Citation
Translation of the Law of criminal procedure for Cuba and Porto Rico

Material Information

Title:
Translation of the Law of criminal procedure for Cuba and Porto Rico (with Spanish text), with annotations, explanatory notes, and amendments made since the American occupation
Uniform Title:
Ley de enjuiciamiento criminal
Portion of title:
Law of criminal procedure for Cuba and Porto Rico
Creator:
Cuba
Joannini, Frank L
Spain
United States -- Division of Insular Affairs
Spain -- Tribunal Supremo
Cuba -- Military Governor
Puerto Rico
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Spanish
Physical Description:
1 online resource (iii, iv-vii, iv-vii, 358, 358, 359-393 pages) : ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Criminal procedure -- Cuba ( lcsh )
Criminal procedure -- Puerto Rico ( lcsh )
Procedimiento penal -- Cuba ( bidex )
Procedimiento penal -- Puerto Rico ( bidex )
Criminal procedure ( fast )
Cuba ( fast )
Puerto Rico ( fast )
Genre:
legislation ( marcgt )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

System Details:
Master and use copy. Digital master created according to Benchmark for Faithful Digital Reproductions of Monographs and Serials, Version 1. Digital Library Federation, December 2002.
Language:
Paged in duplicate; English and Spanish on opposite pages.
General Note:
"A large number of decisions of the Supreme Court of Madrid have been inserted as footnotes."--Translator's note, signed: Frank L. Joannini.
Statement of Responsibility:
War Department, Division of Insular Affairs, October, 1901.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Fordham and New York Law Institute
Holding Location:
Fordham and New York Law Institute
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
602392861 ( OCLC )
ocn602392861
33111 ( LLMC )
Classification:
KGN5814.31888 .A52 1901 ( lcc )
343.7291 ( ddc )

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Fordham and New York Law Institute






TRANSLATION




OF THE






LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE



FOR




CUBA AND PORTO RICO


(WITH fH spAX1 TEAXT), WITH




ANNOTATIONS, EXPLANATORY NOTES, AND AIENDMENTS LL. MADE SINCE THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION.






WAR DEPARTMENT,
DIVISI ON OF IxNTST L AIR AAIIS, October, 1901.







WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1901.














INTRODUCTORY NOTE.


The translator of the Code of Criminal Procedure in force in Cuba and Porto Rico begs to call attention to the fact that a large number of decisions of the Supreme Court of Madrid have been inserted as footnotes, which serve to elucidate the language of the text. These decisions are authoritative interpretations and in the Spanish courts have practically the force of law.
The references, also inserted as footnotes, calling attention to other laws in force, to royal decrees and military orders which modify the procedure prescribed by the code, it is thought will also aid in making the work of practical use, both for those who desire to inform themselves as to the methods of Spanish procedure and those called upon to practice before the courts in the islands of Cuba and Porto Rico.
At the suggestion of a number of at torneys, the Spanish text, taken from official editions of the law, has also been inserted for purposes of convenience.
The Cuban civil orders contained in the first appendix have been inserted as published by the respective authorities, and in many cases the English equivalents of the Spanish terms will be found to differ from those used by the translator in the text of the law.
An effort has been made to secure as correct a translation as possible, and in some cases the translator may be accused of sacrificing what
may be called good English for fidelity to the original text. He has been constantly on his guard against making an interpretation of law instead of a translation.
FRANK L. JOANNINI.
I certify that the following is a copy of the translation of the Law of Criminal Procedure for Cuba and Porto Rico on file in the Insular Division of the War Department, made under its direction.
CLARENCE It. Ei)WARDS,
Chief of .Dbiv.Sion.
III

















INDICE GENERAL.



LEY DE ENJUICIAMIENTO CRIMINAL.
PAgina.
Exposici6n ------------------------------------------------------------- 1
Real Decreto ------------------------------------------------------------ 15

LIBRO PRIMERO.

Disposiciones generales.
TiTULO I.-Preliminares ------------------------------------------------- 17
Capitulo I. Reglas generales ------------------------------- 17
II. Cuestiones prejudiciales ------------------------ 18
I.-De la competencia de los jueces y tribunales en lo criminal ------- 19
Capftulo I. De las reglas por donde se determina la competencia --------------------------------------- 19
II. De las cuestiones de competencia entre los jueces y Tribunales ordinarios ----------------------- 22
III. De las competencias negativas y de las que se promueven con jueces 6 tribunales especiales, y de los recursos de queja contra las autoridades administrativas --------------------------------- 28
III.-De las recusaciones y excusas de los magistrados, jueces, asesores y
auxiliares de los juzgados y tribunales, y de la abstenci6n del
ministerio fiscal --------------------------------------------- 30
Capftulo I. Disposiciones generales ------------------------- 30
II. De la sustanciaci6n de las recusaciones de los jueces de instrucci6n y de los magistrados -------------31
III. De la sustanciaci6n de las recusaciones de los jueces municipales -------------------------------- 33
IV. De la recusaci6n de los auxiliares de los juzgados y tribunales ----------------------------------- 35
V. De las excusas y recusaciones de los asesores ------ 36 VI. De la abstenci6n del ministerio fiscal ------------- 36
IV-De las personas A quienes corresponde el ejercicio de las acciones
que nacen de los delitos y faltas ------------------------------ 38
V.-Del derecho de defensa y del beneficio de pobreza en los juicios
criminales ------------------.------------------------------ 43
VI.-De la forma de dictar providencias, autos y sentencias, y del modo
de dirimir las discordias ------------------------------------- 49
Capitulo I. De la forma de dictar providencias, autos y sentencias -------------------------------------- 49
II. Del modo de dirimir las discordias -------------- 54
VII.-De las notificaciones, citaciones y emplazamientos --------------- 55
VIII.-De los suplicatorios, exhortos y mandamientos ------------------ 58
IV


















CONTENTS.



LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE.
Pag'e.
Address ---------------------------------------------------------------- 1
Royal decree ------------------------------------------------------------- 5

BooK FIRST.

General provisions.
TITLE I.-Preliminaries -----------.--------------------------------------- 17
Chapter I. General rules ----------------------------------- 17
I. Preliminary questions -------------------------- -18
I.-Jurisdiction of judges and courts in criminal matters - .---------... 19
Chapter I. Rules for determining jurisdiction--- ------------- 19

II. Questions of jurisdiction between ordinary judges and courts ------------------------------------ 22
III. Questions of negative jurisdiction and those raised by special judges or courts and complaints against administrative authorities --------------------- 28

III.-Challenges and excuses of justices, judges, assessors, and assistants
of superior and inferior courts and the abstention of the prose
cuting officials ----------------------------------------------- 30
Chapter I. General provisions .---.------------------------- 30
II. Hearing and decision of challenges of judges of examination and justices ------------------------- 31
III. Hearing and decision of challenges of municipal judges --.--------------------------- ------ 33
IV. Challenges of assistants of inferior and superior courts --------------------------------------- 35
V. Exctses and challenges of assessors --------------- 36
VI. Abstention of prosecuting officials ---------------- 36
IV.-Persons who may exercise rights of action arising from crimes and
isdemeanors------------------------------------------------- 38
V.-The right of defense and the benefit of poverty in criminal causes - 43

VI.-Form in which orders, rulings, and decisions shall be made, and
manner of adjusting disagreements ---------------------------- 49
Chapter I. Form in which orders, rulings, and decisions shall
le made ------------------------------------- 49
II. Manner of adjusting disagreements --------------- 54
VII. -Notifications, citations, and sumnmonse -------------------------.... 55
VIII.--Letters requisitorial, mandates, and letters rogatory --------------- 58
IV








Ptgina.
TiT'LO IX.-De los t~rminos judiciales ------------------------------------ 61
X.-De los recursos contra ]as resoluciones de los tribunales y jueces
de instrucci6n -------------------------------------------- 64
XI.-De las costas procesales -------------------------------------- 67
XII.-De las obligaciones de los jueces y tribunales, relativas A la estadfstica judicial -------------------------------------------- 69
XIII.-De las correcciones disciplinarias ----------------------------- 71

LiBRO SEGUNIDO.
Del samaro.
TITULO I.-De la denuncia --------------------------------------------- 72
II.-De la querella ----------------------------------------------- 74
III.-De la policfa judicial ---------------------------------------- 77
IV.-De la instrucci6n -------------------------------------------- 81
Capftulo I. Del sumario y de las autoridades competentes
para instruirlo ---------------------------- 81
II. De la formaci6n del sumario ------------------ 83
V.-De la comprobaci6n del delito y averiguaci6n del delincuente .. 88
Capftulo I. De la inspecci6n ocular .--------------------- 88
II. Del cuerpo del delito ------------------------- 89
III. De la identidad del delincuente y de sus circunstancias personales ---------------------- 96
IV. De las declaraciones de los procesados --------- 99 V. De las declaraciones de los testigos ------------ 102
VI. Del careo de los testigos y procesados --------- 110

VII. Del informe pericial -------------------------- 111
VI.-De la citaci6n, de la detenci6n y de la prisi6n provisional ------- 116
Capftulo I. De la citaci6n -----------.------------------ 116
II. De la detenci6n ----------------------------- 116
111. De la prisi6n provisional --------------------- 119
IV. Del tratamiento de los detenidos 6 presos ------ 122 VIL-De la libertad provisional del procesado ....................... 124
VIII.-De la entrada y registro en lugar cerrado, del de libros y papeles
y de ]a detenci6n y apertura de la correspondencia escrita y
telegrdifica ----------------------------------------------- 127
IX.-De la fianza y embargos ------------------------------------- 134
X.-De la responsabilidad civil de terceras personas ---------------- 139
XL.-De la conclusi6n del sumario y dcl sobreseimiento ------------- 141
Capftulo I. De la conclusi6n del sumario .................. 141
I. Del sobreseimiento --------------------------- 149
XII.-Disposiciones generales referentes d los anteriores tftulos ....... 155

LIBRO TERCERO.

Del juicio oral.
TiTuLO L-De la calificaci6n del delito ----------------------------------- 157
II.-De los articulos de previo pronunciamiento -------------------- 165
III.-De la celebraci6n del juicio oral ------------------------------ 168
Capitulo I. De la publicidad de los debates --------------- 168
II. De las facultades del presidente del tribunal .... 168








Page,
TITLE IX.-Judicial periods ---------------------------------------------- 61
X. -Remedies against decisions of courts and judges of examination-. 64

XI.-Costs in actions ---------------------------------------------- 67
XII. -Obligations of judges and courts with regard to judicial statistics. 69

XIlI.-Disciplinary corrections --------------------------------------- 71

BOOK SECOND.
The sueoaro.
TITLE I.-The denunciation --------------------------------------------- 72
II.-The complaint or information --------------------------------- 74
III.-The judicial police -------------------------------------------- 77
IV.-The investigation --------------------------------------------- 81
Chapter I. The sumario and the authorities to take cognizance thereof ------------------------------- 81
II. Formation of the sumario --------------------- 83
V.-Proof of the crime and verification of the delinquent ------------ 88
Chapter I. The ocular inspection ------------------------- 88
II. The corpus deliciti ------------------------------ 89
III. The identity of 'the delinquent and his personal circumstances ------------------------------- 99
IV. Declaration of the accused --------------------- 99
V. Depositions of witnesses ----------------------- 102
VI. Confrontation between the witnesses and the accused ------------------------------------- 110
VII. Expert evidence ------------------------------- 111
VI.-The citation, the detention, and the provisional imprisonment -- 116
Chapter I. The citation ----------------------------------116
II. The detention -------------------------------- 116
III. Provisional imprisonment ---------------------- 119
IV. Treatment of persons detained or imprisoned --- 122 VII.--Provisional liberty of the accused ------------------------------ 124
VIII.-Entry and search of closed places, of books and papers, and the detention and opening of written and telegraphic correspondence 127

IX.-Bonds and attachments --------------------------------------- 134
X.-Civil liability of third persons --------------------------------- 139
XI.-Conclusion of the sumario and dismissal of proceedings ....... 141
Chapter I. Conclusion of the sumario ---------------------- 141
II. Dismissal of the proceedings ------------------- 149
XII.-General provisions relating to the foregoing titles --------------- 155

BOOK THIRD.

The oral trial.
TITLE I.-Classification of the crime ------------------------------------ 157
II.-Preliminary exceptions -------------------------------------- 165
III.-Holding of the oral trial ------------------------------------- 168
Chapter I. Publicity of the arguments --------------------- 168
II. Powers of the presiding judge of the court ------- 168








TITULO III.-De la celebraci6n del juicio oral-Continda. P~gina.
Capftulo III. Del modo de practicar las pruebas durante el juicio
oral ...------------------------------------- 169
Secci6n LI De la confesi6n de los procesados y personas eivilimente responsables. 169 2.1 Del examen de los testigos ------- 172 3.1 Del informe pericial -------------- 177
4.1 De la prueba documental y de la imspecci6n ocular -------------- 178
5.1 Disposiciones comunes A, las cuatro secciones anteriores -------------1 78
IV. De la acusaci6n, de la defensa y de la sentencia. - 180 V. )e la suspensi6n del juicio oral ------------------ 183

LIBRO CUARTO.
De los procedimientos especiales.
TiTULO I.-Del modo de proceder cuando fuere procesado un Senador 6
Diputado 6. Cortes ------------------------------------------- 187
II.-Del antejuicio necesario para exigir la responsabilidad criminal 6
los jueces y magistrados ------------------------------------- 189
III.-Del procedimiento en los casos de flagrante delito ----------------193
Capftulo I. Casos en'que tiene lugar este i)rocedimiento --- 193 II. Reglas 6 que debe ajustarse este procedimiento- 195 IV.-Del procedimiento por delitos de injuria y calumnia contra particulares --------------------------------------------------- 199
V.-Del procedimiento por delitos cometidos t)or medio de la imprenta,
el grabado ti otro medio mec6nico de publicaci~n -------------- 201
VI.-Del procedimiento para la extradici6n -------_------------------ 203
VII-Del procedimiento contra reos ausentes ------------------------- 205

LIBaO QUINTO.
De los recursos de casaci n y de revision.
TITULO I.-De los recursos de casaci6n ------------------------- ---------- 207
Capitulo I. )e los recursos (le casaci( p)or infracci6n de ley- 207

Seccion LI De la procedencia del recurso ------ 207 2.1 De la preparaci6n del recurso ------ 213
3.1 Del recurso de queja por denegaci6n del testimonio pedido para interponer el de casaci6n ------------ 215

4.1 De la interposici6n del recurso ..... 217 5.1 De la sustanciaci6n del recurso --- 220 6.1 )e la decisi6n del recurso ---------- 223
II. De los recursos de casaci6n por quebrantamiento de forma -------------------------------- 225
Secci6n 1. De la t)rocedencia (Tel recurso ------ 225 2.' De la interposici6n del recurso --- 231
3.1 Del recurso de queja por denegaci6n de admisi6n del de jcasaci6n por quebrantamniento de forma ------ 232 4.1 De la sustanciaci6n del recurso ---- 233 5.' De la decisidn del recurso --------- 234








TITLE III.-Holding of the oral trial-Continued. Page.
Chapter III. Manner of taking evidence at the oral trial -------- 169

Section 1. Confession of the persons accused and persons civilly liable -------- 169 2. Examination of witnesses ---------- 172
3. Expert examinations -------------- 177
4. Documentary evidence and ocular inspection ---------------------- 178
5. Provisions common to the four preceding sections ------------------ 178
IV. The accusation, the defense, and the sentence ----- 180 V. Suspension of the oral trial ---------------------- 183

BOOK FOURTHi.
Special proceedings.
TITLE I.-Manner of proceeding in the trial of a senator or deputy to the
Cortes ------------------------------------------------------ 187
II.-Preliminary action necessary for the purpose of enforcing the criminal liability of judges and justices ----------------------------- 189
III.--Proceedings in cases of flagrant crimes --------------------------- 193
Chapter 1. Cases where these proceedings lie ----------------- 193
II. Rules to which these proceedings must conform... 195 IV.-Proceedings upon crimes of contumely and calumny against private
individuals ------------------------------------------------ 199
V.-Proceedings on crimes committed through the press, engravings, or
other mechanical means of publication ------------------------ 201
VI.-Proceedings for extradition ------------------------------------- 203
VII.-Proceedings against absent criminals ----------------------------- 205

BOOK FITH.
Appeals for annulment of judgment and for review.
TITLE I.-Appeals for annulment of judgment ------------------------------ 207
Chapter I. Appeals for annulmeiit of judgment for violation
of law -------------------------------------- 207
Section 1. When the appeal lies ------------------ 207
2. Preparation of the appeal -------------- 213
3. Remedy of complaint on account of a refusal of a transcript requested for the interposition of an appeal for annulment of judgment ------------------ 215
4. Interposition of the appeal ------------ 217
5. Hearing of the appeal ----------------- 220
6. Decision of the appeal ----------------- 223
II. Appeals for annulment of judgment for breach of form --------------------------------------- 225
Section 1. When the appeal lies ------------------ 225
2. Interpositon of the appeal -------------- 231
3. Remedy of complaint on account of the denial of an appeal for annulment of judgment for breach of form -------- 232 4. Hearing of the appeal ------------------ 233
5. Decision of the appeal -------- : -------- 234








TiTULO 1.-De los recursos de casaci6n-Continua. PAgina.
Capftulo III. De la interposici6n, sustanciaci6n y resolucibn del recurso de casacibn por infraccibn de ley y por quebrantamiento de forma ----------- 234
IV. Del recurso de casacibn en las causas de inuerte.- 236

II.-Del recurso de revisi6n --------------------------------------- 238

LIBRO SEXTO.
Del procedimiento para el juicio sobre faltas.
TITULO I.-Del juicio sobre faltas, en primera instancia -----------------_- 240
II.-Del juicio sobre faltas, en segunda instancia --------------------- 243

LIBRO StPTMO.
De la ejecucibn de las sentencias ------------------------ ----------- _--- 245
Disposicibn final ------------------------------------------------------ 248

APENIICE I.
Decretos del Gobierno Militar de Cuba.
No. 41.-14 de Abril de 1899 -------------------------------------------- 249
No. 63.-25 de Mayo de 1899 -------------------------------------------- 259
No. 92.-26 de Junio de 1899 -------------------------------------------- 259
No. 109.-13 de Julio de 1899 --------------------------------------------- 281
No. 135.-11 de Agosto de 1899 ------------------------------------------- 287
No. 157.-5 de Septiembre de 1899 ---------------------------------------- 288
No. 176.-21 de Septienibre de 1899 --------------------------------------- 288
No. 58.-9 de Febrero de 1900 ------------------------------------------- 289
No. 152.-10 de Abril de 1900 -------------------------------------------- 289
No. 166.-23 de Abril de 1900 -------------------------------------------- 290
No. 181.-30 de Abril de 1900 -------------------------------------------- 293
No. 192.-9 de Mayo de 1900 ------------------------------------- ------- 296
No. 213.-25 de Mayo de 1900 ----------------_----------------....... 298
No. 228.-3 de Junio de 1900 --------------------------------------------- 312
No. 269.-3 de Julio de 1900 - ..........................--------------- 312
No. 311.-8 de Agosto de 1900 ------------------------------------------- 313
No. 362.-17 de Septiembre de 1900 --------------------------------------- 317
No. 427.-15 de Octubre de 1900 -----------------------------------....... 322
No. 465-14 de Noviembre de 1900 --------------------------------------- 331
No. 468.-15 de Noviembre de 1900 -------------------------------------- 332
No. 500.-10 de Diciembre de 1900 --------------------------------------- 332
No. 513.-19 de Diciembre de 1900 --------------------------------------- 334
No. 3.-1.0 de Enero de 1901 ------------------------------------------ 334
No. 45.-4 de Febrero de 1901 ------------------------------------------- 335
No. 84:-25 de Marzo de 1901 ------------------------------------------ 337
No. 95.-10 de Abril de 1901 -------------------------------------....... 338
No. 520.-21 de Diciembre de 1900 --------------------------------------- 342

APENDICE II.
Articulos del Cbdigo Penal A que have referencia la Ley de Enjuiciamiento
Criminal ------------------------------------------------------ ------- 344

APkNDICE III.
Articulos de la Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil 4 que hace referencia la de Enjuiciamiento Criminal --------------_------------ --------------------- 348






VII

TITLE I.-Appeals for annulment of judgment-Continued. Page.
Chapter III. Interposition,. hearing, and decision of an appeal for annulment of judgment for violation of law and for breach of form ----------------------- 234
IV. Appeals for annulment of judgment in causes involving the death penalty -------------------- 236
I.-The appeal for review ------------------------------------------ 238

BOOK SIXTH.
Proceedings in actions upon misdemeanors.
TITLE 1.-Actions upon misdemeanors at first instance ---------------------- 240
II.-Actions upon misdemeanors at second instance ------------------- 243

BooK SEVENTH.
Execution of sentences ------.-------------------------------------------- 245
Final provision ........................................................... 248

APPENDIX I.
Orders of the Cuban Military Government.
No. 41.-April 14, 1899 --------------------.---------------------------- 249
No. 63.-May 25, 1899 ------------------------------------------------- 259
No. 92.- June 26, 1899 ................................................... 259
No. 109.-July 13, 1899 ------.-------------------------------------------- 281
No. 135.-August 11, 1899. ---------------------------------------------- 287
No. 157.-September 5, 1899 --------------------------------------------- 288
No. 176.-September 21, 1899 -.-------------------------.------------------ 288
No. 58.-February 9, 1900 ----------------------------------------------- 289
No. 152.-April 10, 1900 .....-------------------------------------------- 289
No. 166.-April 23, 1900 ------------------------------------------------- 290
No. 181.-April 30, 1900 ------------------------------------------------ 293
No. 192.-May 9, 1900 --------------------------------------------------- 296
No. 213.-May 25, 1900 -------------------------------------------------- 298
No. 228.-June 3, 1900 ................................................... 312
No. 269.-July 3, 1900 -------------------------------------------------- 312
No. 311.-August 8, 1900 ----.-------------------------------------------- 313
No. 362.-Septemlber 17, 1900 -------------------------------------------- 317
No. 427.-October 15, 1900 ----------------------------------------------- 322
No. 465.-November 14, 1900 --------------------------------------------- 331
No. 468.-November 15, 1900 --------------------------------------------- 332
No. 500.-December 10, 1900- ..........---------------------------------- 332
No. 513.-December 19, 1900 -------------------------------------------- 334
No. 3.-January 1, 1901---- ...... -------------------------------------- 334
No. 45.-February 4, 1901 ...------------------------------------------- 335
No. 84.-iarch 25, 1901 ....-------------------------------------------- 337
No. 95.-April 10, 1901 ------------------------------------------------- 338
No. 520.- December 21, 1900 .............................................. 342

APPENDIX II.
Articles of the Penal Code referred to in the Law of Criminal Procedure ----- 344


APPENDIX III.
Articles of the Law of Civil Procedure referred to in the Law of Criminal Procedure ................................................................ 348

















LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE.












EXPOSICION

QUE PRECEDE AL REAL DECRET0 DE 14 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1882.
P01 EL QUE SE APROBO EL PROYECTO DE CODIGO DE ENJUICIAMIENTO CRIMINAL.

SERoR:-La ejecucion de las dos leyes promulgadas en virtud de Reales decretos de 22 de Junio de este ailo presupone un nuevo C6digo de Enjuiciainiento penal, una lnodificaci6n profunda en la ley orgdnica del Poder judicial de 15 de Septiembre de 1870, la determinaci6n del ndiero y residencia de los Tribunales colegiados que ban de conocer en 6nica instancia y on juicio oral y pfiblieo de los delitos que se cometan dentro do su respectivo territorio, y, por filtimno, la forniacion do los cuadros de personal de esos mismos Tribunales cuyos presidentes deben estar adornados de condiciones especiales de capacidad para la direcci6n y resurnen de los debates.
Basta la inera enumeraci6n de estos trabajos preparatorios para colnprender que, ni por su indole v naturaleza, ni por su extensi6n y excepcional importancia, podian terminarse en breve plazo. Cabele, sin embargo, al infrascrito la satisfacci6n de anunciar hoy 6 V. M. que todos ellos pueden darse por ultimados, gracias al patri6tico concurso que ban prestado al Gobierno hombres eminentes no s6lo en ha ciencia del Derecho, sino tarnbin en el conocimiento especial de la topografia, censo do poblaci6n, veas dc comunicaci6n y estadistica criminal del territorio de la Peninsula C islas adyacentes.

El Gobierno de V. M. no se propone publicar todos estos trabajos la vez; antes al contrario, cree conveniente anticipar la prornulgaci6n del C6digo de Enjuiciamiento para que, mientras se instalan las Audiencias do lo criminal, puedan estudiarle y conocerle los magistrados, jueces, fiscales, letrados y demos personas que por modo mis 6 menos directo y eficaz han do concurrir 6 su planteamiento y aplicaci6n.

No serd su e,'udio nmy dificil ni prolijo, porque al cabo el proyecto que cl Ministro que suscribe somnete boy 'a la aprobaci6n de V. M. estd basado en la Compilaci6n general de 16 de Octubre de 1879, de conformidad con lo preceptuado en la autorizaci6n votada por las Cortes; pero asi y todo, son tan radicales las reformas en (1 introducidas, que bien podia pasar por un C6digo completamente nuevo y de













ADIDRESS


PRECEDING THE ROYAL DECREE OF SEPTEMBER 14, 1882, APPROVING
THE PROPOSED CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE.



SIRE: The execution of the two laws promulgated I)y virtue of royal decrees of June 22 of this year presupposes a new code of penal procedure, a radical change in the organic law of the judicial power of September 15, 1870, the determination of the number and seats of the collegiate tribunals which are to take cognizance in first and last instance, and in oral and public trials of the crimes which may be committed within their respective territories, and, finally, the selection of the personnel of the said tribunals, the presiding judges of which must possess special qualifications for the direction and summing up of the cases.
A mere statement of these preparatory works is sufficient to show that neither by their character or nature, nor by their extent and exceptional importance, could they be concluded in a short time. The undersigned, nevertheless, has the pleasure of to-day informing Your Majesty that all of them can be considered as concluded, thanks to the patriotic assistance furnished to the Government by men eminent in the science of law and perfectly conversant with the topography of the country, census of the population, means of conmunication, and the criminal statistics of the territory of the Peninsula and adjacent islands.
The Government of Your Majesty does not propose to publish all these works at the same time, but, on the contrary, it deems it advisable first to promulgate the Code of Procedure in order that, until the criminal audiencias are established, it may be studied and known by the justices, judges, flscales, attorneys, and other persons who are to contribute in a more or less direct and efficient manner to its establishment and application.
Its study will not be very difficult or require a long time, because, after all, the draft which the undersigned Minister herewith submits for the approval of Your Majesty is based upon the general compilation of October 16, 1879, in pursuance with the authority vested in the Government by the Cortes; but, nevertheless, the amendments introduced therein are so radical that it might be said with reason







car~cter tan liberal y progresivo conio el mks adelantado de los (6digos de procedimiento criminal del continente europeo.
Entre esas reformas son sin duda las menos importantes aquellas que, sugeridas por la experiencia, tienen por objeto, ya aclarar varios preceptos mks 6 menos oscuros y dudosos de la Compilaci6n vigente, ya uniformar la jurisprudencia, 6 ya, en fin, facilitar la sustanciaci6n de algunos recursos y muy especialmente el de casaci6n, acerca del cual ha hecho observaciones muy oportunas y discretas el Tribunal Supremo, que naturalmente han sido acogidas con el respeto quc merece una Corporaci6n que est6 a la cabeza de la Magistratura espafiola, y que es por la ley intgrprete y guardian de la doctrina juridica.

Las de verdadera importancia y transcendencia son aquellas otras que se encaminan a suplir, como en las cuestiones prejudiciales, algun vacio sustancial por donde era frecuente el arbitrio un tanto desmedido, y m s que desmedido contradictorio, de la jurisprudencia, 6 corregir los vicios cr6nicos de nuestro sistema de enjuiciar tradicional y 6 rodear al ciudadano de las garantias necesarias para que en ningfn caso scan sacrificados los derechos individuales al interns mal entendido del Estado.
Sin desconocer que la Constituci6n de 1812, el reglamento provisional para la administracion dc justicia dc 1835 y otras disposiciones posteriores mejoraron considerablemente el procedimiento criminal, seria temerario negar que aun bajo la legislaciin vigente no es raro que un suiario dure ocho 6 mks aflos, y es frecuente que no dure menos de dos, prolong~ndose en ocasiones por todo este tiempo la prisi6n preventiva de los acusados, y aun podria afiadirse, para completar el cuadro, que tan escandalosos procesos solian no hi inucho terminar por una absolucin de la instancia, sin que nadic indemnizara en este caso A los procesados de las vejaciones sufridas en tan dilatado periodo, y lo que es mks, dejindoles por todo el resto de su vida en situaci6n inc'moda y deshonrosa, bajo la amenaza perenne dc abrir de nuevo el procedimiento el dia que por malquerencia se prestaba ' declarar contra ellos cualquier vecino rencoroso y vengativo. Esta prdctica abusiva y atentoria 6i los derechos del individuo pugna todavia por mantenerse con este 6 el otro disfraz en nuestras costumbres judiciales; y es menester que cese para siempre, porque el ciudadano de un pueblo libre no debe expiar faltas que no son suyas, ni ser victinia de la impotencia 6 del egoismo del Estado.


Con ser estos dos vicios tan capitales, no son, sin embargo, los Anicos ni acaso los mas grandes de nuestro procedimiento. Lo peor de todo es que en 61 no se da intervenci6n alguna al inculpado en el sumario; que







that it is an entirely new one as liberal and progressive as the most advanced code of criminal procedure on the European Continent.
Among these changes the less important are no doubt those suggested by experience, whose object is either to explain various more or less obscure and doubtful precepts of the compilation in force, to make the jurisprudence uniform, or, finally, to facilitate the use of some remedies and most especially the appeal for annulment of judgment, upon which the Supreme Court has made some very opportune and well-chosen remarks, which have'naturally been received with the respect which that body deserves which is at the head of the Spanish judiciary, and which is by law the interpreter and guardian of the juridical doctrine.
The amendments of real and transcendent importance are those whose purpose it is to supply, as in preliminary questions, some substantial lack owing to which it has frequently occurred that the discretionary powers granted were so great, and more than that, even contradictory to jurisprudence; to correct the chronic vices of our traditional system of procedure, and to surround the citizen with the necessary guaranties, in order that in no case should individual rights be sacrificed to the poorly understood interests of the State.
Without ignoring the fact that the Constitution of 1812, the provisional regulations for the administration of justice of 1835, and other subsequent provisions greatly improved the criminal procedure, it would be unreasonable to deny that even under the legislation in force it is not unusual that the preliminary proceedings last eight or more years, and it frequently happens that they do not last less than two, the temporary imprisonment of the accused continuing in some cases this entire period; and it may further be added, in order to complete the picture, that these scandalous processes not so very long ago would sometimes be closed on account of lack of evidence, without anyone, in such case, indemnifying the accused persons for the inconveniences suffered for so long a period, and, what is more, the imprisonment would leave them for the rest of their life in an unpleasant and disgraceful condition, under the permanent menace of the proceedings being reopened any day that, through malice, any rancorous or vengeful neighbor should inform against them. This evil practice, which attacks the rights of individuals, is still kept under some disguise or other in our judicial customs; and it is necessary that it should be abolished forever, because a citizen of a free nation must not expiate faults of which he is not guilty, nor be the victim of the impotence or of the egoism of the State.
Although these are two capital vices, they are not, however, the only ones, nor even the most serious faults in our procedure. The worst of all is that the accused is not allowed to take part in the







el juez que instruye 6ste es el mismo que pronuncia la sentencia con todas las preocupaciones y prejuicios que ha hecho nacer en su dnimo la instrucci6n; que confundido lo civil con lo criminal y abrumados los jueces de prilnera instancia por el cfimulo de sus m6ltiples y variadas atenciones, delogan frecuentemente la pr~ctica de muchas diligence's en el escribano, quien, 4 solas con el procesado y los testigos, no siempre interpreta bien el pensamiento, ni retrata con perfecta fidelidad las inpresiones de cada uno, por grande quo sea su celo y recta su voluntad; que por la naturaleza misma do las cosas y la l6gica del sistema, nuestros jueces y magistrados han adquirido el hbito de dar escasa importancia 6 las pruebas del plenario, formando su juicio por el resultado de las diligencias sumariales, y no parando mientes en la ratificaci6n de los testigos, convertida en vana formalidad; quc en ausencia del inculpado y su defensor, los funcionarios que intervienen en la instruccion del sumario, animados de un espiritu receloso y hostil que se engendra en su mismo patri6tico celo por la causa de la sociedad que represcntan, recogen con preferencia los datos adversos al proccsado, descuidando . las veces consignar los que pueden favorecerle; y que, en fin, do esto conjunto de errores anejos 4 nuestro sistema do enjuiciar, y no imputable, por tanto, t los funcionarios del orden judicial y fiscal, resultan (o cosas 4 cual mas funestas al ciudadano: una, que al compas que adelanta el sumario se va fabricando inadvertidamento una verdad de artificio, quo ms tarde se convierte en verdad legal, pero que es contraria i la realidad de los hechos y subleva la conciencia del procesado; y otra, que cuando este, liegado el plenario, quiere defenderse, no hace m~s quo forcejear inritilmente porque entra en el palenque ya vencido, 6 por lo menos desarmado. Hay, pues, que restablecer la igualdad do condiciones en esta contienda juridica hasta donde lo consientan los fines esenciales de la sociedad humana.



Quizds se tache de exagerada 4 injusta esta critica de la organizacion de nuestra justicia criminal. 1Ojal4 quo lo fuera! Pero el Ministro quo suscribe no manda en su raz6n, y est4 obligado it decir A V. M. la verdad tal como la siente; quo las liagas sociales no so curan ocultdndolas, sino al revs, midiendo su extension v profundidad, v estudiando su origen y naturaleza para aplicar el oportuno reniedio. En sentir del quo suscribe, s6lo por la costumbre se puede explicar que el pueblo espaffol, tan civilizado y culto y quo tantos progresos ha hecho en lo quo va de siglo en la ciencia, en el arte, en la industria y en su educaci6n politica, se resigne 6 un sistema semejante, mostr~ndose indiferente 6 desconociendo sus vicios y peligros, como no los aprecia ni mide, el que habituado 4t respirar en atm6sfera mal sana, Ilega hasta ]a asfixia sin sentirla. El extranjero que estudia la organi.







preliminary proceedings; that the judge who sits thereon is the same as the one who pronounces the sentence, with all the ideas and prejudices to which the investigation has given rise; that, civil and criminal matters being confounded, and the judges of first instance being overwhelmed by the accumulation of their multiple and various duties, frequently delegate the performance of many steps to the court clerk, who, alone with the accused and the witnesses, does not always correctly interpret the thought nor does he portray with perfect fidelity the testimony of each. no matter how zealous or how good may be his will; that, by the character itself of the things and the logic of the system, our judges and justices have acquired the habit of attributing little importance to the evidence introduced at the trial, forming their judgment upon the result of the preliminary proceedings, and do not pay particular attention to the ratification of the witnesses, which has become a mere formality; that in the absence of the accused and his counsel, the officials taking part in the preliminary proceedings, animated with a suspicious and hostile spirit, which is engendered by their patriotic zeal in the interests of the society they represent, give preference to the data against the accused, forgetting at the same time to record those which might favor him; and that, finally, from -this number of errors in our system of procedure, and which can not be imputed, therefore, to the officials of the judiciary or to the public prosecutors, there result two things very unfavorable to the citizen: One, that in proportion as the preliminary proceedings advance, a network is being inadvertently woven which is later converted into a legal truth, but which is contrary to the factA, and causes the conscience of the accused to rebel, and the other, that when the latter wishes to defend himself at the trial he does nothing but uselessly contradict, because he enters the arena already defeated, or at least disarmed. It is necessary, therefore, to establish an equality of conditions in this juridical contest in so far as the essential ends of human society will permit.
Perhaps this criticism of the organization of our criminal justice may be considered exaggerated and unjust. Would that it were so. But the undersigned Minister is not master of his judgment, and is obliged to tell Your Majesty the truth as he feels it. Social evils are not cured by concealing them, but, on the contrary, by measuring their extent and depth and by studying their origin and nature, in order that the proper remedy may be applied. In the opinion of the undersigned, custom only can explain how the Spanish people, so civilized and cultured, and which has made such progress during the present century in the sciences, arts, and industries, and in political education, should resign itself to such a system, showing indifference or ignoring its vices and dangers, like those who breathe an unhealthy atmosphere and reach a point of asphyxiation without knowing it. A foreigner







zaci6n de nuestra justicia criminal al vernos apegados 'a un sistema ya caduco, y desacred'tado en Europa y en Amgrica, tiene por necesidad que formar una idea injusta y falsa de la civilizaci6n y cultura espafiolas.
Lo que hay que examinar, por tanto, es si el adjunto proyecto de C6digo remedia, si no todos, al inenos los m s capitales defectos de que adolece la vigente organizaci6n de la justicia criminal. Es preciso en primer t6rmino sustituir la marcha perezosa y lenta del actual procedimiento poi un sistema que, dando amplitud 6i ]a defensa y garantias de acierto al fallo, asegure, sin embargo, la celeridad del juicio para la realizaci6n de dos fines a' cual mins importantes: uno, que ]a suerte del ciudadano no este indefinidamente en lo incierto ni se le causen m s vejaciones que las absolutamente indispensables para la averiguaci6n del delito y el descubrimiento del verdadero delincuente; y otro, que la pena siga de cerca a' la culpa para su debida eficacia y ejemplaridad.


Pues bien, Sefior; he aqui el conjunto de medios que el nuevo sistema ofrece para el logro de resultado tan transcendental: la sustituci6n de los dos grados de jurisdicci6n por la instancia 6nica, la oralidad del juicio, la separaci6n de lo civil y lo criminal en cuanto al Tribunal sentenciador, igual separaci6n en cuanto 11 los jueces instructores en ciertas ciudades populosas en donde hay mis de un juez de primera instancia y es mucha la criminalidad, un alivio considerable de trabajo en cuanto 'a los dem s jueces, 'a quienes se descarga del plenario y del pronunciamiento y motivaci6n de la sentencia, ya que razones indeclinables de economia no permiten extender ii ellos dicha separaci6n, multitud de reglas de detalle esparcidas aqui y alla' en el adjunto C6digo, y singularmente en sus dos primeros libros, para que los jueces instructores en el examen de los testigos y en la pr4ctica de los deins medios de investigaci6n se cifian 6i solo lo que sea a'til y pertinente y, por uItimo, la intervenci6n del procesado en todas las diligencias del sumario tan pronto como el juez estime que la publicidad de las actuaciones no compromete la causa piblica ni estorba el descubrimiento de la verdad. Por regla general nadie tiene mnAs interns que el procesado en activar el procedimiento y si alguna vez su proposito fuera prolongarlo, se lo impedirfa el juez, y sobre todo el fiscal, 6 quien se da el derecho de pedir ]a terminaci6n del sumario y la apertura del juicio oral ante el Tribunal colegiado. Concurrir6i tambi~n al propio fin ]a inspecci6n continua y sistemnnticamente organizada en la ley, de la Audiencia de lo criminal y del Ministerio piblico sobre la marcha de los procesos en el periodo de la instrucci6n y la conducta de los jueces instructores. No es, finalmente, para echado en olvido, cuando de la brevedad del juicio se trata, el libro 40, donde se establecen pro-





4


studying the organization of our criminal justice, in seeing us attached to a system out of date and which is discredited in Europe and in America, must necessarily form an unjust and false idea of Spanish civilization and culture.
What is to be examined, therefore, is whether the attached project for a code remedies, if not all, at least the most notable defects contained in the organization of criminal justice at present in force. It is necessary, in the first place, to substitute for the slow and lazy progress of the present procedure a system which, in giving full scope to the defense, and guarantees of certainty to the judgment, shall nevertheless assure a speedy trial, for the consummation of two ends of the greatest importance: One, that the fate of the citizen be not indefinitely held in suspense, and that not more inconveniences be caused him than are absolutely necessary for the investigation of the crime and the discovery of the guilty party, and the other that the punishment follow soon after the fault, for the purpose of its proper efficacy and example.
Consequently, Sir, I state herewith the measures which the new system affords for the attainment of such important results: The substitution for the two degrees of jurisdiction by the only instance, the oral character of the trial, separation of civil and criminal matters with regard to the sentencing tribunal; a similar separation with regard to the examining judges in certain largely populated towns where there is more than one judge of first instance and nmuch crime; a considerable reduction in work with regard to the other judges, who are not required to take part in the trial, nor to pronounce sentence and give the reasons therefor, as unsurmountable reasons of economy do not permit the extension to them of said separation; a large number of rules of detail scattered here and there in the attached code, and especially in the first two books, in order that the examining judges in the examination of the witnesses and in the execution of the other steps in the investigation confine themselves exclusively to what may be useful and pertinent; and, finally, the intervention of the accused in all the steps of the preliminary proceedings as soon as the judge considers that the publicity of the proceedings will not compromise the public cause nor hinder the discovery of the truth. As a general rule no one has more interest than the accused in hastening the proceedings; and if his purpose were at any time to prolong the same the judge will prevent it, and especially thefiscal, to whom the right is given to demand the conclusion of the preliminary proceedings and the beginning of the oral trial before the collegiate tribunal. The continuous and systematic inspection provided for by this law, of the criminal audiencia and of the public department, as to the progress of the proceedings during the period of the investigation and of the conduct of the -examining judges will







cedimientos especiales y sumarios para los delitos i7fracnti, para los de injuria y calumnia y para los cometidos por medio de la impronta.



Podr'i ser que ni la Comision de Codigos ni el Gobierno hayan acertado en la elecci6n de los medios en este punto tan interesante de la ciencia procesal; pero la verdad es que no h~n encontrado otros, ni se los ha sugerido el examen do los C'digos modernos atentamente estudiados con tal fin.
La ley de 11 Febrero, en ]a base referente A la prision preventiva, permite, por la flexibilidad do sus t~rminos, mejorar considerablemente esta Varte de nuestra legislaci6n sin necesidad de pedir su reforma 6 las Cortes. El texto legal bien analizado resulta tan el~stico, que lo misino se presta al desenvolvimiento do la base en un sentido tirante y restrictivo, que en otro m's amplio, expansivo y liberal.
Ocioso parece afiadir que el Gobierno de V. M. se ha decidido por lo 6ltimo, toda vez que podia hacerlo sin cometer una transgresi6n de la ley; como en la materia de flanzas, tan intimamente ligada con todo lo referente la prisi6n preventiva, ha procurado armonizar los fines de la justicia con los derechos del procesado, poniendo coto 6 la posible arbitrariedad judicial y estableciendo reglas equitativas y prudentes que permitan mayor amplitud que hasta ahora, asf on los medios y formas de las fianzas como en la entidad do ellas.

Es igualmente inutil decir que la absolucion do ]a instancia, esta corruptela que hacfa del ciudadano A quien el Estado no babia podido convencer de culpable, una especie do liberto de por vida, verdadero siervo de la curia marcado con el estigma del deshonor, est4 proscrita y expresamente prohibida por el nuevo C6digo, como habia sido antes condenada por la ciencia, por la ley do 1872 y por la Compilaci6n vigente. De esperar es que las disposiciones de ]a nueva ley sean bastante eficaces para impedir quo semejante practica vuelva do nuevo t ingerirse en forma mas 6 menos disimulada en nuestras costumbres judiciales.
Los demds vicios del Enjuiciamiento vigente quedar~n sin duda corregidos con el planteamiento del juicio oral y pfblico y 1a introdueci6n del sistema acusatorio en la ley procesal.
El reglamento provisional de 26 de Septiembre de 1835 y las disposiciones posteriores publicadas durante el reinado de li augusta madre de V. M., introdujeron, como ya se ha dicho, evidentes mejoras on cl procedimiento criminal; pero no alteraron su indole esencialmonte hinuuisiti/a. Las leyes do 15 de Septiembre de 1870 y 22 de Diciembre de 1872, inspirandose en las ideas de libertad proclamadas por la revoluciin de 1868, realizaron una refornma radical en nuostro sistema de enjuiciar, con el establecimiento del juicio oral y pfiblico; pero







also contribute to the same end. Finally, Book IV must not be forgotten in treating of the brevity of the proceedings, which establishes special and summary proceedings for flagrant crimes as well as for the crime of outrage and calumny and for those committed through the press.
It may be that neither the commission on codes nor the Government, in their selection of means, have covered so interesting a point in the science of procedure; but the truth is that it has not been possible to find any other measures nor have any been suggested from an examination of modern codes carefully studied for this purpose.
The law of February 11, in the basis relating to provisional imprisonment, permits, by the flexibility of its terms, a considerable improvement in this part of our legislation without requiring the Cortes Lo amend the same. The legal text if well analyzed appears so elastic that it serves for the development of the basis in a strict and restrictive sense, as well as in one more ample, expansive, and liberal.
It appears unnecessary to add that the Government of Your Majesty has decided finally whenever it could do so without committing a transgression of law; as in the matter of bail, so intimately connected with all that relates to provisional imprisonment, it has attempted to harmonize the ends of justice with the rights of the accused, putting an end to the possible judicial arbitrariness and establishing equitable and prudent rules which permit a greater scope than allowed heretofore in the character and form of bonds as well as their amount.
It is likewise useless to state that a dismissal of the ease for lack of evidence, this abuse which made of the citizen whom the State could not convict a kind of paroled prisoner for the rest of his life, a true serf of the parish marked with the stigma of dishonor, is proscribed and expressly prohibited by the new code, as it had previously been condemned by science, by the law of 1872, and by the compilation in force. It is to be hoped that the provisions of the new law will be sufficiently efficacious to prevent a similar practice from again being grafted in a more or less disguised form into our judicial customs.
The other vices contained in the procedure in force will no doubt be corrected by the establishment of oral and public trials and the introduction of the accusatory system in the law of procedure.
The provisional regulations of September 26, 1835, and the suDsequent provisions published during the reign of Your Majesty's August Mother, introduced, as has been said, evident improvements in the criminal procedure, but they did not alter its essentially inquisitive character. The laws of September 15, 1870, and December 22, 1872, inspired by the ideas of liberty proclaimed by the revolution of 1868, established a radical reform in our system of procedure by the establishment of oral and public trials, but they continued the inquisitive







mantuvieron el principio in1uJsitivo y el carActer 8ecreto del procedimiento en el periodo de instrucci6n, siguiendo el ejemplo de Francia, B4lgica y otras naciones del continente europeo.
El Ministro que suscribe, de acuerdo con sus colegas, no ha vacilado en aconsejar 6 V. M. que d6 un paso nAs en el camino del progreso, lievando en cierta medida el sistema acusatorio al sumario mismo, que es, despu6s de todo, la piedra angular del juicio y la sentencia. En adelante el juez instructor por su propia iniciativa y de oficio podrA, 6 mejor dicho, debern acordar que se comuniquen los autos al procesado desde el momento en que la publicidad y la contradicci6n no scan un peligro para la sociedad interesada en el descubrimiento de los delitos y en el castigo de los culpables. Si no se hace espont6neamente en el plazo de dos meses, contados desde que se inco6 la causa, la ley da al acusado el derecho de solicitarlo, ya para preparar los elementos de su defensa, ya tambi6n para impedir con su vigilante intervenci'n y el empleo de los recursos legales la prolongaci6n indefinida del sunario. En todo caso, antes y despu's de los dos meses, el que tenga la inmensa desgracia de verse sometido ' un procedimiento criminal, gozar6 en absoluto de dos derechos preciosos, que no pueden menos de ser grandemente estimados donde quiera que se rinda culto t la personalidad humana: uno, el de nombrar defensor que le asista con sus consejos y su inteligente direcci6n desde el instante en que so dicte el auto de procesamiento; y otro el de concurrir por si 6 debidamente representado A todo reconocimiento judicial, a toda inspecci6n ocular, a las autopsias, A los anMisis quimicos, y en suma, a la prictica de todas las diligencias periciales que se decreten y puedan influir asi sobre la determinaci6n de la indole v gravedad del delito, como sobre los indicios de su presunta culpabilidad.
Subsiste, pues, el secreto del sumnario; pero s6lo en cuanto es necesario para impedir que desaparezean las huellas del delito, para recoger 6 inventariar los datos que basten ' comprobar su existencia y reunir los elementos que m~s tarde han de utilizarse y depurarse en el crisol de la contradicci6n, durante los solemnes debates del juicio oral y p6blico. Y A tal punto Ileva la nueva ley su espiritu favorable 6 los fueros sagrados de la defensa, que proscribe y condena una preocupaci6n hasta ahora inuy extendida, que si pudo ser excusable cuando el procedimiento inquisitivo estaba en su auge, implicaria hoy el desconocimiento de la indole y naturaleza del sistema acusatorio, con el cual es incompatible. Alude el infrascrito 4 la costumbre, tani arraigada en nuestros jueces y Tribunales, de dar escaso 6 ning6n valor ' las pruebas del plenario, buscando principal 6 casi exclusivaniente la verdad en las diligencias sumariales practicadas ' espaldas del acusado. No: de hoy ms las investigaciones del juez instructor no seran sino una simple preparaci6n del juicio. El juicio verdadero no comienza sino (on la calificacion provisional y la apertura de los debates delante







principle and the secret character of the procedure during the examining stage, following the example of France, Belgium, and other nations of the European Continent.
The undersigned Minister, in concurrence with his colleagues, has not hesitated to advise Your Majesty to take one more step upon the road of progress by extending, to a certain degree, the system of accusation to the preliminary proceedings themselves, which are, after all, the corner stone of the trial and sentence. Hereafter the investigating judge, on his own initiative and motion, may, or rather must, order that the record be made known to the accused from the moment when publicity and contradiction are not a danger to society, which is interested in the discovery of the crimes and in the punishment of the guilty parties. Should this not be done voluntarily within the period of two months from the date of the institution of the cause, the law gives the accused the right to request it, either to prepare his defense or to prevent by his vigilant intervention and the employment of legal remedies the indefinite extension of the preliminary proceedings. In any case, before and after the two months, he who is so unfortunate as to be subjected to a criminal proceeding will fully enjoy two precious rights, which can not but be greatly appreciated wherever personal rights are honored and revered: the first, the right to designate counsel to assist him with his advice and intelligent direction from the moment the indictment is found; and the second, the right to be present in person or through a representative at any judicial investigation, ocular inspection, autopsy, or chemical analysis-in fact, to be present at any expert measures which may be ordered, and which may affect the determination of the character and gravity of the crime or the clues of his presumed guilt.
The secret character of the preliminary proceedings, however, still continues; but only in so far as is necessary to prevent the disappearance of the traces of the crime, to collect and inventory the data which may be sufficient to prove its commission, and gather the elements which are later to be utilized and their truth ascertained in the crucible of contradiction during the formal arguments at the oral and public trial. And to such a point does the new law carry a spirit favorable to the sacred privileges of the defense, that it proscribes and condemns a preoccupation which, until the present time, has been very extensive, and which, although it might have been pardonable when the inquisitive procedure was at its height, would at the present time imply an ignorance of the character and nature of the system of accusation with which it is incompatible. The undersigned _refers to that custom, so deeply rooted in our judges and courts, of giving little or no value to the evidence introduced during the trial, seeking the truth principally or almost exclusively in the most summary proceedings had behind the back of the accused. No; hereafter the investigations of the






del Tribunal que, extrafio 6 la instrucci6n, va 6 juzgar imparcialmente y A dar el triunfo 6 aquel de los contendientes que tenga la razon y la justicia de su parte. La calificaci'n juridica provisional del hecho justiciable y de la persona del delincuente, hecha por el acusador y el acusado una vez concluso el sumario, es en el procedimiento criminal lo que en el civil la demanda y su contestaci6n, la accion y sus excepciones. Al formularlas empieza realmente la contienda juridica, y ya entonces seria indisculpable que la ley no estableciera la perfecta igualdad de condiciones entre el acusador y el acusado. Estdn enfrente uno de otro, el ciudadano y el Estado. Sagrada es sin duda la causa de la sociedad pero no lo son menos los derechos individuales. En los pueblos verdaderamente libres, el ciudadano debe tener en su mano medios eficaces de defender y conservar su vida, su libertad, su fortuna, su dignidad, su honor; y si el inters de los habitantes del territorio es ayudar al Estado para que ejerza libdrrimamente una de sus funciones mds esenciales, cual es la de castigar la infracci6n de la ley penal para restablecer, alli donde se turbe, ]a armonia del derecho, no por esto deben sacrificarse jamis los fueros (Ic la inocencia, porquc, al cabo, el orden social bien entendido no es mds que el mantcniinicnto de la libertad de todos y cl respeto reciproco de los derechos individuales.



Mirando las cosas por esta prisma y aceptada la idea fundamental de quc en el juicio oral y pfiblico es donde ha de desarrollarse con amplitud la prueba, donde las partes deben hacer valer en igualdad de condiciones los elementos de cargo y descargo, y donde los magistrados han de formar su convicci6n para pronunciar su veredicto con abstraccion de la parte del sumario susceptible de ser reproducida en el juicio, surgia natural y 16gicamente una cuesti6n por todo extremo grave y delicada; es 4 saber: la de si la contradicci6n de un testigo entre su declaraci6n en el juicio oral y las dadas ante el juez instructor en el sumario, seria por si sola fundamento suficiente para someterle 6 un procedimiento criminal por el delito de falso testimonio. El Gobierno, despus de madura deliberaci6n, ha optado por la negativa. Al adoptar esta soluci6n ha cedido en primer tgrmino ' las exigencias de la l6gica, que no permite atribuir 4 los datos recogidos en el suniario para la preparaci6n del juicio una validez y eficacia incompatibles con la indole y naturaleza del sistema acusatorio. No es esto ciertamente autorizar, ni menos santificar el engafio y la mentira en el periodo de la instrucci6n; esa misma contradicci6n en las declaraciones testificales podr6 ser libremente apreciada por los jueces y penetrar en el santuario de su conciencia como un elemento de convicci6n, si ilega el caso de juzgar el perjurio del testigo; lo que finicamente quiere la ley es que 6ste






examining judge shall be nothing but a simple preparation for the trial. The true trial does not commence until the provisional classification and the beginning of the arguments before the tribunal which, apart from the examination, is going to judge impartially and decide in favor of the party having right and justice on his side. The provisional juridical classification of the fact to be judged and of the person of the delinquent, made by the accuser and by the accused upon the conclusion of the preliminary proceedings, is in criminal procedure what the complaint and answer, the action and the exceptions, are in the civil procedure. The juridical contention really begins at the time of their formulation, and it would be unpardonable if the law did not then establish a perfect equality of conditions between the accuser and the accused. The citizen and the State confront each other. The cause of society is sacred, no doubt, but individual rights are no less so. Among a truly free people a citizen must have in his band efficient means to defend and preserve his life, his liberty, his fortune, his dignity, his honor; and, if it be to the interest of the inhabitants of a territory to assist the State in unrestrictedly exercising one of its most essential functions, which is that of punishing the violation of a penal law for the purpose of reestablishing the harmony of the law where it has been disturbed, the privileges of the innocent should never thereby be sacrificed, because, on the whole, social order, strictly speaking, is nothing more than the maintenance of the liberty of all and a reciprocal respect of individual rights.
Looking at things from this point of view, and accepting the fundamental idea that it is in the oral and public trial where the evidence is to be thoroughly sifted, where the parties must under an equality of conditions, state their charges and denials and where the justices are to form their convictions in order to pronounce their verdict, abstracting that part of the preliminary proceedings which can be reproduced in the trial, naturally and logically a question arose which is extremely serious and delicate; the question is, Whether the contradiction of a witness between his testimony given in the oral trial and that before the examining judge in the preliminary proceedings would in itself be a sufficient reason to subject hiln to a criminal action for the crime of giving false testimony? The Government, after mature deliberation, has decided in the negative. In adopting this solution it has, in the first place, given way to the requirements of logic, which does not permit that there be attributed to the data collected in the preliminary proceedings for the preparation of the trial a validity and efficiency incompatible with the character and nature of the accusatory system. This is by no means an authorization, and still less a sanction, of fraud and falsehood during the preliminary stage; such contradiction in the testimony of witnesses may be freely weighed by the judges and penetrate in the sanctuary of their conscience, in case it should become






no sea procesado como autor dc falso testimonio por la sola raz6n de aparecer en contradicci6n con sus declaraciones sumariales, debiendo serlo no mis cuando haya motivos para presumir que falt6 6 la verdad en el acto del juicio; porque siendo 4ste el arsenal donde el acusador y el acusado deben tomar sus armas de combate y de defensa y el Tribunal los fundamentos de su veredicto, claro es que en definitiva s6lo en este traimite puede el testigo favorecer 6 perjudicar injustamente al procesado y ser leal 6 traidor A la sociedad y 6 sus deberes de ciudadano. A esta raz6n, puramente l6gica, agregase otra de mayor transcendencia, cual es la de facilitar la investigaci6n de la verdad y asegurar el acierto de los fallos.

Inf'til scria rendir culto 6 los progresos de la ciencia rompiendo con el procedimiento escrito, inquisitivo y secreto, para sustituirle con los principios tutelares d la libertad, contradicci6n, igualdad de condiciones entre las pai:f-, contendientes, publicidad y oralidad, si el testigo, cuyas primt- -impresiones ha recogido calladamente el juez instructor traslawandolas 6 los autos con m6s 6 menos fidelidad, se presentara en el acto del juicio delante del Tribunal sentenciador y del pdiblico que asiste 6 los debates, cohibido y maniatado por el recuerdo 6 la lectura de sus declaraciones sumariales. Medroso de la responsabilidad criminal que podria exigirsele ' la menor contradicci6n, en vez de contestar con soltura y perfecta tranquilidad 6 las preguntas del presidente, del Ministerio publico y de los defensores, limitariase 6 ratificar pura y simplemente sus declaraciones, convirtigndose entonces su examen en el acto solemne del juicio en vana formalidad. Si no han faltado escritores distinguidos y jurisconsultos eminentes que al analizar las condiciones del procedimiento inquisitivo han censurado acerbamente que se obligara 6 los testigos del sumario 6. ratificarse en el plenario, con la seguridad de ser castigados como perjuros en caso de apartarse en la diligencia de ratificaci6n de lo que antes habian declarado; si esta fundadisima critica iba dirigida 6 un sistema en el que el sumario era el alma de todo el organismo procesal, por no decir el proceso entero, trat6ndose en la hora presente de un mitodo de enjuiciar en el cual el sumario es una mera preparaci6n del juicio, siendo en 4ste donde deben esclarecerse todos los hechos y discutirse todas las cuestiones que jueguen en la causa, no es posible sostener aquella antigua legislaci6n tan inflexible y rigorosa que, sobre anular la libertad y espontaneidad de los testigos, expuestos 6 una persecuci6n originada en una traducci6n infiel de su pensamiento, pugnaria hoy abiertamente con la indole del sistema acusatorio y con la esencia y los altos fines del juicio p6.blico y oral.







necessary to pass upon the perjury of the witness; the only thing which the law desires is that the latter be not tried as guilty of false testimony only because he appears to contradict his statements at the preliminary proceedings, and only so tried when there are reasons to presume that he did not tell the truth at the trial; because as the latter is the arsenal where the accuser and the accused must receive their arms for the attack and the defense, and the tribunal the bases for its verdict, it is evident that definitely only in this stage can the witness favor or unjustly prejudice the accused and be loyal or a traitor to society and to his duties as a citizen. To this purely logical reason is added one of greater importance, which is that of facilitating the investigation of the truth and insuring the correctness of the decisions.
It would be useless to attempt to further the progress of science by abolishing the written, inquisitive, and secret procedure in order to substitute therefor the protective principles of liberty, contradiction, equality of conditions between the contendin, parties, publicity, and oral trials, if the witness, whose first impresse- -- the judge has heard in silence, transferring them to the record with m6ie or less fidelity, should appear at the trial before the sentencing tribunal and the public present at the discussions restrained and with tied hands by the recollection or the reading of his depositions in the preliminary proceedings. Fearing the criminal liability which he might incur upon the slightest contradiction, instead of answering offhand and with perfect ease the questions of the presiding judge, the representative of the department of public prosecution, and of the counsel, he would confine himself purely and simply to ratifying his statements, his examination in this formal act of the trial being converted into a mere formality. There has been a large number of distinguished writers and eminent jurists who in analyzing the conditions of the inquisitive procedure have strongly criticised the system of forcing the witnesses at the preliminary proceedings to ratify their depositions at the trial, with the assurance of being punished as perjurers if during the ratification they should waver from their previous statements. If this wellfounded criticism were directed against a system in which the preliminary proceedings were the soul of the entire organism of the procedure, not to say the entire process, as the method in question at the present time is one of procedure in which the preliminary proceedings are a mere preparation for the trial, it being in the latter where the facts are to be arrived at and where all the questions involved in the cause are to be discussed, it is not possible to continue the former laws so inflexible and strict that, in curtailing the liberty and spontaneity of the witnesses, exposed to a prosecution originating in an unfaithful translation of their thought, they would at the present time openly conflict with the character of the accusatory system and with the essence and high ends of public and oral trials.
18473-01- 2







Todas estas concesiones al principio de libertad que ' una parte de nuestros jueces y magistrados pareceran sin duda exorbitantes, no contentaran afin probablemente ' ciertas escuelas radicales que intentan extender al sumario, desde el momento mismo en que se inicia, las reglas de publicidad, contradicci'n ' igualdad que el proyecto de C6digo establece desde que se abre el juicio hasta que se dicta la sentencia firme. No niega el infrascrito que insignes escritores mantienen esta tesis con ardor y con fe; pero hasta ahora no puede considerarsela mas que como un ideal de la ciencia, al cual tiende 4 acercarse progresivamente la legislaci6n positiva de los pueblos modernos. ? Se realizar6 algfin dia por completo? El Ministro que suscribe lo duda mucho. Es dificil establecer la igualdad absoluta de condiciones juridicas entre el individuo y el Estado en el comienzo mismo del procedimiento, por la desigualdad real que en momento tan critico existe entre uno y otro: desigualdad calculadamente introducida por el criminal y de que 4ste s6lo es responsable. Desde que surge en su mente la idea del delito, 6 por lo menos desde que pervertida su conciencia, forma el prop6sito deliberado de cometerle, estudia cauteloso un conjunto de precauciones para sustraerse 4 la acci6n de la justicia, y coloca al Poder pdblico en una posici6n an6loga ' la de la victima, la cual sufre el golpe por sorpresa, indefensa y desprevenida. Para restablecer, pues, la igualdad en las condiciones de la lueha, ya que se pretende por los aludidos escritores que el procedimiento criminal no debe ser m'ns que un duelo noblemente sostenido por ambos contendientes, menester es que el Estado tenga alguna ventaja en los primeros momentos, siquiera para recoger los vestigios del crimen y los indicios de la culpabilidad de su autor. Pero sea de esto lo que quiera, la verdad es que solo el porvenir puede resolver el problema de si llegar6 6 no 4 realizarse aquel ideal. Entre tanto los que tienen la honra de dirigir los destinos de un pueblo estgn obligados 4 ser prudentes y 4 no dar carta de naturaleza en los C'digos 4 ideas que est~n todavia en el periodo de propaganda, que no ban madurado en la opini6n ni menos encarnado en las costumbres, ni se han probado en la piedra de toque de la experiencia.

El Gobierno de V. M. cree ser consecuente con cl esplritu liberal que informa su politica, introduciendo dentro de ciertos lHinites racionales el sistema acusatorio en el sumario, lo cual constituye un gran progreso sobre la ley de 22 de Diciembre de 1872. No hay tampoco una sola naci'n en el continente europeo que vaya en esto m6s all que el adjunto proyecto de C6digo, ni siquiera la Alemania, en cuyas leyes procesales qued6 impreso como en roca de granito el sello caracteristico del individualismo germgnico, sin que havan alcanzado ' borrarle ni la autoridad prepotente de sus Monarcas, ni sus grandes glorias militares, ni su reciente y portentoso engrandecimiento territorial.







All these concessions to the principles of liberty, which to some of our judges and justices will appear no doubt exorbitant, will probably not satisfy certain radical schools which desire to extend fo the preliminary proceedings from the instant they are instituted the rules of publicity, contradiction, and equality which the proposed code establishes from the time the trial is opened until the final sentence is pronounced. The undersigned does not deny that well-known writers support this opinion with ardor and with faith, but it can not be considered at present as more than an ideal of science which the positive legislation of modern countries is progressively approaching. Will it some day be fully realized? The undersigned Minister doubts it very much. It is difficult to establish an absolute equality of juridical conditions between an individual and the State at the very beginning of the proceedings, on account of the real inequality which at so critical a moment exists between one and the other-an inequality purposely introduced by the criuinal and for which he only is responsible. From the moment that the idea of the crime is born in his mind, or at least from the moment that his conscience is perverted and he forms the deliberate intention of committing it, he carefully studies a number of precautions to escape the action of justice, and he places the public power in a position similar to that of the victim who receives the blow by surprise-defenceless and unprepared. Thus, in order to reestablish an equality of conditions for the contest, as it is claimed by the aforementioned writers that the criminal procedure must not be more than a duel nobly maintained by both combatants, it is necessary that the State have some advantages during the first moments, if it be only for the purpose of collecting the traces of the crime and clues to the guilt of its author. But, be this as it may, the truth is that the future only can decide whether this ideal will or will not be realized. In the meantime those who have the honor of directing the destinies of a people are obliged to be prudent and not countenance in the codes ideas which are still speculative, which have not matured in public opinion, and, still less, have not rooted themselves in the customs of the people, and have not stood the test of experience.
The Government of Your Majesty believes it to be in accordance with the liberal spirit of its policy to introduce, within certain reasonable limits, the accusatory system in the preliminary proceedings, which constitutes a great advance over the law of December 22. 1872. There is not a single nation upon the European continent which, on this point, goes further than the attached proposed code, not even Germany, on whose laws of procedure is stamped, as on tables of granite, the characteristic seal of Germanic individualism, without being wiped out either by the powerful authority of their monarchs, her glorious military victories, or her recent and portentous territorial aggrandizement.







Con idntion criterio resuelve el nuevo C6digo las demas cuestiones fundamentales del Enjuiciamiento. En materia penal hay siempre dos intereses rivales y contrapuestos: el de la sociedad, que tiene el derecho de castigar, y el del acusado, que tiene el derecho de defenderse. El caracter individualista del derecho, se ostenta en el sistema acusatorio, en el cual se encarna el respeto A la personalidad del hombre y 6 la libertad de la conciencia, mientras que el procedimiento de oficio 6 inquisitivo representael principio social y se encamina preferentemente a la restauraci6n del orden jurdico perturbado por el delito, apaciguando al propio tiempo la alarma popular. Por lo tanto, el problema de la organizaci6n de la justicia criminal no se resuelve bien sino definiendo claramente los derechos de *la acusaci6n y de la defensa, sin sacrificar ninguno de los dos ni subordinar el uno al otro, antes bien, armoniz.ndolos en una sintesis superior.
Formado de oficio 6 6 instancia de parte el sunario por un funcionario independiente del Tribunal que ha de sentenciar; obligado por la ley este instructor i recoger, asi los datos adversos como los favorables al procesado, bajo la inspeccion inmediata del fiscal, del acusador particular, y, hasta donde es posiblo, del acusado 6 su letrado defensor; otorgada una acci6n puiblica y popular para acusar, en vez de limitarla al ofendido y sus herederos; reconocida y sancionada la existencia del Ministerio fiscal, A quien se encomienda la misi6n de promover la averiguacion de los delitos y el castigo de los culpables, sin dejar por esto de defender i la vez al inculpado inocente, rcsulta que puede, sin peligro de los intereses pdblicos y particulares, cefiirse el Tribunal al ejercicio de una sola atribuci6n: la de fallar como juez imparcial del cainpo sin sujetarse 'a una prueba tasada de antemano por la ley; antes bien, siguiendo libremento las inspiraciones de su conciencia, exento de las pasiones que enciende siempre la lucha en el Animo de los contendientes y sin el aguij6n del amor propio excitado en el juez instructor por las estratagemas que en ocasiones emplean el acusado v el acusador privado para burlar sus investigaciones, y aun sin esto, por las misinas dificultades inherentes de ordinario 6 la instrucci6n.




Para mantener al Tribunal en esta'serena y elevada esfera, y no desvirtuar el principio acusatorio que informa el nuevo c6digo, ha creido el que suscribe que finicamente al Ministerio fiscal 6 at acusador particular, si le hubiere, corresponde formular el acta de acusaci6n compronsiva de los puntos sobre que en adelante deben girar los debates, siguiendo en esto al C6digo de instrucci6n criminal austriaco, que es acaso, de los actualmente vigentes en la Europa continental, el que ha desarrollado con ma's 15gica y extensi6n el sistema acusatorio,







The new code decides the other fundamental questions of the procedure upon the same basis. In penal matters there are always two rival and opposed interests; those of society, which has the right to punish, and those of the accused, who has the right to defend himself. The individualistic character of law is evident in the accusatory system, which includes both respect for the personality of man and liberty of conscience, while the ex o io and inquisitive proceeding represents the social principle, whose special object is the restoration of the judicial order which has been disturbed by the crime, quieting at the same time the popular alarm. Therefore, the problem of the organization of criminal justice is not correctly solved except by clearly defining the rights of the accusation and of the defense, without sacrificing either of the two or subordinating one to the other, but, on the contrary, by harmonizing them in one superior combination.
The preliminary proceedings being instituted ex officio or at the instance of a party by an official independent of the tribunal which is to pronounce the sentence; the examining judge being required by law to collect all information, favorable as well as unfavorable, to the accused, under the immediate supervision of the fiscal, of the private accuser, and, in so far as possible, of the accused or his counsel; a popular and public trial of the accusation being provided for, instead of confining it to the injured persons and his heirs; the existence of the department of public prosecution being recognized and sanctioned and to which is entrusted the mission of taking the steps for the ascertainment of the crimes and the punishment of those guilty thereof; without, however, at the same time ignoring the defense of an innocent accused person, the result is that without danger to public or private interests, the duties of the tribunal may be restricted to the exercise of one attribute only-that of deciding as an impartial judge of the matter without being subject to evidence previously regulated by law; in fact, unrestrictedly following the dictates of his conscience exempt from the passions which are always raised by the struggle in the minds of the contestants and without the wounding of the amnour propre which is engendered in the examining judge by the stratagems which the accused and the private accuser employ to frustrate his investigations, or even without this, by the ordinary difficulties which attend the investigation.
In order to sustain the tribunal in this serene and elevated sphere and not defeat the object of the accusatory principle which the new code provides, the undersigned is of the opinion that only the representative of the department of public prosecution or the private +ccuser, if there be any, should prepare the information, including therein the points which are to be argued thereafter, following herein the Austrian code of criminal procedure, which is perhaps of those actually in force in Continental Europe the one which has developed the accusatory







Asi es como se logra quo la cuesti6n criminal que en el proceso se agita 6 discute vaya intacta al Tribunal ' quien corresponde decidirla; asi es como las partes pueden preparar con perfecto conocimiento de causa los respectivos elementos de cargo y descargo y hacer sus acusaclones 6 defensas con fe y libertad completa, sin la coacci6n, siquiera sea moral, que no puede menos dc existir cuando el que ha dc fallar prejuzga en cierto modo el fallo formulando de oficio el acta de acusaci6n, lo cual ]leva naturalmente el desaliento al 6nimo de aquel de los contendientes A, quien pcrjudica la calificaci6n juridica hecha prematuramente, aunque con car~cter provisorio pot el Tribunal. Ni son estos los Ainicos inconvenientes que acarrea la admisi6n del acta do acusacion de oficio, pues una vez formulada 4sta, 6 se obliga al Ministerio fiscal 1 sostenerla contra sus convicciones poniendo en tortura su conciencia, 6 sc le deja en libertad para combatirla, en cuyo caso ya no son las partes quienes contienden entre s, sino que se discute finicamente el pensamiento, la opini6n, el juicio formulado pot el Tribunal, que de este modo desciende 6 la arena del combate para convertirse en acusador, con el ricsgo inminente de que la excitaci6n del amor propio de los juecos ofusque 6' perturbe su inteligencia. No; los magistrados deben permanecer durante ]a discusi6n pasivos, retraidos, neutrales, a semejanza dc los jueccs de los antiguos torneos, limit~ndose 6 dirigir con Animo sereno los debates. Por esto, entre las obligaciones impuestas al Ministerio fiscal cn Francia y Alemania dc formular un acta de acusaci6n cuando asi lo ha acordado el respectivo Tribunal, y la libertad que a dicho Ministerio otorga la ley austriaca, ha optado (A que suscribe por la Altima soluci6n que respeta mrs los fueros de la conciencia, los derechos individuales, y estil m~s en consonancia con el principio fundamental cn que descansa el sistema acusatorio.

