yearly Meetings of Friends
(Plainfield, Hendricks County, Indiana, 1858),
and guided the school through a successful year.
Enrollment was up to an average of 130 each semester and
President Moore asked for additional faculty members.
A new drive for endowment funds was launched, but a
drought in 1881 ruined crops and made it difficult
for many Friends to contribute.
During the next few years the school greatly
expanded its curriculum at the college level. By 1885,
the students had a choice of four programs of study:
Ancient Classics, Modern Classics, Latin Scientific,
and Scientific. There were also separate Art and
Biblical Departments, while the natural history cabinet
had become so large that it was in need of a separate
facility. The college also suffered a loss in 1883,
when President Moore announced his retirement, although
he was ably replaced by Joseph John Mills of Western
Yearly Meeting. Another problem faced by the College at
this time was a severe drop in students enrolling in the
preparatory department, which normally was much larger
than the college department. The problem was caused by
43, Minutes (1884), 41.
Jones, Rufus M. The Later Periods of Quakerism.
London: Macmillan and Co., Limited, 1921.
Jones, Rufus M. The Quakers in the American Colonies.
London: Macmillan and Co., Limited, 1911.
Jorns, Auguste. The Quakers as Pioneers in Social
Work. Trans, by Thomas Kite Brown, Jr. Port
Washington: Kennikat Press, Inc., 1969.
Kelsey, Rayner Wickersham. Friends and the
Indians. 1655-1917. Philadelphia: The Associated
Executive Committee of Friends on Indian Affairs,
Knight, Rachel. The Founder of Quakerism. A
Psychological Study of the Mysticism of George
Fox. New York: George H. Doran Co., 1923.
Lindley, Harlow, ed; Indiana as Seen by Early
Travelers. Indiana Historical Series. Indianapolis:
Indiana Historical Commission, 1916.
Litwock, Leon F. North of Slavery. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1961.
Lloyd, Arnold. Quaker Social History 1669-1738.
New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1950.
McKiever, Charles Fitzgerald. Slavery and the
Emigration of North Carolina Friends. Murfreesboro,
N.C.: Johnson Publishing Co., 1970.
Mock, Albert. The Mid-Western Academy Movement
1810-1900. Published by the author, 1949.
Moore, Edward E. A Century of Indiana. New York:
American Book Company, 1910.
Moran, Charles P. A Brief History of the Ohio
Yearly Meeting of the~Â£eTTgious SocieTy of Friends
(ConservatTveTT Barnesville, Ohio: Published by
Direction of the Representative Meeting, 1959.
Newman, Daisy. A Procession of Friends. Quakers
in America. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday 6
Co. Inc7", ,1972 .
Although many Friends believed that service in
hospitals would not compromise their testimony against
war, a number of Friends refused payment or service of
any type. One incident involving these extreme Friends
occurred in Richmond in 1864, when twenty-five Friends
were drafted, including the Clerk of the Yearly Meeting,
Charles F. Coffin. To seek relief, a delegation of
Friends went to Indianapolis to see Governor Oliver P.
Morton, a native, of Wayne County and one who might be
expected to be sympathetic toward Quakers. Joining
with a like delegation from Western Yearly Meeting
under the leadership of Barnabas C. Hobbs, Timothy
Nicholson obtained an interview with Governor Morton.
Pointing out that elections were only a month away,
the two Friends suggested to Horton the possibility
that if the Republican-inclined Friends were poorly
treated they might decline to vote in the coming elections
Morton promised to help all he could, which proved
sufficient, as none of the drafted Friends in Richmond
was bothered after that time. Allen Jay, one of the
drafted Friends, had been notified that his livestock
was to be sold at public sale to raise the three hundred
16. Walter C. Woodward, Timothy Nicholson. Master Quaker
(Richmond, la: The Nicholson Press, 1927 ), p. 74.
17. Ibid. 76.
The "First Annual Report of the White's Indiana
Manual Labor Institute" was presented in 1853, reporting
that 760 acres of land had been purchased and were in
the process of being cleared. The committee had
decided to wait a while before putting up any buildings,
since the manual labor aspect of the school would
necessitate having a workable farm before students
could be accepted. The "First Annual Report of the
Vliite' s Iowa Manual Labor School" was also presented
in 1853, the committee having incorporated the school
according to state law, and purchased 1440 acres of
land for the school's location. Plans for a farm
were put into action immediately, but they also
decided to wait until the farm was completed before
constructing any school buildings.
During the next few years these schools made little
progress except for the clearing of land. By 1860 the
Indiana school had begun construction of the actual school
building, but the Iowa school had not even progressed
The committee reported in 1844, that the Indian
school and farm were encountering some difficulties,
as was the committee itself. The committee announced
it was in debt for $1398.14, and made a plea for more
generous support. In response to this appeal, the
Yearly Meeting directed that the Quarterly Meetings
raise one thousand dollars for the Indian concern during
the coming year, and hoped that the other Yearly
Meetings would do the same. Another problem that
year arose from a bad harvest on the farm, which had
been caused by unusually heavy rains. Not only
would the staff need additional funds to purchase
supplies, but the Indians would also need relief to
survive the approaching winter. A third problem,
which was more easily solved, concerned the fact that
the Shawnee had no form of strict marriage contract.
The solution was a "Form of Marriage," prepared and to
be administered by the superintendent for Indian
The following year the committee reported that all
of the Indians had made it through the winter with the
58. Minutes (1844), 15.
59. Ibid., 14.
Although the Friends Foreign Mission Association
had begun independent of the Yearly Meeting, it soon
asked that its work become a part of the concerns of the
Yearly Meeting. Needing little inducement to become
involved in such work, the Yearly Meeting took over work
of the Foreign Mission Association in 1874, with the
primary field of interest' to be the mission in Mexico.
The Mexico mission in 1874 was located in Matamoros and
was run by the Purdies with the aid of Micajah and
Susannah Binford, the latter couple having recently joined
the mission staff. The Beards had returned from India,
but funds were being raised in hopes of sending Louise
Coffin to continue the work in the India mission field.
The early years of the Mexico mission presented a
number of difficulties, many of which resulted from the
political turmoil so frequent in that country. The
Binfords left Mexico in 1875, but the Purdies persisted
in their efforts, even obtaining a small printing press
to publish their religious materials in Spanish.^
Fortunately for the Purdies, by 1877 the political
9. .Minutes (1874), 53.
11.Minutes (1876), 83.
The main work of the conference was to decide on
certain issues of religious practice and doctrine that
were currently the subject of debate among Friends. The
subjects of water baptism and "the Supper" were of
primary importance, the conference concluding that the
traditional Quaker position against such sacraments was
still correct. The views presented by Indiana Yearly
Meeting in 1886 were officially accepted as the position
of the conference on the subject. On the matter of
religious services the conference was more flexible,
allowing a certain latitude in practice. "The ministry
of the word, the prayer for help, the reading of the
Scriptures, the hymn of praise, or the silent waiting ..
may, any or all, be used by the Spirit to the exhaltation
of the Lord Jesus." The subject of the pastoral
system was similarly left open to the interpretation of
the various meetings. The conference suggested that each
situation should be considered on its own merits as to
the need for a paid clergy, and added a warning that such
individuals should not become a "separate order."
The single most important work of the conference
was deciding on a single declaration of faith which
could be adopted by all the Yearly Meetings as a guide for
Cadwallader, Benjamin. A Letter to Friends of
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting. Philadelphia, 1855.
Coffin, Levi. Reminiscences of Levi Coffin.
Cincinnati: Western Tract Society, 1876.
Congressional Globe. XXII (1850), 1302.
Considerations Addressed to the Members of the
Yearly Meeting of Friends of Philadelphia.
Philadelphia: John Pennington, 1846.
Convention of Anti-Slavery Friends. February 6,
Crewdson, Isaac. The Trumpet Blown. London:
Hamilton and Co., 1838.
DeBow, J.D.B., ed., Statistical View of the United
States. Washington, D.C: A.P.. Nicholson,
Public Printer, 1854.
Defense of Anti-Slavery Friends Against the
Slanderous Attack of an Anonymous Reviewer,
Meeting for Suffering of Anti^Slavery Friends,
November 25, 1843.
Discipline of the Society of Friends of Indiana
Yearly Meeting. Cincinnati : Mirror Press, I8IT5.
Discipline of the Society of Friends of Indiana
Yearly Meeting. Cincinnati: Achilles Pugh, HT3 9.
Discipline of the Society of Friends of Indiana
Yearly Meeting 1678. Richmond, la.: Nicholson 5
Bros., 187 8 .
Discipline of Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends.
Being the Constitution and Discipline of the
American Yearly Meeting of Friends. Richmond,
la.: Nicholson Press, 1905.
Eaton, Colonel John, Jr. Report of the General
Superintendent of Freedmenl Department of the
Tennessee' cTlIFate of Arkansas for 1864. Memphis,
Tenn. 186 5.
Edgerton, Walter. AHistory of the Separation in
Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends. Cincinnati:
Achilles Pugh, 1856.
boarding schools, being the equivalent of a high school.
3y 1850, Friends had several schools doing advanced work,
while the state of Indiana was just attempting its first
high school in Evansville.
The desire of Friends during these years to establish
private schools was not unique to Quakers. One early
study of the subject pointed out that "it was commonly
held that the various religious denominations should
undertake the higher education of the young people and
each sect tried to provide a school for its own
following." Despite the fact that they were a
relatively small body, in the field of education "Friends
were the most successful." Nearly equal to Friends
in their educational endeavors were the Methodists and
Presbyterians, the latter group organizing a branch
of the Presbyterian Educational Society in 1830 for
the purpose of containing Catholicism through Christian
education, even though very few Catholics lived in
Indiana at that time.
23. Mary A. Harding, The Early History of Education,
Public Schools, Colleges, Newspapers and Women*s
Clubs of Indiana. (Ft. Wayne, 1916), p. 4.
24. Albert Mock, The Mid-Western Academy Movement.
1810-1900 (pulSl by author, 1949), pi 29.
25. Second Annual Report of the Directors of the Indiana
branch of the Presbyterian Education Society
(Qrawfordsville, 18 32 ), p. 13'.
Friends, stating that there was a problem the previous
year due to the "depressed condition of money affairs
in our contry," that situation had abated. The
committee went on to point out that the majority of
Indiana Friends were of the middle class and could have
given much more; that they could have provided all the
needed funds if they so desired.
The following year the Quarterly Meetings raised an
additional $2,113.62 in subscriptions for the school,
leaving approximately six thousand dollars still
needed to pay for anticipated construction, a sum the
subordinate meetings were expected to provide.
Actual construction of the school had begun by this
time: work on the cellars and foundation had started,
also work on the wash and bake houses. In 1840,
construction was stopped due to a shortage of funds, but
the committee had gone too far to allow failure at that
point. Rather than wait on the uncertain generosity
of the members, permission was obtained from the Yearly
13. Ibid., 11.
15. Minutes (1839), 17.
16. Ibid., 18.
Minutes (1840), 8
afterwards a reality, under the supervision of Sarah J.
Smith, a Friend from Wayne County, with Rhoda Coffin a
member of the Board of Visitors.
Other efforts at this time by Indiana Yearly Meeting
and the Coffins led to the establishment of a Reformatory
School for Boys at Plainfield, Indiana. Charles F.
Coffin was appointed president of the Board of Trustees.
Although Friends efforts had achieved commendable
reforms, to maintain sufficient standards in the future
Friends petitioned in 1871 for a Board of Supervisors
responsible for checking prisons and other state
institutions. Initial efforts for the project failed,
but success was finally achieved in 1889, in the form of
a Board of State Charities. So successful were the
reforms obtained in Indiana that, in 1875, Rhoda Coffin
was asked to address the National Prison Congress
meeting in New York City, the first woman ever to address
that organization."^ Stressing the concept of rehabili
tation rather than punishment, Rhodas address was so well
6. Ibid., 155.
7. Woodward, 88.
8. Ibid. 8 9.
be Yea, yea; Hay, nay: for whatsoever is more than
these cometh of evil" (Matt. V: 34, 35, 37). Regarding
politics, Friends were advised "to decline accepting any
office or station in civil government; the duties of
which are inconsistent with our religious principles."
Friends were strong believers in obedience to the
civil government, but had learned from past experience
that holding public office often "tends to lay Waste
our Christian testimony" in such things as the taking
of oaths and military matters.
Plainess in "Dress and Address" were also firmly
established principles of Quaker life at that time.
Friends were staunch believers in the equality of men
and refused to address anyone with what they considered
artificial titles of distinction. For the same reason
Quaker men would not remove their hats except in religious
meetings where the difference was intended for God. This
theme of equality was also extended to clothing and
additionally supported by scriptural opposition to
adornments. Simplicity of dress was not unique among
Quakers, but was practiced by a number of religious groups.
There was never a specific or exact manner of dress
7. Ibid., 17.
presented as "nothing less than the total abolition of
the spirit and practice of war."
To coordinate the activity of the Yearly Meeting
with the Peace Association, a standing committee on
peace was appointed. It presented its first report in
1868. Indiana Friends were still not completely
unified on the peace stand, as some Friends advocated
justification of a defensive war. With the memory
of the Civil War experience still fresh, the Yearly
Meeting suggested caution in dealing with members not in
harmony with the peace stand, reminding Friends that
the "object of our Discipline is the reclaiming of
Once established, the Peace Association began
efforts to publicize the cause of world peace. In 1870,
the Peace Association sent tracts to 5,100 ministers
representing nine denominations and employed Robert W.
Douglas and William G. Hubbard as traveling agents and
lecturers.Hubbard, a former agent of the American
24. American Friend, II, 3 (April, 1868), 57.
25. Minutes (1868), 53.
26. Ibid., 25.
27. Ibid., 2 3.
28.Minutes (1870), 54-55.
his slaves. In his rebuttal Clay pleased the crowd
and chastised Mendenhall. As a result, he completely
alienated anti-slavery Friends, many of whom belonged
to the State Anti-Slavery Society.
The time of Clay's visit to Richmond also was the
date of the Yearly Meeting, which was again dominated
by anti-abolition Friends. After Clay had spoken, the
leaders of the Yearly Meeting antagonized the abolition
group by inviting Clay to attend a session of the Yearly
Meeting. In doing this, the anti-abolition Friends
appeared to give official notice of their support of
colonization and also heightened political differences
in their feud with the anti-slavery Friends.
The anti-abolition Friends continued their assault
on abolition by attacking the character of Charles Osborn,
the leading personage of the anti-slavery group. Osborn
was spoken of as "gone, fallen and out of the life," an
attack which might have been occasioned by his appoint
ment in 1342, as a representative to the World's
Convention of Anti-Slavery Societies by the State
21. Ibid. 118.
22. Ibid., 125
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I: THE ANTE-BELLUM PERIOD 1
CHAPTER I: THE QUAKER BACKGROUND 2
CHAPTER II: EARLY YEARS IN INDIANA 8
CHAPTER III: THE YEARLY MEETING BEGINS 17
CHAPTER IV: INTERNAL CRISIS 32
CHAPTER V: EDUCATION 45
CHAPTER VI: FOUNDING A COLLEGE 59
CHAPTER VII: SPEAKING OUT 73
CHAPTER VIII: AIDING THE INDIANS 81
CHAPTER IX: FREE BLACKS AND SLAVERY 101
CHAPTER X: CRISIS OVER ABOLITION Ill
CHAPTER XI: THE ANTI-SLAVERY FRIENDS 126
CHAPTER XII: THE YEARLY MEETING YEARS OF
GROWTH 14 3
PART II: MOVING IN NEW DIRECTIONS 15 0
CHAPTER I: THE CIVIL WAR . 151
CHAPTER II: CONTINUED AID TO THE FREEDMEN .... 164
CHAPTER III: THE CONTINUED MISSION TO THE
CHAPTER IV: NEW DIRECTIONS IN MISSION WORK ... 205
The association also sent numerous petitions and addresses
to Congress advocating arbitration for international
disputes and especially asking that the United States
cooperate with Great Britain in the interest of peace.
The Peace Association also attempted to obtain the
cooperation of other denominations. Thus, in 1876, it
sent Daniel Hill to the General Conferences Methodist
Episcopal Church, the Reformed Presbyterian Church, and
the United Presbyterian Church. Although Hill received
no official commitments, the Peace Association issued a
call for a non-denominational conference of Christians
to meet in Philadelphia on October 17, 1876, to discuss
the peace movement. The conference at Philadelphia
was held as planned, but attendance was small and plans
for a second conference failed to materialize.
The failure of the peace conference was also the
start of a decline in Friends' support of the peace
movement. In 1881, the Peace Association reported that due
to a shortage of funds, no agents could be hired as lecturers,
although publication of the Messenger of Peace had
(1876 ) ,
over the doctrines espoused by Elias Hicks of New York.
The Orthodox body, which became the largest and most
important Quaker group in Indiana, also adhered to the
views of British Friend Joseph John Gurney in a series
of doctrinal disputes which followed soon after the
Hicksite Separation. Toward the end of the century
Indiana Yearly Meeting was instrumental in events leading
to the formation in 1902, of a national Friends'
organization known as the Five Year's Meeting, which
later changed its name to Friends United Meeting.
The story of Indiana Yearly Meeting in the nineteenth
century is one of growth and expansion as a religious
body. Paralleling the growth of the religious body
is the story of Quaker benevolent and educational
activities. An outstanding aspect of the Quaker heritage
shared by Indiana Friends was a zeal for humanitarian
The formation of the Five Year's Meeting in 1902, is
used as the concluding date for the narrative. The
Five Year's Meeting began a new era in Quaker history,
uniting for the first time most of the Orthodox Yearly
2. The Orthodox group was that segment of the Society
of Friends which rejected the teachings of Elias
Hickst A discussion of the Hicksite Separation
can be found in Chapter IV.
omitted from this study. It is sufficient to point
out that after the death of Fox in 1691 Quakerism lost
some of its original zeal; much of the "quaking" aspect
almost completely subsided. A period of "quietism"
followed during which Quakers formalized their organization
and religious views, both of which will be discussed in
detail in later chapters. At the start of the nineteenth
century Friends were located in every section of the
United States, with formal organizations ranging from
North Carolina to New England. As the new nation turned
westward and began a century of expansion thousands of
Quakers would join the migrant throngs seeking a new
life in the West. It is at this point that the story
of Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends actually begins.
12. Detailed information on Quakers in the colonial.
and early national periods of United States history
can best be located by consulting the following
works: Frederick B. Tolies, Meeting House and
Counting House (Chapel Hill: University of
North Carolina Press, 1948), and Quakers and the
Atlantic Culture (New York: The Macmillan
Company, 1960); Rufus M. Jones, The Quakers in
the American Colonies (London: Macmillan and~Co.,
Ltd., 1911), and The Later Periods of Quakerism,
Vol. I (London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1921);
Sydney V. James, A People Among Peoples. Quaker
Benevolence in Eighteenth-Century America
(Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press,1963);
and Edwin H. Cody, John Woolman: The Mind of the
Quaker Saint (New York: Washington Square Press,
that fax1. A committee appointed to check the records
of the Iowa school in 1859, discovered the finances
were m bad shape due to poor investments. The
next year new trustees had straightened out the
financial records, but feared that over eight thousand
dollars of the schools funds would be lost due to bad
investments made by the former trustees, seriously
hindering future growth for that school. Although
progress had been slow, the later decades of the
nineteenth century would witness a valuable return
from the generosity of Josiah White.
Besides supervising the learning process of younger
Friends, the Yearly Meeting also considered it vital that
all Friends have proper literature available for
reading. Concern that each family have a Bible to
read led to a survey of the membership to find out
exactly how many families did not have a copy of the
Scriptures. The report given at the 1830 Yearly
Meeting revealed that 196 Bibles were needed in order
for every family to be supplied. In 1835, a similar
Friends did feel they had achieved one success when the
State Superintendent of Public Instruction gave his
approval for teaching in public schools the effects of
alcohol, tobacco, and opium on the human body.
Encouraged by an occassional small success or events
in other states, Friends maintained their stand for
temperance, but were hindered by a division over methods.
Many Friends believed that the issue was a matter for the
individual to decide and not a subject for legal controls.
Such Friends favored a program of educating the public
about the evils associated with the use of alcohol. Other
Friends believed that the only solution was to obtain
legal sanctions against alcohol, which meant political
involvement and pressure. The temperance committee of
the Yearly Meeting favored the legal solution, but found
it difficult to unite Friends behind that position.