Este principio, aplicado en absoluto, adolece, sin embargo, de un vicio, que han puesto en relieve insignes magistrados encanecidos on la Administraci6n de justicia. Proscrita para siempre la absoluci6n de la instancia, y rigiendo sin excepci6n la ma'xima non 6is ;b ide, evidente es quo el error del fiscal en la calificaci6n juridica del hecho justiciable produce ha impunidad del delincuente. Esta' bien quo en los procesos civiles el Tribunal tenga la obligaci6n de absolver 6 condenar, asi como tambien la d ajustar estrictamente su fallo '� los t~rminos en que las partes hayan planteado el problema litigioso, 6 sea ' la acci6n ejcrcitada por el demandante y 6 las excepciones formuladas por el demandado; porque las cuestiones quo en esos procesos so ventilan son de mero interes privado, y porque ademds no es raro que pueda subsanarse total 6 parcialmente en un nuevo proceso el error padecido al entablar la acci6n, para lo cual suelen hacerse reservas de derecho en la sentencia en favor del condenado; pero en los procesos criminales, que pueden incoarse de oficio, estan siempre en litigio el inter6s social y la paz







system most extensively and logically. Thus it becomes possible to secure that the criminal question raised or argued in the proceedings shall go intact to the court which is to decide it. Thus the parties can prepare with a perfect knowledge of cause the respective elements of accusation and denials and make their accusation or defense with confidence and complete liberty, without the coercion, even th6ugh moral, which can not but exist when the person who is to pass judgment, to a certain extent prejudges the matter by himself drawing up the indictment, which naturally discourages the contestant who is prejudiced by a juridical classification which has been made prematurely, although only temporarily, by the tribunal. Nor are these the only objections to the admission of the indictment prepared ex officio, because after its preparation the public prosecutor is obliged to defend it against his convictions torturing his conscience, or he is left at liberty to combat it, in which case it does not become a contest between the parties, but only a discussion of the thought, the opinion, and the judgment of the tribunal, which, in this manner, enters the arena and becomes converted into an accuser at the imminent risk of the amour jtropre of the judges, confusing or disturbing their intellectual faculties. No; the judges must remain during the arguments passive, silent, and neutral, as did the judges of the ancient tournaments, confining themselves to the direction of the arguments with a serene deportment. Therefore, between the obligations imposed upon the public prosecutors in France and Germany, to draw up an indictment when this has been ordered by the respective tribunal, and the liberty which is granted said prosecutors by the Austrian law, the undersigned has selected the latter solutioni as the one offering the greater respect to the dictates of conscience, individual rights, and as being more in consonance with the fundamental principle upon which the accusatory system is based.
This principle, applied in full, nevertheless still contains one defect to which various judges who have grown gray in the administration of justice have called attention. The dismissal of the proceedings for lack of evidence being proscribed forever and the maxim nofl 6is in iden ruling without exception, it is evident that an error committed by the prosecutor in the juridical classification of the punishable act secures the immunity of the delinquent. It is advisable that in civil proceedings the tribunal shall have the obligation to acquit or condemn as well as to strictly adjust its decision to the terms in which the parties may have submitted the question in litigation; that is to say, to the complaint of the plaintiff and the exceptions pleaded by the defendant, because the questions which arise in these proceedings are of mere private interest, and because, furthermore, it frequently occurs that the error committed upon the institution of the action can be corrected totally or partially in a new proceeding, for which reason it is customary to make reservations of rights in the decision in favor of







pfiblica, y teniendo el Tribunal la obligaci6n de condenar 6 absolver libremente sin reserva alguna y sin que le sea licito abrir un nuevo procedimiento sobre el mismo hecho ya juzgado, es violento torturar la conciencia de los magistrados que le forman hasta el punto de colocarles en la dura alternativa de condenar al acusado 6 sabiendas de que faltan 6 la i'ey 6 cometen una nulidad, 6 absolverle con la convicci6n de que es criminal, dejando que insulte con su presencia y aire de triunfo a la victima y su familia, tan solo porque el Ministerio pfiblico no ba sabido 6 no ha querido calificar el delito con arreglo 6 su naturaleza y 6 las prescripciones del C6digo penal. De todas suertes es innegable que Ilevados 6 tal exageraci6n el sistema acusatorio y la pasividad de los Tribunales, 6stos abdican en el fiscal, en cuyas manos queda toda entera la justicia. De su buena 6 mala fe, que no s6lo de su pericia, dependeria exclusivamente en lo futuro la suerte de los acusados.




Y suponiendo que algfin dia el legislador, echindose en brazos de la l6gica, liegase hasta este 6iltimo limite del sistema acusatorio, el Gobierno de V. M. ha creldo que la transici6n era demasiado brusca para este pais en que los jueces han sido hasta ahora omnipotentes, persiguiendo los delitos por su propia y espontdnea iniciativa, instruyendo las causas los mismos que habian de fallarlas, ejerciendo la facultad omnimoda de separarse de los dict6menes fiscales, asf durante la sustanciaci6n como en la sentencia definitiva, calificando seguin su propio juicio el delito y designando la pena sin consideraci6n ' las conclusiones de la acusaci6n y la defensa, y empleando por 6ltimo la f6rmula de la absoluci6n de la instancia, 6 lo que es lo mismo, dejando indefinidamente abierto el procedimiento cuando, faltos de pruebas para condenar, infundian en su mente las diligencias sumariales livianas sospechas contra el acusado. La sociedad debe marchar como la naturaleza, gradualmente y no 6 saltos: los progresos juridicos deben irse eslabonando, si han de encarnar en las costumbres del pats. Por esto, el Gobierno propone 6 V. M. la soluci6n contenida en el articulo 733 que no altera en rigor la virtualidad del principio acusatorio. Segfin la estructura de la adjunta ley, concluso el sumario, las partes hacen la calificaci6n provisional del hecho justiciable. Sobre sus conclusiones versan las pruebas que se practican durante todo el juicio, y al t4rmino de 4ste, cuando ya no faltan mis que los informes del fiscal y del defensor del acusado, autorizase 6 uno y otro para confirmar, rectificar 6 variar, en vista de las pruebas, su primera calificaci6n. Al llegar ' este tr6mite todo en rigor est6 acabado: los jucces han oido al reo y los testigos; ban examinado las demis piezas de convicci6n y estan en condiciones de apreciar con amplitud y acierto la naturaleza del hecho







the condemned; but in criminal actions which may be instituted at the instance of the Government, social interests and public peace are always in litigation, and as the tribunal has the obligation to convict or acquit freely without any reservation whatsoever, and without it being legal to institute a new proceeding upon the same question, it is unnatural to torture the conscience of the justices composing the tribunal to the point of placing them in the hard alternative of condemning the accused with the knowledge that they do not comply with the law, destroy its force, or acquit him with the conviction that he is a criminal, leaving him to insult with his presence and air of triumph the victim and his family, only because the public prosecutor did not know how or did not wish to qualify the crime in accordance with its character and the provisions of the Penal Code. At any rate it can not be denied that if the accusatory system and the passiveness of the tribunals goes to such an exaggerated extent, the latter abdicate in favor of the prosecutor, in whose hands justice remains intact. The fate of the accused depends not only on his skill, but also on his good or bad faith.
And supposing that some day the legislator, appealing to logic, should arrive to this furthermost limit of the accusatory system, the Government of Your Majesty has believed that the transition would be too sudden for this country in which the judges have been all powerful, prosecuting crimes on their own and voluntary initiative, investigating as well as passing upon the cases, exercising the power to ignore the reports of the prosecutors during the hearing as well as in the final sentence, classifying the crime according to their own judgment, and fixing the punishment without considering the conclusions of the accusation and defense, and finally dismissing the proceedings for lack of evidence, or, what is the same thing, leaving the proceedings indefinitely open when there being insufficient evidence to convict, the preliminary proceedings raised slight suspicions in their mind against the accused. Society must progress like nature-gradually, and not by leaps; juridical progress must develop step by step if it is to become grafted in the customs of the country. Therefore the Government recommends to Your Majesty the solution contained in article 733, which does not materially alter the potential character of the accusatory principle. According to the structure of the annexed law, upon the conclusion of the preliminary proceedings, the parties make a provisional classification of the questions which are the subject-matter of the action. The evidence taken during.the entire action rests upon their conclusions, and upon the termination thereof, when nothing is left but the final arguments of the prosecutor and the counsel of the accused, they are both authorized to confirm, correct, or vary their first classification in view of the evidence. Upon reacning this stage everything is strictly terminated; the judges have heard the criminal and the witnesses; they







que es materia del juicio. Si en tal momento les asalta una duda grave sobre su verdadera calificacio'n juridica, qu6 dificultad puede haber en quc hipoteticanicntc, sin prejuzgar el fallo definitivo y solo por via de ilustraci6n, invite el presidente del Tribunal al Ministcrio publico y defensor del procesado para que en sus informes discutan una tesis m6s? El principio acusatorio quedaria quebrantado si 4sta no hubiera de discutirse y resolverse con arreglo 6 las pruebas ya practicadas, dando lugar A que se abriese de nuevo 6 se prorrogase el juicio; pero como (ste est6 ya terminado y no es permitido volver sobre 41, todo lo que puede suceder es que el fiscal 6 el letrado necesiten veinticuatro horas para razonar sobre la hip6tesis del Tribunal con la conveniente preparacion.
Con scr tan modesta y estar tan ceida esta facultad, declara sin embargo la ley quc no se extiende 6 los delitos privados 6 que s6lo pucden pcrscguirsc a instancia dc parte, ni 6 la calificaci6n dc las circuiustancias atenuantes 6 agravintes, ni A la de la participacion respc'tiva de los procesados cn la ejecucion del crimen, quedando reducida I Ia satisfacci6n de una necesidad apremiantc originada en un inter(s pblico y de orden social. Aun encerrada en tan estrcchos liniltes, el Ministro que suscribe hubiera renunciado f ella, y inantenidose en el rigorismo del principio acusatorio, si los C(digos roas progresivos y liberales de la Europa continental le hubicran alentado con su ejemplo; pero no hay ninguno que no d6 mayor amplitud 6 la intervenci'n del Tribunal en el juicio. En Francia y Alemania ya se ha visto que el Ministerio fiscal tiene la obligaci6n de formular el acta de acusaci6n cuando asi lo acuerda el Tribunal respectivo, y ademis la misma ley alemana v la austriaca dejan , 6ste en libertad de apreciar el hecho justiciable sin sujetarse 6 la calificaci6n que de A1 hubieren hecho las partes, y sin tomar la precauci6n de someter 6 4stas la nueva faz de la cuesti6n, 6 fin de que la discutan ampliamente antes de que recaiga el veredicto. Precediendo este solemne debate, no amplidndosc ni reforminndosc en ningfin caso las piezas de convicci6n, no puede en rigor acusarse de incongruencia al fallo, puesto que la ley en sunia se limita 6 estableccr un medio de suplir la omisi6n del fiscal, cuyo deber es hacerse cargo de todas las calificaciones probables quo autorice la prueba practicada y que pueda aceptar cl Tribunal, redactando al efecto cuando fuere neccsario la pretensi6n alternativa dc que habla el art. 732. El Tribunal propone, bipoteticamente y sobre la base de un' prueba inalteralc, un tenia de discusi6n inomentos antes de pronunciar sn veredicto, cuando cada mnagistrado tiene ya fornado su juicio definitivo sobre el voto que sc va' dar. Mejor cs, por tanto, que le em ita despues de un debate que puede iluninar su mcnte -y rectificar su juicio, quc no autorizarle para quocn el fallo se separe de las condiciones debatidas por las partes y siga sus propias inspiraciones no contrastadas en el crisol de la contradicci6n como le autorizan los







have examined the other evidence, and are in a condition to weigh the character of the act which is the subject-matter of the trial fully and with a correct understanding. If at this moment they should entertain some serious doubt as to its true juridical classification, why should not the presiding judge of the court, hypothetically and only by way of illustration, invite the public prosecutor and the attorney for the accused, without prejudging the definite decision, to discuss an additional thesis in their briefs? The accusatory principle would be violated if this additional thesis were not argued and decided in accordance with the evidence already taken, causing a postponement or reopening of the trial. But as the trial is already closed and it is not possible to review it, all that can take place is that the public prosecutor or the attorney be granted twenty-four hours for the purpose of arguing upon the hypothesis of the tribunal with sufficient preparation.
Although this power is so modest and restricted, the law nevertheless declares that it does not extend to private crimes or to those crimes which can be prosecuted only at the instance of a party, or to the classification of extenuating or aggravating circumstances, or to that of the respective participation of the persons accused in the commission of the crime, being thus reduced to meeting an urgent necessity originating in a public and social interest. Although confined to so narrow limits, the undersigned Minister would have renounced it and remained within the excessively severe accusatory principle if the most progressive and liberal codes of continental Europe had encouraged him with their example; but there is none which gives greater power to the intervention of the court in the trial. It has already been seen that in France and Germany the public prosecutor is obliged to prepare the indictment when ordered to do so by the proper court, and, furthermore, the said German law, as well as the Austrian law, leave him at liberty to weigh the act without subjecting himself to the classification thereof made by the parties, and without taking the precaution of submitting to said parties the new phase of the question in order that they may discuss it fully before the verdict is rendered. Before this formal argument, without the evidence in any case being amended or extended, the sentence could not be said properly to be incongruent, because the law in substance confines itself to establishing a means to supply the omission of the public prosecutor, whose duty it is to take charge of all the probable classifications which the evidence taken may authorize and which the tribunal may accept, preparing for this purpose the alternative claim referred to in article 732, whenever necessary. The tribunal proposes, hypothetically and upon the basis of an unalterable proof, a theme for discussion a few moments before pronouncing its verdict, when each justice has already formed his definite opinion upon the ,Vote which is to be cast. It is better, therefore, that he should cast his vote after an argument which may enlighten







C6digos austriaco y alemAin, i pesar de ser los m~s adelantados de la Europa continental.



Tales son, Sefior, prescindiendo de otras muchas reformas do menor importancia, aunque sustanciales, y de evidentes mejoras de detalle en el mtodo y la redacci'n, las novedades de m~s bulto que el proyecto adjunto introduce en nuestro procedimiento criminal.
No desconoce el Ministro que suscribe que la aplicaci6n y cumplimiento de la nueva ley, singularmente en los pritneros afios, tropezar i con graves dificultades, siendo la mayor de todas ellas la falta de costumbres adecuadas al sistema acusatorio y al j uicio oral y p6blico. Educados los espafioles durante siglos en el procedirniento escrito, secreto 4 inquisitorial, lejos de haber adquirido confianza en lt Justicia y de coadyuvar activamente 6 su recta administraci6n, haciendo, como el ciudadano ingls, intil la instituci6n del Ministerio pAblico para el descubrimiento y castigo do los delitos, han formado ideas falsas sobre la policia judicial y se han desviado cada vez ms de los Tribunales mirando con lamentable recelo A magistrados, jueces, escribanos y alguaciles, y repugnando figurar como testigos on los procesos. Pero este mal serKi mayor cuanto mis tiempo paso; y conio lo actual no puede seguir sin desdoro de la Naci6n y de los poderes que la gobiernan, lo mejor es decidirse, que alguna vez se ha de empezar, si la Espafia no ha de ser una excepci6n entre los pueblos cultos do Europa y Amrica.


El Gobierno de V. M. tiene tal confianza en ]a aptitud especial y las condiciones privilegiadas de nuestra raza, que ospera seri breve el apredizaje, no tan s6lo en la aplicaci6n de esta ley, sino en la obra aun m6s delicada de compartir con los jueces ]a misi6n augusta de administrar justicia como Jurado; y que inuy pronto el ciudadano espafiol demostrar6 quo es digno de gozar de las inismas ventajas que poseen los extranjeros.
Al logro de fin tan importante y transcendental coadyuvarain, sin duda, el celo 4 ilustraci6n de la Magistratura y del Ministerio pfiblico; que no es posible, Sefior, montar una miquina delicada y hacerla funcionar con 4xito, sino contando con el asent;miento, el entusiasino, la fe y el patriotismo de los que han de manejarla.

En vista de las razones expuestas, el Ministro que suscribe tiene la honra de someter 6 la aprobaci6n de V. M. el adjunto proycto de decreto.
Scnn Ildefonso, 14 de Septiembre de 1882.
Sefior, A L. R. P. de V. M.,
MANUEL ALONSO MARTINEZ.






his mind and correct his judgment than not to authorize him to depart from the conditions argued by the parties and follow his own inspirations, which have not been brought together in the crucible of contradiction as authorized by the Austrian and German codes, notwithstanding the fact that they are the most advanced on the European Continent.
Such are, Sir, without speaking of many other amendments of lesser importance, although substantial, and evidently improvements in the method and preparation, the most weighty innovations introduced by the attached bill in our criminal procedure.
The undersigned Minister is not unaware of the fact that in the application and fulfillment of the new law, especially during the first years, serious difficulties will be encountered, the greatest of all being the absence of customs applicable to the accusatory system and to an oral and public trial. Spaniards having been educated for centuries in the written, secret, and inquisitive procedure, far from having gained confidence in justice and actively assisting in a proper administration thereof, and, as the British citizen, rendering useless the institution of the department of public prosecution for the discovery and punishinent of crimes, have formed erroneous ideas as to the judicial policy, and have every day drifted further from the tribunals, looking upon the justices, judges, court clerks, and bailiffs with lamentable distrust, and disliking to appear in the proceedings as witnesses. But this evil will increase as time passes. And as the present state of affairs can not continue without discredit to the nation and the powers which govern it, the best thing to do is to decide, as it must be begun some time, whether Spain is to be an exception among the cultured peoples of Europe and America.
The Government of Your Majesty has such confidence in the special aptitude and the privileged conditions of our race that it believes that the apprenticeship will be short, not only in the application of this law, but even in the more delicate task of sharing with the judges the august mission of administering justice as a jury, and that very soon the Spanish subject will demonstrate that he is worthy of enjoying the same advantages as those enjoyed by foreigners.
In the attainment of so important and transcendental an end, the zeal and high character of our judiciary and of the department of public prosecution will no doubt contribute. It is not possible, Sir, to mount a delicate machine and successfully operate it unless the assent, the enthusiasm, the confidence, and the patriotism of those who are to manage it are to be trusted.
In view of the aforestated reasons, the undersigned Minister has the honor to submit for the approval of Your Majesty the attached bill.

San Ildefonso, September 14, 1882.
Sire, at the Royal Feet of Your Majesty,
MANUEL ALONSO MARTINEZ.














MINISTERIO DE ULTRAMAR.


REAL DECRETO.

Llevadas A cabo por la Comisi'n de C6digos del Ministerio de Ultramar las modificaciones necesarias para que pueda aplicarse en Cuba y Puerto Rico la Icy vigente en la Peninsula sobre procedimiento criminal de acuerdo con aquella Corporaci6n, 4 propuesta del Ministro do Ultramar, y en virtud de la autorizaci6n quo concede 4 mi Gobierno el art. 89 de la Constituci6n de la Monarquia, en nombre de mi Augusto Hijo el Rey D. Alfonso XIII, y como Reina Regente del Reino,

Vengo en decretar lo siguiente:
ARTfCULO 10. Se aprueba para la isla de Cuba y Puerto Rico la ley de Enjuiciamiento criminal vigente en la Peninsula, en virtud dcl Real decreto de 14 de Septiembre de 1882, con las inodificaciones propuestas por la Comisi6n de C6digos do Ultramar.
ART. 20. La nueva ley comenzar4 6 regir on Cuba y Puerto Rico el dia 10 de Enero de 1889, en que empezar4n 4 funcionar las Audiencias de lo criminal.
ART. 30. Las causas por delitos cometidos con anterioridad al P de Enero pr6ximo, continuar4n sustanci4ndose con arreglo 4 las disposiciones del procedimiento vigente en la actualidad.'
Si las causas 4 que se refiere el p4rrafo anterior no hubieren Ilegado al periodo de clasificaci6n, podr4n sustanciarse con arreglo 4 las dispoLa jurisprudencia del Tribunal Supremo, sobre lo preceptuado en el mismo artculo del Real decreto de 14 de Septiembre de 1882 aprobando ]a ley de Enjuiciamiento criminal vigente en la Peninsula, que en nada difiere de ]a disposici6n que anotamos, es contradictoria, pues mientras en sentencias de 3 de Septiembre, 24 de Octubre de 1884 y 26 de Diciembre de 1885, declar6 que los Tribunales existentes antes de constituirse las nuevas Audiencias de lo criminal, son los competentes para conocer de los delitos cometidos hasta el 15 de Octubre de 1882, aunque haya comenzado A procederse por sn comisi6n con posterioridad ,l esa fecha, siempre que los procesados no se hayan acogido al nuevo procedimiento, en otra sentencia (Ie 4 de Agosto de 1887, consign6: Que es precepto claro y terminante, consignado en la regla que anotamos, que las causas por delitos cometidos con posterioridad al 15 de Octubre del afio citado, debfan continuar sustancidndose con arreglo l las disposiciones del procedimiento vigente entonces, apareciendo, por tanto, indiscutible, que se refiere di las causas incoadas antes de la indicada fecha, y de ninglin modo A las posteriores, por mils que la conisi6n de los delitos fuera anterior.














COLONIAL DEPARTMENT.

ROYAL DECREE.

The Codification Commission of the Colonial Department having completed the modifications necessary in order that it may be possible to apply in Cuba and Porto Rico the law in force in the Peninsula on criminal procedure, in concurrence with said corporation, upon the recommendation of the Colonial Minister, and in pursuance of the authority vested in my Government by article 89 of the Constitution of the Monarchy, in the name of my August Son the King, Don Alfonso XIII, and as Queen Regent of the Kingdom,
1 hereby decree the following:
ARTICLE. 1. The Law of Criminal Procedure in force in the Peninsula, by virtue of a Royal Decreee of September 14, 1882, is approved for the Islands of Cuba and Porto Rico, with the modifications recommended by the Codification Commission for the Colonies.
ART. 2. The new law shall go into effect in Cuba and Porto Rico on the first day of January, 1889, when the Criminal Audiencias will begin to act.
ART. 3. The causes for crimes committed prior to January first next, shall continue to be heard and determined in accordance with the provisions of the procedure in force at the present time.'
If the causes referred to in the foregoing article should not have reached the classification stage, they may be heard and determined in

I The Jurisprudence of the Supreme Court with regard to the provisions of the same article of the Royal Decree of September 14, 1882, approving the law of criminal procedure in force in the Peninsula, which does not differ in any manner from the provision annotated, is contradictory, because while in decisions of September 3, October 24, 1884, and December 26, 1885, it declared that the courts existing before the organization of the new criminal audiencias are of competent jurisdiction in crimes committed up to October 15, 1882, even though the action should have been instituted subsequently to said date, provided that the accused should not have selected the new procedure; in another decision of August 4, 1887, it declared: "That it is a clear and final precept, contained in the rule which we annotate, that the causes for crimes committed subsequently to the 15th of October of the year mentioned must continue to be heard and determined in accordance with the provisions of the procedure in force at that time; and it appears, therefore, undisputable that it relates to the causes instituted before the said date, and in no manner to subsequent causes, even though the crimes should have been committed prior thereto."







siciones do la nueva ley, si todos los procesados en cada una de ollas optan por el nuevo procedimiento.
Para ello, el Juez que estuviere conociendo del sumario en 1 de Enero pr'ximo har4 comparecer 4 su presencia 6 todos los procesados, acompafiados de sus defensores.
Si aun no los tuvieran, se les nombrar. de oficio para la comparecencia.
Esta so har4 constar en la causa por iedio de acta.
ART. 40. Los Jueces de primera instancia se considorardn desde luego como Jueces instructores en ]as causas que so ajusten al nuevo procedimiento.
ART. 5". Desdo que ceson en sus cargos los actuales Promotores, desempefiar~n las funciones del Ministerio pfblico duranto la primera instancia en las causas que se sigan sustanciando, con arreglo al procediiento vigente en ]a actualidad, los Fiscales municipales que sean Letrados, y 4 falta de 4stos, los que designen los Fiscales de las respectivas Audiencias.
ART. 6'. Las Salas do Gobierno de las Audiencias v los nuevos rribunalos consultar~n directarnente con el Ministerio de Ultrainar para su resolucion las dudas quo puedan originarse on la aplicacion do este Real decreto.
Dado on Palacio 4 19 de Octubre de 1888.
MARIA CRISTINA.
El Ministro de Ultramar,
TRINITARIO RUIZ CAPDEP6N.

Es bastante que todos los procesados presentes opten por el nuevo procedimiento para qu 6ste se siga conforme ila regla que anotamos. Asf lo declar6 la Fiscalfa del Tribunal Supremo en la instrucci6n mim. 3 de las que acompafian A la Memoria de 15 de Septiembre de 1883, resolviendo una consulta hecha 4 la inisna sobre aplicaci6n de un precepto anlogo del Real decreto aprobando la ley de ]a Penfnsula, y lo confirm6 el mismo Tribunal en sus sentencias, entre otras varias, de 30 de Junio de 1883 y 23 de Diciembre del mismo aflo, segfin las cuales "finicamente A los procesa(los presentes en el juicio puede afectar la foruma del procedimiento y cl fallo que lo termine; y, por tanto, la ausencia y rebeldfa de otros respecto de los cuales se mantiene en suspenso, no puede redundar en perjuicio de los que, sumisos y obedientes d la iey, se ven en la apremiante necesidad de defenderse, y si 6stos oi)tan por el nuevo procediniento, compete conocer de la causa 4 la Audiencia (e lo criminal respectiva y no 4 la territorial. En otra de 12 de Agosto de 1884, se consign6 que, seguida una causa con arreglo al procedimiento antiguo, dictada sentencia en j)rimera instancia, consultada con la superioridad y repuestas las actuaciones al estado de sumario por disposici6n de la misma, si los procesados optan por el nuevo i)rocedimiento, es competente la Audiencia de lo criminal 4 quien corresponda, y no los Tribunales anteriores 4 la creaci6n de dichas Audiencias.






accordance with the provisions of the new law, if every one of the accused in each cause should choose the new procedure.1
For this purpose the judge who may be taking cognizance of the preliminary proceedings on the first day of January next shall order all the accused to appear before him, together with their counsel.
Should they not have counsel as yet, they shall be assigned to them at the motion of the court for the appearance.
This appearance shall be duly entered upon the record of the cause.
ART. 4. Judges of First Instance shall at once be considered as examining judges in the causes which are prosecuted in accordance with the new procedure.
ART. 5. As soon as the actual promotores cease in the discharge of their duties, the functions of the Department of public prosecution in causes which are being heard in accordance with the procedure in force at the present time shall be discharged by the municipal ftscales who may be attorneys, and, in their absence, by those whom thefiscales of the respective audiencias may designate.
ART. 6. The Administration Chambers of the Audiencias and the new Tribunals shall submit directly to the Colonial Department for its decision any doubts which may arise in the application of this Royal Decree.
Given in the Palace on October 19, 1888.
MARIA CRISTINA.
TRINITARIO RUIZ CAPDEP6N,
Coloni'al ffinister.

1 It is sufficient that all the accused present select the new procedure for it to be adopted in accordance with the rule we annotate. This was declared by the office of the Fiscal of the Supreme Court in instruction number 3, of those attached to the Memorial of September 15, 1883, deciding a question submitted to the same as to the application of a similar precept of the Royal Decree approving the law of the Peninsula, and the said Court confirmed it in its decisions, among which may be mentioned those of June 30 and December 23, 1883, according to which "only the accused present at the trial can be affected by the form of the procedure and the sentence closing it; and, therefore, the absence and default of the others with regard to whom it is suspended can not redound to the prejudice of those who, submissive and obedient to the law, find themselves in urgent necessity of defending themselves, and if the latter choose the new procedure the proper criminal audiencia is of competent jurisdiction, and not the territorial audiencia." In another decision, of August 12, 1884, it was stated that a cause having been prosecuted in accordance with the former procedure, a sentence rendered in first instance, a consultation being had with the higher court and the proceedings having been returned to the court of primary jurisdiction by order of the same, if the accused then choose the new procedure, the proper criminal audiencia is of competent jurisdiction, and not the Tribunals which existed prior to the creation of said audiencias.
18473-01-3













LEY DE ENJUICIAMIENTO CRIMINAL.



LIBRO PRIMERO.

DISPOSICIONES GENERALES.

TfrULO PRIMEIIO.
PRELIMINARES.
CAPITULO PRIMEO.

REGLAS GENERALES.
ARTfCULO 10. No se impondr4 pena alguma por consecuencia de actos punibles cuya reprensi6n incumba i la jurisdicci6n ordinaria, sino de conformidad con las disposiciones de la presente ley 6 de otras especiales, y en virtud de sentencia dictada por juez competente.'

ART. 20. Todas las autoridades y funcionarios que intervengan en el procedimiento penal cuidarn, dentro de los limites de sit respectiva competencia, do consignar y apreciar las circunstancias asi adversas como favorables al presunto roo, y estar~n obligados,ii falta de disposici6n expresa, a instruir A 6ste de sus derechos y de los recursos que pueda ejercitar mientras no se hallare asistido de defensor.

1 Extrafdo de Portugal el espafiol Joaquin Cupido y condenado d la pena de muerte, interpuso recurso de casaci6n por suponer infringido el art. V' del convenio de extradici6n celebrado entre Espafia y Portugal en 6 de Diciembre de 1875, segdn el cual los criminales A quienes corresponda la pena de muerte, s6lo senin entrega(los :1 condicion de que se les conmute dicho castigo. El T. S. declara no haber lugar al recurso:
"Considerando que A los Tribunales no corresponde conmutar las penas, porque ]a conmutaci6n supone la imposicidn previa de aquella que se ha de conniutar, y ]a facultad de elegir libremente la que se ha de imponer ein cambio, propia y exclusiva de la prerrogativa regia, siendo por tanto s6lo compotencia de la administracid,, de justicia aplicar la ley penal, sin que infrinja, aplicandola a reos extrafdos de Portugal por delito A que sefiale el C6digo la pena de muerte, el art. 10 del tratado de extradici6n vigente con el Gobierno portuguds, precepto cuya observancia procedera, conforme al pacto internacional, despu~s de impuesta en fallo definitivo la referida pena."-Sala 2a., Sent. 15 Abrt, 1884. Gac. 28 Septiembre, p. 158.






V


LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE.



1300K FIRST.

GENERAL PROVISIONS.

TITLE FIRST.

PRELIMINARIES.

CHAPTER FIRST.

GENERAL RULES.

ARTICLE 1. No penalty whatsoever shall be inflicted as a consequence of punishable acts the punishment of which pertains to the ordinary jurisdiction, except in accordance with the provisions of this and other special laws, and by virtue of a sentence pronounced by a judge of competent jurisdiction.'
ART. 2. All authorities and officials taking part in a criminal proceeding shall seek, within the limits of their respective jurisdictions, to record and consider all circumstances for and against the presumed criminal, and shall be obliged, in the absence of an express provision, to inform the latter of his rights and of the remedies he may employ, while without the services of counsel.

' A Spaniard by the name of Joaquin Cupido having been extradited from Portugal and sentenced to death, interposed an appeal for annuhnent of judgment on the ground of the violation of article 1 of the extradition convention celebrated between Spain and Portugal on December 6, 1875, according to which criminals subject to the penalty of death shall be turned over only on condition that said punishment be commuted. The supreme court declares that the appeal does not lie:
"Considering that it does not lie within the power of courts to commute sentences, because a commutation supposes the previous imposition of the sentence to be commuted, and the power to freely select that which is to be imposed in lieu thereof, which is properly and exclusively a royal prerogative, it being within the jurisdiction of the administration of justice only to apply the penal law, without violating, in applying the same to criminals extradited from Portugal for a crime to which the code affixes the penalty of death, article 1 of the extradition treaty in force with the Portuguese Government, a precept, the observance of which will be proper, in accordance with the international agreement, after the said punishment has been imposed by a definite sentence."-Second Chamber. Decision of April15, 1884. Gaceta of September 28, page 158.







CAPITJLO II.
CUESTIONES PREJUDICIALES.
ART. 30. Por regla general, la competencia de los Tribunales encargados de la justicia penal so extiende 6 resolver, para s6lo el efecto de la represi6n, las cuestiones civiles y administrativas prejudiciales propuestas con motivo do los hechos perseguidos, cuando tales cuestiones aparezean tan intimamente ligadas al hecho punible que sea racionalmente imposible su separaci6n.
ART. 40. Sin embargo, si la cuesti6n prejudicial fuese determinante de la culpabilidad 6 de la inocencia, el Tribunal de lo criminal suspendcra el procedimiento hasta la resoluci6n de aquella por quien coresponda; pero puede fijar un plazo, que no exceda de dos meses, para que las partes acudan al juez 6 Tribunal civil 6 contencioso-administrativo competente.'
Pasado el plazo sin quo el interesado acredite baberlo utilizado, el Tribunal do lo criminal alzar6 la suspensi6n y continuar6 el procedimiento.
En estos juicios ser6 parte el Ministerio fiscal.
ART. 50. No obstante lo dispuesto en los dos articulos anteriores, las cuestiones civiles prejudiciales referentes a la validez de un matrimonio 6 'a la supresi6n de estado civil, so deferiran siempre al juez 6 Tribunal que deba entender de las mismas, y su decisi6n servir6 de base 6 la del Tribunal do lo criminal.

ART. 60. Si la cuesti6n civil prejudicial se refiere al derecho do propiedad sobre un im iebleo 6 i otro derecho real, el Tribunal de lo criminal podr6 resolver acerca de ella cuando tales derechos aparezcan fundados en un titulo autentico 6 en actos indubitados do posesi6n.'
AUT. 7�. El Tribunal do lo criminal se atemperar6 respectivamente ' las reglas del Derecho civil 6 administrativo en las cuestiones prejudiciales que, con arreglo 6 los articulos anteriores, deba resolver.


No son susceptibles de recurso de casaci6n:
(a) El auto que suspende temporaimente el procedimiento contra un acusado (4 Diciembre, 1879).
(b) Los autos sobre procedencia de las cuestiones prejudiciales i' que se refiere el art. 40 de la ley, por no estar coiprendidos en el 850 (16 Abril y 5 Junio, 1888).

(c) El auto de sobreseimiento provisional (9 Abril de 1887).
1 Los arts. 40, 50, y 60, son excepci6n de los 111 y 114, que por regla general prohiben el ejercicio aislado de toda acci6n civil, derivado del delito, mientras no se resuelva la penal A que el hecho reputado punible haya dado origen.








CHAPTER II.
PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS.
ART. 3. As a general rule, the jurisdiction of courts charged with penal justice extends to the decision, for the purposes of reprehension only, of the preliminary civil and administrative questions arising in connection with the acts prosecuted, when such questions appear to be so intimately connected with the punishable act that their separation is practically impossible.
ART. 4. Nevertheless, if the preliminary question be one involving a determination of guilt or innocence, the criminal court shall suspend the proceedings until the decision thereof by the proper person; but it may fix a period not to exceed two months, within which the parties may apply to the civil or administrative judge or court of competent jurisdiction.'
If said period shall expire without the person interested proving that he has availed himself thereof, the criminal court shall raise the suspension and continue the proceedings.
The prosecuting official shall be a party to these proceedings.
ART. 5. Notwithstanding the provisions contained in the two preceding articles, civil preliminary questions relating to the validity of a marriage or to the suppression of the civil status shall always be transmitted to the judge or court which is to take cognizance of the same, and his decision shall serve as a basis for that of the criminal court.
ART. 6. If the civil preliminary question shall relate to the right of ownership of real property or of another property right, the criminal court may decide thereon when such rights appear to be based on an authentic title or indubitable acts of possession.'
ART. 7. The criminal court shall conform to the rules of civil or administrative law, respectively, in the preliminary questions which it may be required to decide, in accordance with the preceding articles.

'The following can not be appealed from for annulmentof judgment:
(a) The decree temporarily suspending the proceedings against an accused person. (December 4, 1879.)
(b) Rulings as to the legality of the preliminary questions referred to in article 4 of the law, on account of not being included in article 850. (April 16 and June 5, 1888.)
(c) A decree temporarily suspending the proceedings. (April 9, 1887.)
2Articles 4, 5, and 6 are exceptions to articles 111 and 114, which, as a general rule, prohibit the separate institution of any civil action derived from the crime until the penal action has been decided which arose from the alleged punishable act.

















TfTULO II.


DE LA COMPETENCIA DE LOS JUECES Y TRIBUNALES EN LO CRIMINAL.

CAPiTULO PRIMERO.

DE LAS REGLAS POR DONDE SE DETERMINA LA COMPETENCIA.

ART. 8. La jurisdicci6n criminal es siempre improrrogable.'
ART. 9. Los jueces y tribunales que tengan competencia para conocer de una causa determinada, la tendrdn tambien para todas sus incidencias, parla ]levar 6 efecto las providencias de tramitaci6n y para la ejecuci6n de las sentencias.'
ART. 10. Correspondera. ' la jurisdicci6n ordinaria el conocimiento de las causas y juicios criminales, con excepci6n de los casos reservados por las leyes al Senado, 6t los Tribunales de Guerra y Marina y ' las autoridades administrativas 6 de poliefa.'
ART. 11. El conocimiento de las causas por delitos en que aparezcan i la vez culpables personas sujetas ' la jurisdicci6n ordinaria y otras aforadas corresponder'i '� la ordinaria, salvo las excepciones consignadas expresamente en las leyes respecto 'a la competencia de otra jurisdicci6n.4
ART. 12. Sin embargo de lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, la jurisdicci6n ordinaria ser6 siempre competente para prevenir las causas por delitos que cometan los aforados.
1 Lldmase prorrogada la jurisdicci6n que siendo incompetente se hace competente por voluntad de los litigantes, segdin la ley 32, tit. 20., Partida 31., y la 71., tit. 29, libro 11 de la Novisima Recopilacion.
En lo criminal estd prohibida la prorrogaci6n de la jurisdicci6n, de donde resulta que s6lo el juez competente con arreglo 6 las prescripciones de esta ley puede entender en la persecuci6n de los delitos y faltas que se cometan. 2Segdn declar6 el Tribunal Supremo en sentencia de 24 de noviembre de 1863, en la ejecuci6n de sentencias se comprende la exacci6n de costas impuestas en la causa, que son una pena accesoria de la principal.
3 Corresponde al Senado hacer efectiva la responsabilidad de los Ministros, los cuales serdn acusados por el Congreso, segthn dispone el art. 45 de la Constituci6n vigente.
Sobre competencia de la jurisdicci6n de guerra, v(anse los articulos 10 6 17 de la ley de Enjuiciamiento militar de 29 de septiembre de 18S6. Los arts. 21 y 22 de la misma ley enumeran los casos en que los militares quedan sujetos A la jurisdicci6n ordinaria.
4V6anse los arts. 15 y 16 de la citada ley de Enjuiciamiento militar.















TITLE 11.


JURISDICTION OF JUDGES AND COURTS IN CRIMINAL MATTERS.

CHAPTER FIRST.

RULES FOR DETERMINING JURISDICTION.

ART. 8. Criminal jurisdiction is never susceptible of prorogation.1 ART. 9. Judges and courts having jurisdiction of a specific cause shall also have jurisdiction of all its issues, to carry out decrees and enforce the execution of sentences.2
ART. 10. The cognizance of criminal trials and actions pertains to the ordinary jurisdiction, excepting such cases as are reserved by law to the Senate, to the army and navy tribunals, and to the administrative or police authorities.'
ART. 11. The ordinary jurisdiction shall take cognizance .of criminal causes in which persons subject to the ordinary as well as to other special jurisdictions appear guilty, with the exceptions expressly mentioned in the laws with regard to the competency of another jurisdiction.'
ART. 12. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article, the ordinary jurisdiction shall always be competent to take the preliminary steps in causes involving crimes committed by persons subject to special laws.

'Prorogation of jurisdiction is that jurisdiction which is by the consent of the parties conferred on a judge otherwise incompetent, according to law 32, title 2, partida 3, and law 7, title 29, book 11 of the Novisima Recopilaci6n. (Bell's Dic., 7th ed., p. 868.)
Prorogation of jurisdiction is prohibited in criminal matters, so that only the judge competent in accordance with the provisions of this law may take cognizance of crimes and misdemeanors which may be committed.
2 As the supreme court declared in a decision of November 24, 1863, the execution of a sentence includes the exaction of the costs taxed in a cause, which are a penalty accessory to the principal one.
3 The Senate has jurisdiction to enforce the liability of members of the cabinet who shall be accused by the Congress, in pursuance of the provisions of article 45 of the Constitution in force.
With regard to the competency of the army jurisdiction, see articles 10 to 17 of the law of military procedure of September 29, 1886. Articles 21 and 22 of the said law mention the cases in which soldiers are subject to the ordinary jurisdiction.
I See articles 15 and 16 of the aforementioned law of military procedure.







Esta competencia se limitar4 4 instruir las primeras diligencias, concluidas las cuales, la jurisdicci6n ordinaria remitir4 las actuaciones al juez 6 tribunal quc deba conocer de la causa con arreglo 4 las leyes, y pondr4 4 su disposici6n 4 los detenidos y los efectos ocupados.

La jurisdicci6n ordinaria cesara4 en las primeras diligencias tan luego como conste que la especial competente instruye causa sobre el mismo delito.
Los autos do inhibici6n de esta clase que pronuncien los jueces instructores do la jurisdicci6n ordinaria son apelables ante la respectiva audiencia.
Entre tanto que so sustancie y decide el recurso de apelaci6n, se cumplira4 lo dispuesto en el art. 22, p4rrafo segundo, i4 cuyo efecto y para la sustanciaci6n del recurso so remitird el correspondiente testimonio.'

ART. 13. Consideranse como primeras diligencias: las de dar protecci6n 4 los perjudicados, consignar las pruebas del delito quo puedan desaparecer, recoger y poner en custodia cuanto conduzca 4 su comprobaci6n y 4 la identificaci6n del delincuente, y detener on su caso a los reos presuntos.
ART. 14. Fuera de los casos reservados al Senado, y de aquellos quo expresa y limitativamente atribuye la ley al Tribunal Supremo, 4 las audiencias territoriales, 4 las jurisdicciones de Guerra y Marina y 4 las autoridades administrativas 6 do policia, serdn competentes por regla general:
10. Para los juicios de faltas, los jueces municipales del t6rmino en quo se hayan cometido.
20. Para la instrucci6n de las causas, los jueces instructores del partido on que el delito so haya cometido.
3'. Para conocer do la causa y del juicio respectivo, la audiencia de lo criminal de la circunscripci6n en donde el delito se haya cometido.'
1 Sobre apelaci6n por el fiscal de los autos de inhibici6n, vase la nota al art. 25.
El Tribunal Supremo tiene declarado, en sentencia de 11 de febrero de 1880, que el hecho de haber comenzado un Juez {t conocer de una causa y reclamado su jurisdicci6n, no es bastante para atribuir competencia; y en otra de 5 de agosto de 1886, que la jurisdicci6n ordinaria es competente para instruir diligencias sobre suicidio de de un soldado.
2De las causas contra juoces municipales y jueces de instrucci6n 6 de primera instancia y de las promovidas contra consejales de ayuntaiiento y autoridades administrativas de poblaciones donde no hubiera audiencia 6 no sean capitales de provincia, 4dcberdn conocer las audiencias de lo criminal 6 las salas respectivas de las territoriales?
La fiscalfa del Tribunal Supremo resuelve la duda en favor de las audiencias de lo criminal de la circunscripci6n en que se haya comnetido el delito, primero en la 69 de las instrucciones quo acompafiaron d la Memoria de 15 de septiembre de 1883, y despus en la circular de 18 de Agosto de 1884.
Do conformidad con la opini6n de la fiscalfa, el Tribunal Supremo ha establecido







This jurisdiction shall be confined to the first steps, upon the conclusion of which the ordinary jurisdiction shall transmit the proceedings to the judge or court which is to take cognizance of the cause in accordance to law, and shall place the persons detained and the effects seized at the disposal of the same.
The ordinary jurisdiction shall discontinue the first steps as soon as it becomes evident that the proper special jurisdiction has instituted proceedings on the same crime.
Decrees of inhibition of this character issuing from examining judges of the ordinary jurisdiction may be appealed from to the proper audiencia.
Until the appeal is heard and decided the provisions of the second paragraph of article 22 shall apply, for which purpose, as well as for the hearing and determination of the appeal, the proper transcript shall be forwarded.1
ART. 13. The following are considered first steps: Those taken to protect the injured parties, record the evidence of the crime which may disappear, collect and place under custody all that may conduce to the proof thereof and to the identification of the delinquent, and, in a proper case, arrest the presumed criminals.
ART. 14. With the exception of the cases reserved to the Senate, and of those which are expressly and specially assigned by law to the supreme court, to the territorial audiencias, to the army and navy tribunals, and to the administrative or police authorities, the following shall have jurisdiction as a general rule:
1. Of actions for misdemeanors, the municipal judges of the district in which committed.
2. To investigate the causes, the examining judges of the judicial district in which the crime was committed.
3. To take cognizance of the cause and the respective trial, the criminal audiencia of the circuit where the crime was committed.' 1With regard to appeals by the prosecuting official from decrees of inhibition, see note to article 25.
The supreme court declared in a decision of February 11, 1880, that the fact of a judge having begun to act in a cause and claimed jurisdiction thereof is not sufficient to grant jurisdiction; and in another, of August 5, 1886, that the ordinary jurisdiction is competent to institute proceedings relating to the suicide of a soldier.
2 Do criminal audiencias or the respective chambers of the territorial audiencias have jurisdiction of causes instituted against municipal, examining, or judges of first instance, as well as against members of Ayuntamientos and administrative authorities of towns where there is no audiencia, or which are not the capital of a province?
The Fiscalia of the supreme court decides the doubt in favor of the criminal andiencias of the circuit where the crime was committed, first in the 69th instruction which accompanies the memorial of September 15, 1883, and subsequently in the circular of August 18, 1884.
In accordance with the opinion of the fiscalia, the supreme court ruled in its







ART. 15. Cuando no conste el lugar en que so haya cometido una falta 6 delito, ser~n jueces y tribunales competentes on su caso para conocer de la causa 6 juicio:
10. El del tgrmino municipal, partido 6 circunscripcion en que se hayan descubierto pruebas materiales del delito.
20. El del tgrmino municipal, partido 6 circunscripci6n en que el presunto reo haya sido aprehendido.
30. El de la residencia del reo presunto.
40. Cualquiera que hubiese tenido noticia del delito.
Si so suscitase competencia entre estos jueces 6 tribunales, se decidirai dando la preferencia por el orden con que estn expresados en los nu'meros que preceden.
Tan luego como conste el lugar en que se hubiese cometido el delto, se remitirn las diligencias al juez 6 tribunal A cuya demarcaci6n corresponda, poniendo 6 su disposici'n 6 los detenidos y efectos ocupados.
ART. 16. La jurisdicci'n ordinaria sera' la competente para juzgar a los reos de delitos conexos, siempre que alguno est6 sujeto a ella, aun cuando los demis sean aforados.
Lo dispuesto en el p6rrafo anterior se entiende sin perjuicio de las excepciones expresamente consignadas en este C'digo 6 en leyes especiales, y singularmente en las leyes ponales do Guerra y Marina respecto a' determinados delitos.
ART. 17. Consid6ranse delitos conexos:
10. Los cometidos simult6neamente por dos 6 mds personas reunidas, siempre que 4stas vengan sujetas 6 diversos jueces 6 tribunales ordinarios 6 especiales, 6 que puedan estarlo por la indole del delito.
20. Los cometidos por dos 6 mis personas en distintos lugares 6 tiempos si hubiese precedido concierto para ello.
30. Los cometidos como medio para perpetrar otros, 6 facilitar su ejecueion.
40. Los cometidos para procurar la impunidad de otros delitos.
5'. Los diversos delitos que se imputen 6 un procesado al incoarse contra el mismo causa por cualquiera de ellos, si tuvieren analogia 6 en sentencia del 10 de marzo de 1885, que ]a salas de las audiencias territoriales, en cuanto 6 los delitos de los jueces de instrucci6nse refiere, s6lo son competentes para conocer de los cometidos dentro del territorio 6 demarcaci6n que les est6 asignado, siendole exclusivamente las nuevas audiencias para perseguir y castigar los que Iiayan tenido lugar dentro de las suyas respectivas (sentencia de 23 de febrero (le 1885), y que segdn el Tribunal Supremo tiene declarado en reiteradas decisions, de una manera explicita y terminante, es de la exclusiva competencia de las audiencias de lo criminal el conocimento de los delitos cometidos por los jueces de instrucci6n de su circunscripci6n respectiva.
Los mismos tribunales son los competentes para conocer de las causas contra jueces y fiscales municipales.







ART. 15. When the place where a misdemeanor or crime has been committed is not known, the following judges and courts shall have jurisdiction, in a proper case, of the cause or trial:
1. That of the municipal or judicial district or circuit where material proofs of the crime have been found.
2. That of the municipal or judicial district or circuit in which the presumed criminal may have been apprehended.
3. That of the place of residence of the presumed criminal.
4. Any judge or court receiving notice of the crime.
If a question of jurisdiction shall arise between these judges or courts the decision rendered shall give the preference in the order mentioned in the preceding numbers.
As soon as the place where the crime was committed is known, the proceedings shall be forwarded to the judge or court within whose district such place is situated, the persons arrested as well as the effects seized being held subject to orders of the same.
ART. 16. The ordinary jurisdiction shall be competent to judge persons guilty of connected crimes, provided that one of them is subject thereto, even if the others should be subject to special jurisdictions.
The provisions contained in the foregoing paragraph shall be understood without prejudice to the exceptions expressly mentioned in this code or in special laws, and particularly in the war and navy criminal laws with regard to specific crimes.
AiiT. 17. The following are considered connected crimes:
1. Those committed simultaneously by two or more persons together, provided that they are subject to the jurisdiction of different ordinary or special judges or courts, or who might be so on account of the nature of the crime.
2. Those committed by two or more persons at different places or times, if there shall have been a previous agreement between them.
3. Those committed as a means to perpetrate others or to facilitate their execution.
4. Those committed to secure immunity from other crimes.
5. The different crimes charged against an accused person upon the institution against him of an action for any of them, should there be

decision of March 19, 1885, that the chambers of the territorial audiencias, in so far as crimes eommitted by examining judges are concerned, have jurisdiction only of those committed within the district assigned them, and that the new audiencias are exclusively competent to prosecute and punish those which may have taken place within their respective district (decision of February 23, 1885), and that, as the supreme court has repeatedly declared in an explicit and final manner, the jurisdiction of crimes committed by examining judges of their respective circuits pertains to criminal audiencias exclusively.

The said courts have jurisdiction of causes against municipal judges and prosecuting officials.







relaci'n entre si ' juicio del tribunal y no hubiesen sido hasta entonces objeto de procedimiento.
ART. 18. Son jueces y tribunales competentes, por su orden, para conocer de las causas por delitos conexos:
10. El del territorio en que se haya cometido el delito 6 que est6 sefialada pena mayor.
20. El que primero comenzare la causa en el caso de que 6 los delitos est4 sefialada igual pena.
30. El que la audiencia de lo criminal 6 el Tribunal Supremo en sus respectivos casos designen, cuando las causas hubieren empezado al mismo tiempo, 6 no conste cull comenz6 primero.

CAPITULO II.
DE LAS CUESTIONES DE COMPETENCIA ENTRE LOS JUECES Y TRIBUNALES ORDINARIOS. I
ART. 19. Podrdn promover y sostener competencia:
1'. Los jueces municipales en cualquier estado del juicio, y las partes desde la citacion hasta el acto de la comparecencia.
20. Los jueces de instrucci'n durante el sumario.
30. Las audiencias de lo criminal durante la sustanciaci6n del juicio.
40. El ministerio fiscal en cualquier estado de ]a causa.'
50. El acusador particular antes de formular su primera petici6n despus de personado en la causa.
60. El procesado y la parte civil, ya figure como actora, y aparezca como responsable, dentro de los tres dias siguientes al en que se les comunique la causa para calificaci6n.
ART. 20. Son superiores jerdrquicos para resolver sobre las cuestiones de competencia, en la forma que determinardn los articulos siguientes:
10. De los jueces municipales del mismo partido, el de instrucci6n.
20. De los jueces de instrucci6n de una misma circunscripci6n, la audiencia de lo criminal.
30. De las audiencias de lo criminal del mismo territorio, la audiencia territorial en pleno.
40. De las audiencias territoriales, 6 cuando la competencia sea entre una audiencia de lo criminal y la sala de lo criminal de una territorial, el Tribunal Supremo.
1 Las reglas que se fijan en este capftulo para sustanciar competencias, no se aplican cuando los conflictos se suscitan en causas seguidas contra reos de flagrante delito; en esos casos se abrevia la contienda tramitndose y decididndose por el procedimiento especial del art. 782.
I Derecho del ministerio fiscal para promover la competencia en cualquier estado de la causa. Este derecho entrafia la facultad de ejercitar la inhibitoria 6 la declinatoria sin limitaci6n alguna; y si entabla la primera despu6s de terminado el sumario y de abierto el juicio oral, no puede tener aplicaci6n el procedimiento marcado en el art. 23 (26 de diciembre de 1885. Gac. de 9 de muyo 1886).




22

analogy or relation between them, in the judgment of the court, and should they not have been the subject of proceedings to that time.
ART. 18. The following, in their order, are judges and courts which have jurisdiction of causes involving connected crimes:
1. That of the territory where the crime was committed to which a higher penalty is affixed.
2. The one first beginning proceedings, if equal penalties are affixed to the crime.
3. The one designated by the criminal audiencia or by the supreme court in their respective cases, when the causes were begun at the same time, or when it does not appear which was begun first.

CHAPTER II.
QUESTIONS OF JURISDICTION BETWEEN ORDINARY JUDGES AND COURTS.1

ART. 19. Questions of jurisdiction may be raised and sustained by1. Municipal judges at any stage of the action, and by the parties between the citation and the hearing.
2. Judges of examination, during the sumario.
3. Criminal audiencias during the hearing of the trial.
4. The public prosecutor at any stage of the cause.2
5. The private accuser, before filing his first plea, after having entered an appearance in the cause.
6. The accused and the civil party, whether appearing as plaintiff or defendant, within three days after the cause has been transmitted to them for classification.
ART. 20. The following are hierarchical superiors for the decision of questions of jurisdiction, in the manner prescribed by the following articles:
1. Of municipal judges of the same judicial district, the judge of examination.
2. Of judges of examination of the same circuit, the criminal audiencia.
3. Of criminal audiencias of the same territory, the territorial audiencia in bane.
4. Of territorial audiencias, or when the question of jurisdiction is between a criminal audiencia and the criminal chamber of a territorial audiencia, the supreme court.
The rules prescribed in this chapter for the hearing and determination of questions of jurisdiction, are not applicable when raised in causes against those guilty of flagrant crimes; in such cases the contest is curtailed, being heard and determined in accordance with the special procedure of article 782.
2 Right of the public prosecutor to raise a question of jurisdiction at any stage of the cause.-This right includes the power to interpose an inhibitory or declinatory plea without any limitation whatsoever; and if he interposes the former plea between the conclusion of the sumario and the beginning of the oral trial, the procedure mentioned in article 23 can not apply. December 26, 1885. (Gaceta of May 9, 1886.)






Cuando cualquiera de los jueces 6 tribunales mencionados en los nfimeros 10, 20 y 3', no tengan superior inmediato comfin, decidir6 la competencia el que lo sea en el orden jer~rquico, y 'a falta de 6ste el Tribunal Supremo.1
ART. 21. El Tribunal Supremo no podra' formar ni promover competencias y ninguin juez, tribunal 6 parte podrii promoverlas contra 41.

Cuando alguin juez' 6 tribunal viniere entendiendo en asunto cuyo conocimiento estuviere reservado al Tribunal Supremo, ordenar4 6ste 6 aqu6l de oficio, ' excitaci6n del ministerio fiscal 6 A solicitud de parte, que se abstenga de todo procedimiento y remita los antecedentes, en el t'rmino de segundo dia, para en su vista resolver.
El Tribunal Supremo podrA sin embargo autorizar, en la misma orden y entre tanto que resuelve la conipetencia, la continuaci6n de aquellas diligencias cuya urgencia 6 necesidad fueren manifiestas.
Contra la decision del Tribunal Supremo no se da recurso alguno.
ART. 22. Cuando dos 6 mas jueces de instrucci6n se reputen competentes para actuar en un asunto, si A la primera comunicaci6n no se pusieren de acuerdo sobre la competencia, darain cuenta con remisi6n de testimonio al superior competente, y 6ste en su vista decidir i de plano y sin ulterior recurso cuil de los jueces instructores debe actuar.

Mientras no recaiga decisi6n, cada uno de los jueces instructores seguird practicando las diligencias necesarias para comprobar el delito, y aquellas otras que considere de reconocida urgencia.3
Dirimido el conflicto por el superior 6 quien competa, el juez de instruccin que deje de actuar remitir6 las diligencias practicadas y los objetos recogidos al declarado competente dentro de segundo dia, d contar desde el en que reciba ]a orden superior para que deje de conocer.
ICorresponde al Tribunal Supremo la decisi6n de la competencia suscitada entre dos juzgados enclavados en distrito de la inisma audiencia territorial, pero perteneciente uno de ellos a eircunscripci6n de audiencia de lo criminal. Flindase esta doetrina en que "formando parte del pleno de la audiencia territorial la sala de lo criminal, vendria d ser juez y parte" si dicha audiencia territorial decidiese el conflicto. (Sala 3, sent. de junio 28 de 1888. Gac. 30 id.)
2 Este precepto, aplicable d las competencias negativas por virtud del Art. 46, no permite que se remitan al superior las diligencias originales, pues entonces no pueden seguir practic~ndose las necesarias para comprobar el delito y sus circunstancias. (Sentencia de septiembre 20 de 1886.) Pero si, esto no obstante, renliten las aetuaciones originales, tal irregularidad no debe producir la declaraci6n de estar nal formada la competencia. (Julid 17 de 1884).

1 Desde que un juzgado tiene conocimiento de que otro ha prevenido causa sobre el mismo hecho de que aqu~l conoce, debe abstenerse de dictar resoluci6n definitiva antes de promover ]a inhibitoria, y de no hacerlo asf la que recaiga no puede ser obstdculo para decidir la competencia. (Sala 3, sentencia de 29 de Abril de 1878.)






When any of the judges or courts mentioned in numbers 1, 2, and 3 shall have no immediate common superior, the question of jurisdiction shall be decided by the hierarchical superior, and in the absence of the latter, by the supreme court.'
AIT. 21. The supreme court can not institute or raise a question of jurisdiction, nor can any judge, court, or party question its jurisdiction.
If any judge or court shall take cognizance of a question, jurisdiction of which is reserved to the supreme court, the latter shall order the former, ex offilo, on motion of the public prosecutor or of a party, that it discontinue further proceedings and forward the same, on or before the second day, for the proper decision.
The supreme court may nevertheless authorize in the same order, until the question of jurisdiction is settled, the continuation of such proceedings the urgency or necessity of which is apparent.
There shall be no remedy against the decision of the supreme court.
ART. 22. When two or more examining judges consider themselves as having jurisdiction of a matter, if upon the first communication they should not agree as to the jurisdiction, they shall make a report to the proper superior, forwarding a transcript,' and the latter shall decide eo instanti, in view thereof and without further remedy, which of the examining judges shall have jurisdiction.
Until a decision is rendered, each of the examining judges shall continue the proceedings necessary to prove the crime and any other proceedings which he may consider of recognized urgency.'
After the conflict has been decided by the proper superior, the judge of examination who discontinued proceedings shall forward the proceedings had, and the objects gathered, to the judge declared competent, within two days after receiving the superior order to cease taking cognizance thereof.
IThe decision of a question of jurisdiction between two courts situated within the district of the same territorial aadiencia, but one of them belonging to the circuit of a criminal audiencia, pertains to the supreme court. The basis for this doctrine is that "as the criminal chamber of a territorial andiencia forms part of the audiencia in banc, it would become a judge and party" if said territorial audiencia should decide the conflict. (Third Chamber, decision of June 28, 1888. Gaceta of the 30th. )
I This precept, applicable to negative questions of jurisdiction by virtue of article 46, does not permit the transmission to the superior of the original proceedings, because in such case it would be impossible to continue the necessary proceedings to prove the crime and its circumstances. (Decision of September 20, 1886.) But if, notwithstanding this, they forward the original proceedings, such irregularity does not permit of a declaration that the question of jurisdiction is not well taken. (July 17, 1884.)
'From the moment that a court has knowledge that another court has begun a cause involving the same matter of which it is taking cognizance, it must not render a definite decision before requesting an inhibition; otherwise the decision rendered will not be an obstacle to the decision of the question of jurisdiction. (Third chamber, decision of April 29, 1878. )






Art. 23. Si durante el sumario el ministerio fiscal 6 el acusador particular entendiesen que el juez instructor no tiene competencia para actuar en la causa, podrin reclainar ante el tribunal superior i quien corresponda, el cual, previos los informes que estime necesarios, resolver6 de plano y sin ulterior recurso.'
En todo caso se cumplir4 lo dispuesto en el ptirrafo segundo del articulo anterior.
ART. 24. Terminado el sumario, toda cuestion de competencia que so promueva suspenders los procedimientos hasta la decisi6n de ella.'
ART. 25. El juez 6 tribunal que se considere competente deberd promover la competencia.
Tambign acordar6 la inhibici6n 6 favor del juez 6 tribunal coipetente cuando considere que el conocimiento de la causa no le corresponde, aunque sobre ello no haya procedido reclamaci6n de los interesados ni del ministerio fiscal.
Los autos que los jueces municipales 6 de instrucci6n dicten, inhibicndose 6 favor de otro juez 6 jurisdicei6n, ser~n apelables ubservtindose en este caso lo dispuesto en el filtimo parrafo del art. 12. Contra los de las audiencias podr6 interponerse el recurso de casaci6n.'
'No es admisible, por lo tanto, el de casaci6n. Sentecias (e junio 27 y 3 y 31 de diciembre, 1884.
2 No es procedente suscitar competencia sobre conocimiento de una causa fallada ya definitivamente. (Sentencia de julio 8 de 1878.)
3 ZCuando deberd apelar el ministerio fiscal de los autos de inhibici6n A que se refiere este artfculo y el 12?
"Si el ministerio fiscal ha sido ofdo antes de dictarse los indicados autos, y su opini6n se hubiere aceptado por el juez 6 audiencia respectiva, no debe interponerse recurso alguno.
"Si el ministerio fiscal no ha tenido intervenci6n, 6 hubiera opinado en contra de la procedencia de dicho auto, entonces debe apelar del mismo, si ha sido dictado por un juez municipal 6 de instrucci6n.
" Respecto A los fallos dictados por el Tribunal colegiado, deberL interponerse el recurso de casaci6n, si hubiere motivo legal para cllo." (Nomcro 51 de la Menworia de la fiscalia del Tribunal Suprento de 15 de septiembre de 1883, y 10 de la de 15 de septiembre 1886.)
En sentencia de 14 de noviembre de 1883 declar6 el Tribunal Supremo que contra el auto de un juez inhibi6ndose del conocimiento de una causa en favor de la jurisdicci6n de guerra, no es admisible el recurso de casaci6n, pues contra tat provefdo procede el recurso ordinario de apelaci6n, segdn el art. 25 de la lcy de cnjuiciamiento criminal, 6 lo cual no obsta la disposici(n del articulo 50, porque esta disposici6n se refiere al caso de que exista 6 amenazo trabarse una w erdadera cuesti6n de coulpetencia, y no cuando un juez (1t instrucci6n espontdneamente 6 al primer requerimiento 6 petici6n que se le dirige se juzga incompetente y acuerda inhibirse, sin que por lo tanto medie todavfa scmejante cuesti6n ni haya que tramitarla, A no ser que, acogi~ndose los interesados at recurso que la ley en su citado art. 32 les facilita, acuden en apelaci6n al superior inmediato, y te determine que sostenga su jurisdicci6n y se sustancie y resuelva el asunto de la manera y por quien en el expresado titulo estA prescrito.








ART. 23. If during the sumario the public prosecutor or the private accuser shall consider that the examining judge has no jurisdiction to proceed in the cause, they may object before the proper superior court, which, after the investigation it considers necessary, shall decide eo instanti without further remedy.'
In any case the provisions of the second paragraph of the foregoing article shall be complied with.
ART. 24. Upon the conclusion of the sumario, any question of jurisdiction raised shall stay the proceedings until it is decided.2
ART. 25. The judge or court considering itself competent must raise the question.
It shall also grant the inhibition in favor of the competent judge or court when it considers that it has not jurisdiction of the cause even though the persons interested or the public prosecutor have not previously pleaded thereto.
The decrees of municipal or examining judges inhibiting themselves in favor of another judge or jurisdiction may be appealed from, ii which case the provisions of the last paragraph of article 12 shall be observed. An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from decrees of audiencias.'

I An appeal for annulment of judgment is therefore inadmissible. (Decisions of June 27 and December 3 and 31, 1884.)
I A question of jurisdiction can not be raised as to the cognizance of a cause which has already been definitely decided. (Decision of July 8, 1878.)
3 When must the public prosecutor appeal from the decrees of inhibition referred to in this article and in article 12?
"If the public prosecutor has been heard before the issue of said decrees, and his opinion should have been accepted by the respective judge or audiencia, no appeal can be taken.
"If the public prosecutor should not have had any intervention, or should have opposed the issue of said decree, he must then appeal therefrom, if it issued from a municipal or examining judge.
"With regard to the decisions of a collegiate tribunal, an appeal for annulment of judgment must be taken if there is a legal cause therefor." (No. 5 of the memorial of the staff of the public prosecutor of the supreme court of September 15, 1883, and 10 of that of September 15, 1886.)
In a decision of November 14, 1883, the supreme court declared that an appeal for annulment of judgment does not lie from a decree of a judge declining the jurisdiction of a cause in favor of the war jurisdiction, because an ordinary appeal lies therefrom according to article 25 of the law of criminal procedure, which is not affected by article 50, because the latter provision relates to a case where a true question of jurisdiction exists or is liable to arise, and not when a judge voluntarily or upon the first demand or request addressed to him deems himself incompetent and consents to his inhibition, without such a question arising and having to be decided, unless the persons interested seek the remedy of law granted them by the said article 32 and appeal to the immediate superior, and the latter determines that lie shall sustain his jurisdiction, and that the matter be heard and determined in the manner and by the persons prescribed in the said title.
18473-01-4







ART. 26. El ministerio fiscal y las partes promover~n las competencias por inhibitoria 6 por declinatoria.
El uso dc uno de estos nedios excluye absolumente el del otro, asi durante la sustanciaci6n de la competencia, como una vez que 6sta se halle terminada.
La inhibitoria so propondr' ante el juez 6 tribunal que se renute competente.


ART. 27. El juez municipal ante quien se proponga la inhibitoria, oyendo al fiscal cuando 6ste no Ia Iubiere propuesto, resolver6 en tdrmino do segundo dia si procede 6 no el requeriliento d inhibicion.

El auto denegatorio de requerimiento es apolable en ainbos efectos para ante el juez de instrucci6n respectivo.'
ART. 28. Si el juez municipal estimare quo procede el requeriniento de inhibici6n, lo mandar6 practicar por medio do oficio, en el cual consignar6 los fundamentos de su auto.
El oficio se remitiri dentro (le veinticuatro horas precisamente.
ART. 29. El juez municipal requerido do inhibici6n, oyendo al fiscal, resolvera en t6rmino do segundo dia si desiste de conocer 6 mantiene su competencia.

En el primer caso remitir6 dentro do las veintieuatro horas siguientes las diligencias practicadas al juez requirente.
Si mantiene su competencia se lo comunicar6 dentro del mismo plazo, exponiendo los fundamentos de su resoluci6n.
Au'T. 30. Recibidos los autos por cl juez requirente, declarart! sin mtis trdimites y dentro de veinticuatro horas, s4 insiste en la competencia 6 se aparta do ella.
En el primer caso lo partieipara en et mismo plazo al juez requerido para quo remita las diligencias al juez 6 tribunal quo deba resolver ha competencia, 6i tenor de lo dispuesto en el artieulo 20, haciendo 61 la remisi6n do las suyas dentro de las veinticiatro horas siguientes.


En et segundo caso, lo participar.1 en el inismno dia at juez requerido para quo oste pueda contiinar conociendo.
'Es necesaria la firma de letrado en el escrito prolp)oiendo la inhibitoria ante los juzgados municipales? Los arts. 27 i 32 que se ocipail de las cuestiolws de competencia entre tales juzgados, no exigen ese requisito, que en cambio impone conio necesario el art. 33 para proponcr ]a inhibici6n ante los tribunales de lo criminal, en cuya frase no sabernos siestarin comprendidos, para el caso, los juzgados nmnicipales. Cion arreglo i la legislacion anterior, cI Tribunal Supremo tenfa resuelta la duda en el sentido de que era indispensable ]a firma le letrado en el escrito le inhibitoria, por exigirlo, sin distinci6n de casos, el art. 365 de la ley org~nica judicial. (Sentencias de septieabre 2. y mor o 5 de 1877.







ART. 26. The public prosecutor and the parties shall raise the question of jurisdiction by an inhibitory or declinatory plea.
The employment of one of these remedies absolutely excludes the employment of the other, both during the hearing of the question as well as after its decision.
The inhibitory plea shall be interposed before the judge or court considered competent.
The declinatory plea before the judge or court which considers itself as not having jurisdiction.
ART. 27. The municipal judge before whom the inhibitory plea is interposed, after hearing the public prosecutor, if interposed by another party, shall decide before the second day whether the writ of inhibition shall issue.
A decision overruling the plea may be appealed from for review and for a stay of proceedings to the proper examining judge.'
ART. 28. If the municipal judge should be of opinion that the inhibition is well taken, he shall issue a writ in which he shall state the reasons for his decree.
The writ must be transmitted within twenty-four hours.
ART. 29. The municipal judge sought to be inhibited, after receiving the opinion of the public prosecutor, shall decide before the second day whether lie abstains from proceeding in the cause or whether he defends his competency.
In the former case he shall forward the proceedings had to the inhibiting judge within the next twenty-four hours.
If he maintains his jurisdiction, he shall communicate it to him within the same period, stating the reasons for his decision.
AIT'. 30. After the record has been received by the inhibiting judge he shall declare without further proceeding and within twenty-four hours whether he insists upon his jurisdiction or abandons it.
In the former case he shall so communicate within a similar period to the judge sought to be inhibited in order that he may forward the proceedings to the judge or court which is to decide the jurisdiction, in accordance with the provisions of article 20, and the judge requesting the inhibition shall forward his within the following twenty-four hours.
In the latter case he shalt comnmunicate it the same day to the judge sought to be inhibited in order that he may continue the proceedings.
Is the signature of an attorney necessary to the inhibitory plea presented to municipal courts? Arts. 27 to 32, which relate to questions of jurisdiction between said courts, do not demand this requisite, which, on the other hand, is imposed as necessary by article 33 to interpose an inhibition before criminal courts, in which sentence we do not know whether municipal courts should be included. With regard to the prior laws the supreme court has decided the doubt to the effect that the signature of an attorney was indispensable to the inhibitory plea as it is required, without any distinction of cases, by art. 365 of the judicial organic law. (Decisions of SeptembIler 24 and March 5, 1,s8? . )







Los autos que los jueces requeridos dicten, accediendo a la inhibici6n, seran apelables para ante el respectivo juez de instrucci6n. Tambien lo serdn los que dicten los requirentes desistiendo de la inhibicion.

ART. 31. Recibidas las diligencias en el juzgado 6 tribunal Ilamado i resolver la competencia y oido cl fiscal por el t6rmino de segundo dia, la decidir6 dentro de los tres siguientes al en que el ministerio fiscal evacue el traslado.