To popularize its views and gain the support of
Friends, the temperance committee, in 1889, began publication
of the Temperance Messenger, a monthly newspaper with a
circulation of six thousand. The need for legal action
was stressed by pointing out that the United States
treasury obtained millions of dollars from liquor taxes,
making "Our Christian Government a gigantic distilling
68. Ibid., 49.
69. Minutes (1889), 25.
The next query dealt with business, stating that
Friends should live within their means, deal justly and
be punctual in paying debts. Most Friends were observant
of this testimony, the most common infraction being late
in paying debts. Such was the case in 1837, with a lack
of justice in business dealings also being mentioned. .
The problems of that year were no doubt caused by the
"Panic of 1837" and the economic depression which gripped
the entire nation. It should also be pointed out that
although the testimony on business dealings was based on
Christian ideals, it was also very sound business practice
and was complied with partially on that basis.
The eighth query asked if Friends bore a faithful
testimony against slavery and aided the free "coloured."
Friends were of a single mind on this subject, with only
an isolated mention of a deficiency in the testimony on
slavery. All Friends agreed upon the evils of slavery,
but they did vary in their views as to how the evil
should be combatted. This problem will be discussed at
length in a later chapter on anti-slavery.
The last query was mostly a reminder to deal
carefully with offenders of the Discipline. In each
incident of a deficiency the guilty party was visited
26. Minutes (1837), 6.
27. Minutes (1829), 10
found themselves admirably suited to the task. The
rich Indiana soil soon gave way to the plow and crops
soon replaced the wilderness growth. The typical Quaker
earned a living through agriculture, aided by the labor
of the entire family. A sufficient number of Friends
turned to business pursuits so that nearly all aspects
of the settlements economy remained in Quaker hands.
With a well-deserved reputation for thrift, industry,
and honesty, plus a deep religious faith to sustain
them in hard times, Friends settlements were soon
noted for their prosperity.
During these early years Friends prospered
materially, but encountered a certain number of
difficulties because of their religious faith. The
largest group of Friends had come from the Worth
Carolina counties of Guilford, Randolph, Chatham, and
Alamance, known at that time as the "Quaker District."
They had brought with them an intense hatred for the
institution of slavery and a sympathy for the deplorable
condition of the Blacks, which often brought them into
opposition with their new neighbors in Indiana. This is
readily understood when it is remembered that much of
Indianas non-Quaker population had also moved from the
slave-holding states of the South. The majority were
either younger sons or upland Southerners, men who had
H.M. Wagstaff, ed.,Minutes of the N.C. Manumission
Society 1816-1834 (Chapel Hill,N.C., 1934) p. 3.
intrigues had settled down and the mission enjoyed a
small measure of success. That year the Purdies reported
that in addition to operating the printing press, they
had run schools for boys and girls and held religious
meetings with an average attendance of seventy.
Although the fighting had stopped, the disastrous state
of the countryside had led to health problems, with
malaria causing a special problem for Samuel Purdie's
health. The addition of twenty-four new members
to the religious meeting in Mexico inspired such optimism
that plans were set in motion for constructing a meeting
house there.The activity of the printing press was
increased and tracts were being sent to several areas in
Mexico in hope of following with missionary visits in
the near future.
Indiana Yearly Meeting was not the only group of
American Friends to become involved in foreign missions,
and in 1879 Ohio Yearly Meeting suggested the creation
of an American Friends Missionary Board. Originally
12. Minutes (1877), 69-70.
13. Ibid., 71.
14. Minutes (1878), 64-65.
15. Ibid. 6 3.
16.Minutes (1879), 10
stated in an interview with Friends' delegates that he
had no intention of changing the present Indian policy and
Friends agreed to continue in the field. The good inten
tions of President Hayes were soon ended with the appoint
ment of E. A. Hayt to replace J. Q. Smith as Indian
Commissioner. The new commissioner quickly revealed his
attitude toward Friends when he told a delegation from the
Associated Executive Committee that the officials that Friends
had recommended were "unsuitable, and that some of them lacked
integrity." Friends' reaction to these charges was to not
ify President Hayes of the accusations, to declare the charges
false, and to offer to end their cooperation with the govern-
ment. Both the President and Secretary of the Interior
responded by asking Friends to continue their activities, which
Friends accepted as vindication of the integrity of their work.
Despite the assurances of President Hayes, the attitude
of Commissioner Hayt was reflected in several actions
taken against Friends' agents in the Indian work. Agent
Mahlon K. Newlin was removed for political reasons and
several Friends' nominees for office were refused for
26. Minutes (1878), 49.
28. Ibid., 50.
29. Ibid. 52.
The first half of the nineteenth century was a period
of continuous growth for Indiana Yearly Meeting as a
steady flow of Friends came from the eastern and southern
states to settle the virgin land of Indiana. First
organised as a Yearly Meeting in 1821, Indiana Friends
remained unchanged for several decades. Protected by a
self-imposed communal isolation, the silent meeting
without a pastor became symbolic of early Indiana Friends.
Obeying the dictates of their religious beliefs,
Friends were active in a number of educational and
charitable enterprises. Friends' schools were established
to ensure a proper education of the youth, and a demand
for higher education led to the founding of Earlham
College in 1859. Religious education was also supplied
by a system of Bible Schools and the distribution of
Bibles and selected reading material to all Friends.
The aboriginal Indians, free Blacks, and slaves became
the special concern of Quaker benevolence during this
period In 1842 the issue of abolition of slavery
became the center of a bitter dispute among Friends,
leading to schism and the formation of a separate
Yearly Meeting of Anti-Slavery Friends. By 1860 the
separation caused by abolition ended and Indiana Friends
become State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Hobbs' replacement as president was Joseph Moore, a
prominent Friend and educator who would make valuable
contributions to Earlham College.
Under the leadership of Joseph Moore the declining
enrollment was halted and the future once again seemed
promising. To prevent the recurring financial problems
caused by unexpected expenses, plans were made to create
an endowment fund for the college. By 1872, subscriptions
for the endowment fund amounted to $53,000, and three
years later income from the fund was nearly five thousand
dollars. Increased financial support also made it
possible to install gas lighting and create a professor-
ship of English literature and elocution. A special
project of Joseph Moore's was the establishment of a
"cabinet" of natural history, which contained hundreds
of specimens, most of which came from the personal work
of Joseph Moore. In 1875, Moore traveled to the Sandwich
Islands where he. collected many new specimens for the
25. Elizabeth H. Emerson, "Barnabas C. Hobbs: Midwestern
Quaker Minister and Educator, Bulletin of Friends
Historical Association, 49, 1 (Spring, 1960 ), p. 2*8.
26. Minutes (1868), 38
27. Minutes (1872), 33, Minutes (1875), 35.
28. Minutes (1874), 30.
29.Minutes (1875), 32
Dymond's Essays. The voice of Quaker protest had
found a powerful ally in the printed message and in
future decades this would be a constant part of expanding
In matters of local charity Friends remained faithful
to the Discipline1s injunction to aid the poor and
disabled. Being mostly situated in Quaker neighborhoods,
Indiana Friends rarely allowed the needs of an unfortunate
member to reach the attention of the Yearly Meeting.
One of the few exceptions to this came to the attention
of the Yearly Meeting in 1835, when the subject of an
"Asylum for the benefit of such of our members as may
be deprived of their reason" was discussed. An
investigation of the problem led to a call for donations,
which by 1840 resulted in a fund of $488.75 for the
proposed asylum. In 1842, the Quarterly Meetings
polled their members and reported thirty-six "idiots"
and thirty-five "insane people" within the care of the
Society, most of whom were supported by their families.
18. Jonathan Dymond's (1796-1828) Essays on the Principles
of Morality was published in London in 1829. The
Essay on War" contained in the volume was considered
the classic interpretation of the Quaker position
19. Minutes (1835), 5.
20. Minutes (1840), 23.
21. Minutes (1842), 17.
Friends did join the conservative group which left
Western Yearly Meeting.
The religious practice of Friends had come a
considerable distance in becoming similar to its
Protestant neighbors, but there was another area of
proposed change that proved too drastic even for most
progressive Friends. Friends had traditionally held that
all outward ceremonies were not necessary for religious
practice, including the sacraments of baptism and the
Lords Supper. As Friends became more involved with
their Protestant neighbors, there appeared a small group
of Friends advocating the introduction of the two
sacraments into Friends religious practice. The issue of
water baptism had appeared as early as 1836, when Elisha
Bates was disowned from Ohio Yearly Meeting for
participating in water baptism. Except for isolated
instances, it was not until the introduction of the
revival period that the problem assumed major proportions
for Indiana Friends. By 1875, Friends were sufficiently
alarmed to remind members that "true baptism is that of
the Holy Spirit; the true supper of the Lord, the
34. Errol T. Elliott, Quakers on the American Frontier
(Richmond, la.: The Friends United Press, 1969),
The pastoral system had been adopted, but too late to
save much of the earlier work of evangelism.
The introduction of singing, music, revivals, prayer
meetings, and the pastoral system represented victory
for progressive Friends in the attempt to modernize and
rejuvenate the Society of Friends. Many Friends had
opposed the changes, but often said nothing when
confronted by the apparent success of the new techniques
in winning new members. It was the silent opposition of
conservative Friends that caused the Yearly Meeting
financial embarrassment, and also contributed to
the ultimate failure of the revival period. Similar
events in other Yearly Meetings had provoked more open
opposition, as in Iowa, Kansas, ans Western Yearly
Meetings, where conservative Friends separated to establish
their own meetings. Opposition in Indiana Yearly Meeting
did not go to such an extreme, although some Indiana
33. An example of the silent opposition of conservative
Indiana"Friends can be found in the "Journal of
David Huddleston." After attending a session of
the Yearly Meeting in 1878, Huddleston wrote that
several changes had been accepted, but with "a good
deal of silent submission on the part of some of
us old Folks." David Huddleston, "Journal of
David Huddleston," Book 7. MS., Friends'
Collection, Lily Library, Earlham College.
for over eight years. The expense to the meetings
totaled six hundred dollars.
Although these activities were commendable, they
do not represent the emotions of many Friends in regard
to the Blacks and slavery. Many regular Friends of
Indiana Yearly Meeting sympathized with the views of the
Anti-Slavery Friends and often aided them in their
activities. Since in later years the activities of the
Anti-Slavery Friends became a part of the Friends*
heritage, a discussion of their work is invaluable to
a complete study of Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends.
44. Minutes .(1850 ) 32 .
Gummere, Amelia Mott. The Quakers. A Study in
Costume. Philadelphia: Perris 8 Leachj
Harding, Mary A. The Early History of Education,
Public Schools, Colleges, Newspapers and Women's
Clubs of Indiana. Ft. Wayne, 1916. Typewritten
Indiana Division, Indiana State Library,
Heiss, Willard, ed. Abstracts of the Records of
the Society of Friends in Indiana. Encylopedia
of American Quaker Geneology, VII. Indianapolis:
Indiana Historical Society, 1962.
Heiss, Willard. A List of All the Friends* Meetings
That Exist or Ever Have Existed in Indiana.
Indianapolis: John Woolman Press, Inc., 1961.
Hicks, Elias. Journal of the Life and Religious
Labours of EliaS Hicks. New York: Isaac T.
Hopper, 1832. Reprint edition Arno Press, Inc.,
Hodgson, William Jr., An Examination of the
Memoirs and Writings of Joseph John Gurney.
Philadelphia: C.G. Henderson 8 Co., 1856.
Hodgson, William. The Society of Friends in the
Nineteentn Century, I. Philadelphia: Smith,
English, 8 Co., 1875.
Hodgson, William. The Society of Friends in the
Nineteenth Century, II. Philadelphia: Smith,
English, 5 Co., 1876.
Hubbard, Jeremiah. Forty Years Among the Indians.
Miami, Oklahoma: The Phelps Printers, 1913.
James, Sydney V. A People Among Peoples. Quaker
Benevolence in Eighteenth-Century America.
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1963.
Johnson, Mary Coffin. Rhoda M. Coffin. New York:
The Grafton Press, 1910.
Jones, Rufus M. George Fox. Seeker and Friend.
London: George Allen 8 Unwin, Ltd., 1930.
their religious life. Written by a special committee and
approved by the conference, the declaration was mostly
the work of Joseph Bevan Braithwaite of London Yearly
Meeting and the foremost minister in the Society at that
time. Incorporating the decisions made at the conference,
"A Declaration of some of the Fundamental Principles of
Christian Truth as held by the Religious Society of Friends"
contained no innovations in Quaker doctrine, but did
provide a basis for unity among Friends. Eventually the
"Declaration of Faith" was officially approved by all
the participating Yearly Meetings except Ohio, which
opposed the injunction against water baptism.
The success of the Richmond Conference of 1887
prompted Indiana Yearly Meeting to issue a call, for a
second conference to be held in 1892, in Indianapolis.
Prior to the conference in 1892, a small meeting was
held in Oskaloosa, Iowa, in 1891, which proposed that
the various Yearly Meetings join together and organize
a "Conference of Yearly Meetings of Friends in America,"
which would meet every five years, beginning in 1892.
No formal action was taken by the delegates at that
meeting, but the idea of a formal organization was held
over for discussion at the conference in 1892. The
47. Woodward, 191.
48. Minutes (1891), 30.
Work for temperance continued, but it was hindered
by apathy and a decline in financial support from the
Yearly Meeting. A lecturer on temperance was supported
at times, and in 1879, the committee reported it had
begun paying for a page in the Christian Worker devoted
to temperance. In 1880 the committee warned Friend.s
to take special care not to indulge at political gatherings,
since free refreshments were often a larger attraction
- ... 64
than the politicians. A special letter was sent to
Lucy W. Hayes, wife of President Hayes, thanking her for
her stand "in staying the drinking habits in the social
circle at the nation's capital."
The temperance cause gained momentum in 1881, as plans
were made to try and amend the state constitution to
prohibit the sale and manufacture of alcohol. All Friends
were asked to exercise care in the elections, voting for
thoses candidates known to support the temperance work.
The actual attempt at obtaining a constitutional amendment
found support in the legislatures but was stopped from
going to the voters in 1883, by a legal technicality.
1890 a Church Extension Fund was established to aid in
furthering the mission work, both at home and abroad.
That year the Home Missions had conducted 1,870 meetings
that resulted in two conversions, plus a continuation of
the regular charitable work. Many of the religious
conversions that were reported did not add to the
Friends' membership because they were actually "renewals,"
meaning the, religious experiences of Friends who felt
their faith renewed. Also, many of those claiming
conversion did not take the final step of actually
joining the Society, or else joined a more familiar
For the remainder of the nineteenth century and
the future, Home Missions continued as an important
concern of the Yearly Meeting. By 1900 the statistical
report on Home Missions for that year revealed that
members had made 5,683 home visitations and conducted
942 cottage prayer meetings. Also noticeable was a
decline in the number of religious meetings and conver
sions and a greater concentration on charitable work.
Home missions was one of the ways in which Friends
reacted and adapted to the changing environment after the
66. Minutes (1890), 68.
67. Ibid. 17-18.
68. Minutes (1900), 34-35.
emphasis being placed upon Scriptural authority and less
upon the more difficult means of the Inner Light.
Dissension over these trends within the Society had
appeared in Ireland by the end of the eighteenth century,
where some members denied the divinity of Christ, de-
emphasized the Bible, and placed sole reliance on the
Inner Light. This new spirit was soon transferred to
the United States where it fell upon fertile ground.
Hannah Barnard of New York Yearly Meeting joined the
dissenters when visiting in Ireland and was disowned
for her views in 1802 by her monthly meeting in Hudson,
New York. Gradually bodies of dissenters appeared
in New England, New York, and Pennsylvania, where they
were known as "New Lights" or "Ranters." Speaking
2. Ibid. 45 8.
3. William Hodgson, The Society of Friends in the
Nineteenth Century^ Vol. I (Philadelphia: Smith,
English, S Co., 1875), p. 37.
4. Ibid., 39. Hannah Barnard was a recorded minister
m the Society at the time of her disownment. Her
position of disbelief in Scriptural infallibility
was the basis for the disownment action taken by
Hudson Monthly Meeting. Her unsuccessful appeals
to the Quarterly Meeting and then to New York
Yearly Meeting attracted considerable attention and
contributed to the controversy among Friends over
5. Ibid. 58.
Quarterlies had merged because of their declining member-
ships. In 1855, a reduced Yearly Meeting expressed
"concern on account of the feeble, faltering and lukewarm
condition" of a number of members. Citing their "lack
of faithfulness," the Yearly Meeting announced that two
of the meetings for worship had entirely shut down.41* By
1856, membership was extremely low, although a skeletal
organization was maintained. In 1857, the Duck Creek
and Cabin Creek .Quarterlies discontinued all their
meetings, and the Salem, Dewberry, and Deer Creek
Monthlies also disbanded. When the Northern Quarterly
requested that it also be discontinued, the Yearly
Meeting of Anti-Slavery Friends decided to disband.
After arranging for disposal of the remaining property
and money, the Minutes of this last Yearly Meeting closed
with a final defense of their actions over the past
After 1850, most reasons for the split between
Indiana Friends had disappeared. Already by 1848 Friends
and beliefs of a great many people, both Friends and
The increasing concern for Friends higher
education also led to the establishment of a second
college within the limits of Indiana Yearly Meeting. In
1870, Friends in Fairfield, Center, and Miami Quarterly
Meetings purchased Franklin College, in Wilmington,
Ohio, from the Christian Church, which had never actually
opened the schoolto students. Newly organized in a
manner similar to Earlham College, the school was legally
incorporated as Wilmington College and had its first
graduating class, in 1875 Operating on a smaller
base and in competition with Earlham College, the new
school made small but sustained progress. Eventually
the competition with Earlham College became a factor
in allowing Friends in the Wilmington area to form a
separate Yearly Meeting, although sentiment for a new
Yearly Meeting had been exhibited prior to the opening
of Wilmington College.
Perhaps the greatest success in education after the
Civil War was the continued growth and expansion of
Earlham College. In 1860, the school had just recently
19. Minutes (1870), 46.
20. Minutes (1875), 91
groups were to nominate suitable Friends for the posts of
Superintendent and the various agents within each super-
intendency. This was the actual beginning of Grant's
Peace Policy, which was soon extended to include other
Protestant groups and also the Roman Catholic church.
To coordinate the work of the Orthodox Friends, a
meeting in June, 1869, at Damascus, Ohio, created the
Associated Executive Committee of Friends on Indian
Affairs. keeping to his agreement, Grant appointed
Enoch Hoag of Iowa Yearly Meeting as Superintendent of
the Central Superintendency, an area of 144,000 square
miles with an Indian population of 45,000. About
nineteen thousand of those Indians were to be directly
under the care of nine Friends' agents: the tribes of
Kickapoos, Shawnees, Kansas, Osages, Quapaw, Sacs, Foxes,
Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Wichitas, Kiowas, Comanches, and
Apaches. The share of Indiana Yearly Meeting in that
work was to care for the tribes of Ottawas, Sac and Fox,
and Absentee Shawnee.
19. Ibid., 170.
20. Ibid., 171.
21. Ibid. 172.
22.Minutes (1873), 34.
All of the primary materials can be found in the Friends'
Collection of the Lily Library, Earlham College, unless
Minutes and Proceedings
Extracts from the Minutes and Advices of Indiana
Yearly Meeting of Women Friends. 1862 187 2 T8"75.
Extracts from the Minutes of our Yearly Meeting held
in Baltimore, by Adjournaments 132Baltimore ;
Wrr Wooddy, printer, 1826.
Minutes and Proceedings of the Five Years Meeting
1902. Philadelphia: John C. Winston Co. TW3.
Minutes and Proceedings of the Five Years Meeting
1907. Philadelphia: John C. Winston Co., 19o8.
"Minutes of Board of Control for the Relief of
Freedmen." 1864-1867. MS.
Minutes of Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends. 1821-
Minutes of Indiana Yearly Meeting of Anti-Slavery
Friends". 1843-185 7.
"Minutes of West Branch Quarterly Meeting on the
Concern of People of Color." 1827-1868. MS.
Minutes of Western Yearly Meeting of Friends. 1858.
"Minutes of the Acting Committee of the Boarding
School." 1846-1870. MS.