Contra lo resuelto por el juzgado 6 audiencia proceder6 el recurso de casacion.
Contra la resoluci6n del Supremo no se da recurso alguno.

ART. 32. Cuando se proponga declinatoria ante un juez municipal, resolveri 6ste en t'rinino de segundo dia, oyendo previamente al fiscal, sobre si procede 6 no acordar la inhibici6n.

El auto en que se deniegue la inhibici6n es apelable en ambos efectos para ante el juzgado A quien corresponda resolver la competencia, el cual sustanciar6 el recurso en la forma prevenida en el pa'rrafo primero del articulo anterior.

Contra la resoluci6n del j uzgado procederi el recurso de casaci6n.

ART. 33. La inhibici6n ante los tribunales de lo criminal se propondr6 en escrito con firma de letrado.
En el escrito expresari el que la proponga que no ha empleado la declinatoria. Si resultase lo contrario, ser6 condenado en costas aunque se decida en su favor la competencia, 6 aunque la abandone en lo sucesivo.
ART. 34. El tribunal ante quien se proponga la inhibitoria oiri por tdrmino de uno 6 dos dias, seg6n el volumen de la causa, a] ministerio fiscal, cuando 6ste no la haya propuesto, asi como a las dcmis partes que figuren en la causa de que pudiera 6 la vez estar conociendo eltribunal -6 quien se haya instado para que haga el requerimiento, y en su vista, mandart! dentro de los dos dias siguientes librar oficio inhibitorio, 6 declarara no haber lugar ' ello.
ART. 35. Contra el auto en que se denieguc el requerimiento de inhibici6n s6lo habrd lugar al recurso de casaci6n.'
ART. 36. Con el oficio de inhibici6n se aconipafiara testimonio: del escrito en que se haya pedido, de lo expuesto por el ministerio fiscal

'Este artfculo se refiere A los autos en que se deniegue el requerimiento de inhibici6n por los tribunales de lo criminal y no 6 los que los jueces de primera instancia pueden dictar en asuntos de su competencia. (Sentencia de Abril 28 de 1883.) Contra la sentencia denegatoria tiel recurso de casaci6n no cabe ningdn otro. (Sentencia dejebrero 10, 1880, sala 3'.)






The decisions of the judges sought to be inhibited consenting to the inhibition may be appealed from to the respective examining judge. Those of the judges requesting the inhibition desisting therefrom may also be appealed from in the same manner.
ART. 31. After the proceedings have been received by the judge or court which is to decide the jurisdiction and after the opinion of the public prosecutor has been received within the two days following, a decision shall be rendered within three days after the prosecuting officials submit their report.
An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from the decision of the court or audiencia.
There is no remedy whatever against the decision of the Supreme Court.
ART. 32. When a declinatory plea is interposed before a municipal judge he shall render a decision thereon before the expiration of two days, after hearing the public prosecutor as to whether the plea is or is not well taken.
A decree overruling the inhibition may be appealed from for review and for a stay of proceedings to the judge to whom the decision of the jurisdiction pertains, who shall hear and determine the appeal in the manner prescribed in the first paragraph of the foregoing article.
An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from the decision of the court.
ART. 13. Inhibitory pleas before criminal courts shall be in writing and signed by an attorney.
The person interposing said plea shall state that he has not interposed a declinatory plea. Should the contrary appear the costs shall be taxed against him, even though the question of jurisdiction be decided in his favor or he should subsequently abandon it.
ART. 34 The court before which the inhibitory plea is interposed shall hear for a period of one to two days, according to the volume of the cause, the prosecuting officials, if the latter should not have interposed it, as well as the other parties appearing in the cause which the court is hearing before which the plea for inhibition has been interposed and in view thereof, it shall issue, within the next two days, a writ of inhibition, or shall overrule the plea.
ART. 35. An appeal for annulment of judgment only lies against a decree denying a writ of inhibition.'
ART. 36. Attested copies shall be attached to the writ of inhibition, of the petition requesting it, of the statements of the prosecuting officials, and of the parties, in a proper case; of the decision rendered,
'This article refers to decrees denying a writ of inhibition by criminal courts and not to those issued by judges of first instance in matters of their jurisdiction. (Decision of April 28, 1883.) No appeal lies from the decision which denies an appeal. (Decision of February 10, 1880, Third Chamber.)






y por las partes en su caso, del auto que se haya dictado y do lo demons que el tribunal estime conducente para fundar su competencia.
El testimonio se extender4 y remitird en el plazo improrrogable do uno a tres dias, segfin el volumen de la causa.

ART. 37. El tribunal requerido acusari inmediatamente recibo, y oyendo al ministerio fiscal, al acusador particular, si le hubiere, al procesado 6 procesados y ' los que figuren como parte civil, por un plazo que no podra exceder de veinticuatro horas 6 cada uno, dictar4 auto inhibiendose 6 declarando que no ha lugar 4 hacerlo.

Contra el auto en que el tribunal so inhibiere no so dard otro recurso que el de casaci6n.
ART. 38. Consentida 6 jecutoriada la sentencia en que el tribunal so hubiese inhibido, so remitir6 la causa, dentro del plazo do tres dfas, al tribunal que hubiera propuesto la inhibitoria, con emplazamiento de las partes y poniendo 6 disposici6n de aqugl los procesados, las pruebas materiales del delito y los bienes embargados.

ART. 39. Si se denegare la inhibici'n, se comunicari el auto al tribunal requirente, con testimonio de lo expuesto por el ministerio fiscal y por las partes y de todo to deinds que se crea conducente.

El testimonio se expedirA y remitira dentro de tres dias.
En el oficio de remision so exigir4 que el tribunal requirente conteste inmediatamente para continuar actuando si no insiste c la inhibici6n, 6 que en otro caso remita la causa 4 quien corresponda para que decida la competencia.

ART. 40. Recibido el oficio que expresa el articulo anterior, el tribunal que hubiere propuesto la inhibitoria dictara, sin inis tr~mites, auto en termino de segundo dia.

Contra el auto desistiendo de la inhibici'n s6lo procedera cl recurso do casaci6n.
ART. 41. Consentido 6 ejecutoriado el auto en que el tribunal desista de la inhibitoria, lo comunicar4 en el termino do veinticuatro horas al requerido de inhibici6n, romitiendole al propio tiempo todo lo actuado para su uni6n A la causa.

ART. 42. Si el tribunal requirente mantiene su competencia, lo comunicard en el termino de veinticuatro horas al requerido de inhibici6n para que remita la causa al tribunal 4 quien corresponda la resoluci6n, haciendolo 41 de lo actuado ante el mismo.






and of anything else which the court may consider proper upon which to base its jurisdiction.
The attested copy shall be prepared and forwarded with.in the unextendible period of one to three days, according to the volume of the cause.
ART. 37. The court sought to be inhibited shall at once acknowledge receipt, and after hearing the prosecuting officials, the private accuser, should there be any, the person or persons undergoing trial, and those who appear as civil parties, for a period which shall not exceed twentyfour hours for each one, shall issue a decree inhibiting himself or declaring that there is no reason for so doing.
There shall be no remedy but an appeal for annulment of judgment from decrees of a court inhibiting itself.
ART. 38. After the decision by which a court has inhibited itself has been consented to or executed, the cause shall be forwarded, within a period of three days, to the court which proposed the inhibition, with a summons of the parties and holding the accused at the disposal of the former as well as the material evidences of the crime and the goods seized.
ART. 39. If the inhibition should be refused, the decree shall be communicated to the court demanding the inhibition, with transcript of the statements of the prosecuting officials and of the parties, and of anything else which may be deemed proper.
The transcript shall be issued and transmitted within three days.
In the communication of transmittal it shall be required that the court demanding the inhibition answer immediately, in order to continue the proceedings if the inhibition be not insisted upon, or that otherwise the cause be transmitted to the proper person for a decision as to the jurisdiction.
ART. 40. After the communication mentioned in the foregoing article has been received, the court that proposed the inhibition shall render a decision before the expiration of two days, without further proceedings.
From a decree abandoning an inhibition an appeal for annulment of judgment only lies.
ART. 41. After the ruling by which the court desists from the inhibition has been consented to or executed, it shall be communicated within a period of twenty-four hours to the court sought to be inhibited, transmitting at the same time all proceedings had for attachment to the cause.
ART. '42. If the court demanding the inhibition defends its competency, it shall communicate the same within a period of twenty-four hours to the court sought to be inhibited, in order that it may transmit the record to the court which is to decide the question; and it shall do the same with its own record.






ART. 43. Las competencias se decidir6n por el tribunal dentro de los tres dias siguientes al en que el ministerio fiscal hubiese emitido dictamen, que evacuar6 en el terinino de segundo dia.

Contra estos autos, cuando procedan de las audiencias territoriales, habr6 lugar al recurso de casaci6n.
Contra los pronunciados por el Tribunal Supremo no se da recurso alguno.
ART. 44. El tribunal que resuelva la competencin podr6 condenar al pago de las costas causadas en la inhibitoria a las partes que la hubieren sostenido 6 impugnado con notoria temeridad, determinando en su caso la proporci6n en que deban pagarlas.
Cuando no hiciere especial condenaci6n de costas, se entender6n de oficio las causadas en la competencia.
En el caso de que un tribunal sin causa legitima debidamente justificada, se hubiese extralimitado en los t~rminos establecidos en el presente titulo para la sustanciaci6n y decisi6n de las competencias, ser6 corregido prudencial y disciplinariamente, seg6n la gravedad del caso.
ART. 45. Las declinatorias se sustanciar6n como articulos de previo pronunciamiento.'

CAPITULO III.

DE LAS COMPETENCIAS NEGATIVAS Y DE LAS QUE SE PROMUEVEN CON
JUECES 6 TRIBUNALES ESPECIALES, Y DE LOS RECURSOS DE QUEJA
CONTRA LAS AUTORIDADES ADMINISTRATIVAS.

ART. 46. Cuando la cuesti6n de competencia empeflada entre dos 6 m6s jueces 6 tribunales fuere negativa por rehusar todos entender en ]a causa, la decidir6 el juez 6 tribunal superior y en su caso el Supremo, siguiendo para ello los mismos tr6mites prescritos para las demos competencias.
ART. 47. En el caso de competencia negativa entre la jurisdiccion ordinaria y otra privilegiada, la ordinaria empezar6 6 continuar6 la causa.
ART. 48. Las cuestiones de jurisdicci6n promovidas por tribunales seculares contra jueces 6 tribunales eclesi6sticos se sustanciar~n y decidirdn por los tr6mites y de la manera que se establece en el titulo III del libro 1 de ]a ley de enjuiciamento civil.'
ART. 49. Cuando los jucces 6 tribunalcs eclesidsticos estimaren que les corresponde el conocimiento de una causa en que entienda un juez 6 tribunal secular, podr6n requeririlc de inhibici6n; y si no accediese

'Fijan el procedimiento para la sustanciaci6n y decisi6n de los artfculos de previo pronunciamiento, los artfculos 666 6i 679.
'Trata de los recursos de fuerza en conocer. (Arts. 125 di 152 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil vigente en las Islas de Cuba y Puerto Rico.)






ART. 43. Questions of jurisdiction shall be decided by the court within the three days following that on which the public prosecutor may have given his opinion, which he shall do within a period of two days.
An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from these decrees when issuing from territorial audiencias.
Against those of the supreme court there is no remedy whatsoever.

ART. 44. The court deciding the question of jurisdiction may tax the payment of the costs occasioned by the plea of inhibition against the parties who have defended or opposed the same with marked persistence, deciding, in a proper case, the proportion each shall pay.
If there be no special condemnation of costs made, those occasioned in deciding questions of jurisdiction shall be understood to be ex oftcio.
If a court without legal cause properly proved, shall go beyond the limits prescribed in this title for the hearing and determination of questions of jurisdiction, it shall be corrected and disciplined according to the gravity of the case.
ART. 45. Declinatory pleas shall be heard and determined in the same manner as interlocutory issues.1

CHAPTER III.
QUESTIONS OF NEGATIVE JURISDICTION AND THOSE RAISED BY SPECIAL JUDGES OR COURTS AND COMPLAINTS AGAINST ADMINISTRATIVE
AUTHORITIES.

ART. 46. If the question of jurisdiction raised between two or more judges or courts be negative by all refusing to take cognizance of the cause, the superior judge or court, or, in a proper case, the supreme court shall decide it, observing therein the procedure prescribed for other questions of jurisdiction.
ART. 47. In case of negative jurisdiction between the ordinary and a specal jurisdiction, the ordinary jurisdiction shall begin or continue the cause.
ART. 48. Questions of jurisdiction raised by secular courts against ecclesiastical judges or tribunals shall be heard and decided according to the procedure and in the manner established in Title III of Book I of the Law of Civil Procedure.2
ART. 49. When ecclesiastical judges or tribunals shall consider that they have jurisdiction of a cause of which a secular judge or courtis taking cognizance, they may interpose an inhibitory plea, and if it should be overruled they may complain to the proper court, which,
IThe procedure for the hearing and determination of interlocutory issues is fixed by articles 666 to 679.
1 This title treats of civil remedies against actions of ecclesiastical courts (Arts. 125 to 152 of the Law of Civil Proce(btre in force in Cuba and Porto Rico).




29

a ella, recurrir6n en queja al superior respectivo, que, oyendo al fiscal, resolverA, sin ulterior recurso, lo que crea procedente.
ART. 50. Las cuestiofes de competencia que se promuevan entre tribunales ordinarios y otros cualesquiera especiales, que no scan eclesi~sticos, se sustanciarin y decidirdn con arreglo At lo dispuesto en el presente titulo, correspondiendo en todo caso su resoluci6n al Tribunal Supremo deJusticia.
ART. 51. Respecto de las competencias que la administraci6n suscite contra los jueces 6 tribunales de la jurisdicci6n ordinaria, y de los recursos de queja que 6stos pueden promover contra las autoridadcs y administrativas, se estar6 6 lo que dispone la secci6n 4', titulo Ii, libro I de la ley de enjuiciamento civil.'
1Articulos 116 A 124 de la ley que se cita.





29

after hearing the public prosecutor, shall decide without further remedy what it may deem proper.
ART. 50. Questions of jurisdiction between ordinary and any special courts, not ecclesiastical, shall be heard and determined according to the provisions of this title in all cases by the supreme court.


ART. 51. Questions of jurisdiction raised by the administration against judges or courts of the ordinary jurisdiction, and the complaints which the latter may make against the administrative authorities, shall conform to the provisions of section 4, Title 1I, Book T, of the Law of Civil Procedure.'
Articles 116 to 124 of the law cited.










TfTULO 111.


DE LAS RECUSACIONES Y EXCUSAS DE LOS MAGISTRADOS, JUECES, ASESORES Y AUXILIARES DE LOS JUZGADOS Y TRIBUNALES, Y DE LA ABSTENCION DEL MINISTERIO FISCAL.
CAPiTULO I.
DISPOSICIONES GENERALES.
ART. 52. Los magistrados, jueces y asesores, cualesquiera que sean su grado 6 jeraqufa, s6lo podrin ser recusados por causa legitinia.
ART. 53. Podran finicamente recusar en los negocios criminales:

El representante del ministerio fiscal.
El acusador particular 6 los que legalmente representen sus acciones y derechos.
Los procesados.
Los responsables civilmente por delito 6 falta.
ART. 54. Son causas legitimas de recusaci6n:
10. El parentesco de consanguinidad 6 afinidad dentro del cuarto grado civil con cualquiera de los expresados en el articulo anterior.
20. El mismo parentesco dentro del segundo grado con el letrado de alguna de las partes que intervengan en la causa.
30. Estar 6 haber sido denunciado 6 acusado por alguna de estas cono autor, c6mplice 6 encubridor de un delito, 6 como autor de una falta.1
4'. Haber sido defensor de alguna de las partes, emitido dictamen sobre el proceso 6 alguna de sus incidencias como letrado, 6 intervenido en aqu6l 6 en 4stas como fiscal, perito 6 testigo.
50. Ser 6 haber sido denunciador 6 acusador privado del que recusa.

60. Ser 6 haber sido tutor 6 curador de alguno que sea parte en la causa.
70. Haber estado en tutela 5 guardadurfa de alguno de los expresados en el numero anterior.
80. Tener pleito pendiente con el recusante.
9�. Tener interns directo 6 indirecto en la causa.'
'Para que exista el motivo de recusaci6n de este nuimero, es preciso que ]a denuncia reuna los requisitos y surta los efectos necesarios para proceder, en su virtud, d la averiguaci6n de los hechos que comprende, segfin declar6 el Tribunal Supremo en sentencia de 12 de abril de 1886.
2 Para poder ser estimada la causa de recusaci6n comprendida en este nmero, es necesario que el juez tenga interCs personal y directo en la causa de que este incidente proceda. (Sentencia de 12 de abril de 1886.)











TITLE III.


CHALLENGES AND EXCUSES OF JUSTICES, JUDGES, ASSESSORS, AND ASSISTANTS OF SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR COURTS, AND THE ABSTENTION OF THE PROSECUTING OFFICIALS.
CHAPTER 1.

GENERAL PROVISIONS.

ART. 52. Justices, judges, and assessors, whatever be their grade or rank, may be challenged only for a legitimate cause.
ART. 53. In criminal matters only the following persons are permitted to challenge:
The prosecuting officials.
The private accuser or his legal representatives.

The accused.
Those civilly liable for a crime or misdemeanor.
ART. 54. Legitimate causes of challenge are:
1. Relationship by consanguinity or affinity within the fourth civil degree to any of the persons mentioned in the foregoing article.
2. The same relationship within the second degree to the attorney of any of the parties to the cause.
3. To be or have been denounced or accused by any of said parties as the principal, accomplice, or accessory to a crime or as a principal in a misdemeanor.1
4. Having been counsel for any of the parties, given a professional opinion on the case or any of its incidental issues, or having appeared in either as prosecutor, expert, or witness.
5. To be or have been the private denouncer or accuser of the challenging party.
6. To be or have been the tutor or curator of any of the parties to the cause.
7. To have been under the tutorship or guardianship of the parties mentioned in the foregoing number.
8. To have an action pending against the challenging party.
9. To have a direct or indirect interest in the cause.'
In order that there may exist a motive for the challenge in this case, it is necessary that the denunciation shall have all the requisites and produce all the effects necessary to proceed, by virtue thereof, with the proof of the acts included therein, according to a decision of the Supreme Court of April 12, 1886.
2 In order that the cause for challenge under this number may be considered, it is necessary that the judge have a personal and direct interest in the cause from which this incident arises. (Decision of April 12, 1886.)
30







10. La amistad intima.
11. La enemistad manifiesta.
12. Haber sido instructor de la causa.
ART. 55. Los magistrados y jueces comprendidos en eualquiera de los casos que expresa el articulo anterior, so inhibir~n dcl conocimiento del asunto sin esperar 6 que se les recuse. Contra esta inhibicion no habr4 recurso alguno.
De igual manera se inhibirin, sin recurso alguno, cuando al ser recusados en cualquier forma estimasen procedente la causa alegada En uno y otro caso mandardn pasar las diligencias a quien deba reemplazarles.
ART. 56. La recusacion podra proponerse en cualquier estado de la causa, pero nunca despus de comenzado el juicio oral, 6 no ser quo el motivo do la recusaci6n sobreviniere con postorioridad.

CAPITULO II.

DE LA SUSTANCIACI6N DE LAS RECUSACIONES DE LOS JUECES ])E INSTRUCcI6N Y DE LOS MAGISTRADOS.

ART. 57. La recusacion so hard en escrito firmado por letrado, por procurador y por el recusante si supiere firmar y estuviero on el lugar de la causa. El filtinio deberd ratificarso ante el juoz 6 tribunal.

Cuando el recusanto no ostuviese presente, firmardn s6lo cl letrado y el produrador. En todo caso so expresar6 en el escrito concreta v claramente la causa de la recusaci6n.
ART. 58. No obstante lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, podrnt el procesado, si estuvicre on inconunicaci6n, proponer vorbalmcnte la recusaci6n on el acto de recibirsele doclaracion, 6 podrd Ilamar al juez por conducto del alcalde do la cdrcel para rocusarlo.
En este caso deberd el juez do instrucci6n presentarse acompafiado del secrctario, quo hard constar por diligiencia la potici6n do recusaci6n y ]a causa on quo se funde.
Cuando fuese denegada la recusaci6n, se le advertirad que podrdi reproducirla una vez alzada la ineomniaci6n.
ART. 59. El auto admitiendo 6 denegando la recusaci6n serid fundado y bastari notificarlo al procurador del recusante, aunque 4ste so halle en el pueblo on que se siga la causa y haya firmado el escrito de recusaci6n.

ART. 60. Cuando el recusado no se inibiere por no considerarse comprendido on la causa alegada para la recusaci6n, se mandard formar pieza soparada.
Esta contendr6 el escrito original de recusaci6n N- cl auto denega-







10. Intimate friendship.
11. Manifest enmity.
12. Having conducted the preliminary investigation.
ART. 55. The justices and judges included in any of the cases mentioned in the foregoing article shall abstain from taking cognizance of the cause without waiting to be challenged. No remedy lies against this resolution.
In like manner they shall decline jurisdiction without remedy whatsoever when, on being challenged in any manner, they shall consider the alleged cause to be well founded. In either case they shall order the record to be transmitted to whosoever should substitute them.
ART. 56. The challenge may be interposed at any stage of the proceedings, but not after the oral trial has commenced, unless the cause of challenge shall have arisen thereafter.

CIAI'TFR 1I.

HEARING ANI) DECISION OF CHALLENGES 01' JUDGES OF EXAMINATION AND JUSTICES.

ART. 57. The challenge shall be in writing and signed by an attorney, by a solicitor, and by the challenging party, if he knows how to sign, and should be at the place where the cause is pending. The petition must be ratified by the latter before the judge or court.
If the challenging party be not present, only the attorney and solicitor shall sign. In every case the cause of challenge shall be stated clearly and explicitly.
ART. 58. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article, the accused may, should he be ;ncom an icado, interpose the challenge orally when his declaration is received, or he may call the judge through the warden of the prison in order to challenge him.
In such case the judge of examination must present himself, accompanied by the secretary, who shall make a record of the written challenge and the cause therefor.
If the challenge be overruled, he shall be advised that he can renew the same when the incoman icaci;n is raised.
ART. 59. A decree sustaining or overruling a challenge shall state the reasons therefor, and it shall be sufficient to notify the solicitor of the challenging party thereof, even though the latter be in the town in which the cause is being prosecuted and had signed the written challenge.
ART. 60. If the person challenged does not inhibit himself, not considering that he is included in the causes alleged for the challenge, he shall order a separate record to be prepared.
Said record shall contain the original written challenge and the ruling







torio de la inhibiei6n, quedando nota expresiva de uno v otro en el proceso.
ART. 61. Durante la sustanciaci6n de la pieza separada no podr' intervenir cl recusado en la causa ni en el incidente de recusaci6n, y ser6 sustituido por aquel "t quien corresponda con arreglo d la ley.

Si el recusado fuese un juez de instrucci6n, deberi este, no obstante, bajo su responsabilidad, practicar aquellas diligencias urgentes quo no puedan dilatarse mientras su sucesor se encargue do continuar ]a instruction.
ART. 62. La recusacion no detendr6i curso de la causa. Exceptfiase cl caso en que el incidente de re'usaei6n no se hubiese decidido cuando scan citadas las partes para la vista do aguna cuesti6n 6 incidente 6 para la celebraci6n del juicio oral.
ART. 63. Instruiran la pieza separada de recusaci6n:
Cuando el recusado sea el presidente 6 un presidente do sala de audiencia territorial 6 del Tribunal Supremo, el prosidente de sala ms antiguo; y si el recusado fuere el mns antiguo, el que le siga en antigfiedad.
Cuando el recusado fuere el presidente de una au(iencia de lo criminal, el magistrado ms antiguo de la sala de lo criminal do la audiencia territorial.
Cuando el recusado sea un magistrado do la audiencia de lo criminal 6 territorial 6 del Tribunal Supremo, el magistrado m~s antiguo de la respectiva sala 6 tribunal; y si aqu4l fuere el ms antiguo, el que le siga en antigiiedad.
Si por consecuencia de la recusaci6n de alguno 6 algunos niagistrados de audiencias de lo criminal no quedase en estos tribunales nimiero suficiente para formar tribunal, corresponder6 la instruccion de la pieza separada de recusaci6n al magistrado mas moderno do la sala de lo criminal de la audiencia territorial respectiva.
Cuando fuese juez de instrucci6n el recusado, instruiri la pieza do recusaci'n el magistrado m6s moderno de la respectiva audiencia.
ART. 64. Formada la pieza separada, se oird a la otra i otras partes que hubiese en la causa, por tdrmino de tres dias ' cada una, que solo podrA prorrogarse por otros dos cuando A juicio del tribunal hubiese justa causa para ello.
ART. 65. Transcurrido el tdrmino sefialado en el articulo anterior, con la prorroga en su caso, y recogida la causa sin necesidad do petici6n por parto del recusante, se recibird a prueba el incidente de recusaci6n, cuando ]a cuesti6n fuese de hecho, por ocho dias, durante los cuales so practicar4 la que hubiere sido solicitada por las partes y admitida como pertinente.
ART. 66. Contra el auto en que las audiencias 6 el Tribunal Supremo admitieren 6 denegaren la prueba, no se dard ulterior recurso,







denying the inhibition, an entry being made of all this in the original record.
ART. 61. While the separate record is being heard and determined the person challenged can not act in the cause nor in the issue of the challenge, and shall be substituted by the proper person in accordance to law.
If the person challenged be a judge of examination, he must, nevertheless, under his own liability, take such urgent measures as can not be delayed until his successor takes charge of continuing the examination.
ART. 62. The challenge shall not delay the course of the cause unless the issue of the challenge shall not have been decided when the parties are cited for the hearing of some question or interlocutory issue or for the oral trial.
ART. 63. The separate record of challenge shall be preparedBy the senior presiding justice of chamber if the person challenged be the presiding judge or a presiding judge of a chamber of a territorial audiencia or of the supreme court; and if the judge challenged be the senior, by the one next below him in seniority.
By the senior justice of the criminal chamber of the territorial audiencia if the person challenged be the presiding judge of a criminal audiencia.
By the senior justice of the respective chamber or court if the person challenged be a justice of a criminal or territorial audiencia or of the supreme court; and if he be the senior, by the one next below him in seniority.
If, as a result of the challenge of one or more justices of the criminal audiencias. these courts should not have members sufficient to form a quorum, the preparation of the separate record shall pertain to the junior justice of the criminal chamber of the respective territorial audiencia.
The junior justice of the respective audiencia shall prepare the record of challenge when the judge of examination is challenged.
ART. 64. After the separate record has been prepared, the other party or parties to the cause shall be heard for a period of three days for each one, which period can only be extended for two days more when in the opinion of the court there be just cause therefor.
ART. 65. When the period fixed in the foregoing article has elapsed, as well as the extension in a proper case, and the cause is taken up again without the necessity of a petition by the challenging party, evidence on the issue of the challenge shall be admitted for eight days if the question be a question of fact, during which time the evidence submitted by the parties and admitted as pertinent shaji be received.
ART. 66. There shall be no remedy against rulings of audiencias or of the supreme court admitting or rejecting evidence.
18473-01- 5






ART. 67. Cuando por ser la cuestion de derecho, no se hubiere recibido 6 prueba el incidente de recusaci6n, 6 hubiese transcurrido el t6rmino concedido en cl art. 65, se mandar6 citar 6 las partes, sefialando dia para la vista.
ART. 68. Decidirkn los incidentes de recusaci6n:
Cuando el recusado fuese el presidente 6' un presidente de sala de audiencia territorial 6 del Tribunal Supremo, el tribunal en pleno. De igual manera se proceder6 cuando los recusados'fueren dos 6 m6s magistrados de una misma sala 6 secci6n de estos tribunales.

En los demas casos decidirin estos incidentes los tribunales 6 salas a que pertenezcan los magistrados instructores de las piezas separadas.
ART. 69. Los autos en que se declare haber 6 no lugar .1 la recusaci6n, ser~n siempre fundados.
Contra el auto que dictaren las audiencias s6lo proceder6 el. recurso de casacion.
Contra el que dictare el Tribunal Supremo, no habr6 recurso alguno.

ART. 70. En los autos en que se deniegue la recusaci6n, se condenar6 en las costas al que la hubiere promovido.
Ademds se impondr6 al recusante una multa de 125 A 250 pesetas cuando el recusado fuese juez de instrucci6n, y de 250 6 500 cuando fuese magistrado de audiencia.

Se exceptfia de la imposici6n de las costas y la multa al njinisterio fiscal.
ART. 71. Cuando no se hicieren efectivas las multas respectivamente sefialadas en el articulo anterior, el multado quedar6i sujeto i la responsabilidad personal subsidiaria correspondiente, por via de sustituci6n y apremio, en los terminos que para las causas por delitos establece el c6digo penal.
CAPiTULO III.
I)E LA SUSTANCIAcI6N DE LAS RECUSACIONES DE LOS JUECES MUNICIPALES.

ART. 72. En los juicios de faltas se propondr6i la rccusaci6n en el mismo acto de la comparecencia.
ART. 73. En vista de la recusaci'n, si la causa alegada fuese de las expresadas en el articulo 54 y cierta, el juez municipal se darA por recusado, pasando el conocimiento de la falta 6 su suplente.

ART. 74. Cuando el recusado no considerare legitima la recusaci6n, pasar6 el conocimiento del incidente 6 su suplente, hacigndole constar en el acta.







ART. 67. If, on account of the question being one of law, evidence on the challenge is overruling, or when the period granted in article 65 has elapsed, the parties shall be cited, a day being fixed for the argument.
ART. 68. The challenge shall be decidedBy the court in bane, if the person challenged be the presiding judge or a presiding judge of a chamber of a territorial audiencia or of the supreme court. Like procedure shall be observed if the persons challenged be two or more justices of the same chamber or section of said courts.
In other cases these issues shall be decided by the courts or chambers to which the examining justices of the separate record belong.
ART. 69. The decision sustaining or overruling the challenge shall always state the reasons therefor.
An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from a decision rendered by an audiencia.
There shall be no remedy whatsoever against a decision rendered by the supreme court.
ART. 70. Decisions overruling a challenge shall contain the taxation of the costs of the same against the person interposing it.
There shall also be imposed on the challenging party a fine of not less than 125 pesetas nor more than 250 pesetas if the authority challenged be a judge of examination, and not less than 250 nor more than 500 pesetas if a justice of the audiencia.
The prosecuting officials shall be exempt from the payment of costs or the fine.
ART. 71. If the fines respectively mentioned in the foregoing article are not paid, the party fined shall be subject to such proper compulsion in substitution thereof as provided for crimes in the penal code.



CHAPTER III.
HEARING AND DECISION OF CHALLENGES OF MUNICIPAL JUDGES.


ART. 72. In trials for misdemeanors the challenge shall be interposed at the time of the appearance.
ART. 73. In view of the challenge, should the cause alleged be of those mentioned in article 54, and be true, the municipal judge shall consider himself challenged, transferring the cognizance of the misdemeanor to his substitute.
ART. 74. If the challenged party should not consider the challenge to be legitimate, he shall transfer the cognizance of the issue to his substitute, making note thereof in the record.






Ni en este caso ni en el del articulo anterior se da recurso alguno contra lo resuelto por el juez municipal.
ART. 75. El juez municipal recusado no podrd intervenir on la sustanciaci6n de la pieza de recusaci6n, y se suspenderA ]a celebracion del juicio do faltas hasta que aqudlla se decida.

ART. 76. El juez suplente encargado de la sustanciaci6n be la pieza de recusaci6n har6 comparecer 6 las partes 4 su prosencia, y en ei mismo acto recibirK las pruebas que ofrezcan y conceptfe pertinentes cuando ia cuestion verse sobre algdn hecho.
Contra el auto denegatorio do la prueba podrA pedirso reposici6n en el acto de hacerse saber ' las partes.
ART. 77. Recibida la prueba, 6 cuando por tratarse de cuestion de derecho no fuera necesaria, el juez municipal suplente resolverA si ha 6 no lugar a la recusaci6n en auto fundado, y en el mismo acto si es posible. En ningfin caso dejar6 de hacerlo dentro de segundo dia. De lo actuado y del auto se harA menci6n cn el acta que se extienda.


ART. 78. Contra el auto del juez suplente declarando haber lugar ' la recusaci6n, no se dard recurso alguno.
Contra el auto en que la denegare, habrA apelaci6n para ante el juez de instruccion.
ART. 79. La apelaci6n se interpondrA verbalmente en el acto -de la comparecencia ante el mismo juez municipal suplente, si 6ste resolviese en el momento.
Si para resolver utilizare el t6rmino de segundo dia, se interpondrd la apelaci6n en el acto mismo do la notificacion siempre quo sea personal, y si no dentro do las veinticuatro horas siguientes A ella. La apelaci6n en este caso so interpondrA tambien verbalmente ante el secretario del juzgado y se hari constar por diligencia.
ART. 80. Cuando no se apelase dentro de los terminos sefialados en el articulo anterior, el auto del juez suplente serd firme.

Interpuesta apelacion en tiempo, se remitir~n los antecedentes al juez de instrucci6n respectivo con citaci6n de las partes y 4 expensas del apelante.
ART. 81. En el juzgado do instrucci6n so dar4 cuenta inmediatamente por el secretario, sin admitir escritos, y se citard 4 las partes 4 una comparecencia dentro del tirmino do segundo dia.
Los interesados 6 sus apoderados podr~n hacer en ella verbalmente las observaciones quo estimen, previa la venia del juez de instruccion.

Este pronunciar4 auto en el mismo dia 6 on el siguiente, y contra lo que decida no habr6 ulterior recurso.






Neither in this case nor in that of the foregoing article shall there be any remedy against the decision of the municipal judge.
ART. 75. The municipal judge challenged cannot take part in the hearing and determination of the issue of the challenge, and shall suspend the trial for the misdemeanors until the question of the challenge is decided.
ART. 76. The substitute judge charged with the hearing and determination of the issue of the challenge shall order the parties to appear before him, and shall at once hear the evidence they may offer and which he may consider pertinent, if the question be one of fact.
If a decision ruling out the evidence is made, a rehearing may be requested as soon as the parties are notified thereof.
ART. 77. The evidence having been taken, or when a question of law being involved it is not necessary, the substitute municipal judge shall decide at once, if possible, whether the challenge is or is not well taken in a ruling stating the reasons for his decision. In no case shall he fail to render a decision within two days.
The proceedings had and the ruling shall be entered upon the record made.
ART. 78. There shall be no remedy against a ruling of a substitute judge sustaining a challenge.
From a decree overruling a challenge an appeal lies to the judge of examination.
ART. 79. The appeal shall be interposed orally at the appearance for decision before the substitute judge, should he render a decision at once.
If, in order to render a decision, he should take the period of two days, the appeal shall be filed at the time of the notification, provided it be personal; otherwise within the twenty-four hours following the notification. The appeal in such case shall also be interposed orally before the clerk of the court, and it shall be made a matter of record.
ART. 80. If an appeal be not taken within the periods prescribed in the foregoing article, the ruling of the substitute judge shall become final.
If the appeal be taken in due time, the proceedings ,hall be forwarded to the proper judge of examination, with a citation of the parties, at the expense of the appellant.
ART. 81. In the court of examination the clerk shall immediately make a report without admitting any documentary evidence, and the parties shall be cited to appear within a period of two days.
With the permission of the judge of examination the parties in interest or their attorneys may make orally at that time whatever remarks they may consider proper.
The judge of examination shall render his decision the same day or the day following, and against his decision there shall be no further remedy.






Si el jues instructor entendiese que el municipal suplente debi5 reponer el auto denegatorio de la prueba 6 que se refiere el pa'rrafo segundo del art. 76, lo declararai ass, abstenigndose de pronunciar sobre el fondo, y mandarin devolver las diligencias al juzgado municipal dc que procedan, para que so practique la prueba propuesta y so dicte nuevo auto.

Ser n aplicablcs 'a ste las disposiciones de los arts. 78 al 81.
ART. 82. Cuando cl auto sea confirmatorio, se condenar4 en costas al apelante.
ART. 83. Declarada procedento la recusaci'n por auto firme, entendera' el suplente en el juicio.
Declarado improcedente, el jucz recusado volver6i i entender en el conocimiento de la falta.
CAPITULO IV.
DE LA RECUSACI6N DE LOS AUXILIARES DE LOS JUZGADOS Y TRIBUNALES.

ART. 84. Los secretarios de los juzgados municipales, de los de instrucci6n, de las audiencias y del Tribunal Supremo, sern recusables.
Lo ser6n tambign los oficiales de sala.
ART. 85. Son aplicables 6i los secretarios y oficiales de sala las prescripciones de este titulo, con las modificaciones quo establecen los articulos siguientes.
ART. 86. Cuando los recusados fueron auxiliares do los juzgados de instruccion, de las audiencias 6 del Tribunal Supremo, la pieza de recusacion se instruird por el juez instructor respectivo 6 magistrado m s moderno, y se fallar6 por el mismo juoz 6 por el tribunal correspon diente.
El juez 6 magistrado instructor podri delegar la pr ctica do las diligencias que no pudiere ejecutar por si mismo on el juez municipal 6 en uno de los jueces de instruccion de la respectiva circunscripcion.

ART. 87. Los auxiliares recusados no podrain actuar en la causa en quo lo fueren ni en ]a pieza de recusaci'n, reemplaz indoles aquellos Ai quienes corresponderfa si ]a recusaci'n fuese admitida.
ART. 88. En las recusaciones de secretarios de juzgados municipales instruird y fallarai la pieza do recusacion el juez munici'nal. donde s6lo hubiere uno.
Si hubiere dos, el del juzgado 6i que no oertenezca el recusado; y si tres 6 m s, el de mayor edad.
ART. 89. Cuando se desestimare la recusaci6n, se condenar 4 en costas al recusante.






If the judge of examination should hold that the substitute municipal judge should reverse his ruling denying the admission of evidence, referred to in the second paragraph of article 76, he shall so declare, refraining from deciding the main question, and order the proceedings to be returned to the municipal court from which they were forwarded, in order that the evidence offered be taken and a new ruling made.
The provisions of articles 78 to 81 shall apply to this ruling.
ART. 82. If the ruling be affirmative, the appellant shall be taxed the costs thereof.
ART. 83. If the challenge be sustained by a final ruling, the substitute judge shall take cognizance of the case.
If overruled, the challenged judge shall again take cognizance of the offence.
CHAPTER IV.
CHALLENGES OF ASSISTANTS OF INFERIOR AND SUPERIOR COURTS.


ART. 84. The clerks of municipal courts, courts of examination, of audiencias, and those of the supreme court may be challenged.

The officers of chambers may also be challenged.
ART. 85. The provisions of this title are applicable to the clerks and officers of chambers with the modifications prescribed in the following articles.
ART. 86. If the challenged parties be the assistants of courts of examination, of audiencias or of the supreme court, the issue of the challenge shall be prepared by the proper judge of examination or the junior associate justice, and shall be decided by the same judge or by by the corresponding court.
The judge or associate justice of examination may delegate the performance of the proceedings which he cannot personally conduct to the municipal judge, or to one of the judges of examination of the respective circuit.
ART. 87. The assistants challenged cannot take part in the cause nor in the issue of the challenge, being substituted by the proper persons if the challenge be sustained.
ART. 88. In challenges of clerks of municipal courts the municipal judge shall prepare and determine the issue of the challenge where there is but one judge.
Should there be two, the judge of the court to which the challenged party does not belong; and if there be three or more, by the eldest.
ART. 89. If the challenge be overruled, the challenging party shall be taxed the costs.






ART. 90. Cuando sea firme el auto en que se admita ]a recusaci6n, quedara' el recusado separado de toda intervenci6n en la causa, continuando en su reemplazo el que le haya sustituido duranto la sustanciaci6n del incidente; y si fuere secretario do .juzgado municipal 6 do instrucci6n, no percibir6 derechos de ninguna clase desdc que se hubiese solicitado la recusaci6n, 6 desde que, siendole conocido el motivo alegado, no se separ6 del conocimiento del asunto.

ART. 91. Cuando se desestimaso la recusaci6n por auto firme, volver6 el auxiliar recusado 6 ejercer 6us funciones; y si fuese 6ste secretario de juzgado municipal 6 de instrucci6n, le abonal't el recusante los derechos correspondientes 6 las actuaciones practicadas en la causa, haciendo igual abono al quc haya sustituido al recusado.
ART. 92. No podran los auxiliares ser recusados despugs de citadas las partes para sentencia, ni durante la prdctica de alguna diligencia de que estuvieren encargados, ni despu6s de comenzada la celebraci6n del juicio oral.
ART. 93. Es aplicable Ai los actuales relatores y escribanos de Camara: primero, lo dispuesto en los articulos anteriores respecto A las recusaciones do los secretarios de sala; y segundo, to prevenido en los arts. 90 y 91 referente al abono de derechos.
CAPITULO V.
DE LAS EXCUSAS Y RECUSACIONES DE LOS ASESORES.
ART. 94. Los asesores de los jueces municipales, cuando 6stos desempefien accidentalmente funciones de jueces do instrucci6n, se excusardn si concurrieren en ellos algunas de las causas onumeradas en el articulo 54 de esta ley.
El inismo juez municipal apreciara la excusa para admitirla 6 desestimarla. Si la desestimase, podr- el asesor recurrir en queja ii la respectiva audiencia, y 6sta, pidiendo informes y antecedentes, resolverA de plano sin ulterior recurso lo que crea procedente.

ART. 95. Los que scan parte en una causa podr n recusar al asesor por cualquiera de los motivos sefilalados on el art. 54.
La recusaci6n se har i por modio de escrito dirigido al juez municipal.
Contra las decisiones del juzgado municipal desestimando la recusasion, procederi igualmente el rccurso de queja ante la audiencia respectiva.
CAPITULO VI.
DE LA ABSTENcI6N DEL MINISTERIO FISCAL.
ART. 96. Los representantes del ministerio fiscal no podran ser recusados; pero se abstendrin de intervenir en los actos judiciales cuando concurra en ellos alguna de las causas sefialadas en el art. 54 de esta ley.







ART. 90. When a ruling sustaining a challenge becomes final, the party challenged can take no part in the cause whatever, the person who was substituted for him during the hearing and determination of the issue continuing to take his place; and if he be the clerk of a municipal court or court of examination he shall receive no fees of any kind from the time that the challenge was interposed, or when the alleged cause being known to him he did not abstain from taking cognizance of the subject.
ART. 91. If the challenge be overruled by a final decision the assistant challenged shall again perform his duties; and should he be the clerk of a municipal court or court of examination the challenging party shall pay to him the fees corresponding to the proceedings had in the cause, and a similar payment shall be made to his substitute.
ART. 92. The assistants can not be challenged after the parties have been cited to appear for judgment, nor while engaged in some proceeding intrusted to them, nor after the oral trial has begun.

ART. 93. To relators and copyists of chambers are applicable: First, the provisions of the foregoing articles with regard to challenges of clerks in chambers; and, second, the provisions of articles 90 and 91 with reference to the payment of fees.
CHAPTER V.
EXCUSES AND CHALLENGES OF ASSESSORS.
ART. 94. The assessors to municipal judges, when the latter accidentally discharge the duties of judges of examination, shall excuse themselves if they be embraced in any of the causes mentioned in article 54" of this law.
The municipal judge himself shall weigh the excuse in order to admit or reject it. Should he reject it, the assessor may appeal in complaint to the proper audiencia, and the latter, after calling for reports and data, shall decide eo instanti without further remedy, what it may deem proper.
ART. 95. The parties to a cause may challenge the assessor for any of the causes mentioned in article 54.
The challenge shall be in writing, addressed to the municipal judge.
From the decision of the municipal court overruling a challenge, an appeal in complaint lies also to the proper audiencia.

CHAPTER V1.
ABSTENTION OF PROSECUTING OFFICIALS.
ART. 96. Prosecuting officials can not be challenged; but they shall abstain from intervening in judicial acts when they are included in any of the causes mentioned in article 54 of this law.






ART. 97. Si concurriere en el fiscal del Tribunal Supremo 6 en los fiscales de las audiencias alguna de las causas por raz6n de las cuales deban abstenerse, de conformidad con lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, designardn para que los reeiplacen al teniente fiscal, y en su defecto , a los abogados fiscales, por el orden de categoria y antigfiedad.

Lo dispuesto en el p~rrafo anterior es aplicable a los tenientes 6 abogados fiscales cuando ejerzan las funciones de su jefe respectivo.

ART. 98. Los tenientes y abogados fiscales del Tribunal Supremo y de las audiencias hardin presente su excusa al superior respectivo, quien les relevarai de intervenir en los actos judiciales, y elegir para sustituirles al que tenga por conveniente entre sus subordinados.

ART. 99. Cuando los representantes del ministerio fiscal no se excusaren, a pesar de comprenderles alguna de las causas expresadas en el articulo 54, podrain los que se consideren agraviados acudir en queja al superior inmediato.
Este oira al subordinado que hubiese sido objeto de la queja, y encontrandola fundada, decidir6 su sustituci6n. Si no la encontrare fundada, podrai acordar que intervenga en el proceso. Contra esta determinacion no se da recurso alguno.
Los fiscales de las audiencias territoriales decidirin las quejas que se les dirijan contra los fiscales de las audiencias de lo criminal.

Si fuere el fiscal del Tribunal Supremo el que diera motivo ' la queja, deberd 4sta dirigirse al Ministro de Gracia y Justicia por conducto del presidente del mismo tribunal. El Ministro de Graciao y Justicia, oida la sala de gobierno del Tribunal Supremo, silo considera oportuno, resolverA lo que estime procedente.






ART. 97.,[f the public prosecutor of the supreme court or the public prosecutors of audiencias be included in any of the causes by reason of which they should abstain, according to the provisions of the foregoing article, they shall appoint as their substitutes the deputy public prosecutor, and in his absence the assistant deputy public prosecutors, in the order of their rank and term of service.
The provisions of the foregoing paragraph are applicable to the deputy or assistant deputy public prosecutors when they discharge the duties of their respective chief.
ART. 98. The deputy and assistant deputy public prosecutors of the supreme court and of the audiencias shall submit their excuses to the proper superior, who shall relieve them from taking part in the judicial proceedings, and shall select as a substitute the person he may deem proper from among their subordinates.
ART. 99. When the prosecuting officials do not excuse themselves, notwithstanding their being included in any of the causes mentioned in article 54, those who consider themselves injured may appeal in complaint to the immediate superior.
The latter shall hear the subordinate who may have been the object of the complaint, and if he shall find it proper shall order his substitution. If he shall not find it proper he may order him to appear in the case. There shall be no remedy against this decision.
The public prosecutors of the territorial audiencias shall decide the complaints addressed to them against the public prosecutors of the criminal audiencias.
If the public prosecutor of the supreme court be the subject of the complaint, it must be addressed to the Minister of Grace and Justice through the chief justice of the said court. The Minister of Grace and Justice after hearing the chamber of administration of the supreme court, should he consider it necessary, shall decide what he may deem proper.
















TITULO IV.


DE LAS PERSONAS A QUIENES CORRESPONDE EL EJERCICIO DE LAS ACCIONES QUE NACEN DE LOS DELITOS Y FALTAS.

ART. 100. De todo delito 6 falta nace acci6n penal para el castigo del culpable, y puede nacer tambi6n acci6n civil para la restituci6n de la cosa, la reparaci6n del dafio y la indeninizaci6n de perjuicios causados por el hecho punible.'
ART. 101. La acci6n penal es pfiblica.
Todos los ciudadanos espafioles podrin ejercitarla con arreglo 6 las prescripciones de la ley.
ART. 102. Sin embargo de lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, no podr'n ejercitar la acci6n penal10. El que no goce de la plenitud de los derechos civiles.'

"Las acciones penales, por su naturaleza, y con arreglo , los principios del derecho, nunca deben ampliarse, sino por el contrario, entenderse y aplicarse siempre de un modo restrictivo." (Sentencia de Junio 3, 1874.)
2Sin la pretensi6n de conseguir una enumeraci6n completa, las personas que no pueden comparecer en juicio ni, por consiguiente, dar poder i otro para que comparezcan en su nombre, A no ser con la intervenci6n de sus representantes legitimos, son las siguientes:
Los hu rfanos menores.-Su representaci6n legal corresponde al tutor (c6digo civil, articulo 262), el cual en ciertos casos necesita el consentimiento del consejo de familia (id., 269, n'meros 12 y 13). Si los intereses del tutor son opuestos A los del hu6rfano, por ejemplo, en el supuesto del ndmero 90, artfculo 237, ]a representaci6n en juicio corresponde al protutor (236, apartado 20).
Los hijos no emancipados, por los que comparecen sus padres (c6digo civil, articulo 155), y cuando 6stos tengan inter6s incompatible con el de los hijos, el defensor 6 que alude el articulo 165, que equivale al antiguo curador para pleitos, de que hablan los articulos 1852 A 1860 de la ley de enjuicianiento civil. Si los padres estan privados de la patria potestad, 6 tienen suspendido su ejercicio (c6digo civil, articulos 70, pdrrafo 30, 73, p(rrofo 20 del mi.mero 21, y 168 'I 171), representard A los hijos el tutor nombrado.
Los menores de cdad ernancipados por concesi6n del padre 6 de la Madre, son representados en juicio por sus padres, y en su defecto por un tutor. (Articulos 314, nd.mero 30, y 317 del c6digo civil.)
Los menores que obtienen el beneficio de la mayor edad por concesi6n del consejo de familia, son representados por un tutor. (C6digo civil, articulos 322 d 324 y 317 A que se refiere el iltimo.)
Los casados mayores de 18 afos, pueden comparecer por si en juicio en hombre propio y en el de su munjer, segdn los artfculos 59 y 315 del c6digo civil, que deben asi entenderse, pues la emancipaci6n de que habla el artfculo 317 se refiere a' la del ndmero 30 del 314.
38
















TITLE IV.

PERSONS WHO MAY EXERCISE RIGHTS OF ACTION ARISING OUT OF CRIMES AND MISDEMEANORS.

ART. 100. A criminal action arises from every crime or misdemeanor for the punishment of the culprit, and a civil action may also arise for the restitution of the thing, the repair of the damage, and the indemnity of the losses caused by the punishable act.'
ART. 101. A criminal action is public.
All Spanish citizens may bring a criminal action according to the provisions of law.
ART. 102. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article a criminal action can not be brought by:
1. A person not in the full enjoyment of civil rights.'
1 Criminal actions, by reason of their character and in accordance with the princiI les of law, can never be extended, but, on the contrary, must be understood and applied always in a restricted manner. (Supreme Court. decision of June 3, 1894.)
2 Without attempting a full enumeration, the persons who can not appear in an ,ction, and consequently who can not grant powers of attorney to others to appear in their behalf, unless it be with the intervention of their legal representatives, are the following:
Minors who are orphans are legally represented by their guardians .(Civil Code, art. V62), who in certain cases require the consent of the family council. (Ibid., 269, Nos. 12 and 13.) If the interests of the tutor are opposed to those of the orphan, as, for example, in the case of number 9 of article 237 of the Civil Code, the representation of the minor in court pertains to the protutor. (Ibid., 236, second par.)
Children not emancipated are represented by their parents (Civil Code, art. 155), and when said parents have an interest which is incompatible with that of their children the latter shall be represented by the next friend referred to in article 165, which is equivalent to the former curator ad litem referred to in articles 1852 to 1860 of the Law of Civil Procedure. If the parents are deprived of the parental authority, or if it be suspended (Civil Code, articles 70, paragraph 3; 73, par. 2 of number 2, and 168 to 171), the tutor appointed shall represent the children.
Minors emancipated by the concession of the father or mother are represented in court by their parents, or, in their absence, by one tutor. (Articles 314, number 3, and 317 of the Civil Code.)
Minors who obtain the benefit of majority by concession of the family council are repre'sented by one tutor. (Civil Code, articles 322 to 324 and 317, referred to.)

Married persons over 18 years of age may appear in person in court in their own name and in that of their wives, according to articles 59 and 315 of the Civil Code, which must be understood in this manner, because the emancipation referred to in article 317 relates to that of number 3 of article 314.
38







20. El que hubiera sido condenado dos veces por sentencia firme como reo del delito do denuncia 6 querella calumniosas.
30. El juez 6 magistrado.
Los comprendidos en los nfimeros anteriores podr~n, sin embargo, ejercitar la acci6n penal por delito 6 falta cometidos contra sus personas 6 bienes, 6 contra las personas 6 bienes de sus conyuges, ascendientes, descendientes, hermanos consanguineos 6 uterinos y afines.

Los comprendidos en los nfimeros 2 y 3 podr~n ejercitar tambign la acci6n penal por el delito 6 falta cometidos contra las personas 6 bienes de los que estuviesen bajo su guarda legal.
Art. 103. Tampoco podr6n ejercitar acciones penales entre si1�. Los c6nyuges, 6 no ser por delito 6 falta cometidos por el uno contra ]a persona del otro 6 la de sus hijos1 y por los delitos de adulterio, amancebamiento y bigamia.

Los condenados 6 interdictos. (V6anse los artfculos 228, 229, 262, 269, nmeros 12 y 13, y 274 del c6digo civil, y los 26, 43, 54 y 57 del penal.)
Los locos, dementes y sordomudos.-Su representaci6n legal corresponde al tutor 6 en su caso al defensor que nombren los tribunales 6 al ministerio pdblico. (COdigo civil, articulos 215, apartado 30, 262, 269, nimeros 12 y 13, y 274. )
En los pleitos sobre prodigalidad, cuando el demandado no comparezca, tendra su representaci6n el fiscal 6 en su caso el defensor nombrado por el juez. (C6digo civil, articulo 223.
La mujer casada.-Los cases en que necesita licencia de su marido para comparecer per sf en juicio y los en que no necesita, se determinan en los artfculos 60 y 1387 del c6digo civil.
Consursados.-Una vez hecha la declaraci6n de concurso, quedan incapacitados para la administraci6n de sus bienes todos (1161 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil y 1914 del eAdigo civil), y consiguientemente privados del pleno ejercicio de sus derechos civiles. La representaci6n legal del concurso corresponde al depositario administrador (ley, artfculo 1181) hasta el nombramiento de sfndicos. Verificado 6ste, los sindicos representan al concurso en juicio defendiendo sus derechos y ejercitando las acciones y excepciones que le competan. (Id, articulo 1181, regla 1".)
Personas juridicas (corporaciones, sociedades y demds entidades juridicas).-Los
pueblos y ayuntamientos son representados en juicio por los procuradores sindicos y en los pueblos agregados A. otros para formar ayuntamiento, los presidentes do sus juntas administrativas representan tambi6n A sus respectivos pueblos, cuando se trate de acciones 6 derechos que corresponden exclusivamente d sus inismos pueblos. (Articulos 56 y 90 6 96 de la ley de 1877, y R. 0. 30 Enero 1875.)
La provincias eran representadas per el diputado provincial nombrado al efecto con arreglo al artfculo 37 de la ley de 25 de Septiembre de 1863; luego lo fueron por el gobernador, conforme A los artfculos 90 y 70 de ]a ley de 2 de Octubre de 1877, y hoy lo son por el vice presidente de la comisi6n provincial, conforme al artfculo 98, nimero 60 de la ley de 29 de Agosto de 1882.
La hacienda pdblica ha venido siendo representada per el ministerio fiscal en la forma prescrita por el decreto de 9 de Julio de 1869 y per la orden de la misma fecha; pore desde el decreto de 16 Marzo 1886 corresponde su representaci6n ,d los abogados del estado.
1 Las palabras de este artfculo no significan que el delito objeto de la querella haya de ser precisamente de los que el c6digo penal denomina contra las personas en el








2. A person who has been twice condemned by a final sentence as guilty of the crime of calumnious denunciations or complaints.
3. The judge or justice.
Those included in the foregoing numbers may, however, bring a criminal action for a crime or misdemeanor committed against their persons or property, or against the persons or property of their spouses, ascendants, descendants, uterine brothers or sisters, or relatives by consanguinity or affinity.
The persons included in numbers 2 and 3 may also bring a criminal action for a misdemeanor or crime committed against the persons or property of those who may be under their legal care.
Art. 103. Nor can the following persons bring criminal actions against each other:
1. Spouses, except for a crime or misdemeanor committed by one against the person of the other or that of his or her children,' and for the crimes of adultery, concubinage, and bigamy.

Persons suffering interdiction or undergoing a sentence. (See articles 228, 229, 262, 269, numbers 12 and 13, and 274 of the Civil Code, and the proper articles of the Penal Code.)
The deof and dumb and the insane are legally represented by their guardian or, in a proper case, by the next friend appointed by the court or by the public prosecutor. (Civil Code, articles 215, paragraph 3; 262, 269, numbers 12 and 13, and 274.) In actions relating to prodigals, when the defendant does not appear, he shall be represented by the public prosecutor or, in a proper case, by the next friend appointed by the court. (Civil Code, article 223.)
Married woman.-The cases in which she does and does not require the permission of her husband to appear in an action are mentioned in articles 60 and 1387 of the Civil Code.
Bankrupts.-After a declaration in bankruptcy the bankrupts are disqualified from administering any of their property (1161 of the law of Civil Procedure and 1914 of the Civil Code), and consequently are deprived of the full exercise of their civil rights. The depositary-administrator is the legal representative of the estate of the bankrupt (law, art. 1181) until trustees are appointed. After this has been done the trustees represent the bankrupt in court, defending his rights and taking the actions and exceptions incumbent upon them. (Ibid., article 1181, rule 1.)
Judicial persons (corporations, associations, and other judicial entities). -Towns and municipalities are represented by the procuradores sindicos, and in towns annexed to others in order to constitute a municipality, the presidents of their administrative boards also represent the respective towns, when actions or rights are involved which pertain exclusively to the said towns. (Articles 56 and 90 of the law of 1877, and Royal order of January 30, 1875.)
Provinces were represented by the provincial deputy, appointed for the purpose in accordance with article 37 of the law of September 25, 1863; afterwards they were represented by the governor, in accordance with articles 9 and 70 of the law of October 2, 1877, and now they are represented by the vice-president of the provincial commission, in accordance with article 98, number 6, of the law of August 29, 1882.
The public treasury has been represented by the department of public prosecution in the manner prescribed by the decree of July 9, 1869, and by the order of the same date; but since the decree of March 16, 1886, it is represented by the state attorneys. 1 The words of this article do not signify that the crime which is the subject of the complaint must be of those which the Penal Code denominates crimes against the






20. Los ascendientes, descendientes y hermanos consanguineos 6 uterinos y afines, 6 no ser por delito 6 falta cometidos por los uinos contra las personas de los otros.
ART. 104. Las acciones penales que nacen de los delitos de estupro, calumnia ' injuria tampoco podrn ser ejercitadas por otras personas ni en inanera distinta qne las prescritas en los respectivos articulos del codigo penal.
Las faltas consistentes en el anuncio por medio de la imprenta de hechos falsos 6 relativos 6 la vida privada con el que se perjudique 6 ofenda a particulares, en malos tratamientos inferidos pot los maridos a sus mujeres, en desobediencia 6 inalos tratos de 6stas para con aqugllos, en faltas de respeto y sumisi6n de los hijos respecto de sus padres, 6 de los pupilos respecto de sus tutores, y en injurias leves, solo podr6n ser perseguidas por los ofendidos 6 por sus legftimos representantes.
ART. 105. Los funcionarios del ministerio fiscal tendr6n la obligacion de ejercitar, con arreglo 6 las disposiciones do la ley, todas las acciones penales que consideren procedentes, haya 6 no acusador particular en las causas, menos aquellas que el c'digo penal reserva exclusivamente 6 la querella privada. Tanibign deber-in ejercitarlas en las causas por los delitos contra la honestidad, que con arreglo 6 las prescrlpciones del c6digo penal deben denunciarso previamente por los interesados, 6 cuando el ministerio fiscal deba 6 su vez denunciarlos por recaer dichos delitos sobre personas desvalidas 6 faltas de personalidad.1
ART. 106. La acci6n penal por delito 6 falta quo de lugar al procedimiento de oficio no se extingue por la renuncia de la persona ofendida.
Pero se extinguen por esta causa las que nacen del delito 6 falta que no puedan ser perseguidos sino 6 instancia de parte, y las civiles, cualesquiera que sea el delito 6 falta de que procedan.
ART. 107. La renuncia de la acci6n civil 6 de la penal renunciable no perjudicar6 m6s que al renunciante; pudiendo continuar el ejercicio de la penal en el estado en que se halle la causa, 6 ejercitarla nuevamente los dem6s 6 quienes tambi6n correspondiere.

tftulo viii, libro ii (parricidio, asesinato, homicidio, infanticidio, aborto, lesiones y duelo), sino que la ley alude i la condici6n de que el hecho ofcnda I persona emparentada con el culpable, que puede ser perseguido A instancia de la agraviada, aunque el delito sea de injuria. (Marzo 2 de 1885.-Gaceta, Octubre 4.) 1En cumplimiento del artfculo 467 del c6digo penal vigente en las islas de Cuba y Puerto Rico, el ministerio fiscal tiene la obligaci6n de ejercitar la acci6n penal en los delitos de rapto y adulterio d que el mismo se refiere.







2. The ascendants, descendants, the uterine brothers or sisters, or relatives those by consanguinity or affinity, unless for a crime or misdemeanor by either against the persons of the others.
ART. 104. Nor can penal actions which arise from the crimes of seduction, calumny, and contumely be instituted by other persons or in a different manner than those prescribed in the respective articles of the Penal Code.
Misdemeanors consisting in a notice in the press of false facts or which relate to the private life, by which individuals are prejudiced or offended, in the ill treatment of wives by their husbands, the disobedience of or the ill treatment by wives of their husbands, lack of respect and submission of children to their parents, or of pupils to their tutors, and in slight acts of contumely, can only be prosecuted by the persons offended or by their legitimate representatives.

ART. 105. The public prosecutors are obliged to institute, according to the provisions of law, all criminal actions which they may consider proper, whether there be a private accuser or not in the causes, except in those which the Penal Code reserves exclusively to private complaints. They shall also institute them in causes for crimes against chastity, which, according to the provisions of the Penal Code, must first be denounced by the persons interested, or when the public prosecutor should himself denounce them, because said crimes are committed against helpless persons or those lacking personality.'

ART. 106. A criminal action for a crime or misdemeanor which gives rise to proceedings ex offlcio is not extinguished by the withdrawal of the complaint by the person offended.
Actions which arise from a crime or misdemeanor which can only be prosecuted at the instance of a party, and civil actions, whatever be the crime or misdemeanor involved, are extinguished for this cause.
ART. 107. The abandonment of the civil action or of a criminal action which can be abandoned shall only prejudice the person who abandons it; the other persons interested in the cause being permitted to continue the criminal action in the state it was, or institute a new one.
person in Title VIII, Book II (parricide, assassination, homicide, infanticide, abortion, injuries inflicted with violence, and dueling), but the law refers to a state when the act offends a person related to the guilty person, which may be prosecuted at the instance of the person injured, even though the crime be an outrage. (March 2, 1885-Gaeta of October 4.)
'In compliance with the provisions of article 467 of the Penal Code in force in the islands of Cuba and Porto Rico, the prosecuting officials are obliged to bring a criminal action in the crimes of abduction and adultery referred to therein.
18473-01 - 6







ART. 108. La acci6n civil ha de entablarse juntamente con ]a penal por el ministerio fiscal, haya 6 no en el proceso acusador particular; pero si el ofendido renunciare expresamente su derecho do restituci'n, reparaci6n 6 indemnizaci6n, el ministerio fiscal se limitara 'a pedir el castigo de los culpables.
ART. 109. En el acto de rocibirse declaraci6n al ofendido que tuviese ]a capacidad legal necesaria, se le instruirA del derecho que le asiste para mostrarse parte en el proceso y renunciar 6 no 6 la restitucion de la cosa, reparaci6n del dafio e indemnizacion del perjuicio causado por el hecho punible.1
Si no tuviese capacidad legal, so practicar6 igual diligencia con su representante.
Fuera de los casos previstos en los dos pdrrafos anteriores, no so harA 6 los interesados en las accionos civiles 6 penalcs notificaci6n alguna que prolongue 6 detenga el curso do la causa, lo cual no obsta para. que el juez procure instruir de aquel derecho al ofendido ausente.
ART. 1-10. Los perjudicados por un delito 6 falta que no hubieren renunciado su derecho podran mostrarse parte en ]a causa, si lo hicieren antes del tr~mite do calificaci6n del delito, y ejercitar las acciones civiles y penales que procedan, 6 solamento unas i otras, segU'n les conviniere, sin que por ollo se retroceda en el curso do las actuaciones.

Aun cuando los perjudicados no se muestren parte on la causa, no por esto so entiende quo renuncian al derecho de restitucion, reparacion 6 indemnizaci6n que i su favor pueda acordarse en sentencia firme; siendo menester que la renuncia do este derecho so haga en su caso de una manera expresa y terminante.
ART. 111. Las acciones quo nacen do un delito 6 falta podrin ejercitarse junta 6 separadamente; pero mientras estuviese pendiente la acci6n penal, no se ejercitar6 la civil con separaci6n hasta que aquella haya sido resuelta en sentencia firme, salvo siempre lo dispuesto en los articulos 40, 50 y 60 de este c6digo.
ART. 112. Ejercitada solo la acci6n penal, so entenderA utilizada tambien Ia civil, 'a no ser quo dafiado 6 perjudicado la renunciase 6 la reservase expresamente para ejercitarla despu6s de terminado el juicio criminal si ' ello hubiere lugar.
Si se ejercitase solo la civil que nace de un delito de los que no pueden perseguirse sino en virtud do querella particular, so considerar6 extinguida desde luego la acci6n penal.
ART. 113. Podrdn ejercitarse expresamente las dos acciones por una misma persona 6 por varias; pero siempro quo scan dos 6 n~is las
ILa obligacion de instruir de su derecho A los intercsados en la causa, no s61o se establece 6 favor de los perjudicados por el delito, sino en beneficio de los presuntos culpablcs, conforine al artfculo 20.







ART. 108. The civil action must be brought jointly with the criminal action by the prosecuting official, whether there be a private accuser or not in the cause; but if the person offended shall expressly renounce his right to restitution, repair, or indemnity, the prosecuting official shall confine himself to requesting the punishment of the guilty parties.
ART. 109. As soon as the declaration of an offended party having the necessary legal capacity has been received, he shall be informed of his rights to become a party to the action and to renounce or not the restitution of the thing, repair of the damage, and indemnity for the loss caused by the punishable act.'
Should he not have the legal capacity, the same information shall be communicated to his representative.
Aside from the cases provided for in the two foregoing paragraphs, no notice shall be served upon the parties interested in civil or criminal actions which shall prolong or delay the course of the cause, which, however, is not an obstacle to the judge informing the absent person offended of his rights.
ART. 110. Those prejudiced by a crime or misdemeanor who shall not have renounced their rights may enter an appearance inthe cause, should they do so before the classification of the crime, and exercise the proper civil and criminal actions, or either, as they may desire, without, however, causing any retrogression in the course of the proceedings.
Even if the persons prejudiced do not enter an appearance in the cause, it shall not be understood that they thereby renounce the right to restitution, repair, or indemnity which may be granted them by final sentence, it being necessary that the renunciation of this right be made in a proper case in an express and positive manner.
ART. 111. The actions which arise from a crime or misdemeanor may be instituted jointly or separately; but during the pendency of the criminal action the civil action can not be brought separately until the former has been decided by a final sentence, excepting always the provisions of articles 4, 5, and 6 of this code.
ART. 112. If the criminal action only is instituted, it shall be understood that a civil action may also be brought, unless the person injured or prejudiced renounces the same or expressly reserves the right to institute it after the conclusion of the criminal action, if necessary.
If only the civil action arising from a crime which can be prosecuted only on a private complaint is instituted, the criminal action shall thereby be considered as extinguished.
ART. 113. The two actions may be expressly instituted by the same or by different persons; but should the actions derived from a crime or
The obligation of informing the parties to a cause of their right is established not only with regard to those injured by the crime but also in favor of the presumed criminals, according to article 2.







personas por quienes se utilicen las acciones derivadas de un delito 6 falta, lo verificar~n en un solo proceso, y si fuere posible bajo una misma direcci6n y reprosentaci6n ' juicio del tribunal.
ART. 114. Promovido juicio criminal en averiguacion de tin delito 5 falta, no podrA seguirse pleito sobre el mismo hecho; suspendi~ndole, si le hubicse, en cl estado en que se hallare, hasta que recaiga sentencia firme en la causa criminal.
No sera necesario para el jercicio de la acci6n penal que haya precedido el de ]a civil originada del mismo delito 6 falta.

Lo dispuesto en este articulo so entiende sin perjuicio dc lo establecido en el capitulo II, titulo I do este libro respecto 6 las cuestiones prejudiciales.
ART. 115. La acci6n penal se oxtingue por la muerte del culpable; pero en este caso subsiste la civil contra sus herederos y causahabientes, que s6lo podr' ejercitarse ante la jurisdicci6n y por la via de lo civil.1

ART. 116. La extinci6n de la acci6n penal no lleva consigo la de la civil, A no ser que la extinci6n procede de haberse declarado por sentencia firme que no existi6 el hecho de que la civil hubieso podido Inacer.
En los demds casos, la persona A quien corresponda la acci6n civil podra. ejercitarla ante la jurisdiccion y por la via do lo civil quo proceda contra quien estuviere obligado ' la restituci6n do la cosa, reparaci6n del dafio 6 indemnizaci6n del perjuicio sufrido.
ART. 117. La extinci6n de la acci6n civil tampoco lleva consigo ]a de la penal que nazca del mismo delito 6 falta.
La sentencia firme absolutoria dictada en el pleito promovido por el ejorcicio de la acci6n civil no serA obst~culo para el ejercicio do ]a acci6n penal correspondiente..
Lo dispuesto en este articulo so entiende sin perjuicio de lo que establece el capitulo II dcl titulo I do este libro, y los articulos 106, 107, 110 y p6rrafo segundo del 112.
1 Este artfculo es sustancial repetici6n de los 125 y 132, nmin. 10 del c6digo penal.






misdemeanor be instituted by two or more persons, they shall do so in one proceeding, and if possible with the same counsel, in the discretion of the court.
ART. 114. If a criminal action is brought to investigate a crime or misdemeanor, a suit can not be prosecuted in the same; the proceeding being suspended, should any be pending, in the state in which it may be, until final sentence has been pronounced in the criminal cause.
It shall not be necessary for the institution of the criminal action that it shall have been preceded by the civil action arising from the same crime or misdemeanor.
The provisions of this article shall be understood without prejudice to those of Chapter II, Title I, of this book, with reference to preliminary questions.
ART. 115. A criminal action is extinguished by the death of the culprit; but in such case a civil action still lies against his heirs and successors in right, which can only be brought in a civil court and through civil channels.'
ART. 116. The extinction of the criminal action does not carry with it the extinction of the civil action, unless the extinction be caused by a final sentence declaring that the act on which a civil action might be based did not exist.
In other cases the person having a right of civil action may institute before the civil jurisdiction, and through the proper civil channels, an action against the person who may be obliged to restore the thing, to repair the damage, or indemnify the losses suffered.
ART. 117. Nor does the extinction of the civil action extinguish the criminal action resulting from the same crime or misdemeanor.
A final judgment absolving from liability rendered in the suit brought by the exercise of the right of civil action, shall not bar the exercise of the proper right of criminal action.
The provisions of this article are to be understood without prejudice to the provisions of Chapter 11, Title I, of this book, and of articles 106, 107, 110, and the second paragraph of article 112.
'This article is substantially a repetition of articles 125 and 132, subd. 1, of the Penal Code.












TrfrULO V.


DEL DERECHO DE DEFENSA Y DEL BENEFICIO DE POBREZA EN LOS JUICIOS CRIMINALES.
ART. 118. Los procesados deberdn ser representados por procurador y defendidos por letrado, que pueden nombrar desde que se les notifique el auto de procesarniento. Si no los nombraren por si mismos 6 no tuvieren aptitud legal para verificarlo, se les designar6 de oficio cuando lo solicitaren. Si el procesado no hubiese designado procurador 6 letrado, se le requerirA para que lo verifique, 6 se le nombrarA de oficio, si requerido no los nombrase, cuando la causa llegue f estado en que necesite el consejo de aqugllos 6 haya de intentar alguin recurso que hiciere indispensable su intervencion.'
ART. 119. Los perjudicados por el hecho punible 6 sus herederos que fueren parte en el juicio, si estuviesen habilitados para defenderse como pobres, tendr~n tambign derecho A que se les nombre de oficio procurador y abogado, para su representaci6n y defensa.