THE YEARLY MEETING
At the end of the ante-bellum period, Indiana Yearly
Meeting had nearly 25,000 members and a general state of
prosperity prevailed. Plans for the "setting off" of
a new Yearly Meeting in Iowa had been completed and were
successfully carried out in 1863. Attended by a delega
tion of twelve Indiana Friends and similar groups from
other Yearly Meetings, Iowa Yearly Meeting held its first
meeting in September, 1863, with a total membership of
about six thousand.'*" Developments had also occurred among
Kansas Friends similar to those in Iowa. In 1869, Friends
in Kansas requested they be allowed to form their own
Yearly Meeting, which was approved the following year
after careful consideration. Two years later, m 1872,
Kansas Friends met in Lawrence and held their first
Yearly Meeting, the third such organization to be set off
by Indiana Yearly Meeting. Another request for a new
1. Minutes (1873), 7.
2. Minutes (1869), 17, Minutes (1870), 7.
3. Minutes (1873), 24.
Anti-Slavery Society. The anti-abolition group was
further strengthened in its position by the presence
of John Header and Christopher Healy, two ministers
from the East who opposed abolition. In his Journal,
Osborn wrote of the pro-slavery control of the Yearly
Meeting in 1842:
The leaders of the Society . entered the
ranks of slave-holders, and pro-slavery
community, by opposing the abolitionists, and
by keeping entirely aloof from all participation
in the anti-slavery enterprise in America.^6
As the Yearly Meeting came to an end, the anti
slavery Friends decided the time had come for an open
split between the two factions. At the close of the
meeting, a Friend proposed that anyone who supported
the anti-slavery stand and "felt aggrieved with the
proceedings ofthe Yearly Meeting should stay after the
meeting in order to hold a conference." This happened,
but before the conference could begin, John Maxwell
24. Julian, 263. Although Osborn formally accepted
this appointment in December, a serious illness
the following Spring made it impossible for him
to attend. Arnold Buffum was appointed the new
delegate and attended the Convention Free Labor
Advocate and Anti-Slavery Chronicle, January 28,
1843, p. 2, May 20, 1843, p. 6, July 4, 1843, p. 3.
25. Edgerton, 60.
26. Osborn, Journal, 418, 422.
One of the activities considered extremely
important by Indiana Yearly Meeting was the education
of Friends children. Early in the history of the
Society George Fox set the example, stressing the need
for education and helping to found several Quaker
schools. Opposition to a trained ministry and the
belief that all members had a right to speak out created
a need for members to be able to read the Scriptures.
As early as 1811 the Whitewater Monthly Meeting had
appointed a committee on schools, and that winter the
first Friends' school in Indiana was taught by Robert
Brattain."1" At the first Yearly Meeting in 1821, one of
the first committees appointed was one dealing with
education. During the initial years of the Yearly
Meeting's existence this committee was relatively
inactive, reporting simply that a few schools were
taught by Friends and that members were encouraged to
1. Ethel Hittle McDaniel, "The Contribution of the Society
of Friends to Education in Indiana, "Indiana
Historical Publications, Vol. 13, No.-1 (1939),
merely "to swell a congregation, is not, necessarily,
to build up in a true sense, a church." Friends had
admitted changes in their religious services, but
found they were not sufficient to compete with the
more attractive services of other denominations.
Many Friends believed the new unity implied in
the formation of the Five Years Meeting would eventually
put them on. a par with other denominations, but this
would prove illusory. Friends continued to experience
difficulties in attracting new members and holding the
loyalty of younger Friends. In addition, the anticipated
unity of Friends did not materialize, as disagreements
over doctrine continued and further separations occurred,
even within the limits of Indiana Yearly Meeting.
The factors which caused the situation in 1900 had
developed primarily since 1860. The rise in Indiana's
population had ended the isolation of Friends and
their practice of avoiding association with non-Friends.
The demise of the Friends' school system brought the
youth into contact with members of other denominations
and accelerated the demand for, and acceptance of
innovation and change. This familiarity with non-
Friends made possible the successful evangelism of the
revival period, but it also paved the way for Friends
to accept membership in other denominations.
CONTINUED AID TO THE FREEDMEN
Friends had initiated thir work for the Freedmen in
hope of alleviating their suffering during the Civil
War, but the end of the war did not bring to an end the
relief activities for the Freedmen. The Yearly Meeting in
1865 decided not to decrease its aid program, but expressed
its feeling that peace time would afford even greater
opportunities for this work. To make an expanded program
possible, the Quarterly Meetings were asked to raise
thirty thousand dollars for the work of the Committee on
Freedmen for the coming year.^
One group of Freedmen which drew the special attention
of Friends were the orphaned and homeless children.
During the war two orphan asylums had been operated in
Helena and Little Rock, and in 1866, a third asylum was
opened in Lauderdale, Mississippi. Taking over what had
been a Confederate hospital during the war, William Vales
and his wife Catherine opened the new asylum for the
1. Minutes (1865), 41.
2. Minutes (1866), 33.
to the split and the resulting quarrels over property
and records. Many new committee members had to be
appointed replacing Hicksites while subordinate meetings
were asking for help and advice. There was also concern
over the fact that the Hicksites had held a meeting and
called it the "Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends," the.
same title used by the orthodox body. An "Epistle
of Advice" was written instructing members what to do
about the "Separatists," advising them not to fight
or to become discouraged."*"'"
The 1829 Yearly Meeting found matters little
improved over the chaos of the previous year. The
Miami Quarterly Meeting reported that because of the
"intrusions practiced by those who separated from that
meeting," it was forced to adjourn and meet elsewhere.
A committee which had been aiding local meetings during
that year also reported that at the Miami Quarterly
Meeting it"was very distressing; the Separatists holding
tneir spurious meeting in the house at the same time.
That meeting and several others were advised to move
10. Minutes (1828), 4.
11. Ibid., 18-22.
12. Minutes (1829), 14.
Friend, to buy fifty bales of free cotton while visiting
relatives in northern Mississippi, during the winter of
1845-1846. This trip and another two years later
proved successful not only in purchasing free cotton,
but also obtaining free rice and sugar. This success
ended the following year when a third trip failed to
obtain any free produce. Under these conditions, it
is not surprising that in a period of fifteen years not
one of the eight free produce stores in Indiana met with
In 1850 the Western Free Produce Association was
again forced to reorganize. This time a convention in
Salem formed a joint stock company, incorporated as the
Western Manufacturing Company, but not enough shares were
sold to permit the charter to become operative. During
the next few years local attempts were made at organizing
free produce associations, but with its national
collapse in 1856, the free produce movement ceased to
. . T ... 18
exist in indiana.
13. Knollenberg, 85.
16. Nuermberger, 119.
17. Ibid., 51.
"Memoir of David Hoover." Indiana Magazine of
History, II, 1 (March, 1906), 17-27.
Osborn, Charles W. "Henry Clay at Richmond."
Indiana Magazine of History, IV, 3 (September,
1908), 117-12 8".
Thomas, Allen C. "Congregational or Progressive
Friends." Bulletin of Friends* Historical Society
of Philadelphia, X, I (November, 1920), 21-32.
Thornburg, Opal. "David Huddleston. A Plain Friend
and His Journal." Bulletin of the Friends'
Historical Association, XXXVIII, 2 (Autumn, 1949),
Wright, Richard K. "Negro Rural Communities in
Indiana," The Southern Workman, XXXVII, 3
(March, 1908 ) 162-166 .
promptly hired Robert and Mahalah Green to go and take
charge. The school was accordingly restored to
activity and opened the following June, 1829, attended
by ten to fourteen children. Prospects for the
school's future were promising. The Indians in that
area were settled .mostly on farms and were self-sufficient.
All were eager for Friends to educate their children."
In 1830, the Indian committee made another trip
to the Wapakoneta mission and found everything to be
satisfactory, eleven students were in attendance. Their
work found to be satisfactory, Robert and Mahalah Green
were hired for another year, but the contract was
suddenly terminated by the death of Mahalah in September,
1830. The committee hired Henry and Ann Harvey as
replacements. Since 1828, Indiana Friends had
16. Minutes (1829), 18. It was the policy of Indiana
Yearly Meeting to recruit Indiana Friends to staff
the missions. Friends were necessary on the staff
so that a Quaker religious meeting could be held to
which the Indians were invited. If Indiana Friends
could not supply the staff need, Friends were
recruited from other Yearly Meetings.
18. Ibid., 19.
19. Minutes (1830), 10.
Indiana Friends also resorted to petitioning the
state and Federal governments in their fight against
slavery. The 1831 Yearly Meeting sent a memorial to
the state legislature protesting the law which required
Blacks to post bond upon entering the state. In
1837, a memorial was sent to Congress which protested
the possible annexation of Texas on the grounds it would
extend and perpetuate slavery.
During this decade the Quaker was one of the few
"friends" that Blacks had in Indiana. All other groups,
political or religious, exhibited little real concern
over the plight of the Black. The quality of the
Friends' testimony can be seen in an epistle written
by a committee of the 1836 Yearly Meeting, which stated
that the Blacks were entitled "to a full enjoyment of
their inalienable rights as citizens" and "that Christ
died for the children of Africa, as for us." Perhaps
the Friends of Westfield typified the Quaker spirit
when they undertook sole support of a Black woman who
had been refused care by the rest of society because
she was insane.
(1836 ) ,
years later, in 1852, Friends' efforts produced their
first convert among the Shawnee, an Indian named Ca-co,
who was officially received into membership. Friends
could finally see a change from the early days of
their mission when the extremely superstitious Shawnee
had occasionally put to death a member of their own
tribe for witchcraft.
Except for the ever-present difficulty of funds,
the mission encountered no difficulties until 1854,
when the Federal government made a new treaty with the
Shawnee. In protest of the new treaty, most Indian
parents refused to send their children to the Friends'
school; attendance for that year dropped to fifteen.
Although school attendance increased to twenty-nine
the following year, the Indians were still in an
agitated mood. In addition to their grievances over
the new treaty, the Shawnee were affected by a new
outbreak of cholera and the growing tension in the
Kansas Territory over the slavery issue.
accomplis^ments f fhe first meeting were primarily organ
izational, setting up a number of departments to supervise
and coordinate the activities of member Yearly Meetings.
Among the permanent bodies established were the American
Friends Board of Foreign Missions, the Board of Legislation,
the Evangelistic and Church Extension Board, the Board
on the Condition and Welfare of the Negroes, and the Board
of Education. The Five Years Meeting also cooperated with
the Peace Association of Friends and the Associated
Executive Association of Friends and the Associated
Executive Committee on Indian Affairs and Missionary
Advocate. At last, Indiana Friends saw their idea of
Quaker unity in 1866 come to fruition in 1902. Indiana
Friends had been prominent at all of the preliminary
conferences, and in 1902, their appointments to positions
in the Five Years Meeting were recognition of their leader
ship. Timothy Nicholson, who had served on the Indiana
committee in 1866, and attended every conference, was
appointed president of the Board of Legislation and made
chairman of the committee to plan the next meeting in 1907.
Allen Jay became president of the Board on the Condition
61. Minutes and Proceedings of the Five Years Meeting, 1902
(Philadelphia: John C. Winston Co., 190 3), pp. 34 j
62. Ibid., 59, 63, 71.
63. Ibid., 47, 55.
with four Friends hired as a staff. During its first
year of operation the school was attended by only nine
Indian children, but the low number was because of
sickness and not from a lack of interest. By the
following year, 1823, the general health of the Indians
had greatly improved and thirty Indian children attended
the Friends' school.
In 1824, however, the Indian parents became
reluctant to send their children to the school, which
forced Friends to suspend its operation.*^ After
waiting a year, the school was reopened in 1826, but
again had to be shut down for want of students.
Friends discovered that the reason for the poor attendance
was Indian protest of a government plan to relocate them
on a reservation west of the Mississippi River, where
other Shawnee had already been placed. Their
7. Ibid., 7.
9. Minutes (1823), 10.
10. Minutes (1824), 9.
11. Minutes (1826), 10.
12. "Minutes of the Proceedings of the Committee on
Indian Concerns" (1821-1855), p. 24. This is the
manuscript volume of the committee's minutes and
contains little of importance not found in the
annual Minutes of the Yearly Meeting. This
volume Is kept in the Friends' Collection of the
Lily Library, Earlham College.
The following summer, in 1856, conditions had
noticeably improved among the Indians. The school
enjoyed an increase in attendance, and the number of
Indians converted to Christianity had so increased that
two houses of worship were needed. The Friends at
the mission, however, found that their position against
slavery had incurred the anger of some local white
inhabitants. In August, a band of eighteen men came
to the mission stole all the horses and saddles, and
threatened to kill the superintendent. Because of
this and other threats, all of the Friends at the
mission returned to Indiana, leaving a hired man in
charge of the premises. A few months later, reports
from the area indicated it was safe for Friends to
return and preparations were made to reopen the school
as soon as possible.
The last years before 1860 found the Indian
school confronted with a growing number of difficulties.
Because of the incident in 1856, a sufficient number
of Friends could not be found to staff the school. In
1854, many Indian children were turned away because
79. Minutes (1856), 33,35.
80. Ibid., 33.
81. Ibid. 34.
82. Ibid. 36.
Except for its efforts for Southland, the Yearly
Meeting showed little of the concern for the Black in
the North that it had shown in the ante-bellum period.
With the evil of slavery abolished and Constitutional
amendments seemingly providing for the Black's civil
rights, Friends left the Black to himself and directed
their activities in other directions. Local meetings
did continue at times to aid in Black education and
other matters, but as a primary concern of the Yearly
Meeting 1he Blacks attracted less and less attention.
There was an occasional action taken against discriminatory
laws, as in the fall of 1865, when a committee of the
Yearly Meeting attended'the State Legislature to protest
the law prohibiting Blacks from settling in Indiana.
The Yearly Meeting also exhibited concern for the
continued existence of slavery and the slave trade in
other parts of the world, preparing an address on the
subject which was given to Senator Oliver P. Morton to
be forwarded to the President. A similar memorial
vas prepared in 1890 on the "Slave Trade and Traffic
in Intoxicating Liquors in the Congo Free States," which
was sent to the UnitedStates Congress and State
62. Seth E. Furnas, Sr., A History of Indiana Yearly
Meeting, Hicksite (Indiana Yearly Meeting Religious
Society, 1968), p. 49.
Minutes (1873), 21.
Perhaps the most famous of all Friends' activities
was their role as "conductors on the "Underground
Railroad," which was responsible for aiding thousands
of fugitive slaves. The entire state of Indiana was
connected with invisible "stations" that led to Laura
Haviland's Raisin Institute in Michigan or other northern
points, with the final destination of the fugitive usually
being Canada. Newport was the most important town of the
"Underground Railroad," while Evansville, Madison,
Lafayette, and Indianapolis were also prominent.
Levi Coffin during this time was known as the "President
of the Underground Railroad" because of the leading role
he played in aiding the fugitives. It was estimated that
he sheltered nearly three thousand fugitives in his Newport
home before his departure to Cincinnati in 1847. So
great was the cry of slaveholders in Kentucky against the
Friends in Newport that Levi Coffin, Henry Way, Samuel
Nixon, and Robert Greene were called before the grand jury
in Centerville to indict them, if possible, on the charge
of aiding escaped slaves. Since all evidence was safely
in Canada, the four men were quickly acquitted.
19. Robert Judson Aley and Max Aley, The Story of
Indiana (Chicago, 1912), pp. 113-114.
20. Ibid. 115.
21. O.N. Huff, "Unnamed Anti-Slavexy Heroes of Old
Newport," Indiana Magazine of History, .Vol. Ill,
No. 3 (September, 1907), p. 139.
The concern for a proper education was- stimulated
in 1829 as a result of the Hicksite separation and the
fear of Hicksite teachers and writings. The "Report
on Education" for that year entreated Friends to open
their own schools with members as teachers because:
We believe that great loss is sustained by
such of our youth, as are educated at schools
under control of persons not in membership with
us, by associating with children not of our
society who are taught therein, imbibing
principles and maxims, inconsistent with the
simplicity of our profession.^
The following year the education report was even more
insistent upon the need for Friends to obtain
property and establish their own schools. The report
also warned against Friends' children attending the
"public seminaries in the State of Indiana, and the
District Schools in the State of Ohio." The Indiana
public schools were opposed because they were in part
supported by fines which were occasionally levied against
Friends for their refusal to participate in the militia.
The Ohio schools were feared "as being founded on a
system, which should the Society be brought completely
2. Minutes (1829), 21.
3. Minutes (1830), 19.
To avoid the danger of guerrilla attack, the
Beards relocated near Vicksburg and established the
"Freedmens Home," a home farm and asylum for orphans.
Although the Beards were situated in a more secure
location from guerrillas, they still encountered the
hostility of neighboring white Southerners. Aware of .the
opposition his work had aroused, Beard confided to his
diary: "I have no doubt that certain men have bound
themselves with the strongest oaths to take my life;"
they "are becoming more bold and desperate every day."
Also at this time Lizzie Bond was forced by sickness to
return to Indiana, while James and Sarah Smith accepted
the offer of General Napoleon B. Buford to go and work
with the Freedmen on Island 63, about thirty miles below
Helena. The work of the Smiths was cut short when
they received news that their daughter in Indiana was
v;as sick, and they returned home in May, 1864.
About this time,' Irena Beard became ill, forcing the
Beards also to return to Indiana.
42. Ibid. 7.
43. Ibid., 34.
44. Ibid., 7.
45. Ibid., 8.
that was due to the fact that their [the Indians] "strong
points are observation, imitation, and memory. They are
weak in reasoning."
The finances of the school had been sound in 1885,
but the school's trustees were warned that additional
funds would be needed in the future. One reason for
this was that the Commissioner of Indian Affairs had
sent word that the amount of government payment for the
Indian children was going to be reduced. Another
factor was that about one-half of the Indian children
had completed their courses and would be returning home,
to be replaced by an equal number of new students. Since
the new students would be "untrained," it was felt that
additional staff would be necessary to handle them.
For ten years the White's Institute flourished as
primarily an Indian school, averaging seventy to
seventy-five Indian students. The largest part of the
expenses was paid by the government, which gave an annual
amount for the support of sixty Indian students, usually
a sum totaling about ten thousand dollars. Continued
government aid was often in doubt and was obtained
through the help of Indiana Congressmen George W. Steele
and Augustus N. Martin, who supported the Friends' work
57. Ibid., 53.
report stated that every family had a Bible except
for nineteen. After that year a few deficiencies
were reported at most Yearly Meetings, but those were
due to newly arrived families, who were provided with
Bibles as soon as their situation came to the
attention of the meeting.
Hot satisfied for every family merely to possess
a copy of the Scriptures, Indiana Friends also promoted
Bible study. At first, informal Bible study took place
after the weekly meeting, which gradually evolved into
a system of "First Day Schools." The original push for
this work came from Hannah Chapman Backhouse, a cousin
of Joseph John Gurney, who visited Indiana meetings in
1832. Although some of the conservative minded
Friends opposed any systematic Bible study, the influence
of Gurney and his subsequent visit to Indiana Yearly
Meeting guaranteed the permanence of Bible study
4 0. Minutes (1835), 10.
41. A personal account of the visit to Indiana can
be found in Extracts from the Journal and Letters
of Hannah Chapman Backhouse (London: Richard
Barrett, Printer, 1858). Even before the visit
of Backhouse to Indiana auxiliaries of the
Bible Association of Friends in America had been
formed in New Harden, Blue River, and Whitewater,
Indiana. Second Annual Report of the Bible
Association of Friends in America 1831 (Philadelphia
William Brown, Printer, 1831).
John William Buys was born on June 6, 1944, in
Bayshore, Long Island, New York, the third child of
John William and Johanna VanEssendelft. He was raised
in the town of West Sayville on the south shore of Long
Island, a Small community populated by people of
predominately Dutch ancestry. Born into a Dutch family
with a long tradition of earning a livelihood from the
sea, his formative years were filled with boats, fish
nets, and the smell of tarred lines and salt air. He
also learned the skills of the fisherman, which every
summer provided an income, continuing to the present
He attended the Sayville Public Schools and graduated
from Sayville High School in June, 1962. In September,
1962, he entered Hope College, a small liberal arts
college in Holland, Michigan. At Hope College he majored
in History and English and received the Bachelor of Arts
degree in June, 1966. -While attending Hope College he
met Linda Lee Pettit, who became his wife in April,
1965. In September, 1966, the Buys family, including
their new infant daughter Jennifer Lynne, moved to West
Lafayette, Indiana. Staying in West Lafayette for two
Yearly Meetings. The result of this was that although
Quakers worked for the same goals, nearly all of their
activities were restricted to the various Yearly
Meetings working alone.
Due to their somewhat isolated location in the
West, Indiana Friends most commonly directed their
appeals to the people and the government through
petitions, addresses, and memorials. The 1838 Yearly
Meeting demonstrated this writing an "Address to the
People of the United States, and to the Members of
Congress in Particular," which was an appeal "on the
civilization and Christian instruction of the aborigines
of our country."^ The 1843 Yearly Meeting authorized
the printing of ten thousand copis of an "Address
to the Christian Professors of the United States and
to the citizens generally," which dealt with the evils
of intemperance, war, slavery, and capital punishment,
and was sent to various government officials and
distributed by the membership. Aware of growing
tensions in 1846, the Yearly Meeting sent directly to
Congress a memorial against the possibility of war
with Great Britain over the issue of Oregon, with an
1. Address to the People of the United States, and
to the Members of Congress in Particular
(.Cincinnati, 183 8), p. 77
2. Minutes (1843), 21.
Civil War. As the population of Indiana increased and
brought an end to Friends' geographic isolation, Friends
found a new concern in aiding and working with their
neighbors. This ability and willingness of Friends to
change with the times was a major factor in their
continued growth as a religious body after the Civil War.
went to church looking forward to a service under the
direction of a minister; they had little interest in
working out their own religious interpretations or
listening to their neighbor expound upon his religious
viewpoints. Generally speaking, the Quaker way of life
was too austere for anyone to accept if he had not been
raised in such a manner from childhood. Life in early
Indiana was much too difficult to deny a few simple
pleasures, and Friends were inflexible in their position
on worldly diversions of any type. Also it is logical
that the communal isolation that protected Friends from
losing members also prevented them from converting non-
As membership in the Society increased, there was
a corresponding expansion in organization to accommodate
new meetings. When the Yearly Meeting first met in 1821,
it was composed of five Quarterly Meetings. By 1835, that
number increased to eleven Quarterly Meetings located in
Indiana and western Ohio.^ The next fifteen years
produced only four additional Quarterly Meetings,
these being necessitated by the additional settlements
of Friends farther west.^ There was also a corresponding
1. Location and Days of Holding Indiana Yearly Meeting and
all of its Subordinate Meetings (.Cincinnati: A. Hugh
n)o'. FkS.', 13357:
Statement of Indiana Yearly and all the thereunto
in membership, necessitating the organisation of a fifth
quarterly meeting in 1846. For the next two years
membership remained stable, but by 1849 the Anti-
Slavery Friends realized their number was decreasing.
That year, the Yearly Meeting reported the number of
school-aged children had declined, and that many of the
younger members were absent from meetings. The
explanation given for this was that some of the members
had returned to the old meeting and that the small
attendance at meetings was discouraging the youth.
With the return of Benjamin Stanton and Henry Way
to the old meeting in 1850, the membership of the Anti-
Slavery Friends began to rapidly diminish. The 1854
Yearly Meeting reported that the Newport and Salem
39. Minutes, A.S. Friends (1849), 7, 12. The decline in
the strength of Anti-Slavery Friends was also
reported in the Western Friend, which said that
Anti-Slavery Friends in Northern Quarterly
Meeting were preparing to return to the regular
Indiana Yearly Meeting Western Friend, Vol. II,
No. 1 (Cincinnati: Achilles Pugh, January 1,
1849), p. 6.
40. Ibid. 12.
41.Minutes, A.S. Friends (1850), 6.
Department. In 1900, Ida B. Wells-Barnett, a Black
women, spoke to the Yearly Meeting about the growing
problem of mobs and lynching. Responding to the
speech, the Yearly Meeting appointed a Committee on
Lynching and Legislation, which reported the following
year that it had obtained a law which said that if a .
person was taken from a peace officer and lynched, the
official was to be removed from his position immediately
Believing they had accomplished all that was necessary,
the committee was disbanded and the subject closed. It
appears that possibly Friends had concentrated too
completely on the plight of the Freedmen after the Civil
War and lost touch with the problems of the Blacks in
other areas; as the work for the Freedmen decreased,
there was no special concern to redirect their activity
for the Blacks elsewhere.
THE YEARLY MEETING YEARS OF GROWTH
During the years following the establishment
of the Yearly Meeting in 1821, the number of Indiana
Friends quickly increased. As mentioned previously, the
number of Friends in Indiana at the time of the Hicksite
separation in 1828, was approximately fourteen thousand,
a gain of nearly twelve thousand in less than a decade.
Despite the sizeable loss incurred in 1828, by 1834 there
were probably fifteen to eighteen thousand Friends in
membership with the Yearly Meeting Exact membership
statistics are difficult to determine for those years,
the most accurate appraisal being based on the education
reports which stated the number of school-aged children:
approximately one-fourth to one-third of the total
membership of the Society. At the time of the anti
slavery split in 1843, Friends had increased to about
twenty-five thousand, and by 1850, they numbered in the
area of thirty thousand.
The rapid expansion in membership during these
decades was generally attributable to the continued
THE YEARLY MEETING BEGINS
The opening of the Yearly Meeting in 1821 started
the actual history of Indiana Yearly Meeting of
Friends. With an organization consisting of five
Quarterly Meetings and twenty-nine Monthly Meetings,
the representatives of that first Yearly Meeting
confidently laid plans for the future.'1' Only a small
amount of business was conducted at that meeting, the
majority of the time being used to set up committees,
plan construction of a meeting house, and adopt the
Discipline of the Ohio Yearly Meeting. Since the
basic religious Discipline and organization established
in 1821 were to set the pattern for the coming century
it would be instructive at this point to examine both
of them more closely.
The Discipline of the- Yearly Meeting was a printed
guide for conducting the life of the Society and its
members. During the years following the death of George
1. Elisha Bates, List of the Meetings for Worship and
Discipline, Comprising the Yearly Meetings of Ohio
and Indiana (Mt. Pleasant, Ohio, 1822 ), pp 1-10.
2. Minutes (1821), passim.
At the same time Friends were expanding their
interest in the foreign mission field, a new home mission
work was developing within the limits of the Yearly
Meeting. It began as an independent effort of local
Friends shortly after the start of the Civil War, and
several years later "Home Missions" was adopted as an
official concern of the Yearly Meeting. The need for
the initial work was first noticed in Richmond, where
a growing population and the impact of war had led to
problems with poverty, lack of educational opportunity,
and an absence of religious faith.
Having become aware of the problems through a
program of house visitations, in 1861 a group of Richmond
Friends organized a mission school for the benefit of
the citys impoverished residents. Operated for children of
all denominations, the school was an immediate success,
enrollment at times going as high as eight hundred.
The only opposition came from conservative Friends, who
learned that singing was allowed at the school to make
it more appealing to the children. Under the leadership
of Charles and Rhoda Coffin, the schools activities were
expanded to include a Mother's Meeting, a Mens Meeting,
56. Johnson, 133-134.
57. Ibid., 134.
second general conference was equally as large as the
first, with ninety-seven delegates and twelve alternates
from ten American Yearly Meetings gathering in Indianapolis,
with twenty-three of the delegates representing Indiana
Yearly Meeting. At that conference little was accomplished
regarding religious matters, the decisions of the previous
conference being considered satisfactory. A united Friends'
Board of Foreign Missions was established, and plans were
made to set up a cooperative Friends' publishing house.
The conference was considered a success by the delegates
and before adjourning a committee was appointed to make
plans for a third conference in 1897.
Anticipating an eventful meeting in 1897, Indiana
Yearly Meeting appointed twenty-five delegates and six
49. Proceeding of the Conference of Friends of America,
1892 (Richmond, Ind.: Nicholson Mfg. Co., Publishers
and Binders, 1892), pp. 6, 8.
50. Ibid., 34-35. Another sign of increasing unity
among Friends was the announcement in 1894 that the
Friends1 Review of Philadelphia and the Christian
Worker of Chicago would merge to form The American
Friend. The first edition of The American Friend
appeared on July 19, 1894, under the editorship of
Rufus M. Jones. To avoid any feelings of sectionalism,
the new periodical was published in both Chicago and
Philadelphia. The first issue stated "that Friends
everywhere in the country have a relationship and a
common meeting ground." American Friend, I, 1
(July 19 1894) 1.
Ibid. 3 8.
Friends in Newport. Arnold Buffum had long- been known
as a leader in the abolition crusade, having been one
of twelve people that organized the American Anti-
Slavery Society in 1833. When Buffum gave a series of
anti-slavery lectures his audiences drew very few Friends,
So unpopular had anti-slavery become that when Frederick
Douglas paid a visit to Richmond he was the target for
Another factor which served to divide the two
factions at this time was politics. Host Friends favored
the Whigs while the abolitionist minority opposed the
Whigs for being pro-slavery. With this in mind, it is
not surprising that the visit of Henry Clay to Richmond
in the fall of 1842 was the occasion for an incident
which further divided Friends. When Clay arrived in
Richmond he found an enthusiastic crowd that supported
his stand on colonization. While Clay was speaking,
a Friend by the name of Hiram Mendenhall forced his way
through the crowd and presented the presidential
aspirant with a petition. The petition, which had
originated in the annual meeting of the Indiana State
Anti-Slavery Society, asked that Clay immediately free
18. Coffin, 225.
19. Ibid. 229.
20. Charles W. Osborn, "Henry Clay at Richmond,"
Indiana Magazine of History, Vol. IV, No. 3
(September, 1908) p. llV.
vas that of humanitarian reform. That belief would
continue to provide notable chapters of Quaker history
in the twentieth century, but would also prove an
insufficient base for the continued growth of the
religious Society of Friends.
that she expected to continue it till she had made
sufficient to keep her in old age."
The continued success of the Home Mission work and
the number of people it was converting to the Friends
faith led the Yearly Meeting officially to adopt the
work in 1873, reorganizing it as the Home Mission
Association, with membership to include both mens and
, 63 .
women's groups. Operating as an official concern of
the Yearly Meeting, all charitable activities continued
the same with an increased emphasis on religious
conversions, brought about through public meetings and
services. In 1878, Spiceland Quarterly Meeting Home
Mission groups held two hundred public meetings that
resulted in sixty professed conversions and twenty actual
new members in the Society. The same year Walnut
Ridge Quarterly Meeting Home Missions reported 329 public
meetings and nearly fifty new members, with other
Quarterly Meetings reporting similar activities. The
success of obtaining new members by Home Missions
continued to be of importance to the Yearly Meeting. In
62. Fifth Annual Report of the Home Mission Association
of 'Women Friends of Indiana Yearly Meeting (Richmond,
Indiana: Telegram Stearn Printing Co., 1872), p. 16.
63. Johnson, 220.
64. Minutes (1878), 60.
Annual Queries To Be Answered By All Indiana Friends'
First query. Are all meetings for worship and discipline
attended? Do Friends avoid unbecoming behavior therein?
And is the hour of meeting observed?
Second query. Do Friends maintain love towards each other,
as becomes our Christian profession? Are tale-bearing
and detraction discouraged? And when differences arise,
are endeavors used speedily to end them?
Third query. Do Friends endeavor, by example and
precept, to educate their children, and those under their
care, in plainness of speech, deportment and apparel?
Do they guard them against reading pernicious books,
and from the corrupt conversation of the world? Are
they encouraged frequently to read the holy scriptures?
Fourth query. Are Friends clear of importing, vending
distilling, or the unnecessary use of spiritous liquors;
of frequenting taverns, or attending places of diversion?
And do they observe moderation and temperance on all
Fifth query, Are the necessities of the poor, and the
circumstances of those who may appear likely to require
aid, inspected and relieved? Are they advised, and
assisted, in such employments as they are capable of;
and is due care taken to promote the school-education
of their children?
Sixth query. Do Friends maintain a faithful testimony
against a hireling ministry, oaths, military services,
clandestine trade, prize goods, and lotteries?
1. Discipline of the Society of Friends of Indiana
Yearly Meeting (Cincinnati: Mirror Press 1835 ),
3 C 7
decided that the condition of the Freedmen had improved
to the point that it no longer warranted the continued
existence of the Freedman Committee, so it replaced
that committee with what was called the Missionary Board.
This board took over all the activities of the Freedmen's
Committee, but symbolized a reduction in relief activity
and a more religious direction in Friends' work. Its
primary activity was to direct the asylum near Helena
and to supervise the religious work in that area, nearly
all other Indiana Friends' activities in the South having
ceased, except for a school at Little Rock.
In 1870, the Yearly Meeting gave the Missionary Board
authority to receive persons into membership, establish.
meetings, and to recognize the gifts of the ministry of
individual members in those meetings. This was done
to facilitate the religious work in the area of the
asylum near Helena, which was officially recognized by
the Yearly Meeting as Southland Preparative Meeting.
Also at the 1870 Yearly Meeting, Daniel Drew, a member
of the Southland meeting, was officially recorded as a
For several years, the Indian school at the former
mission was the only work for the Indian connected with
Indiana Yearly Meeting. The school itself had varying
degrees of success, determined by the ever changing attitude
of the Indians. Finally, in 1871, the attempt to maintain
a school was given up and the remaining property was sold.
Also in that year, the attempt to obtain title to the mission
land which had begun in 1860, ended in failure; Friends
settled the case by accepting five thousand dollars for
their improvements to the land.^
While Friends were preparing to end the Shawnee
mission, events were taking place elsewhere which would
lead to a new involvement in Indian work. In January,
1869, concern for the Indian led to a general conference
of the Orthodox Yearly Meetings to discuss what measures
could be taken to aid the Indians."^ On January 25, 1869,
a delegation from that conference had an audience with
President-elect Ulysses S. Grant, to determine, if possible,
the governments future attitude toward Friends' work among
the Indians. The following day, a separate delegation
10. Ibid. 44.
11. Rayner Wickersham Kelsey, Friends and the Indians
1655-1917 (Philadelphia: The Associated Executive
Committee of Friends on Indian Affairs, 1917), p. 167.
Elders noted that religious meetings had "become formal
and lifeless," causing younger Friends to "seek more
congenial conditions in other churches." Many of the
Quarterly Meetings reported conditions that verified the
concern of the Yearly Meeting over the state of the
Society. Long Lake Quarterly Meeting reported in 1902
that over one-half of its members "show a lack of sound
spiritual life;" Marion Quarterly Meeting reported that
less than one-half of its members attended services and
most were apathetic; and Van Wert Quarterly Meeting
added that Friends were losing their "hold on the young
people of our land."
Besides the depressed religious life of the Society,
the recent drops in membership were also of concern to
Indiana Friends. The Yearly Meeting of 1903 pointed out
that there was a critical need for more ministers,
evangelists, and evangelistic work. Friends were,
particularly experiencing trouble in urban areas, where
they viere unable, successfully to compete with other
denominations. The problem for Friends was deciding
what were legitimate methods to attract new members,
4. Minutes (1901), 137.
5. Minutes (1902), 60, 62.
6.Minutes (1903), 165.
authority having been transferred to Iowa and Kansas
Yearly Meetings. The limits of Indiana Yearly Meeting
were confined mostly to the states of Indiana and
Michigan, although there, were established Monthly Meetings
in Archer and Kerr City, Florida, until they were
discontinued in 1898.
During these later decades a number of other changes
and new projects appeared. In 1889, James Moorman of
Winchester, Indiana passed away and left the Yearly
Meeting 272 acres of land and $34,000. All of the land
and twenty thousand dollars were for establishing and
maintaining a "Friends* Home for Poor and Infirm Women
and Ministers." The committee managing the bequest
rented out the farm and invested the money, but took no
27. Minutes (1898), 40. These meetings were
established the previous decade when a number
of Friends moved to Florida. They were
discontinued when most of the members
decided against living that area and
moved to more desirable locations. Kerr
City is situated on Lake Kerr in Marion
County. Some of the original records of
those Florida meetings can be found in the
Friends* Collection of the Lily Library,
28. Minutes (1889), 21.
year totaled sixty thousand dollars in value. Academically,
the college had kept pace with expansion; a survey of
Earlham graduates in 1898 revealed three college presidents,
twenty-six college teachers, eleven public school super
intendents, seventeen high school and academy principals,
thirteen lawyers, nineteen physicians, and many teachers,
from a total of 420 living graduates.
When President Mills retired in 1903, he could
well be pleased with the progress made by Earlham
College during his presidency.^ The colleges endowment
fund had grown to nearly $250,000 and nearly all debts
from recent construction had been paid.^ The college
was especially indebted to the generosity of Francis
T. White of New York City, who in recent years had made
several donations to the endowment fund, each in the
amount of $25,000. Construction of new facilities had
continued to accommodate the growing student body, which
reached its highest point with an enrollment of 320
in 1903, including the summer session. Academically
progress continued on a similar scale, with changes
made in accordance with new trends, including the rise
As was typical of nearly all Friends' missionary
work, the area of education proved the most successful
in Mexico. In 1885, Samuel Purdie established a girl's
boarding school at Matamoros known as the C.G. Hussey
School for Girls, which was adopted as a special project
by the Women's Foreign Mission Association of Indiana
Yearly Meeting. The Association had grown quickly
its first few years, having fifty-six auxilliaries and
a membership of 880 by 1888. Money to provide for the
Hussey School was obtained from membership fees, mite
boxes, Bible School collections, egg collections, meeting
collections, and jug breaking at children's meetings.
The climate at Matamoros having bad effect on the
Purdie's health, they moved to Victoria, the capital of
the state of Tamaulipos, in 1888. With the support of
Baltimore and New York Yearly Meetings, they soon
established schools for boys and girls and began
publication of a newspaper, El Clarin "The Clarion."
Also to facilitate the work in education, the output of
the publishing department continued to expand. In addition
to catechisms and hymnbooks, texts were published on
32. Ibid., 56.
33. Minutes of Women Friends (1888), 111.
35. Minutes (1888), 31.
West. The early experience with the Shawnee mission and
unhappy ending of Grants Peace Policy had dampened
enthusiasm for working in the West, but by 1900 Friends
were again optimistic. Some of the renewed interest was
part of a new missionary zeal within the Society of
Friends as a whole, while another factor was the continued
and growing success of the Associated Executive Committee
in its work with the Indians. It should also be pointed
out that even during the years Friends lost interest in
Western missions, they had devised another method of aiding
the Indian. Rather than take the risks of working with the
Indian in the West, Indiana Friends literally brought
the Indians to Indiana. The story of that work returns
to the development of White's Manual Labor School,
which during some of its most successful years was
operated for the benefit of Indian students.
In 1860, Indiana Yearly Meeting had under its
supervision the construction of two separate schools
that originated from the bequest of Josiah White. The
school being built in Iowa was slow developing due to
financial troubles and was transferred to the control of
Iowa Yearly Meeting when that body began meeting in 1863.
Progress at the Indiana school was viewed as satisfactory.
In 1861, it had established a farm and a school building
the next three years, with the balance to cone from
loans and donations. To many Friends the money involved
was a staggering sum, but the committee stated such a
project vas possible because of the "abundance amongst
The optimism of the committee was grounded on
sound reasoning, as proven by the report in 1838. During
that year the Quarterly Meetings had contributed $5,640.65
for construction of the proposed school. ^ In addition,
Dr. John Unthank of Ireland had donated the considerable
sum of $1,330, and the committee reported that $1,310.59
had been received from other sources. With such a large
sum on hand after only one year of soliciting, the
committee wasted no time in starting the work of establish
ing a school. A contract was made for 713,000 bricks,
and for a large supply of lumber, the cost of these items
alone being over four thousand dollars. Although
Friends had made sizeable donations, the committee was
not satisfied with the amount contributed by Indiana
3. Ibid. 19.
10. Minutes (1838), 10.
For several years Indiana Friends cooperated in
aiding the Indian work in the Central Superintendency.
They contributed to the financial support of the
Associated Executive Committee and sent supplies to
those Indians especially under the care of the Indiana
Yearly Meeting. The primary goal of the work among the
Indians was education, with all schools being under the
direction of the Associated Executive Committee instead of
the individual Yearly Meetings. The role of the Yearly
Meetings was to supply the necessary funds for the
operation of the schools, and to voice their opinions through
their representatives on the Associated Executive
Committee. The representatives for Indiana Yearly Meeting
were Charles F. Coffin and Murray Shipley. During
the ten years that Grant's Peace Policy was in operation,
Indiana Friends contributed thousands of dollars for
the work and sent a considerable amount of supplies
to the Indians.
In 1877, it was decided to consult with President
Rutherford B. Hayes to find if he desired Friends to con-
tinue their work started under President Grant. Hayes
23. Minutes (1877), 13.
24. Ibid. 52
A group of twelve Friends in Indianapolis even
commenced publication of the Morning Star to present
the traditional Quaker stand on baptism, an action
dictated by the indecisive position of the Christian
Worker the leading periodical of western Quakerism.
Publication of the Morning Star was short-lived, however,
as the position of the Christian Worker was soon more
decidedly against water baptism. The Yearly Meeting had
placed itself firmly in opposition to those advocating
the sacraments, but, in 1886, it decided that anyone in
a situation of leadership who advocated those rites should
be removed from that position. Although the subject
continued to appear for many years, the introduction of
such an innovation was too drastic to gain widespread
support in Indiana Yearly Meeting.
One other major change occurred during this period
which involved not only Indiana Yearly Meeting, but all
other orthodox Yearly Meetings as well. Many Friends
began to notice that changes taking place within the
various meetings were leading each Yearly Meeting to
38. Woodward, 187. 'The indecisive position ot the
Christian Worker was also the reason for a sudden
decline in its circulation at that time. Letter
from Josiah Simms to Allen Jay, February 2, 1886.