ART. 120. Los abogados a quienes corresponda la defensa de pobres no podran excusarse de ella sin un motivo personal y justo, que calificar6n segfin su prudente arbitrio los decanos de los colegios donde los hubiese, y en su defecto el juez 6 tribunal en que hubieren de hacerse las defensas.
ART. 121. Todos los que scan parte en una causa, si no estuviesen declarados pobres, tendrdn obligaci6n de satisfacer los derechos.de los procuradores que les representen, los honorarios de los abogados que les defiendan, los de los peritos que informen a su instancia y las indemnizaciones de los testigos que presentaren, cuando los peritos y testigos al declarar hubiesen formulado su reclamacion y el juez 6 tribunal la estimaren.
Ni durante la causa ni despu~s de terminada tendran obligaci6n de satisfacer las demas costas procesales, 6 no ser que 4 ello fueren condenados.

Los abogados estin obligados A4 defender A los pobres. Impuesta 4 un abogado la correcci6n disciplinaria para que estdn autorizados los juzgados y tribunales, resisti~ndose todavia aqu6l 6 aceptar la defensa que por turno le correspondi6 de un litigante pobre, fu procesado y penado como reo de desobediencia grave, con arreglo al art. 265 del c6digo penal, y habiendo interpuesto recurso de casaci6n, se declar6 no haber lugar d 61 por no haberse infringido dicho articulo. (Senteicia de Marzo 7 d 1877.)












TITLE V.


THE RIGHT OF DEFENSE AND THE BENEFIT OF POVERTY IN CRIMINAL CAUSES.

ART. 118. The persons accused must be represented by a solicitor and defended by an attorney, whom they may appoint as soon as they are notified of the indictment. If they do not designate them themselves or should they not have the legal power to do so, they shall be appointed ex offi cio, upon their request. If the accused should not have designated a solicitor or attorney, he shall be required to do so or they shall be appointed ex officio, if they should not have been appointed by him when the cause reaches a stage where he needs their counsel or some step should be taken wherein their intervention is necessary.'
ART. 119. The persons injured by the punishable act, or their heirs, who may be parties to the action, if they have been declared as entitled to defense in foima pauperis, shall also have the right to have a solicitor and attorney appointed ex officio to represent and defend them.
ART. 120. The attorneys whose duty it is to defend the poor can not excuse themselves therefrom, except for a personal and just cause, which shall be passed upon according to the prudent judgment by the deans of the college, where there is such, and in their absence by the judge or court before which the defense is to be made.
ART. 121. All parties to a cause, if not declared poor persons, shall be obliged to pay the fees of the solicitors who represent them, of the attorneys who defend them, of the experts testifying in their behalf, and of the witnesses which they present, if the experts and witnesses at the time of testifying shall have filed their claim and the judge or court shall have allowed it.

Neither during the cause nor after its termination shall they be obliged to pay the other costs of the proceedings, unless adjudged to pay them.
'Attorneys are obliged to defend poor persons. A disciplinary penalty having been imposed upon an attorney, for which superior and inferior courts have authority, as he still refused to accept the defense of a poor person when it was his turn to do so, he was tried and convicted as guilty of grave disobedience, in accordance with the provisions of article 265 of the Penal Code, and upon taking an appeal for annulment of judgment it was disallowed, it being held that said article had not been violated. (Decision of March 7, 1887.)






El procurador que nombrado por los que fueren parte en una causa, haya aceptado su representaci6n, tendr6 obligaci6n de pagar los honorarios a los letrados de que se valiesen los clientes para su defensa.
Los que hubiesen sido declarados pobres podrn valerse de abogado de su eleccion; pero en este caso estar~n obligados t abonarles sus honorarios, como se dispone respecto de los quc no estgn declarados pobres.
ART. 122. Se usarA papel de oficio en los judicios sobre faltas 3 en las causas criminales, sin perjuicio del correspondiente reintegro si hubiere condenaci6n de costas.
ART. 123. SOlo podr~in ser habilitados corno pobres:

1�. Los que vivan de un jornal 6 salario eventual.
20. Los que vivan s6lo de un salario perinanente, 6 de un sueldo, cualquiera que sea su procedencia, quc no exceda del doble jornal de un bracero en la localidad donde tengan su residencia habitual.
30. Los que vivan s6lo de rentas, cultivo de tierras 6 cria de ganados, cuyos productos est4n graduados en una suna que no exceda de !a equivalente al jornal de dos braceros en el lugar do su residencia habitual.
40. Los que vivan solo del ejercicio de una industria 6 de los productos de cualquier comercio por los cuales paguen de contribuci6n una sumna inferior a la fijada en la siguiente escala:
En la ciudad de la Habana, 150 pesetas.
En las capitales de las otras provincias de la isla de Cuba, 100 pesetas.
En la capital de la isla de Puerto Rico, 100 pesetas.
En las capitales de los partidos judiciales de las islas de Cuba y Puerto Rico, 50 pesetas.
En las dems poblaciones de ambas islas, 25 pesetas.
50. Los que tengan embargados todos sus bienes, 6 los hayan cedido judicialmente 4 sus acreedores, y no ejerzan industria, oficio ' profesi6n.

En estos casos, si quedasen bienes despu6s de pagar 4 los acreedores, se aplicar~n al pago de las costas que deba satisfacer el defendido como pobre.'
IEste artfculo debe entenderse subordinado al 125, y, por lo tanto, procede denegar el beneficio si ]a sala deduce de los signos visibles de riqueza que el que le pretende tiene inedios superiores al doble jornal de un bracero.-Sentenc-ias del Tribunal Supremo 18 Febrero 1870; 31 Diciembre 1877; 22 Septiembre, 18 y 21 Noviembre 1879; 10 Enero, 29 arzo y 24 Junio 1880; 11 Febrero 1881; 15 Diciembre 1883 y otras.

(b) Contra la sentencia que concede 6 un litigante el benefieio de pobreza no procede el recurso de casaci6n.-Sentencia de 10 Mayo 1881.
(c) Tanbin dobe declararse pobre 4 la persona que vive exclusivamnente con una






A solicitor who, being appointed by those who are parties to a cause, agrees to represent them, shall be obliged to pay the fees of the attorneys of whose services their clients avail themselves for their defense.
Those who have been declared poor persons may select their own attorney, but in such case they shall be obliged to pay his fees, as is provided with regard to those who are not declared poor persons.

ART. 122. Official stamped paper shall be employed in trials for misdemeanors and in criminal causes, without prejudice to the proper payment therefor, should there be an adjudgment upon costs.
ART. 123. Only the following can be permitted to prosecute and defend as poor persons:
1. Those who depend for a living upon an uncertain wage or salary.
2. Those who depend for a living upon a permanent salary or wage, from whatsoever source derived, which does not exceed double that received by a laborer in the locality of his habitual residence.
3. Those who depend for a living solely upon rents, farming, or stock raising, the proceeds of which do not exceed the wages of two laborers in the place of their habitual residence.

4. Those who gain their livelihood solely through the exercise of an industry or from the product of any commerce on which they pay a tax lower than that fixed in the following scale:
In the city of Havana, 150 pesetas.
In the capitals of the other provinces of the island of Cuba, 100 pesetas.
In the capital of the island of Porto Rico, 100 pesetas.
In the seats of the judicial districts of the islands of Cuba and Porto Rico, 50 pesetas.
In the other towns of both islands, 25 pesetas.
5. Such persons whose entire property has been attached, or who have made a judicial assignment thereof to their creditors, and who are not engaged in any industry, trade, or profession.
In such cases, if any property shall remain after the creditors have been paid, it shall be applied to the payment of the costs incurred at the instance of the debtor defended as a poor person.' I (a) This article must be understood as subordinated to article 125, and therefore it is proper to refuse the benefit if the court shall deduce from visible signs of wealth that the applicant has means which exceed double the wages of a laborer. --Decisions of the Supreme Court of February 18, 1870; September 22, November 18 and 21, 1879; January 10, March 29, and June 24, 1880; February 11, 1881; December 15, 1883, and others.
(b) An appeal for annulment of judgment does not lie from a decision granting permission to prosecute or defend as a poor person. -Decision of May 10, 1881.
(c) A person who lives solely on a pension of 20 reales per day, left him by will




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TRANSLATION OF THE LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE FOR CUBA AND PORTO RICO (YWTTH SPA N1S11 TEXT), WITH ANNOTATIONS, EXPLANATORY NOTES, AND AMENDMENTS MADE SINCE THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION. WAR DEPARTMENT, DIVISION OF INSULA.R AFrAIRS, October, 1901. WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 1901. 0 -J a = S. UC

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INTRODUCTORY NOTE. The translator of the Code of Criminal Procedure in force in Cuba and Porto Rico begs to call attention to the fact that a large number of decisions of the Supreme Court of Madrid have been inserted as footnotes, which serve to elucidate the language of the text. These decisions are authoritative interpretations and in the Spanish courts have practically the force of law. The references, also inserted as footnotes, calling attention to other laws in force, to royal decrees and military orders which modify the procedure prescribed by the code, it is thought will also aid in making the work of practical use, both for those who desire to inform themselves as to the methods of Spanish procedure and those called upon to practice before the courts in the islands of Cuba and Porto Rico. At the suggestion of a number of attorneys, the Spanish text, taken from official editions of the law, has also been inserted for purposes of convenience. The Cuban civil orders contained in the first appendix have been inserted as published by the respective authorities, and in many cases the English equivalents of the Spanish terms will be found to differ from those used by the translator in the text of the law. An effort has been made to secure as correct a translation as possible, and in some cases the translator may be accused of sacrificing what may be called good English for fidelity to the original text. He has been constantly on his guard against making an interpretation of law instead of a translation. FRANK L. JOANNINI. I certify that the following is a copy of the translation of the Law of Criminal Procedure for Cuba and Porto Rico on file in the Insular Division of the War Department, made under its direction. CLARENCE R. EDWARDS, Chief of Division. III

PAGE 3

INDICE GENERAL. LEY DE ENJUICIAMIENTO CRIMINAL. PAgina. Exposici6n ------------------------------------------------------1 Real Decreto ----------------------------------------------------15 LIBRO PRIMERO. Disposiciones generales. TiTULO I.-Preliminares -------------------------------------------17 Capitulo I. Reglas generales ----------------------------17 II. Cuestiones prejudiciales ----------------------18 II.-De la competencia de los jueces y tribunales en lo criminal-.----19 Capitulo I. De las reglas por donde se determina la competencia ----------------------------------19 II. De las cuestiones de competencia entre los jueces y Tribunales ordinarios---------------------22 III. De las competencias negativas y de las que se promueven con jueces 6 tribunales especiales, y de los recursos de queja contra las autoridades administrativas -----------------------------28 III.-De las recusaciones y excusas de los magistrados, jueces, asesores y auxiliares de los juzgados y tribunales, y de la abstenci6n del ministerio fiscal---------------------------------------30 Capftulo I. Disposiciones generales-----------------------30 II. De la sustanciaci6n de las recusaciones de los jueces de instrucci6n y de los magistrados-----------31 III. De la sustanciaci6n de las recusaciones de los jueces municipales ------------------------------33 IV. De la recusaci6n de los auxiliares de los juzgados y tribunales -------------------------------35 V. De las excusas y recusaciones de los asesores-----36 VI. De la abstenci6n del ministerio fiscal------------36 IV.-De las personas a quienes corresponde el ejercicio de las acciones que nacen de los delitos y faltas ---------------------------38 V.-Del derecho de defensa y del beneficio de pobreza en los juicios criminales ------------------------------------------43 VI.-De la forma de dictar providencias, autos y sentencias, y del modo de dirimir las discordias--------------------------------49 Capitulo I. De la forma de dictar providencias, autos y sentencias ----------------------------------49 II. Del modo de dirimir las discordias -------------54 VII.-De las notificaciones, citaciones y emplazamientos ---------------55 VIII.-De los suplicatorios, exhortos y mandamientos -----------------58 Iv

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CONTENTS. LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE. Page. Address -------------------------------------------------------------1 Royal decree. .-----------------------------------------------------15 BOOK FIRST. General provisions. TITLE I.--Preliminaries ----------.--------------------------------------17 Chapter I. General rules ----------------------------------17 II. Preliminary questions --------------------------18 II.-Jurisdiction of judges and courts in criminal matters ----------19 Chapter I. Rules for determining jurisdiction--------------19 II. Questions of jurisdiction between ordinary judges and courts-------------------22 III. Questions of negative jurisdiction and those raised by special judges or courts and complaints against administrative authorities ---------------------28 III.-Challenges and excuses of justices, judges, assessors, and assistants of superior and inferior courts and the abstention of the prose outing officials ----------------------------------------------30 Chapter I. General provisions ----------------------------30 II. Hearing and decision of challenges of judges of examination and justices ------------------------31 III. Hearing and decision of challenges of municipal judges ----------"-----------33 IV. Challenges of assistants of inferior and superior courts-------------------------------------35 V. Excuses and challenges of assessors-----.------36 VI. Abstention of prosecuting officials -.-.-.-.-------. 36 IV.-Persons who may exercise rights of action arising from crimes and misdemeanors ---------------------------------------------38 V.-The right of defense and the benefit of poverty in criminal causes.43 VI.-Form in which orders, rulings, and decisions shall be made, and manner of adjusting disagreements ---------------------------49 Chapter I. Form in which orders, rulings, and decisions shall le made-----------------------------------49 II. Manner of adjusting disagreements --------------54 VII.-Notifications, citations, and slunuonses ----------------------55 VIII.-Letters requisitorial, mandates, and letters rugatory --------------58 IV

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V TIrUo IX.-De los t~rminos judiciales X.-De los recursos contra las resoluciones de los tribunales y jueces de instrucci6n. XI.-De las costas procesales XII.-De las obligaciones de los jueces y tribunales, relatives A la estadfstica judicial .. XIII.-De las correcciones disciplinarias -. LIBnRO SEGUNDo. Del .sumario. TfTULO I.-De la denuncia. II.-De la querella-.--.---. III.-De la poliefa judicial IV.-De la instrucci6n. Capitulo I. Del sumario y de las autoridades competentes para instruirlo. II. De la formaci6n del sumario. V.-De la comprobaci6n del delito y averiguaci6n del delincuente Capftulo I. De la inspecci6n ocular. II. Del cuerpo del delito. III. De la identidad del delincuente y de sus circunstancias personales. IV. De las declaraciones de los procesados. V. De las declaraciones de los testigos. VI. Del careo de los testigos y procesados VII. Del informe pericial-------------------VI.-De la citaci6n, de la detenci6n y de la prisi6n provisional. Capftulo I. De la citaci6n II. De la detenci6n. III. De la prisi6n provisional. IV. Del tratamiento de los detenidos 6 presos. VII.-De la libertad provisional del procesado. VIII.-De la entrada y registro en lugar cerrado, del de libros y papeles y de la detenci6n y apertura de la correspondencia escrita y telegrdfica IX.-De la fianza y embargos. X.-De la responsabilidad civil de terceras personas. XI.-De la conclusion del sumario y del sobreseimiento. Capftulo I. De la conclusion del sumario. II. Del sobreseimiento XII.-Disposiciones generates referentes d los anteriores titulos LIBRO TERCERO. Del juicio oral. TiTULO I.-De la calificaci6n del delito. II.-De los artfculos de previo pronunciamiento. III.-De la celebraci6n del juicio oral ----. Capitulo I. De la publicidad de los debates II. De las facultades del presidente del tribunal. PAgina. 61 64 67 69 71 157 165 168 168 168

PAGE 6

V Page. TITLE IX.-Judicial periods----------------------------------------61 X. -Remedies against decisions of courts and judges of examination -64 XI.-Costs in actions -----------------------------------------67 XII.-Obligations of judges and courts with regard to judicial statistics .' 69 XIlI.-Disciplinary corrections----------------------------------71 BOOK SECOND. The sumario. TITLE I.-The denunciation.-------------------------------------.72 II.-The complaint or information ------------------------------74 III.-The judicial police-.-.-.---.-.-.-.-.---.-.--77 IV.-The investigation.----------------------------------------81 Chapter I. The sumario and the authorities to take cognizance thereof.------.---------.-------81 II. Formation of the sumario --------------------83 V.-Proof of the crime and verification of the delinquent -----------88 Chapter I. The ocular inspection --------.----------88 II. The corpus deliciti -----------------------------89 III. The identity of 'the delinquent and his personal circumstances----------------------------99 IV. Declaration of the accused --------------------99 V. Depositions of witnesses---.-------.-----102 VI. Confrontation between the witnesses and the accused --------------------------------110 VII. Expert evidence--------------.----------.111 VI.-The citation, the detention, and the provisional imprisonment.-. 116 Chapter I. The citation.-.---.--.--.-.116 II. The detention..---.-. -. 116 III. Provisional imprisonment. .---------------119 IV. Treatment of persons detained or imprisoned...122 VII.-Provisional liberty of the accused-------------.------------124 VIII.-Entry and search of closed places, of books and papers, and the detention and opening of written and telegraphic correspondence 127 IX.-Bonds and attachments------------------------.--------134 X.-Civil liability of third persons---.--------------------139 XI.-Conclusion of the sumario and dismissal of proceedings .---141 -Chapter I. Conclusion of the sumario .-------------------141 II. Dismissal of the proceedings .---------------149 XJI.-General provisions relating to the foregoing titles --------------155 BooK THIRD. The oral trial. TITLE I.-Classification of the crime----.-.-.-. 157 II.-Preliminary exceptions ..----------------------------------165 III.-Holding of the oral trial.-----.-.--.---. --.--.---.-. .168 Chapter I. Publicity of the arguments. -----------------168 II. Powers of the presiding judge of the court-----168

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vI TiTULO III.-De la celebraci6n del juicio oral-Continda. PAgina. Capftulo III. Del modo de practicar las pruebas durante el juicio oral .------------------------------------169 Secei6n 1.a De la confesi6n de los procesados y personas civilnente responsables. 169 2.4 Del examen de los testigos ------172 3.a Del informe pericial-------------177 4.a De la prueba documental y de la imspecci6n ocular-------------178 5.a Disposiciones comunes a las cuatro secciones anteriores ------------178 IV. De la acusaci6n, de la defensa y de la sentencia.180 V. De la suspension del juicio oral-----------------183 LIBRO CUARTO. De los procedimientos especiales. TiTULO I.-Del modo de proceder cuando fuere procesado un Senador 6 Diputado 4 Cortes-----------------------------------------187 II.-Del antejuicio necesario para exigir la responsabilidad criminal 4 los jueces y magistrados-----------------------------------189 III.-Del procedimiento en los casos de flagrante delito -.------------193 Capftulo I. Casos en'que tiene lugar este procedimiento--.193 II. Reglas 4 que debe ajustarse este procedimiento --195 IV.-Del procedimiento por delitos de injuria y calumnia contra particulares ------------------------------------------------199 V.-Del procedimiento por delitos cometidos por medio de la imprenta, el grabado 1t otro medio mecdnico de publication. -------------201 VI.-Del procedimiento para la extradici6n ------------------------203 VII.-Del procedimiento contra reos ausentes -----------------------205 LIBRO QUINTO. De los recursos de casaci6n y de revision. TITULO I.-De los recursos de casaci6n----------------------------------207 Capitulo I. De los recursos de casacion por infracci6n de ley207 Section 1. De la procedencia del recurso-----207 2.a De la preparaci6n del recurso --213 3.a Del recurso de queja por denegaci6n del testimonio pedido para interponer el de casaci6n -----------215 4.a De la interposici6n del recurso.-217 5.a De la sustanciaci6n del recurso .----220 6.a De la decision del recurso------. --223 II. De los recursos de casaci6n por quebrantamiento de forma-------------------------------225 Secci6n 1.1 De la procedencia del recurso------225 2.1 De la interposici6n del recurso----231 3.a Del recurso de queja por denegaci6n de admisi6n del de Ccasaci6n por quebrantamiento de forma------232 4., De la sustanciaci6n del recurso----233 5., De la decision del recurso ---------234

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VI TITLE III.-Holding of the oral trial-Continued. Chapter III. Manner of taking evidence at the oral trial.-. Section 1. Confession of the persons accused and persons civilly liable. 2. Examination of witnesses. -3. Expert examinations 4. Documentary evidence and ocular inspection 5. Provisions common to the four preceding sections-IV. The accusation, the defense, and the sentence.-. V. Suspension of the oral trial BOOK FouRTn. Special proceedings. TITLE I.-Manner of proceeding in the trial of a senator or deputy to the Cortes .. II.-Preliminary action necessary for the purpose of enforcing the criminal liability of judges and justices III.-Proceedings in cases of flagrant crimes .. Chapter I. Cases where these proceedings lie II. Rules to which these proceedings must conform. -IV.-Proceedings upon crimes of contumely and calumny against private individuals -----------------------------------------V.-Proceedings on crimes committed through the press, engravings, or other mechanical means of publication .VI.-Proceedings for extradition ------------------------------VII.-Proceedings against absent criminals. BOOK FiFTH. Appeals for annulment of judgment and for review. TITLE I.-Appeals for annulment of judgment .-.Chapter I. Appeals for annulment of judgment for violation of law Section II. Appeals for Section 1. When the appeal lies. 2. Preparation of the appeal-.-.-3. Remedy of complaint on account of a refusal of a transcript requested for the interposition of an appeal for annulment of judgment ---.4. Interposition of the appeal 5. Hearing of the appeal 6. Decision of the appeal. for annulment of judgment for breach of m --------------------------------1. When the appeal lies.--..2. Interpositon of the appeal 3. Remedy of complaint on account of the denial of an appeal for annulment of judgment for breach of form -4. Hearing of the appeal--.-.-.5. Decision of the appeal -.207 207 207 213 215 217 220 223 225 225 231 232 233 234 Page. 169 169 172 177 178 178 180 183 187 189 193 193 195 199 201 203 205

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VII TTimo I.-De los recursos de casaci6n-Continua. Capftulo III. De la interposici6n, sustanciaci6n y resoluci6n del recurso de casaci6n por infracci6n de ley y por quebrantamiento de forma -. IV. Del recurso de casaci6n en las causas de muerte. II.-Del recurso de revisi6n. LIBRO SEXTO. Del procedimiento para el juicio sobre faltas. TiTULO I.-Del juicio sobre faltas, en primera instancia II.-Del juicio sobre faltas, en segunda instancia. LIBRO StPTJMO. De la ejecuci6n de las sentencias .._. Disposici6n final. APENDICE I. Decretos del Gobierno Militar de Cuba. No. 41.-14 No. 63.-25 de Abril de Mayo de 1899--.--.-. de 1899. No. 92.-26 de Junio de 1899 No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. 109.-13 de Julio de 1899. 135.-11 de Agosto de 1899. 157.-5 de Septiembre de 1899. 176.-21 de Septiembre de 1899. 58.-9 de Febrero de 1900 152.-10 de Abril de 1900 .. 166.-23 de Abril de 1900 _. 181.-30 de Abril de 1900. .. 192.-9 de Mayo de 1900. 213.-25 de Mayo de 1900. 228.-3 de Junio de 1900 269.-3 de Julio de 1900 311.-8 de Agosto de 1900. 362.-17 de Septiembre de 1900. 427.-15 de Octubre de 1900. 465.-14 de Noviembre de 1900. 468.-15 de Noviembre de 1900. 500.-10 de Diciembre de 1900 513.-19 de Diciembre de 1900 3.-1.o de Enero de 1901. 45.-4 de Febrero de 1901. 84.-25 de Marzo de 1901 95.-10 de Abril de 1901 520.-21 de Diciembre de 1900 .. APNDICE II. Articulos del C6digo Penal a que have referencia Criminal. la Ley de Enjuiciamiento -------------344 APNDICE III. Articulos de la Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil 41 que hace referencia la de Enjuiciamiento Criminal. 348 PAgina. 234 236 238 240 243 245 248 249 259 259 281 287 288 288 289 289 290 293 296 298 312 312 313 317 322 331 332 332 334 334 335 337 338 342 ._ _ . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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VII TITLE I.-Appeals for annulment of judgment-Continued. Chapter III. Interposition,. hearing, and decision of an appeal for annulment of judgment for violation of law and for breach of form. IV. Appeals for annulment of judgment in causes involving the death penalty II.-The appeal for review ----------------------------------BooK SIXTH. Proceedings in actions upon misdemeanors. TITLE I.-Actions upon misdemeanors at first instance. II.-Actions upon misdemeanors at second instance ---------------BOOK SEVENTH. Execution of sentences. Final provision APPENDIX I. Orders of the Cuban Military Government. N o. 41.April 14, 1899 ----------. ---. ---.--.----. No. 63.M ay 25, 1899 -. -. ------. -. ---. ----.--.-.No. No. No. 92.-June 26, 1899. 109.-July 13, 1899.-135.-August 11, 1899. No. 157.-September 5, 1899 No. 176.-September 21, 1899 No. 58.-February 9, 1900. No. 152.-April 10, 1900 No. 166.-April 23, 1900 -.-No. 181.-April 30, 1900 .No. 192.-May 9, 1900 No. 213.-May 25, 1900 -. No. 228.-June 3, 1900. No. 269.-July 3, 1900 No. 311.-August 8, 1900. No. 362.-September 17, 1900 No. 427.-October 15, 1900 No. 465.-November 14, 1900 No. 468.-November 15, 1900 No. 500.-December 10, 1900 No. 513.-December 19, 1900 No. 3.-January 1, 1901. No. 45.-February 4, 1901. No. 84.-March 25, 1901 No. 95.-April 10, 1901 -.. No. 520.-December 21, 1900 ----.--------. . .. . . .-----. .. .......................-----------------. . .-. ............................................ .. . .APPENDIX II. Articles of the Penal Code referred to in the Law of Criminal Procedure .. APPENDIX III. Articles of the Law of Civil Procedure referred to in the Law of Criminal Procedure. Page. 234 236 238 240 243 245 248 249 259 259 281 287 288 288 289 289 290 293 296 298 312 312 313 317 322 331 332 332 334 334 335 337 338 342 344 348

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LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE.

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EXPOSICION QUE PRECEDE AL REAL DECRETO DE 14 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1882, POR EL QUE SE APROBO EL PROYECTO DE CODIGO DE ENJUICIAMIENTO CRIMINAL. SEToR:-La ejecuci6n de las dos eyes promulgadas en virtud de Reales decretos do 22 de Junio do este alo presupone un nuevo C6digo de Enjuiciamionto penal, una modificaci6n profunda en la ley organica del Poder judicial do 15 de Septiembre do 1870, la determinaci6n del numero y residencia de los Tribunales colegiados que han de conocer en unica instancia y on juicio oral y p6blico de los delitos que se cometan dentro do su respectivo territorio, y, por ltimo, la formaci6n do los cuadros de personal de esos mismos Tribunales cuyos presidents deben star adornados de condiciones especiales de capacidad para la direcei6n y resumen do los debates. Basta la mera enumeracion de estos trabajos preparatorios para comprender que, ni por su indole y naturaleza, ni por su extension y exceptional importancia, podian terminarse en breve plazo. Cflbele, sin embargo, al infrascrito la satisfacci6n de anunciar hoy 6 V. M. que todos ollos pueden darse por ultimados, gracias al patri6tico concurso que ban prestado al Gobierno hombres eminentes no s6lo en ]a ciencia del Derecho, sino tambien on el conocimiento especial de la topograffa, censo do poblaci6n, veas de comunicaci6n y estadistica criminal del territorio de la Peninsula u islas adyacentes. El Gobierno de V. M. no se propone publicar todos estos trabajos a la vez; antes al contrario, cree conveniente anticipar la promulgaci6n del C6digo de Enjuiciamiento para que, mientras se instalan las Audiencias de lo criminal, puedan estudiarle y conocerle los magistrados, jueces, fiscales, letrados y demis personas que por modo ma4s 6 menos directo y eficaz han do concurrir a su planteamiento y aplicaci6n. No seri su ev'udio muy dificil ni prolijo, porque al cabo e1 proyecto que 01 Ministro que suscribe somete boy a la aprobaci6n de V. M. est& basado on la Compilaci6n general de 16 de Octubre de 1879, de conformidad con 1o preceptuado en la autorizaci6n votada por las Cortes; pero asi y todo, son tan radicals las reformas en e1 introducidas, que bien podia pasar por un C6digo completamente nuevo y de 1

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ADDRESS PRECEDING THE ROYAL DECREE OF SEPTEMBER 14, 1882, APPROVING THE PROPOSED CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE. SIRE: The execution of the two laws promulgated by virtue of royal decrees of June 22 of this year presupposes a new code of penal procedure, a radical change in the organic law of the judicial power of September 15, 1870, the determination of the number and seats of the collegiate tribunals which are to take cognizance in first and last instance, and in oral and public trials of the crimes which may be committed within their respective territories, and, finally, the selection of the personnel of the said tribunals, the presiding judges of which must possess special qualifications for the direction and summing up of the cases. A mere statement of these preparatory works is sufficient to show that neither by their character or nature, nor by their extent and exceptional importance, could they be concluded in a short time. The undersigned, nevertheless, has the pleasure of to-day informing Your Majesty that all of them can be considered as concluded, thanks to the patriotic assistance furnished to the Government by men eminent in the science of law and perfectly conversant with the topography of the country, census of the population, means of communication, and the criminal statistics of the territory of the Peninsula and adjacent islands. The Government of Your Majesty does not propose to publish all these works at the same time, but, on the contrary, it deems it advisable first to promulgate the Code of Procedure in order that, until the criminal audiencias are established, it may be studied and known by the justices, judges, ,fascales, attorneys, and other persons who are to contribute in a more or less direct and efficient manner to its establishment and application. Its study will not be very difficult or require a long time, because, after all, the draft which the undersigned Minister herewith submits for the approval of Your Majesty is based upon the general compilation of October 16, 1879, in pursuance with the authority vested in the Government by the Cortes; but, nevertheless, the amendments introduced therein are so radical that it might be said with reason 1

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2 caricter tan liberal y progresivo como el mais adelantado de los C6digos de procedimiento criminal del continent europeo. Entre esas reformas son sin duda las menos importantes aquellas que, sugeridas por la experiencia, tienen por objeto, ya aclarar varios preceptos mas 6 menos oscuros y dudosos de la Compilaci6n vigente, ya uniformar la jurisprudencia, 6 ya, en fin, facilitar la sustanciaci6n de algunos recursos y muy especialmente el de casaci6n, acerca del cual ha hecho observaciones muy oportunas y discretas el Tribunal Supremo, que naturalmente han sido acogidas con el respeto que merece una Corporaci6n que esta a la cabeza de la Magistratura espafiola, y que es por la ly interpreted y guardian de la doctrina juridica. Las de verdadera importancia y transcendencia son aquellas otras que se encaminan 4 suplir, como en las cuestiones prejudiciales, algfn vacio sustancial por donde era frecuente el arbitrio un tanto desmedido, y mas que desmedido contradictorio, de la jurisprudencia, a corregir los vicios cr6nicos de nuestro sistema de enjuiciar traditional y a rodear al ciudadano de las garantias necesarias para que en ningun caso scan sacrificados los derechos individuales al interns mal entendido del Estado. Sin desconocer que la Constituci6n de 1812, el reglamento provisional para la administration de justicia do 1835 y otras disposiciones posteriores mejoraron considerablemente el procedimiento criminal, seria temerario negar que aun bajo la legislaci6n vigente no es raro que un sumario dure ocho 6 mas aflos, y es frecuente que no dure menos de dos, prolongandose en ocasiones por todo este tiernpo la prisi6n preventiva de los acusados, y aun podria afladirse, para completar el cuadro, que tan escandalosos process solian no ha mucho terminar por una absolucidn de la instancia, sin que nadie indemnizara en este caso a los procesados do las vejaciones sufridas en tan dilatado period, y lo que es mas, dejandoles por todo el resto de su vida en situaci6n inc6moda y deshonrosa, bajo la amenaza perenne do abrir de nuevo el procedimiento el dia quo por malquerencia se prestaba a declarar contra ellos cualquier vecino rencoroso y vengativo. Esta practica abusiva y atentoria 4 los derechos del individuo pugna todavia por mantenorse con este 6 e1 otro disfraz en nuestras costumbres judiciales; y es menester que cese para siempro, porque el ciudadano de un pueblo libre no debe expiar faltas quo no son suyas, ni ser victima de la impotencia 6 del egoismo del Estado. Con ser estos dos vicios tan capitales, no son, sin embargo, los (inicos ni acaso los mis grandes de nuestro procedimiento. Lo poor de todo es quo on 61 no se da intervenci6n alguna al inculpado en el sumario; que

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2 that it is an entirely new one as liberal and progressive as the most advanced code of criminal procedure on the European Continent. Among these changes the less important are no doubt those suggested by experience, whose object is either to explain various more or less obscure and doubtful precepts of the compilation in force, to make the jurisprudence uniform, or, finally, to facilitate the use of some remedies and most especially the appeal for annulment of judgment, upon which the Supreme Court has made some very opportune and well-chosen remarks, which have naturally been received with the respect which that body deserves which is at the head of the Spanish judiciary, and which is by law the interpreter and guardian of the juridical doctrine. The amendments of real and transcendent importance are those whose purpose it is to supply, as in preliminary questions, some substantial lack owing to which it has frequently occurred that the discretionary powers granted were so great, and more than that, even contradictory to jurisprudence; to correct the chronic vices of our traditional system of procedure, and to surround the citizen with the necessary guaranties, in order that in no case should individual rights be sacrificed to the poorly understood interests of the State. Without ignoring the fact that the Constitution of 1812, the provisional regulations for the administration of justice of 1835, and other subsequent provisions greatly improved the criminal procedure, it would be unreasonable to deny that even under the legislation in force it is not unusual that the preliminary proceedings last eight or more years, and it frequently happens that they do not last less than two, the temporary imprisonment of the accused continuing in some cases this entire period; and it may further be added, in order to complete the picture, that these scandalous processes not so very long ago would sometimes be closed on account of lack of evidence, without anyone, in such case, indemnifying the accused persons for the inconveniences suffered for so long a period, and, what is more, the imprisonment would leave them for the rest of their life in an unpleasant and disgraceful condition, under the permanent menace of the proceedings being reopened any day that, through malice, any rancorous or vengeful neighbor should inform against them. This evil practice, which attacks the rights of individuals, is still kept under some disguise or other in our judicial customs; and it is necessary that it should be abolished forever, because a citizen of a free nation must not expiate faults of which he is not guilty, nor be the victim of the impotence or of the egoism of the State. Although these are two capital vices, they are not, however, the only ones, nor even the most serious faults in our procedure. The worst of all is that the accused is not allowed to take part in the

PAGE 16

3 el juez que instruye 6ste es el mismo que pronuncia la sentencia con todas las preocupaciones y prejuicios que ha hecho nacer en su 4nimo la instrucci6n; quo confundido lo civil con 10 criminal y abrumados los jueces de priinera instancia por el cimulo de sus multiples y variadas atenciones, delegan frecuentemente la practica de muchas diligencias en el escribano, quien, 4 solas con el procesado y los testigos, no siempro interpreta bien el pensamiento, ni retrata con perfecta fidelidad las impresiones do cada uno, por grande quo sea su celo y recta su voluntad; quo por la naturaleza misma de las cosas y la l6gica del sistema, nuestros jueces y magistrados han adquirido el hibito de dar escasa importancia 4 las pruebas del plenario, formando su juicio por ei resultado de las diligencias sumariales, y no parando mientes on la ratificaci6n de los testigos, convertida en vana formalidad; que on ausencia del inculpado y su defensor, los funcionarios que intervienen on la instruction del sumario, animados do un espiritu receloso y hostil que se engendra on su mismo patri6tico celo por la causa de la sociedad que representan, recogen con preferencia los datos adversos al procesado, descuidando a las veces consignar los que pueden favorecerlo; y quo, en fin, do este conjunto de errores anejos a nuestro sistema de enjuiciar, y no imputable, por tanto, 4 los funcionarios del orden judicial y fiscal, resultan dos cosas 4 cual mis funestas al ciudadano: una, que al compas quo adolanta el sumario se va fabricando inadvertidamente una verdad de artificio, quo mis tarde so convierte en verdad legal, pero quo es contraria 4 la realidad de los hechos y subleva la conciencia del procesado; y otra, que cuando este, liegado el plenario, quiere defenders, no Lace mis quo forcejear inutilmente porque entra on el palenque ya vencido, 6 por 1o menos desarmado. Hay, pues, que restablecer la igualdad de condiciones on esta contienda juridica hasta donde 1o consientan los fines esenciales de la sociedad humana. Quizas se tache do exagerada e injusta esta critica de la organization de nuestra justicia criminal. jOjala quo 1o fuera! Pero cl Ministro quo suscribe no manda en su raz6n, y est4 obligado 4 decir 4 V. M. la verdad tal como la siente; quo las lagas sociales no so curan ocultindolas, sino al revs, midiendo su extension y profundidad, y estudiando su origen y naturaleza para aplicar el oportuno remedio. En sentir del quo suscribe, s6lo por la costumbre se puede explicar que el pueblo espaflol, tan civilizado y culto y quo tantos progress ha hecho en 1o quo va de siglo en la ciencia, en ol arte, en la industria y en su educaci6n politica, se resigne a un sistoma semejanto, mostrandose indiferente 6 desconociendo sus vicios y poligros, como no los aprecia ni mide, el que habituado 4 respirar en atm6sfera mal sana, liega hasta la astixia sin sentirla. El extranjero que estudia la organic.

PAGE 17

3 preliminary proceedings; that the judge who sits thereon is the same as the one who pronounces the sentence, with all the ideas and prejudices to which the investigation has given rise; that, civil and criminal matters being confounded, and the judges of first instance being overwhelmed by the accumulation of their multiple and various duties, frequently delegate the performance of many steps to the court clerk, who, alone with the accused and the witnesses, does not always correctly interpret the thought nor does he portray with perfect fidelity the testimony of each, no matter how zealous or how good may be his will; that, by the character itself of the things and the logic of the system, our judges and justices have acquired the habit of attributing little importance to the evidence introduced at the trial, forming their judgment upon the result of the preliminary proceedings, and do not pay particular attention to the ratification of the witnesses, which has become a mere formality; that in the absence of the accused and his counsel, the officials taking part in the preliminary proceedings, animated with a suspicious and hostile spirit, which is engendered by their patriotic zeal in the interests of the society they represent, give preference to the data against the accused, forgetting at the same time to record those which might favor him; and that, finally, from this number of errors in our system of procedure, and which can not be imputed, therefore, to the officials of the judiciary or to the public prosecutors, there result two things very unfavorable to the citizen: One, that in proportion as the preliminary proceedings advance, a network is being inadvertently woven which is later converted into a legal truth, but which is contrary to the facts, and causes the conscience of the accused to rebel, and the other, that when the latter wishes to defend himself at the trial he does nothing but uselessly contradict, because he enters the arena already defeated, or at least disarmed. It is necessary, therefore, to establish an equality of conditions in this juridical contest in so far as the essential ends of human society will permit. Perhaps this criticism of the organization of our criminal justice may be considered exaggerated and unjust. Would that it were so. But the undersigned Minister is not master of his judgment, and is obliged to tell Your Majesty the truth as he feels it. Social evils are not cured by concealing them, but, on the contrary, by measuring their extent and depth and by studying their origin and nature, in order that the proper remedy may be applied. In the opinion of the undersigned, custom only can explain how the Spanish people, so civilized and cultured, and which has made such progress during the present century in the sciences, arts, and industries, and in political education, should resign itself to such a system, showing indifference or ignoring its vices and dangers, like those who breathe an unhealthy atmosphere and reach a point of asphyxiation without knowing it. A foreigner

PAGE 18

4 zaci6n de nuestra justicia criminal al vernos apegados a un sistema ya caduco, y desacreditado en Europa y en America, tiene por necesidad que formar una idea injusta y falsa de la civilizaci6n y cultura espanolas. Lo que hay que examinar, por tanto, es si el adjunto proyecto de C6digo remedia, si no todos, al menos los mas capitales defector de que adolece la vigente organizaci6n de la justicia criminal. Es preciso en primer termino sustituir la marcha perezosa y lenta del actual procedimiento por un sistema que, dando amplitud A la defensa y garantias de acierto al fallo, asegure, sin embargo, la celeridad del juicio para la realizaci6n de dos fines a cual mas importantes: uno, que la suerte del ciudadano no est6 indefinidamente en lo incierto ni se le causen mias vejaciones que las absolutamente indispensables para la averiguaci6n del delito y el descubrimiento del verdadero delincuente; y otro, que la pena siga de cerca A la culpa para su debida eficacia y ejemplaridad. Pues bien, Senfor; he aqui el conjunto de medios que el nuevo sistema ofrece para el logro de resultado tan transcendental: la sustituci6n de los dos grados de jurisdicci6n por la instancia fnica, la oralidad del juicio, la separaci6n de 1o civil y 1o criminal en cuanto al Tribunal sentenciador, igual separaci6n en cuanto 4 los jueces instructores en ciertas ciudades populosas en donde hay mas de un juez de primera instancia y es mucha la criminalidad, un alivio considerable de trabajo en cuanto a los demas jueces, a quienes se descarga del plenario y del pronuncianiiento y motivaci6n de la sentencia, ya que razones indeclinables de economia no permiten extender a ellos dicha separaci6n, multitud de reglas de detalle esparcidas aqui y ally en el adjunto C6digo, y singularmente en sus dos primeros libros, para que los jueces instructores en el examen de los testigos y en la practice de los demas medios de investigation se ciian a solo lo que sea ftil y pertinente y, por ultimo, la intervenci6n del procesado en todas las diligencias del sumario tan pronto como el juez estime que la publicidad de las actuaciones no compromete la causa publica ni estorba el descubrimiento de la verdad. Por regla general nadie tiene m's interes que el procesado en activar el procedimiento y si alguna vez su prop6sito fuera prolongarlo, se lo impediria el juez, y sobre todo el fiscal, A quien se da el derecho de pedir la terminaci6n del sumario y la apertura del juicio oral ante el Tribunal colegiado. Concurrira tambien al propio fin la inspecci6n continua y sistematicamente organizada en la ley, de la Audiencia de Jo criminal y del Ministerio phblico sobre la march de los procesos en el periodo de la instrucci6n y la conduct de los jueces instructores. No es, finalmente, para echado en olvido, cuando de la brevedad del juicio se trata, el libro 4o, donde se establecen pro-

PAGE 19

4 studying the organization of our criminal justice, in seeing us attached to a system out of date and which is discredited in Europe and in America, must necessarily form an unjust and false idea of Spanish civilization and culture. What is to be examined, therefore, is whether the attached project for a code remedies, if not all, at least the most notable defects contained in the organization of criminal justice at present in force. It is necessary, in the first place, to substitute for the slow and lazy progress of the present procedure a system which, in giving full scope to the defense, and guarantees of certainty to the judgment, shall nevertheless assure a speedy trial, for the consummation of two ends of the greatest importance: One, that the fate of the citizen be not indefinitely held in suspense, and that not more inconveniences be caused him than are absolutely necessary for the investigation of the crime and the discovery of the guilty party, and the other that the punishment follow soon after the fault, for the purpose of its proper efficacy and example. Consequently, Sir, I state herewith the measures which the new system affords for the attainment of such important results: The substitution for the two degrees of jurisdiction by the only instance, the oral character of the trial, separation of civil and criminal matters with regard to the sentencing tribunal; a similar separation with regard to the examining judges in certain largely populated towns where there is more than one judge of first instance and much crime; a considerable reduction in work with regard to the other judges, who are not required to take part in the trial, nor to pronounce sentence and give the reasons therefor, as unsurmountable reasons of economy do not permit the extension to them of said separation; a large number of rules of detail scattered here and there in the attached code, and especially in the first two books, in order that the examining judges in the examination of the witnesses and in the execution of the other steps in the investigation confine themselves exclusively to what may be useful and pertinent; and, finally, the intervention of the accused in all the steps of the preliminary proceedings as soon as the judge considers that the publicity of the proceedings will not compromise the public cause nor hinder the discovery of the truth. As a general rule no one has more interest than the accused in hastening the proceedings; and if his purpose were at any time to prolong the same the judge will prevent it, and especially the fiscal, to whom the right is given to demand the conclusion of the preliminary proceedings and the beginning of the oral trial before the collegiate tribunal. The continuous and systematic inspection provided for by this law, of the criminal audiencia and of the public department, as to the progress of the proceedings during the period of the investigation and of the conduct of the -examining judges will

PAGE 20

5 cedimientos especiales y sumarios para los delitos infraganti, para los de injuria y calumnia y para los cometidos por medio de la imprenta. Podra ser que ni la Comisi6n de C6digos ni el Gobierno hayan acertado en la elecci6n de los medios en este punto tan interesante de la ciencia procesal; pero la verdad es que no han encontrado otros, ni so los ha sugerido el examen de los C6digos modernos atentamente estudiados con tal fin. La ley de 11 Febrero, en la base referente a la prisi6n preventive, permit, por la flexibilidad de sus terminos, mejorar considerablemente esta parte de nuestra legislaci6n sin necesidad de pedir su reform a las Cortes. El texto legal bien analizado resulta tan elistico, que lo mismo se prosta al desenvolvimiento de la base en un sentido tirante y restrictivo, que en otro mas amplio, expansivo y liberal. Ocioso parece afladir que el Gobierno de V. M. se ha decidido por lo iltimo, toda vez que podia hacerlo sin cometer una transgresi6n do la loy; como en la materia de fianzas, tan intimamento ligada con todo lo referent 4 Ila prisi6n preventiva, ha procurado armonizar los fines de la justicia con los derechos del procesado, poniendo coto a la possible arbitrariedad judicial y estableciendo reglas equitativas y prudentes quo permitan mayor amplitud que hasta ahora, asi on los medios y formas de las fianzas como en la entidad do ellas. Es igualmente intil decir que la absoluci6n de la instancia, esta corruptola que hacia del ciudadano a quien el Estado no habia podido convencer de culpable, una especie de liberto de por vida, verdadero siervo de la curia marcado con el stigma del dishonor, est4 proscrita y expresamente prohibida por el nuevo C6digo, como habia sido antes condenada por la ciencia, por la ley de 1872 y por la Compilaci6n vigente. De esperar es que las disposiciones de la nueva ley sean bastanto eficaces para impedir quo semejante practice vuelva do nuevo a ingerirse en forma mas 6 menos disimulada en nuestras costumbres judiciales. Los demas vicios del Enjuiciamiento vigento quedarin sin duda corregidos con el planteamiento del juicio oral y phblico y la introducci6n del sistema acusatorio en la ley procesal. El reglamento provisional de 26 de Septiembre de 1835 y las disposiciones posteriores publicadas durante el reinado de la augusta madre de V. M., introdujeron, como ya se ha dicho, evidentos mejoras on el procedimiento criminal; pero no alteraron su indole esencialmente inquisitiva. Las leyes de 15 de Septiembre de 1870 y 22 de Diciembre de 1872, inspirindose en las ideas de libertad proclamadas por la revoluci6n de 1868, realizaron una reforma radical en nuestro sistema de enjuiciar, con el establecimiento del juicio oral y piblico; pero

PAGE 21

5 also contribute to the same end. Finally, Book IV must not be forgotten in treating of the brevity of the proceedings, which establishes special and summary proceedings for flagrant crimes as well as for the crime of outrage and calumny and for those committed through the press. It may be that neither the commission on codes nor the Government, in their selection of means, have covered so interesting a point in the science of procedure; but the truth is that it has not been possible to find any other measures nor have any been suggested from an examination of modern codes carefully studied for this purpose. The law of February 11, in the basis relating to provisional imprisonment, permits, by the flexibility of its terms, a considerable improvement in this part of our legislation without requiring the Cortes to amend the same. The legal text if well analyzed appears so elastic that it serves for the development of the basis in a strict and restrictive sense, as well as in one more ample, expansive, and liberal. It appears unnecessary to add that the Government of Your Majesty has decided finally whenever it could do so without committing a transgression of law; as in the matter of bail, so intimately connected with all that relates to provisional imprisonment, it has attempted to harmonize the ends of justice with the rights of the accused, putting an end to the possible judicial arbitrariness and establishing equitable and prudent rules which permit a greater scope than allowed heretofore in the character and form of bonds as well as their amount. It is likewise useless to state that a dismissal of the case for lack of evidence, this abuse which made of the citizen whom the State could not convict a kind of paroled prisoner for the rest of his life, a true serf of the parish marked with the stigma of dishonor, is proscribed and expressly prohibited by the new code, as it had previously been condemned by science, by the law of 1872, and by the compilation in force. It is to be hoped that the provisions of the new law will be sufficiently efficacious to prevent a similar practice from again being grafted in a more or less disguised form into our judicial customs. The other vices contained in the procedure in force will no doubt be corrected by the establishment of oral and public trials and the introduction of the accusatory system in the law of procedure. The provisional regulations of September 26, 1835, and the suosequent provisions published during the reign of Your Majesty's August Mother, introduced, as has been said, evident improvements in the criminal procedure, but they did not alter its essentially inquisitive character. The laws of September 15, 1870, and December 22, 1872, inspired by the ideas of liberty proclaimed by the revolution of 1868, established a radical reform in our system of procedure by the establishment of oral and public trials, but they continued the inquisitive

PAGE 22

6 mantuvieron el principio inquisitivo y e1 caracter secreto del procedimiento en el periodo de instrucci6n, siguiendo el ejemplo de Francia, Belgica y otras naciones del continent europeo. El Ministro que suscribe, de acuerdo con sus colegas, no ha vacilado en aconsejar 6 V. M. que de un paso mis en el camino del progreso, ilevando en cierta medida el sistema acusatorio al sumario mismo, que es, despues de todo, la piedra angular del juicio y la sentencia. En adelante el juez instructor por su propia iniciativa y de oficio podrs, 6 mejor dicho, deberi acordar que se comuniquen los autos al procesado desde el momento on que la publicidad y la contradicci6n no scan un peligro para la sociedad interesada en el descubrimiento de los delitos y en el castigo de los culpables. Si no se hace espontineamente en el plazo de dos meses, contados desde que se inco6 la causa, la ley da al acusado el derecho de solicitarlo, ya para preparar los elementos de su defensa, ya tambien para impedir con su vigilante intervenci6n y el empleo de los recursos legales la prolongaci6n indefinida del sumario. En todo caso, antes y despues de los dos meses, el que tenga la inmensa desgracia de verse sometido a un procedimiento criminal, gozar6 en absoluto de dos derechos preciosos, que no pueden menos de ser grandemente estimados donde quiera que se rinda culto a la personalidad humana: uno, el de nombrar defensor que le asista con sus consejos y su inteligente direcci6n desde el instante en que se dicte el auto de procesamiento; y otro el de concurrir por si 6 debidamente representado 6 todo reconocimiento judicial, a toda inspecci6n ocular, a las autopsias, a los analisis quimicos, y en suma, 6 la practice de todas las diligencias periciales que se decreten y puedan influir asi sobre la determinaci6n de la indole y gravedad del delito, como sobre los indicios de su presunta culpabilidad. Subsiste, pues, el secret del sumario; pero s6lo en cuanto es necesario para impedir que desaparezean las huellas del delito, para recoger 6 inventariar los datos que hasten 6 comprobar su existencia y reunir los elements que mas tarde han de utilizarse y depurarse en el crisol de la contradicci6n, durante los solemnes debates del juicio oral y pdblico. Y a tal punto leva la nueva ley su espiritu favorable a los fueros sagrados de la defensa, que proscribe y condena una preocupaci6n hasta ahora muy extendida, que si pudo ser excusable cuando el procedimiento inquisitivo estaba en su auge, implicaria hoy el desconocimiento de la indole y naturaleza del sistema acusatorio, con el cual es incompatible. Alude el infrascrito 6 la costumbre, tar arraigada en nuestros jueces y Tribunales, de dar escaso 6 ningn valor a las pruebas del plenario, buscando principal 6 casi exclusivamente la verdad on las diligencias sumariales practicadas a espaldas del acusado. No: de hoy mas las investigaciones del juez instructor no seran sino una simple preparation del juicio. El juicio verdadero no comienza sino con la calificacion provisional y la apertura de los debates delante

PAGE 23

6 principle and the secret character of the procedure during the examining stage, following the example of France, Belgium, and other nations of the European Continent. The undersigned Minister, in concurrence with his colleagues, has not hesitated to advise Your Majesty to take one more step upon the road of progress by extending, to a certain degree, the system of accusation to the preliminary proceedings themselves, which are, after all, the corner stone of the trial and sentence. Hereafter the investigating judge, on his own initiative and motion, may, or rather must, order that the record be made known to the accused from the moment when publicity and contradiction are not a danger to society, which is interested in the discovery of the crimes and in the punishment of the guilty parties. Should this not be done voluntarily within the period of two months from the date of the institution of the cause, the law gives the accused the right to request it, either to prepare his defense or to prevent by his vigilant intervention and the employment of legal remedies the indefinite extension of the preliminary proceedings. In any case, before and after the two months, he who is so unfortunate as to be subjected to a criminal proceeding will fully enjoy two precious rights, which can not but be greatly appreciated wherever personal rights are honored and revered: the first, the right to designate counsel to assist him with his advice and intelligent direction from the moment the indictment is found; and the second, the right to be present in person or through a representative at any judicial investigation, ocular inspection, autopsy, or chemical analysis-in fact, to be present at any expert measures which may be ordered, and which may affect the determination of the character and gravity of the crime or the clues of his presumed guilt. The secret character of the preliminary proceedings, however, still continues; but only in so far as is necessary to prevent the disappearance of the traces of the crime, to collect and inventory the data which may be sufficient to prove its commission, and gather the elements which are later to be utilized and their truth ascertained in the crucible of contradiction during the formal arguments at the oral and public trial. And to such a point does the new law carry a spirit favorable to the sacred privileges of the defense, that it proscribes and condemns a preoccupation which, until the present time, has been very extensive, and which, although it might have been pardonable when the inquisitive procedure was at its height, would at the present time imply an ignorance of the character and nature of the system of accusation with which it is incompatible. The undersigned refers to that custom, so deeply rooted in our judges and courts, of giving little or no value to the evidence introduced during the trial, seeking the truth principally or almost exclusively in the most summary proceedings had behind the back of the accused. No; hereafter the investigations of the

PAGE 24

7 del Tribunal que, extratio a la instrucci6n, va a juzgar imparcialmente y a dar el triunfo 4 aquel de los contendientes que tenga la raz6n y la justicia de su parte. La calificaci6n juridica provisional del hecho justiciable y de la persona del delincuente, hecha por el acusador y el acusado una vez concluso el sumario, es en el procedimiento criminal Jo que en el civil la demanda y su contestaci6n, la acci6n y sus excepciones. Al formularlas empieza realmente la contienda juridica, y ya entonces serial indisculpable que la ley no estableciera la perfect igualdad de condiciones entre el acusador y el acusado. Estan enfrente uno de otro, el ciudadano y el Estado. Sagrada es sin duda la causa de la sociedad pero no Jo son menos los derechos individuales. En los pueblos verdaderamente libres, el ciudadano debe tener en su mano medios eficaces de defender y conservar su vida, su libertad, su fortune, su dignidad, su honor; y si el interns de los habitantes del territorio es ayudar al Estado para que ejerza liberrimamente una de sus funciones mas esenciales, cual es la de castigar la infracci6n de la ley penal para restablecer, alli donde so turbe, la armonia del derecho, no por esto deben sacrificarse jams los fueros do la inocencia, porque, al cabo, el orden social bien entendido no os mas que 01 mantenimiento de la libertad de todos y cl respeto reciproco do los derochos individuales. Mirando las cosas por esta prisma y aceptada la idea fundamental de que en el juicio oral y publico es donde ha de desarrollarse con amplitud la prueba, donde las partes deben hacer valer en igualdad de condiciones los elementos de cargo y descargo, y donde los magistrados han de formar su convicci6n para pronunciar su veredicto con abstracci6n de la parte del sumario susceptible do ser reproducida en el juicio, surgia natural y l6gicamente una cuesti6n por todo extremo grave y delicada; es a saber: la de si la contradicci6n de un testigo centre su declaraci6n en el juicio oral y las dadas ante el juez instructor en el sumario, serial por si sola fundamento suficiente para someterle 4 un procedimiento criminal por el delito de falso testimonio. El Gobierno, despues de madura deliberaci6n, ha optado por la negativa. Al adoptar esta soluci6n ha codido en primer termino a las exigencies de la l6gica, que no permit atribuir a los datos recogidos en el sumario para la preparaci6n del juicio una validez y eficacia incompatibles con la indole y naturaleza del sisterna acusatorio. No es esto ciertamonto autorizar, ni menos santificar el engailo y la mentira en el period do la instrucci6n; esa misma contradicci6n en las declaraciones testificales podrs ser libremente apreciada por los juices y penetrar on el santuario de su conciencia como un elemento de convicci6n, si lega el caso de juzgar el perjurio del testigo; lo que 4nicamente quiere la ley es que 6ste

PAGE 25

7 examining judge shall be nothing but a simple preparation for the trial. The true trial does not commence until the provisional classification and the beginning of the arguments before the tribunal which, apart from the examination, is going to judge impartially and decide in favor of the party having right and justice on his side. The provisional juridical classification of the fact to be judged and of the person of the delinquent, made by the accuser and by the accused upon the conclusion of the preliminary proceedings, is in criminal procedure what the complaint and answer, the action and the exceptions, are in the civil procedure. The juridical contention really begins at the time of their formulation, and it would be unpardonable if the law did not then establish a perfect equality of conditions between the accuser and the accused. The citizen and the State confront each other. The cause of society is sacred, no doubt, but individual rights are no less so. Among a truly free people a citizen must have in his hand efficient means to defend and preserve his life, his liberty, his fortune, his dignity, his honor; and, if it be to the interest of the inhabitants of a territory to assist the State in unrestrictedly exercising one of its most essential functions, which is that of punishing the violation of a penal law for the purpose of reestablishing the harmony of the law where it has been disturbed, the privileges of the innocent should never thereby be sacrificed, because, on the whole, social order, strictly speaking, is nothing more than the maintenance of the liberty of all and a reciprocal respect of individual rights. Looking at things from this point of view, and accepting the fundamental idea that it is in the oral and public trial where the evidence is to be thoroughly sifted, where the parties must under an equality of conditions, state their charges and denials and where the justices are to form their convictions in order to pronounce their verdict, abstracting that part of the preliminary proceedings which can be reproduced in the trial, naturally and logically a question arose which is extremely serious and delicate; the question is, Whether the contradiction of a witness between his testimony given in the oral trial and that before the examining judge in the preliminary proceedings would in itself be a sufficient reason to subject him to a criminal action for the crime of giving false testimony? The Government, after mature deliberation, has decided in the negative. In adopting this solution it has, in the first place, given way to the requirements of logic, which does not permit that there be attributed to the data collected in the preliminary proceedings for the preparation of the trial a validity and efficiency incompatible with the character and nature of the accusatory system. This is by no means an authorization, and still less a sanction, of fraud and falsehood during the preliminary stage; such contradiction in the testimony of witnesses may be freely weighed by the judges and penetrate in the sanctuary of their conscience, in case it should become

PAGE 26

8 no sea procesado como autor do also testimonio por la sola raz6n de aparecer en contradicci6n con sus declaraciones sumariales, debiendo serlo no mas cuando haya motivos para presumir que falt6 a la verdad en el acto del juicio; porque siendo 6ste el arsenal donde 01 acusador y el acusado deben tomar sus armas de combat y de defense y el Tribunal los fundamentos de su veredicto, claro es que en definitive s6lo en este tr6mite puede el testigo favorecer 6 perjudicar injustamente al procesado y ser leal 6 traidor a la sociedad y a sus deberes de ciudadano. A esta raz6n, puramente l6gica, agregase otra de mayor transcendencia, cual es la de facilitar la investigaci6n de la verdad y asegurar el acierto de los fallos. Inutil seria rendir culto a los progresos de la ciencia rompiondo con el procedimiento escrito, inquisitivo y secreto, para sustituirle con los principios tutelares d la libertad, contradicci6n, igualdad de condiciones centre las paxtyV contendientes, publicidad y oralidad, si el testigo, cuyas prime -impresiones ha recogido calladamente el juez instructor traslaafndolas a los autos con mais 6 menos fidelidad, se presentara en el acto del juicio delante del Tribunal sentenciador y del phblico que asiste a los debates, cohibido y maniatado por el recuerdo 6 la lectura de sus declaraciones sumariales. Medroso de la responsabilidad criminal que podria exigirsele a la menor contradicci6n, en voz de contestar con soltura y perfect tranquilidad a las preguntas del president, del Ministerio p6blico y de los defensores, limitariase a ratificar pura y simplemente sus declaraciones, convirtiendose entonces su examen en el acto solemn del juicio en vana formalidad. Si no han faltado escritores distinguidos y jurisconsultos eminentes que al analizar las condiciones del procedimiento inquisitivo han censurado acerbamente que se obligara a los testigos del sumario a ratificarse en el plenario, con la seguridad de ser castigados como perjuros en caso de apartarse en la diligencia de ratificaci6n de lo que antes habian declarado; si esta fundadisima critica iba dirigida a un sistema on el que el sumario era el alma do todo el organismo procesal, por no decir el proceso entero, tratndose en la hora presente de un m6todo de enjuiciar on el cual el sumario es una mera preparaci6n del juicio, siendo en 6ste donde deben esclarecerse todos los hechos y discutirse todas las cuestiones que jueguen en la causa, no es posible sostener aquella antigua legislaci6n tan inflexible y rigorosa que, sobre anular la libertad y espontaneidad de los testigos, expuestos a una persecuci6n originada en una traducci6n infiel de su pensamiento, pugnaria hoy abiertamente con la indole del sistema acusatorio y con la esencia y los altos fines del juicio publico y oral.

PAGE 27

8 necessary to pass upon the perjury of the witness; the only thing which the law desires is that the latter be not tried as guilty of false testimony only because he appears to contradict his statements at the preliminary proceedings, and only so tried when there are reasons to presume that he did not tell the truth at the trial; because as the latter is the arsenal where the accuser and the accused must receive their arms for the attack and the defense, and the tribunal the bases for its verdict, it is evident that definitely only in this stage can the witness favor or unjustly prejudice the accused and be loyal or a traitor to society and to his duties as a citizen. To this purely logical reason is added one of greater importance, which is that of facilitating the investigation of the truth and insuring the correctness of the decisions. It would be useless to attempt to further the progress of science by abolishing the written, inquisitive, and secret procedure in order to substitute therefor the protective principles of liberty, contradiction, equality of conditions between the contending parties, publicity, and oral trials, if the witness, whose first impressed: the judge has heard in silence, transferring them to the record with mre or less fidelity, should appear at the trial before the sentencing tribunal and the public present at the discussions restrained and with tied hands by the recollection or the reading of his depositions in the preliminary proceedings. Fearing the criminal liability which he might incur upon the slightest contradiction, instead of answering offhand and with perfect ease the questions of the presiding judge, the representative of the department of public prosecution, and of the counsel, he would confine himself purely and simply to ratifying his statements, his examination in this formal act of the trial being converted into a mere formality. There has been a large number of distinguished writers and eminent jurists who in analyzing the conditions of the inquisitive procedure have strongly criticised the system of forcing the witnesses at the preliminary proceedings to ratify their depositions at the trial, with the assurance of being punished as perjurers if during the ratification they should waver from their previous statements. If this wellfounded criticism were directed against a system in which the preliminary proceedings were the soul of the entire organism of the procedure, not to say the entire process, as the method in question at the present time is one of procedure in which the preliminary proceedings are a mere preparation for the trial, it being in the latter where the facts are to be arrived at and where all the questions involved in the cause are to be discussed, it is not possible to continue the former laws so inflexible and strict that, in curtailing the liberty and spontaneity of the witnesses, exposed to a prosecution originating in an unfaithful translation of their thought, they would at the present time openly conflict with the character of the accusatory system and with the essence and high ends of public and oral trials. 18473-01 2

PAGE 28

9 Todas estas concesiones al principio de libertad quo a una parte de nuestros jueces y magistrados parecerin sin duda exorbitantes, no contentaran afn probablemente a ciertas escuelas radicales que intentan extender al sumario, desde el momento mismo en que se inicia, las reglas de publicidad, contradicci6n e igualdad que el proyecto de C6digo establece desde que se abre el juicio hasta que so dicta la sentencia firm. No niega el infrascrito que insignes escritores mantienen esta tesis con ardor y con fe; pero hasta ahora no puede considerirsela mas que como un ideal de la ciencia, al cual tiende a acercarse progresivamente la legislaci6n positiva de los pueblos modernos. ? Se realizara algun dia por completo? El Ministro quo suscribe lo duda mucho. Es dificil establecer la igualdad absolute de condiciones juridicas entre el individuo y el Estado en el comienzo mismo del procedimiento, por la desigualdad real que en momento tan critico existed entree uno y otro: desigualdad calculadamente introducida por el criminal y de que este s6lo es responsable. Desde que surge en su mente la idea del delito, 6 por 1o menos desde que pervertida su conciencia, form el prop6sito deliberado de cometerle, estudia cauteloso un conjunto de precauciones para sustraorse a la acci6n de la justicia, y coloca al Poder pdblico en una posici6n antloga a la de la victim, la cual sufre el golpe por sorpresa, indefensa y desprevenida. Para restablecer, pues, la igualdad en las condiciones de la lucha, ya que so pretend por los aludidos escritores quo el procedimiento criminal no debe ser ma's que un duelo noblemente sostenido por ambos contendientes, menester es quo el Estado tenga alguna ventaja en los primeros momentos, siquiera para recoger los vestigios del crimen y los indicios de la culpabilidad de su autor. Pero sea de esto 1o que quiera, la verdad es que s6lo el porvenir puede resolver el problema de si Ilegar 6 no a realizarse aquel ideal. Entre tanto los que tienon la honra de dirigir los destinos de un pueblo estin obligados 4 ser prudentes y a no dar carta de naturaleza on los C6digos 4 ideas que estin todavia en el period do propaganda, que no han madurado en la opinion ni menos encarnado en las costumbres, ni se han probado en la piedra de toque de la experiencia. El Gobierno de V. M. cree ser consecuente con el espiritu liberal que informal su political, introduciendo dentro de ciertos limites racionales el sistema acusatorio en el sumario, lo cual constituyo un gran progreso sobre la ley de 22 de Diciembre de 1872. No hay tampoco una sola naci6n en el continent europeo quo vaya en esto mis alli que el adjunto proyecto de C6digo, ni siquiera la Alemania, en cuyas eyes procesales qued6 impreso como en roca de granito el sello caracteristico del individualismo germinico, sin que hayan alcanzado a borrarle ni la autoridad prepotente de sus Monarcas, ni sus grandes glorias militares, ni su reciente y portentoso engrandecimiento territorial.

PAGE 29

9 All these concessions to the principles of liberty, which to some of our judges and justices will appear no doubt exorbitant, will probably not satisfy certain radical schools which desire to extend to the preliminary proceedings from the instant they are instituted the rules of publicity, contradiction, and equality which the proposed code establishes from the time the trial is opened until the final sentence is pronounced. The undersigned does not deny that well-known writers support this opinion with ardor and with faith, but it can not be considered at present as more than an ideal of science which the positive legislation of modern countries is progressively approaching. Will it some day be fully realized? The undersigned Minister doubts it very much. It is difficult to establish an absolute equality of juridical conditions between an individual and the State at the very beginning of the proceedings, on account of the real inequality which at so critical a moment exists between one and the other-an inequality purposely introduced by the criminal and for which he only is responsible. From the moment that the idea of the crime is born in his mind, or at least from the moment that his conscience is perverted and he forms the deliberate intention of committing it, he carefully studies a number of precautions to escape the action of justice, and he places the public power in a position similar to that of the victim who receives the blow by surprise-defenceless and unprepared. Thus, in order to reestablish an equality of conditions for the contest, as it is claimed by the aforementioned writers that the criminal procedure must not be more than a duel nobly maintained by both combatants, it is necessary that the State have some advantages during the first moments, if it be only for the purpose of collecting the traces of the crime and clues to the guilt of its author. But, be this as it may, the truth is that the future only can decide whether this ideal will or will not be realized. In the meantime those who have the honor of directing the destinies of a people are obliged to be prudent and not countenance in the codes ideas which are still speculative, which have not matured in public opinion, and, still less, have not rooted themselves in the customs of the people, and have not stood the test of experience. The Government of Your Majesty believes it to be in accordance with the liberal spirit of its policy to introduce, within certain reasonable limits, the accusatory system in the preliminary proceedings, which constitutes a great advance over the law of December 22, 1872. There is not a single nation upon the European continent which, on this point, goes further than the attached proposed code, not even Germany, on whose laws of procedure is stamped, as on tables of granite, the characteristic seal of Germanic individualism, without being wiped out either by the powerful authority of their monarchs, her glorious military victories, or her recent and portentous territorial aggrandizement.