MS., Allen Jay Papers, Friends' College, Lily
Library, Earlham College.
39. Minutes (1886), 52.
the earlier opposition to such action. The third
measure was to ease the school's entrance requirements
in hope of increasing the amount received from tuition.
Up to that time, only children whose parents belonged
to the Society of Friends were allowed to attend the
school, but this was modified to allow students where.
only one of the parents belonged to the Society. By
the following year, the school's finances were on the
road to recovery, although the debt still amounted to
$11,591. The sale of school property was expected
tc realize $13,692.18, and it was hoped that subscriptions
due from the Quarterly Meetings would be sufficient
to liquidate the debt. The school was also put on a
paying basis through a further change in the entrance
requirements which allowed children of non-Friends.
Two years later, in 1860, the committee proudly
reported that all debts had finally been paid.
54 Ibid., 50.
56. Minutes (1858), 26.
58. Ibid., 21.
Minutes (1860), 50
While the Indiana Committee operated independently
of other groups, attempts were made to centralize the
work and avoid duplication or waste. The Ohio, Indiana,
Iowa, and Western Yearly Meetings created a central
Board of Control for increasing the efficiency of the
Freedmen work. Also, the Cincinnati Contraband
Relief Commission'turned over its supplies to Indiana
Yearly Meeting in order to centralize the work and
administration. Friends also cooperated when necessary
with the efforts of other Yearly Meetings and of other
denominations. As the war had progressed, considerable
number of charitable organizations appeared to aid the
Freedmen, but Friends were one of the earliest groups to
do so on a significant scale. Touring the various
camps in June, 1864, Major Young, Inspecting Agent of
Contraband Camps, stated that, in his opinion, the
Friends Camp was the best.
62. Ibid., 42. This organization never became very
active in the Freedmen work and it was disbanded
in 1867. "Minutes of Board of Control for the
Relief of Freedmen" (1864-1867), passim. This is
an unpublished manuscript volume m the Friends
Collection of the Lily Library, Earlham College.
6 3. Ibid., 44.
64. Executive Freedmen*s Committee, 34.
also cared for a variety of animals. In addition to
time spent working the farm, the children were expected
to attend school and to receive religious instruction.
The cost of maintaining the school was provided by the
income from the farm, contributions of Indiana Yearly
Meeting, and government payments for the education of
the Indian children.
The sudden expansion of the school also necessitated
an increase in staff, which numbered ten in 1885.
Besides Oliver and Martha Bales, who had been the super
intendent and matron for ten years, there had been added
an assistant matron, and a Superintendent of Schools.
Other new positions on the staff included teacher, book-
keeper, industrial teacher, farmer, gardener, and cook.
The manual labor aspect of the institution taught the
students many vocational skills, but the Academic education
of the Indian children was also of primary importance.
Regarding the Indians as students, B.S. Coppock, the
Superintendent o.f Schools, noted that they were equal to
white children up to the "Third Reader," but fell behind
in advanced reading and mathematics.^^ Coppock believed
53. Minutes (1885), 52.
55. Ibid. 21.
George Fox. The idea of the Inner Light first became
prominent with mystics of the fourteenth century when
it was referred to as "the Spark" or "the Glimmer."
Early supporters of this notion were Thomas Munzer,
Sebastian Franck, and Jacob Boehme. Franks declaration
that the "Word of God, the divine Activity, or the
divine Working, the living Power of God, dwells in the
soul of man as an inward Light and a Source of guidance"
makes it clear how deeply indebted are the views of
Fox to the early mystics.
Fox used the notion of the Inner Light to discard
the Calvinist preoccupation with mans sinfulness and
come to an optimistic view of man's nature. Fox believed
that within every man exists a seed of God, an Inner
Light of divine and heavenly origin. By following the
guidance of his Inner Light, every man had unlimited
potential for goodness and was only made the victim of
sin through his own free choice. Proceeding from his
notions of the Inner Light, Fox discarded the
traditional religious practices. Worship services
became a preparation for the individual to experience
God through the Inner Light. All external things were
a hindrance to this experience, hence the removal of
6 Ibid., 69.
7. Ibid., 70.
other evils going on at Roby, Indiana. Besides keeping
a watchful eye on the moral state of its members, the
Yearly Meeting conducted its usual business of recording
ministers, travelers, and visitors, while the subordinate
meetings continued their function of keeping such
records as births, deaths, and marriages.
Business of the Yearly Meeting continued as usual
for nearly all of the nineteenth century, but the matter
of finances continued to be an uncertain subject. With
the Yearly Meeting in debt and the Quarterly Meetings
often reluctant to pay their assessments, in 1889
Fairfield Quarterly Meeting proposed that the Discipline
be changed so that members who did not pay their share
could be disowned. Such action was considered too
drastic, but it indicated the extent of Friends'
frustration in obtaining funds for the annual budget.
The problems encountered in raising funds might indicate
that the assessments were asking for large sums, but in
1893 the per capita assessment for the Quarterly
Meetings varied from twelve to sixty cents. By 1896
39. Minutes (1893), 56.
40. Minutes (1889), 19.
41. Minutes (1893), 21. The exception to this was
Eastern Quarterly Meeting, with a per capita
assessment of $2.04, which resulted from a loss of
nine hundred members to Wilmington Yearly Meeting
the previous year.
The Yearly Meeting of 1836 referred to colonization as the
"unrighteous work of expatriation," and warned Friends
to take no part in it. The Friends were against any
plan that told free Blacks they "must go to Hayte, to
Liberia, or any other place," in order to fully enjoy
The Quaker answer to the slavery issue was immediate
and unconditional emancipation. The first person in
the United States to produce a doctrine of unconditional
emancipation was Charles Osborn, a North Carolina
Quaker who moved to Indiana in 1819, after stays in
Tennessee and Ohio. In 1830, Osborn attacked
colonization as a scheme to postpone repentance of the
sin of slavery to a more convenient time. In 1836,
Quaker sentiment favoring abolition combined with
non-Quaker abolitionists in the formation of the State
Anti-Slavery Society of Indiana. Two years later,
13. Minutes (1836), 16.
14. Walter Edgerton, A History of the Separation in
Indiana Yearlv Meeting of Friends (Cincinnati,
1856 ), p. 36/
15. George W. Julian, "The Rank of Charles Osborn,"
Indiana Historical Society Publications, Vol. II,
No. 5 (189/), pp. 234-235.
16. Ibid. 244.. -- -
Two years later, in .1838 the Yearly Meeting warned:
Our standard of morality and religion is a high
and holy standard; in associating with others
not of our Society for promoting benevolent
objects this standard has often been lowered , ,
Vie deem it best . that our Friends abstain
from mixing in these associations.^
Although not specifically mentioned, the associations
found objectionable were those promoting abolition.
This opposition to abolition was also encouraged by
Friends in the East, who wrote to Indiana Friends and
spoke of the odious character of abolitionists.
Prominent Indiana Friends such as Levi Coffin, Charles
Osborn, and Walter Edgerton noticed an increasing
opposition to their stand of immediate emancipation.
Levi Coffin stated that there was "a spirit of opposition
to abolition attributable to various causes which liad
almost mperceptably ci'ept an among Friends.
The abolitionist activity which most aroused the
opposition of more conservative Friends was the aiding
of fugitive slaves. One reason for this was that
Friends disliked the secretive manner in which abolitionists
worked. Others felt that aiding an escaped slave was a
matter of helping to steal another mans property, which
v;as a moral wrong and also illegal. There was also a
10. Levi Coffin, Reminiscences of Levi Coffin (Cincinnati:
Western Tract Society 1876 ) p. 231.
165 members were disowned and 156 resigned, many of whom
had earlier been among the ranks of those converted.
The continued success in recruiting new members resulted
in membership reaching 20,705 in 1887, and the formation
of Dublin and Vandalia Quarterly Meetings.
Continued growth also led to a new request for
another Yearly Meeting, to be composed of Fairfield,
Center, and Miami Quarterly Meetings. Located in Ohio,
these meetings were among the largest in the Yearly
Meeting. They contributed nearly one-third of the
annual budget, and also supported their own college.
Aware that the meetings involved had long desired an
independent organization, the Yearly Meeting approved
the request in 1890, with the first meeting of
Wilmington Yearly Meeting to take place in 1892, in
Wilmington, Ohio.2^ There was not a unanimous feeling
for a new Yearly Meeting among Friends within the limits
of the New meeting, so Green Plain and Cincinnati
Monthly Meetings were exempted and allowed to form
Eastern Quarterly Meeting and remain within Indiana
Yearly Meeting. Membership reached a new high in 1891,
(1890 ) ,
by the revivals held by other denominations, which were
often attended by Friends as the population growth in
Indiana ended Quaker isolation. The end of Friends'
schools also meant that the young people were in daily
contact with members of other denominations, breaking down
traditional inhibitions against non-Quaker practices. .
The independent spirit nurtured in a frontier society
was also a likely factor, aiding younger Friends to oppose
the stand of older established leaders.
Under the leadership of the progressive Friends
mentioned previously, the revival spirit spread to
many areas, resulting in a zeal for conversions and home
missionary work. The greatest success of the Friends'
revival spirit came in the conversion of Methodists,
who comprised a large number of the new members joining the
Society. Gradually the impact of the ex-Methodists would
lead to a "Wesleyan influence" favoring change in the
religious meeting. The impact of former Methodists
among Friends must have been noticeable as early as 1866,
when the Indiana Yearly Conference of the Wesleyan
Methodist Connection of America suggested to the Yearly
Meeting that their similarities might be the basis for
6. Willard Heiss, ed., Abstract of the Records of the
Society of Friends in Indiana, Encyclopedia of
American Geneology, Vol. VII (Indianapolis: Indiana
Historical Society, 1962), p. xii.
The delegates reported to the Yearly Meeting the following
year their favorable response to the convention, which
was closely allied with the Christian Citizenship movement
aimed at uniting various groups under the slogan, "the
Saloon Must Go." Work in Indiana Yearly Meeting for the
past year had also been directed against the saloon and
E. C. Dinwiddie, Superintendent of the Anti-Saloon
League of Pennsylvania, was a guest speaker on the
subject at the Yearly Meeting.
Cooperating with the state and national organizations
of the Anti-Saloon League, Indiana Friends took a more
active role in the prohibition movement than ever before.
Local groups became more active and the temperance
committee of the Yearly Meeting found greater support for
its position that legislation was the only effective
weapon in the fight against alcohol. Congressmen from
Indiana and Ohio were petitioned toosupport prohibition
measured, especially the movement to abolish the Army
canteen. It was even pointed out that President William
McKinleys assassin, Leon Czolgosz, had once owned and
operated a saloon, and that it was doubtful if such a
80. Minutes (1897), 31.
81. Ibid., 28-29
Richmond Board of Improvements gave notice that the
building was unsafe. Friends had been aware of the
limitations of the old meeting house, but had put off
any decisive action until forced by circumstance into
action. Accepting the need for a new building in 1870,
but proceeding with their usual deliberate speed,
Friends did not have a new structure until 1878. Set
on a stone foundation twelve feet deep with brick walls
eighteen inches thick, the new building had a seating
capacity of two thousand. Many felt the $36,000 needed
to pay for the new meeting house too extravagant, but
half of the funds were obtained from sale of the old
meeting house property to the Pennsylvania Railroad.
For many years the finances of the Yearly Meeting
had been handled by a special finance committee, but
the increasing amount of funds involved eventually
became too great for management by an untrained
committee. The main reason for this was that a number
of endowment funds had been created plus the expanded
assets of the Yearly Meeting. In 1881, it was decided
to designate a number of Yearly Meeting trustees who
would supervise the finances with the aid of a salaried
8. Minutes (1869), 49.
9. Minutes (1878), 19.
10.Minutes (1875), 93
Gurney party withdrew to establish a new organization,
thereby wrecking what had been one of the strongest
Yearly Meetings in America.
During those years of controversy and schism over
the Gurney-Wilbur issue, Indiana Yearly Meeting escaped
the turmoil which disrupted the other Yearly Meetings.
Gurney had visited Indiana Yearly Meeting during his
travels in America and was completely accepted by
Indiana Friends. The only meetings in the vicinity to
experience any difficulty were Red Cedar Monthly Meeting
and Salem Quarterly Meeting, both situated in Iowa. To
aid the small Gurney body in Ohio, Indiana Yearly
Meeting gave Alum Creek Quarterly Meeting to the Ohio
group in order to boost its membership. At that
point in the history of Indiana Yearly Meeting the
acceptance of the evangelical position had only minor
effects on religious practice or belief but in the
years following the ante-bellum period the impact of
Gurney would be felt to a much greater extent.
The separations of the period were the last of
consequence to occur over matters of religion in the
nineteenth century. Occassionally, small disputes did
23. Errol T. Elliott, Quakers on the American Frontier
(Richmond, Indiana! The Friends United Press, 1969),
24. Hodgson, II, 223.
representing Philadelphia Friends also had an audience
with Grant on the same subject, the chief spokesman for
that group being Thomas Wistar, a well known Friend
long active in Indian work.
Evidently, Grant was favorably impressed by the
sincerity of Friends' concern for the Indian, for about
one month later he announced a new "Peace Policy" towards
the Indians which gave a prominent role to Friends.
Grant had his aide, Ely Samuel Parker, a Seneca Indian of the
Tonawanda band in New York, send a letter to the various
Yearly Meetings asking for a list of persons who would
be suitable for Indian agents and encouraging Friends to
work among the Indians."^ After consultation with
government officials in Washington, it was decided that
Orthodox Friends would be responsible for the Central
Superintendency, embracing the tribes of Kansas together
with the Kiowas, Comanches, and other tribes of the
Indian Territory. At the same time, the Liberal or
Hicksite Friends were included in the plan, with
responsibility for the Northern Superintendency. Both
14. Ibid., 168
17. Ibid. 169.
While it must be admitted that few Quakers gave their
lives on the battlefield, it cannot be said that Friends
refused to make sacrifices for the war. Friends made
many sacrifices in their efforts to alleviate the human
suffering associated with the war. Their work with
refugees, both Black and white, and for the Freedmen
gained the respect of the military and even of those
who disagreed with the Quaker stand against military
in 1863, when the Report on the State of Society noted
that the problem of Friends in the military was growing
worse.0 There was even concern for the mothers in the
Society with sons in the military. The Yearly Meeting
of Women Friends wrote a special message of advice in
1862 to help those women through such a difficult time.
Indiana Friends were also concerned about the operation
of the military draft in Indiana. The draft law in
1862 allowed exemptions from service for conscientious
objectors on payment of two hundred dollars, or if the
objector could find a substitute. The official position
of Friends on exemptions was to oppose them as still
contributing men and money to the military and contrary
to the peace injunction of the Discipline of the Society.
In practice, many Friends did hire substitutes or pay
5. Minutes (1863), 19.
6. Extracts from the Minutes and Advices of Indiana
Yearly Meeting of Women Friends (1862). At the
Yearly Meeting men and women held separate meetings,
usually in the same room but separated by a curtain.
Since all decisions affecting the Yearly Meeting
were made by joint committees from both meetings,
the printed Minutes represented the decisions of
both the men and women. When the women's meeting
discussed a topic of importance only to women,
an extract of the meeting was printed for the
benefit of women Friends. These Extracts can be
found in the Friends' Collection at the Lily
Library, Earlham College.
capacity as an Indian school. Continuing to expand, by
1903 White's Institute had 113 children, supported by
payments of about nine thousand dollars from the
counties which had placed children in the school.
The future would bring even greater enrollment and
continued success as a children's home, but the years
as an Indian school stand out as White's Institute's
finest achievement in the nineteenth century.
64. Minutes C190-), 15-16
Review of the Declaration of a Meeting of Anti-
Slavery Friends. 1843.
School Statistics of Indiana 1883. 31st Annual
Report of Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Indianapolis: Burford, 1884.
Second Annual Report of the Bible Association of
Friends in America. Philadelphia: William Brown,
Second Annual Report of the Directors of the Indiana
Branch of the Presbyterian Education Society.
Crawfordsville, la., 1832.
Statement of Indiana Yearly Meeting and all the
meetings thereunto belonging. 1850.
Statement of Indiana Yearly Meeting and all the
meetings thereunto belonging. Cincinnati:
Achilles Pugh, 1859.
Thirty-Second Annual Report of the Bible Association
of Friends in America. Philadelphia: William
K. Ballows, 1861.
American Friend. I, 1 (January, 1867), I, 3 (March,
1867), I, 4 (April, 1867), I, 12 (December, 1867),
II, 3 (April, 1868).
American Friend. I, 1 (July 19, 1894). This is the
new periodical begun in 1894. It was not connected
with the earlier American Friend, which by that
time had ceased publication.
Christian Worker. II, 8 (August, 15, 1872.
Free Labor Advocate and Anti-Slavery Chronicle.
February 24, 1842, January 28, May 20, July 4,
1843. Indiana Division, Indiana State Library,
Friends* Review. IX, 32, 35, 37 (1856).
Grand Army of the Republic, the annual decorating of
soldier's graves, and anything else that seems to glorify
the military. Friends also sent representatives to the
Conference of American States to support the need for
peace and arbitration, where they were told by James G.
Blaine that President Harrison was in sympathy with the
Despite the renewed interest in peace, the Peace
Association continued to suffer financial troubles. The
Messenger of Peace was forced to merge with the Christian
Arbitrator and Messenger of Peace. The following year,
in 1891, the Peace Association sent out a plea for funds,
revealing that $1,824 was needed to clear past debts.
Showing their traditional abhorance of debt, Friends
responded to the call and by 1893 the Peace Association
was again optimistic and even reported a surplus of funds
The renewed interest in peace work was short-lived and
the spirit of optimism departed within a year. Financial
41. Minutes (1889), 8.
42. Minutes U890) 94-95.
43. Ibid. 10.
44. Minutes (1891), 10.
45. Minutes (1893), 9.
further notice, an apparent success for the Friends
Friends for the most part managed to avoid serious
trouble with government officials over the draft,
although it became more difficult as the war progressed.
This was especially true in Indiana due to the opinion
of some officials that, "Friends were not bearing their
proportion of the expense and privation in carrying
forward the war." Reflecting this attitude of some
non-Friends, the draft as carried out in 1864 seemed to
be aimed particularly at conscientious objectors. At
that time, the amount accepted as commutation money had
risen to three hundred dollars, with a later amendment
allowing conscientious objectors to work in hospitals
or aid Freedmen if they refused to pay the commutation.^
A further choice was to pay three hundred dollars for
the benefit of sick and wounded soldiers.
12. Allen Jay, Autobiography of Allen Jay (Philadelphia:
John C. Winston Co., 1910), p. 95.
14. Indiana in the War of Rebellion, Report of the Adjutant
General W.H.H.Terrell, 1869,Indiana Historical Col
lections ,Vol.XLI (Indiana Historical Bureau,1960)p.60.
as an aspect of Quaker life. At the end of the ante
bellum period nearly every meeting in Indiana Yearly
Meeting had some type of systematic Bible study,
usually in the form of a first Day School.
Friends also came to consider libraries as a vital
aid to education, feeling that by providing libraries
they could prevent members from coming into contact
with "pernicious books." In 1830, a "Report on
Libraries" recommended that each Monthly Meeting establish
a library containing only those books approved by the
Yearly Meeting. Some of the volumes considered as
most important were George Foxs Journal, Robert Barclays
Apology, William Sewel's History, and William Penn's
Rise and Progress. Acting upon the committee report
42. Minutes (1830), 22.
43. Minutes (1829), 23. The Journal vas Fox's personel
account of his life and became a standard literary
item for Friends. First printed three years after
his death in 1694, Fox's Journal has since gone
through many editions and printings. Barclay's
An Apology.for the True Christian Divinity, being an
Explanation and Vindication of the P~rlnciples and
Doctrines of the People called Quakers first appeared
in Latin in 1676, and was translated by the author
into English in 1678. It has since been widely
accepted by Friends as the outstanding intellectual
defense of Quaker doctrines. William Sewel was a
Dutch Friend who wrote one of the earliest histories
of Quakerism. First published in 1722, Sewels
History of the Christian People Called Quakers was a
detailed account of the early years of the Quaker
period. William Penn's The Rise and Progress of the
People Called Quakers, published in 1694, was also
sufficient for the hiring of a family as superintendants,
and to carry out the general program. With its new
funds, the committee hired Moses Pearson and his wife
to become the superintendants for a period of two years,
and Mary H. Stanton was employed as an assistant for
a period of one year. Elias Newby was also employed
as a teacher, giving the mission a staff of four
Friends in 1337.