PAGE 30

10 Con idntioo criterio resuelve el nuevo C6digo las demas cuestiones fundamentales del Enjuiciamiento. En material penal hay siempre dos interests rivales y contrapuestos: el de la sociedad, que tiene el derecho de castigar, y el del acusado, que tiene el derecho de defenders. El caracter individualist del derecho, se ostenta en el sistema acusatorio, en el cual se encarna el respoto a la personalidad del hombre y a la libertad de la conciencia, mientras que el procedimiento do oficio e inquisitivo represented principio social y se encamina preferentemente a la restauraci6n del orden juridico perturbado por el delito, apaciguando al propio tiempo la alarm popular. Por 10 tanto, el problema de la organizaci6n de la justicia criminal no se resuelve bien sino definiendo claramento los derechos de 'la acusaci6n y de la defensa, sin sacrificar ninguno de los dos ni subordinar el uno al otro, antes bien, armonizandolos en una sintesis superior. Formado de oficio 6 4 instancia de part el sumario por un funcionario independiente del Tribunal que ha de sentenciar; obligado por la ley este instructor a recoger, asi los datos adversos como los favorables al procesado, bajo la inspecci6n inmediata del fiscal, del acusador particular, y, hasta donde es posible, del acusado 6 su letrado defensor; otorgada una acci6n plblica y popular para acusar, en vez de limitarla al ofendido y sus herederos; reconocida y sancionada la existencia del Ministerio fiscal, a quien se encomienda la misi6n de promover la averiguaci6n de los delitos y el castigo de los culpables, sin dejar por esto de defender a la vez al inculpado inocente, resulta que puede, sin peligro de los interests pdblicos y particulares, ceflirse el Tribunal al ejercicio de una sola atribuci6n: la de fallar como juez imparcial del campo sin sujetarse a una prueba tasada de antemano por la ley; antes bien, siguiendo libremente las inspiraciones de su conciencia, exento de las pasiones que enciende siempre la lucha en el fnimo de los contendientes y sin el aguij6n del amor propio excitado en el juez instructor por las estratagemas que en ocasiones emplean el acusado y el acusador privado para burglar sus investigaciones, y aun sin esto, por las mismas dificultades inherentes de ordinario a la instrucci6n. Para mantener al Tribunal en esta serena y elevada esfera, y no desvirtuar el principio acusatorio que informal el nuevo c6digo, ha creido el que suscribe que Anicamente al Ministerio fiscal 6 at acusador particular, si le hubiere, corresponde formular el acta de acusaci6n comprensiva de los puntos sobre que en adelante deben girar los debates, siguiendo en esto al C6digo de instrucci6n criminal austriaco, que es acaso, de los actualmente vigentes en la Europa continental, el que ha desarrollado con mas l6gica y extension el sistema acusatorio,

PAGE 31

10 The new code decides the other fundamental questions of the procedure upon the same basis. In penal matters there are always two rival and opposed interests; those of society, which has the right to punish, and those of the accused, who has the right to defend himself. The individualistic character of law is evident in the accusatory system, which includes both respect for the personality of man and liberty of conscience, while the ex ofcio and inquisitive proceeding represents the social principle, whose special object is the restoration of the judicial order which has been disturbed by the crime, quieting at the same time the popular alarm. Therefore, the problem of the organization of criminal justice is not correctly solved except by clearly defining the rights of the accusation and of the defense, without sacrificing either of the two or subordinating one to the other, but, on the contrary, by harmonizing them in one superior combination. The preliminary proceedings being instituted ex officio or at the instance of a party by an official independent of the tribunal which is to pronounce the sentence; the examining judge being required by law to collect all information, favorable as well as unfavorable, to the accused, under the immediate supervision of the fiscal, of the private accuser, and, in so far as possible, of the accused or his counsel; a popular and public trial of the accusation being provided for, instead of confining it to the injured persons and his heirs; the existence of the department of public prosecution being recognized and sanctioned and to which is entrusted the mission of taking the steps for the ascertainment of the crimes and the punishment of those guilty thereof; without, however, at the same time ignoring the defense of an innocent accused person, the result is that without danger to public or private interests, the duties of the tribunal may be restricted to the exercise of one attribute only-that of deciding as an impartial judge of the matter without being subject to evidence previously regulated by law; in fact, unrestrictedly following the dictates of his conscience exempt from the passions which are always raised by the struggle in the minds of the contestants and without the wounding of the amour propre which is engendered in the examining judge by the stratagems which the accused and the private accuser employ to frustrate his investigations, or even without this, by the ordinary difficulties which attend the investigation. .In order to sustain the tribunal in this serene and elevated sphere and not defeat the object of the accusatory principle which the new code provides, the undersigned is of the opinion that only the representative of the department of public prosecution or the private accuser, if there be any, should prepare the information, including therein the points which are to be argued thereafter, following herein the Austrian code of criminal procedure, which is perhaps of those actually in force in Continental Europe the one which has developed the accusatory

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11 Asi es como se logra quo la cuesti6n criminal que en el proceso se agita 6 discute vaya intacta al Tribunal a quien corresponded decidirla; asi es como las parts pueden preparar con perfecto conocimiento de causa los respectivos elementos de cargo y descargo y hacer sus acusaciones 6 defensas con fe y libertad completa, sin la coacci6n, siquiera sea moral, que no puede menos do existir cuando el que ha de fallar prejuzga en cierto modo el fallo formulando de oficio el acta de acusaci6n, 1o cual lieva naturalmente el desaliento al animo de aquel de los contendientes a quien perjudica la calificaci6n juridica hecha prematuramente, aunque con character provisorio por el Tribunal. Ni son estos los finicos inconvenientes que acarrea la admisi6n del acta do acusaci6n do oficio, pues una vez formulada Csta, 6 se obliga al Ministerio fiscal a sostenerla contra sus convicciones poniendo en tortura su conciencia, 6 so le deja en libertad para combatirla, en cuyo caso ya no son las parts quienes contienden entree si, sino que se discute inicamente el pensamiento, la opinion, el juicio formulado por el Tribunal, que de este modo desciende a la arena del combat para convertirse en acusador, con el riosgo inminente de que la excitaci6n del amor propio de los juices ofusque 6 perturbed su inteligencia. No; los magistrados deben permanecor durante la discusi6n pasivos, retraidos, neutrales, a semejanza de los juices de los antiguos torneos, limitindose a dirigir con animo scrono los debates. Por esto, centre las obligaciones impuestas al Ministerio fiscal on Francia y Alemania de formular un acta de acusaci6n cuando asi lo ha acordado el respectivo Tribunal, y la libertad que A dicho Ministerio otorga la ley austriaca, ha optado el que suscribe por la 'iltima soluci6n que respeta mas los fueros de la conciencia, los derechos individuals, y esti mis en consonancia con el principio fundamental on que descansa el sistema acusatorio. Este principio, aplicado en absoluto, adolece, sin embargo, de un vicio, que han puesto en relieve insignes magistrados encanocidos on la Administraci6n de justicia. Proscrita para siempre la absoluci6n de la instancia, y rigiendo sin exception la maxina non bis in idem, evidente es quo el error del fiscal en la calificaci6n juridica del hecho justiciable produce la impunidad del delincuente. Est6 bien quo en los process civiles el Tribunal tenga la obligaci6n de absolver 6 condenar, as como tambien la de ajustar estrictamente su fallo a los terminos en que las partes hayan planteado el problema litigioso, 6 sea a la acci6n ejorcitada por el demandanto y a las excepciones formuladas por el demandado; porque las cuestiones quo en esos procesos se ventilan son do mero interns privado, y porque ademis no es raro que pueda subsanarse total 6 parcialmento en un nuevo proceso el error padecido al entablar la acci6n, para 1o cual suelen hacerse reservas de derecho en la sentencia en favor del condenado; pero en los procesos criminals, que pueden incoarse de oficio, estdn siempre on litigio el interns social y la paz

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11 system most extensively and logically. Thus it becomes possible to secure that the criminal question raised or argued in the proceedings shall go intact to the court which is to decide it. Thus the parties can prepare with a perfect knowledge of cause the respective elements of accusation and denials and make their accusation or defense with confidence and complete liberty, without the coercion, even though moral, which can not but exist when the person who is to pass judgment, to a certain extent prejudges the matter by himself drawing up the indictment, which naturally discourages the contestant who is prejudiced by a juridical classification which has been made prematurely, although only temporarily, by the tribunal. Nor are these the only objections to the admission of the indictment prepared ex officio, because after its preparation the public prosecutor is obliged to defend it against his convictions torturing his conscience, or he is left at liberty to combat it, in which case it does not become a contest between the parties, but only a discussion of the thought, the opinion, and the judgment of the tribunal, which, in this manner, enters the arena and becomes converted into an accuser at the imminent risk of the amour propre of the judges, confusing or disturbing their intellectual faculties. No; the judges must remain during the arguments passive, silent, and neutral, as did the judges of the ancient tournaments, confining themselves to the direction of the arguments with a serene deportment. Therefore, between the obligations imposed upon the public prosecutors in France and Germany, to draw up an indictment when this has been ordered by the respective tribunal, and the liberty which is granted said prosecutors by the Austrian law, the undersigned has selected the latter solution as the one offering the greater respect to the dictates of conscience, individual rights, and as being more in consonance with the fundamental principle upon which the accusatory system is based. This principle, applied in full, nevertheless still contains one defect to which various judges who have grown gray in the administration of justice have called attention. The dismissal of the proceedings for lack of evidence being proscribed forever and the maxim non bis in iden ruling without exception, it is evident that an error committed by the prosecutor in the juridical classification of the punishable act secures the immunity of the delinquent. It is advisable that in civil proceedings the tribunal shall have the obligation to acquit or condemn as well as to strictly adjust its decision to the terms in which the parties may have submitted the question in litigation; that is to say, to the complaint of the plaintiff and the exceptions pleaded by the defendant, because the questions which arise in these proceedings are of mere private interest, and because, furthermore, it frequently occurs that the error committed upon the institution of the action can be corrected totally or partially in a new proceeding, for which reason it is customary to make reservations of rights in the decision in favor of

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12 pdblica, y teniendo el Tribunal la obligaci6n de condenar 6 absolver libremente sin reserva alguna y sin que le sea licito abrir un nuevo procedimiento sobre el mismo hecho ya juzgado, es violento torturar la conciencia de los magistrados que le forman hasta el punto de colocarles en la dura alternative de condenar al acusado a sabiendas de que faltan a la lay 6 cometen una nulidad, 6 absolverle con la convicci6n de que es criminal, dejando que insulted con su presencia y aire de triunfo a la victim y su familia, tan s6o porque el Ministerio p6blico no ha sabido 6 no ha querido calificar el delito con arreglo a su naturaleza y a las prescripciones del C6digo penal. De todas suertes es innegable que levados a tal exageraci6n el sistema acusatorio y la pasividad de los Tribunales, 6stos abdican en el fiscal, en cuyas manos queda toda entera la justicia. De su buena 6 mala fe, quo no s6o de su pericia, dependeria exclusivamente en lo futuro la suerte de los acusados. Y suponiendo que algdn dia el legislador, echindose en brazos de la l6gica, liegase hasta este 6ltimo limited del sistema acusatorio, el Gobierno de V. M. ha creido que la transici6n era demasiado brusca para este pals en que los jueces han sido hasta ahora omnipotentes, persiguiendo los delitos por su propia y espontinea iniciativa, instruyendo las causas los mismos que habian de fallarlas, ejerciendo la facultad omnimoda de separarse de los dictrmenes fiscales, asi durante la sustanciaci6n como en la sentencia definitive, calificando segun su propio juicio el delito y designando la pena sin consideraci6n a las conclusions de la acusaci6n y la defensa, y empleando por ultimo la formula de la absoluci6n de la instancia, 6 io que es lo mismo, dejando indefinidamente abierto el procedimiento cuando, faltos de pruebas para condenar, infundian en su mente las diligencias sumariales livianas sospechas contra el acusado. La sociedad debe marchar como la naturaleza, gradualmente y no a saltos: los progress juridicos deben irse eslabonando, si han de encarnar en las costumbres del pals. Por esto, el Gobierno propone a V. M. la soluci6n contenida en el articulo 733 que no alter en rigor la virtualidad del principio acusatorio. Seg6n la estructura de la adjunta ley, concluso el sumario, las partes hacen la calificaci6n provisional del hecho justiciable. Sobre sus conclusions versan las pruebas que se practican durante todo el juicio, y al termino de 6ste, cuando ya no faltan mas que los informes del fiscal y del defensor del acusado, autorizase a uno y otro para confirmar, rectificar 6 variar, en vista de las pruebas, su primer calificaci6n. Al liegar a este tramite todo en rigor est6 acabado: los juices han oido al reo y los testigos; ban examinado las demas piezas de convicci6n y estin en condiciones de apreciar con amplitud y acierto la naturaleza del hecho

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12 the condemned; but in criminal actions which may be instituted at the instance of the Government, social interests and public peace are always in litigation, and as the tribunal has the obligation to convict or acquit freely without any reservation whatsoever, and without it being legal to institute a new proceeding upon the same question, it is unnatural to torture the conscience of the justices composing the tribunal to the point of placing them in the hard alternative of condemning the accused with the knowledge that they do not comply with the law, destroy its force, or acquit him with the conviction that he is a criminal, leaving him to insult with his presence and air of triumph the victim and his family, only because the public prosecutor did not know how or did not wish to qualify the crime in accordance with its character and the provisions of the Penal Code. At any rate it can not be denied that if the accusatory system and the passiveness of the tribunals goes to such an exaggerated extent, the latter abdicate in favor of the prosecutor, in whose hands justice remains intact. The fate of the accused depends not only on his skill, but also on his good or bad faith. And supposing that some day the legislator, appealing to logic, should arrive to this furthermost limit of the accusatory system, the Government of Your Majesty has believed that the transition would be too sudden for this country in which the judges have been all powerful, prosecuting crimes on their own and voluntary initiative, investigating as well as passing upon the cases, exercising the power to ignore the reports of the prosecutors during the hearing as well as in the final sentence, classifying the crime according to their own judgment, and fixing the punishment without considering the conclusions of the accusation and defense, and finally dismissing the proceedings for lack of evidence, or, what is the same thing, leaving the proceedings indefinitely open when there being insufficient evidence to convict, the preliminary proceedings raised slight suspicions in their mind against the accused. Society must progress like nature-gradually, and not by leaps; juridical progress must develop step by step if it is to become grafted in the customs of the country. Therefore the Government recommends to Your Majesty the solution contained in article 733, which does not materially alter the potential character of the accusatory principle. According to the structure of the annexed law, upon the conclusion of the preliminary proceedings, the parties make a provisional classification of the questions which are the subject-matter of the action. The evidence taken during.the entire action rests upon their conclusions, and upon the termination thereof, when nothing is left but the final arguments of the prosecutor and the counsel of the accused, they are both authorized to confirm, correct, or vary their first classification in view of the evidence. Upon reaching this stage everything is strictly terminated; the judges have heard the criminal and the witnesses; they

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13 que es materia del juicio. Si en tal momento les asalta una duds grave sobre su verdadera calificaci6n juridica, g que dificultad puede haber en que hipoteticamento, sin prejuzgar e1 fallo definitivo y s6lo por via de ilustraci6n, invite el presidente del Tribunal al Ministerio publico y defensor del procesado para que en sus informs discutan una tesis mas? El principio acusatorio quedaria quebrantado si 6sta no hubiera de discutirse y resolverse con arreglo a las pruebas ya practicadas, dando lugar 4 que se abriese de nuevo 6 se prorrogase el juicio; pero como 4ste est4 ya terminado y no es permitido volver sobre 61, todo lo que puede suceder es quo el fiscal 6 el letrado necositon veinticuatro horas para razonar sobre la hip6tesis del Tribunal con ia conveniente preparation. Con ser tan modest y star tan ceflida esta facultad, declara sin embargo la ley que no so extiende a los delitos privados 6 que solo pueden perseguirso a instancia do parte, ni 4 la calificaci6n de las circumstancias atonuantes 6 agravdintes, ni a la de la participaci6n respective de los procesados on la ejeouci6n del crimen, quodando reducida I la satisfacci6n do una necesidad apremianto originada on un interns public y do ordon social. Ann encerrada on tan estrechos linites, ef Ministro que suscribe hubiera renunciado a ella, y mantenidose on ei rigorismo del principio acusatorio, si los C6digos mas progresivos y liberals d la Europa continental 10 hubieran alentado con su ejemplo; pero no hay ninguno que no d6 mayor amplitud 4 la intervenci6n del Tribunal en el juicio. En Francia y Alemania ya se ha visto quo el Ministerio fiscal tiene la obligaci6n de formular el acta de acusaci6n cuando asi lo acuerda el Tribunal respectivo, y ademis la misma ley alemana y la austriaca dejan a 6ste en libertad de apreciar el hecho justiciable sin sujotarse a la calificaci6n que de 1 hubieren hecho las parts, y sin tomar la precauci6n de someter 4 Cstas la nueva faz de la cuesti6n, 4 fin de que la discutan ampliamente antes de que recaiga el veredicto. Precediendo este solemn debate, no ampliandose ni reformandose on ningn caso las piezas de convicci6n, no puedo on rigor acusarse do incongruencia al fallo, puesto que la ley on suma se limit a establecor un medio de suplir la omisi6n del fiscal, cuyo deber os hacerse cargo do todas las calificaciones probables quo autorice la prueba practicada y quo pueda acoptar el Tribunal, redactando al efecto cuando fuere necesario la pretension alternative do que habla ol art. 732. El Tribunal propone, hipotiticamento y sobre la base do una prueba inalterable, un tora de discusi6n momentos antes de pronunciar su veredicto, cuando cada magistrado tione ya formado su juicio definitivo sobre el voto que so va 4 dar. Mojor es, por tanto, que le emita despuds de un debate que puede iluminar su mentor y rectificar so juicio, quo no autorizarle para quo on el fallo so spare de las condiciones debatidas por las partes y siga sus propias inspiraciones no contrastadas en el crisol de la contradicci6n como le autorizan los

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13 have examined the other evidence, and are in a condition to weigh the character of the act which is the subject-matter of the trial fully and with a correct understanding. If at this moment they should entertain some serious doubt as to its true juridical classification, why should not the presiding judge of the court, hypothetically and only by way of illustration, invite the public prosecutor and the attorney for the accused, without prejudging the definite decision, to discuss an additional thesis in their briefs? The accusatory principle would be violated if this additional thesis were not argued and decided in accordance with the evidence already taken, causing a postponement or reopening of the trial. But as the trial is already closed and it is not possible to review it, all that can take place is that the public prosecutor or the attorney be granted twenty-four hours,for the purpose of arguing upon the hypothesis of the tribunal with sufficient preparation. Although this power is so modest and restricted, the law nevertheless declares that it does not extend to private crimes or to those crimes which can be prosecuted only at the instance of a party, or to the classification of extenuating or aggravating circumstances, or to that of the respective participation of the persons accused in the commission of the crime, being thus reduced to meeting an urgent necessity originating in a public and social interest. Although confined to so narrow limits, the undersigned Minister would have renounced it and remained within the excessively severe accusatory principle if the most progressive and liberal codes of continental Europe had encouraged him with their example; but there is none which gives greater power to the intervention of the court in the trial. It has already been seen that in France and Germany the public prosecutor is obliged to prepare the indictment when ordered to do so by the proper court, and, furthermore, the said German law, as well as the Austrian law, leave him at liberty to weigh the act without subjecting himself to the classification thereof made by the parties, and without taking the precaution of submitting to said parties the new phase of the question in order that they may discuss it fully before the verdict is rendered. Before this formal argument, without the evidence in any case being amended or extended, the sentence could not be said properly to be incongruent, because the law in substance confines itself to establishing a means to supply the omission of the public prosecutor, whose duty it is to take charge of all the probable classifications which the evidence taken may authorize and which the tribunal may accept, preparing for this purpose the alternative claim referred to in article 732, whenever necessary. The tribunal proposes, hypothetically and upon the basis of an unalterable proof, a theme for discussion a few moments before pronouncing its verdict, when each justice has already formed his definite opinion upon the vote which is to be cast. It is better, therefore, that he should cast his vote after an argument which may enlighten

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14 C6digos austriaco y aleman, a pesar de ser los mas adelantados de la Europa continental. Tales son, Senor, prescindiendo do otras muchas reformas do menor importancia, aunque sustanciales, y de evidentes mejoras de detalle en el metodo y la redacci6n, las novedades de mas bulto que el proyecto adjunto introduce en nuestro procedimiento criminal. No desconoco el Ministro que suscribe que la aplicaci6n y cumplimiento de la nueva ley, singularmonte en los primoros aios, tropezara con graves dificultades, siendo la mayor de todas ellas la falta de costumbres adecuadas al sistema acusatorio y al j uicio oral y phblico. Educados los espanoles duranto siglos en el procedimionto escrito, secreto 6 inquisitorial, lejos de haber adquirido confianza en la Justicia y de coadyuvar activamente a su recta administration, haciendo, como el ciudadano ingles, inatil la instituci6n del Ministerio publico para el descubrimiento y castigo de los delitos, han formado ideas falsas sobre la policia judicial y se han desviado cada vez mas de los Tribunales mirando con lamentable recelo a magistrados, jueces, escribanos y alguaciles, y repugnando figurar como testigos on los procesos. Pero este mal sera mayor cuanto mas tiempo paso; y como lo actual no puede seguir sin desdoro de la Naci6n y de los poderes que la gobiernan, lo mejor es decidirse, que alguna vez se ha de empezar, si la Espana no ha de ser una excepci6n entree los pueblos cultos de Europa y America. El Gobierno de V. M. tiene tal confianza en la aptitud especial y las condiciones privilegiadas de nuestra raza, que espera sera breve -el apredizaje, no tan solo en la aplicaci6n de esta ley, sino en la obra aun mas delicada de compartir con los jueces la misi6n augusta de administrar justicia como Jurado; y que muy pronto el ciudadano espafol demostrar quo es digno de gozar de las mismas ventajas que poseen los extranjeros. Al logro de fin tan important y transcendental coadyuvaran, sin duda, el celo e ilustraci6n de la Magistratura y del Ministorio publico; que no es posible, Senor, montar una miquina delicada y hacerla funcionar con 6xito, sino contando con el asentimiento, el entusiasmo, la fe y el patriotismo de los que han de manejarla. En vista de las razones expuestas, el Ministro que suscribe tiene la honra de someter a la aprobaci6n de V. M. el adjunto proyecto de decreto. San Ildefonso, 14 de Septiembre de 1882. Senor, A L. R. P. de V. M., MANUEL ALONSO MARTINEZ.

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14 his mind and correct his judgment than not to authorize him to depart from the conditions argued by the parties and follow his own inspirations, which have not been brought together in the crucible of contradiction as authorized by the Austrian and German codes, notwithstanding the fact that they are the most advanced on the European Continent. Such are, Sir, without speaking of many other amendments of lesser importance, although substantial, and evidently improvements in the method and preparation, the most weighty innovations introduced by the attached bill in our criminal procedure. The undersigned Minister is not unaware of the fact that in the application and fulfillment of the new law, especially during the first years, serious difficulties will be encountered, the greatest of all being the absence of customs applicable to the accusatory system and to an oral and public trial. Spaniards having been educated for centuries in the written, secret, and inquisitive procedure, far from having gained confidence in justice and actively assisting in a proper administration thereof, and, as the British citizen, rendering useless the institution of the department of public prosecution for the discovery and punishment of crimes, have formed erroneous ideas as to the judicial policy, and have every day drifted further from the tribunals, looking upon the justices, judges, court clerks, and bailiffs with lamentable distrust, and disliking to appear in the proceedings as witnesses. But this evil will increase as time passes. And as the present state of affairs can not continue without discredit to the nation and the powers which govern it, the best thing to do is to decide, as it must be begun some time, whether Spain is to be an exception among the cultured peoples of Europe and America. The Government of Your Majesty has such confidence in the special aptitude and the privileged conditions of our race that it believes that the apprenticeship will be short, not only in the application of this law, but even in the more delicate task of sharing with the judges the august mission of administering justice as a jury, and that very soon the Spanish subject will demonstrate that he is worthy of enjoying the same advantages as those enjoyed by foreigners. In the attainment of so important and transcendental an end, the zeal and high character of our judiciary and of the department of public prosecution will no doubt contribute. It is not possible, Sir, to mount a delicate machine and successfully operate it unless the assent, the enthusiasm, the confidence, and the patriotism of those who are to manage it are to be trusted. In view of the aforestated reasons, the undersigned Minister has the honor to submit for the approval of Your Majesty the attached bill. San Ildefonso, September 14, 1882. Sire, at the Royal Feet of Your Majesty, MANUEL ALONSO MARTINEZ.

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MINISTERIO DE ULTRAMAR. REAL DECRETO. Llevadas a cabo por la Comisi6n de C6digos del Ministerio de Ultramar las modificaciones necesarias para que pueda aplicarse en Cuba y Puerto Rico la ly vigente en la Peninsula sobre procedimiento criminal de acuerdo con aquella Corporaci6n, a propuesta del Ministro do Ultramar, y en virtud de la autorizaci6n que concede ai mi Gobierno el art. 89 de la Constituci6n de la Monarquia, en nombre do mi Augusto Hijo el Rey D. Alfonso XIII, y como Reina Regente del Reino, Vengo en decretar 1o siguiente: ARTICULO 1. Se aprueba para la isla de Cuba y Puerto Rico la ley de Enjuiciamiento criminal vigente en la Peninsula, on virtud del Real decreto de 14 de Septiembre de 1882, con las modificaciones propuestas por la Comisi6n de C6digos do Ultramar. ART. 20. La nueva ley comenzara a regir en Cuba y Puerto Rico c1 dia 10 de Enero de 1889, en que empezaran a funcionar las Audiencias de 1o criminal. ART. 3o. Las causas por delitos cometidos con anterioridad al l' de Enero pr6ximo, continuarin sustanciandose con arreglo Itlas disposiciones del procedimiento vigente en la actualidad.' Si las causas a que se refiere el pirrafo anterior no hubieren 1legado al periodo de clasificaci6n, podrin sustanciarse con arreglo a las dispo1 La jurisprudencia del Tribunal Supremo, sobre 1o preceptuado en el mismo artfculo del Real decreto de 14 de Septiembre de 1882 aprobando la ley de Enjuiciamiento criminal vigente en la Peninsula, que en nada difiere de la disposici6n que anotamos, es contradictoria, pues mientras en sentencias de 3 de Septiembre, 24 de Octubre de 1884 y 26 de Diciembre de 1885, declar6 que los Tribunales existentes antes de constituirse las nuevas Audiencias de 1o criminal, son los competentes para conocer de los delitos cometidos hasta el 15 de Octubre de 1882, aunque haya comenzado 6 procederse por su comisi6n con posterioridad 4 esa fecha, siempre que los procesados no se hayan acogido al nuevo procedimiento, en otra sentencia de 4 de Agosto de 1887, consign: Que es precepto claro y terminante, consignado en la regla que anotamos, que las causas por delitos cometidos con posterioridad al 15 de Octubre del aflo citado, debfan continuar sustanci4ndose con arreglo d las disposiciones del procedimiento vigente entonces, apareciendo, por tanto, indiscutible, que se refiere d las causas incoadas antes de la indicada fecha, y de ningin modo A las posteriores, por mils que la comisi6n de los delitos fuera anterior. 15

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COLONIfL DEPARTMENT. ROYAL DECREE. The Codification Commission of the Colonial Department having completed the modifications necessary in order that it may be possible to apply in Cuba and Porto Rico the law in force in the Peninsula on criminal procedure, in concurrence with said corporation, upon the recommendation of the Colonial Minister, and in pursuance of the authority vested in my Government by article 89 of the Constitution of the Monarchy, in the name of my August Son the King, Don Alfonso XIII, and as Queen Regent of the Kingdom, I hereby decree the following: ARTICLE. 1. The Law of Criminal Procedure in force in the Peninsula, by virtue of a Royal Decreeo of September 14, 1882, is approved for the Islands of Cuba and Porto Rico, with the modifications recommended by the Codification Commission for the Colonies. Ani. 2. The new law shall go into effect in Cuba and Porto Rico on the first day of January, 1889, when the Criminal Audiencias will begin to act. ART. 3. The causes for crimes committed prior to January first next, shall continue to be heard and determined in accordance with the provisions of the procedure in force at the present time.' If the causes referred to in the foregoing article should not have reached the classification stage, they may be heard and determined in The Jurisprudence of the Supreme Court with regard to the provisions of the same article of the Royal Decree of September 14, 1882, approving the law of criminal procedure in force in the Peninsula, which does not differ in any manner from the provision annotated, is contradictory, because while in decisions of September 3, October 24, 1884, and December 26, 1885, it declared that the courts existing before the organization of the new criminal audiencias are of competent jurisdiction in crimes committed up to October 15, 1882, even though the action should have been instituted subsequently to said date, provided that the accused should not have selected the new procedure; in another decision of August 4, 1887, it declared: "That it is a clear and final precept, contained in the rule which we annotate, that the causes for crimes committed subsequently to the 15th of October of the year mentioned must continue to be heard and determined in accordance with the provisions of the procedure in force at that time; and it appears, therefore, undisputable that it relates to the causes instituted before the said date, and in no manner to subsequent causes, even though the crimes should have been committed prior thereto." 15

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16 siciones de la nueva ley, si todos los procesados en cada una de ollas optan por el nuevo procedimiento.' Para ello, ei Juez que estuviere conociendo del sumario en 1 de Enero pr6ximo hara comparecer a su presencia 4 todos los procesados, acompafiados de sus defensores. Si aun no los tuvieran, se les nombrar4 de oficio para la comparecencia. Esta se hara constar en la causa por medio de acta. ART. 4o. Los Jueces de primer instancia se consideraran desde luego como Jueces instructores en las causas que se ajusten al nuevo procedimiento. ART. 5o. Desde que cesen en sus cargos los actuales Promotores, desempefiaran las funciones del Ministerio plIblico durante la primera instancia en las causas que se sigan sustanciando, con arreglo al procedimiento vigente en la actualidad, los Fiscales municipales que sean Letrados, y falta de 4stos, los que designed los Fiscales do las respectivas Audiencias. ART. 60. Las Salas de Gobierno de las Audiencias y los nuevos Tribunales consultaran directamnente con el Ministerio de Ultramar para su resolution las dudas quo puedan originarse on la aplicaci6n do este Real decreto. Dado en Palacio a 19 de Octubre de 1888. MARfA CRISTINA. El Ministro de Ultramar, TRINITARIO RUIZ CAPDEP6N. 1 Es bastante que todos los procesados presentes opten por el nuevo procedimiento para que 6ste se siga conform la regla que anotamos. Asf lo declare la Fiscalfa del Tribunal Supremo en la instrucci6n nm. 3 de las que acompanian :. la Memoria de 15 de Septiembre de 1883, resolviendo una consulta hecha A la iisma sobre aplicaci6n de un precepto andlogo del Real decreto aprobando la ley de la peninsula, y lo confirm el mismo Tribunal en sus sentencias, entre otras varias, de 30 de Junio de 1883 y 23 de Diciembre del mismo aflo, segin las cuales "inicamento 6 los procesados presents en el juicio puede afectar la forma del procedimiento y cl fallo que 1o termine; y, por tanto, la ausencia y rebeldfa de otros respecto de los cuales se mantiene en suspenso, no puede redundar en perjuicio de los que, sumisos y obedientes 6 la ley, se ven en la apremiante necesidad de defenderse, y si 6stos optan por el nuevo procedimiento, compete conocer de la causa 6 la Audiencia de 1o criminal respectiva y no 4 la territorial. En otra de 12 de Agosto de 1884, se consign que, seguida una causa con arreglo al procedimiento antiguo, dictada sentencia en primera instancia, consultada con la superioridad y repuestas las actuaciones al estado de sumario por disposici6n de la misma, si los procesados optan por el nuevo procedimiento, es competente la Audiencia de lo criminal 4 quien corresponda, y no los Tribunales anteriores 4 la creaci6n de dichas Audiencias.

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16 accordance with the provisions of the new law, if every one of the accused in each cause should choose the new procedure.' For this purpose the judge who may be taking cognizance of the preliminary proceedings on the first day of January next shall order all the accused to appear before him, together with their counsel. Should they not have counsel as yet, they shall be assigned to them at the motion of the court for the appearance. This appearance shall be duly entered upon the record of the cause. ART. 4. Judges of First Instance shall at once be considered as examining judges in the causes which are prosecuted in accordance with the new procedure. ART. 5. As soon as the actual promotores cease in the discharge of their duties, the functions of the Department of public prosecution in causes which are being heard in accordance with the procedure in force at the present time shall be discharged by the municipal ftscales who may be attorneys, and, in their absence, by those whom the scales of the respective audiencias may designate. ART. 6. The Administration Chambers of the Audiencias and the new Tribunals shall submit directly to the Colonial Department for its decision any doubts which may arise in the application of this Royal Decree. Given in the Palace on October 19, 1888. MARIA CRISTINA. TRINITARIO RUIZ CAPDEP6N, Colonial Minister. It is sufficient that all the accused present select the new procedure for it to be adopted in accordance with the rule we annotate. This was declared by the office of the Fiscal of the Supreme Court in instruction number 3, of those attached to the Memorial of September 15, 1883, deciding a question submitted to the same as to the application of a similar precept of the Royal Decree approving the law of the Peninsula, and the said Court confirmed it in its decisions, among which may be mentioned those of June 30 and December 23, 1883, according to which only the accused present at the trial can be affected by the form of the procedure and the sentence closing it; and, therefore, the absence and default of the others with regard to whom it is suspended can not redound to the prejudice of those who, submissive and obedient to the law, find themselves in urgent necessity of defending themselves, and if the latter choose the new procedure the proper criminal audiencia is of competent jurisdiction, and not the territorial audiencia." In another decision, of August 12, 1884, it was stated that a cause having been prosecuted in accordance with the former procedure, a sentence rendered in first instance, a consultation being had with the higher court and the proceedings having been returned to the court of primary jurisdiction by order of the same, if the accused then choose the new procedure, the proper criminal audiencia is of competent jurisdiction, and not the Tribunals which existed prior to the creation of said audiencias. 18473-01 3

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LEY IE ENJUICIAMIENTO CRIMINAL. LI1RO PRIMERO. DISPOSICIONES GENE ALES. TfTULO PRIMERO. PRELIMINARES. CAPITULO PRIMERO. REGLAS GENERATES. ARTfCULO 1. No se impondr6 pena alguna por consecuencia de actos punibles cuya reprension incumba a la jurisdiction ordinaria, sino de conformidad con las disposiciones de la present ley 6 do otras especiales, y on virtud de sentencia dictada por juez competente.' ART. 20. Todas las autoridades y funcionarios que intervengan en el procedimiento penal cuidarin, dentro de los limites de su respectiva competencia, do consignar y apreciar las circunstancias asi adversas como favorables al presunto reo, y estaran obligados, a falta de disposici6n expresa, I instruir a 6ste de sus derechos y de los recursos que pueda ejercitar mientras no so hallare asistido de defensor. 1 Extraido de Portugal el espaflol Joaquin Cupido y condenado a la pena de muerte, interpuso recurso de casaci6n por suponer infringido el art. To del convenio de extradici6n celebrado entree Espafia y Portugal en 6 de Diciembre de 1875, segn el cual los criminals A quienes corresponda la pena do muerte, s6lo seran entregados a: condici6n de que se les conmute dicho castigo. El T. S. declara no haber lugar al recurso: "Considerando que A los Tribunales no corresponded conmutar Ias penas, porque la conmutaci6n supone la imposici6n previa de aquella que se ha de conmutar, y la facultad de elegir libremente la que se ha de imponer en cambio, propia y exclusive de la prerrogativa regia, siendo por tanto solo competencia de la administraci6n de justicia aplicar la ley penal, sin que infrinja, aplicandola A reos extraidos de Portugal por delito A que sefhale el C6digo la pena de muerte, el art. 10 del tratado de extradici6n vigente con el Gobierno portugubs, precepto cuya observancia procederd, conform al pacto international, despus de impuesta en fallo definitivo la referida pena." -Sala 2a., Sent. 15 Abril, 1884. Gac. 28 Septiembre, p. 158. 17

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V LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE. 1300K FIRST. GENERAL PROVISIONS. TITLE FIRST. PRELIMINARIES. CHAPTER FIRST. GENERAL RULES. ARTICLE 1. No penalty whatsoever shall be inflicted as a consequence of punishable acts the punishment of which pertains to the ordinary jurisdiction, except in accordance with the provisions of this and other special laws, and by virtue of a sentence pronounced by a judge of competent jurisdiction.' ART. 2. All authorities and officials taking part in a criminal proceeding shall seek, within the limits of their respective jurisdictions, to record and consider all circumstances for and against the presumed criminal, and shall be obliged, in the absence of an express provision, to inform the latter of his rights and of the remedies he may employ, while without the services of counsel. A Spaniard by the name of Joaquin Cupido having been extradited from Portugal and sentenced to death, interposed an appeal for annulment of judgment on the ground of the violation of article 1 of the extradition convention celebrated between Spain and Portugal on December 6, 1875, according to which criminals subject to the penalty of death shall be turned over only on condition that said punishment be commuted. The supreme court declares that the appeal does not lie: Considering that it does not lie within the power of courts to commute sentences, because a commutation supposes the previous imposition of the sentence to be commuted, and the power to freely select that which is to be imposed in lieu thereof, which is properly and exclusively a royal prerogative, it being within the jurisdiction of the administration of justice only to apply the penal law, without violating; in applying the same to criminals extradited from Portugal for a crime to which the code affixes the penalty of death, article 1 of the extradition treaty in force with the Portuguese Government, a precept, the observance of which will be proper, in accordance with the international agreement, after the said punishment has been imposed by a definite sentence."-Second Chamber. Decision of April 15, 1884. Gaceta of September 28, page 158. 17

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18 CAPITTLO II. CUESTIONES PREJUDICIALES. ART. 3o. Por regla general, la competencia de los Tribunales encargados de la justicia penal so extiende a resolver, para s6lo el efecto de la represi6n, las cuestiones civiles y administrativas prejudiciales propuestas con motivo de los hechos perseguidos, cuando tales cuestiones. aparezcan tan intimamento ligadas al hecho punible que sea racionalmente imposible su separaci6n. ART. 4o. Sin embargo, si la cuesti6n prejudicial fuese determinante de la culpabilidad 6 de la inocencia, el Tribunal de Jo criminal suspenders el procedimiento hasta la resoluci6n de aquilla por quien coresponda; pero puede fijar un plazo, que no exceda do dos mess, para que las partes acudan al juez 6 Tribunal civil 6 contencioso-administrativo competente.' Pasado el plazo sin quo el interesado acredite haberlo utilizado, el Tribunal de 1o criminal alzar4 la suspension y continuar4 el procedimiento. En estos juicios sera part el Ministerio fiscal. ART. 5o. No obstante 1o dispuesto en los dos articulos anteriores, las cuestiones civiles prejudiciales referentes 4 la validez de un matrimonio 6 a la supresi6n de estado civil, so deferiran siempre al juez 6 Tribunal que deba entender de las mismas, y su decision servira de base a la del Tribunal de 1o criminal. ART. 6o. Si la cuesti6n civil prejudicial se refiere al derecho de propiedad sobre un inm bible 6 a otro derecho real, el Tribunal de 1o criminal podra resolver acerca de ella cuando tales derechos aparezcan fundados on un titulo autentico 6 en actors indubitados do posesi6n.2 AUT. 7o. El Tribunal de lo criminal se atemperara respectivamente a las reglas del Derecho civil 6 administrativo en las cuestiones prejudiciales que, con arreglo 4 los articulos anteriores, deba resolver. 1 No son susceptibles de recurso de casaci6n: (a) El auto que suspende temporalmente el procedimiento contra un acusado (4 Diciembre, 1879). (b) Los autos sobre procedencia de las cuestiones prejudiciales 2i que se refiere el art. 40 de la ley, por no estar comprendidos en el 850 (16 Abril y 5 Junio, 1888). (c) El auto de sobreseimiento provisional (9 Abril de 1887). 2 Los arts. 4o, 50, y 6o, son excepci6n de los 111 y 114, que por regla general prohiben el ejercicio aislado de toda acci6n civil, derivado del delito, mientras no se resuelva la penal a que el hecho reputado punible haya dado origen.

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18 CHAPTER II. PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS. ART. 3. As a general rule, the jurisdiction of courts charged with penal justice extends to the decision, for the purposes of reprehension only, of the preliminary civil and administrative questions arising in connection with the acts prosecuted, when such questions appear to be so intimately connected with the punishable act that their separation is practically impossible. ART. 4. Nevertheless, if the preliminary question be one involving a determination of guilt or innocence, the criminal court shall suspend the proceedings until the decision thereof by the proper person; but it may fix a period not to exceed two months, within which the parties may apply to the civil or administrative judge or court of competent jurisdiction. If said period shall expire without the person interested proving that he has availed himself thereof, the criminal court shall raise the suspension and continue the proceedings. The prosecuting official shall be a party to these proceedings. ART. 5. Notwithstanding the provisions contained in the two preceding articles, civil preliminary questions relating to the validity of a marriage or to the suppression of the civil status shall always be transmitted to the judge or court which is to take cognizance of the same, and his decision shall serve as a basis for that of the criminal court. ART. 6. If the civil preliminary question shall relate to the right of ownership of real property or of another property right, the criminal court may decide thereon when such rights appear to be based on an authentic title or indubitable acts of possession.' ART. 7. The criminal court shall conform to the rules of civil or administrative law, respectively, in the preliminary questions which it may be required to decide, in accordance with the preceding articles. 1The following can not be appealed from for annulmentof judgment: (a) The decree temporarily suspending the proceedings against an accused person. (December 4, 1879.) (b) Rulings as to the legality of the preliminary questions referred to in article 4 of the law, on account of not being included in article 850. (April 16 and June 5, 1888.) (c) A decree temporarily suspending the proceedings. (April 9, 1887.) 2Articles 4, 5, and 6 are exceptions to articles 111 and 114, which, as a general rule, prohibit the separate institution of any civil action derived from the crime until the penal action has been decided which arose from the alleged punishable act.

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TITULO II. DE LA COMPETENCIA DE LOS JUECES Y TRIBUNALES EN LO CRIMINAL. CAPITULO PRIMERO. DE LAS REGLAS POR DONDE SE DETERMINA LA COMPETENCIA. ART. 8. La jurisdicci6n criminal es siempre improrrogable.' ART. 9. Los jueces y tribunales que tengan competencia para conocer de una causa determinada, la tendran tambien para todas sus incidencias, para lievar a efecto las providencias de tramitaci6n y para la ejecuci6n de las sentencias.) ART. 10. Correspondera a la jurisdicci6n ordinaria el conocimiento de las causas y juicios criminales, con excepci6n de los casos reservados por las eyes al Senado, a los Tribunales de Guerra y Marina y a las autoridades administrativas 6 de policia." ART. 11. El conocimiento de las causas por delitos en que aparezean a la vez culpables personas sujetas a la jurisdicci6n ordinaria y otras aforadas correspondera a la ordinaria, salvo las excepciones consignadas expresamente en las eyes respect a la competencia de otra jurisdiccion.4 ART. 12. Sin embargo de 1o dispuesto en el articulo anterior, la jurisdiction ordinaria sera siempre competent para prevenir las causas por delitos que cometan los aforados. 1 Ll4mase prorrogada la jurisdicci6n que siendo incompetente se hace competente por voluntad de los litigantes, segin la ley 32, tit. 20., Partida 3a., y la 7a., tit. 29, libro 11 de la Novisima Recopilaci6n. En lo criminal est4 prohibida la prorrogaci6n de la jurisdicci6n, de donde result que s6lo el juez competente con arreglo 4 las prescripciones de esta ley puede entender en la persecuci6n de los delitos y faltas que se cometan. 2 Segin declare el Tribunal Supremo en sentencia de 24 de noviembre de 1863, en la ejecuci6n de sentencias se comprende la exacci6n de costas impuestas en la causa, que son una pena accesoria de la principal. 3 Corresponde al Senado hacer efectiva la responsabilidad de los Ministros, los cuales serdn acusados por el Congreso, segun dispone el art. 45 de la Constituci6n vigente. Sobre competencia dela jurisdicci6nde guerra, vanse los articulos 10 4 17 de la ley de Enjuiciamiento militar de 29 de septiembre de 1886. Los arts. 21 y 22 de la misma ley enumeran los casos en que los militares quedan sujetos A la jurisdicci6n ordinaria. 4 V6anse los arts. 15 y 16 de la citada ley de Enjuiciamiento militar. 19

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TITLE II. JURISDICTION OF JUDGES AND COURTS IN CRIMINAL MATTERS. CHAPTER FIRST. RULES FOR DETERMINING JURISDICTION. ART. 8. Criminal jurisdiction is never susceptible of prorogation. AuT. 9. Judges and courts having jurisdiction of a specific cause shall also have jurisdiction of all its issues, to carry out decrees and enforce the execution of sentences.2 ART. 10. The cognizance of criminal trials and actions pertains to the ordinary jurisdiction, excepting such cases as are reserved by law to the Senate, to the army and navy tribunals, and to the administrative or police authorities.8 ART. 11. The ordinary jurisdiction shall take cognizance .of criminal causes in which persons subject to the ordinary as well as to other special jurisdictions appear guilty, with the exceptions expressly mentioned in the laws with regard to the competency of another jurisdiction.' ART. 12. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article, the ordinary jurisdiction shall always be competent to take the preliminary steps in causes involving crimes committed by persons subject to special laws. 'Prorogation of jurisdiction is that jurisdiction which is by the consent of the parties conferred on a judge otherwise incompetent, according to law 32, title 2, partida 3, and law 7, title 29, book 11 of the Novisima Recopilaci6n. (Bell's Dic., 7th ed., p. 868.) Prorogation of jurisdiction is prohibited in criminal matters, so that only the judge competent in accordance with the provisions of this law may take cognizance of crimes and misdemeanors which may be committed. 2 As the supreme court declared in a decision of November 24, 1863, the execution of a sentence includes the exaction of the costs taxed in a cause, which are a penalty accessory to the principal one. 3 The Senate has jurisdiction to enforce the liability of members of the cabinet who shall be accused by the Congress, in pursuance of the provisions of article 45 of the Constitution in force. With regard to the competency of the army jurisdiction, see articles 10 to 17 of the law of military procedure of September 29, 1886. Articles 21 and 22 of the said law mention the cases in which soldiers are subject to the ordinary jurisdiction. 4 See articles 15 and 16 of the aforementioned law of military procedure. 19

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20 Esta competencia se limitara a instruir las primeras diligencias, concluidas las cuales, la jurisdiccci6n ordinaria remitirl las actuaciones al juez 6 tribunal quo deba conocer de la causa con arreglo a las eyes, y pondra a su disposici6n 4 los detenidos y los efectos ocupados. La jurisdicci6n ordinaria cesar4 en las primeras diligencias tan luego como conste que la especial competent instruye causa sobre el mismo delito. Los autos do inhibici6n de esta clase que pronuncien los jueces instructores do la jurisdicci6n ordinaria son apelables anto la respectiva audiencia. Entre tanto que so sustancie y decide el recurso de apolaci6n, se cumplir4 1o dispuesto on el art. 22, parrafo segundo, 4 cuyo efecto y para la sustanciaci6n del recurso so remitira el correspondiente testimonio.' ART. 13. Consideranse como primeras diligencias: las de dar protecei6n a los perjudicados, consignar las pruebas del delito quo puedan desaparecer, recoger y poner en custodia cuanto conduzca 4 su comprobaci6n y a la identificaci6n del delincuente, y detener on su caso a los reos presuntos. ART. 14. Fuera de los casos reservados al Senado, y de aquellos que expresa y limitativamente atribuye la ley al Tribunal Supremo, a las audiencias territoriales, a las jurisdicciones de Guerra y Marina y a las autoridades administrativas 6 do policia, seran competentes por regla general: 1. Para los juicios de faltas, los jueces municipales del termino en que se hayan cometido. 20. Para la instrucci6n de las causas, los juices instructores del partido on que el delito so haya cometido. 3o. Para conocer de la causa y del juicio respectivo, la audiencia de 1o criminal de la circunscripci6n en donde el delito se haya cometido. 1 Sobre apelaci6n por el fiscal de los autos de inhibici6n, vase la nota al art. 25. El Tribunal Supremo tiene declarado, en sentencia de 11 de febrero de 1880, que el hecho de haber comenzado un Juez zi conocer de una causa y reclamado su jurisdicci6n, no es bastante para atribuir competencia; y en otra de 5 de agosto de 1886, que la jurisdicci6n ordinaria es competente para instruir diligencias sobre suicidio de de un soldado. 2De las causas contra jaeces municipales y jueces de instrucci6n 6 de primera instancia y de las promovidas contra consejales de ayuntamiento y autoridades administrativas de poblaciones donde no hubiera audiencia 6 no sean capitales de provincia, ,d6berain conocer las audiencias de lo criminal 6 las salas respectivas de las territoriales? La fiscalia del Tribunal Supremo resuelve la duda en favor de las audiencias de 1o criminal de la circunscripci6n en que se haya coinetido el delito, primero en la 69 de las instrucciones que acompafiaron a la Memoria de 15 de septiembre de 1883, y despus en la circular de 18 de Agosto de 1884. De conformidad con la opinion de la fiscalfa, el Tribunal Supremo ha establecido

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20 This jurisdiction shall be confined to the first steps, upon the conclusion of which the ordinary jurisdiction shall transmit the proceedings to the judge or court which is to take cognizance of the cause in accordance to law, and shall place the persons detained and the effects seized at the disposal of the same. The ordinary jurisdiction shall discontinue the first steps as soon as it becomes evident that the proper special jurisdiction has instituted proceedings on the same crime. Decrees of inhibition of this character issuing from examining judges of the ordinary jurisdiction may be appealed from to the proper audiencia. Until the appeal is heard and decided the provisions of the second paragraph of article 22 shall apply, for which purpose, as well as for the hearing and determination of the appeal, the proper transcript shall be forwarded.' ART. 13. The following are considered first steps: Those taken to protect the injured parties, record the evidence of the crime which may disappear, collect and place under custody all that may conduce to the proof thereof and to the identification of the delinquent, and, in a proper case, arrest the presumed criminals. ART. 14. With the exception of the cases reserved to the Senate, and of those which are expressly and specially assigned by law to the supreme court, to the territorial audiencias, to the army and navy tribunals, and to the administrative or police authorities, the following shall have jurisdiction as a general rule: 1. Of actions for misdemeanors, the municipal judges of the district in which committed. 2. To investigate the causes, the examining judges of the judicial district in which the crime was committed. 3. To take cognizance of the cause and the respective trial, the criminal audiencia of the circuit where the crime was committed.2 1 With regard to appeals by the prosecuting official from decrees of inhibition, see note to article 25. The supreme court declared in a decision of February 11, 1880, that the fact of a judge having begun to act in a cause and claimed jurisdiction thereof is not sufficient to grant jurisdiction; and in another, of August 5, 1886, that the ordinary jurisdiction is competent to institute proceedings relating to the suicide of a soldier. 2 Do criminal audiencias or the respective chambers of the territorial audiencias have jurisdiction of causes instituted against municipal, examining, or judges of first instance, as well as against members of Ayuntamientos and administrative authorities of towns where there is no audiencia, or which are not the capital of a province? The Fiscalia of the supreme court decides the doubt in favor of the criminal audiencias of the circuit where the crime was committed, first in the 69th instruction which accompanies the memorial of September 15, 1883, and subsequently in the circular of August 18, 1884. In accordance with the opinion of the Fiscalia, the supreme court ruled in its

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21 ART. 15. Cuando no conste el lugar en que so haya cometido una falta 6 delito, seran jueces y tribunales competentes en su caso para conocer de la causa 6 juicio: 10. El del termino municipal, partido o circunscripcion en que se hayan descubierto pruebas materials del delito. 20. El del termino municipal, partido 6 circunscripci6n en que el presunto reo haya sido aprehendido. 3o. El de la residencia del reo presunto. 40. Cualquiera que hubiese tenido noticia del delito. Si se suscitase competencia entree estos jueces 6 tribunales, se decidira dando la preferencia por el orden con que estin expresados en los n6meros que preceden. Tan luego como conste el lugar on que se hubiese cometido el delito, se remitiran las diligencias al juez 6 tribunal a cuya demarcacion corresponda, poniendo a su disposici6n a los detenidos y efectos ocupados. ART. 16. La jurisdicci6n ordinaria sera la competente para juzgar a los reos de delitos conexos, siempre que alguno est6 sujeto I ella, aun cuando los demis sean aforados. Lo dispuesto en el pirrafo anterior se entiende sin perjuicio de las excepciones expresamente consignadas en este C6digo 6 en leyes especiales, y singularmente en las eyes penales de Guerra y Marina respecto 4 determinados delitos. ART. 17. Consideranse delitos conexos: 10. Los cometidos simultineamente por dos 6 mas personas reunidas, siempre que estas vengan sujetas a diversos juices 6 tribunales ordinarios 6 especiales, 6 que puedan estarlo por la indole del delito. 2o. Los cometidos por dos 6 mas personas en distintos lugares 6 tiempos si hubiese precedido concierto para ello. 3o. Los cometidos como medio para perpetrar otros, 6 facilitar su ejecucion. 40. Los cometidos para procurar la impunidad de otros delitos. 5o. Los diversos delitos que se imputen a un procesado al incoarse contra el mismo causa por cualquiera de ellos, si tuvieren analogia 6 en sentencia del 10 de marzo de 1885, que la salas de las audiencias territoriales, en cuanto 6 los delitos de los juices de instrucci6n-se refiere, s6lo son competentes para conocer de los cometidos dentro del territorio 6 demarcaci6n que les est4 asignado, sidndole exclusivamente las nuevas audiencias para perseguir y castigar los que hayan tenido lugar dentro de las suyas respectivas (sentencia de 23 de febrero de 1885), y que segun el Tribunal Supremo tiene declarado en reiteradas decisiones, do una manera explifcita y terminante, es de la exclusive competencia de las audiencias de lo criminal el conocimento de los delitos cometidos por los jueces de instrucci6n de su circunscripci6n respectiva. Los mismos tribunales son los competentes para conocer de las causas contra jueces y fiscales municipales.

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21 ART. 15. When the place where a misdemeanor or crime has been committed is not known, the following judges and courts shall have jurisdiction, in a proper case, of the cause or trial: 1. That of the municipal or judicial district or circuit where material proofs of the crime have been found. 2. That of the municipal or judicial district or circuit in which the presumed criminal may have been apprehended. 3. That of the place of residence of the presumed criminal. 4. Any judge or court receiving notice of the crime. If a question of jurisdiction shall arise between these judges or courts the decision rendered shall give the preference in the order mentioned in the preceding numbers. As soon as the place where the crime was committed is known, the proceedings shall be forwarded to the judge or court within whose district such place is situated, the persons arrested as well as the effects seized being held subject to orders of the same. ART. 16. The ordinary jurisdiction shall be competent to judge persons guilty of connected crimes, provided that one of them is subject thereto, even if the others should be subject to special jurisdictions. The provisions contained in the foregoing paragraph shall be understood without prejudice to the exceptions expressly mentioned in this code or in special laws, and particularly in the war and navy criminal laws with regard to specific crimes. ART. 17. The following are considered connected crimes: 1. Those committed simultaneously by two or more persons together, provided that they are subject to the jurisdiction of different ordinary or special judges or courts, or who might be so on account of the nature of the crime. 2. Those committed by two or more persons at different places or times, if there shall have been a previous agreement between them. 3. Those committed as a means to perpetrate others or to facilitate their execution. 4. Those committed to secure immunity from other crimes. 5. The different crimes charged against an accused person upon the institution against him of an action for any of them, should there be decision of March 19, 1885, that the chambers of the territorial audiencias, in so far as crimes committed by examining judges are concerned, have jurisdiction only of those committed within the district assigned them, and that the new audiencias are exclusively competent to prosecute and punish those which may have taken place within their respective district (decision of February 23, 1885), and that, as the supreme court has repeatedly declared in an explicit and final manner, the jurisdiction of crimes committed by examining judges of their respective circuits pertains to criminal audiencias exclusively. The said courts have jurisdiction of causes against municipal judges and prosecuting officials.

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22 relaci6n entre si a juicio del tribunal y no hubiesen sido hasta entonces objeto de procedimiento. ART. 18. Son jueces y tribunales competentes, por su orden, para conocer de las causas por delitos conexos: 10. El del territorio en que se haya cometido el delito a que est6 sefialada pena mayor. 20. El que primero comenzare la causa en el caso de que a los delitos est senalada igual pena. 3o. El que la audiencia de lo criminal 6 el Tribunal Supremo en sus respectivos casos designen, cuando las causas hubieren empezado al mismo tempo, 6 no conste cual comenzo primero. CAPITULO II. DE LAS CUESTIONES DE COMPETENCIA ENTRE LOS JUECES Y TRIBUNALES ORDINARIOS.' Am. 19. Podran promover y sostener competencia: 10. Los jueces municipales en cualquier estado del juicio, y las parts desde la citaci6n hasta el acto de la comparecencia. 2o. Los jueces de instrucci6n durante el sumario. 3o. Las audiencias de lo criminal durante la sustanciaci6n del juicio. 4. El ministerio fiscal en cualquier estado de Ia causa.' 5o. El acusador particular antes de formula su primera petici6n despues de personado en la causa. 6o. El procesado y la part civil, ya figure como actora, y aparezca como responsable, dentro de los tres dias siguientes al en que se les comunique la causa para calificaci6n. ART. 20. Son superiores jerarquicos para resolver sobre las cuestiones de competencia, en la forma que determinaran los articulos siguientes: 10. De los jueces municipales del mismo partido, el do instrucci6n. 2o. De los jueces de instrucci6n de una misma circunscripci6n, la audiencia de lo criminal. 3o. De las audiencias de lo criminal del mismo territorio, la audiencia territorial en pleno. 40. De las audiencias territoriales, 6 cuando la competencia sea entre una audiencia de 1o criminal y la sala de 1o criminal de una territorial, el Tribunal Supremo. Las reglas que se fijan en este capftulo para sustanciar competencias, no se aplican cuando los conflictos se suscitan en causas seguidas contra reos de flagrante delito; en esos casos se abrevia la contienda tramitdndose y decididndose por el procedimiento especial del art. 782. 2 Derecho del ministerio fiscal para promover la competencia en cualquier estado de la causa. Este derecho entrafia la facultad de ejercitar la inhibitoria 6 la declinatoria sin limitaci6n alguna; y si entabla la primera despu6s de terminado el sumario y de abierto el juicio oral, no puede tener aplicaci6n el procedimiento marcado en el art. 23 (26 de diciembre de 1885. Gac. de 9 de mtayo 1886).

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22 analogy or relation between them, in the judgment of the court, and should they not have been the subject of proceedings to that time. ART. 18. The following, in their order, are judges and courts which have jurisdiction of causes involving connected crimes: 1. That of the territory where the crime was committed to which a higher penalty is affixed. 2. The one first beginning proceedings, if equal penalties are affixed to the crime. 3. The one designated by the criminal audiencia or by the supreme court in their respective cases, when the causes were begun at the same time, or when it does not appear which was begun first. CHAPTER II. QUESTIONS OF JURISDICTION BETWEEN ORDINARY JUDGES AND COURTS.1 ART. 19. Questions of jurisdiction may be raised and sustained by1. Municipal judges at any stage of the action, and by the parties between the citation and the hearing. 2. Judges of examination, during the sumario. 3. Criminal audiencias during the hearing of the trial. 4. The public prosecutor at any stage of the cause.2 5. The private accuser, before filing his first plea, after having entered an appearance in the cause. 6. The accused and the civil party, whether appearing as plaintiff or defendant, within three days after the cause has been transmitted to them for classification. ART. 20. The following are hierarchical superiors for the decision of questions of jurisdiction, in the manner prescribed by the following articles: 1. Of municipal judges of the same judicial district, the judge of examination. 2. Of judges of examination of the same circuit, the criminal audiencia. 3. Of criminal audiencias of the same territory, the territorial audiencia in bane. 4. Of territorial audiencias, or when the question of jurisdiction is between a criminal audiencia and the criminal chamber of a territorial audiencia, the supreme court. The rules prescribed in this chapter for the hearing and determination of questions of jurisdiction, are not applicable when raised in causes against those guilty of flagrant crimes; in such cases the contest is curtailed, being heard and determined in accordance with the special procedure of article 782. 2 Right of the public prosecutor to raise a question of jurisdiction at any stage of the cause.-This right includes the power to interpose an inhibitory or declinatory plea without any limitation whatsoever; and if he interposes the former plea between the conclusion of the sumario and the beginning of the oral trial, the procedure mentioned in article 23 can not apply. December 26, 1885. (Gaceta of May 9, 1886.)

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23 Cuando cualquiera de los jueces 6 tribunals mencionados en los ndmeros 10, 20 y 3o, no tengan superior inmediato comlin, decidira la competencia el que 1o sea en el orden jerarquico, y a falta de este el Tribunal Supremo.' ART. 21. El Tribunal Supremo no podrs formar ni promover competencias y ningn juez, tribunal 6 part podrs promoverlas contra e1. Cuando algfn juez' 6 tribunal viniere entendiendo en asunto cuyo conocimiento estuviere reservado al Tribunal Supremo, ordenara este a aquil de oficio, 6 excitaci6n del ministerio fiscal 6 a solicitud de part, quo so abstenga de todo procedimiento y remita los antecedentes, en el termino de segundo dia, para on su vista resolver. El Tribunal Supremo podrs sin embargo autorizar, on la misma orden y entre tanto que resuelve la competencia, la continuaci6n de aquellas diligencias cuya urgencia 6 necesidad fueren manifiestas. Contra la decision del Tribunal Supremo no se da recurso alguno. ART. 22. Cuando dos 6 ma1s jueces do instrucci6n so reputen competentes para actuar en un asunto, si a la primera comunicacion no se pusieren do acuerdo sobre la competencia, darmn cuenta con remisi6n de testimonio al superior competente' y (ste en su vista decidira de plano y sin ulterior recurso cual de los juices instructores debe actuar. Mientras no recaiga decision, cada uno de los jueces instructors seguira practicando las diligencias necesarias para comprobar el delito, y aquellas otras que consider de reconocida urgencia.' Dirimido el conflicto por el superior a quien competa, el juez de instrucci6n que deje de actuar remitira las diligencias practicadas y los objetos recogidos al declarado competent dentro de segundo dia, a contar desde el en que reciba la orden superior para que deje de conocer. I Corresponde al Tribunal Supremo la decisi6n de la competencia suscitada entre dos juzgados enclavados en distrito de la misma audiencia territorial, pero perteneciente uno de ellos a circunscripcion de audiencia de lo criminal. FuIndase esta doetrina en que "formando parte del pleno de la audiencia territorial la sala de 1o criminal, vendrfa 4 ser juez y parte" si dicha audiencia territorial decidiese el conflicto. (Sala 3, sent. de junio 28 de 1888. Gac. 30 id.) 2 Este precepto, aplicable 4 las competencias negativas por virtud del Art. 46, no permite que se remitan al superior las diligencias originales, pues entonces no pueden seguir practicindose las necesarias para comprobar el delito y sus circunstancias. (Sentencia de septiembre 20 de 1886.) Pero si, esto no obstante, remiten las actuaciones originals, tal irregularidad no debe producir la declaraci6n de star mal formada la competencia. (Julid 17 de 1884). s Desde que un juzgado tiene conocimiento de que otro ha prevenido causa sobre el mismo hecho de que aqu6l conoce, debe abstenerse de dictar resoluci6n definitiva antes de promover la inhibitoria, y de no hacerlo asf la que recaiga no puede ser obsticulo para decidir la competencia. (Sala 3, sentencia de 29 de Abril de 1878.)

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23 When any of the judges or courts mentioned in numbers 1, 2, and 3 shall have no immediate common superior, the question of jurisdiction shall be decided by the hierarchical superior, and in the absence of the latter, by the supreme court.' ART. 21. The supreme court can not institute or raise a question of jurisdiction, nor can any judge, court, or party question its jurisdiction. If any judge or court shall take cognizance of a question, jurisdiction of which is reserved to the supreme court, the latter shall order the former, ex offlio, on motion of the public prosecutor or of a party, that it discontinue further proceedings and forward the same, on or before the second day, for the proper decision. The supreme court may nevertheless authorize in the same order, until the question of jurisdiction is settled, the continuation of such proceedings the urgency or necessity of which is apparent. There shall be no remedy against the decision of the supreme court. ART. 22. When two or more examining judges consider themselves as having jurisdiction of a matter, if upon the first communication they should not agree as to the jurisdiction, they shall make a report to the proper superior, forwarding a transcript, and the latter shall decide eo instanti, in view thereof and without further remedy, which of the examining judges shall have jurisdiction. Until a decision is rendered, each of the examining judges shall continue the proceedings necessary to prove the crime and any other proceedings which he may consider of recognized urgency.' After the conflict has been decided by the proper superior, the judge of examination who discontinued proceedings shall forward the proceedings had, and the objects gathered, to the judge declared competent, within two days after receiving the superior order to cease taking cognizance thereof. 1 The decision of a question of jurisdiction between two courts situated within the district of the same territorial audiencia, but one of them belonging to the circuit of a criminal audiencia, pertains to the supreme court. The basis for this doctrine is that "as the criminal chamber of a territorial audiencia forms part of the audiencia in bane, it would become a judge and party if said territorial audiencia should decide the conflict. (Third Chamber, decision of June 28, 1888. Gaceta of the 30th.) 2 This precept, applicable to negative questions of jurisdiction by virtue of article 46, does not permit the transmission to the superior of the original proceedings, because in such case it would be impossible to continue the necessary proceedings to prove the crime and its circumstances. (Decision of September 20, 1886.) But if, notwithstanding this, they forward the original proceedings, such irregularity does not permit of a declaration that the question of jurisdiction is not well taken. (July 17, 1884.) From the moment that a court has knowledge that another court has begun a cause involving the same matter of which it is taking cognizance, it must not render a definite decision before requesting an inhibition; otherwise the decision rendered will not be an obstacle to the decision of the question of jurisdiction. (Third chamber, decision of April 29, 1878.)

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24 Art. 23. Si durante el sumario el ministerio fiscal 6 el acusador particular entendiesen que el juez instructor no tiene competencia para actuar en la causa, podrin reclanar ante el tribunal superior a quien correspond, el cual, previos los informes que estime necesarios, resolvers de plano y sin ulterior recurso.' En todo caso se cumplir4 lo dispuesto en el pirrafo segundo del articulo anterior. ART. 24. Terminado el sumario, toda cuesti6n de competencia que so promueva suspenders los procedimientos hasta la decision de ella.2 ART. 25. El juez 6 tribunal que se considered competente deberi promover la competencia. Tambien acordar4 la inhibici6n a favor del juez 6 tribunal competente cuando consider que el conocimiento de la causa no le corresponded, aunque sobre ello no haya precedido reclamaci6n de los interesados ni del ministerio fiscal. Los autos que los juices municipales 6 de instrucci6n dicten, inhibidndose a favor de otro juez 6 jurisdicci6n, seran apelables observandose en este caso lo dispuesto en el iltimo parrafo del art. 12. Contra los de las audiencias podr4 interponerse el recurso de casaci6n.' 1No es admisible, por lo tanto, el de casaci6n. Sentencias de junio 27 y 3 y 81 de diciembre, 1884. 2 No es procedente suscitar competencia sobre conocimiento de una causa fallada ya definitivamente. (Sentencia de Julio 8 de 1878.) sCuando deberd apelar el ministerio fiscal de los autos de inhibici6n A que se refiere este articulo y el 12? "Si el ministerio fiscal ha sido ofdo antes de dictarse los indicados autos, y su opinion se hubiere aceptado por el juez 6 audiencia respective, no debe interponerse recurso alguno. "Si el ministerio fiscal no ha tenido intervenci6n, 6 hubiera opinado en contra de la procedencia de dicho auto, entonces debe apelar del mismo, si ha sido dictado por un juez municipal 6 de instrucci6n. "Respecto A los fallos dictados por el Tribunal colegiado, debert interponerse el recurso de casaci6n, si hubiere motivo legal para ello." (Ntmero 5o de la Mernoria de la fiscalia del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de septiembre de 1883, y 10 de la de 15 de septiembre 1886.) En sentencia de 14 de noviembre de 1883 declare el Tribunal Supremo que contra el auto de un juez inhibidndose del conocimiento de una casa en favor de la jurisdicci6n de guerra, no es admisible el recurso de casaci6n, pues contra tal proveido procede el recurso ordinario de apelaci6n, segdn el art. 25 de la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal, 4 lo cual no obsta la disposici6n del articulo 50, porque esta disposici6n se refiere al caso de que exista 6 amenaze trabarse una verdadera cuesti6n de competencia, y no cuando un juez do instruccion espontineamente 6 al primer requerimiento 6 petici6n que se le dirige se juzga incompetent y acuerda inhibirse, sin que por lo tanto medic todavia semejante cuesti6n ni haya que tramitarla, 4 no ser que, acogi6ndose los interesados al recurso que la ley en su citado art. 32 les facilita, acuden en apelaci6n al superior inmediato, y 6ste determine que sostenga su jurisdicci6n y se sustancie y resuelva el asunto de la mantra y por quien en el expresado titulo esta prescrito.

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24 ART. 23. If during the sumario the public prosecutor or the private accuser shall consider that the examining judge has no jurisdiction to proceed in the cause, they may object before the proper superior court, which, after the. investigation it considers necessary, shall decide eo instanti without further remedy.' In any case the provisions of the second paragraph of the foregoing article shall be complied with. ART. 24. Upon the conclusion of the sumario, any question of jurisdiction raised shall stay the proceedings until it is decided.2 ART. 25. The judge or court considering itself competent must raise the question. It shall also grant the inhibition in favor of the competent judge or court when it considers that it has not jurisdiction of the cause even though the persons interested or the public prosecutor have not previously pleaded thereto. The decrees of municipal or examining judges inhibiting themselves in favor of another judge or jurisdiction may be appealed from, in which case the provisions of the last paragraph of article 12 shall be observed. An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from decrees of audiencias. 1 An appeal for annulment of judgment is therefore inadmissible. (Decisions of June 27 and December 8 and 31, 1884.) I A question of jurisdiction can not be raised as to the cognizance of a cause which has already been definitely decided. (Decision of July 8, 1878.) a When must the public prosecutor appeal from the decrees of inhibition referred to in this article and in article 12? "If the public prosecutor has been heard before the issue of said decrees, and his opinion should have been accepted by the respective judge or audiencia, no appeal can be taken. "If the public prosecutor should not have had any intervention, or should have opposed the issue of said decree, he must then appeal therefrom, if it issued from a municipal or examining judge. With regard to the decisions of a collegiate tribunal, an appeal for annulment of judgment must be taken if there is a legal cause therefor." (No. 5 of the memorial of the staff of the public prosecutor of the supreme court of September 15, 1888, and 10 of that of September 15, 1886.) In a decision of November 14, 1883, the supreme court declared that an appeal for annulment of judgment does not lie from a decree of a judge declining the jurisdiction of a cause in favor of the war jurisdiction, because an ordinary appeal lies therefrom according to article 25 of the law of criminal procedure, which is not affected by article 50, because the latter provision relates to a case where a true question of jurisdiction exists or is liable to arise, and not when a judge voluntarily or upon the first demand or request addressed to him deems himself incompetent and consents to his inhibition, without such a question arising and having to be decided, unless the persons interested seek the remedy of law granted them by the said article 32 and appeal to the immediate superior, and the latter determines that lie shall sustain his jurisdiction, and that the matter be heard and determined in the manner and by the persons prescribed in the said title. 18473-01 4

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25 ART. 26. El ministerio fiscal y las partes promoversn las competencias por inhibitoria 6 por declinatoria. El uso de uno de estos medics excluye absolumento e1 del otro, asi durante la sustanciaci6n de la competencia, como una vez que 6sta se balle terminada. La inhibitoria so propondr ante e1 juoz 6 tribunal que se renute competente. ART. 27. El juoz municipal ante quien se proponga la inhibitoria, oyendo al fiscal cuando 6sto no la hubiere propuesto, resolvera on tcrmino do segundo dia si procede 6 no el requerimiento do inhibition. El auto denegatorio de requorimionto es apolable on ainbos efectos para ante el juez do instrucci6n respectivo.' ART. 28. Si el juez municipal estimare quo procede el requerimionto de inhibici6n, 1o mandar4 practicar por medio do oficio, on el cual consignara los fundamentos do su auto. El oficio se remitirs dentro do veinticuatro horas precisamento. ART. 29. El juez municipal requerido do inhibici6n, oyondo al fiscal, resolved en tirmino do segundo dia si desisto do conocer 6 mantione su competencia. En ei primer caso remitirs dentro de las veinticuatro horas siguiontes las diligencias practicadas al juez requirento. Si mantiene su competencia so lo comunicara dentro del mismo plazo, exponiendo los fundamentos de su resoluci6n. ART. 30. Recibidos los autos por e1 juez requironto, declarar sin mis tramites y dentro de veinticuatro horas, si insisted on la competoncia 6 se aparta do ella. En el primer caso 1o participara on et mismo plazo al juez requerido para quo remita las diligencias ,i juez 6 tribunal que deba resolver la competencia, It tenor de lo dispuesto on el articulo 20, haciendo 61 la remisi6n de las suyas dentro do las veinticuatro horas siguientes. En e1 segundo caso, 1o participara en el mismo dia at juez requerido para quo osto pueda continuar conociendo. 1;,Es necesaria la firma de letrado en el escrito proponiendo la inhibitoria ante los juzgados municipales? Los arts. 27 i 32 que se ocupan de las cuestiones de competencia entre tales juzgados, no exigen ese requisito, que en cambio impone como necesario el art. 33 para proponer la inhibici6n ante los tribunes de to criminal, en cuya frase no sabemos stestartin comprendidos, para el caso, los juzgados municipales. Con arreglo i la legislaci6n anterior, el Tribunal Supremo tenfa resuelta la duda en el sentido de que era indispensable la firm de letrado en el escrito de inhibitoria, por exigirlo, sin distinci6n de casos, el art. 365 de la ley organica judicial. (Sentencias de septiermbre 24 y mrz 5 de 1877.

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25 ArT. 26. The public prosecutor and the parties shall raise the question of jurisdiction by an inhibitory or declinatory plea. The employment of one of these remedies absolutely excludes the employment of the other, both during the hearing of the question as well as after its decision. The inhibitory plea shall be interposed before the judge or court considered competent. The declinatory plea before the judge or court which considers itself as not having jurisdiction. ART. 27. The municipal judge before whom the inhibitory plea is interposed, after hearing the public prosecutor, if interposed by another party, shall decide before the second day whether the writ of inhibition shall issue. A decision overruling the plea may be appealed from for review and for a stay of proceedings to the proper examining judge.' ART. 28. If the municipal judge should be of opinion that the inhibition is well taken, he shall issue a writ in which he shall state the reasons for his decree. The writ must be transmitted within twenty-four hours. ART. 29. The municipal judge sought to be inhibited, after receiving the opinion of the public prosecutor, shall decide before the second day whether he abstains from proceeding in the cause or whether he defends his competency. In the former case he shall forward the proceedings had to the inhibiting judge within the next twenty-four hours. If he maintains his jurisdiction, he shall communicate it to him within the same period, stating the reasons for his decision. ART. 30. After the record has been received by the inhibiting judge he shall declare without further proceeding and within twenty-four hours whether he insists upon his jurisdiction or abandons it. In the former case he shall so communicate within a similar period to the judge sought to be inhibited in order that he may forward the proceedings to the judge or court which is to decide the jurisdiction, in accordance with the provisions of article 20, and the judge requesting the inhibition shall forward his within the following twenty-four hours. In the latter case he shan communicate it the same day to the judge sought to be inhibited in order that he may continue the proceedings. lIs the signature of an attorney necessary to the inhibitory plea presented to municipal courts? Arts. 27 to 32, which relate to questions of jurisdiction between said courts, do not demand this requisite, which, on the other hand, is imposed as necessary by article 33 to interpose an inhibition before criminal courts, in which sentence we do not know whether municipal courts should be included. With regard to the prior laws the supreme court has decided the doubt to the effect that the signature of an attorney was indispensable to the inhibitory plea as it is required, without any distinction of cases, by art. 365 of the judicial organic law. (Decisions of September 24 and March 5, 1s7.)