Opening its. door for the first time in 1838 the
Indian school was in operation only three months before
sickness forced it to close, although during that time
it had operated satisfactorily with fifteen to
eighteen students. But that year another problem arose
which Friends considered of the gravest importance. It
had been learned that a number of Shawnee had been
employed by the Federal government to join in the war
against the Seminole Indians in Florida, a serious
violation of the Friends' testimony against war.
Immediately a "Memorial" to Congress protesting such
action was drawn up and sent to the Baltimore Yearly
up a small endowment fund from donations, and the
students themselves paid a part of the school's expenses.
Perhaps most credit for the continued success of the
school should be given to the labors of Calvin and
Alida Clark, who were the superintendents there from
the beginning until their retirements m 1886. It is
interesting to note that the Clark's replacements were
Elkanah and Irena Beard, the same couple that had
pitched their tent before the Freedmen's camp at Youngs
Point in 186 3.^
During the last decade of the nineteenth century
a change occurred in the direction of the school
regarding education of the Blacks. Although by 1886
three hundred of the schools graduates had been sent
out as teachers, Friends were discouraged by the progress
of the Blacks and began to doubt the value of education
limited to the fundamentals of literacy. The appointment
of William and Sabina Russell in 1891 to replace the
Beards marked the beginning of a new effort to upgrade
the economic status of the Blacks. Friends had
decided that "the question is not one of social equality
45. Minutes (1886), 59.
46. Ibid., 60.
47.Minutes (1891), 76.
The attempt was a failure from its inception because the
deputation had been instructed to obtain only the
unconditional return of the seceding members; no attempt
v?as to be made for a compromise. Also at this time,
the Anti-Slavery Friends were feeling hostile toward the
London Yearly Meeting because it had refused to acknowledge
their correspondence. Since British Friends liad long
been leaders in the anti-slavery crusade,their lack of
support was a great disappointment to the minority Anti-
Slavery Friends. The position of British Friends is
better understood when it is remembered that the
Gurneyite London Yearly Meeting did not wish to do
anything that might alienate the loyalties of the
Indiana Yearly Meeting which was thoroughly loyal to the
Gurney position. With the failure of the English
delegation ip 1845, no further attempt at reunion was
made for several years. For approximately the next
decade the two meetings co-existed with very little
conflict. The Indiana Yearly Meeting continued to aid
the 31acks but without many of its former leaders, little
of significance was accomplished. It was left up to the
Anti-Slavery Friends to continue the reputation of Indiana
Quakers as leaders in political, social, and economic
agitation for the rights of Blacks.
edification of the members. Gradually the practice
was extended to other topics, as in 1843, when the
Yearly Meeting directed three thousand copies be
printed of a pamphlet telling the history of the Friends'
protest against slavery, and also five thousand copies
of a general tract on slavery.10 By 1851, the growing
use of tracts had led to the creation of a standing
"Central Book and Tract Committee," which was in
charge of obtaining and distributing approved books
Quickly expanding its operations, this committee
reported in 1852 that it had presented Friends'
books to public libraries, the state library, and the
state prison library. In addition, it had given members
66,000 tracts for distribution to the public, of which it
had printed 31,000 itself; 35,000 were a gift from
Friends in Philadelphia. In 1854, the committee
reported that 55,000 tracts had been given out for
distribution, dealing with such subjects as intemperance,
slavery, and dancing. Final distribution of these
10. Minutes (1843), 22.
11. Minutes (1851), 14.
12. Minutes (1852), 15.
13 Ibid., 16.
14. Minutes (1854), 15-16. Dancing was considered by
Indiana Friends to be one of the popular diversions
prohibited by the Discipline.
The start of the Civil War marked the beginning of
Friends' activities to aid the Freedmen of the South,
an activity which continued for the duration of the
nineteenth century. The concern for the Indian also
continued after 1860 leading to the foundation of a
school in Indiana for the benefit of Indian children.
New mission fields developed after 1860, as Friends
began work in Mexico. The isolation of Friends ended in
the post-Civil War era as the growing population of
Indiana provided a field for home-mission endeavors. In
addition to missions, Friends began work for social
reform in the areas of temperance, peace, and penology.
The most significant events for Friends after the
Civil War involved religious change, as the silent meeting
gave way to music, singing, and a paid ministry. The
religious changes were forced upon Friends by a combina
tion of progressive leaders, impatient youth, and converts
to the Society of Friends from Protestant denominations.
Many conservative Friends opposed the innovations,
but were unable to halt the growing acceptance of new
During the last decade of the nineteenth century
Friends became aware of disruptive tendencies with the
Society, as moderate Friends blocked further change.
suggested by a visiting English Friend, Stanley Pumphrey,
the proposed board was to be composed of five representa
tives from each member Yearly Meeting, with its object
being to coordinate activities in the foreign mission work.
Indiana Yearly Meeting accepted the invitation and
appointed five representatives, but the board did not
materialize for many years and Indiana Yearly Meeting
remained independent in its foreign mission work, which
continued to be in Mexico.
The completion of the meeting house at Matamoros
represented the dedication of nine years of labor by the
Purdies. By 1880, the output of the printing press was
sent to six countries in Latin America and to every
state in Mexico. The largest single item of printing
was textbooks, with generous insertions of scripture
whenever possible. The greatest obstacle to expansion
of the mission was a shortage of staff and the continued
threat of disease, particularly yellow fever, scarlet
fever, small pox, and "black vomit." Even the Purdies
were forced finally to abandon the field for reasons of
health. The mission was left in the care of William
Walls of Canada, who had joined the mission staff in 1880.
(1880 ) ,
Another basic Quaker belief was the testimony
against a formal or paid clergy. Regarding a
"Hireling Ministry" the Discipline stated "that it is
under the immediate teaching and influence of the Holy
Spirit, that all acceptable worship is performed, and
all gospel ministry supplied." Hence it followed
that "the gift therefore being divine, the service is
freely and faithfully to be discharged."^ Aware that
a meeting for worship without the guidance of an
established clergy and lacking adornments such as music
or singing is sometimes uninspiring, Friends were also
warned to guard against coming late, falling asleep,
restlessness, leaving early, and poor attendance.
The greater part of the Discipline is devoted to
rules for everyday living, Friends believing that a
proper religious conviction should have its outward
manifestations in the lives of the faithful. One of
the best known rules was the Quaker injunction against
taking oaths. Friends took quite literally the text
in the gospel of Matthew to, "Swear not at all, neither
by heaven, for it is God's throne: Nor by the earth;
for it is his footstool . But let your communication
4 Ibid. 53.
6. Ibid., 38.
way for a successful program of conversion. The extent
of the changes proved insufficient, as Friends had
become to realize by 1900. Very possibly the matter
of change was the most important factor leading to the
problems at the turn of the century. There had been
enough changes to aiievate many traditionally
orientated Friends, but not enough to hold the allegiance
of new Friends and continue growth through evangelism.
Particularly on the issues of baptism and the Lord's
Supper, Friends had failed to really become another
Protestant denomination in a competitive sense. This
issue made if difficult for many converts to feel
comfortable in Friends' membership, while the wide
spread discussion of the sacraments among Friends made
it less difficult for them to adapt to membership in
The start of the twentieth century found Indiana
Friends in a state of transition that left them short
of total acceptance as a Protestant denomination, but
sufficiently advanced to have broken with Quaker
traditions of the past. In the middle of this transition
state Friends tried to unite and hold their position,
having broken with the past, but short of joining with
the present. The only traditional Quaker value intact
the notion of the Inner Light, Crewdson placed sole
religious authority on the Scriptures. Although the
Orthodox body of Friends had been moving toward a more
advanced evangelical position for many years, Crewdson's
position was too drastic to gain wide acceptance.
Rather than curtail his activities and moderate his position,
Crewdson chose to resign from Friends' membership and soon
became the head of a small group known as Evangelical
The issue having gained publicity from the Crewdson
episode, Orthodox Friends quickly began taking sides
on the issue, some favored an advanced evangelical position
and others hoped for moderation and reliance on established
Quaker practices. Possibly greater trouble would have
resulted among British Friends at this point had it not
been for the leadership of Joseph John Gurney, one of the
outstanding English Quaker leaders of the nineteenth
century. Favoring an evangelical faith, but wishing to
retain as much as possible from the Quaker past, Gurney
gradually imposed his will on the Orthodox Friends and
achieved a compromise solution. Placing primary importance
on Scriptural authority with all else of secondary
importance, including the Inner Light, Gurney became
the spokesman for evangelical Quakerism in both England
18. Jones, Later Periods of Quakerism, 507.
in 1691. Adherents to the Quaker belief came from
all levels of society, including such prominent persons
as Margaret Fell, Robert Barclay, and William Penn.
Friends early felt called by God to spread their
faith through missionary travels. Mary Fisher and
Ann Austin felt such a call and in 1656 were the first
Quakers to reach America, staying in Massachusetts a
short time before being expelled from the colony for
their religious views. A more substantial missionary
endeavor began the following year with the arrival
of the ship Woodhouse and a group of eleven Quakers.
Despite extreme opposition which led four Friends to
martyrdom, by 1670 Quaker settlements and meetings
existed from New Hampshire to Virginia. The hold of
Quakerism in America was considerably strengthened by
the visit in 1682 of George Fox and a group of leading
Friends. When William Penn established the colony of
Pennsylvania on the basis of religious toleration,
Friends used the opportunity to establish the first
great center of Quakerism in America.
The story of Quakers in the American colonies
has been well told by numerous authors and will be
10. Auguste Jorns, The Quakers As Pioneers in Social
Work, trans. by Thomas Kite Brown, Jr. (Port
Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, Inc., 1931,
11. Jones, 162.
Yearly Meeting agreed in 1882 to support a new mission
at Escandon under William Walls, while in 1883, New
York Yearly Meeting agreed to support a mission at San
Fernando. Also Western Yearly Meeting undertook the
work at Sota La Marina and the Women's Foreign Mission
Association of Friends in Philadelphia agreed to support
a teacher at the school in Matamoras. Additional aid
came from the expanding number of Women's Foreign Mission
Societies, which by 1890 received delegates from ten
Yearly Meetings at the annual convention, including those
from the Indiana Yearly Meeting group which had organized
in 1883. An organization of young Friends known as
the Christian Endeavor Society also took a special
interest in raising funds for the foreign missions.
During the years of expanded activity in Mexico,
Friends often found their efforts blocked by the
government, political turmoil, and defenders of the
Roman Catholic Church. Obtaining legal title to property
and operating schools were often difficult due to laws
25. Minutes (1882), p. 56, Minutes (1883), pp. 72-73, 78.
26. Richard P. Ratcliff, Our Special Heritage.
Sesquicentennial History of Indiana Vearay Meeting
of Friends (New Castle, la.: Community Printing
Co. 1970 ) p. 83.
thousand dollars so that the school might pay off its
debts. The mam cause of the large debt was the
failure of Friends to pay their promised subscriptions,
plus the expense of the newly installed heating system.
It was suggested that funds could be raised by selling
the land which adjoined the school, but Friends
decided against such action from fear that non-Friend
settlers might have a bad influence on the students.^
The 1857 Yearly Meeting announced that the
school was in debt for the sum of seventeen thousand
dollars, an exceptionally large sum which demanded
immediate action.5^ The causes of such a large debt
were the cost of installing gas lighting, and the
rising cost of food, repairs, and equipment.
Several measures were approved in hopes of paying the
debt, the first of which was to raise tuition to
sixty dollars for the lower branch and sixty-five dollars
for the higher branch. A second measure was the
decision to sell the land owned by the school, despite
THE ANTE-BELLUM PERIOD
plans for the future, all Indian children were returned
to their homes in the West and the school closed. Despite
their success at operating an Indian school, Friends
were willing to give up the good they were accomplishing
in order to avoid cooperation with the Federal govern
ment. It must have appeared contradictory to some
observors when the school reopened the following year
and accepted funds from the various county governments
in Indiana for the support of orphans at the rate of
twenty-five cents a day per child.
Reopening as an orphans' and children's home, the
school soon had a number of children equal to its former
but there was another factor in the decision.
Friends had become aware of the fact that the
federal subsidies for all Protestant
denominational work were much less than the amount
given to the Roman Catholic Church. Friends
considered this an insult by the government
and decided to close the Indian school
rather than be overshadowed by the Catholic
Church. See Lawrie Tatum, Our Red Brothers
(Philadelphia: John C. Winston S Co., 1899),
63. Minutes (1896), 17
take place, but for the time being Friends had learned
a lesson and in the future did their utmost to avoid
internal disruption over matters of faith.
For the state of Indiana in 1850, the need for
education was even greater than it had been in 1840.
Between 1840 and 1850, the population had increased
fifty percent, but illiteracy had increased one hundred
percent. At this point the state became more responsive
to the great need for public education and gradually
built up the public school systems. Paralleling the
rise in public facilities for education was a decline
in the Friends' school system. The Yearly Meeting
"General Committee on Education" reported in 1851,
that the Monthly Meetings had conducted 114 schools
that year, with an enrollment of 3,551; with sessions
lasting from six weeks to twelve months. In addition,
Friends' teachers had taught in ninety-one public
schools, showing how Quakers were transferring their
influence to the district schools. By 1860, the
decline of the Monthly Meeting schools was quite
apparent: their enrollment for that year being only
1,546, while 3,699 Friends' children attended district
schools. Friends were still careful, however, to
26. Minutes (1851), 26.
28.Minutes (1860), 34
heed the final recommendations of the Society was
ultimately rejected, the term for such action being
Maintaining the high standards of the Discipline
was not left to the conscience of the individual, but
was examined in every local meeting with a written
report on the subject sent to the Yearly Meeting. To
organize this examination of the state of the Society a
list of nine questions or "queries" was to be read and
answered by all meetings.^ The local answers to the
queries were compiled and presented to the Yearly
Meeting as a report on the "State of Society."
The answers to the first query usually dealt, with
attendance at the weekly and mid-week religious
meetings. A typical reply in 1829 reported that the
meetings were generally well attended,and Unbecoming
behavior mostly avoided, "except in a few instances of
drowsiness, in which care has been taken." Members
going to sleep appears to have been a frequent problem
at Friends' meetings, no doubt attributable to the quiet
nature of the meetings. Attendance was also a problem
especially at the mid-week meeting which was a serious
19. An exact couy of the Queries can be found in the
20. Minutes (1829), 9.
side in Indiana, but with little or no interaction.
The memory of 1328 left a bitter legacy that was long
remembered by Indiana Friends.
Many Friends hoped that after the tragic events of
the Hicksite controversy, disputes over theology would
no longer be a disruptive influence. This would only
be true for the liberal Hicksite group, their repudiation
of established doctrine and sole reliance on the Inner
Light left members free to believe as they pleased. The
conservative Orthodox bodies, however, found that their
insistence on a strict Discipline and growing body of
doctrine centered about Christ and the Bible would lead
to further dissent.
The Orthodox bodies soon found themselves embroiled
in controversy over a small volume published in England
in 1835. Written by Isaac Crewdson, it was entitled
A Beacon to the Society of Friends and contained an
extreme evangelical position. Discarding completely
17. Isaac Crewdson, A Beacon to the Society of Friends
(privately printed, 1835). Crewdson originally
developed his ideas for a rebuttal of the Hicksite
doctrines, but his position was too advanced to be
acceptable even to the evangelical faction of
Friends. The evangelical position still supported
the idea of the Inner Light while Crewdson viewed it
as "the theory of an infidel." Additional information
on the debate over Crewdsons ideas can be found in
A Few Particulars of the Correspondence Between the
Committee Appointed by the Friends Yearly Meeting"and
Isaac Crewdson (London: Hamilton, Adams, S Co., 1835),
ana Isaac Crewdson, The Trumpet Blown (Hamilton
and Co., 1838 ).
in 1872 as teachers in Arkansas and neighboring states.2^
In 1874, the school encountered some difficulties due
to the "present mob-like spirit that prevails over the
South generally," but enrollment for the year was 155,
only a decrease of twenty-one from the previous year.
By 1876, the school was so successful that Friends
began to plan for the normal institute to become
Southland College. Four years later, the Missionary
Board proudly reported that Southland College was one of
the best in the state, with enrollment up to three
hundred. It was also reported that the school was
completely taught by "colored" teachers, all of whom
were former graduates of the school.
While Friends were extremely pleased with the
advances of the Southland school, the growth of the
Southland religious meeting was no less satisfactory.
In 1871, Southland Preparative Meeting had a membership
10; Minutes (1874)
Indian by the government, believing that such payments
both encouraged Indians not to work and attracted
whites of bad character who sought to victimize the
Indians. David Outland also found a surprising
demand for his services as a minister for marriage
ceremonies, since .Federal authorities enforced marriage
laws among the Indians. By 1902 the Otoe mission was
firmly established and the responsibility for its
supervision and support was given over to the
Associated Executive Committee and the Indiana committee
for the Otoe mission was disbanded. Despite ending
the Otoe mission, Indiana Friends maintained their
interest in going to the aid of the Indians in the West.
The same year that the Otoe mission was transferred to
the Associated Executive Committee Franklin and Mary
Meredith left their home within the limits of Indiana
Yearly Meeting to take charge of a mission for the
At the turn of the century, Indiana Friends were
again looking to mission work to aid the Indians in the
One reason for the minimal growth of the school was
the depressed economic status of the Blacks in that
area. Most were unable to afford the luxury of attending
school themselves or of sending their children. In 1882,
the school declined in enrollment to 277, the reason
being that flooding of the Mississippi River led to crop
failure and also a serious outbreak of small pox.
Several years later, in 1890, serious flooding again
threatened the prosperity of the school, as many of
the students were needed at home to help avoid disaster.
The school also suffered a setback in 1887, when two of
the school's five buildings were destroyed by fire,
restricting operation until the damage was repaired two
During those years the school was financially
supported through donations from many groups. The
Indiana Friends contributed a large amount each year,
but that alone was not sufficient to keep the school
operating. The financial report of 1884 mentioned
that large amounts of aid had been obtained from
individual donations from every Yearly Meeting, including
those of London and Dublin. The school had also built
66, Minutes (1889), 71.
view of the fact that Indiana lagged far behind most
other states in education. The average illiteracy
rate in the United States in 1840 was 8.5 percent,
yet for the state of Indiana it was 14.3 percent.
With this figure in mind, it is an interesting comment
on Quaker education that in 1840, Wayne County,
dominated by Friends, had 9,349 inhabitants over twenty
years of age and an illiteracy rate of only .0045
. 16 '
During the decade following 1840, Friends continued
their emphasis on education. By 1850, there were 8,728
Friends children of school age, of whom only nine did
not attend any school during the year. Schools under
the direction of Friends had an enrollment of 3,482, while
4,075 children attended non-Friends schools.
Although Friends had maintained ninety-six schools during
the year, many parents were beginning to prefer the
public district schools. The reason for this was that
"the Friend who paid taxes and saw a good district
school nearby grew to believe his children could fare
15. Richard G. Boone, A History of Education in
Indiana (New York 18 92 ), p. 89.
17. Minutes (1850), 40.
the expanding number of high schools and academies under
Friends control or influence. In 1885, President Hills
reported there were twelve schools at the high school
level in the normal recruiting areas of Earlham College,
which had caused enrollment to drop fifty students in
just the past year. The drop in enrollment meant a
drop in the school's income and placed Earlham once again
in debt. President Hills reported that due to the decline
in enrollment and insufficient donations to the endowment
fund, "The Society of Friends in the interior of the
United States is unable to compete successfully, through
its leading college, with other Churches and the State
for THE EDUCATION OF ITS OWN YOUTH."
Heeding the message of President Hills, Friends
responded by sending their children and money to Earlham
in greater numbers. Attendance in 1886, was the highest
in twenty years, with 111 enrolled in the college
department. With a rising enrollment, plans were
pushed to obtain new buildings and equipment, especially
to accommodate college level students. The next year
Allen Jay resigned his position at the school to work
full time soliciting contributions to Earlham. New
(1885 ) ,
of Anti-Slavery Friends attempted to remedy- individual
shortcomings by making the boycott of slave labor a
required article of the Discipline.
By 1846 the Western Free Produce Association had
become inactive, although the Salem Free Produce Association
kept active under the direction of William Beard. Under
Beard's leadership a convention was held in Salem, at
which time it was decided to reorganize the Western Free
Produce Association.^ Regaining its strength, the
Association sent Levi Coffin to Cincinnati in 1847, for
the purpose of opening a free produce store.Although
such stores had failed in several attempts in Indiana, it
was hoped that by locating in,.a larger city the venture .
would be successful. Under Coffin's management the new
store enjoyed a small success, but by 1857 the lack of
free labor goods forced his return to Newport, Indiana.
In an attempt to obtain needed supplies, the
Association authorized Nathan Thomas, an Anti-Slavery
8. Nuermberger, 34.
9. Ibid., 51.
The school's prosperity again suffered in 1876, the
cause being the depressed economy which made it impossible
for many students to pay the tuition. Average attendance
dropped to 102 students in 1878, and the school sank
deeper in debt.0 In hopes of attracting more students
the tuition was lowered, and to help the school's finances
Ohio and Western Yearly Meetings were asked to unite
with Indiana Yearly in maintaining the school.
The following year, conditions had improved and the school
was operated without incurring further debt. Ohio Yearly
Meeting decided not to join in support of the school,
but Western Yearly Meeting agreed to the proposal.
A plan of union was devised which created a Board of
Trustees with six members from each Yearly Meeting,
with the new Board to take title to the College property.
The next year, Western Yearly Meeting agreed to the
proposed union with the modification that each Yearly
Meeting appoint twelve trustees and that the college
president also serve on the Board. The new Board
officially took control of the school on January 12, 1881,
30. Minutes (1878), 23, 25.
31. Ibid. 25 79.
32. Minutes (1879), 27.
33. Ibid., 27-28.
34.Minutes (1880), 8
The same meeting sent petitions to the legislatures of
Indiana and Ohio asking them to repeal all lav/s "which
make a distinction on account of color or descent."
Each Yearly Meeting sent petitions similar to those
sent in 1844, Changes were made according to events,
such as the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, or the new
Indiana Constitution. The new Fugitive Slave Law,
however, had little effect on the content of most
petitions since Friends were previously petitioning
against the similar law of 1793. Concern over the: new
state constitution of 1850 led to a lengthy petition
and the sending of two Friends to the State legislature,
where they were given a hearing. Friends were opposed
to Article XIII of the new constitution which prohibited
the immigration of Blocks to Indiana and regarded it as
"highly unjust and oppressive."
Since Friends were seldom able to obtain space in
newspapers or magazines, they often printed and circulated
open letters to the general public. Usually, these
32. Ibid. 11.
33. Minutes, A.S. Friends (1850), 6.
34.Minutes, A.S. Friends (1853), 2
the slaughter of buffalo in 1871, and wrote, "It is not
improbable that before many more revolving seasons they
[buffalo] will be numbered with the extinct races of
the past." All connections with the government were
officially ended when the Associated Executive
Committee received a letter from Secretary of the
- 3 fi
Interior Carl Schurz accepting the members resignation.
A number of Friends continued in their positions among
the Indians, however, and were aided by the continued
existence of the Associated Executive Committee of the
For approximately twenty years after that time
Indiana Friends had very little involvement in the
actual missionary work in the West. The only real effort
was to support financially the work of the Associated
Executive Committee, which had concentrated its efforts
on Indian education in the West. Although an occassional
Friend from Indiana Yearly Meeting worked under the
direction of the Associated Executive Committee with the
Indians, Indiana Friends seemed reluctant to begin a new
venture that might end as did their earlier mission to
35. Thomas C. Battey, A Quaker Among the Indians (Boston
Lee and Shepard, Publishers, 1875), p. 19.
36. Minutes (1879), 39.
of 1830, a standing committee was appointed- to supervise
the establishment of such libraries, a function later
taken over by the Central Book and Tract Committee.
Although books were often difficult to obtain and quite
expensive, most of the Monthly Meetings began action
immediately to establish suitable libraries. The process
was slow and often complicated by the formation of
new meetings, but by 1858, nearly every Monthly Meeting
v;as reported to have a library, although most of them
were very small.
Indiana Friends could well afford to be proud of
their efforts in education during the ante-bellum years,
having established a system of schools and libraries in
an area where none had existed. There is also another
chapter to the story of Quaker education during
these years, for1, not content with elementary schools
and an occasional academy, the desire for higher learning
would eventually lead to the founding of a Quaker
a history of early Quakerism, but concentrated on matters
of religious faith and practice.
44. Minutes (1858), 17.
the same reason. Agent H.W. Jones had dismissed an
employee for "gross and notorious immorality," but the
employee was sent back by Commissioner Hayt to fill
another position at a higher salary and Agent Jones
was dismissed. Because of these and similar actions,
Friends in May, 1879, notified President Hayes that
they would no longer officially cooperate with the
government on Indian affairs, although Friends still in
the field would remain at their jobs. Friends must
have taken great satisfaction the following year, when
Commissioner Hayt was removed for gross malfeasance in
office. During the years that Friends had cooperated
with the government, they had achieved considerable
progress in convincing the Indians to give up their
nomadic ways and to accept the methods of white civiliza
tion.3^ Friends especially encouraged the Jn.dianÂ§ to
expand their agriculture, perhaps reflecting experiences
similar to that of Quaker Thomas C. Battey, who witnessed
30. Minutes (1878), 49.
31. Ibid. p. 38.
32. Kelsey, 185.
34. A statistical chart of the progress made by the
Indians under Friends care can be found in the
Indiana State Sunday School Association and the
International Sunday School Union.^ By 1900 enrollment
in Bible schools had grown to 8,529 students, indluding
adults, and was conducted by 1,197 teachers in 139
An attempt at a special educational program for
teachers and leaders in the Society began in 1897, with
a ten-day Bible Conference at Earlham College. The
first Bible Institute was a success and developed into an
annual affair. Usually lasting from ten to twelve days,
the annual Bible Institute was organized about a series
of lectures given by guest speakers on various aspects
of religion centering about the Bible. Shortly after its
successful start, support of the Institute was shared
by Western Yearly Meeting and newly formed Wilmington
Yearly Meeting. Guest speakers such as R.A. Torrey,
Superintendent of the Moody Bible Institute, Rufus M.
Jones, editor of the American Friend, Elbert Russell,
Fellow in the Graduate Divinity School of the University
Addams of Hull House soon gave the
87, Minutes (1897), 96.
Votaw, Albert H. "Allen Jay." Quaker Biographies.
Series II, Vol. Ill, 61-92. Friends'1 Collection,
Lily Library, Earlham College.
Wagstaff, H.M., ed. Minutes of the N.C. Manumission
Society, 1816-1834. The James Sprunt Historical
Studies, Vol. 22, No. 1-2. Chapel Hill: The
University of North Carolina Press, 1934.
Warner, Stafford Allen. Yardley Warner the Freedmen's
Friend. Didcot, England: The Wessex Press, 1957.
Weeks, Stephen B. Southern Quakers and Slavery.
Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1896.
Woodson, Carter G. Free Negro Heads of Families
in the United States in 1830. Washington, D.C.:
The Association for the S-udy of Negro Life and
Eistory, Inc., 1925.
Woodward, Solomon B'. Story of a Life of Ninety
Years. Richmond, la.: Nicholson Printing Co., 1928.
Woodward, Walter C. Timothy Nicholson Master
Quaker, Richmond, la.: The Nicholson Press, 1927.
Woolman, John. The Works of John Woolman,
Philadelphia: Joseph Crukshank, 1775. Reprinted
by Mnemosyne Publishing Co., Inc., 1969.
Wright, Edward Needles. Conscientious Objectors
in the Civil War. Philadelphia: University of
Pennsylvania Press, 1931.
Wright, Luella M. The Literary Life of the Early
Friends 1650-1725. New York::Columbia University
Aptheker, Herbert. "The Quakers and Negro Slavery."
Journal of Negro History, XXV, 3 (July, 1940),
Bassett, T.D. Seymour. "The Quakers and
Communitarianism." Bulletin of Friends1 Historical
Association, XLIII, 2 (Autumn, 1954), 84r99.
lightly of the Bible and discrediting the divinity of
Christ, the dissenting groups were a source of
scepticism and disorder within the Society.
At the same time that "Ranters" were spreading
views, the orthodox evangelical position was also being
strengthened. This occurred primarily through the
influence of prominent British Friends traveling in
the United States. The most prominent among them were
Stephen Crellet, .William Forster, Anna Braithwaite,
and Thomas Shillitoe. The impact of these British
Friends was to create an awareness of the growing
dissension within the Society and provide impetus to
the gradually evolving polarization.
Perhaps the growing tensions might have subsided
without schism were it not for the person of Elias
Hicks. Born on Long Island, Hew York, in 1748, Hicks
was brought up in a strong Quaker atmosphere by his
parents. Possessed of deep convictions and eloquence
in speaking, he became a leader in the Society.
Claiming to be in unity with the original teachings
of Fox, Hicks evolved a doctrine that turned to the
Inner Light as being the only true source of revelation
and authority in matters of faith. To Hicks the historical
6. Jones, Later Periods of Quakerism, 459-460.
changed by 1890, when Friends were urged to support the
public schools and not one elementary school was maintained
by Friends in the limits of Indiana Yearly Meeting.
The new position of Friends was revealed in the statement
by the education committee that, "The Society of Friends
should stand unwaveringly in support of our present
system of free education by the State for all the children
of the State." Facing the fact that Friends' schools
were extinct, in 1892 the education committee asked that
it be disbanded since it no longer had any purpose.
The continuation of Friends' guarded education was
left to the Friends' academies and colleges, to the Bible
schools, and the literature made available by the Book
Tract Committee. First Day Scriptural Schools in 1860
enrolled 6,573 pupils in 142 schools, with sessions lasting
from one to six months. The work gradually expanded and
especially became more organized and efficient. Planning
sessions and conferences for teachers were held to improve
the quality of instruction, while materials became
standardized. Friends also began to cooperate with the
6. Minutes (1890), 56-57.
7. Ibid., 57.
8. Minutes (1892), 84.
9.Minutes (1860), 48
. 5 9
with the Indians. The remaining number of students
was supported by the contributions of Indiana Yearly
Meeting, various individuals, and the Indian Aid
Association of Philadelphia. The Indians proved to be
good students, taking the same course of instruction
as offered in the public schools, with several
succeeding to the point that they were given positions on
the school'.s staff. The only real problem associated
with the Indian children was the continual threat of
sickness. In 1890, an epidemic of "la grippe" resulted
in three deaths at the school, and three years later,
malaria was a severe problem.^ The Indian children
also suffered from measles, mumps, and especially eye
The end of White's Institute as an Indian school
came quite suddenly in 1895, with sixty-three Indians
still at the school. The reason for the sudden
closing was that the school's trustees were aware of a
growing stand among Friends against the use of government
funds for a denominational school. With no definite
(1890 ) ,
62. Ibid. This was the reason given by the trustees
for ending White's Institute as an Indian school,
Indiana Friends had grown to nearly nine hundred and by
1820 to more than two thousand. One outstanding feature
of the early settlers and those to come was the large
number that had removed from the slave states of the South.
Remembering the Quaker opposition to slavery it might
appear that the Quaker exodus from the South was a protest
against the iniquities of the "peculiar institution" but
such a view is much too simplified. The existence of the
institution of slavery was a primary reason for the
Quaker flight, but the economic factors were equal to
Competing with a slave economy put the Quakers at
a disadvantage since the use of white labor was more
expensive. The rising land prices in the South caused
by an expanding slave economy also forced Friends off
the better land and onto the poorer sandy soil of the
up-country. Sympathetic Quaker attitudes on behalf of
the slaves and free Blacks often hurt relations with
slave-owning neighbors. The stigma attached to manual
labor also contributed to making the Quaker position
in society less than desirable. Other factors which
influenced the decision to emigrate were the widespread
fear of slave uprisings and the later crisis over
4. Jones, 425-426.
begun in other areas. Cooperative work in such areas as
peace, education, Freedmen, and Indians provided
positive experience in working together that laid the
groundwork for eventual acceptance of a general conference
of all the Yearly Meetings. Still under the influence
of Timothy Nicholson, in 18 86 the Yearly Meeting approved
the idea of issuing a call for a general conference to
be held the following year. By that time the growing
number of changes and disputes occurring in the Society
led the other Yearly Meetings to accept the need for a
general conference and eleven meetings responded to the
call. Meeting in Richmond the following year, the
conference opened with ninety-five delegates in attendance,
representing Indiana, London, Dublin, New England,
Baltimore, North Carolina, Ohio, New York, Western,
Iowa, Canada, and Kansas Yearly Meetings.
42. Minutes (1886), 69. Timothy Nicholson obtained
considerable support for the ^conference from his
brother William Nicholson, a leading Friend in
Kansas Yearly Meeting. In 1879 William wrote to
his brother Timothy that the Yearly Meetings needed
a "Central Body," with "full authority to legislate
and settle all matters." Letter of William Nicholson
to Timothy Nicholson, September 26j 1879. MS.,
Timothy Nicholson Papers, Friends Collection,
Lily Library, Earlham College.
Proceedings of the General Conference of Friends,
18 8 7 (Richmond,Ind71 Kichoson S Bros., Publishers
and Binders, 1887), pp. 6-8.
was an accomplished fact in 1843, the anti-abolitionists
reversed their course and appointed' abolitionists to
various positions to prevent further loss of membership.39
The special address on slavery printed by the Yearly
Meeting in 1843 was an attempt to disprove the accusation
that it was soft pn the slavery issue.. Such action did
not suffice to reconcile the two factions, but it did
prevent the Anti-Slavery Friends from gaining many
When news of the separation reached England, the
London Yearly Meeting sent a deputation of English
Friends, composed of William and Josiah Forster, George
Stacey, and John Allen, to Indiana in hopes of bringing
the separatists back into the regular Yearly Meeting.^
Meeting of Friends (1843), the Yearly Meeting defended
itself from the accusations of the Anti-Slavery Friends.
The argument was based on the fact that Friends had
been warned not to join with non-Friends' associations,
but the Anti-Slavery Friends had refused to heed the
warning. A Defense of the Anti-Slavery Friends,
Against the Glanderous Attacks of an Anonymous Reviewer
(1843) defended the position of Anti-Slavery Friends
and accused Indiana Yearly Meeting of opposition to
the anti-slavery movement. In a Review of the
Declaration of a Meeting of Anti-Slavery Friends
(1843), the anonymous writer attacked the position
of Anti-Slavery Friends and denied the "contemptible
tale" that "sundry women Friends kissed Henry Clay"
at the Yearly Meeting in 1842.
39. Edgerton, 101.
reduced contributions forced the Yearly Meeting to propose
a budget of $6,500 for the coming year, a sum half as
large as m former years.
It would seem that Friends were almost in rebellion
against the Yearly Meeting, but conditions were not
really quite that'serious. One factor was that Friends
were expected to contribute to a multitude of benevolent
enterprises conducted by Friends, in addition to the
budget of the Yearly Meeting. Various Friends' academies
and schools were always in need of assistance, besides
the constant soliciting of Earlham College. The
maintainence of the local meeting also demanded a certain
amount of financial support, which included the meeting
houses, parsonages, and cemeteries. In 1887, reports
showed that Monthly Meetings owned and maintained 129
meeting houses, plus fifty-five schools, cemeteries,
and parsonages. It was also true that Friends held
back their contributions in opposition to some of the
Yearly Meeting activities, but this was not usually a
As the Yearly Meeting debt slowly increased, Friends
tried several appeals for help from the members, but with
The Missionary Board further expanded its work in
1873, when it began aiding Dr. Jeptha D. Garner, a
Quaker doctor from North Carolina who was working with
his daughter among poor whites in the mountains of
eastern Tennessee. Dr. Garner wrote to Indiana Yearly
Meeting from his mission in the Chilhowee Range that
Friends should turn "thir attention more to the white
race here in the South, and letting them share at least
equally with the. freedmen." For several years the
Missionary Board supported part of Dr. Garners work
with financial aid, but this ended about 1880, as
Friends concentrated on.their work at Southland.
By 1880 the Missionary Board was solely concerned
with the school and religious work at Southland. For
the next ten years Southland College remained about the
same size, average enrollment being three hundred.
The primary aid of the school was still to provide the
Blacks with a fundamental education and to train as
many as possible to become teachers. Although it used
the title of "college," actual enrollment in the college
department was minimal, rarely exceeding ten in number.
The vast majority f the students was situated in the
primary department, while the rest did work at an
3 9. Minutes (1873), 15.
4 0. Minutes (1874), 18.
opposition of many conservative Friends, permission was
given and the meeting was held October 7, 1860, with one
thousand people attending. The tremendous success of
the initial meeting led to the establishment of a weekly
Sunday night prayer meeting under the supervision of
Charles and Rhoda Coffin. Following the start of the
prayer meetings, a period of religious excitement and
fervor ensued, which gradually spread to many areas of
the Yearly Meeting. Rhoda Coffin described it as "a
great revival came upon us," and Indiana Friends were
launched on a new path of evangelicalism.
The emergence of the revival spirit was a sudden
phenomenon, but much of the basic preparation had been
laid by the acceptance of Joseph John Gurney and his
on Scriptural authority. Friends were also influenced
3. Ibid., 81. Conservative Friends discovered that
their opposition had been justified when they
learned that at the meeting Richard J. Hubbard
; sang a hymn. Charles F. Coffin, "Reminiscences
of Charles F. Coffin," p. 91. MS Friends
Collection, Lily Library, Earlham College.
4. Ibid., 82.
5. Ibid. 87.
continued. The activity of the Indiana Yearly Meeting
was also reduced because of Friends indifference to the
cause, although the Yearly Meeting did have a delegate at
the International Arbitration Convention held in Phila-
delphia on November 22, 1883. Support for the peace
movement made some gains in 1887, when a Friends Peace and
Arbitration Convention at Richmond, Indiana, attracted
delegates from twelve Yearly Meetings, including London
and Dublin Yearly Meetings.
The successful conference held in 1887 seemed to
reawaken Friends' interest in peace and arbitration, and
even the Peace Association's annual report disclosed a
mood of optimism. The peace committee for Indiana
Yearly Meeting reported, in 1888, that four conferences on
peace had been held in various Quarterly Meetings and
that several new peace committees had been established in
the subordinate meetings. The following year the Peace
Association noted that despite the prevailing peace in the
world, military arsenals were growing at an alarming rate.
Friends were encouraged to oppose the activities of the
(18 84) ,
Many more were turned av/ay due to a lack of. facilities.
In April, 1864, five additional teachers were sent to
the new school, but they stopped in Nashville because
of the unstable military conditions in the area, which
also forced the new school in Pulaski to close.
Prevented from working in Pulaski, the Friends began
working in Nashville, aiding white and black refugees
and teaching schools. Due to the prevalence of sickness
among the refugees, nearly all of the Friends were forced
to return to Indiana because of poor health at the end
of the summer.
To obtain the funds to support the various missions
and schools, the Indiana Committee conducted a wide
spread fund drive. From October, 1863, to July, 1864,
the Quarterly Meetings of Indiana Yearly Meeting
donated nearly ten thousand dollars for Freedmen aid.
Friends in Great Britain sent over seven thousand dollars,
while other Yearly Meetings and private individuals
contributed an additional five thousand dollars. In
only ten months the Freedmen*s Committee had collected
a total of $22,456.54. The bulk of the funds was
of Indiana Yearly Meeting were reported to be united in
a stand against slavery, although they were divided on
the issue of free produce. Increased national agitation
over the slavery issue led most Friends of Indiana
Yearly Meeting to accept the position of abolition which
they had opposed at the time of the Anti-Slavery Friends
separation in 1843. The formation of the Republican
Party and its anti-slavery platform enabled Friends of
Indiana Yearly Meeting to unite with Anti-Slavery Friends
in their political views. After a long separation,
Indiana Friends had united just in time to see their
beliefs carried into war, and four years later emerge
the standard not only of the state, but of the nation.
In retrospect, the basic cause of the 1842 anti-slavery
split in Indiana Yearly Meeting was not that some
Friends were pro-slavery, but rather "a difference in
their spirit and manner of fighting it."
48. The Non-Slaveholder, Abraham Pennock, Samuel Rhoads,
and George Taylor, eds., Vol. Ill, ho. 11 (Philadelphia
Merrihew S Thompson, Printers, h'overmber, 1847), p. 248.
49. Allen Jay, Autobiography of Allen Jay (Philadelphia:
John C. Winston Co., 1910) p. 10 8.
develop its own unique brand of Quakerism. If that trend
continued, it was feared that Friends would become
hopelessly divided, to the detriment of the Society as
a whole. It was also felt that such divergence would
eventually allow the introduction of practices in
opposition to traditional Quaker doctrine and ultimately
mean the demise of the Society.
As early as 1866, Indiana Friends thought that the
different Yearly Meetings would benefit from a unifying
influence. A committee was appointed to consider the
possibility of a uniform discipline that could be used
by all the Yearly Meetings, thus providing a common
bond between them. This early attempt at introducing
unity among the Yearly Meetings made little progress,
but the idea was kept alive, primarily with the support
of Timothy Nicholson. In 1875, Indiana Friends tried
to organize a general conference of all Yearly Meetings
to aid the general welfare of the Society, but again a
lack of interest, in the other meetings prevented any
positive action from being taken.