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26 Los autos que los jueces requeridos dicten, accediendo a la inhibici6n, seran apelables para ante el respectivo juez de instrucci6n. Tambien lo seran los que dicten los requirentes desistiendo de la inhibici6n. ART. 31. Recibidas las diligencias on el juzgado 6 tribunal 1lamado a resolver la competencia y oido ei fiscal por el termino de segundo dia, la decidira dentro de los tres siguientes al en que el ministerio fiscal evacue el traslado. Contra lo resuelto por el juzgado 6 audiencia procedera el recurso de easacion. Contra la resoluci6n del Supremo no se da recurso alguno. ART. 32. Cuando se proponga declinatoria ante un juez municipal, resolvers iste en tnrmino de segundo dia, oyendo proviamente al fiscal, sobre si procede 6 no acordar la inhibici6n. El auto en que se deniegue la inhibici6n es apelable en ambos efectos para ante el juzgado A quien corresponda resolver la competencia, el cual sustanciar4 el recurso en la forma prevenida en el parrafo primero del articulo anterior. Contra la resoluci6n del j uzgado procedera el recurso de casaci6n. ART. 33. La inhibici6n ante los tribunales de 1o criminal se propondra en escrito con firma de letrado. En el escrito expresara el que la proponga que no ha empleado la declinatoria. Si resultase 1o contrario, sera condenado en costas aunque se decida en su favor la competencia, 6 aunque la abandoned en lo sucesivo. ART. 34. El tribunal ante quien se proponga la inhibitoria oira por termino de uno a dos dias, seg6in el volumen de la causa, a] ministerio fiscal, cuando (ste no la haya propuesto, asi como A las demas partes quo figuren en la causa de que pudiera a la vez star conociendo el tribunal a quien se haya instado para que haga el requerimiento, y en su vista, mandara dentro de los dos dias siguientes librar oficio inhibitorio, 6 declarar4 no haber lugar a ello. ART. 35. Contra el auto en que se deniegue ei requerimiento de inhibici6n s6lo habra lugar al recurso de casaci6n. ART. 36. Con el oficio de inhibici6n se acompafiar testimonio: del escrito en que se haya pedido, de 1o expuesto por el ministerio fiscal 1Este artfculo se refiere 4 los autos en que se deniegue el requerimiento de inhibici6n por los tribunales de lo criminal y no 6 los que los jueces de primera instancia pueden dictar en asuntos de su competencia. (Sentencia de Abril 28 de 1883.) Contra la sentencia denegatoria del recurso de casaci6n no cabe ningun otro. (Sentencia de ferero 10, 1880, sala 3. )

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26 The decisions of the judges sought to be inhibited consenting to the inhibition may be appealed from to the respective examining judge. Those of the judges requesting the inhibition desisting therefrom may also be appealed from in the same manner. ART. 31. After the proceedings have been received by the judge or court which is to decide the jurisdiction and after the opinion of the public prosecutor has been received within the two days following, a decision shall be rendered within three days after the prosecuting officials submit their report. An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from the decision of the court or audiencia. There is no remedy whatever against the decision of the Supreme Court. ART. 32. When a declinatory plea is interposed before a municipal judge he shall render a decision thereon before the expiration of two days, after hearing the public prosecutor as to whether the plea is or is not well taken. A decree overruling the inhibition may be appealed from for review and for a stay of proceedings to the judge to whom the decision of the jurisdiction pertains, who shall hear and determine the appeal in the manner prescribed in the first paragraph of the foregoing article. An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from the decision of the court. ART. 31. Inhibitory pleas before criminal courts shall be in writing and signed by an attorney. The person interposing said plea shall state that he has not interposed a declinatory plea. Should the contrary appear the costs shall be taxed against him, even though the question of jurisdiction be decided in his favor or he should subsequently abandon it. ART. 34 The court before which the inhibitory plea is interposed shall hear for a period of one to two days, according to the volume of the cause, the prosecuting officials, if the latter should not have interposed it, as well as the other parties appearing in the cause which the court is hearing before which the plea for inhibition has been interposed and in view thereof, it shall issue, within the next two days, a writ of inhibition, or shall overrule the plea. ART. 35. An appeal for annulment of judgment only lies against a decree denying a writ of inhibition.' ART. 36. Attested copies shall be attached to the writ of inhibition, of the petition requesting it, of the statements of the prosecuting officials, and of the parties, in a proper case; of the decision rendered, 'This article refers to decrees denying a writ of inhibition by criminal courts and not to those issued by judges of first instance in matters of their jurisdiction. (Decision of April 28, 1883.) No appeal lies from the decision which denies an appeal. (Decision of February 10, 1880, Third Chamber.)

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27 y por las partes en su caso, del auto que se haya dictado y do lo demis que el tribunal estime conducente para fundar su competencia. El testimonio se extenders y remitira en el plazo improrrogable do uno a tres dias, segln el volumen de la causa. ART. 37. El tribunal requerido acusara inmediatamente recibo, y oyendo al ministerio fiscal, al acusador particular, si le hubiere, al procesado 6 procesados y 6 los que figuren como parte civil, por un plazo que no podr6 exceder de veinticuatro horas a cada uno, dictara auto inhibiendose 6 declarando que no ha lugar a hacerlo. Contra el auto en que el tribunal se inhibiere no so darn otro recurso que el de casaci6n. ART. 38. Consentida 6 ejecutoriada la sentencia en que el tribunal se hubiese inhibido, se remitira la causa, dentro del plazo de tres dias, al tribunal que hubiera propuesto la inhibitoria, con emplazamiento de las parts y poniendo 6 disposici6n de aquil los procesados, las pruebas materials del delito y los bienes embargados. ART. 39. Si so denegare la inhibici6n, se comunicara el auto al tribunal requirente, con testimonio de to expuesto por el ministerio fiscal y por las parts y de todo to demas que se cream conducente. El testimonio se expedir6 y remitira dentro de trees dias. En el oficio de remisi6n so exigir6 que el tribunal requirente conteste inmediatamente para continuar actuando si no insisted en la inhibicion, o que en otro caso remita la causa a quien correspond para que decida la competencia. ART. 40. Recibido el oficio que expresa el articulo anterior, el tribunal que hubiere propuesto la inhibitoria dictara, sin mis tramites, auto en termino de segundo dia. Contra el auto desistiendo de la inhibici6n s6lo procederi el recurso do casacion. ART. 41. Consentido 6 ejecutoriado el auto en que el tribunal desista de la inhibitoria, 1o comunicara on el termino do veinticuatro horas al requerido de inhibici6n, remitiendole al propio tiempo todo lo actuado para su union a la causa. ART. 42. Si el tribunal requironte mantiene su competencia, 1o comunicara en el termino de veinticuatro horas al requerido de inhibici6n para que remita la causa al tribunal a quien correspond la resoluci6n, haciendolo e1 de 1o actuado ante el mismo.

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27 and of anything else which the court may consider proper upon which to base its jurisdiction. The attested copy shall be prepared and forwarded within the unextendible period of one to three days, according to the volume of the cause. AuT. 37. The court sought to be inhibited shall at once acknowledge receipt, and after hearing the prosecuting officials, the private accuser, should there be any, the person or persons undergoing trial, and those who appear as civil parties, for a period which shall not exceed twentyfour hours for each one, shall issue a decree inhibiting himself or declaring that there is no reason for so doing. There shall be no remedy but an appeal for annulment of judgment from decrees of a court inhibiting itself. ART. 38. After the decision by which a court has inhibited itself has been consented to or executed, the cause shall be forwarded, within a period of three days, to the court which proposed the inhibition, with a summons of the parties and holding the accused at the disposal of the former as well as the material evidences of the crime and the goods seized. AiT. 39. If the inhibition should be refused, the decree shall be communicated to the court demanding the inhibition, with transcript of the statements of the prosecuting officials and of the parties, and of anything else which may be deemed proper. The transcript shall be issued and transmitted within three days. In the communication of transmittal it shall be required that the court demanding the inhibition answer immediately, in order to continue the proceedings if the inhibition be not insisted upon, or that otherwise the cause be transmitted to the proper person for a decision as to the jurisdiction. ART. 40. After the communication mentioned in the foregoing article has been received, the court that proposed the inhibition shall render a decision before the expiration of two days, without further proceedings. From a decree abandoning an inhibition an appeal for annulment of judgment only lies. ART. 41. After the ruling by which the court desists from the inhibition has been consented to or executed, it shall be communicated within a period of twenty-four hours to the court sought to be inhibited, transmitting at the same time all proceedings had for attachment to the cause. ART. 42. If the court demanding the inhibition defends its competency, it shall communicate the same within a period of twenty-four hours to the court sought to be inhibited, in order that it may transmit the record to the court which is to decide the question; and it shall do the same with its own record.

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28 ART. 43. Las competencias se decidiran por el tribunal dentro de los tres dias siguientes al en que el ministerio fiscal hubiese emitido dictamen, que evacuar en el tnrmino de segundo dia. Contra estos autos, cuando procedan de las audiencias territoriales, habr4 lugar al recurso de casaci6n. Contra los pronunciados por el Tribunal Supremo no se da recurso alguno. ART. 44. El tribunal que resuelva la competencia podri condenar al pago de las costas causadas en la inhibitoria a las partes que la hubieren sostenido 6 impugnado con notoria temeridad, determinando en su caso la proporci6n en que deban pagarlas. Cuando no hiciere especial condenaci6n de costas, se entenderan de oficio las causadas en la competencia. En el caso de que un tribunal sin causa legitima debidamente justificada, se hubiese extralimitado en los terminos establecidos on el presente titulo para la sustanciaci6n y decision de las competencias, sera corregido prudential y disciplinariamente, segin la gravedad del caso. ART. 45. Las declinatorias se sustanciaran como articulos de previo pronunciamentoo' CAPITULO III. DE LAS COMPETENCIAS NEGATIVAS Y DE LAS QUE SE PROMUEVEN CON JUECES 6 TRIBUNALES ESPECIALES, Y DE LOS RECURSOS DE QUEJA CONTRA LAS AUTORIDADES ADMINISTRATIVAS. ART. 46. Cuando la cuesti6n de competencia empefiada entre dos 6 mas jueces 6 tribunales fuere negativa por rehusar todos entender en la causa, la decidira el juez 6 tribunal superior y en su caso el Supremo, siguiendo para ello los mismos tramites prescritos para las demis competencias. ART. 47. En el caso de competencia negative entre la jurisdicci6n ordinaria y otra privilegiada, la ordinaria empezara o continuara la causa. ART. 48. Las cuestiones de jurisdicci6n promovidas por tribunales seculares contra juices 6 tribunals eclesiasticos sc sustanciaran y decidiran por los tramites y de la mantra quo se establoce en el titulo III del libro 1 de la ley de enjuiciamento civil.2 ART. 49. Cuando los juices 6 tribunals eclesiasticos estimaren que les correspond el conocimiento de una causa on que entienda un juez 6 tribunal secular, podran requerirle de inhibici6n; y si no accediese 'Fijan el procedimiento para la sustanciaci6n y decision de los articulos de previo pronunciamiento, los articulos 666 A 679. 2Trata de los recursos de fuerza en conocer. (Arts. 125 a 152 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil vigente en las Islas de Cuba y Puerto Rico.)

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28 ART. 43. Questions of jurisdiction shall be decided by the court within the three days following that on which the public prosecutor may have given his opinion, which he shall do within a period of two days. An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from these decrees when issuing from territorial audiencias. Against those of the supreme court there is no remedy whatsoever. ART. 44. The court deciding the question of jurisdiction may tax the payment of the costs occasioned by the plea of inhibition against the parties who have defended or opposed the same with marked persistence, deciding, in a proper case, the proportion each shall pay. If there be no special condemnation of costs made, those occasioned in deciding questions of jurisdiction shall be understood to be ex ofcio. If a court without legal cause properly proved, shall go beyond the limits prescribed in this title for the hearing and determination of questions of jurisdiction, it shall be corrected and disciplined according to the gravity of the case. ART. 45. Declinatory pleas shall be heard and determined in the same manner as interlocutory issues.1 CHAPTER III. QUESTIONS OF NEGATIVE JURISDICTION AND THOSE RAISED BY SPECIAL JUDGES OR COURTS AND COMPLAINTS AGAINST ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITIES. ART. 46. If the question of jurisdiction raised between two or more judges or courts be negative by all refusing to take cognizance of the cause, the superior judge or court, or, in a proper case, the supreme court shall decide it, observing therein the procedure prescribed for other questions of jurisdiction. ART. 47. In case of negative jurisdiction between the ordinary and a specal jurisdiction, the ordinary jurisdiction shall begin or continue the cause. ART. 48. Questions of jurisdiction raised by secular courts against ecclesiastical judges or tribunals shall be heard and decided according to the procedure and in the manner established in Title III of Book I of the Law of Civil Procedure.2 ART. 49. When ecclesiastical judges or tribunals shall consider that they have jurisdiction of a cause of which a secular judge or court is taking cognizance, they may interpose an inhibitory plea, and if it should be overruled they may complain to the proper court, which, The procedure for the hearing and determination of interlocutory issues is fixed by articles 666 to 679. 2 This title treats of civil remedies against actions of ecclesiastical courts (Arts. 125 to 152 of the Law of Civil Procedure in force in Cuba and Porto Rico).

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29 4 ella, recurririn en queja al superior respectivo, que, oyendo al fiscal, resolvers, sin ulterior recurso, To que crea procedente. ART. 50. Las cuestionfes de competencia que se promuevan entre tribunales ordinarios y otros cualesquiera especiales, que no sean eclesiasticos, se sustanciarin y decidiran con arreglo 4 To dispuesto en el presente titulo, correspondiendo en todo caso su resoluci6n al Tribunal Supremo de.Justicia. ART. 51. Respecto de las competencias que la administration suscite contra los juices 6 tribunales de la jurisdicci6n ordinaria, y de los recursos de queja que 6stos pueden promover contra las autoridades y administrativas, se estara a To que dispone la secci6n 4 titulo II, libro I de la ley de enjuiciamento civil.' 1 Articulos 116 A 124 de la ley que se cita.

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29 after hearing the public prosecutor, shall decide without further remedy what it may deem proper. Aur. 50. Questions of jurisdiction between ordinary and any special courts, not ecclesiastical, shall be heard and determined according to the provisions of this title in all cases by the supreme court. ART. 51. Questions of jurisdiction raised by the administration against judges or courts of the ordinary jurisdiction, and the complaints which the latter may make against the administrative authorities, shall conform to the provisions of section 4, Title II, Book I, of the Law of Civil Procedure.' Articles 116 to 124 of the law cited.

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TITULO III. DE LAS RECUSACIONES Y EXCUSAS DE LOS MAGISTRADOS, JUECES, ASESORES Y AUXILIARES DE LOS JUZOADOS Y TRIBUNALES, Y DE LA ABSTENCION DEL MINISTERIO FISCAL. CAPITULO I. DISPOSICIONES GENERALES. ART. 52. Los magistrados, jueces y asesores, cualesquiera que sean su grado 6 jeraqufa, s6lo podran ser recusados por causa legitima. ART. 53. Podran Anicamente recusar en los negocios criminales: El representante del ministerio fiscal. El acusador particular 6 los que legalmente representen sus acciones y derechos. Los procesados. Los responsables civilmente por delito 6 falta. ART. 54. Son causas legitimas de recusaci6n: 1. El parentesco de consanguinidad 6 afinidad dentro del cuarto grado civil con cualquiera de los expresados en el articulo anterior. 20. El mismo parentesco dentro del segundo grado con el letrado de alguna de las partes que intervengan en la causa. 30. Estar 6 haber sido denunciado 6 acusado por alguna de 6stas como autor, c6mplice 6 encubridor de un delito, 6 como autor de una falta.1 40. Haber sido defensor de alguna de las partes, emitido dictamen sobre el proceso 6 alguna de sus incidencias como letrado, 6 intervenido en aqu4l 6 en 6stas como fiscal, perito 6 testigo. So. Ser 6 haber sido denunciador 6 acusador privado del que recusa. 6o. Ser 6 haber sido tutor 6 curador do alguno que sea parte en la causa. 70. Haber estado en tutela 6 guardaduria de alguno de los expresados en el numero anterior. 80. Tener pleito pendiente con el recusante. 9o. Tener interns directo 6 indirecto en la causa.' 'Para que exista el motivo de recusaci6n de este numero, es preciso que la denuncia reuna los requisitos y surta los efectos necesarios para proceder, en su virtud, 4 la averiguaci6n de los hechos que comprende, segin declare el Tribunal Supremo en sentencia de 12 de abril de 1886. 2 Para poder ser estimada la causa de recusaci6n comprendida en este nfmero, es necesario que el juez tenga interns personal y directo en la causa de que este incidente proceda. (Sentencia de 12 de abril de 1886.) 30

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TITLE III. CHALLENGES AND EXCUSES OF JUSTICES, JUDGES, ASSESSORS, AND ASSISTANTS OF SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR COURTS, AND THE ABSTENTION OF THE PROSECUTING OFFICIALS. CHAPTER I. GENERAL PROVISIONS. ART. 52. Justices, judges, and assessors, whatever be their grade or rank, may be challenged only for a legitimate cause. ART. 53. In criminal matters only the following persons are permitted to challenge: The prosecuting officials. The private accuser or his legal representatives. The accused. Those civilly liable for a crime or misdemeanor. ART. 54. Legitimate causes of challenge are: 1. Relationship by consanguinity or affinity within the fourth civil degree to any of the persons mentioned in the foregoing article. 2. The same relationship within the second degree to the attorney of any of the parties to the cause. 3. To be or have been denounced or accused by any of said parties as the principal, accomplice, or accessory to a crime or as a principal in a misdemeanor.' 4. Having been counsel for any of the parties, given a professional opinion on the case or any of its incidental issues, or having appeared in either as prosecutor, expert, or witness. 5. To be or have been the private denouncer or accuser of the challenging party. 6. To be or have been the tutor or curator of any of the parties to the cause. 7. To have been under the tutorship or guardianship of the parties mentioned in the foregoing number. 8. To have an action pending against the challenging party. 9. To have a direct or indirect interest in the cause.2 In order that there may exist a motive for the challenge in this case, it is necessary that the denunciation shall have all the requisites and produce all the effects necessary to proceed, by virtue thereof, with the proof of the acts included therein, according to a decision of the Supreme Court of April 12, 1886. 2 In order that the cause for challenge under this number may be considered, it is necessary that the judge have a personal and direct interest in the cause from which this incident arises. (Decision of April 12, 1886.) 30

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31 10. La amistad intima. 11. La enemistad manifiesta. 12. Haber sido instructor de la causa. ART. 55. Los magistrados y jueces comprendidos en cualquiera de los casos que express el articulo anterior, se inhibiran del conocimiento del asunto sin esperar a que se les recuse. Contra esta inhibici6n no habr4 recurso alguno. De igual manera se inhibirin, sin recurso alguno, cuando al ser recusados en cualquier form estimasen procedente la causa alegada En uno y otro caso mandarin pasar las diligencias 6 quien deba reemplazarles. ART. 56. La recusaci6n podra proponerse on cualquier estado de la causa, pero nunca despues de comenzado el juicio oral, I no ser quo el notivo do la recusaci6n sobreviniere con posterioridad. CAPITULO II. DE LA SUSTANCIACI6N DE LAS RECUSACIONES DE LOS JUECES DE INSTRUCCI6N Y DE LOS MAGISTRADOS. ART. 57. La recusaci6n so hard en escrito firmado por lotrado, por procurador y por el recusanto si supiere firmar y estuviere on el lugar de la causa. El 6ltimo debera ratificarse anto el juez 6 tribunal. Cuando el recusante no estuviese presented, firmarsn s6lo ci letrado y ci produrador. En todo caso so expresar6 en ei escrito concreta y claramento la causa de la recusaci6n. ART. 58. No obstante Jo dispuesto en e1 articulo anterior, podra of procesado, si estuviere on incomunicacion, proponer verbalmente la recusaci6n on el acto de recibirselc declaraci6n, 6 podra 1lamar al juez por conducto del alcalde de la carcel para recusarlo. En este caso debera el juez do instrucci6n presentarse acompafiado del secretario, que hard constar por diligencia la potici6n do recusaci6n y la causa on que se fund. Cuando fuese denegada la recusaci6n, se 10 advertird que podra reproducirla una vez alzada la incomunicaci6n. ART. 59. El auto admitiendo 6 donegando la recusaci6n sera fundado y bastard notificarlo al procurador del recusante, aunque 6ste so halle en el pueblo on que se siga la causa y haya firmado el escrito de recusacion. ART. 60. Cuando el recusado no se inibiere por no considerarse comprondido on la causa alegada para la recusaci6n, se mandar4 formar pieza separada. Esta contender el escrito original de recusaci6n v ci auto denega-

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31 10. Intimate friendship. 11. Manifest enmity. 12. Having conducted the preliminary investigation. ART. 55. The justices and judges included in any of the cases mentioned in the foregoing article shall abstain from taking cognizance of the cause without waiting to be challenged. No remedy lies against this resolution. In like manner they shall decline jurisdiction without remedy whatsoever when, on being challenged in any manner, they shall consider the alleged cause to be well founded. In either case they shall order the record to be transmitted to whosoever should substitute them. ART. 56. The challenge may be interposed at any stage of the proceedings, but not after the oral trial has commenced, unless the cause of challenge shall have arisen thereafter. CHAPTER II. HEARING ANI) DECISION OF CHALLENGES OF JUDGES OF EXAMINATION AND JUSTICES. ART. 57. The challenge shall be in writing and signed by an attorney, by a solicitor, and by the challenging party, if he knows how to sign, and should be at the place where the cause is pending. The petition must be ratified by the latter before the judge or court. If the challenging party be not present, only the attorney and solicitor shall sign. In every case the cause of challenge shall be stated clearly and explicitly. ART. 58. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article, the accused ma.y, should he be incomunicado, interpose the challenge orally when his declaration is received, or he may call the judge through the warden of the prison in order to challenge him. in such case the judge of examination must present himself, accompanied by the secretary, who shall make a record of the written chalIeno'e and the cause therefor. If the challenge be overruled, lie shall be advised that he can renew the same when the incomunicacio, is raised. ART. 59. A decree sustaining or overruling a challenge shall state the reasons therefor, and it shall be sufficient to notify the solicitor of the challenging party thereof, even though the latter be in the town in which the cause is being prosecuted and had signed the written challenge. ART. 60. If the person challenged does not inhibit himself, not considering that he is included in the causes alleged for the challenge, he shall order a separate record to be prepared. Said record shall contain the original written challenge and the ruling

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32 torio de la inhibici6n, quedando nota expresiva do uno v otro en el proceso. ART. 61. Durante la sustanciaci6n de la pieza separada no podra intervenir el recusado en la causa ni en cl incident de recusaci6n, y sera sustituido por aquel 4 quien correspond con arreglo 4 la ley. Si el recusado fuese un juez do instrucci6n, debera este, no obstante, bajo su responsabilidad, practicar aquellas diligencias urgentes que no puedan dilatarse mientras su sucesor se encargue do continuar la instruccion. ART. 62. La recusaci6n no detendra o1 curso de la causa. Exceptuase oi caso en que el incidente de recusaci6n no so hubiese decidido cuando scan citadas las partes para la vista do alguna cuesti6n 6 incidente 6 para la celebraci6n del juicio oral. ART. 63. Instruiran la pieza separada de recusaci6n: Cuando el recusado sea el president 6 un president do sala do audiencia territorial 6 del Tribunal Supremo, el president de sala mas antigno; y si el recusado fuere el mas antiguo, el que le siga en antigiledad. Cuando el recusado fuere el president de una audiencia de 1o criminal, el magistrado mas antiguo de la sala de To criminal do la audiencia territorial. Cuando el recusado sea un magistrado de la audiencia de To criminal 6 territorial 6 del Tribunal Supremo, el magistrado mas antiguo de la respective sala 6 tribunal; y si aquel fuere el mas antiguo, el que le siga en antiguedad. Si por consecuencia de la recusaci6n de alguno 6 algunos magistrados de audiencias de 1o criminal no quedase en estos tribunales numero suficiente para formar tribunal, correspondera la instrucci6n de la pieza separada de recusaci6n al magistrado mas moderno do la sala de 10 criminal de la audiencia territorial respective. Cuando fuese juez de instrucci6n el recusado, instruiri la pieza de recusaci6n el magistrado mias moderno de la respective audiencia. ART. 64. Formada la pieza separada, se oira a la otra a otras partes que hubiese en la causa, por termino de tires dias a cada una, que s6lo podra prorrogarse por otros dos cuando a juicio del tribunal hubiese justa causa para ello. ART. 65. Transcurrido el termino seialado en el articulo anterior, con la pr6rroga en su caso, y recogida la causa sin necesidad do petici6n por part del recusante, se recibir4 a prueba el incident de recusaci6n, cuando la cuesti6n fuese de hecho, por ocho dias, durante los cuales se practicar4 la que hubiere sido solicitada por las parts y admitida como pertinent. ART. 66. Contra el auto en que las audiencias 6 el Tribunal Supremo admitieren 6 denegaren la prueba, no se darn ulterior recurso,

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32 denying the inhibition, an entry being made of all this in the original record. ART. 61. While the separate record is being heard and determined the person challenged can not act in the cause nor in the issue of the challenge, and shall be substituted by the proper person in accordance to law. If the person challenged be a judge of examination, he must, nevertheless, under his own liability, take such urgent measures as can not be delayed until his successor takes charge of continuing the examination. ART. 62. The challenge shall not delay the course of the cause unless the issue of the challenge shall not have been decided when the parties are cited for the hearing of some question or interlocutory issue or for the oral trial. ART. 63. The separate record of challenge shall be preparedBy the senior presiding justice of chamber if the person challenged be the presiding judge or a presiding judge of a chamber of a territorial audiencia or of the supreme court; and if the judge challenged be the senior, by the one next below him in seniority. By the senior justice of the criminal chamber of the territorial audiencia if the person challenged be the presiding judge of a criminal audiencia. By the senior justice of the respective chamber or court if the person challenged be a justice of a criminal or territorial audiencia or of the supreme court; and if he be the senior, by the one next below him in seniority. If, as a result of the challenge of one or more justices of the criminal audiencias. these courts should not have members sufficient to form a quorum, the preparation of the separate record shall pertain to the junior justice of the criminal chamber of the respective territorial audiencia. The junior justice of the respective audiencia shall prepare the record of challenge when the judge of examination is challenged. ART. 64. After the separate record has been prepared, the other party or parties to the cause shall be heard for a period of three days for each one, which period can only be extended for two days more when in the opinion of the court there be just cause therefor. ART. 65. When the period fixed in the foregoing article has elapsed, as well as the extension in a proper case, and the cause is taken up again without the necessity of a petition by the challenging party, evidence on the issue of the challenge shall be admitted for eight days if the question be a question of fact, during which time the evidence submitted by the parties and admitted as pertinent shajl be received. ART. 66. There shall be no remedy against rulings of audiencias or of the supreme court admitting or rejecting evidence. 18473-O1 5

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33 ART. 67. Cuando por ser la cuesti6n de derecho, no se hubiere recibido a prueba el incident do recusaci6n, 6 hubiese transcurrido el termino concedido en ci art. 65, se mandara citar a las partes, sefialando dia para la vista. ART. 68. Decidiran los incidentes de recusaci6n: Cuando el recusado fuese 01 president 6 un presidente de sala de audiencia territorial 6 del Tribunal Supremo, el tribunal en pleno. De igual mantra se proceder4 cuando los recusados 'fueren dos 6 mas magistrados de una misma sala 6 socci6n de estos tribunales. En los demas casos decidiran estos incidents los tribunales 6 salas a que pertenezean los magistrados instructores de las piezas separadas. ART. 69. Los autos en que so declare haber 6 no lugar A la recusaci6n, seran siempre fundados. Contra el auto que dictaren las audiencias s6lo procedera ch. recurso do casacion. Contra el que dictare el Tribunal Supremo, no habr4 recurso alguno. ART. 70. En los autos en que se deniegue la recusaci6n, se condenara en las costas al que la hubiere promovido. Ademas se impondra al recusante una multa do 125 a 250 pesetas cuando el recusado fuese juez de instrucci6n, y de 250 a 500 cuando fuese magistrado de audiencia. Se exceptua de la imposici6n de las costas y la multa al niinisterio fiscal. ART. 71. Cuando no se hicieren efectivas las multas respectivamente seialadas en el articulo anterior, el multado quedar4 sujeto 4 la responsabilidad personal subsidiaria correspondiente, por via de sustituci6n y apremio, en los terminos quo para las causas por delitos establece el c6digo penal. CAPITULO III. DE LA SUSTANCIACI6N DE LAS RECUSACIONES DE LOS JUECES MUNICIPALES. ART. 72. En los juicios de faltas se propondra la recusaci6n en el mismo acto de la comparecencia. ART. 73. En vista de la recusaci6n, si la causa alegada fuese de las expresadas en el articulo 54 y cierta, el juez municipal so darn por recusado, pasando el conocimiento de la falta a su suplente. ART. 74. Cuando el recusado no considerare legitima la recusaci6n, pasara el conocimiento del incident a su suplente, haciendole constar en el acta.

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33 ART. 67. If, on account of the question being one of law, evidence on the challenge is overruling, or when the period granted in article 65 has elapsed, the parties shall be cited, a day being fixed for the argument. ART. 68. The challenge shall be decidedBy the court in bane, if the person challenged be the presiding judge or a presiding judge of a chamber of a territorial audiencia or of the supreme court. Like procedure shall be observed if the persons challenged be two or more justices of the same chamber or section of said courts. In other cases these issues shall be decided by the courts or chambers to which the examining justices of the separate record belong. ART. 69. The decision sustaining or overruling the challenge shall always state the reasons therefor. An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from a decision rendered by an audiencia. There shall be no remedy whatsoever against a decision rendered by the supreme court. ART. 70. Decisions overruling a challenge shall contain the taxation of the costs of the same against the person interposing it. There shall also be imposed on the challenging party a fine of not less than 125 pesetas nor more than 250 pesetas if the authority challenged be a judge of examination, and not less than 250 nor more than 500 pesetas if a justice of the audiencia. The prosecuting officials shall be exempt from the payment of costs or the fine. ART. 71. If the fines respectively mentioned in the foregoing article are not paid, the party fined shall be subject to such proper compulsion in substitution thereof as provided for crimes in the penal code. CHAPTER III. HEARING AND DECISION OF CHALLENGES OF MUNICIPAL JUDGES. ART. 72. In trials for misdemeanors the challenge shall be interposed at the time of the appearance. ART. 73. In view of the challenge, should the cause alleged be of those mentioned in article 54, and be true, the municipal judge shall consider himself challenged, transferring the cognizance of the misdemeanor to his substitute. ART. 74. If the challenged party should not consider the challenge to be legitimate, he shall transfer the cognizance of the issue to his substitute, making note thereof in the record.

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34 Ni en este caso ni en el del articulo anterior se da recurso alguno contra To resuelto por el juez municipal. ART. 75. El juez municipal recusado no podra intervenir on la sustanciaci6n de la pieza de recusaci6n, y se suspended la celebraci6n del juicio do faltas hasta quo aquilla se decida. ART. 76. El juez suplente encargado de la sustanciaci6n be la pieza de recusaci6n hara comparecer a las partes a su presencia, y en e1 mismo acto recibir4 las pruebas que ofrezean y conceptle pertinentes cuando la cuesti6n verse sobre algun hecho. Contra cl auto denegatorio do la prueba podra pedirse reposici6n en el acto de hacerse saber a las parts. ART. 77. Recibida la prueba, 6 cuando por tratarse de cuesti6n de derecho no fuera necesaria, el juez municipal suplente resolved si ha 6 no lugar a la recusaci6n en auto fundado, y en el mismo acto si es posible. En ningun caso dejar4 de hacerlo dentro de segundo dia. De lo actuado y del auto se hara menci6n en ei acta que se extienda. ART. 78. Contra el auto del juez suplente declarando haber lugar a la recusaci6n, no se dara recurso alguno. Contra el auto en que la denegare, habra apelaci6n para ante el juez de instrucci6n. ART. 79. La apelaci6n se interpondra verbalmente en el acto -de la comparecencia ante el mismo juez municipal suplente, si 6ste resolviese en el momento. Si para resolver utilizare el termino de segundo dia, se interpondra la apelaci6n on el acto mismo de la notificaci6n siempre quo sea personal, y si no dentro de las veinticuatro horas siguientes a ella. La apelaci6n en este caso so interpondra tambien verbalmente ante el secretario del juzgado y se hara constar por diligencia. ART. 80. Cuando no se apelase dentro de los terminos sefialados en el articulo anterior, el auto del juez suplente sera firm. Interpuesta apelaci6n en tiempo, se remitiran los antecedentes al juez de instrucci6n respectivo con citaci6n de las partes y a expenses del apelante. ART. 81. En el juzgado do instrucci6n so dara cuenta inmediatamente por el secretario, sin admitir escritos, y so citar4 4 las partes a una comparecencia dentro del termino de segundo dia. Los interesados 6 sus apoderados podran hacer en ella verbalmente las observaciones quo estimen, provia la venia del juez de instrucci6n. Este pronunciar4 auto en el mismo dia 6 on el siguiente, y contra To que decida no habra ulterior recurso.

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34 Neither in this case nor in that of the foregoing article shall there be any remedy against the decision of the municipal judge. ART. 75. The municipal judge challenged cannot take part in the hearing and determination of the issue of the challenge, and shall suspend the trial for the misdemeanors until the question of the challenge is decided. ART. 76. The substitute judge charged with the hearing and determination of the issue of the challenge shall order the parties to appear before him, and shall at once hear the evidence they may offer and which he may consider pertinent, if the question be one of fact. If a decision ruling out the evidence is made, a rehearing may be requested as soon as the parties are notified thereof. ART. 77. The evidence having been taken, or when a question of law being involved it is not necessary, the substitute municipal judge shall decide at once, if possible, whether the challenge is or is not well taken in a ruling stating the reasons for his decision. In no case shall he fail to render a decision within two days. The proceedings had and the ruling shall be entered upon the record made. ART. 78. There shall be no remedy against a ruling of a substitute judge sustaining a challenge. From a decree overruling a challenge an appeal lies to the judge of examination. ART. 79. The appeal shall be interposed orally at the appearance for decision before the substitute judge, should he render a decision at once. If, in order to render a decision, he should take the period of two days, the appeal shall be filed at the time of the notification, provided it be personal; otherwise within the twenty-four hours following the notification. The appeal in such case shall also be interposed orally before the clerk of the court, and it shall be made a matter of record. ART. 80. If an appeal be not taken within the periods prescribed in the foregoing article, the ruling of the substitute judge shall become final. If the appeal be taken in due time, the proceedings shall be forwarded to the proper judge of examination, with a citation of the parties, at the expense of the appellant. ART. 81. In the court of examination the clerk shall immediately make a report without admitting any documentary evidence, and the parties shall be cited to appear within a period of two days. With the permission of the judge of examination the parties in interest or their attorneys may make orally at that time whatever remarks they may consider proper. The judge of examination shall render his decision the same day or the day following, and against his decision there shall be no further remedy.

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35 Si el jues instructor entendiese quo el municipal suplente debi6 reponor el auto denegatorio de la prueba a que se refiere el parrafo segundo del art. 76, 1o declarar4 asi, absteniendose de pronunciar sobro el fondo, y mandar devolver las diligencias al juzgado municipal do que procedan, para que se practique la prueba propuesta y so dicte nuevo auto. Serin aplicables a iste las disposiciones de los arts. 78 al 81. ART. 82. Cuando el auto sea confirmatorio, se condenara en costas al apelante. ART. 83. Declarada procedento la recusaci6n por auto firm, entendera el suplente en el juicio. Declarado improcedente, el juez recusado volvera a entender en el conocimiento de la falta. CAPITULO IV. DE LA RECUSACI6N DE LOS AUXILIARES DE LOS JUZGADOS Y TRIBUNALES. ART. 84. Los secretaries de los juzgados municipales, de los de instrucci6n, de las audiencias y del Tribunal Supremo, seran recusables. Lo seran tambidn los oficiales de sala. ART. 85. Son aplicables a los secretarios y oficiales de sala las prescripciones de este titulo, con las modificaciones quo establecen los articulos siguientes. ART. 86. Cuando los recusados fueren auxiliaries do los juzgados de instrucci6n, de las audiencias 6 del Tribunal Supremo, la pieza de recusaci6n se instruira por el juez instructor respectivo 6 magistrado mas moderno, y se fallara por el mismo juez 6 por el tribunal correspon diente. El juez 6 magistrado instructor podr delegar la prictica de las diligencias que no pudiere ejecutar por si mismo on el juez municipal o en uno de los jueces de instrucci6n de la respective circunscripci6n. ART. 87. Los auxiliares recusados no podran actuar en la causa en que 1o fueren ni en la pieza de recusaci6n, reemplazindoles aquellos a quienes corresponderia si la recusaci6n fuese admitida. ART. 88. En las recusaciones de secretarios de juzgados municipals instruira y fallara la pieza de recusaci6n el juez municipal. donde s6lo bubiere uno. Si hubiere dos, el del juzgado I que no vertenezca el recusado; y si tres 6 mas, el de mayor edad. ART. 89. Cuando se desestimare la recusaci6n, se condenara en costas al recusante.

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35 If the judge of examination should hold that the substitute municipal judge should reverse his ruling denying the admission of evidence, referred to in the second paragraph of article 76, he shall so declare, refraining from deciding the main question, and order the proceedings to be returned to the municipal court from which they were forwarded, in order that the evidence offered be taken and a new ruling made. The provisions of articles 78 to 81 shall apply to this ruling. ART. 82. If the ruling be affirmative, the appellant shall be taxed the costs thereof. ART. 83. If the challenge be sustained by a final ruling, the substitute judge shall take cognizance of the case. If overruled, the challenged judge shall again take cognizance of the offence. CHAPTER IV. CHALLENGES OF ASSISTANTS OF INFERIOR AND SUPERIOR COURTS. ART. 84. The clerks of municipal courts, courts of examination, of audiencias, and those of the supreme court may be challenged. The officers of chambers may also be challenged. ART. 85. The provisions of this title are applicable to the clerks and officers of chambers with the modifications prescribed in the following articles. ART. 86. If the challenged parties be the assistants of courts of examination, of audiencias or of the supreme court, the issue of the challenge shall be prepared by the proper judge of examination or the junior associate justice, and shall be decided by the same judge or by by the corresponding court. The judge or associate justice of examination may delegate the performance of the proceedings which he cannot personally conduct to the municipal judge, or to one of the judges of examination of the respective circuit. ART. 87. The assistants challenged cannot take part in the cause nor in the issue of the challenge, being substituted by the proper persons if the challenge be sustained. ART. 88. In challenges of clerks of municipal courts the municipal judge shall prepare and determine the issue of the challenge where there is but one judge. Should there be two, the judge of the court to which the challenged party does not belong; and if there be three or more, by the eldest. ART. 89. If the challenge be overruled, the challenging party shall be taxed the costs.

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36 ART. 90. Cuando sea firm el auto en que se admita la recusaci6n, quedara el recusado separado de toda intervenci6n en la causa, continuando en su reemplazo el que le haya sustituido durante la sustanciaci6n del incident; y si fuere secretario de juzgado municipal 6 do instrucci6n, no percibir4 derechos de ninguna clase desde quo se hubiese solicitado la recusaci6n, 6 desde que, siendole conocido el motivo alegado, no se separ6 del conocimiento del asunto. ART. 91. Cuando se desestimase la recusacion por auto firme, volvera el auxiliar recusado I ejercer sus funciones; y si fuse 6ste secretario de juzgado municipal 6 de instrucci6n, le abonara el recusante los derechos correspondientes a las actuaciones practicadas en la causa, haciendo igual abono al quo haya sustituido al recusado. ART. 92. No podrin los auxiliares ser recusados despues de citadas las parts para sentencia, ni durante la practice de alguna diligencia de que estuvieren encargados, ni despues de comenzada la celebraci6n del juicio oral. ART. 93. Es aplicable 4 los actuales relatores y escribanos de camara: primero, lo dispuesto en los articulos anteriores respecto a las recusaclones do los secretarios de sala; y segundo, to prevenido on los arts. 90 y 91 referente al abono de derechos. CAPITULO V. DE LAS EXCUSAS Y RECUSACIONES DE LOS ASESORES. ART. 94. Los asesores de los juices municipales, cuando stos desempeflen accidentalmente funciones de juices do instrucci6n, se oxcusaran si concurrieren en ellos algunas de las causas enumeradas en el articulo 54 de esta ley. El mismo juez municipal apreciar6 la excusa para admitirla 6 desestimarla. Si la desestimase, podr el asesor recurrir en queja a la respective audiencia, y 6sta, pidiendo informes y antecedents, resolvers de plano sin ulterior recurso 1o que cream procedente. ART. 95. Los que sean part en una causa podrin recusar al asesor por cualquiera de los motivos senalados on el art. 54. La recusaci6n so hara por modio de escrito dirigido al juez municipal. Contra las decisiones del juzgado municipal desestimando la recusasion, procedera igualmente el recurso de queja ante la audiencia respectiva. CAPITULO VI. DE LA ABSTENCI6N DEL MINISTERIO FISCAL. ART. 96. Los representantes del ministerio fiscal no podran ser recusados; pero se abstendran de intervenir en los actos judiciales cuando concurra on ellos alguna de las causas seflaladas en e1 art. 54 de esta ley.

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36 ART. 90. When a ruling sustaining a challenge becomes final, the party challenged can take no part in the cause whatever, the person who was substituted for him during the hearing and determination of the issue continuing to take his place; and if he be the clerk of a municipal court or court of examination he shall receive no fees of any kind from the time that the challenge was interposed, or when the alleged cause being known to him he did not abstain from taking cognizance of the subject. ART. 91. If the challenge be overruled by a final decision the assistant challenged shall again perform his duties; and should he be the clerk of a municipal court or court of examination the challenging party shall pay to him the fees corresponding to the proceedings had in the cause, and a similar payment shall be made to his substitute. ART. 92. The assistants can not be challenged after the parties have been cited to appear for judgment, nor while engaged in some proceeding intrusted to them, nor after the oral trial has begun. ART. 93. To relators and copyists of chambers are applicable: First, the provisions of the foregoing articles with regard to challenges of clerks in chambers; and, second, the provisions of articles 90 and 91 with reference to the payment of fees. CHAPTER V. EXCUSES AND CHALLENGES OF ASSESSORS. ART. 94. The assessors to municipal judges, when the latter accidentally discharge the duties of judges of examination, shall excuse themselves if they be embraced in any of the causes mentioned in article 54' of this law. The municipal judge himself shall weigh the excuse in order to admit or reject it. Should he reject it, the assessor may appeal in complaint to the proper audiencia, and the latter, after calling for reports and data, shall decide eo instanti without further remedy, what it may deem proper. ART. 95. The parties to a cause may challenge the assessor for any of the causes mentioned in article 54. The challenge shall be in writing, addressed to the municipal judge. From the decision of the municipal court overruling a challenge, an appeal in complaint lies also to the proper audiencia. CHAPTER VI. ABSTENTION OF PROSECUTING OFFICIALS. ART. 96. Prosecuting officials can not be challenged; but they shall abstain from intervening in judicial acts when they are included in any of the causes mentioned in article 54 of this law.

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37 ART. 97. Si concurriere en el fiscal del Tribunal Supremo 6 en los fiscales de las audiencias alguna de las causas por raz6n de las cuales deban abstenerse, de conformidad con lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, designaran para que los reemplacen al teniente fiscal, y en su defecto, a los abogados fiscales, por el orden de categoria y antigiiedad. Lo dispuesto en el parrafo anterior es aplicable a los tenientes 6 abogados fiscales cuando ejerzan las funciones de su jefe respectivo. ART. 98. Los tenientes y abogados fiscales del Tribunal Supremo y de las audiencias haran presented su excusa al superior respectivo, quien les relevara de intervenir en los actors judiciales, y elegirfi para sustituirles al quo tenga por convenient centre sus subordinados. ART. 99. Cuando los representantes del ministerio fiscal no so excusaren, 4 pesar de comprenderles alguna de las causas expresadas en el articulo 54, podran los que se considered agraviados acudir en queja al superior inmediato. Este oir4 al subordinado que hubiese sido objeto de la queja, y encontrndola fundada, decidira su sustituci6n. Si no la encontrare fundada, podra acordar que intervenga en el proceso. Contra esta determinaci6n no se da recurso alguno. Los fiscales de las audiencias territorials decidirsn las quejas que se les dirijan contra los fiscales de las audiencias de 1o criminal. Si fuere el fiscal del Tribunal Supremo el que diera motivo 4 la queja, deber4 Csta dirigirse al Ministro de Gracia y Justicia por conducto del president del mismo tribunal. El Ministro de Gracia, y Justicia, oida la sala de gobierno del Tribunal Supremo, si lo considera oportuno, resolvers lo quo estime procedente.

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37 ART. 97. ,If the public prosecutor of the supreme court or the public prosecutors of audiencias be included in any of the causes by reason of which they should abstain, according to the provisions of the foregoing article, they shall appoint as their substitutes the deputy public prosecutor, and in his absence the assistant deputy public prosecutors, in the order of their rank and term of service. The provisions of the foregoing paragraph are applicable to the deputy or assistant deputy public prosecutors when they discharge the duties of their respective chief. ART. 98. The deputy and assistant deputy public prosecutors of the supreme court and of the audiencias shall submit their excuses to the proper superior, who shall relieve them from taking part in the judicial proceedings, and shall select as a substitute the person he may deem proper from among their subordinates. ART. 99. When the prosecuting officials do not excuse themselves, notwithstanding their being included in any of the causes mentioned in article 54, those who consider themselves injured may appeal in complaint to the immediate superior. The latter shall hear the subordinate who may have been the object of the complaint, and if he shall find it proper shall order his substitution. If he shall not find it proper he may order him to appear in the case. There shall be no remedy against this decision. The public prosecutors of the territorial audiencias shall decide the complaints addressed to them against the public prosecutors of the criminal audiencias. If the public prosecutor of the supreme court be the subject of the complaint, it must be addressed to the Minister of Grace and Justice through the chief justice of the said court. The Minister of Grace and Justice after hearing the chamber of administration of the supreme court, should he consider it necessary, shall decide what he may deem proper.

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TITULO IV. DE LAS PERSONAS A QUIENES CORRESPONDE EL EJERCICIO DE LAS ACCIONES QUE NACEN DE LOS DELITOS Y FALTAS. ART. 100. De todo delito 6 falta nace acci6n penal para el castigo del culpable, y puede nacer tambidn acci6n civil para la restituci6n de la cosa, la reparaci6n del daiio y la indernnizaci6n de perjuicios causados por el hecho punible.' ART. 101. La acci6n penal es p6blica. Todos los ciudadanos espafioles podrin ejercitarla con arreglo a las prescripciones de la ley. ART. 102. Sin embargo de lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, no podran ejercitar la acci6n penal10. El que no goce de la plenitud de los derechos civiles.2 'Las acciones penales, por su naturaleza, y con arreglo a los principios del derecho, nunca deben ampliarse, sino por el contrario, entenderse y aplicarse siempre de un modo restrictivo." (Sentenciea de Junio 3, 1874.) 2Sin la pretension de conseguir una enumeraci6n complete, las personas que no pueden comparecer en juicio ni, por consiguiente, dar poder 6 otro para que comparezcan en su nombre, 6 no ser con la intervenci6n de sus representantes legitimos, son las siguientes: Los hubrfanos menores.-Su representaci6n legal corresponde al tutor (c6digo civil, articulo 262), el cual en ciertos casos necesita el consentimiento del consejo de familia (id., 269, ntmeros 12 y 13). Si los intereses del tutor son opuestos 4 los del hu6rfano, por ejemplo, en el supuesto del numero 90, articulo 237, ]a representaci6n en juicio corresponde al protutor (286, apartado 20). Los hijos no emancipados, por los que comparecen sus padres (c6digo civil, articulo 155), y cuando 6stos tengan interns incompatible con el de los hijos, el defensor 6 que alude el articulo 165, que equivale al antiguo curador para pleitos, de que hablan los artfculos 1852 4 1860 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil. Si los padres estan privados de la patria potestad, 6 tienen suspendido su ejercicio (c6digo civil, articulos 70, pdrrafo 30, 73, pdrrofo 20 del numero 20, y 168 6 171), representar4 4 los hijos el tutor nombrado. Los menores de edad emancipados por concesi6n del padre 6 de la madre, son representados en juicio por sus padres, y en su defecto por un tutor. (Articulos 314, numero 30, y 317 del c6digo civil.) Los menores que obtienen el beneficio de la mayor edad por concesion del consejo de familia, son representados por un tutor. (C6digo civil, articulos 322 4 324 y 317 4 que se refiere el u1timo.) Los casados mayores de 18 ados, pueden comparecer por si en juicio en nombre propio y en el de su mujer, segdn los artfculos 59 y 315 del c6digo civil, que deben asf entenderse, pues la emancipaci6n de que habla el articulo 317 se refiere a la del numero 30 del 314. 38

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TITLE IV. PERSONS WHO MAY EXERCISE RIGHTS OF ACTION ARISING OUT OF CRIMES AND MISDEMEANORS. ART. 100. A criminal action arises from every crime or misdemeanor for the punishment of the culprit, and a civil action may also arise for the restitution of the thing, the repair of the damage, and the indemnity of the losses caused by the punishable act.' ART. 101. A criminal action is public. All Spanish citizens may bring a criminal action according to the provisions of law. ART. 102. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article a criminal action can not be brought by: 1. A person not in the full enjoyment of civil rights.2 1 Criminal actions, by reason of their character and in accordance with the princiles of law, can never be extended, but, on the contrary, must be understood and applied always in a restricted manner. (Supreme Court. decision of June 3, 1894.) 2 Without attempting a full enumeration, the persons who can not appear in an ~.ction, and consequently who can not grant powers of attorney to others to appear in their behalf, unless it be with the intervention of their legal representatives, are the following: Minors who are orphans are legally represented by their guardians .(Civil Code, art. 262), who in certain cases require the consent of the family council. (Ibid., 269, Nos. 12 and 13.) If the interests of the tutor are opposed to those of the orphan, as, for example, in the case of number 9 of article 237 of the Civil Code, the representation of the minor in court pertains to the protutor. (Ibid., 236, second par.) Children not emancipated are represented by their parents (Civil Code, art. 155), and when said parents have an interest which is incompatible with that of their children the latter shall be represented by the next friend referred to in article 165, which is equivalent to the former curator ad litem referred to in articles 1852 to 1860 of the Law of Civil Procedure. If the parents are deprived of the parental authority, or if it be suspended (Civil Code, articles 70, paragraph 3; 73, par. 2 of number 2, and 168 to 171), the tutor appointed shall represent the children. Minors emancipated by the concession of the father or mother are represented in court by their parents, or, in their absence, by one tutor. (Articles 314, number 3, and 317 of the Civil Code.) Minors who obtain the benefit of majority by concession of the family council are repre'sented by one tutor. (Civil Code, articles 322 to 324 and 317, referred to.) Married persons over 18 years of age may appear in person in court in their own name and in that of their wives, according to articles 59 and 315 of the Civil Code, which must be understood in this manner, because the emancipation referred to in article 317 relates to that of number 3 of article 314. 38

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39 20. El que hubiera sido condenado dos veces por sentencia firme como reo del delito de denuncia 6 querella calumniosas. 30. El juez 6 magistrado. Los comprendidos en los ndmeros anteriores podran, sin embargo, ejercitar la acci6n penal por delito 6 falta cometidos contra sus personas 6 bienes, 6 contra las personas 6 bienes de sus c6nyuges, ascendientes, descendientes, hermanos consanguineos 6 uterinos y afines. Los comprendidos en los numeros 2 y 3 podran ejercitar tambien la acci6n penal por el delito 6 falta cometidos contra las personas 6 bienes de los que estuviesen bajo su guarda legal. Art. 103. Tampoco podran ejercitar acciones penales entre si1o. Los c6nyuges, a no ser por delito 6 falta cometidos por el uno contra la persona del otro 6 la de sus hijos y por los delitos de adulterio, amancebamiento y bigamia. Los condenados 6 interdictos. (V6anse los artfculos 228, 229, 262, 269, ndmeros 12 y 13, y 274 del c6digo civil, y los 26, 43, 54 y 57 del penal.) Los locos, dementes y sordomudos.-Su representaci6n legal corresponde al tutor 6 en su caso al defensor que nombren los tribunales 6 al ministerio pdblico. (C6digo civil, articulos 215, apartado 3o, 262, 269, nameros 12 y 13, y 274.) En los pleitos sobre prodigalidad, cuando el demandado no comparezca, tendra su representaci6n el fiscal 6 en su caso el defensor nombrado por el juez. (G6digo civil, articulo 223. La mujer casada.-Los casos en que necesita licencia de su marido para comparecer por si en juicio y los en que no necesita, se determinan en los artfculos 60 y 1387 del c6digo civil. Consursados.-Una vez hecha la declaraci6n de concurso, quedan incapacitados para la administraci6n de sus hienes todos (1161 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil y 1914 del codigo civil), y consiguientemente privados del pleno ejercicio de sus derechos civiles. La representaci6n legal del concurso corresponde al depositario administrador (ley, artfculo 1181) hasta el nombramiento de sfndicos. Verificado Este, los sfndicos representan al concurso en juicio defendiendo sus derechos y ejercitando las acciones y excepciones que le competan. (Id, articulo 1181, regla la.) Personas juridicas (corporaciones, sociedades y demds entidades juridicas).-Los pueblos y ayuntamientos son representados en juicio por los procuradores sfndicos y en los pueblos agregados A otros para formar ayuntamiento, los presidentes de sus juntas administrativas representan tambi6n A sus respectivos pueblos, cuando se trate de acciones 6 derechos que corresponden exclusivamente a sus mismos pueblos. (Articulos 56 y 90 4 96 de la ley de 1877, y R. 0. 30 Enero 1875.) Las provincias eran representadas por el diputado provincial nombrado al efecto con arreglo al articulo 37 de la ley de 25 de Septiembre de 1863; luego 1o fueron por el gobernador, conforme a los articulos 90 y 70 de la ley de 2 de Octubre de 1877, y boy lo son por el vice presidente de la comisi6n provincial, conforme al artfculo 98, nfmero 60 de la ley de 29 de Agosto de 1882. La hacienda pblica ha venido siendo representada por el ministerio fiscal en la forma prescrita por el decreto de 9 de Julio de 1869 y por la orden de la misma fecha; pero desde el decreto de 16 Marzo 1886 corresponde su representaci6n 4 los abogados del estado. 1 Las palabras de este artfculo no significan que el delito objeto de la querella haya de ser precisamente de los que el c6digo penal denomina contra las personas en el

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39 2. A person who has been twice condemned by a final sentence as guilty of the crime of calumnious denunciations or complaints. 3. The judge or justice. Those included in the foregoing numbers may, however, bring a criminal action for a crime or misdemeanor committed against their persons or property, or against the persons or property of their spouses, ascendants, descendants, uterine brothers or sisters, or relatives by consanguinity or affinity. The persons included in numbers 2 and 3 may also bring a criminal action for a misdemeanor or crime committed against the persons or property of those who may be under their legal care. Art. 103. Nor can the following persons bring criminal actions against each other: 1. Spouses, except for a crime or misdemeanor committed by one against the person of the other or that of his or her children,' and for the crimes of adultery, concubinage, and bigamy. Persons suffering interdiction or undergoing a sentence. (See articles 228, 229, 262, 269, numbers 12 and 13, and 274 of the Civil Code, and the proper articles of the Penal Code.) The deaf and dumb and the insane are legally represented by their guardian or, in a proper case, by the next friend appointed by the court or by the public prosecutor. (Oivil Code, articles 215, paragraph 3; 262, 269, numbers 12 and 13, and 274.) In actions relating to prodigals, when the defendant does not appear, he shall be represented by the public prosecutor or, in a proper case, by the next friend appointed by the court. (Civil Code, article 223.) Married woman.-The cases in which she does and does not require the permission of her husband to appear in an action are mentioned in articles 60 and 1387 of the Civil Code. Bankrupts.-After a declaration in bankruptcy the bankrupts are disqualified from administering any of their property (1161 of the law of Civil Procedure and 1914 of the Civil Code), and consequently are deprived of the full exercise of their civil rights. The depositary-administrator is the legal representative of the estate of the bankrupt (law, art. 1181) until trustees are appointed. After this has been done the trustees represent the bankrupt in court, defending his rights and taking the actions and exceptions incumbent upon them. (Ibid., article 1181, rule 1.) Judicial persons (corporations, associations, and other judicial entities) .-Towns and municipalities are represented by the procuradores sindicos, and in towns annexed to others in order to constitute a municipality, the presidents of their administrative boards also represent the respective towns, when actions or rights are involved which pertain exclusively to the said towns. (Articles 56 and 90 of the law of 1877, and Royal order of .January 30, 1875.) Provinces were represented by the provincial deputy, appointed for the purpose in accordance with article 37 of the law of September 25, 1863; afterwards they were represented by the governor, in accordance with articles 9 and 70 of the law of October 2, 1877, and now they are represented by the vice-president of the provincial commission, in accordance with article 98, number 6, of the law of August 29, 1882. The public treasury has been represented by the department of public prosecution in the manner prescribed by the decree of July 9, 1869, and by the order of the same date; but since the decree of March 16, 1886, it is represented by the state attorneys. I The words of this article do not signify that the crime which is the subject of the complaint must be of those which the Penal Code denominates crimes against the

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40 20. Los ascendientes, descendientes y hormanos consanguineos 6 uterinos y afines, a no ser por delito 6 falta cometidos por los unos contra las personas de los otros. ART. 104. Las acciones penales que nacen de los delitos de estupro, calumnia 6 injuria tampoco podran ser ejercitadas por otras personas ni en mantra distinta qne las prescritas en los respectivos articulos del c6digo penal. Las faltas consistentes on el anuncio por medio de la imprenta de hechos falsos 6 relatives a la vida privada con ei que se perjudique u ofenda 6 particulars, on malos tratamientos inferidos por los maridos a sus mujeres, on desobodiencia 6 malos tratos do 6stas para con aquillos, en faltas de respeto y sumisi6n de los hijos respecto de sus padres, 6 de los pupilos respecto do sus tutors, y en injurias loves, s6lo podran ser perseguidas por los ofendidos 6 por sus legitimos representantes. ART. 105. Los funcionarios del ministerio fiscal tendran la obligaci6n de ejercitar, con arreglo a las disposiciones de la ley, todas las acciones penales quo considered procedentos, haya 6 no acusador particular en las causas, menos aquillas que el c6digo penal reserva exclusivamente a la querella privada. Tambien deborin ejercitarlas en las causas por los delitos contra la honestidad, que con arreglo 6 las prescripciones del c6digo penal deben denunciarso previamente por los interesados, 6 cuando el ministerio fiscal deba 6 su vez denunciarlos por recaer dichos delitos sobre personas desvalidas 6 faltas de personalidad.l ART. 106. La acci6n penal por delito 6 falta quo de lugar al procedimiento de oficio no se extingue por la renuncia de la persona ofendida. Pero se extinguen por esta causa las que nacen del delito 6 falta que no puedan ser perseguidos sino a instancia do parte, y las civiles, cualesquiera que sea el delito 6 falta de que procedan. ART. 107. La renuncia de la acci6n civil 6 de la penal renunciable no perjudicar6 mas que al renunciante; pudiendo continuar el ejercicio de la penal on el estado en que se halle la causa, 6 ejercitarla nuevamente los demis a quienes tambien correspondiere. titulo viii, libro ii (parricidio, asesinato, homicidio, infanticidio, aborto, lesiones y duelo), sino que la ley alude a la condici6n de que el echo ofenda a persona emparentada con el culpable, que puede ser perseguido 4 instancia de la agraviada, aunque el delito sea de injuria. (Marzo 2 de 185.-Gaceta, Octubre 4.) 'En cumplimiento del articulo 467 del c6digo penal vigente en las islas de Cuba y Puerto Rico, el ministerio fiscal tiene la obligaci6n de ejercitar la acci6n penal en los delitos de rapto y adulterio d que el mismo se refiere.

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40 2. The ascendants, descendants, the uterine brothers or sisters, or relatives those by consanguinity or affinity, unless for a crime or misdemeanor by either against the persons of the others. ART. 104. Nor can penal actions which arise from the crimes of seduction, calumny, and contumely be instituted by other persons or in a different manner than those prescribed in the respective articles of the Penal Code. Misdemeanors consisting in a notice in the press of false facts or which relate to the private life, by which individuals are prejudiced or offended, in the ill treatment of wives by their husbands, the disobedience of or the ill treatment by wives of their husbands, lack of respect and submission of children to their parents, or of pupils to their tutors, and in slight acts of contumely, can only be prosecuted by the persons offended or by their legitimate representatives. ART. 105. The public prosecutors are obliged to institute, according to the provisions of law, all criminal actions which they may consider proper, whether there be a private accuser or not in the causes, except in those which the Penal Code reserves exclusively to private complaints. They shall also institute them in causes for crimes against chastity, which, according to the provisions of the Penal Code, must first be denounced by the persons interested, or when the public prosecutor should himself denounce them, because said crimes are committed against helpless persons or those lacking personality.' ART. 106. A criminal action for a crime or misdemeanor which gives rise to proceedings ex officio is not extinguished by the withdrawal of the complaint by the person offended. Actions which arise from a crime or misdemeanor which can only be prosecuted at the instance of a party, and civil actions, whatever be the crime or misdemeanor involved, are extinguished for this cause. ArT. 107. The abandonment of the civil action or of a criminal action which can be abandoned shall only prejudice the person who abandons it; the other persons interested in the cause being permitted to continue the criminal action in the state it was, or institute a new one. person in Title VIII, Book II (parricide, assassination, homicide, infanticide, abortion, injuries inflicted with violence, and dueling), but the law refers to a state when the act offends a person related to the guilty person, which may be prosecuted at the instance of the person injured, even though the crime be an outrage. (March 2, 1885-Gaceta of October 4.) 1In compliance with the provisions of article 467 of the Penal Code in force in the islands of Cuba and Porto Rico, the prosecuting officials are obliged to bring a criminal action in the crimes of abduction and adultery referred to therein. 18473-01 6

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41 ART. 108. La acci6n civil ha de entablarse juntamente con la penal por el ministerio fiscal, haya 6 no en el proceso acusador particular; pero si el ofendido renunciare expresamente su derecho de restituci6n, reparaci6n 6 indemnizaci6n, el ministerio fiscal so limitara a pedir el castigo de los culpables. ART. 109. En el acto de recibirse declaraci6n al ofendido que tuviese la capacidad legal necesaria, se le instruira del derecho quo le asiste para mostrarse part on el proceso y renunciar 6 no a la restituci6n de la cosa, reparaci6n del daho 6 indemnizaci6n del perjuicio causado por el hecho punible.' Si no tuviese capacidad legal, so practicara igual diligencia con su representante. Fuera de los casos previstos en los dos parrafos anteriores, no se hara 4 los interesados en las acciones civiles 6 penales notificaci6n alguna que prolongue 6 detenga ei curso de la causa, lo cual no obsta para que el juez procure instruir de aquel derecho al ofendido ausente. ART. 110. Los perjudicados por un delito 6 falta que no hubieren renunciado su derecho podrin mostrarse parte en la causa, si lo hicieren antes del tramite de calificaci6n del delito, y ejercitar las acciones civiles y penales que procedan, 6 solamente unas 6 otras, seg6n les conviniere, sin que por ello se retroceda en el curso do las actuaciones. Aun cuando los perjudicados no se muestren part en la causa, no por esto se entiende quo renuncian al derecho de restituci6n, reparacion o indemnizacion que a su favor pueda acordarse on sentencia firm; siendo menester que la renuncia do este derecho so haga en su caso de una mantra expresa y terminante. ART. 111. Las acciones quo nacen do un delito 6 falta podran ejercitarse junta 6 separadamente; pero mientras estuviese pendiente la accion penal, no se ejercitara la civil con separation hasta que aquella haya sido resuelta en sentencia firm, salvo siempre 1o dispuesto en los articulos 40, 50 y 6o de este c6digo. ART. 112. Ejercitada s6lo la acci6n penal, so entender4 utilizada tambien la civil, a no ser quo daflado 6 perjudicado la renunciase 6 la reservase expresamente para ejorcitarla despues de terminado el juicio criminal si a ello hubiere lugar. Si se ejercitase s6lo la civil que nace de un delito de los que no pueden perseguirse sino en virtud de querella particular, so considerara extinguida desde luego la acci6n penal. ART. 113. Podran ejercitarse expresamente las dos acciones por una misma persona o por varias; pero siempre quo scan dos o mas las 1 La obligation de instruir de su derecho a los interesados en la casa, no solo se establece 6 favor de los perjudicados por el delito, sino en beneficio de los presuntos culpables, conforine al articulo 20. 4

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41 ART. 108. The civil action must be brought jointly with the criminal action by the prosecuting official, whether there be a private accuser or not in the cause; but if the person offended shall expressly renounce his right to restitution, repair, or indemnity, the prosecuting official shall confine himself to requesting the punishment of the guilty parties. ART. 109. As soon as the declaration of an offended party having the necessary legal capacity has been received, he shall be informed of his rights to become a party to the action and to renounce or not the restitution of the thing, repair of the damage, and indemnity for the loss caused by the punishable act.' Should he not have the legal capacity, the same information shall be communicated to his representative. Aside from the cases provided for in the two foregoing paragraphs, no notice shall be served upon the parties interested in civil or criminal actions which shall prolong or delay the course of the cause, which, however, is not an obstacle to the judge informing the absent person offended of his rights. ART. 110. Those prejudiced by a crime or misdemeanor who shall not have renounced their rights may enter an appearance in the cause, should they do so before the classification of the crime, and exercise the proper civil and criminal actions, or either, as they may desire, without, however, causing any retrogression in the course of the proceedings. Even if the persons prejudiced do not enter an appearance in the cause, it shall not be understood that they thereby renounce the right to restitution, repair, or indemnity which may be granted them by final sentence, it being necessary that the renunciation of this right be made in a proper case in an express and positive manner. ART. 111. The actions which arise from a crime or misdemeanor may be instituted jointly or separately; but during the pendency of the criminal action the civil action can not be brought separately until the former has been decided by a final sentence, excepting always the provisions of articles 4, 5, and 6 of this code. ART. 112. If the criminal action only is instituted, it shall be understood that a civil action may also be brought, unless the person injured or prejudiced renounces the same or expressly reserves the right to institute it after the conclusion of the criminal action, if necessary. If only the civil action arising from a crime which can be prosecuted only on a private complaint is instituted, the criminal action shall thereby be considered as extinguished. ART. 113. The two actions may be expressly instituted by the same or by different persons; but should the actions derived from a crime or The obligation of informing the parties to a cause of their right is established not only with regard to those injured by the crime but also in favor of the presumed criminals, according to article 2.

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42 personas por quienes se utilicen las acciones derivadas de un delito 6 falta, 1o verificarAn en un solo proceso, y si fuere posible bajo una misma direcci6n y representaci6n a juicio del tribunal. ART. 114. Promovido juicio criminal en averiguaci6n de u1n delito 6 falta, no podra seguirse pleito sobre el mismo hecho; suspendidndole, si 10 bubiese, on el estado en que se hallare, hasta que recaiga sentencia firm en la causa criminal. No serA necesario para el ejercicio de la acci6n penal que haya precedido el de la civil originada del mismo delito 6 falta. Lo dispuesto en este articulo so entiende sin perjuicio do lo establecido en el capitulo II, titulo I do este libro respect a las cuestiones prejudiciales. ART. 115. La acci6n penal so extingue por la muerte del culpable; pero en este caso subsiste la civil contra sus herederos y causahabientes, que s6lo podra ejercitarse ante la jurisdicci6n y por la via de io civil.' ART. 116. La extinci6n de la acci6n penal no lleva consigo la de la civil, a no ser que la extinci6n precede de haberse declarado por sentencia firm que no existi6 el hecho de quo la civil hubiese podido nacer. En los demas casos, la persona a quien corresponds la acci6n civil podra ejercitarla ante la jurisdicci6n y por la via do lo civil quo procoda contra quien estuviere obligado a Ia restituci6n de la cosa, reparaci6n del dailo 6 indemnizaci6n del perjuicio sufrido. ART. 117. La extinci6n de la acci6n civil tampoco lleva consigo la do la penal que nazca del mismo delito 6 falta. La sentencia fire absolutoria dictada en el pleito promovido por ei ejorcicio de la acci6n civil no sera obsticulo para el ejorcicio do la acci6n penal correspondiente. Lo dispuesto en esto articulo so entiende sin perjuicio de 1o que establece el capitulo II del titulo I do este libro, y los articulos 106, 107, 110 y parrafo segundo del 112. 1 Este articulo es sustancial repeticion de los 125 y 132, nfin. 10 del c6digo penal.

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42 misdemeanor be instituted by two or more persons, they shall do so in one proceeding, and if possible with the same counsel, in the discretion of the court. ART. 114. If a criminal action is brought to investigate a crime or misdemeanor, a suit can not be prosecuted in the same; the proceeding being suspended, should any be pending, in the state in which it may be, until final sentence has been pronounced in the criminal cause. It shall not be necessary for the institution of the criminal action that it shall have been preceded by the civil action arising from the same crime or misdemeanor. The provisions of this article shall be understood without prejudice to those of Chapter II, Title I, of this book, with reference to preliminary questions. Am. 115. A criminal action is extinguished by the death of the culprit; but in such case a civil action still lies against his heirs and successors in right, which can only be brought in a civil court and through civil channels.' AR. 116. The extinction of the criminal action does not carry with it the extinction of the civil action, unless the extinction be caused by a final sentence declaring that the act on which a civil action might be based did not exist. In other cases the person having a right of civil action may institute before the civil jurisdiction, and through the proper civil channels, an action against the person who may be obliged to restore the thing, to repair the damage, or indemnify the losses suffered. ART. 117. Nor does the extinction of the civil action extinguish the criminal action resulting from the same crime or misdemeanor. A final judgment absolving from liability rendered in the suit brought by the exercise of the right of civil action, shall not bar the exercise of the proper right of criminal action. The provisions of this article are to be understood without prejudice to the provisions of Chapter II, Title I, of this book, and of articles 106, 107, 110, and the second paragraph of article 112. 1 This article is substantially a repetition of articles 125 and 132, subd. 1, of the Penal Code.