The initial attempts at a general conference of
the Yearly Meetings had failed, but cooperation had
40. Woodward, 188.
41. Minutes (1875), 12.
CRISIS OVER ABOLITION
By 1840, many Indiana Quakers were aware that some
sort of internal conflict was undermining the solidarity
of the Friends stand on slavery. This problem was not
restricted solely to Indiana, but had appeared several
years earlier among Friends in the East. In 1833, the
New England Anti-Slavery Society remarked that while the
English Friends continued to be strongly anti-slavery,
many in the United States "seem to have measurably lost
their primitive spirit on the subject of slavery, and
to have become ensnared by wicked prejudices."'*' The
Yearly Meeting of Orthodox Friends of New York went on
record in 1836 as opposed to slavery, but advised its
members to keep out of abolitionist societies. That
same year Friends of Virginia also condemned abolitionist
societies, and two years later the Philadelphia Yearly
Meeting expressed similar sentiments. Elizabeth
Buffum Chase, a noted abolitionist, remarked that
1. Herbert Aptheker, "The Quakers and Slavery," Journal
of Negro History, Vol. XXV, No. 3, (July, 1940),
3. Ibid., 358-59.
At mid-century Indiana Quakers had changed very
little, their traditional values and practices remaining
intact. The Civil War proved a watershed, however, as
a series of changes were introduced that drastically
altered the Society of Friends. By 1900 a crisis appeared
as a century of continuous growth came to a sudden end.
Threatened with growing losses in membership, Friends
were aware of their critical situation, but were unable
to realize a solution.
In 1899, Evangelical and Pastoral Committees
reported "tendencies toward insubordination," and "phases
of unsound teaching, irreverence for the Church, etc."-*-
The committee also mentioned that some meetings were
the victim of a "diseased emotionalism," leading them to
denounce "the order and authority of the church." It
was concluded that "the Friends Church is in a
transition:-state" and that there "appears to be a crisis
on hand." In 1901, the report of the Ministers and
1. Minutes (1899), 86.
2. Ibid. 87.
3. Ibid. 86.
nullification in 1832. Essentially the Quakers moved
to Indiana for a chance at a better life, for land and
opportunity. Since most Quakers came to the conclusion
that slavery was their worst enemy in the South, the
no-slavery clause of the Northwest Ordinance made
Indiana's virgin soil even more appealing. So complete
was the removal of Southern Friends that often an
entire meeting would eventually relocate in Indiana,
even transferring the name of their town as in the
instance of New Garden and Hopewell meetings in North
Eastern Quakers were also joining the move to
Indiana for the same basic reasons as those from the
South land and opportunity. Even the recently
settled area of Ohio fell victim to rising land prices
as settlement increased, inducing settlers to continue
on the cheaper land available in Indiana. Quakers from
all areas were also subject to the wanderlust and spirit
of adventure that affected many of the pioneers.
These early Friends in Indiana had to endure the
many hardships of conquering an unsettled land, but most
5. Stephen B. Weeks, Southern Quakers and Slavery
(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1896), p. 263.
The term "meeting" as applied to Quaker groups
is similar to "congregation" as used by Protestant
groups. A complete explanation of Quaker
organization is given in Chapter III.
Indiana Friends in 1860 could well be proud of
their accomplishments during the ante-bellum period.
They had grown from the smallest to the largest Yearly
Meeting in existence, had "set off" a new Yearly Meeting
and were about to "set off" a second. Their achieve
ments in education and reform had been obtained through
personal sacrifice and often against considerable
opposition. Despite the religious turmoil involving
the Society of Friends, the religious life of the
Indiana Friends had changed very little in forty years.
The silent meeting devoid of clergy, the simple Quaker
garb, and the basic tenets of the Discipline all remained
intact. There is little doubt that Indiana Friends
must have viewed the future with optimism, believing
their Society would continue to grow in the ways of the
The term "set off" was used by Quakers in reference
to the process of establishing a new meeting from
within the limits of an established meeting. Since
Western Yearly Meeting had been within the limits
of Indiana Yearly Meeting, it was referred to as
having been "set off."
continued to try and obtain a portion of the funds controlled
by Baltimore Friends, but to no avail. Forced to look
elsewhere, Friends obtained part of the necessary funds
by renting the farm at the Indian mission. The income
was one-half of the farms produce. Ohio Yearly Meeting
also continued its support with donations, while the bulk
of the funds were supplied by the subordinate meetings
of Indiana Yearly Meeting.
In 1831, the Indians completed negotiations with
the Federal government and agreed to trade their
remaining land at Wapakoneta for new land west of the
Mississippi River. Responding to a request from the
Indians to stay among them as long as possible, Friends
hired henry and Ann Harvey to manage the school for
another year despite the imminent relocation of the
Indians. Attempts to continue the school failed due
to the confusion stemming from the Indians preparations
for moving, leading Friends to decide to sell their
property at Wapokoneta. Adding to the confusion
was the failure of promised government supplies to
24. Minutes (1832), 14, 16
as well there as in the smaller Friends school supported
by private subscription." Although this seemed in
opposition to the Quaker ideal of a guarded education,
Friends often achieved control of the public school
through teachers or administration.
The majority of Friends' schools during this
period dealt with the elementary three "R's" plus a
fourth for religion. There were also several schools
offering advanced work; the school report in 1848
stated that classes were taught in natural philosophy,
algebra, geometry, and even some chemistry, geology,
physiology, and surveying. There was also an attempt
to obtain uniform school books for Friends' schools,
but it was difficult to find texts that would "inculcate
valuable precepts, in the support of our various Christian
testimonies." Eventually some of the schools offering
advanced work would evolve into private academics or
19. McDaniel, 212.
21. Minutes (1848), 21.
22. "Minutes of the General Committee on Education of
Indiana Yearly Meeting" (1844-1866). This is an
unpublished manuscript of the Education Committee's
minutes and is available in the Friends'
Collection of the Lily Library at Earlham College,
The revival period was also critical in contributing
to the crisis in 1300. Despite the many successful
years of expansion through evangelism, many of the new
members eventually renounced their membership to return
to other churches. At the same time, the techniques of
evangelism and the changes supported by the converts
resulted in many conservative Friends withdrawing active
support of the Society. This attitude of conservative
Friends also prevented new members from feeling accepted
as a Friend and would gradually hasten their departure.
Another important factor in the crisis was the
breakdown of the corporate structure of the Society.
Nurtured by the independent spirit characterizing
Americans of that period, Friends began to rebel
against the central authority of the Yearly Meeting.
Trying to accomodate the spirit of the times, the Yearly
Meeting admitted many changes and allowed local meetings
to decide for themselves on various matters of religious
practice. This led to a divergence of views among
Friends that eventually led many out of the Society
and into other denominations.
The changes taking place within the Society were
also contributing to the rising problems. Originally
the changes in religious practice served to open the
encouragement to free Blacks in the South to come and
settle in Indiana. The non-Quaker population opposed
this because of racial prejudice and fear of Black
competition in labor.
In addition to their position on the Blacks and
slavery, Friends were often set apart for their advocacy
of non-violence. In 1810 Friends had been exempted
from military service, but due to the growing fear of an
Indian war this.was repealed in 1811. When Friends
refused to fight in the War of 1812, they were often
fined, had their property confiscated, or put into jail.
This also caused some trouble within the Society, for a
few members did perform military service. In Wayne
County several Friends were expelled from membership
because they had served in the militia. Although
9. Friends* Review, Enoch Lewis, ed., Vol. IX, No. 35
tPhiladelpn.ia: Samuel Rhoads Publisher, 1856 ),
p. 553. The structure of Quaker organization is
discussed in the following chapter. The Monthly
Meeting was the smallest geographical unit which
supervised the affairs of the Society in a small
area and met once a month. The Quarterly Meeting
was the next largest unit, responsible for an
area which contained several Monthly Meetings.
The Quarterly Meeting met once every three months
and was attended by delegates from the constituent
Southland and Mexico. At that point, membership
records show that Friends in Indiana had reached a
turning point in its existence.
After 1898 the number of recorded members began
to decline, although not by a substantial amount. Three
years later, in 1901, membership was 20,224, a drop of
over five hundred.^ The failure of the Yearly Meeting
to continue, as an expanding religious body was due to
a drop in the number of those joining the Society and
the decision of the Yearly Meeting to discontinue the
names of inactive members. In 1899, 574 new members
were received by request, but 783 were discontinued or
dropped from membership. Most of those members dropped
were recent converts to the Society who lost interest
after the initial zeal of their conversion. The growth
of the Society through conversions was proving
deceptive, as increasing numbers failed to remain within
the Society. Friends had succeeded in their initial
efforts to win non-Friends, but were unable to hold the
allegiance of the new Friends for an extended period.
52. Minutes (1897), 58, Minutes (1902), 57.
and scriptural use of the pronoun "thou." To guard
their children from worldly influence was always of
major concern, but even on the frontier it proved most
The fourth query to be answered involved temperance
and places of diversion. Intemperance was a problem .
which Friends found most alarming, but despite close
scrutiny many violations of the rule were reported.
For example, the Minutes of 1834 reported several cases
of unnecessary use of alcoholic drink, several instances
of visiting taverns, and one incident of operating a
still. Despite their alarm, Friends at that time
actually presented a nearly unanimous stand against
intemperance. It was a time when many farmers preferred
to store their corn in jugs rather than barns.
The subject of the fifth query rarely presented a
problem for Indiana Friends, being concerned with aiding
the poor. Helping an unfortuante neighbor was a trait
of rural life, not peculiar to Quakers. It was not
until Indiana's population had significantly increased
and urban areas developed that poor relief became an
important aspect of the Yearly Meetings work.
24. Minutes (1829), 9, Minutes (1839), 5.
25. Minutes (1834), 4.
problem and that the Czar of Russia had even closed the
saloons near government offices and proposed ending the
brandy ration to the army. The committee was also
encouraged by the fact that the Massachusetts legislature
had passed prohibition and the state of Ohio had enacted
strict liquor laws. The committee's delegate to the
National Temperance Convention at Saratoga Springs, New
York, reported that the convention favored total prohibition
through federal legislation, which met with the approval
of Friends. The temperance committee had concentrated
on influencing the Indiana legislature, which had finally
passed some compromise measures after a large public debate
in the press and pulpits. In addition, local Monthly .
Meeting committees held a total of 151 temperance meetings
and distributed tracts on the subject.
The topic soon became a major item of discussion in
Indiana, where a large number of temperance groups were
opposed by an equally vociferous opposition. Especially
opposed to the temperance movement were the large numbers
some type of union. Since conservative Friends had
successfully resisted the introduction of significant
innovations in 1866, it is also possible that the Methodist
proposal was an attempt to solve the loss of members to
the Friends' church. The Yearly Meeting replied to the
Methodist proposal in friendly terms, but gave no
indication of favoring such a measure.
Revivalism continued to spread and, in 1866-1867,
reached Earlham College, where Allen Jay noted an outbreak
of revivalism among the students. Walnut Ridge Monthly
Meeting became the center of an extended revival series
which developed into "union Meetings" for all denominations.
The continued expansion of revivalism and its success in.
gaining new members for the Society gradually overcame the
opposition of conservative Friends and became an accepted
work of the Yearly Meeting. In 1866, the request of
Ohio Friends to establish Wilmington Yearly Meeting was the
7. Minutes (1866), 57-60.
8. Ibid., 61-63.
9. Allen Jay, Autobiography of Allen Jay (Philadelphia:
John C. Winston Co^, 1910), p. 110.
10. American Friend, I, 12 (December, 1867), 302. The
fact that the revival spirit affected many denomina
tions vas also noted in other areas. In 1869 Charles
F. Coffin described Richmond as "thoroughly stirred,"
and: "Never has there been such an outpouring of the
Holy Spirit here." Quoted in the Herald of Peace,
III, 12 (July 15, 1869), 168.
spiritual partaking of the body and blood of Christ by
faith."3 Nearby Ohio Yearly Meeting gave Indiana
Friends additional reason for alarm when it unofficially
accepted water baptism. David B. Updegraff of that
meeting was baptized by immersion in 1885, and was the
established leader of that position, exerting an influence
on Friends in Indiana also. Even more alarming to
some was the conversion of Earlham College professor
Dougan Clark to the position of water baptism. Clark
predicted that someday water baptism would be accepted
by all Friends, and in 1884 was himself baptized.
35. Extracts of Women Friends, 1875, (New Vienna,
Ohio: Friends Publishing House Press, 1875).
36. Elliott, 269. For many years leading Friends
who opposed water baptism feared the influence of
Updegraff. In 1880 it was believed that Updegraff
and his followers had a plan to bring about
acceptance of water baptism in the entire Society,
beginning in the Yearly Meetings of Ohio and New
York; Letter of William Nicholson, in Lawrence,
Kansas, to his brother Timothy Nicholson in
Richmond, Indiana, February 27, 1880. MS.
Timothy Nicholson Papers,Friends Collection, Lily
Library, Earlham College.
construction vas begun to expand facilities and Mordecai
Parry personally assumed the entire expense of erecting
a new science building. The College department continued
to expand, enrollment in 1887 being 144, an increase of
over one hundred in the past ten years.^ President
Mills proudly reported in 1888 that in the past four
years at Earlham College the number of teachers had
doubled, the number of courses had tripled, and two new
buildings had been added plus much new equipment.
The rapid expansion of the college department
continued for several years, while the preparatory depart
ment dropped even lower. Still under the guidance of
J.J. Mills, by 1896 enrollment at the college level
had risen to 207. Facilities had been expanded and
improved, while the museum collection started by Joseph
Moore had grown to fourteen thousand specimens and
attracted eight thousand visitors a year. Financial
support was generally high; President Mills reported in
1896 that gifts to the endowment fund in the previous
43. Ibid. 54.
44. Ibid., 51.
45. Minutes (1888), 62.
46. Minutes (1896), 67.
Meeting to borrow the funds required to continue
. . 18
Following another year of difficulties, the
committee was forced to admit partial defeat and alter
the original plans. Construction of the buildings had
progressed so slowly that it was decided to complete
only a part of the building, sufficient for fifty to
seventy students. To lower the anticipated cost of
operation when the school opened, the committee
proposed that the manual labor system be adopted for
conducting the school. Actual donations received by
this time amounted to $9,602.06, although an additional
$3,360 was expected from promised subscriptions. The
committee asked that an additional four thousand dollars
be raised, which with the promised subscriptions
would be enough to complete the construction, although
it would only be three-quarters of the originally
18. Ibid., 13.
19. Minutes (1841), 10-11.
20. Ibid. 12. The manual labor system was based on
the use of student labor to help maintain the
buildings and other property connected with the
21. Ibid., p. 20.
22. Ibid., p. 21.
and America, During the years 1838 to 1840, Gurney
traveled widely in the United States, visited the
limits of every Yearly Meeting, and greatly strengthened
the evangelical position among Friends in America.
Despite the widespread popularity of Gurney,
opposition to his views arose under the leadership of
John Wilbur of Rhode Island. Wilbur had become aware
of what he considered unsound doctrines while visiting
in England shortly before the "Beacon controversy."
When the Gurney party came to dominance, Wilbur came
forward to oppose the modernizing tendencies of Gurney.
Wilbur wanted to retain a primitive Quakerism that would
preserve both the Inner Light and Scriptures as sources
of inspiration. The Hicksites had taken the Inner Light
position to an extreme and the Gurneyites appeared to be
going to an extreme Scriptural approach. Wilbur wanted
to keep the elements of both that had originally existed
New England Yearly Meeting was controlled by the
Gurney supporters and soon came to resent the attacks
on Gurney by Wilbur. Wilbur was disowned by his own
monthly meeting in Rhode Island and his appeal was
turned down by the Yearly Meeting in 1844. The following
year a minority of the Yearly Meeting that supported
Wilbur set up a rival organization and presented the
THE CIVIL WAR
The coming of war in 1861, presented many Friends
with a moral dilemma that produced continuing tensions
within the Society for the duration of the conflict.
On the one hand, most Friends were loyal Republicans,
sympathetic to Lincoln, and had a long history of
opposition to slavery. On the other, they were
traditionally opposed to war. Many Indiana Friends
found it difficult to take a position against the war
when they approved of the goals for which the war was
A considerable number of Indiana Friends agreed with
the position of John W. Griffin of Spiceland, that in a
"righteous" war the non-resistance of Quakers was too
extreme.'*' This stand was especially agreeable to younger
Friends, who often became impatient with the traditional
Quaker position and participated in considerable numbers
in the military during the war. Older Friends sympathized
with the impatience of younger Friends, but could not
1. Richard P. Ratcliff, The Quakers of Spiceland, Henry
County, Indiana. A History of Spiceland Friends
Meeting 18^8-1968 (hew Castle, la.: Community
Printing Company, 1968), p. 62.
a need for better facilities, for more money, and for more
personnel with ionger> tenure. It was also pointed out
that Friends working at the mission needed a better attitude
toward the Indians and their work. Despite the many
setbacks, the mission was to be kept open in hopes the
situation would improve. To provide for closer supervision
of the mission it was suggested that Kansas Friends be
appointed to the Indian Committee.
In the following year, 1862, conditions at the mission
became worse and plans were made to end the work with
the Shawnee. Friends would leave little of permanence
behind when their efforts ended; even those Indians
converted to Christianity by Friends had joined the
Baptist or Methodist churches. The reason for the Indians
not joining the Society of Friends was that, despite some
statements to the contrary, no real provisions had been
made for the Indians to be received into membership with
Friends. In 1863, the Friends land among the Shawnee
was sold and the mission closed, except for the school
which was to be supported by the Indians, tuition being
set at eighty dollars a year per student.
6. Ibid., 30.
7. Minutes (1862), 37-38.
8.Minutes (1863), 37.
Noble, Vernon. The Man in Leather Breeches. New
York: Philosophical Library, 19b3.
Nuermberger, Ruth K. The Free Produce Movement.
Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1942.
Peare, Catherine Owens. John Woolman: Child of
Light. New York: Vanguard Press, 1954.
Phillips, Clifton J. Indiana in Transition 1880-
1920. Indianapolis:- Indiana Historical Bureau
Â£ Indiana Historical Society, 1968.
Ratcliff, Richard P. Along the Banks of Brook
Bezor: A History of the Spiceland Community.
Spiceland, la.: Spiceland Historical Committee,
Ratcliff, Richard P. Our Special Heritage.
Sesquicentennial History of Indiana Yearly Meeting
of Friends 1821-1971. New Castle, la.: Community
Printing Co., 1970.
Ratcliff, Richard P. The Quakers of Spiceland,
Henry County, Indiana. A History of Spiceland
Friends Meeting 1828-1968. New Castle, la.:
Community Printing Co. 1968.
Riker, Dorothy and Thornbrough, Gayle. Indiana
Election Returns 1816-1851. Indiana Historical
Collections, XL.'Indianapolis: Indiana Historical
Riker, Dorothy and Thornbrough, Gayle, eds.
Messages and Papers of James Brown Ray 1825-1831.
Indiana Historical Collections, XXXIV. Indianapolis:
Indiana Historical Bureau, 1954.
Riker, Dorothy and Thornbrough, Gayle, eds.
Messages and Papers of Noah Noble 1831-1837.
Indiana Historical Collections, XXXVIII.
Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Bureau, 1958.
Russell, Elbert. The History of Quakerism. New
York: The Macmillan Co., 1942.
Smith, H.E. Thd Quakers. Their Migration to the
Upper Ohio. Their Customs and Discipline. Ohio
Archeological and Historical Society Publications,
recent actions of government, Anti-Slavery friends saw
many wrongs, and immediately set out to correct them.
Issues such as Texas, the Mexican War, fugitive slaves,
Kansas-Nebraska, and slavery in the District of Columbia
brought the wrath of Friends upon Congress. Restrictive
"Black Codes" in several states were considered the work
of Satan. State and federal government were attacked
equally for their stands on colonization and employment
of emigration officials. Men such as Senator John Pettit
from Indiana had nothing but contempt for the Friends'
position. Himself pro-slavery, Pettit represented state
Democrats in the opinion that religious groups should
stay out of politics. With men such as Pettit in the
majority in government, it is easily understood why
Friends' petitions were seldom favorably received.
In this alien atmosphere Anti-Slavery Friends
discovered an ally in the person of George W. Julian,
a Whig and free-Soiler from Indiana brought up in a
Quaker home, who opposed colonization and white suffrage.
In a speech in 1850, to the House of Representatives,
Julian said that if the people he represented would
become "the miserable flunkies of God;.forsaken southern
slave-hunters" and aid in the capture of a fugitive, he