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TfTULO V. DEL DERECHO DE DEFENSA Y DEL BENEFICIO DE POBREZA EN LOS JUICIOS CRIMINALES. ART. 118. Los procesados deberin ser representados por procurador y defendidos por letrado, que pueden nombrar desde que so les notifique el auto de procesamiento. Si no los nombraren por si mismos 6 no tuvieren aptitud legal para verificarlo, se les designara de oficio cuando 1o solicitaren. Si el procesado no hubiese designado procurador 6 letrado, se le requeriri para que lo verifique, 6 se le nombrara de oficio, si requerido no los nombrase, cuando la causa llegue a estado en que necesite el consejo de aquillos 6 haya do intentar algin recurso que hiciere indispensable su intervenci6n.' ART. 119. Los perjudicados por el hecho punible 6 sus herederos que fueren part en el juicio, si estuviesen habilitados para defenderse como pobres, tendran tambien derecho a que so los nombre de oficio procurador y abogado, para su representaci6n y defense. An. 120. Los abogados a quienes corresponda la defense de pobres no podran excusarse de ella sin un motivo personal y justo, que calificarin segun su prudent arbitrio los decanos de los colegios donde los hubiese, y on su defecto el juez 6 tribunal en que hubieren de hacerse las defensas. ART. 121. Todos los que scan parte on una causa, si no estuviesen declarados pobres, tendran obligaci6n de satisfacer los derechos .de los procuradores que les representen, los honorarios de los abogados que les defiendan, los de los peritos quo informen a su instancia y las indemnizaciones do los testigos que presentaren, cuando los peritos y testigos al declarar hubiesen formulado su reclamaci6n y el juez 6 tribunal la estimaren. Ni durante la causa ni despues de terminada tendran obligaci6n de satisfacer las demas costas procesales, 4 no ser que a ello fueren condenados. Los abogados estAn obligados A defender A los pobres. Impuesta 4 un abogado la correcci6n disciplinaria para que estAn autorizados los juzgados y tribunales, resisti6ndose todavia aqu6l 6 aceptar la defensa que por turno le correspondi6 de un litigante pobre, fu6 procesado y penado como reo de desobediencia grave, con arreglo al art. 265 del c6digo penal, y habiendo interpuesto recurso de casaci6n, se declare no haber lugar 4 61 por no haberse infringido dicho artfculo. (Sentencia de Marzo 7 de 1877.) 43

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TITLE V. THE RIGHT OF DEFENSE AND THE BENEFIT OF POVERTY IN CRIMINAL CAUSES. ART. 118. The persons accused must be represented by a solicitor and defended by an attorney, whom they may appoint as soon as they are notified of the indictment. If they do not designate them themselves or should they not have the legal power to do so, they shall be appointed ex oficio, upon their request. If the accused should not have designated a solicitor or attorney, he shall be required to do so or they shall be appointed ex officio, if they should not have been appointed by him k when the cause reaches a stage where he needs their counsel or some step should be taken wherein their intervention is necessary. ART. 119. The persons injured by the punishable act, or their heirs, who may be parties to the action, if they have been declared as entitled to defense in formal pauperis, shall also have the right to have a solicitor and attorney appointed ex officio to represent and defend them. ART. 120. The attorneys whose duty it is to defend the poor can not excuse themselves therefrom, except for a personal and just cause, which shall be passed upon according to the prudent judgment by the deans of the college, where there is such, and in their absence by the judge or court before which the defense is to be made. ART. 121. All parties to a cause, if not declared poor persons, shall be obliged to pay the fees of the solicitors who represent them, of the attorneys who defend them, of the experts testifying in their behalf, and of the witnesses which they present, if the experts and witnesses at the time of testifying shall have filed their claim and the judge or court shall have allowed it. Neither during the cause nor after its termination shall they be obliged to pay the other costs of the proceedings, unless adjudged to pay them. 1 Attorneys are obliged to defend poor persons. A disciplinary penalty having been imposed upon an attorney, for which superior and inferior courts have authority, as he still refused to accept the defense of a poor person when it was his turn to do so, he was tried and convicted as guilty of grave disobedience, in accordance with the provisions of article 265 of the Penal Code, and upon taking an appeal for annulment of judgment it was disallowed, it being held that said article had not been violated. (Decision of March 7, 1887.) 43

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44 El procurador que nombrado por los que fueren parte en una causa, haya aceptado su representaci6n, tendrs obligaci6n de pagar los honorarios a los letrados de que se valiesen los clientes para su defensa. Los que hubiesen sido declarados pobres podran valerse do abogado de su elecci6n; pero en esto caso estaran obligados 4 abonarles sus honorarios, como se dispone respect de los quo no estin declarados pobres. ART. 122. Se usara papel do oficio en los judicios sobro faltas y en las causas criminales, sin perjuicio del correspondiento reintegro si hubiere condenaci6n de costas. ART. 123. S6l0 podran ser habilitados como pobres: 1. Los que vivan de un jornal 6 salario eventual. 20. Los que vivan s6lo de un salario permanent, 6 de un sueldo, cualquiera que sea su procedencia, quo no exceda del doble jornal de un bracero en la localidad dondo tengan su residencia habitual. 30. Los quo vivan s6lo de rentas, cultivo do tierras 6 cria do ganados, cuyos productos estin graduados en una suma que no exceda de la equivalent al jornal de dos braceros en e1 lugar do su residencia habitual. 40. Los quo vivan s6lo del ejercicio de una industria 6 de los productos de cualquier comercio por los cuales paguen de contribuci6n una suma inferior a la fijada on la siguiente escala: En la ciudad de la Habana, 150 posetas. En las capitals de las otras provincias de la isla de Cuba, 100 pesetas. En la capital de la isla de Puerto Rico, 100 pesetas. En las capitales de los partidos judiciales de las islas de Cuba y Puerto Rico, 50 pesetas. En las demas poblaciones de ambas islas, 25 pesetas. 50. Los que tengan embargados todos sus bienes, 6 los hayan cedido judicialmente a sus acreedores, y no ejerzan industria, oficio 6 profesi6n. En estos casos, si quedasen bienes despues de pagar 4 los acreedores, se aplicarin al pago do las costas que deba satisfacer el defendido como pobre.' 1Este artfculo debe entenderse subordinado al 125, y, por lo tanto, procede denegar el beneficio si la sala deduce de los signos visibles de riqueza que el que le pretende tiene medios superiors al doble jornal de un bracero.-Sentencias del Tribunal Supremo 18 Febrero 1870; 31 Diciembre 1877; 22 Septiembre, 18 y 21 Noviembre 1879; 10 Enero, 29 Marzo y 24 Junio 1880; 11 Febrero 1881; 15 Diciembre 1883 y otras. (b) Contra la sentencia que concede 6 un litigante el beneficio de pobreza no procede el recurso de casaci6n.-Sentencia de 10 Mayo 1881. (c) Tambi6n debe declararse pobre d la persona que vive exclusivamente con una

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44 A solicitor who, being appointed by those who are parties to a cause, agrees to represent them, shall be obliged to pay the fees of the attorneys of whose services their clients avail themselves for their defense. Those who have been declared poor persons may select their own attorney, but in such case they shall be obliged to pay his fees, as is provided with regard to those who are not declared poor persons. ART. 122. Official stamped paper shall be employed in trials for misdemeanors and in criminal causes, without prejudice to the proper payment therefor, should there be an adjudgment upon costs. ART. 123. Only the following can be permitted to prosecute and defend as poor persons: 1. Those who depend for a living upon an uncertain wage or salary. 2. Those who depend for a living upon a permanent salary or wage, from whatsoever source derived, which does not exceed double that received by a laborer in the locality of his habitual residence. 3. Those who depend for a living solely upon rents, farming, or stock raising, the proceeds of which do not exceed the wages of two laborers in the place of their habitual residence. 4. Those who gain their livelihood solely through the exercise of an industry or from the product of any commerce on which they pay a tax lower than that fixed in the following scale: In the city of Havana, 150 pesetas. In the capitals of the other provinces of the island of Cuba, 100 pesetas. In the capital of the island of Porto Rico, 100 pesetas. In the seats of the judicial districts of the islands of Cuba and Porto Rico, 50 pesetas. In the other towns of both islands, 25 pesetas. 5. Such persons whose entire property has been attached, or who have made a judicial assignment thereof to their creditors, and who are not engaged in any industry, trade, or profession. In such cases, if any property shall remain after the creditors have been paid, it shall be applied to the payment of the costs incurred at the instance of the debtor defended as a poor person. I (a) This article must be understood as subordinated to article 125, and therefore it is proper to refuse the benefit if the court shall deduce from visible signs of wealth that the applicant has means which exceed double the wages of a laborer.--Decisions of the Supreme Court of February 18, 1870; September 22, November 18 and 21, 1879; January 10, March 29, and June 24, 1880; February 11, 1881; December 15, 1883, and others. (b) An appeal for annulment of judgment does not lie from a decision granting permission to prosecute or defend as a poor person.-Decision of May 10, 1881. (c) A person who lives solely on a pension of 20 reales per day, left him by will

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45 ART. 124. Cuando alguno reuniere dos 6 mis inedios de vivir de los designados en el articulo anterior, el tribunal apreciara los rendimientos de todos ellos, y no otorgara la defensa por pobre si reunidos excedieren de los tipos sefialados en el articulo precedente. ART. 125. No se otorgar6 la defensa por pobre i los comprendidos en cualquiera de los casos expresados en el art. 123, cuando a juicio del tribunal se infiera del nflmero de criados que tengan a su servicio, del alquiler de la casa que habiten 6 de otros cualesquiera signos exteriores que tienen medios superiores al jornal doble de un bracero en cada localidad. ART. 126. Tampoco se otorgara la defensa por pobre al litigante que disfrute una renta que unida i la de su consorte 6 al producto de los bienes de sus hijos cuyo usufructo le corresponda, constituyan acumupensi6n de 20 reales diarios, que se la dej6 en testamento para ella y sus tres hijos.Sentencia 25 Octubre 1880. (d) Para determinar si el que solicita el beneficio de pobreza, que vine litigando a nombre propio, es 6 no acreedor a 61, no puede tomarse en cuenta la contribucion que satisfaga como gerente de una sociedad.-Sentencia 9 ebrero 1882. (e) No puede fundarse la denegaci6n del beneficio, en que el interesado, aunque no paga contribuci6n alguna, deberfa satisfacer como cuota industrial 40 pesetas al ailo; pues los tribunales deben limitarse a apreciar el echo d si se paga 6 no contribuci6n, sin poder declarar si debe 6 no debe pagarse, materia de la exclusive competencia de la administraci6n.-Sentencia 31 Octubre 1884. (f) La residencia habitual i que se refiere el articulo 15 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil, para los efectos de la defense por pobre, debe ser la que tenga el interesado al tiempo de solicitar dicho beneficio, y no la del lugar en que hubiere residido por mis tiempo en 6pocas anteriores.-Sentencia SO Mayo 1883. (g) Todo litigante se consider rico mientras no pruebe 1o contrario.-Sentencia 12 Noviembre 1883. (h) El litigante es quien debe probar a cuanto asciende e1 doble jornal de un bracero en su localidad.-Sentencia 3 Junio 1887. (i) Los hijos nacidos de primer matrimonio de una mujer cuyo segundo marido es rico tienen derecho al beneficio de pobreza, porque los bienes gananciales del segundo enlace no corresponden A los litigios que se sigan en interns de los hijos del primer matrimonio.-Sentencia 18 Abril 1893. (j) El beneficio de pobreza es individual y no se extiende 6 ninguna colectividad, ni por 1o tanto A las sociedades industriales y mercantiles, si todos y cada uno do sus individuos no acrediten ser pobres.-Sentencias 15 Abril 1879, 3 Junio 1880 y 9 Julio 1881. (k) El que por virtud do embargo judicial se ve privado de sus bienes, quedindole iibres los frutos y rentas de los misInos, no puede decir que tiene embargados todos sus bienes, segun exige el ndmero 50 del articulo 15 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil, para pretender los beneficios de los artfculos 13 y 14 de la misma.-Sentencia 14 Octubre 1886. Lo propio sucede cuando se enenentran hipotecados 6 dados en garantfa.Sentencia 18 &ptiembre 1865.

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45 ART. 124. If a person has two or more of the means of livelihood mentioned in the foregoing article, the court shall include all of them in the enmputation of the income, and permission to prosecute and defend as a poor person shall not be granted him if the total thereof exceeds the amounts fixed in the foregoing article. ART. 125. Permission to prosecute and defend as a poor person shall not be granted to a person in any of the cases mentioned in article 123 when in the judgment of the court it is inferred from the number of domestics in his service, the rent of his residence, or from any other visible signs that his means exceed an amount equal to twice the wages of a laborer in his respective locality. ART. 126. Neither shall permission to prosecute and defend in forma pauperis be granted to a litigant who enjoys an income which, added to that of his spouse, or to the proceeds from the property of his children, for himself and his three children, must be granted this right. -Decision of October 25, 1880. (d) In order to decide whether the person requesting permission to prosecute or defend as a poor person who has acted in his own name is entitled thereto or not, the tax which he pays as the manager of an association can not be taken into consideration.-Decision of September 9, 1882. (e) The refusal to grant the benefit can not be based on the fact that the person interested should pay an industrial tax of 40 pesetas per annum, although he does not do so, the courts being obliged to consider only whether the tax is or is not paid without being allowed to declare that it should or should not be paid, which is a matter of the exclusive jurisdiction of the administration.-Decision of October 31, 1884. (f) The habitual residence referred to in article 15 of the Law of Civil Procedure, for the purposes of the benefit of poverty, must be that which the person interested has at the time he requests said benefit, and not the place where he may have resided for a longer period in former times.-Decision of May 30, 1883. (g) All litigants shall be considered wealthy until they prove the contrary.Decision of November 12, 1883. (h) It is incumbent upon the litigant to prove the amount of the wages of a laborer in his locality.-Decision of June 3, 1887. (i) The children born of a first marriage of a woman whose husband is wealthy are entitled to the benefit of poverty, because the conjugal property of the second marriage is not liable for the litigation instituted in the interest of the issue of the first marriage.-Decision of April 18, 1893. (j) The benefit of poverty is individual and does not extend, therefore, to any collectivity, such as industrial and commercial associations, unless each and every one of their members prove that they are poor.-Decisions of April 15, 1879; June 8, 1880, and July 9, 1881. (k) A person who is deprived of his property by virtue of a judicial attachment, and retains the products and rent thereof, can not allege that all his property is attached, as required by number 5 of article 15 of the Law of Civil Procedure, for the purpose of securing the benefits of article 13 and 14 thereof.-Decision of October 14, 1886. The same is the case when the property is mortgaged or given as security.Decision of September 18, 1865.

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46 ladas una suma equivalente al jornal de tres braceros en el lugar donde tenga la familia su residencia habitual.' ART. 127. Cuando litigaron unidos varios quo individualmente tengan derecho a ser defendidos por pobres, se les habilitara como tales aun cuando los productos reunidos de los modos de vivir de todos ellos excedieren de los tipos que quedan sefialados. ART. 128. La declaraci6n de pobreza se solicitara ante el juez 6 tribunal que estuviere conociendo de la causa. Los autos de los jueces de instrucci6n resolviendo estos incidentes son apelables ante el respectivo superior jerarquico. ART. 129. La sustanciaci6n de la solicited de pobreza se hara en pieza separada, acomodandose it los triimites establecidos para los incidentes de esta clase por la ley de enjuiciamiento civil, sin que por raz6n de su tramitaci6n pueda dejar do principiarse 6 de continuarse la causa. ART. 130. No obstante 1o dispuesto en el articulo anterior, podra obtener habilitaci6n de pobreza, sin necesidad de previa justificaci6n, el quo estuviere do notoriedad comprendido en alguno do los casos mencionados en el articulo 123, si 4 ello no so opusieren el ministerio fiscal 6 el quo deba ser part en el incident, a cuyo efecto se les notificara el auto en que la habilitaci6n se hubiese concedido. 1 (a) No debe otorgarse el beneficio de litigar por pobre a la mujer casada, cuyo marido es rico, pues a 6ste afectan los deberes inherentes al matrimonio.-Sentencia 3 junio 1865; id., 29 abril 1880. (b) Tampoco a la mujer que disfruta de una renta, quo unida a la de su marido, constituyen una mayor que la equivalent al jornal de dos braceros (hoy de tres) de la localidad en que viven.-Sentencias 17 junio 1865, 18 septiembre id., 26 enero 1869 y 16 noviembre 1861. (c) En contiendas judiciales de un c6nyuge con otro desaparece la unidad de persona y de litigants, y por consecuencia necesaria no pueden acumularse los ingresos ni apreciarse en comdin los signos exteriores para obtener on conjunto una suma 6 demostraci6n de riqueza quo no existen por separado; pero en tales casos la mujer pobre tiene derecho, cuando el marido es rico, 6 que 6ste le abone litis expensas para que pueda defender on juicio sus derechos, ya que el litigar con su marido, si bien hace desaparecer la unidad personal, no extingue el derecho de la esposa 6 disfrutar de las rental comunes que conserva el marido.-Sala 1, Sentencia 14 junio 1887. (d) Cuando el padre es rico no puede concederse al hijo pobre que esta bajo su potestad el beneficio de pobreza para litigar con un tercero, porque si bien el derecho de ser defendido como pobre es personal, este principio no excluye la necesidad de tender en cuenta las circunstancias que concurren en casos especiales, como, cuando se trata de personas cuyos derechos son inseperables de los de otras, como, por ejemplo, las mujeres casadas y las personas que estin en potestad paterna 6 materna y otras.Sentencia 16 febrero 1876. En sentencia de 21 de septiembre de 1888, vuelve a reiterarse la doctrina de que no puede concederse el beneficio al padre rico, en sentido legal, para litigar 6 nombre de sus hijos pobres porque es inherente 6 la patria potestad el deber de defender en juicio los bienes de los hijos.

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46 the usufruct of which he enjoys, amounts altogether to a sum equivalent to the wages of three laborers at the place of habitual residence of the family.' ART. 127. When several persons individually entitled to defence in formal pauperis unite in an action, they shall be authorized to litigate as such, even though the united means of livelihood of all of them exceed the amounts prescribed. ART. 128. The declaration of poverty shall be requested of the judge or court taking cognizance of the cause. The decisions of these issues by examining judges may be appealed from to their respective hierarchical superiors. ART. 129. The hearing and determination of a petition for defence in forma pauperis shall be conducted in a separate record, observing the procedure prescribed for issues of this character in the law of civil procedure, without, however, its prosecution interfering with the initiation or continuation of the cause. ART. 130. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article, the person who is known to be included in any of the cases mentioned in article 123, may obtain permission to prosecute or defend as a poor person without proving his right thereto, should the prosecuting official or the party to the issue not object, for which purpose the decree granting the privilege shall be communicated to them. 1 (a) The privilege to prosecute or defend as a poor person shall not be granted to a woman who has a wealthy husband, because the duties inherent to the marriage affect the latter.-Decision of June 3, 1865. (b) Neither shall it be granted to the woman who receives an income which, together with that of her husband, is equivalent to the wages of two laborers (now of three) in the locality where they reside.-Decisions of June 17, 1865; September 18 1865; January 26, 1869, and November 16, 1881. (c) In legal proceedings between spouses, the unity of person and litigant disappears, and, as a necessary consequence, the income of each can not be added together, nor can the external signs be considered in common for the purpose of obtaining a sum of money, nor signs of wealth which do not exist separately; but in such cases the poor woman having a wealthy husband has a right to require the husband to make her an allowance for the purpose of paying the costs of her action, and even though the litigation with her husband extinguishes the personal unity, it does not extinguish the right of the wife to enjoy the common income which the husband retains.-Decision of June 14, 1887. (d) When the father is wealthy, the son who is under his power can not be granted permission to litigate as a poor person with a third party, because, although the right to defend as a poor person is personal, this principle does not exclude the necessity of taking into consideration the attendant circumstances in special cases, as is the case with persons whose rights are inseparable from those of others, such as married women and persons under the paternal or maternal power, and others.Decision of February 16, 1876. A decision of September 21, 1888, repeats the doctrine that the benefit can not be granted to a wealthy father, in a legal sense, to appear in an action in the name of his poor children, because the duty to defend the property of the children in court is inherent to the parental authority.

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47 Tambien se habilitar4 al que hubiese obtenido declaraci6n de insolvencia, sin perjuicio de la oposicion que el ministerio fiscal y la otra part puedan deducir. Formalizada oposici6n, se sustanciara en pieza separada el incident con arreglo a lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior. ART. 131. El que entablare la pretension de pobreza tendrs derecho a que desde luego so le otorguen los beneficios legales de la misma sin perjuicio de 1o quo definitivamente se resuelva. ART. 132. Cuando fucre el acusador particular quien promueva la pretension, se sustanciari el incident con citaci6n y audiencia del procesado, si ya le hubiese y no estuviera en rebeldia. ART. 133. La pretension de pobreza entablada por el procesado se sustanciara con citaci6n y audiencia del querellante particular y actor civil, si los hubioso. ART. 134. El ministerio fiscal sera parte en todos los incidentes de pobreza. ART. 135. El procesado a quien no se haya citado ni oido en el incidente de pobreza del querellante podrs impugnar en cualquier estado de la causa la habilitaci6n que a favor do Cste se hubiese decretado. ART. 136. El que no hubiese sido declarado pobre durante el sumario, hayalo 6 no solicitado, podrs serlo durante el juicio oral si justificare que con posterioridad ha quedado comprendido en alguno de los casos del art. 123. Lo dispuesto en el parrafo anterior sera aplicable al que para seguir el recurso de casaci6n pretendiere ante el Tribunal Supremo la declaraci6n de pobreza quo le hubiese sido negado durante el curso de la causa, 6 al que hasta entonces no hubiese presentado la solicitud. Siempre quo se deniegue la declaraci6n de pobreza, se condenara on costas al que la hubiese solicitado. ART. 137. Contra la sentencia definitive del tribunal de 1o criminal que resuelva negativamente el incident de pobreza procedera s6lo el recurso de casacion. ART. 138. El declarado pobre no star obligado a pagar sus respectivos honorarios y derechos al abogado y procurador que le hubiesen defendido y representado de oficio, ni tampoco los honorarios 6 indemnizaciones correspondientes a los peritos y testigos citados a su instancia. ART. 139. La declaraci6n de pobreza no eximira a quien la obtenga de la obligaci6n de pagar las costas en que fuere condenado si so la encontraren bienes con que hacerlas efectivas. ART. 140. El declarado pobre debera pagar los honorarios, derechos e indemnizaciones a que se refiere el art. 138: 1. Siempre que se justifique por los que tengan derecho a ellos que

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47 The person who may have obtained a declaration of insolvency may also be granted such privilege, without prejudice to the objection which the public prosecutor or the other party may make. If objection be made, the issue shall be heard and determined in a separate record according to the provisions of the foregoing article. ART. 131. A person filing a petition in forma paupers shall have the right to have granted to him the legal benefits thereof immediately, without prejudice to what may be definitely decided. ART. 132. If the private accuser files the petition, the issue shall be heard and determined with a citation and hearing of the accused, if he be undergoing trial and is not in default. ART. 133. A petition in formal pauperis filed by the accused shall be heard and determined with the citation and a hearing of the private complainant and the civil plaintiff, if there be any. ART. 134. The public prosecutor shall be a party to all proceedings in formal pauperis. ART. 135. The accused, who has neither been cited nor heard in the issue of the poverty of the complainant, may at any stage of the proceedings object to the privilege granted him. ART. 136. A person who has not been declared poor during the sumario, whether he requested it or not, may be so declared during the oral trial, if he shall prove that subsequently he was included in any of the cases mentioned in article 123. The provisions of the foregoing paragraph shall be applicable to a person who, in order to appeal for annulment of judgment, should file a petition in forma paupers before the Supreme Court, which had been denied him during the course of the cause, as well as to the person who until then may not have filed such petition. Whenever the petition be denied, the petitioner shall be taxed the costs thereof. ART. 137. From a final decision of a criminal court denying a petition in forma pauperis, only an appeal lies for annulment of judgment. ART. 138. A person declared poor is not obliged to pay the respective salaries and fees of the attorney and solicitor who may have defended and represented him ex officio, nor the fees and indemnities of the experts and witnesses cited at his instance: ART. 139. The declaration of poverty shall not exempt the person securing the same from the obligation of paying the costs taxed against him, if property be found on which to levy therefor. ART. 140. A person declared poor must pay the fees, charges, and indemnities referred to in article 138: 1. Whenever it be proven by those entitled thereto that during the

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48 durante la causa so encontraba el declarado pobre en alguno de los casos en que no deben otorgarse los beneficios de la defensa en este concepto. 2o. Siempre que por el resultado de la causa percibiere alguna cantidad. En este caso seri destinada proporcionalmente la tercera part de 1o percibido al pago de las expresadas atenciones. 30. Si dentro de tries aflos despues de fenecida la causa viniere a mejor fortuna el que legare a alguna de las situaciones a que se refieren los nums. 1 y 2o del articulo 39 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil.

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48 action the person declared poor was included in any of the cases in which the benefits of proceedings in forma pauperis should not be granted. 2. Whenever as a result of the cause he should receive a sum of money. In such case, one-third of the sum received shall be destined proportionately to the payment of said sums. 3. If within three years after the conclusion of the cause his fortune should improve. It shall be understood that his fortune has improved if he should reach any of the conditions mentioned in numbers 1 and 2 of article 39 of the law of civil procedure. 18473-01 7

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TITULO VI. DE LA FORMA DE DICTAR PROVIDENCIAS, AUTOS Y SENTENCIAS, Y DEL MODO DE DIRIMIR LAS DISCORDIAS. CAPITULO PRIMERO. DE LA FORMA DE DICTAR PROVIDENCIAS, AUTOS Y SENTENCIAS. ART. 141. Las resoluciones de caricter judicial que dicten los juzgados y tribunales se denominaranProvidencias, cuando sean de mera tramitaci6n. Autos, cuando decidan incidentes 6 puntos esenciales que afectan de una manera directa a los procesados, acusadores particulares 6 actores civiles; cuando decidan la competencia del juzgado 6 tribunal, la procedencia 6 improcedencia de la recusaci6n, la reposici6n de alguna providencia, la denegaci6n de la reposici6n, la prisi6n y soltura, la admisi6n 6 denegaci6n de prueba 6 del beneficio de pobreza, y finalmente los demas que segfn las leyes deben fundarse. Sentencias, cuando decidan definitivamente la cuesti6n criminal. Sentencias,ftrmes, cuando no quepa contra ellos recurso alguno ordinario ni extraordinario, salvo los de revision y rehabilitaci6n. Llimase ejecutoria el documento pdblico y solemne en que se consigna una sentencia firme. La formula de las providencias so limitara a la resoluci6n del juez 6 tribunal, sin mas adiciones que la fecha en que se acuerde, la rubrica del juez 6 del presidente del tribunal y la firma del secretario. Los autos se redactaran fundandolos en Resultandos y Considerandos, concretos y limitados unos y otros a la cuesti6n quo se decida.' ART. 142. Las sentencias se redactaran con sujeci6n a las reglas siguientes: i. Se principiar4 expresando el lugar y la fecha en que se dictaren, los hechos que hubieren dado lugar a Ia formaci6n de la causa, los nombres y apellidos de los actores particulares, si los hubiere, y de los procesados, los sobrenombres 6 apodos con que sean conocidos, su edad, estado, naturaleza, domicilio, oficio 6 profesi6n, y en su defecto todas las demas circunstancias con que hubieron figurado en la causa, y ademas el nombre y apellido del magistrado ponente. 'La omisi6n de esta formula no motiva la casaci6n por infracci6n de ley.-Sentencia 12 Abril, 1880. 49

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TITLE VI. FORM IN WHICH ORDERS, RULINGS, AND DECISIONS SHALL BE MADE, AND MANNER OF ADJUSTING DISAGREEMENTS. CHAPTER FIRST. FORM IN WHICH ORDERS, RULINGS, AND DECISIONS SHALL BE MADE. ART. 141. The resolutions of superior and inferior courts in matters of a judicial character shall be called: Providencias, when they are of mere practice. Autos (rulings), when deciding incidental issues or essential points which affect in a direct manner the accused, the private complainants, or parties to the civil actions; when they decide the jurisdiction of the superior or inferior court, the sustaining or overruling of challenges, the reversal of some order, the refusal to reverse an order, imprisonment or liberation, the admission or rejection of evidence, or of the benefits of poverty, and, finally, all others which according to law must set forth the reasons therefor. Sentencias (decisions), when they definitely decide the criminal question. Sentencias frmes (final decisions), if there be no ordinary or extraordinary remedy against the same, except review and discharge. Ejecutoria, the public and formal instrument in which a final decision is entered for enforcement. The form for providencias shall be limited to the resolution of the judge or court without additions other than the date thereof, the rubric of the judge or presiding justice of the court, and the signature of the secretary. The autos shall be based upon Resultandos and Considerandos, both concrete and confined to the question decided.' ART. 142. Decisions shall be prepared subject to the following rules : 1. They shall begin by stating the place at and date on which rendered; the facts which gave rise to the formation of the cause; the names and surnames of the private complainants, should there be any, and of the accused; the titles and nicknames by which they are known; their age, conjugal condition, nativity, domicile, trade or profession, and, in the absence thereof, all the other matters by which they may have figured in the cause, and also the name and surname of the justice ponente. 1The omission of this formula can not serve as a basis for annulment on account of a breach of law. (Decision of April 12, 1880.1 49

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50 2a. Se consignaran en Resultandos numerados los hechos que estuvieren enlazados con las cuestiones que hayan de resolverse en el fallo, haciendo declaraci6n expresa y terminante de los que se estimen probados.' 3a. Se consignaran las conclusiones definitivas de la acusaci6n y de la defensa y la que en su caso hubiese propuesto el tribunal, en virtud de 1o dispuesto en el articulo 733. 4. Se consignarian tambien en parrafos numerados, que empezaran con la palabra ConsiderandoPrimero. Los fundamentos doctrinales y legales de la calificaci6n do los hechos que se hubiesen estimado probados. Segundo. Los fundamentos doctrinales y legales determinantes do la participaci6n que en los referidos hechos hubiese tenido cada uno de los procesados. 'Explicacion de los resultandos por los considerandos.-Si la relaci6n de los hechos probados es defectuosa, procede aceptar la explicaci6n que de los mismos se haga en los considerandos, para no sacrificar la realidad 6 una falta de pura forma. (Sentencia 28 Abril, 1884, y 17 Noviembre, 1886.) Pero este criterio de tolerancia no es aplicable a las sentencias en que se impone la pena de muerte y que deben ser casadas por quebrantamiento de forma, conforme al articulo 912, nmero 1, cuando no contienen en los resultandos los hechos constitutivos del delito y la precisa declaraci6n de hallarse probados.-&ntencias de 25 Junio, 1885, 2 Abril, 1886, 20 Junio y 5 Julio, 1888. Contradicci6r entre los hechos segin la exposiciin de los resultandos y considerandos.Debe resolverse ateniendose a los resultandos.-Sentencia 21 Febrero, 1887. Afirmacidn de haberse comaetido cl delito sin exponer los hechos que le constituyen.-No basta afirmar en una sentencia quo se ha cometido algfn delito 6 falta si antes no se determina en qu6 consisti6 la acci6n A1 omisi6n voluntaria que ha sido nateria del juicio, porque no siendo el recurso de casaci6n por infracci6n de ley otra cosa que la discusi6n que las partes puedan sostener en esta sala acerca de los agravios que en su sentir se les hayan inferido en la sentencia recurrida por err6nea calificaci6n juridica de los hechos probados y poco acertada aplicaci6n de la ley penal, se hace legalmente imposible toda contienda y resoluci6n acertada de la calificaci6n legal de hechos omitidos que debieron consignarse en la sentencia como inalterable prenisa, de la que ha de derivarse el elemento jurfdico de aqu6lla, 6 sean los considerandos y la aplicaci6n pr4ctica de la ley que contenga el fallo.-Sentencia 18 Febrero de 1889. La frase hecho probado, con que termina un resultando, no puede entenderse que se refiere exclusivamente al ultimo particular relacionado en el mismo ni a ninguno de los otros, sino al conjunto sustancial de todos ellos que con notorio enlace entre sf se consignan en el resultando.-Sentencia de 5 de Abril de 1884. No es motivo de casaci6n el no declarar probados los hechos en los resultandos, cuando tal afirmaci6n se contiene en los considerandos.-Sentencia de 17 de Noviembre de 1887. La declaraci6n de hechos probados en la sentencia, segdn 1o dispuesto en este pirrafo, no es de todos los que las partes entiendan que merecen dicha apreciaci6n, sino s61o de aquellos que a juicio de la sala sentenciadora sean constitutivos de delito y esten enlazados con ]as cuestiones que hayan de resolverse en el fallo.Sentencia de 26 de Marzo de 1886.

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50 2. In numbered Resultandos shall be stated the facts which may be related to the questions which are to be decided, making a clear and positive statement of those considered proved.' 3. The definite findings both of the accusation and of the defense shall be stated, as also, in a proper case, any proposal made by the court, in pursuance of the provisions of article 733. 4. Also in numbered paragraphs, which shall begin with the word Considerando, shall be stated: First. The points of law and legal principles relating to the classification of the acts which are considered proved. Second. The points of law and legal principles relating to the participation in said acts of each of the accused. 1 Explanation of the resultandos by the conmiderandos.-If the statement of the true facts is defective the explanation of the same made in the considerandos should be accepted in order not to sacrifice truth to a breach of mere form. (Decisions of April 28, 1884, and November 17, 1886.) But this broad interpretation does not apply to sentences imposing the penalty of death and which must be annulled for breach of form in accordance with subdivision 1 of article 912, when they do not contain in the resultandos the acts which constitute the crime and a specific statement of their being proved. (Decisions of June 95, 1885, April 2, 1886, June 20 and July 5, 1888. ) Contradiction between the facts according to the statements in the resultandos and considerandos.-This must be decided in favor of the resultandos. (Decision of February 1, 1887.) Affirmation of the crime having been committed without stating the acts constituting it.It is not sufficient to affirm in a decision that a crime or misdemeanor has been committed if it be not previously determined in what the voluntary action or omission consisted which has been the subject-matter of the action, because an appeal for annulment of judgment for a breach of law being nothing but the arguments which the parties may present in this chamber with regard to the injuries which, in their opinion, they have suffered in the decision appealed from, on account of an erroneous juridical classification of the proved facts and an incorrect application of the penal law, any contest and proper decision of the legal classification of facts omitted which should have been included in the sentence as an unalterable premise is rendered legally impossible, from which the juridical element of the former must be derived, that is to say the cousiderandos and the practical application of the law contained in the decision. (Decision of February 18, 1889.) The phrase "IHecho probado," with which a resultando closes can not be understood as referring exclusively to the last item stated in the same, nor to any of the others, but to the substantial aggregation of all which are stated in the resultando, and known to have reference to each other. (Decision of April 5, 1884.) An annulment of judgment does not lie when there is no declaration of the acts being proved in the resultandos, when such statement is contained in the considerandos. (Decision of December 7, 1887.) The declaration of proved acts in a sentence, according to the provisions of this paragraph, is not of all those which the parties believe should require such statement, but only of those which, in the judgment of the sentencing chamber, constitute the crime and are connected with the questions to be decided in the sentence. (Decision of March 26, 1886.)

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51 Tercero. Los fundamentos doctrinales y legales de la calificaci6n de las circunstancias atenuantes, agravantes 6 eximentes de responsabilidad criminal en caso de haber concurrido. Uuarto. Los fundamentos doctrinales y legales de la calificaci6n de los hechos que se hubiesen estimado probados con relaci6n a la responsabilidad civil en que hubiesen incurrido los procesados 6 las personas sujetas a ella a quienes se hubiere oido en la causa, y los correspondientes a las resoluciones que hubieren de dictarse sobre costas, y en su caso a la declaraci6n de querella calumniosa. Quinto. La cita de las disposiciones legalese que se considered aplicables, pronunciandose por ultimo el fall, en el que se condenara 6 absolvers, no s6le por el delito principal y sus conexos, sino tambidn por las faltas incidentales de que se hubiere conocido en la causa, reputandose faltas incidentales las que los procesados hubiesen cometido antes, al tiempo, 6 despues del delito como medio de perpetrarlo 6 encubrirlo.' Tambien se resolveran en la sentencia todas las cuestiones referentes a la responsabilidad civil que hubieren sido objeto del juicio, y se declarar4 calumniosa la querella cuando procediere. ART. 143. Las ejecutorias se encabezarin en nombre del Rey. ART. 144. La absoluci6n se entender4 libre en todos los casos. ART. 145. Para dictar autos 6 sentencias en los asuntos cuvo conocimiento correspond a las audiencias de 1o criminal 6 4 las salas respectivas de las audiencias territoriales, seran necesarios tries magistrados, y cinco para dictar sentencia en las causas en que se hubiere pedido pena de muerte, cadena 6 reclusi6n perpetual. Al efecto, si en la sala 6 secci6n del tribunal no hubiere nimero suficiente de magistrados, se completar4 en las audiencias territorials con los necesarios de las demas secciones de la sala de lo criminal; y donde no los hubiere, con los de salas de 1o civil designados respectivamente por el president de la sala de 1o criminal 6 por el de la audiencia; en las audiencias de 1o criminal con los de las demis secciones a designaci6n de su presidente, y donde la planta fuese menor de cinco magistrados, con los magistrados suplentes, y 6 falta de stos con los magistrados de la audiencia de 1o criminal mais pr6xima que por turn designed el presidente de la del territorio a que ambas pertenezean, de quien habr4 de solicitarlo con la anticipaci6n debida el de la de le criminal donde ocu'Las faltas incidentales cometidas por los procesados han de ser penadas en la sentencia que la sala dicte como termino del juicio oral de que conozca; pero en cuanto A las faltas cometidas por persona distinta del procesado, como la ley nada previene, se debe pasar el tanto de culpa al juez intructor 6 al municipal, segun los casos, para los efectos que correspondan.-Circular de 4 de Septiembre de 1884.

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51 Third. The points of law and legal principles for the classification of extenuating or aggravating circumstances or exemption from criminal liability, if such be attendant. Fourth. The points of law and legal principles for the classification of the acts which may have been considered as proved with regard to the civil liability incurred by the persons accused or the persons subject thereto heard in the cause, and those pertaining to decisions upon costs, and, in a proper case, to a declaration of a calumnious complaint. Fifth. The citation of the legal provisions which are considered applicable, finally rendering the decision in which the accused shall be condemned or acquitted, not only as to the principal crime and those connected therewith, but also as to the incidental misdemeanors which may have been considered in the cause, such being considered those which the accused may have committed before, at the time of, or after the crime, as a means of perpetrating or concealing it.' The decision shall also pass upon all questions relating to civil liability which may have been the subject of the action, and when proper the complaint shall be declared calumnious. ART. 143. The ejecutorias shall be headed in the name of the King. ART. 144. An acquittal shall be understood to be without reservations in every case. ART. 145. In order to make rulings or render decisions in matters the cognizance of which pertains to criminal audiencias or to the respective chambers of territorial audiencias, three justices shall be required, and five to pass sentence in a cause in which a penalty of dealth, cadena perpetua or reclusidn perpetual has been requested. For this purpose, should there not be a sufficient number of justices in the chamber or section of the court, the necessary number shall be made up in the territorial audiencias with those of the other sections of the criminal chamber; and if there be none, with those of the civil chambers, respectively, appointed by the presiding judge of the criminal chamber or of the audiencia, in criminal audiencias with those of the other sections, by appointment of the presiding judge, and where the court is composed of less than five justices, with the substitute justices, and in the absence of the latter, with the justices of the nearest criminal audiencia which may in turn be designated by the presiding judge of the territorial audiencia to which both belong, of whom a request shall be made in due time by the presiding judge of the criminal audien1 Incidental misdemeanors committed by the accused must be penalized in the decision which the chamber must render concluding the oral trial of which it is taking cognizance; but with regard to misdemeanors committed by a person other than the person undergoing trial, as the law provides nothing therefor, cognizance of the matter must be given to the examining judge or the municipal judge, as the case may be, for the proper purposes. (Circular of September 4, 1884.)

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52 rriere el caso. Para dictar providencias en unos y otros tribunales bastaran dos magistrados si estuvieren conformes. ART. 146. En cada causa habr4 un magistrado ponente. Turnaran en este cargo los magistrados del tribunal, 4 excepci6n del que le presida. Cuando los tribunales 6 salas se compongan s6lo do un president con dos magistrados, turnar4 tambien el primero en las ponencias, correspondidndole una de cinco. ART. 147. Correspondent 4 los ponentes: 1. Informar al tribunal sobre las solicitudes de las parts. 20. Examinar todo lo referente 4 las pruebas que se propongan, 4 informar al tribunal acerca de su procedencia 6 improcedencia. 3o. Recibir las declaraciones de los testigos y practicer cualesquiera diligencias de prueba, cuando, segin la ley, no deban 6 puedan practicarse ante el tribunal que las ordena, 6 se hagan fuera del pueblo en que este se halle constituido y no se de comisi6n 4 los jueces de instruccion o municipales para que las practiquen. 4o. Proponer los autos 6 sentencias que hayan de someterse a discusi6n del tribunal, y redactarlos definitivamente en los terminos que se acuerden. Cuando el ponente no se conformase con ol voto de la mayoria, se encargara otro magistrado de la redacci6n de la sentencia; pero on este caso estar4 aquel obligado a formular voto particular.' 5o. Leer en audiencia publica la sentencia. ART. 148. Si por cualquier circunstancia no pudiere fallarse alguna causa en el dia correspondiente, esto no sera obsticulo a quo se decidan 6 sentencien otras que hayan sido vistas con posterioridad, sin que por ello se altere el orden mAs que en 1o absolutamente indispensable. ART. 149. Inmediatamente despues de celebrado el juicio oral, 6 en el siguiente dia antes de las horas de despacho, el tribunal discutir4 y votary todas las cuestiones de hecho y de derecho que hayan sido objeto del juicio. La sentencia que result aprobada se redactar4 y firmar dentro del termino seflalado en el articulo 203. ART. 150. La discusi6n y votaci6n de las sentencias se verificar4 en todos los tribunals 4 puerta corrada, y antes 6 despues de las horas seflaladas para el despacho ordinario. ART. 151. Discutida la sentencia propuesta por el ponente, votar4 este primero, y despues de 41 los demos magistrados por orden inverso de su antigiedad. ART. 152. Cuando la importancia de la discusi6n 1o exija, deber4 el que presida hacer un breve resumen de ella antes de la votaci6n. ART. 153. Las providencias, los autos y las sentencias se dictaran por 1 V6ase on el Ap6ndice I, la Orden No. 63, de Mayo 25 de 1899.

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52 cia where the case occurs. For orders of mere practice in any of these courts, two justices shall be sufficient, if they agree. ART. 146. In every cause there shall be one justice poente. The associate justices of the court, excepting the presiding justice, shall take turns in this duty. When the courts or chambers are composed of but one chief justice and two associate justices, the former shall also take his turn as ponente every fifth time. ART. 147. It shall be the duty of the ponente: 1. To advise the court of the petitions of the parties. 2. To examine everything relative to the evidence offered and advise the court whether it is pertinent or not. 3. To take the depositions of the witnesses and any other evidence when, according to law, the same can not or should not be taken before the court ordering the same, or if taken without the town where the court is sitting, and when judges of examination or municipal judges are not commissioned to take them. 4. To propose the rulings and decisions, which are to be submitted for discussion by the court, and to finally draft them in the terms agreed upon. If the ponente does not agree with the vote of the majority, another justice shall be charged with the preparation of the decision; but in such case the ponente must prepare a dissenting opinion.' 5. To read the decision in open court. ART. 148. If for any reason it is impossible to decide a case on the proper day, this fact shall not be an obstacle to other eases being decided which may have been heard subsequently, without, however, altering the order more than is absolutely necessary. ART. 149. Immediately after the conclusion of the oral trial or on the following day before the hour for public business, the court shall discuss and vote upon all questions of fact and law, which may have been the subject matter of the trial. The decision approved shall be prepared and signed within the period fixed in article 203. ART. 150. The discussion and voting for decisions shall be held in all courts behind closed doors, before or after the hours designated for the ordinary dispatch of business. ART. 151. After the decision proposed by the ponente has been discussed, he shall vote first, and afterwards the other justices in the inverse order of their seniority. AR. 152. When the importance of the decision so requires, the presiding justice shall make a brief resume of the same before the vote is taken. ART. 153. The orders, rulings, and decisions shall be made by an 'See in Appendix I, Order No. 63, May 25, 1899.

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53 mayoria absoluta de votos, excepto en los casos en que la ley exigiere expresamente mayor numero. ART. 154. Si despues de la vista y antes de la votaci6n algun magistrado se imposibilitare y no pudiere asistir al acto, dara su voto fundado y firmado y lo remitira directamente al president. Si no pudiere escribir ni firmar, se valdra del secretario. El voto asi emitido se conservara rubricado por el que presida en el libro de sentencias. Cuando el magistrado no pudiere votar ni aun de este modo, se votary la causa por los no impedidos que hubiesen asistido a la vista, y si hubiere los necesarios para formar mayoria, 6stos dictarin sentencia. Cuando no resulte mayoria, se estara a lo que la ley ordena respect de las discordias. ART. 155. Cuando fuere trasladado, jubilado, separado 6 suspenso algdn magistrado, votary las causas a cuya vista hubiere asistido y que aun no se hubiesen fallado. ART. 156. Comenzada la votaci6n de una sentencia, no podrs interrumpirse sino por algdn impedimento insuperable. Todo el que tome part en la votaci6n de una providencia, auto 6 sentencia, firmara lo acordado aunque hubiese disentido de la mayoria; pero podrs en este caso salvar su voto, que se insertara con su firma al pie en el libro de votos reservados dentro de las veinticuatro horas siguientes.' ART. 157. En las certificaciones 6 testimonios de sentencias que expidieren los tribunals no se insertarin los votos reservados; pero se remitiran al Tribunal Supremo, y se haran publicos cuando se interponga y admita el recurso de casaci6n. ART. 158. Las sentencias se firmaran por todos los magistrados no impedidos. ART. 159. En cada tribunal, sala 6 secci6n de 1o criminal se levara un registro de sentencias, en el cual se extenderan y firmaran todas las definitivas. El registro expresado estar6 bajo la custodia de los respectivos presidentes. ART. 160. Las sentencias definitivas se leeran y notificaran a las parts y 6 sus procuradores en todo juicio oral el mismo dia en que se firmen, oa lo mas en el siguiente. Si por cualquier circunstancia 6 accident no se encontrare a las parts al ir y hacerles la notificaci6n, se hara constar por diligencia, y bastard en tal caso con la notificaci6n hecha 6 sus procuradores. Los autos que resuelvan incidents se notificaran Anicamente a los procuradores. SV6ase en el Apindice I, la Orden No. 63, de 25 Mayo de 1899.

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53 absolute majority of votes, except in such cases in which the law expressly requires a greater number. ART. 154. If after the hearing and before the vote is taken, some justice shall become disabled and not be able to attend the voting, he shall give his signed vote with the reasons therefor, and shall forward it directly to the presiding justice. Should he be unable either to write or sign, he shall employ the clerk. The vote thus cast shall be preserved in the book of decisions by the presiding justice and rubricated by him. If a justice should be unable to vote even in this manner, the voting in the cause shall be done by those who are not disabled and who may have attended the hearing, and should there be sufficient number to form a majority, they shall render the decision. If there be no majority the provisions of the law with regard to disagreements shall be observed. ART. 155. When any justice shall be transferred, retired, removed, or suspended, he shall vote upon the causes the hearing of which he may have attended and which have not as yet been decided. ART. 156. After the voting for a decision has commenced it can not be interrupted except by some insuperable cause. Everyone who takes part in the voting upon an order, ruling, or decision shall subscribe to what has been agreed to, even though he may have dissented from the majority; but in this case he may reserve his vote, which shall be inserted, with his signature at the foot thereof, in the book of reserved votes within the next twenty-four hours.' ART. 157. The certificates or transcripts of decisions issued by the courts shall not contain the reserved votes; but they shall be transmitted to the supreme court, and shall be made public when an appeal for annulment of judgment is interposed and allowed. ART. 158. Decisions shall be signed by all justices not disabled. ART. 159. In every criminal court, chamber, or section shall be kept a register of decisions, in which shall be entered and signed all final decisions. The said register shall be under the custody of the respective presiding justices. ART. 160. Final decision shall be read and served upon the parties and upon their solicitors in all oral trials the same day on which they are signed or not later than the following day. If for any reason or by any accident the parties can not be found when sought for service this fact shall be made a matter of record, and in such case the notice served upon their solicitors shall be sufficient. Decisions upon incidental issues shall be served upon the solicitors only. See in Appendix I, order No. 63, May 25, 1899.

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54 ART. 161. Los tribunales no podran variar, despues de firmadas, las sentencias que pronuncien; pero si aclarar alghn concepto oscuro, suplir cualquiera omisi6n que contengan, 6 rectificar alguna equivocaci6n importante dentro del dia habil siguiente al de la notificaci6n. Estas aclaraciones podrin hacerse de oficio 6 a instancia de las partes 6 del ministerio fiscal. ART. 162. Los tribunales conservarn met6dicamente coleccionadas las minutas de los autos que resuelvan incidentes y sentencias que dictaren, haciendo referencia en cada una en el asiento correspondiente de los libros de autos y sentencias del tribunal. Las hojas de los libros de autos y de sentencias de los tribunales estarin numeradas y selladas, rubricandolas el president respectivo. CAPITULO II. DEL MODO DE DIRIMIR LAS DISCORDIAS. ART. 163. Cuando en la votaci6n de una sentencia definitiva, auto 6 providencia no resultase mayoria de votos sobre cualquiera de los pronunciamientos de hecho 6 de derecho que deban hacerse 6 sobre la decision que haya de dictarse, volveran a discutirse y 2I votarse los puntos en que hayan disentido los votantes. ART. 164. Si en la siguiente votaci6n insistieren los discordantes en sus respectivos pareceres, se sometergn a nueva deliberaci6n tan s6lo los dos votos mis favorables al procesado y entre estos optaran precisamente todos los votantes de modo que resulte aprobado cualquiera de ambos. En este caso pondrian en lugar oportuno de la sentencia las siguientes palabras: Visto el resultado de la votacion, la lcy decide. La determinaci6n de cuiles sean los dos pareceres mis favorables al procesado se hara A pluralidad de votos. Lo dispuesto en este articulo y en el anterior no es aplicable al caso a que se refiere el pirrafo segundo del articulo. 153. ART. 165. En las sentencias que pronuncie el Tribunal Supremo en los recursos de casaci6n 6 en los de revision, no habra discordia, quedando al efecto desechados los resultandos y considerandos que no reAnan mayoria absoluta de votos. Constituida la sala con tres magistrados, votada por uno la absoluci6n del reo por falta de prueba, por otro la condenaci6n como autor de delito frustrado, y por otro la condenaci6n tambien como autor de delito consumado, si 6ste opta por el primero de los mencionados votos, y la discordia desaparece, la sentencia absolutoria no puede impugnarse en casaci6n, bajo el concepto de que no estime probados hechos que lo estdn.-Senteneia de 2 de Mayo de 1885.

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54 ART. 161. Courts can not amend their decisions after the same have been signed, but on the first legal day after the notice is served they may elucidate some obscure point, supply any omission, or correct any important mistake therein. These elucidations may be made ex officio or at the instance of the parties or of the public prosecutors. ART. 162. The courts shall preserve in methodical collections the drafts of rulings upon incidental issues and of decisions rendered, making reference in each one in the proper entry to the book of rulings and decisions of the court. The leaves of the book of rulings and decisions of courts shall be numbered and sealed and rubricated by the respective presiding justice. CHAPTER II. MANNER OF ADJUSTING DISAGREEMENTS. ART. 163. If in voting upon a final decision, ruling, or order of mere practice there should not be a majority of votes upon any findings of fact or conclusions of law, or upon the decision to be rendered, the discussion and voting upon the points not agreed upon shall be repeated. ART. 164. If at the second voting those who disagree insist upon their opinion, only the two votes most favorable to the accused shall be subjected to another discussion, and one of these must be selected by all the voters so that one or the other be approved. In such case there shall be inserted in the decision at the proper place the following words: In view of the result of the voting, the law decides: ....... The determination of what are the two opinions most favorable to the accused shall be made by a majority of votes. The provisions of this and of the foregoing articles do not apply to the case referred to in the second paragraph of article 153. ART. 165. In decisions rendered by the Supreme Court upon appeals for annulment of judgment or upon those for review there shall be no disagreement, the resultandos and considerandos which do not receive an absolute majority of votes being therefore rejected. If a chamber be constituted of three justices, and one should vote for the acquittal of the prisoner for lack of proof, another for his conviction as an author of a frustrated crime, and the other for his conviction also as the author of a consummated crime, if the latter should choose the first of these votes and the disagreement disappears, the decision of acquittal can not be appealed from for annulment upon the claim of its not considering acts proved which are such. (Decision of May 2, 1885.)

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TtTULO VII. DE LAS NOTIFICACIONES, CITACIONES Y EMPLAZAMIENTOS. ART. 166. Las notificaciones, citaciones y emplazamientos que se practiquen fuera de los estrados del juzgado 6 tribunal, se haran respectivamente por un alguacil 6 por un oficial de sala. Los que tuvieren lugar en los estrados se practicarin leyendo integramente la resoluci6n a la persona a quien notifiquen, dindole en el acto copia de ella, aunque no la pidiere, y haciendo merito de uno y otro en la diligencia que se extienda, que suscribiri el secretario u1 oficial de sala respectivamente.' ART. 167. Para la prictica de las notificaciones, el secretario que interviniere en la causa extenders una cdula, que contendra10. La expresi6n del objeto de dicha causa y los nombres y apellidos de los que en ella fueren parte. 20. La copia de la resoluci6n que hubiere de notificarse. 3o. El nombre y apellido de la persona 6 personas que han de ser notificadas. 40. La fecha en que la cdula se expidiere. 5. La firma del secretario. ART. 168. Se haran constar en los autos, por nota sucinta, la expedici6n de la cedula y el oficial de sala 6 alguacil a quien se encargare su complimiento. ART. 169. El que recibiere la cedula sacara y autorizari con su firma tantas copias cuantas sean las personas a quienes hubiere de notificar. ART. 170. La notificaci6n consistira en la lectura integra de la resoluci6n que deba ser notificada, entregando la copia de la cedula a quien se notifique y haciendo constar la entrega por diligencia sucinta al pie de la cedula original. ART. 171. En la diligencia se anotar4 el dia y hora de la entrega, y sera firmada por la persona A quien 6sta se hiciere y por el funcionario que practique la notificaci6n. Si la persona a quien se haga la entrega no supiere firmar, lo hara otra a su ruego; y si no quisiere, firmaran dos testigos buscados al efecto. Estos testigos no podran negarse A serlo, bajo la multa de 12.50 a 62.50 pesetas. Los artfculos 207 y 209 determinan el tdrmino dentro del cual deben practicarse estas diligencias, y tratan de la notificaci6n de los autos de prisi6n y soltura los 501 y 517. 55

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TITLE VII. NOTIFICATIONS, CITATIONS, AND SUMMONSES. ART. 166. Notifications, citations, and summonses which are served beyond the limits of the court room or chamber, shall be respectively served by a bailiff or an officer of the chamber. Those within the court room shall be served by reading the entire order to the person in interest, giving him at the same time a copy thereof, even though he should not request it, and making an entry of both acts upon the record, which shall be subscribed, respectively, by the secretary or officer of the chamber.' ART. 167. For the service of notices the secretary acting in the cause shall prepare a writ which shall contain: 1. A statement of the object of said cause and the names and surnames of the parties thereto. 2. A copy of the resolution which is to be served. 3. The name and surname of the person or persons upon whom notice is to be served. 4. The date on which the writ is issued. 5. The signature of the clerk. ART. 168. A brief note shall be made upon the record of the issue of the writ and the officer of chambers or bailiff charged with the service thereof. ART. 169. The person receiving the writ shall make and authenticate with his signature as many copies thereof as there are persons to be notified. ART. 170. Service shall consist of the reading of the entire order to be served, delivering the copy of the writ to the person notified, and making a brief entry of service at the foot of the original writ. ART. 171. The entry shall state the day and hour of service, and shall be signed by the person receiving the writ and by the official who executed the service. If the person receiving the writ does not know how to sign, another shall do so at his request; and if he does not wish to do so, two witnesses secured for the purpose shall sign. These witnesses can not refuse to sign under a fine of not less than 12.50 nor more than 62.50 pesetas. 1Articles 207 and 209 fix a period in which these proceedings must be had, and articles 501 and 517 relate to the notice of warrants of imprisonment and release. 55

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56 ART. 172. Cuando a la primera diligencia en busca no fuere hallado en su habitaci6n el que haya de ser notificado, cualquiera que fuere la causa y el tiempo de su ausencia, se entregara la cedula al pariente, familiar 6 criado, mayor de catorce aflos, que se halle en dicha habitacion. Si no hubiere nadie, se hara la entrega a uno de los vecinos m's proximos. ART. 173. En la diligencia de entrega se hara constar la obligaci6n del que recibiere la copia de la cedula de entregarla al quo deba ser notificado inmediatamente que regrese a su domicilio, bajo la multa de de 12.50 a 125 pesetas si deja de entregarla. ART. 174. Cuando no se pueda practicer una notificaci6n por haber cambiado de habitaci6n el que deba ser notificado y no ser possible averiguar la nueva, 6 por cualquiera otra causa, se hard constar en la cedula original. ART. 175. Las citaciones y emplazamientos se practicarin en la forma establecida para las notificaciones, con las siguientes diferencias: La cedula de citaci6n contendra1. Expresi6n del juez 6 tribunal que hubiere dictado la resoluci6n, de la fecha de 6sta y de la causa en que haya recaido. 20. Los nombres y apellidos de los que debieren ser citados y las senas de sus habitaciones; y si 6stas fuesen ignoradas, cualesquiera otras circunstancias por las que pueda descubrirse el lugar en que se hallaran. 3o. El objeto de la citaci6n. 40. El lugar, dia y hora en quo haya de concurrir el citado. 5 .La obligaci6n, si la hubiere, de concurrir al primer lamamiento bajo la multa de 12.50 a 125 pesetas; 6 si fuese ya el segundo el quo se hiciere, la de concurrir bajo apercibimiento de ser procesado como reo del delito do denegaci6n do auxilio, previsto por el c6digo penal respect do j urados, peritos y testigos. La cedula del emplazamiento contending los requistos 10, 2o y 30 anteriormente mencionados para la de la citacion, y ademas los siguientes: 10. El termino dentro del cual ha de comparecer el emplazado. 20. El lugar en que haya de comparecer y el juez 6 tribunal ante quien deba hacerlo. 3o. La prevenci6n de que, si no compareciere, le pararan los perjuicios a que hubiere lugar en derecho. ART. 176. Cuando el citado no comparezca en el lugar, dia y hora que se le hubiesen seflalado, el que haya practicado la citaci6n volveri a constituirse en el domicilio de quien hubiese recibido la copia de la

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56 ART. 172. If the person to be notified should not be found at his dwelling on the first effort to do so, whatever be the cause or time of his absence, the writ shall be delivered to a relative, a member of his household, or a servant over 14 years of age who may be found at said dwelling. Should there be no one at the dwelling, the writ shall be delivered to one of the nearest neighbors. ART. 173. In the entry of service shall be stated the obligation of the person who receives a copy of the writ to deliver the same to the person to be notified upon his return to his dwelling, under a fine of not less than 12.50 or more than 125 pesetas should he fail to deliver it. ART. 174. If it be impossible to serve a notice, owing to a change of residence of the person to be notified, and it be impossible to discover his new residence, or for any other reason, it shall be stated in the original writ. ART. 175. Service of citations and summonses shall be made in the manner prescribed for notifications, with the following differences: The writ of citation shall contain: 1. The name of the judge or court issuing the order, the date of the latter, and the matter on which it is based. 2. The names and surnames of the parties to be cited, the address of their dwellings; and, should they be unknown, any other data by which their whereabouts may be ascertained. 3. The purpose of the citation. 4. The place where and the day and hour when the person cited is to appear. 5. The obligation, should there be any, of appearing upon the first call under a fine of not less than 12.50 or more than 125 pesetas; or, if it be the second call, the obligation of attending with the admonition of being proceeded against as guilty of the crime of refusing aid, as provided for in the penal code with regard to jurors, experts, and witnesses. The writ of summons shall contain requisites 1, 2, and 3 above mentioned for writs of citation, and also the following: 1. The period within which the person summoned must appear. 2. The place where he must appear and the judge or court before whom he must do so. 3. The warning that, should he fail to appear, he shall suffer the prejudices which may be proper according to law. ART. 176. If the person cited shall not appear at the place, day, and hour set, the person who served the citation shall return to the dwelling of the person who received the copy of the writ, entering upon 18473-01 8

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57 cidula, haciendo constar por diligencia en la original la causa de no haberse efectuado la comparecencia. Si esta causa no fuere legitima, se procedera inmediatamente por el juez 6 tribunal que hubiere acordado la citaci6n a 1levar a efecto la prevenci6n que correspond entree las establecidas en el n6mero 5o del articulo anterior. ART. 177. Cuando las notifications, citaciones 6 emplazamieritos hubieren de practicarse en territorio de otra autoridad judicial espafiola, se expedira suplicatorio, exhorto 6 mandamiento, segun corressponda, insertando en ellos los requisitos que deba contender la cedula. Si hubiere de practicarse en el extranjero, so observaran para ello los tramites prescriptos en los tratados, si los hubiese, y en su defecto se estara al principio de reciprocidad. ART. 178. Si el que haya de ser notificado, citado 6 emplazado no tuviere domicilio conocido, se darmn las 6rdenes convenientes 4 los agentes de policia judicial por el juez 6 tribunal que hubiese acordado la practice de la diligencia para que se le busque en el breve termino que al efecto se seale. Si no fuere habido, se mandara insertar la cedula en el peri6dico oficial de la provincia de su d1tima residencia y en la Gaceta do la capital si se considerare necesario. ART. 179. Practicada la notificaci6n, citaci6n 6 emplazamiento, 6 hecho constar el motivo que lo hubiese impedido, se unira a los autos la cedula original, 6 el suplicatorio, exhorto 6 mandamiento expedidos. ART. 180. Seran nulas las notificaciones, citaciones y emplazamientos que no se practicaren con arreglo a lo dispuesto en este capitulo. Sin embargo, cuando la persona notificada, citada 6 emplazada se hubiere dado por enterada en el juicio, surtira desde entonces la diligencia todos sus efectos, como si se hubiese hecho con arreglo a las disposiciones de la ley; no por esto quedara relevado el auxiliar 6 subalterno de la correcci6n disciplinaria establecida en el articulo siguiente. ART. 181. El auxiliar 6 subalterno que incurriere en morosidad en el desempeflo de las funciones que por este capitulo le correspondan, 6 faltare a alguna de las formalidades en el mismo establecidas, sera corregido disciplinariamente por el juez 6 tribunal de quien depends con multa de 62.50 a 250 pesetas. ART. 182. Las notificaciones, citaciones y emplazamientos podran hacerse a los procuradores de las partes. Se exceptan10. Las citaciones que por disposici6n express de la ley deban hacerse 4 los mismos interesados en persona. 2o. Las citaciones que tengan por objeto la comparecencia obligatoria de 6stos.

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57 the original writ the cause of the failure to appear. If this cause be not legitimate, the judge or court issuing the citation shall immediately enforce the penalty which may be proper of those established in number 5 of the foregoing article. ART. 177. When the notifications, citations, or summonses are to be served within the jurisdiction of another Spanish judicial authority, letters rogatory, letters requisitorial, or mandates shall be issued, as the case may be, inserting therein the, requisites which a writ should contain. If they are to be served abroad, the proceedings prescribed therefor by treaty, if any, shall be observed, and otherwise the principles of reciprocity. ART. 178. If the person to be notified, cited, or summoned should have no known domicile, the proper orders shall be issued to the agents of the judicial police by the judge or court ordering the proceeding, that search be made for him within a brief period which he may set for the purpose. If he be not found, the writ shall be ordered inserted in the official newspaper of the province of his last residence and in the Gaceta of the capital, if considered necessary. ART. 179. After the notification, citation, or summons has been served, or a statement of the causes preventing such service has been made, the original writ or the letters requisitorial, letters rogatory or mandate, shall be attached to the record. ART. 180. Notifications, citations, or summonses not served according to the provisions of this chapter shall be null. Nevertheless, if the person notified, cited, or summoned should acknowledge service at the trial, the proceeding shall produce all its effects from that time as though service had been made according to law; but this shall not exempt the assistant or subordinate official from the disciplinary correction prescribed in the following article. ART. 181. The assistant or subordinate official who shall be tardy in the discharge of the duties imposed upon him by this chapter, or who shall fail to comply with any of the formalities herein prescribed, shall be disciplinarily corrected by the judge or court to which he belongs by the imposition of a fine of not less than 62.50 or more than 250 pesetas. ART. 182. Notifications, citations, and summonses may be served on the solicitors of the parties. The following are excepted: 1. Citations which by express provision of law must be served in person on the interested parties. 2. Citations, the purpose of which is to secure the obligatory appearance of the said parties.

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TITULO VIII. DE LOS SUPLICATORIOS, MANDAMIENTOS Y EXHORTOS. ART. 183. Los jueces y tribunales se auxiliaran mutuamente para la practice de todas las diligencias que fueren necesarias en la sustanciaci6n de las causas criminals. ART. 184. Cuando una diligencia judicial hubiere de ser ejecutada por un juez 6 tribunal distinto del que la haya ordenado, 6ste encomendara su cumplimiento por medio de suplicatorio, exhorto 6 mandamiento. Empleara la formal do suplicatorio cuando so dirija 4 un juez 6 tribunal superior en grado; la de exhorto cuando so dirija 4 uno do igual grado, y la de mandamiento 6 carta orden cuando so dirija 4 un subordinado suyo. ART. 185. El juez 6 tribunal que haya ordenado la practica do una diligencia judicial no podrs dirigirse a jueces 6 tribunales de categoria 6 grado inferior quo no le estuvieson subordinados, debiendo entenderse directamente con el superior de 6stos que ejerza la jurisdicci6n en el mismo grado que 6l. Se exceptaan los casos en que expresamente se disponga otra cosa en la ley. ART. 186. Para ordenar el libramiento de certificaci6n 6 testimonio y la practica de cualquiera diligencia judicial cuya ejecuci6n corresponda a registradores de la propriedad, notarios, auxiliares 6 subalternos de juzgados 6 tribunales y funcionarios de policia judicial que estin a las 6rdenes de los mismos, se emplear4 la forma de mandamiento. ART. 187. Cuando los juices 6 tribunales tengan que dirigirse a autoridades 6 funcionarios de otro orden, usaran la forma de oficios 6 exposiciones, segun el caso requiera. ART. 188. Los suplicatorios, exhortos o mandamientos en causas on que se persigan delitos que no sean de los que s6lo por querella privada pueden ser perseguidos, so expediran de oficio y se cursaran directamente para su cumplimiento por el juez 6 tribunal que los hubiere librado. Los que procedan de causas por delitos que s6o pueden ser perseguidos en virtud de querella particular, podran entregarse bajo recibo al interesado 6 a su representanto, 4 cuya instancia se libraren, fijandole termino para presentarlos a quien deba cumplirlos. 58

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TITLE VIT. LETTERS REQUISITORIAL, MANDATES, AND LETTERS ROGATORY. ART. 183. Judges and courts shall mutually aid each other in the execution of all proceedings necessary for the hearing and decision of criminal causes. ART. 184. When a judicial order is to be executed by a judge or court other than the one issuing the order, the latter shall commit the execution thereof by means of letters requisitorial, letters rogatory, or mandates. Letters requisitorial shall be used when he applies to a judge or court higher in degree; letters rogatory when said execution is directed to one of equal degree, and letters mandatory or mandates when directed to a subordinate court or judge. ART. 185. The judge or court which shall have ordered the execution of a judicial proceeding can not address judges or courts of a category or degree lower, who are not his subordinates, but he must deal directly with such of their superiors as exercise a degree of jurisdiction equal to his own. Cases for which the law expressly provides otherwise are excepted. ART. 186. A mandate shall be employed for the purpose of ordering the issue of certificates or transcripts or the fulfillment of any judicial proceeding, the execution of which is imposed upon registrars of property, notaries, assistants, or subordinate officials of inferior or superior courts, and members of the judicial police who are under the orders of the same. ART. 187. When judges or courts are obliged to direct requests to authorities or officials of another department, they shall do so by official communications or statements, as the case may require. ART. 188. Letters requisitorial, letters rogatory, or mandates in causes involving crimes which are not of those which can be prosecuted only on a private complaint, shall be issued ex officio, and shall be transmitted directly for execution by the judge or court issuing them. Those issuing in causes for crimes which can be prosecuted only on a private complaint may be delivered to the interested party upon the giving of a receipt therefor, or to his representative, at whose instance they were issued, a period being fixed for presenting them to the person who is to execute the same. 58

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59 Se exceptuan los casos en que expresamente se disponga otra cosa en la ley. ART. 189. La persona que reciba los documentos los presentari, en el termino que se le hubiere fijado, al juez 6 tribunal a quien se haya encomendado el cumplimiento, dando aviso acto continuo de haberlo hecho asi al juez 6 tribunal de quien procedan. Al verificar la presentaci6n, el funcionario correspondiente extenders la diligencia a continuaci6n del suplicatorio, exhorto 6 carta orden, expresando la fecha de su entrega y la persona que lo hubiese presentado, 4 la que dara recibo, firmando ambos la diligencia. Dicho funcionario dara ademas cuenta al juez 6 tribunal en el mismo dia, y si no fuere posible, en el siguiente. ART. 190. Cuando hubiesen sido remitidos de oficio, el juez 6 tribunal que los reciba acusara inmediatamente recibo al remitente. ART. 191. El juez 6 tribunal que reciba, 6 a quien sea presentado un suplicatorio, exhorto 6 carta-orden, acordara su cumplimiento, sin perjuicio de reclamar la competencia que estimare corresponderle, disponiendo lo conducente para que se practiquen las diligencias dentro del plazo, si se hubiere fijado en el exhorto, 6 1o mis pronto posible en otro caso. Una vez cumplimentado, 1o devolve sin demora en la misma formal en que lo hubiese recibido 6 en que se le hubiese presentado. ART. 192. Cuando se demorare el cumplimiento de un suplicatorio mss tiempo del absolutamente necesario para ello, atendidas la distancia y Ia indole de la diligencia que haya de practicarse, el juez 6 tribunal que lo hubiese expedido remitira de oficio, 6 a instancia de parte, segin los casos, un recuerdo al juez 6 tribunal suplicado. Si la demora en el cumplimiento se refiriese a un exhorto, en vez de recuerdo dirigira suplicatorio al superior inmediato del exhortado dandole conocimiento de la demora, y el superior apremiara al moroso con correcci6n disciplinaria, sin prejuicio de la mayor responsabilidad en que pueda incurrir. Del mismo apremio se valdra el que haya expedido una carta-orden para obligar A su inferior moroso A que la devuelva cumplimentada. ART. 193. Los exhortos a tribunals extranjeros se dirigiran por la via diplomAtica en la formal establecida en los tratados, y a falta de estos, en la que determine las disposiciones generals del gobierno. En cualquier otro caso se estara al principio de reciprocidad.

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59 Cases for which the law specially provides otherwise are excepted. ART. 189. The person receiving the documents shall present them, within the time set, to the judge or court to whom their execution may have been intrusted, giving notice at once of their delivery to the court or judge issuing the same. Upon their presentation, the proper official shall at once make a memorandum at the foot of the letters requisitorial, letters rogatory, or letters mandatory, of the date of delivery and the person presenting the same, to whom a receipt shall be given, both signing the entry. Said official shall furthermore make a report to the judge or court the same day, and if this be impossible, on the day following. ART. 190. If they shall have been transmitted ex officio, the judge or court receiving them shall immediately acknowledge the receipt thereof. ART. 191. The judge or court who shall receive, or to whom are presented letters requisitorial, letters rogatory, or letters mandatory, without prejudice to demanding jurisdiction which he may consider as pertaining to him, shall order what may be proper for the execution of the request made therein within the period fixed in the letters themselves, or otherwise, as soon as possible. After the commission has been fulfilled, the letters shall be returned without delay through the same channels by which they were received or presented. ART. 192. If the execution of letters requisitorial be delayed longer than is absolutely necessary therefor, taking into account the distance and the character of the proceedings to be had, the judge or court issuing the same shall transmit ex officio, or at the instance of a party, as the case may be, a reminder to the judge or court upon whom the request was made. If the delay in the fulfillment should relate to letters rogatory, instead of a reminder, letters requistorial shall be directed to the immediate superior of the judge upon whom the request was made, advising him of the delay, and the superior shall punish the negligent official with a disciplinary correction, without prejudice to the greater liability he may incur. The official issuing letters mandatory shall also avail himself of similar compulsion to oblige a tardy subordinate to return the same duly executed. ART. 193. Letters rogatory directed to foreign courts shall be sent through diplomatic channels in the manner prescribed by treaty, and in the absence thereof, as prescribed by the general regulations of the government. In all other cases principles of reciprocity shall govern.

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60 ART. 194. Las mismas reglas establecidas en el articulo anterior se observarin para dar cumplimiento en Espaia a los exhortos do tribunales extranjeros, por los que se requiera la practice de alguna diligencia judicial. ART. 195. Con las autoridades, funcionarios, agentes y jefes de fuerza armada que no estuvieren a las 6rdenes inmediatas de los j ueces y tribunales, se comunicaran estos por medio de atentos oficios, a no ser que la urgencia del caso exija verificarlo verbalmente, haciendolo constar en la causa. ART. 196. Los jueces y tribunals se dirigiran en forma de exposici6n, por conducto del Ministerio de Ultramar, 4 los Cuerpos Colegisladores y 4 los Ministros de la Corona, tanto para que auxilien 4 la administration de justicia en sus propias funciones, como para que obliguen a las autoridades, sus subordinadas, 4 que suministren los datos 6 presten los servicios que se les hubiere pedido.

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60 ART. 194. The rules prescribed in the foregoing article shall be observed in executing in Spain letters rogatory from foreign courts, requiring the performance of some judicial proceeding. ART. 195. Judges and courts shall communicate with authorities, officials, agents, and commanders of armed forces who are not under their immediate orders by polite notes, unless the urgency of the case shall require that it be done orally, this being made a matter of record in the cause. ART. 196. Judges and courts shall address the colegislative bodies and the ministers of the Crown by means of statements forwarded through the colonial department, both in order to secure their aid in the administration of justice within the limits of their proper powers, as well as to compel the authorities which are their subordinates to furnish the data or render the services requested of them.

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TITULO IX. bE LOS TtRMINOS JUDICIALES. ART. 197. Las resoluciones y diligencias judiciales se dictaran y practicarin dentro de los terminos sefialados para cada una de ellas. ART. 198. Cuando no se fije termino, se entendera que han de dictarse y practicarse sin dilaci6n. La infracci6n de 1o dispuesto en este articulo y en el anterior sera corregida disciplinariamente, segin la gravedad del caso, sin perjuicio del derecho de la parte agraviada para reclamar la indemnizaci6n de dafios y perjuicios y demas responsabilidades que procedan. ART. 199. Los jueces y tribunales impondran en su caso dicha correcci6n disciplinaria a sus auxiliares y subalternos sin necesidad de petici6n de parte; y si no lo hicieren, incurriran a su vez en responsabilidad. ART. 200. Los que se consideren perjudicados por dilaciones injustificadas de los terminos judiciales podran deducir queja ante el Ministerio de Ultramar, que, si la estima fundada, la remitir4 al fiscal a quien corresponda para que entable de oficio el recurso de responsabilidad que proceda con arreglo a la ley, 6 promueva la correcci6n disciplinaria 4 que hubiere lugar. ART. 201. Los dias en que los juzgados y tribunales vacaren con sujeci6n a la ley, seran, sin embargo, habiles para las actuaciones del sumario. ART. 202. Seran improrrogables los terminos judiciales cuando la ley no disponga expresamente 1o contrario. Pero podran suspenderse 6 abrirse de nuevo si fuere posible sin retroceder el juicio del estado en que se halle, cuando hubiere causa justa y probado. Se reputar causa justa la que hubiere hecho imposible dictar la resoluci6n 6 practicar la diligencia judicial, independientemente de la voluntad de quienes hubiesen debido hacerlo. ART. 203. Las sentencias se dictaran y firmarn dentro de los tres dias siguientes al en que se hubiese celebrado la vista del incident 6 se hubiere terminado el juicio. 'A los efectos de lo dispuesto en este articulo, se entienden actuaciones del sumario las comprendidas desde el articulo 622 al 633.-Exposici6n del fiscal del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de Septiembre de 1883, nmnero 13. 61

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TITLE IX. JUDICIAL PERIODS. ART. 197. Judicial decisions and proceedings shall be rendered and held within the periods fixed for each. ART. 198. If no period be fixed it shall be understood that they must be rendered or held without delay. Any violation of the provisions of this and the foregoing articles shall be disciplinarily corrected, according to the gravity of the case, without prejudice to the right of the party injured to demand any proper indemnity for damages or other liabilities. ART. 199. Judges and courts shall, in a proper case, impose said disciplinary correction upon their assistants and subalterns, without the necessity of said correction being requested by a party, and should they not do so they shall in their turn incur liability. ART. 200. Persons who consider themselves prejudiced by unjustifiable extensions of judicial periods may forward a complaint to the Colonial Department, which, if it considers the same to be well founded, shall transmit it to the proper prosecuting official, in order that he may bring proceedings ex officio to enforce the liability which may be proper according to law, or request the imposition of the proper disciplinary correction. ART. 201. Days upon which superior and inferior courts are not sitting according to law, shall nevertheless be legal for the proceedings of the sumario.' ART. 202. Judicial periods can not be extended when the law does not expressly provide otherwise. They may, however, be suspended or opened anew, if it be possible without retrogressing in the trial from the state in which it may be, if there be a just and proved cause therefor. A just cause shall be considered one which makes it impossible to render a decision or perform a judicial proceeding independently of the will of those who should have done so. ART. 203. Decisions shall be rendered and signed within the three days following that on which the hearing of the incidental issue was held, or that on which the action closed. For the purposes of the provisions of this article the provisions of articles 622 to 633 are considered proceedings of the sumario. (Address of the fiscal of the supreme court qf September 15, 1883, No. 13.) 61

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62 Se exceptuan las sentencias en los juicios sobre faltas, las cuaies habran de dictarse en el mismo dia 6 al siguiente. ART. 204. Los autos se dictarin y firmaran en el dia siguiente al en que se hubiesen entablado las pretensions que por ellos se hayan de resolver, 6 hubieren legado las actuaciones a estado de que aquellos sean dictados. Las providencias se dictaran y firmaran inmediatamente que resulte de las actuaciones la necesidad de dictarlas, 6 en el mismo dia 6 en el siguiente al en que se haya presentado las pretensions sobre que recaigan.' ART. 205. Se exceptuan de 1o dispuesto en el articulo anterior los autos y providencias que deban dictarse en m's corto termino para no interrumpir el curso del juicio p6blico, 6 para no infringir con el retraso alguna disposici6n legal. ART. 206. El secretario darn cuenta al juez 6 tribunal do todas las pretensiones escritas en el mismo dia en que le fueren entregadas, si esto sucediese antes de las horns de audiencia 6 durante ella, y al dia siguiente si se le entregaren despues. En todo caso, ponder al pie de la pretension, en el acto de recibirla y a presencia de quien se la entregase, una breve nota consignando el dia y hora de la entrega, y facilitara al interesado que 1o pidiere documento bastante para acreditarlo. ART. 207. Las notificaciones, citaciones y emplazamientos que hubieren de hacerse en la capital del juzgado 6 tribunal se practicaran 1o mas tarde al siguiente dia de dictada la resoluci6n que deba ser notificada 6 en virtud de la cual se haya de hacer la citaci6n 6 emplazamiento. ART. 208. Si las mencionadas diligencias hubieren de practicarse fuera de la capital, el secretario entregar4 al oficial de sala 6 subalterno la cedula, 6 remitira de oficio 6 entregara a la parte, segdn corresponda, el suplicatorio, exhorto 6 mandamiento, al siguiente dia de dictada la resoluci6n. ART. 209. Las diligencias de que habla el articulo anterior se practicaran en un termino que no exceda de un dia por cada 20 kil6metros de distancia centre la capital y el punto en que deban tener lugar. ART. 210. Las demas diligencias judiciales se practicaran en los terminos que se fijen para ello al dictar la resoluci6n en que so ordenen. ART. 211. Los recursos de reforma 6 de siplica se interpondran en el t4rmino de los tires dias siguientes al en que se hubiere practicado la ultima notificacion a los que sean part en el juicio. ART. 212. El recurso de apelaci6n se entablara dentro de cinco dias, a contar desde el siguiente al de la Altima notificaci6n de la resoluci6n judicial que fuere su objeto, hecha A los que expresa el articulo anterior. 'Definen las providencias, los autos y las sentencias firmes y ejecutorias, y determinan las solemnidades de sus formulas respectivas los artfculos 141 y 142 de esta ley.

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62 Decisions in trials for misdemeanors are excepted, which shall be rendered on the same or the following day. ART. 204. Rulings or decrees shall be issued and signed on the day following that on which the petitions involved were made, or when the proceedings have reached a stage where they may be issued. Orders of mere practice shall be made and signed immediately when the necessity therefor appears in the proceedings, or on the same or the day following that on which the petitions therein were presented.' ART. 205. Rulings and orders are excepted from the provisions of the foregoing article which should be issued in a shorter period in order not to interrupt the course of the public trial, or not violate some legal provision by the delay. ART. 206. The clerk shall communicate to the judge or court all written petitions on the day they are filed, if this be done before or during the hours for public hearings, and on the following day, if filed after such time. In any case he shall place at the foot of the petition, upon receiving it, and in the presence of the person delivering the same, a brief note of the day and hour of the delivery and shall furnish to the interested party a receipt therefor upon his request. ART. 207. Notifications, citations, and summonses which are to be served in the place where the court is sitting, shall be served not later than the day after the decision has been rendered which is to be notified, or by virtue of which a citation or summons is to be made. ART. 208. If said service is to be made beyond the judicial seat, the clerk shall deliver the writ to the officer of the chamber or to a subaltern, or shall transmit it ex officio or deliver to the party, as may be proper, the letters requisitorial, letters rogatory or mandate on the day following that on which the decision was rendered. ART. 209. The processes referred to in the foregoing article shall be served within a period not to exceed one day for every 20 kilometers between the seat of the court and the point where they are to be executed. ART. 210. Other judicial proceedings shall be had within the periods fixed therefor at the time the decree ordering the same is issued. ART. 211. Petitions to amend, or appeals for modification or revocation, shall be interposed within a period of three days following that on which the last notice was served upon the parties to the action. ART. 212. An appeal shall be filed within five days following that on which the last notice of the judicial decision which is the object thereof was served upon the persons mentioned in the foregoing article. 'Orders, rulings, final decisions, and ejecutorias are defined by articles 141 and 142 of this law, as well as the formalities of their respective formulas.

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63 El recurso de casaci6n por quebrantamiento de forma se interpondr6 dentro de igual plazo, a contar desde el dia siguiente al de la 6ltima notificaci6n hecha a los designados en el articulo anterior de la sentencia que pusiere termino al juicio. La preparaci6n del recurso de casaci6n por infracci6n de ley se hard tambien dentro de los cinco dias siguientes al de la P1tima notificaci6n de la sentencia 6 auto contra que se intente entablarlo. Se exceptfan el recurso de apelaci6n y la preparaci6n del de casaci6n por infracci6n de ley contra la sentencia dictada en juicio sobre faltas. Para estos recursos el termiro sera el primer dia siguiente al en que se hubiere practicado la Altima notificaci6n. ART. 213. El recurso de queja para cuya interposici6n no senale termino la ley podrs interponerse en cualquier tiempo, mientras estuviese pendiente la causa. ART. 214. Los secretarios tendran obligaci6n de poner, sin la menor demora y bajo su responsabilidad, en conocimiento del juez 6 tribunal el vencimiento de los terminos judiciales consignindolo asi por medio de diligencia. ART. 215. Transcurrido el termino sefialado por l'a ley 6 por el juez 6 tribunal, seg'n los casos, se continuara de oficio el curso de los procedimientos en el estado en que se hallaren. Si el proceso estuviere en poder de alguna persona, se recogera sin necesidad de providencia, bajo la responsabilidad del secretario, con imposici6n de multa de 12.50 a 125 pesetas a quien diere lugar a la recogida, si no le entregare en el acto 6 le entregare sin despachar cuando estuviere obligado a formular algdn dictamen 6 pretension. En este segundo supuesto se le sefialara por el juez 6 tribunal un segundo termino prudential, y si transcurrido tampoco devolviese el proceso despachado la persona a que se refiere este articulo, sera procesada como culpable de desobediencia. Tambien seri procesa4o en este concepto el que ni aun despues de apremiado con la multa devolviere el expediente.' El articulo 376 del c6digo penal castiga este delito con las penas de inhabilitaci6n temporal especial en su grado mAximo d inhabilitaci6n perpetua especial y multa de 375 A 3,750 pesetas.

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63 An appeal for annulment of judgment for breach of form shall be interposed within a like period, counted from the day following that of the last notice served upon the persons mentioned in the foregoing article of the decision which closed the action. The preparation of an appeal for annulment of judgment for a violation of law shall also be made within the five days following that on which the last notice of the decision or ruling from which it is proposed to appeal. Appeals and the preparation of an appeal for annulment of judgment for violation of law from decisions rendered in an action on a misdemeanor are excepted. For these remedies the period shall be the day following that on which the last notice was served. ART. 213. The remedy of complaint for the interposition of which the law does not fix any period may be interposed at any time during the pendency of the cause. ART. 214. The clerks of courts shall be obliged to inform the judge or court of the expiration of judicial periods, without the slightest delay and under their liability, making an entry upon the record of this fact. ART. 215. Upon the expiration of the period fixed by law or by the judge or court, as the case may be, the course of the proceedings shall be continued ex oficio from where left off. If the record should be in the possession of some person, it shall be recovered without the necessity of an order, under the liability of the clerk, with the imposition of a fine of not less than 12.50 and not more than 125 pesetas upon the person retaining the same should he not deliver it at once, or should he do so without making his report or answer, if required to do so. In the latter case a second reasonable period shall be allowed him by the judge or court, and if not even upon the expiration thereof the person referred to in this article should return the process duly executed, he shall be tried as guilty of disobedience. Any person, who not even after having a fine imposed upon him, should fail to return the record shall also be likewise tried.' 1Article 376 of the Penal Code punishes this crime with the penalties of temporary special disqualification in its maximum degree to perpetual special disqualification and a fine of not less than 375 and not more than 3,750 pesetas.

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TITULO X. DE LOS RECURSOS CONTRA LAS RESOLUCIONES DE LOS TRIBUNALES Y JUECES DE INSTRUCCI6N. ART. 216. Contra las resoluciones del juez de instrucci6n podran ejercitarse los recursos de reforma, apelaci6n y queja. ART. 217. El recurso de reforma podri interponerse contra todos los autos del juez de instrucci6n. El de apelaci6n podrs interponerse unicamente en los casos determinados en la ley, y se admitiri en ambos efectos tan s6lo cuando la misma lo disponga expresamente. ART. 218. El recurso de queja podrs interponerse contra todos los autos no apelables del juez y contra las resoluciones en que se denegare la admisi6n de un recurso de apelaci6n. ART. 219. Los recursos de reforma y apelaci6n se interpondrdn ante el mismo juez que hubiere dictado el auto. El de queja se producir ante el tribunal superior competente. ART. 220. Sera juez competente para conocer del recurso de reforma el mismo ante quien se hubiese interpuesto, con arreglo al articulo anterior. Sera tribunal competent para conocer del recurso de apelaci6n aquel a quien correspondiese el conocimiento de la causa en juicio oral. Este mismo sera el competente para conocer de la apelaci6n contra el auto de no admisi6n de una querella. Sera juez 6 tribunal competente para conocer del recurso de queja el mismo ante quien se hubiere interpuesto, con arreglo al pirrafo segundo del articulo 219. ART. 221. Los recursos de reform, apelaci6n y queja se interpondran siempre en escrito autorizado con firma de letrado. ART. 222. El recurso de apelaci6n no podri interponerse sino despues de haberse ejercitado el de reforma; pero podrin interponerse ambos en un mismo escrito, en cuyo caso el de apelaci6n se propondri subsidiariamente por si fuere desestimado el de reforma. El que interpusiere el recurso de reforma presentari con el escrito tantas copias del mismo cuantas sean las demas partes, a las cuales habrin de ser entregadas dichas copias. El juez resolved el recurso al segundo dia de entregadas las copias, hubiesen 6 no presentado escrito las demas parts. 64

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TITLE X. REMEDIES AGAINST DECISIONS OF COURTS AND JUDGES OF EXAMINATION. ART. 216. Petitions for amendment, appeals, and complaints lie from decisions of judges of examination. ART. 217. Petitions for amendment lie from all rulings of a judge of examination. An appeal may be interposed only in the cases determined by law, and shall be allowed both for review and a stay of proceedings only when the law expressly so provides. ART. 218. A complaint lies from all rulings of a judge which can not be appealed from and from decisions disallowing an appeal. ART. 219. Petitions for amendment and appeals shall be interposed before the same judge who made the ruling. A complaint shall be interposed before the competent superior court. ART. 220. The judge competent to take cognizance of a petition for amendment shall be the one before whom it is interposed, in accordance with the foregoing article. The court competent to take cognizance of the cause in the oral action shall have jurisdiction of the appeal. The latter shall also be competent to take cognizance of an appeal from a decree rejecting a complaint. The judge or court before whom a complaint shall have been interposed, in accordance with the second paragraph of article 212, shall be competent to take cognizance thereof. ART. 221. Petitions for amendment, appeals, and complaints shall always be interposed in writing and authenticated by the signature of an attorney. ART. 222. An appeal can not be interposed until a petition for amendment has been filed; but both may be interposed in the same instrument, in which case the appeal shall be proposed subsidiarily in case of the rejection of the petition for amendment. A person presenting a petition for amendment shall submit therewith as many copies of the same as there are other parties, to whom said copies must be delivered. The judge shall decide the appeal on or before the second day after the delivery of the copies, whether or not the other parties have filed petitions. 64 18473-01 9

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65 ART. 223. Interpuesto el recurso de apelaci6n, el juez lo admitir4 en uno 6 en ambos efectos, seg6n sea procedente. ART. 224. Si se admitiere el recurso en ambos efectos,' se mandara remitir los autos originales a la audiencia cuando hubiere 6sta de conocer de la apelaci6n, y emplazar a las partes para que se presenten ante ella dentro del termino de diez dias. Si hubiere de conocer de la apelaci6n el Tribunal Supremo, el emplazamiento sera por termino de sesenta dias y se remitir4 testimonio de los particulares de la causa que sean suficientes pars la resoluci6n del recurso. ART. 225. Si el recurso no fuere admisible mas que en un solo efecto, se mandar4 sacar testimonio del auto apelado, de los demas particulares que el apelante pidiere y fueren de dar, teniendo presented, en su caso, el caracter reservado del sunario, y de los que el juez acordare de oficio. Este testimonio se expedir4 por el secretario en el plazo mas corto posible, que se fijar4 en la resoluci6n en que se ordene su expedici6n. ART. 226. Para el sefialamiento de los particulars que hayan de testimoniarse no podra darse vista al apelante de los autos que para 1 tuvieren caracter de reservados. AnT. 227. Puesto el testimonio, se emplazar4 a las partes para que, dentro del termino fijado en el articulo 224, se personen en el tribunal que hubiere de conocer del recurso. ART. 228. Recibidos los autos en el tribunal superior, si en el termino del emplazamiento no se hubiere personado el apelante, se declarar4 de oficio desierto el recurso, comunicandolo inmediatamente por certificaci6n al juez, y devolviendo los autos originales si el recurso se hubiese admitido en ambos efectos. ART. 229. Si el apelante se hubiese personado, se le dara vista de los autos por tormino de tres dias para instrucci6n. Despues de e1 seguir4 la vista, por igual tormino, a las demas parties personadas, y por 4ltimo al fiscal, si la causa fuse por delito de los que dan lugar a procedimiento de oficio, 6 de aquellos que pueden perseguirse previa denuncia de los interesados. Sir embargo de 1o dispuesto en los pirrafos anteriores, no se' dar vista a las parts de 1o que fuese para ellas de character reservado. ART. 230. Devueltos los autos por el fiscal, 6 si 6ste no fuere parte en la causa, por la Altima de las personas a quien se hubiesen entregado,

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65 ART. 223. If an appeal be interposed, the judge shall admit it for a review of the proceedings only, or both for review and stay of the proceedings, as may be proper. ART. 224. If the appeal be admitted both for review and stay of proceedings, the original record shall be ordered transmitted to the audiencia, if the latter is to take cognizance of the appeal, and the parties shall be summoned for appearance before the same within a period of ten days. If the Supreme Court is to take cognizance of the appeal, the summons shall be for appearance within a period of sixty days, and a certified transcript of such parts of the cause as may be sufficient for a decision upon the appeal shall be transmitted. ART. 225. If the appeal be admissible for a review of the proceedings only, a certified copy of the decision appealed from shall be ordered made, as well as of the other matters which the appellant may request and which can be given him, taking into consideration, in a proper case, the secret character of the sumario, and such other matters as the judge may order ex officio. This transcript shall be issued by the clerk within the shortest period possible, which shall be fixed in the order requiring the issue thereof. ART. 226. Proceedings which, in so far as the appellant is concerned, are of a secret character, can not be shown him for the purpose of indicating the matters to be transcribed. ART. 227. After the transcript has been made, the parties shall be summoned to enter an appearance before the court which is to take cognizance of the appeal within the period fixed in article 224. ART. 228. After the appellate court has received the record, if within the period fixed in the summons the appellant shall not have entered an appearance, the appeal shall be declared abandoned ex officio, this fact being communicated in writing at once to the judge, the original record being returned to him, if the appeal shall have been admitted both for a stay and a review of the proceedings. ART. 229. If the appellant shall have entered an appearance, the record shall be referred to him for examination for a period of three days. Thereupon it shall be referred for a similar period to the other parties who have entered an appearance and finally to the prosecuting official, if the cause should involve a crime which gives rise to proceedings ex officio or a crime which may be prosecuted upon a denunciation by the parties interested. Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraphs, such matters as are of a secret character for the parties shall not be referred to them. ART. 230. After the record has been returned by the prosecuting official, or if the latter be not a party to the cause, by the last person

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66 se sefialar4 dia para la vista, en la que el fiscal, si fuere part, y los defensores de las demis podran informar 1o que tuvieron por conveniente a su derecho. ART. 231. Las partes podran presentar, antes del dia de la vista, los documents que tuvieren por convenient en justificaci6n de sus pretensiones. No seri admisible otro medio de prueba. ART. 232. Cuando fuere fire el auto dictado so comunicar al juez para su cumplimiento, devolvidndole el process si la apelaci6n hubiese sido en ambos efectos. ART. 233. Cuando se interpusiere el recurso de queja, el tribunal ordenar al juez que inform en el corto terinino que al efecto le sefiale. ART. 234. Recibido dicho informed, se pasar4 al fiscal, si la causa fuere por delito en quo tenga que intervenir, para que emita dictamen por escrito on el termino de tries dias. ART. 235. Con vista de este dictamen, si le hubiere, y del informed del juez, el tribunal resolvers 1o que estime justo. El auto que se dicte no podra afectar al estado que tuviere la causa cuando el recurso se haya interpuesto fuera del t6rmino ordinario de las apelaciones, sin perjuicio de 1o que el tribunal acuerde en su dia cuando Ilegue a conocer de aquella. ART. 236. Contra los autos de los tribunals do 1o criminal podra interponerse el recurso de suplica ante el mismo quo los hubiese dictado. ART. 237. Se exceptuan aquellos contra los cuales se otorgue expresamente otro recurso on la ley. ART. 238. El recurso de s6plica contra un auto de cualquier tribunal, se sustanciara por el procedimiento sefialado para el recurso de reform iue se entable contra cualquiera resoluci6n de un juez de instruction.

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66 to whom it was delivered, a day shall be set for the hearing, at which the prosecuting official, if a party, and the counsel of the other parties may make such statements as they may deem pertinent. ART. 231. The parties may present before the day for the hearing, the documents which they may deem advisable in support of their contentions. No other means of proof shall be admissible. ART. 232. After the decision rendered becomes final, it shall be communicated to the judge for execution, the process being returned to him if the appeal shall have been both for a review and a stay of proceedings. ART. 233. If a complaint be made, the court shall order the judge to render a report within the brief period fixed for the purpose. ART. 234. Upon the receipt of such report, it shall be referred to the prosecuting official, if the cause involves a crime in which he must take part, for a written opinion thereon within a period of three days. ART. 235. In view of this opinion, if there be any, and the report of the judge, the court shall decide what it may deem just. The decision rendered can not affect the status of the cause if the remedy shall have been iiterposed outside of the ordinary period for appeals, without prejudice to what the court may decide at the proper time when it takes cognizance of the former. ART. 236. An appeal for a revocation or reversal of judgment may be interposed against decisions of criminal courts before the one rendering the same. ART. 237. Such decisions are excepted, with regard to which the law expressly grants another remedy. ART. 238. An appeal for revocation or reversal of judgment from a decision of any court shall be heard and determined according to the procedure prescribed for petitions for amendment against any decision of a judge of examination.

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TIfTULO XI. DE LAS COSTAS PROCESALES.' ART. 239. En los autos 6 sentencias que pongan t4rmino a la causa 6 4 cualquiera de los incidentes, deber4 resolverse sobre el pago de las costas procesales.2 ART. 240. Esta resoluci6n podra consistir1. En declarar las costas de oficio. 20. En condenar a su pago a los procesados, senfalando la parte proporcional de que cada uno de ellos deba responder, si fuesen varios. No se impondran nunca las costas a los procesados que fueren absueltos. 3o. En condenar a su pago al querellante particular 6 actor civil. Serin 6stos condenados al pago de las costas cuando resultare de las actuaciones que han obrado con temeridad 6 mala fe.3 ART. 241. Las costas consistirin10. En el reintegro del papel sellado empleado en la causa. 20. En e1 pago de los derechos de arancel. 3o. En el de los honorarios devengados por los abogados y peritos. 4o. En el de las indemnizaciones correspondientes 4 los testigos que las hubiesen reclamado, si fueren de abono, y en los demas gastos que se hubiesen ocasionado en la instrucci6n de la causa. ART. 242. Cuando se declaren de oficio las costas no habr4 lugar al pago do las cantidades a que se refieren los nimeros 1.0 y 2.o del articulo anterior: Los procuradores y abogados que hubiesen representado y defendido a cualquiera de las partes, y los peritos y testigos que hubiesen declarado a su instancia, podran exigir de aquilla, si no hubiere 1 Este tftulo se limita 4 establecer reglas generales sobre imposici6n de costas y medios de hacerlas efectivas; pero los especiales relatives 4 las cuestiones de competencia, recusaci6n, defensa por pobre, antejuicio necesario para exigir responsabilidad criminal 4 jueces y magistrados, etc., determinan quienes deben pagarlas en sus respectivos casos. Los pronunciamientos sobre costas no son susceptibles de casaci6n.-Sentencias de 10 de enero de 1890 y de 18 enero de 1887. 2 El precepto de este articulo se halla confirmado por varias sentencias del Tribunal Supremo, entre otras, una de 12 de febrero de 1879. 3 Costas al denunciador.-No teniendo el denunciador los caracteres expresados de querellante particular 6 actor civil, relevdndole la ley de la obligaci6n de probar los hechos denunciados, y no contrayendo otra responsabilidad que la correspondiente A los delitos que hubiere cometido por medio de la denuncia 6 con su ocasi6n, no se le pueden imponer las costas.-Sala 2a, Sentencia de 12 de febrero de 1879. 67

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TITLE XI. COSTS IN ACTIONS.1 ART. 239. A ruling or decision which terminates a cause or any of the issues therein must contain a decision as to the payment of costs in the proceedings.2 Ant. 240. This resolution may consist of: 1. A declaration of costs er offcio. 2. The imposition of their payment upon the accused, fixing the proportion which each of them is to pay, if there be several. Costs shall never be taxed against accused persons who are acquitted. 3. The adjudgment of the same against the private complainant or civil plaintiff. The latter shall be adjudged to pay the costs when it shall appear from the proceedings that they have acted maliciously or in had faith.' ART. 241. The costs shall consist of: 1. The cost of the stamped paper used in the cause. 2. The payment of the court fees according to schedule. 3. The payment of the fees of attorneys and experts. 4. The payment of the indemnities pertaining to the witnesses who may have demanded them, and the other expenses which may have arisen in connection with the hearing of the cause. ART. 242. When the costs are declared to be ex ofofio, the amounts referred to in numbers 1 and 2 of the foregoing article will not be paid. The solicitors and attorneys who may have represented and defended any of the parties, and the experts and witnesses who shall have testified at their request, may require said party, if the proceedings are I This title confines itself to establishing general rules for the taxation of costs and the manner of recovering the same; but the special titles relating to questions of jurisdiction, challenges, proceedings in formal paupers, preliminary action necessary to enforce the criminal liability of judges and justices, etc., determine who are to pay the same in each respective case. Decrees upon costs can not be annulled. (Decisions of January 10, 1890, and January 18, 1887.) 2 The precept of this article has been confirmed by various decisions of the Supreme Court, notably by that of February 12, 1879. 3 Taxation against the denouncer.-Should the denouncer not appear as the private complainant or civil plaintiff, as the law relieves him of the obligation of proving the acts denounced, and as he contracts no other liability but that pertaining to the crimes he may have committed by means of the denunciation or on the occasion thereof, costs can not be taxed against him. (Second Chamber, decision of February 12, 1879.) 67

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68 obtenido el beneficio de pobreza, el abono de los derechos, honorarios e indemnizaciones quo les correspondieren, reclamindolos del juez 6 tribunal quo conociese de la causa. Se procedera a su exacci6n por la via do apremio si, presentadas las respectivas reclamaciones y hechas saber d las partes, no pagasen 6stas en el termino prudential quo el juzgado 6 tribunal soflale, ni tachasen aquillas de ilegitimas 6, excesivas. En este Altimo caso, se procedera previamente como dispone el parrafo segundo del articulo 244. El secretario del tribunal 6 juzgado quo interviniere en la ejecuci6n de. la sentencia hard la tasaci6n de las costas de quo hablan los numeros L y 2.o del articulo anterior. Los honorarios de los abogados y peritos se acreditardn por minutas firmadas por los que los hubiosen devengado. Las indemnizaciones de los testigos so computar5n por la cantidad que oportunamente so hubiese fijado en la causa. Los demas gastos seran regulados por el tribunal 6 juzgado, con vista de los justificantes. ART. 243. Hechas la tasaci6n y regulaci6n do costas, se dars vista al ministerio fiscal y a la parte condenada al pago, para quo manifiesten 1o que tengan por conveniente en el termino do tres dias.1 ART. 244. En vista do lo que el ministerio fiscal y dicho interesado manifestaren, el juez 6 tribunal aprobara 6 reformar4 la tasaci6n 6 regulaci6n. Si se tachare de ilegitima 6 excesiva alguna partida de honorarios, el juez 6 tribunal, antes de resolver, podrs pedir informed 4 dos individuos de la misma profesi6n del quo hubiese presentado la minuta tachada de ilegitima 6 excesiva, 6 4 la junta de gobierno del colegio si los que ejerciesen dicha profesi6n estuviesen cologiados en el punto de residencia del juez 6 tribunal.1 ART. 245. Aprobadas 6 reformadas la tasaci6n y regulaci6n, so procedera 4 hacer efectivas las costas por la via de apremio, establecida en la ley de enjuiciamiento civil,2 con los bienes de los que hubiesen sido condenados 4 su page. ART. 246. Si los bienes del penado no fuesen bastantes para cubrir todas las responsabilidades pecuniarias, se proceder para el orden y preforencia de pago, con arreglo a lo establecido en los articulos respectivos del c6digo penal.3 Wase en el Ap6ndice I las Ordenes Niins. 166 y 181 de 1900. 2Se ocupan del procedimiento de apremio los articulos 1479 y siguientes de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil vigente en las islas de Cuba y Puerto Rico. 9 Los articulos del Codigo Penal que determinan el orden de preferencia, son los 48 al 51. (Vase el Apendice II.)

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68 not in form pauperis, to pay the fees, charges, and indemnities due them, submitting their claim through the judge or court taking cognizance of the cause. Compulsory process shall be employed for their recovery if, upon the presentation of the respective claims and their presentation to the parties they should not pay the same within a reasonable time fixed by the judge or court, or charge that they are illegal or excessive. In the latter case, the provisions of the second paragraph of article 244 shall first be observed. The clerk of the court or tribunal intervening in the execution of the sentence shall make the taxation of costs referred to in numbers 1 and 2 of the foregoing article. The fees of the attorneys and experts shall be vouched for by memoranda signed by the persons charging the same. The indemnities of the witnesses shall be computed according to the amount duly fixed in the cause. The other costs shall be fixed by the superior or inferior court, in view of the vouchers.1 ART. 243. After the taxation and appraisement of the costs, the prosecuting official and the party against whom the costs were adjudged shall be heard in order that they may state what they deem proper.' ART. 244. In view of the statements of the prosecuting official and the said party, the judge or court shall approve or modify the taxation. If any item of the fees should be objected to as illegal or excessive, the judge or court before deciding may call for the opinion of two persons of the same profession as the one presenting the item objected to as illegal or excessive, or the opinion of the board of administration of the college, if the persons engaged in such profession should belong to an association located at the seat of the judge or court.' ART. 245. After the taxation or appraisement has been approved or amended, compulsory process, established by the Law of Civil Procedure, shall be instituted for the purpose of enforcing the payment thereof upon the property of those sentenced thereto.2 ART. 246. If the person sentenced should not possess sufficient property to meet all pecuniary liabilities, the provisions of the respective articles of the Penal Code shall be observed for the order and preference of payment.3 1See in Appendix I, Orders Nos. 166 and 1.81 of 1900. 'Articles 1479 et seq. of the Law of Civil Procedure in force in Cuba and Porto Rico relate to compulsory process. 3The articles of the Penal Code which determine the order of preference are articles 48 to 51. (See Appendix II.)

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TIfTULO XII. DE LAS OBLIGACIONES DE LOS JUECES Y TRIBUNALES RELATIVAS A LA ESTADISTICA JUDICIAL. ART. 247. Los juices municipals tendran obligaci6n de remitir cada mes al president de la audiencia territorial respective un estado de los juicios sobre faltas que duranto el mes anterior so hubiesen celebrado. ART. 248. Los juices de instrucci6n remitirin mensualmente al presidente de la respectiva sala 6 audiencia de lo criminal un estado de los sumarios principiados, pendientes y conclusos durante el mes anterior. ART. 249. Los presidents de las exprosadas salas 6 audiencias remitiran al president de la audiencia territorial cada trimestre un estado resumen de los que hubieren recibido mensualmente de los juices de instrucci6n, y otro de las causas pendientes y terminadas ante su tribunal durante el trimestre. Los trimestres se formaran contando desde el comienzo del aflo judicial. ART. 250. Los presidents de las audiencias territoriales remitiran al Ministerio de Ultramar, en el primer mes de cada trimestre, estados en resumen de los que hubieren recibido de los juices municipales y de los tribunales de 1o criminal. ART. 251. Las salas segunda y tercera del Tribunal Supremo remitiran al Ministerio de Ultramar un estado de los recursos de casaci6n ante ellas pendientes y por ellas fallados durante el trimestre. Cuando la sala de 1o criminal de cualquier audiencia territorial 6 la tercera del Tribunal Supremo, 6 (ste constituido on pleno, principiaren 6 fallaren alguna causa criminal que especialmente les estuviese encomendada, lo pondran inmediatamente en conocimniento del Ministro de Ultramar, remitiendo en su caso testimonio de la sentencia. ART. 252. Los tribunals remitirin directamente al registro central de los procesados y penados, establecido en el Ministerio de Ultramar, notas autorizadas de las sentencias firms en las que se imponga alguna pena por delito, y de los autos en que se declare la rebeldia de los procesados, con arreglo a los modelos que se les envien al efecto. ART. 253. El tribunal que dicte sentencia firm condenatoria en cualquier causa criminal remitira testimonio de la part dispositiva de la misma al juez de instrucci6n del lugar en que se hubiere formado el sumario. 69

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TITLE XII. OBLIGATIONS OF JUDGES AND COURTS WITH REGARD TO JUDICIAL STATISTICS. ART. 247. Municipal judges shall be obliged to transmit every month to the presiding justice of the respective territorial audiencia a statement of the actions for misdemeanors which may have been beard during the month. ART. 248. Judges of examination shall forward monthly to the presiding justice of the respective criminal chamber or audiencia a statement of the sumarios begun, pending, or concluded during the previous month. ART. 249. The presiding judges of the said chambers or audiencias shall transmit every quarter to the presiding judge of the territorial audiencia a brief report of the statements received monthly from the judges of examination, and another statement of the causes pending and concluded before their court during the quarter. The quarters shall be formed counting from the beginning of the judicial year. ART. 250. The presiding judges of the territorial audiencias shall transmit to the Colonial department, during the first month of each quarter, brief reports of the statements received from the municipal judges and the criminal courts. ART. 251. The second and third chambers of the Supreme Court shall forward to the Colonial department a statement of the appeals for annulment of judgment pending before the same and decided by them during the quarter. When the criminal chamber of any territorial audiencia or the third chamber of the supreme court, or the latter sitting in bane, shall begin or decide some criminal cause especially entrusted to them, they shall immediately inform the colonial minister, transmitting a transcript of the sentence in a proper case. ART. 252. The courts shall transmit directly to the "Registro central de los procesados y penados," established in the colonial department, authenticated memoranda of the final sentences imposing some penalty for a crime, and of the decrees declaring the persons accused in default, in accordance with the forms sent them for the purpose. ART. 253. A court rendering a final decision sentencing a person accused in any criminal cause shall transmit a certified copy of the adjudging portion of said sentence to the judge of examination of the place where the sumario was conducted. 69

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70 ART. 254. Cada juez de instrucci6n 1levars un libro que se titulars Registro de penados. Las hojas de este libro serin numeradas, selladas y rubricadas por el juez de instrucci6n y su secretario de gobierno. En dicho libro se extractarin las certificaciones expresadas en el articulo anterior. ART. 255. Llevar4 tambien cada juez de instrucci6n otro libro titulado Registro de proeesados en rebeldia, con las formalidades prescritas para el de penados. En este libro se anotarsn todas las causas euyos procesados hayan sido declarados rebeldes, y se har4 en el asiento de cada uno la anotaci6n correspondiente cuando el rebelde fuere habido. ART. 256. Las audiencias 6 salas de lo criminal llevarsn un libro igual al expresado en el articulo anterior para anotar los procesados declarados rebeldes despues de la conclusion del sumario. ART. 257. Sin perjuicio de 1o dispuesto en este titulo, el Ministro de Ultramar establecer, por medio de los correspondientes reglamentos, el servicio de la estadistica criminal que debe organizarse en dicho centro y las reglas que en consonancia con 61 han de observar los jueces y tribunales.

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70 ART. 254. Every judge of examination shall keep a book which shall be called "Register of convictions." The leaves of this book shall be numbered, sealed, and rubricated by the judge of examination and his secretary of administration. Briefs of the certified copies mentioned in the foregoing article shall be entered in this book. ART. 255. Every judge of examination shall also keep another book entitled "Register of persons accused in default," with the formalities prescribed for that of convictions. In the latter book shall be entered all causes in which the persons accused have been declared in default, and the proper entry shall be made upon the record of each cause when the person in default is found. ART. 256. Criminal audiencias or chambers shall keep a book similar to that mentioned in the foregoing article in which to record persons accused who are declared in default after the conclusion of the sumarto. ART. 257. Without prejudice to the provisions of this title, the colonial minister shall establish, by means of the proper regulations, the service of criminal statistics to be organized in said department and the rules to be observed in connection therewith by judges and courts.

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TITULO XIII. DE LAS CORRECCIONES DISCIPLINARIAS. ART. 258. Sin perjuicio de las correcciones especiales que establece esta ley para casos determinados, son. tambidn aplicables las disposiciones contenidas en el titulo XIII del libro primero de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil a cuantas personas, sean o no funcionarios, asistan Ode cualquier modo intervengan en los juicios criminales, siendo los jueces municipales, los jueces de instrucci6n, los tribunales de lo criminal y el Supremo, quienes, respectivamente en su caso, podrin imponer las correcciones disciplinarian correspondientes.' 1 El titulo que se cita de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil autoriza A los jueces y tribunales para corregir disciplinariamente, tanto a los particulares que asistan d los juicios, como 6 los funcionarios que intervienen en ellos, por las faltas que unos y otros cometan. 71

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TITLE XIII. DISCIPLINARY CORRECTIONS. ART. 258. Without prejudice to the special corrections which this law establishes for specific cases, the provisions of Title XIII of the first book of the law of civil procedure are also applicable to any persons, whether officials or not, who are present at or intervene in any manner whatsoever in criminal proceedings, the proper disciplinary corrections being imposed by municipal judges, judges of examination, criminal courts, or the Supreme Court.' 'The title cited of the law of civil procedure authorizes judges and courts to disciplinarily correct private individuals present at judicial proceedings, as well as officials taking part therein, for offences committed by either. 71

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LIBRO SEGUNDO. DEL SUMARIO. TITULO PRIMERO. DE LA DENUNCIA. ART. 259. El que presenciare la perpetraci6n de cualquier delito phblico estar4 obligado a ponerlo inmediatamente en conocimiento del juez de instrucci6n, municipal 6 funcionario mas pr6ximos al sitio en que se hallare, bajo la multa de 12.50 a 125 pesetas. ART. 260. La obligaci6n establecida en el articulo anterior no comprende a los impuberes ni a los que no gozaren del pleno uso de su razon. ART. 261. Tampoco estaran obligados a denunciar: 1. El c6nyuge del delincuente. 20. Los ascendientes y descendientes consanguineos 6 afines del delincuente y sus colaterales consanguineos 6 uterinos y afines hasta el segundo grado inclusive. 3o. Los hijos naturals respect de la madre en todo caso, y respect del padre cuando estuvieren reconocidos, asi como la madre y el padre en iguales casos. ART. 262. Los que por raz6n de sus cargos, profesiones u oficios tuvieren noticia de alghn delito publico, estaran obligados A denunciarlo inmediatamente al ministerio fiscal, al tribunal competent, al juez de instrucci6n, y en su defecto, al municipal 6 al funcionario de policia mas pr6ximo al sitio si se tratare de un delito flagrante. Los que no cumpliesen esta obligaci6n incurriran en la multa senalada en el articulo 259, que se impondra disciplinariamente. Si la omisi6n en dar part fuese do un professor de medicine, cirugia 6 farmacia y el delito de los comprendidos en el titulo del c6digo penal que trata de los cometidos contra las personas, 6 por suposici6n de parto, 6 por muerte de un nifio abandonado, la multa no podra bajar de 62.50 pesetas. Si el que hubiese incurrido en la omisi6n fuere empleado publico, se pondra ademAs en conocimiento de su superior inmediato para los efectos A que hubiere lugar en el orden administrativo. 72

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BOOK SECOND. THE SUMARIO. TITLE FIRST. THE DENUNCIATION, ART. 259. He who shall be present at the commission of any public crime shall be obliged to inform immediately the nearest judge of examination, municipal judge, or official, under a penalty of not less than 12.50 or more than 125 pesetas. ART. 260. The obligation established in the foregoing article does not include infants nor those who are not in the full enjoyment of their reason. ART. 261. Nor shall the following be obliged to make a denunciation: 1. The spouse of the delinquent. 2. The ascendants and descendants by consanguinity or affinity of the delinquent and his collateral relatives by consanguinity or uterine, and by affinity up to and including the second degree. 3. The natural children with regard to the mother in every case, and with regard to the father when acknowledged, as well as the mother and the father in similar cases. ART. 262. Those who, by reason of their position, profession, or trade, should have information of some public crime, shall be obliged immediately to denounce the same to the public prosecutor, the court of competent jurisdiction, the judge of examination, and, in his absence, the municipal judge or the police officer nearest to the place, if a flagrant crime be involved. Those who shall fail to comply with this obligation shall incur the fine prescribed in article 259, which shall be imposed as a matter of discipline. If the failure to give such information should be incurred by a professor of medicine, surgery, or pharmacy, and the crime of those included in that title of the Penal Code which treats of crimes against the person, or on account of a fictitious birth, or the death of an abandoned infant, the fine shall not be less than 62.50 pesetas. If the person failing to give the information be a public employee, his immediate superior shall also be informed for the proper administrative purposes. 72 18473-01--10

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73 Lo dispuesto en este articulo se entiende cuando la omisi6n no produjere responsabilidad con arreglo a las eyes. ART. 263. La obligaci6n impuesta en el psrrafo primero del articulo anterior no comprender a los abogados ni a los procuradores respecto de las instrucciones 6 explicaciones que recibieren de sus clientes. Tampoco comprendera a los eclesiasticos y ministros de cultos disidentes respecto de las noticias que se les hubieren revelado en el ejercicio de las functions de su ministerio. ART. 264. El quo por cualquier medio different de los mencionados tuviere conocimiento de la perpetraci6n de algun delito de los que deben perseguirse de oficio, debera denunciarlo al ministerio fiscal, al tribunal competente 6 a] juez de instrucci6n 6 municipal, 6 funcionario de policia, sin que se entienda obligado por esto a probar los hechos denunciados ni 4 formalizar querella. El denunciador no contraer en ningn caso otra responsabilidad quo la correspondiente a los delitos que hubiese cometido por medio de la denuncia 6 con su ocasi6n. ART. 265. Las denuncias podran hacerse por escrito 6 de palabra, personalmente 6 por medio de mandatario con poder especial. ART. 266. La denuncia que se hiciere por escrito debera estar firmada por el denunciador; y si no pudiere hacerlo, por otra persona 4 su ruego. La autoridad 6 funcionario que la recibiere rubricar4 y sellara todas las hojas a presencia del que la presentare, quien podra tambien rubricarla por si 6 por medio de otra persona a su ruego. ART. 267. Cuando la denuncia sea verbal, se extender un acta por la autoridad 6 funcionario que la recibiere, en la que, en forma de declaraci6n, se expresaran cuantas noticias tenga el denunciante relativas al hecho denunciado y a sus circunstancias, firmandola ambos a continuaci6n. Si el denunciante no pudiere firmar, 1o hard otra persona a su ruego. ART. 268. El juez, tribunal, autoridad 6 funcionario quo recibieren una denuncia verbal 6 escrita haran constar por la cedula personal, 6 por otros medios que reputen suficientes, la identidad do la persona del denunciador. Si iste 1o exigiere, le darn un resguardo de haber formalizado la denuncia. ART. 269. Formalizada quo sea la denuncia, se proceder 6 mandara proceder inmediatamente por el juez 6 funcionario a quien se hiciese s la comprobaci6n del hecho denunciado, salvo que este no revistiere caracter de delito, 6 que la denuncia fuere manifiestamente falsa. En cualquiera de estos dos casos el tribunal 6 funcionario se abstendrn de todo procedimiento, sin perjuicio de la responsabilidad en que incurran si desestimasen aquella indebidamente.

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73 The provisions of this article are understood to apply when the omission does not produce any liability in accordance with law. ART. 263. The obligation imposed by the first paragraph of the foregoing article does not include attorneys or solicitors with regard to the instructions or explanations they may receive from their clients. Neither shall it include ecclesiastics or ministers of dissenting cults with regard to information revealed to them in the exercise of the duties of their ministry. ART. 264. He who, by any means different from those mentioned, should have information of the commission of any crime of those which are prosecuted at the instance of the Government, must denounce it to the public prosecutor, the court of competent jurisdiction, or to the municipal or examining judge, or police official, without being considered bound thereby to prove the acts denounced or to make a formal complaint. The denouncer shall in no case incur any other liability than that pertaining to the offenses he may have committed by means of the denunciation or on the occasion thereof. ART. 265. The denunciation may be made in writing or orally, in person or through an agent with a special power therefor. ART. 266. A written denunciation must be signed by the denouncer; and if he be unable to do so, by some other person at his request. The authority or official receiving the same shall rubricate and stamp every sheet thereof in the presence of the person presenting it, who may also rubricate it in person or through another person at his request. ART. 267. If the denunciation be verbal, a memorandum shall be made by the authority or official receiving the same, in which, in the form of a declaration, shall be stated all the information which the denouncer may have as to the act denounced and its circumstances, both subscribing the same. If the denouncer be not able to sign, another person shall do so at his request. ART. 268. The judge, court, authority, or official who shall receive a written or verbal denunciation shall require proof of the identity of the person of the denouncer by his personal cedula or by other means which they may consider sufficient. If the denouncer so require, they shall give him an acknowledgment of his having formally made the denunciation. ART. 269. After the denunciation has been formally made, the judge or official to whom it is made shall immediately proceed to verify the act complained of or order that this be done unless said act be not a crime or the denunciation be manifestly false. In either case the court or official shall abstain from taking any proceedings, without prejudice to the liability they may incur if they improperly ignore said denunciation.

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TITULO II. DE LA QUERELLA. ART. 270. Todos los ciudadanos espanoles, hayan sido 6 no ofendidos por el delito, pueden querellarse, ejercitando la accion popular establecida en el articulo 101 de esta ley. Tambien pueden querellarse los extranjeros por los delitos cometidos contra sus personas 6 bienes, 6 las personas 6 bienes de sus representados, previo cumplimiento de 1o dispuesto en el articulo 280, si no estuvieren comprendidos en el hltimo parrafo del 281. ART. 271. Los funcionarios del ministerio fiscal ejercitaran tambien, en forma de querella, las acciones penales en los casos en que estuvieren obligados con arreglo a lo dispuesto en el articulo 105. ART. 272. La querella so interpondra ante el juez de instrucci6n competente. Si el querellado estuviese sometido por disposici6n especial de la ley a determinado tribunal, ante 6ste se interpondra la querella. Lo mismo se hard cuando fueren varios los querellados por un mismo delito 6 por dos 6 mas conexos, y alguno de aquellos estuviese sometido excepcionalmente a un tribunal que no fuere el lamado a conocer por regla general del delito. ART. 273. En los casos del articulo anterior, cuando so trata de un delito infraganti 6 los que no dejan senales permanentes de su perpetraci6n, 6 en que fuere de temer fundadamente la ocultaci6n 6 fuga del presunto culpable, el particular que intentare querellarse del delito podr4 acudir desde luego al juez de instrucci6n 6 municipal que estuviere mias proximo, 6 a cualquier funcionario de policia, a fin de que se practiquen las primeras diligencias necesarias para hacer constar la verdad de los hechos y para detener al delincuente. ART. 274. El particular querellante, cualquiera que sea su fuero, quedar4 sometido para todos los efectos del juicio por 1 promovido al juez de instrucci6n 6 tribunal competente para conocer del delito objeto de la querella. Pero podr4 apartarse de la querella en cualquier tiempo, quedando, sin embargo, sujeto 4 las responsabilidades que pudieran resultarle por sus actos anteriores. 74

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TITLE II. THE COMPLAINT OR INFORMATION. ART. 270. Any Spanish citizen, whether injured or not by the crime, may make a complaint, exercising the popular right of action established by article 101 of this law. Foreigners may also make complaints for crimes committed against their persons or property, or the persons or property of their principals, after complying with the provisions of article 280, if they be not included in the provisions of the last paragraph of article 281. ART. 271., Public prosecutors shall also exercise, in the form of informations, penal actions in cases in which they should be obliged to do so in accordance with the provisions of article .105. ART. 272. The complaint shall be made before the judge of examination of competent jurisdiction. If the person charged in the complaint be subject by a special provision of the law to a specific tribunal, the complaint shall be made before the latter. The same shall be done if there be several persons charged with the same crime, or with two or more connected crimes, and one of them be subject exclusively to one tribunal, and said tribunal be not that called upon to take cognizance of the crime as a general rule. ART. 273. In the cases of the foregoing article, if a flagrant crime be involved or some crime which does not leave any permanent marks of its commission, or in which there is good reason to fear the concealment or flight of the presumed criminal, the private individual desiring to file a complaint charging the crime may at once apply to the nearest judge of examination or municipal judge, or to any police official, for the purpose of having the first steps taken which may be necessary to ascertain the truth of the facts and for the detention of the delinquent. ART. 274. The private complainant, whatever jurisdiction he be subject to, shall be subject for all the purposes of the action instituted by him to the judge of examination or court having jurisdiction of the crime which is the subject-matter of the complaint. But he may abandon the complaint at any time, but shall nevertheless be subject to the liabilities which he might have incurred by reason of his previous acts. 74

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75 ART. 275. Si la querella fuese por delito que no pneda ser perseguido sino a instancia de part, se entender4 abandonada por el que la hubiere interpuesto cuando dejare de instar el procedimiento dentro de los diez dias siguientes 4 la notificaci6n del auto en que el juez 6 el tribunal asi l0 hubiese acordado. Al efecto, a los diez dias de haberse practicado las Altimas diligencias pedidas por el querellante, 6 de estar paralizada la causa por falta de instancia del mismo, mandar4 de oficio el juez 6 tribunal que conociere de los autos quo aquel pida lo que convenga a derecho en el termino fijado en el psrrafo anterior. ART. 276. Se tendrs tambidn por abandonada la querella, cuando por muerte, 6 por haberse incapacitado el querellante para continuar la acci6n, no compareciere ninguno do sus herederos 6 representantes legales a sostenerla dentro de los trointa dias siguientes 4 la citaci6n quo al efecto se les har4 dandoles conocimiento de la querella. ART. 277. La querella se presentara siempre por medio de procurador con poder bastante y suscrita por letrado. Se extenders en papel de oticio, y en ella se expresara: 10. El juez 6 tribunal ante quien se present. 2o. El nombre, apellidos y vecindad del querellante. 3o. El nombre, apellidos y vecindad del querellado. En el caso de ignorarse estas circunstancias, so deber4 hacer la designaci6n del querellado por las seilas quo mejor pudieran darle a conocer. 4o. La relaci6n circunstaciada del hecho, con expresi6n del lugar, afo, mes, dia y hora en quo se ejecuto, si se supieren. 5o. Expresi6n de las diligencias que se deberin practicar para la comprobaci6n del hocho. 6o. La petici6n de que se admit la querella, se practiquen las diligencias indicadas en el nmero anterior, se proceda 4 la detenci6n y prisi6n del presunto culpable, 6 4 exigirle la fianza de libertad provisional, y se acuerde el embargo de sus bienes en la cantidad necesaria en los casos en que asi proceda. To. La firma del querellante 6 la de otra persona 4 su ruego, si no supiere 6 no pudiere firmar, cuando el procurador no tuviese poder especial para formular la querella. ART. 278. Si la querella tuviere por objeto alg6n delito de los quo solamente pueden perseguirse 4 instancia de part, except el de violaci6n 6 rapto, acompaflar tambidn la certificaci6n quo acredite haberse celebrado 6 intentado el acto de conciliaci6n entre querellante y querellado. Podran, sin embargo, practicarse sin este requisite las diligencias de caracter urgente para la comprobaci6n de los hechos 6 para la detenci6n

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75 ART. 275. If the complaint should charge a crime which can be prosecuted only at the instance of a party, it shall be understood that said complaint is abandoned by the person who made it, should he not institute proceedings within ten days next following the notice of the decree of the judge or court to that effect. For this purpose, after ten days have elapsed since the taking of the final steps requested by the complainant, or when the cause is at a standstill on account of his inaction, the judge or court taking cognizance of the proceedings shall order ex qficio that the former demand what may be proper according to law within the period fixed in the foregoing paragraph. ART. 276. The complaint shall also be considered as abandoned if, on account of the death or incapacity of the complainant to continue the action, none of his heirs or legal representatives should appear to prosecute the same within thirty days next after their citation for this purpose, giving them notice of the complaint. ART. 277. The complaint shall always be submitted through a solicitor having a sufficient power subscribed by an attorney. It shall be drafted on official paper, and shall state: 1. The judge or court before whom it is made. 2. The name, surname, and residence of the complainant. 3. The name, surname, and residence of the person charged. If these details be unknown, the description of the person charged must state such distinctive marks as may best tend to his identification. 4. A detailed statement of the act, with a statement of the place, year, month, day, and hour it was committed, if known. 5. A statement of the steps to be taken for the verification of the act. 6. A petition that the complaint be admitted; that the steps indicated in the foregoing number be taken; that the detention and imprisonment of the presumed criminal take place or that he be required to give bond for his temporary liberty, and that sufficient of his property be attached in cases in which this is proper. 7. The signature of the complainant, or that of another person at his request if he should not know how or not be able to sign, when the solicitor has no special power of attorney to make a formal complaint. ART. 278. If the complaint should charge some crime which can be prosecuted at the instance of a party only, excepting rape or abduction, a certificate shall also be attached showing that proceedings to effect a conciliation have been held or attempted between the complainant and the defendant. Nevertheless, proceedings of an urgent character for the verification of the acts or for the detention of the delinquent may be had

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76 del delincuente, suspendiendo despues el curso de los autos hasta que se acredite el cumplimiento de lo dispuesto en el parrafo anterior.' ART. 279. En los delitos de calumnia 6 injuria causadas en juicio se presentara ademas la licencia del juez 6 tribunal que hubiese conocido de aquel, con arreglo a lo dispuesto en el c6digo penal.2 ART. 280. El particular querellante prestara fianza de la clase y en la cuantia que fijare el juez 6 tribunal para responder de las resultas del juicio. ART. 281. Quedan exentos do cumplir 1o dispuesto en el articulo anterior: 10. El ofendido y sus herederos 6 representantes legales. 20. En los delitos de asesinato 6 de homicidio, el viudo 6 viuda, los ascendientes y descendientes consanguineos 6 afines, los colaterales consanguineos 6 uterinos y afines hasta el segundo grado, los herederos de la victima, y los padres, madres 4 hijos naturals a quienes se refiere el nflmero 3.) del articulo 261. La exenci6n de fianza no es aplicable a los extranjeros si no les correspondiese en virtud de tratados internacionales 6 por el principio de reciprocidad. 1 Segdn el articulo 467 del c6digo penal, para perseguir los delitos de violaci6n y rapto, no es necesaria querella de parte agraviada, bastando la mera denuncia de 12 misma, aunque no se formalize instancia. El acto de conciliaci6n que la ley quiere que se intente antes de promoverse querells por delito privado, no tiene otro objeto que el de evitar, a ser possible, el juicio criminal por medio de la avenencia de las respectivas partes, debiendo obstar en absolute la avenencia resultante ci la interposici6n de aquilla, por versar sobre cuesti6n legalmente terminada. La fndole especial de esta clase de avenencias no permite atribuirles d stinto efecto, y esto supuesto cuando la querella criminal se refiere A un asunto ast concluido en el trAmite esencial de la conciliaci6n, es como si se tratara de cosa juzgada por juez competente, pues la avenencia consignada en la respectiva acta equivale, en realidad, a una sentencia definitive, tanto mas respetable cuanto que consiste en el acuerdo de los interesados.-Sentencia de 12 de Febrero de 1886. 2 V6ase el articulo 486 del c6digo penal en el Ap6ndice II.

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76 without this requisite, the proceedings being afterwards suspended until it appears that the provisions of the foregoing paragraph have been complied with.' ART. 279. In crimes of calumny or contumely committed at a judicial proceeding, there shall also be filed the permission of the judge or court having taken cognizance of such proceedings, in accordance with the provision of the Penal Code.2 ART. 280. The private complainant shall give security of the character and amount which the judge or court may fix, to answer for the results of the action. ART. 281. The following shall be excused from complying with the provisions of the foregoing article: 1. The aggrieved person and his heirs and legal representatives. 2. lin crimes of assassination or homicide, the widower or widow, the ascendants or descendants by consanguinity or affinity, the collateral relatives by consanguinity or uterine and by affinity up to the second degree, the heirs of the victim, and the fathers, mothers, and natural children referred to in subdivision 3 of article 261. The exemption from giving bond does not apply to foreigners unless entitled thereto by virtue of international treaties or the principles of reciprocity. 1 According to article 467 of the Penal Code, in order to prosecute crimes for rape or abduction, a complaint on the part of the person injured is not necessary, a simple denunciation being sufficient, even though not made in writing. Proceedings to effect a conciliation which the law requires to be held before a complaint is made for a private crime has no other object than to prevent, if possible, a criminal action by means of the consent of the respective parties, such a consent absolutely precluding the institution of such action, as it then involves a question legally closed. The special character of such agreements does not permit of another effect being attributed to them, for the reason that a criminal complaint relates to a question which has been closed by the essential proceedings of the conciliation, and is therefore a matter decided by the competent judge, because the conciliation included in the respective instrument is really equivalent to a final decision, deserving greater respect, as it consists of the agreement of the persons interested. Decision of February 12, 1886. 2 See article 486 of the Penal Code in Appendix II.

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TfTULO III. DE LA POLICIA JUDICIAL. ART. 282. La policia judicial tioen por objeto, y seri obligaci6n do todos los que la componen, averiguar los delitos publicos que se cometieren en su territorio 6 domarcaci6n; practicar, segun sus atribuciones, las diligencias necesarias para comprobarlos y descubrir a los delincuentes, y recoger todos los efectos, instruments 6 pruebas del delito de cuya desaparici6n hubiere peligro, poniendolos a disposici6n de la autoridad judicial. Si e1 delito fuera de los que s6lo pueden perseguirse a instancia de part legitima, tendrin la misma obligaci6n expresada en el pirrafo anterior, si se les requiriere al efecto. ART. 283. Constituirin la policia judicial y serin auxiliares del ministerio fiscal, de los jueces de instrucci6n y de los municipales en su caso: 10. Las autoridades administrativas encargadas de la seguridad publica y de la persecuci6n de todos los delitos 6 de algunos especiales. 20. Los empleados 6 subalternos de policia de seguridad, cualquiera quo sea su denomination. 3o. Los alcaldes, tonientos de alcaldes y alcaldes de barrio. 4o. Los jofes, oficiales 6 individuos de la guardia civil 6 de cualquiera otra fuerza destinada a la persecuci6n de malhechores. 5o. Los serenos, celadores y cualesquiera otros agentes municipals de policia urbana 6 rural. 6o. Los guardas particulars de montes, campos y sembrados, jurados 6 confirmados por la administration. To. Los jefes de los establecimientos penales, los alcaldes de las circeles y sus subalternos. 8. Los alguaciles y dependientes de los tribunals y juzgados. ART. 284. Inmediatamente quo los funcionarios de policia judicial tuvieren conocimiento de un delito piblico, 6 fueren requeridos para prevenir la instrucci6n de diligencias por raz6n de algfn delito privado, lo participaran a la autoridad judicial 6 al representante del ministerio fiscal, si pudieren hacerlo sin cesar en la practice de las diligencias de prevenci6n. En otro caso 1o harin asi que las hubieron terminado. 77

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TITLE III. THE JUDICIAL POLICE. ART. 282. The object of the judicial police, as well as the obligation of all individuals composing the same, is to ascertain the public crimes committed within its territory or district; to take, according to their powers, the steps necessary to verify said crimes and discover the delinquents and collect all the effects, instruments, or proof of the crime which may be in danger of disappearing, and to place the same at the disposal of the judicial authority. If the crime should be one which can be prosecuted at the instance of a legitimate party only, they shall be under the obligation mentioned in the foregoing paragraph, if called upon. ART. 283. The following shall constitute the judicial police and shall be assistants to the prosecuting officials, judges of examination, and municipal judges, in a proper case: 1. The administrative authorities entrusted with the public security and the prosecution of all or of some special crimes. 2. The employees or subordinates of the police of security, whatever be their denomination. 3. The mayors, deputy mayors, ard ward mayors. 4. The chiefs, officials, and members of the civil guard or of any other body devoted to the prosecution of wrongdoers. 5. Watchmen, and any other municipal agents of the urban or rural police. 6. The special watchmen of forests, plantations, and farms, sworn or confirmed by the administration. 7. The heads of penal establishments, the wardens of prisons, and their assistants. 8. Sheriffs and the employees of superior and inferior courts. ART. 284. As soon as the officials of the judicial police shall receive information of the commission of a public crime, or should be called upon to order any preliminary measures to be taken by reason of the commission of a private crime, they shall inform the judicial authority or the public prosecutor, should they be able to do so without discontinuing the preliminary proceedings. Otherwise they shall do so upon the conclusion thereof. 77

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78 ART. 285. Si concurriere algun funcionario de policia judicial de categoria superior a la del que estuviese actuando, deberi 6ste darle conocimiento de cuanto hubiese practicado, poniendose desde luego a su disposition. ART. 286. Cuando el j uez de instrucci6n 6 el municipal se presentaren a formar el sumario, cesaran las diligencias de prevenci6n que estuviere practicando cualquiera autoridad 6 agente de policia, debiendo 6stos entregarlas on el acto a dicho juez, asi como los efectos relativos al delito quo se hubiesen recogido, y poniendo a su disposici6n a los detenidos, si los hubiese. ART. 287. Los funcionarios que constituyen la policia judicial practicaran sin dilaci6n, segun sus atribuciones respectivas, las diligencias que los funcionarios del ministerio fiscal les encomienden para la comprobaci6n del delito y averiguaci6n de los delincuentes y todas las demas que durante el curso de la causa les encargaren los jueces de instruccion y municipals. ART. 288. El ministerio fiscal, los jueces de instrucci6n y los municipales podran entenderse directamente con los funcionarios de policia judicial, cualquiera que sea su categoria, para todos los efectos de este titulo; pero si el servicio que de ellos exigiesen admitiese espera, deberan acudir al superior respectivo del funcionario de policia judicial, mientras no necesitasen del inmediato auxilio de ste. ART. 289. El funcionario de policia judicial que por cualquier causa no pueda cumplir el requerimiento 6 la orden que hubiese recibido del ministerio fiscal, del juez de instrucci6n, del juez municipal, 6 de la autoridad 6 agente que hubiese prevenido las primeras diligencias, 1o pondr4 inmediatamente en conocimiento del que haya hecho el requerimiento 6 dado la orden para que provea de otro modo a su ejecuci6n. ART. 290. Si la causa no fuere legitima, el que hubiese dado la orden 6 hecho el requerimiento lo ponder en conocimiento del superior jerarquico del que se excuse para que le corrija disciplinariamente, a no ser que hubiere incurrido en mayor responsabilidad con arreglo 4 las leyes. El superior jerarquico comunicar a la autoridad 6 funcionario que le hubiere dado la queja la resoluci6n que adopte respecto de su subordinado. ART. 29L. El jefe de cualquiera fuerza publica que no pudiere prestar el auxilio que por los jueces de instrucci6n 6 municipales 6 por un funcionario de policia judicial le fuere pedido, se atendr6 tambien a 1o dispuesto en el articulo 289. El que hubiera hecho el requerimiento lo ponder en conocimiento del jefe superior inmediato del que se excusare en la forma y para el objeto expresado en los parrafos del articulo anterior.

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78 ART. 285. Should any official of the judicial police of a higher rank than that of the official conducting the proceedings be present, the latter must inform him of all steps taken and immediately place himself at his orders. Aur. 286. When the judge of examination or municipal judge appear to conduct the sumario, the police authority or agent shall discontinue the preliminary steps in which he may be engaged and at once deliver any proceedings had to the aforementioned judge, as well as the effects connected with the crime which may have been collected, and shall hold the persons detained, if there are any, subject to his orders. ART. 287. The officials constituting the judicial police shall, without delay, according to their respective powers, take such steps as may be entrusted to them by the prosecuting officials for the verification of the crime and the capture of the delinquents and any other steps entrusted to them during the course of the action by judges of examination and municipal judges. ART. 288. The public prosecutors, judges of examination, and municipal judges may communicate directly with the officials of the judicial police, whatever be their rank, for all the purposes of this title; but if the service required of them should admit of delay, they must apply to the immediate superior of the official of the judicial police, provided they do not require the immediate assistance of the latter. ART. 289. An official of the judicial police who for any reason whasotever should not be able to comply with the demand or order received from the public prosecutor, judge of examination, municipal judge, or the authority or agent who took the first steps, shall immediately inform the person who made the demand or gave the order,'so that he may provide for the execution thereof by other means. ART. 290. If the cause should not be a legitimate one, the person who shall have given the order or made the demand shall inform the hierarchical superior of the person excusing himself in order that he may be disciplined, unless he shall have incurred some greater liability in accordance to law. The hierarchical superior shall communicate to the authority or official who made the complaint the action taken by him with regard to his subordinate. ART. 291. The commander of any public force who should not be able to render the aid requested of him by judges of examination or municipal judges or by an official of the judicial police, shall also observe the provisions of article 289. The person making the demand shall so inform the immediate superior of the person excusing himself, for the purposes and in the manner mentioned in the paragraphs of the foregoing article.

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79 ART. 292. Los funcionarios do policia judicial extenderin, bien en papel sellado, bien en papel com6n, un atestado de las diligencias que practiquen, en el cual especificaran con la mayor exactitud los hechos por ellos averiguados, insertando las declaraciones e informes recibidos y anotando todas las circunstancias que hubiesen observado y pudiesen ser prueba 6 indicio del delito. ART. 293. El atestado sera firmado por el que 1o haya extendido, y si usare sello, 10 estampar con su rdbrica en todas las hojas. Las personas presentes, peritos y testigos que hubieren intervenido en las diligencias relacionadas en el atestado serin invitadas 4 firmarlo en la part a ellos referente. Si no lo hicieren, se expresari la raz6n. ART. 294. Si no pudiere redactar el atestado el funcionario 4 quien correspondiese hacerlo, se sustituir4 por una relaci6n verbal circunstanciada, que reducira 4 escrito de un modo fehaciente el funcionario del ministerio fiscal, el juez de instrucci6n 6 el municipal a quien deba presentarse el atestado, manifestandose el motivo de no haberse redactado en la forma ordinaria. ART. 295. En ningfin caso, salvo el de la fuerza mayor, los funcionarios de policia judicial podran dejar transcurrir mas de veinticuatro horas sin dar conocimiento a la autoridad judicial 6 al ministerio fiscal de las diligencias que hubieren practicado. Los que infrinjan esta disposition seran corregidos disciplinariamente con multa de 62.50 a 250 pesetas, si la omisi6n no mereciere la calificacion de delito. Los que, sin exceder el tiempo de las veinticuatro horas, dilataren mas de lo necesario el dar conocimiento, seran corregidos disciplinariamente con multa de 25 a 125 pesetas. ART. 296. Cuando hubieren practicado diligencias por orden 6 requerimiento de la autoridad judicial 6 del ministerio fiscal, comunicaran el resultado obtenido en los plazos que en la orden 6 en ei requerimiento se hubiesen fijado. ART. 297. Los atestados que redactaren y las manifestaciones que hicieren los funcionarios de policia judicial a consecuencia de las averiguaciones que hubiesen practicado, se consideraran denuncias para los eoectos legales. Las dems declaraciones que prestaren deberan ser firmadas y tendran el valor de declaraciones testificales en cuanto se refieran a hechos de conocimiento propio. En todo caso, los funcionarios de policia judicial estan obligados a observar estrictamente las formalidades legales en cuantas diligencias practiquen, y se abstendrn, bajo su responsabilidad, de usar medios de averiguaci6n quo la ley no autorice.

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79 ART. 292. The officials of the judicial police shall make, either on stamped or ordinary paper, an attested statement of the proceedings had by them, in which they shall specify, with the greatest minuteness, the facts ascertained by them, inserting the depositions and reports received and making a note of all the circumstances which they may have observed and which may be proof or evidence of the crime. ART. 293. This attested statement shall be signed by the person who prepared it, and if he uses a seal he shall affix the same with his rubric upon every sheet. The persons present, experts and witnesses, who shall have taken part in the proceedings set forth in the attested statement, shall be requested to sign that portion thereof which relates to them. Should they fail to do so the reason for their refusal shall be stated. ART. 294. If it should be impossible for this statement to be prepared by the official whose duty it is to do so, it shall be substituted by a verbal detailed statement, which shall be reduced to writing in an authentic manner by the public prosecutor, judge of examination, or municipal judge to whom the attested statement is to be presented, the reason that it was not drafted in the usual manner being stated. ART. 295. In no case, excepting force metjeure, shall the officials of the judicial police allow more than twenty-four hours to elapse without informing the judicial authorities or the public prosecutor of the steps which they may have taken. Those violating this provision shall be disciplined by the imposition of a fine of not less than 62.50 or more than 250 pesetas, if the failure does not deserve to be classified as a crime. Those who, without exceeding the time of twenty-four hours, should delay giving this information longer than necessary, shall be disciplined by the imposition of a fine of not less than 25 or more than 125 pesetas. ART. 296. If they shall have taken proceedings by order or requisition of judicial or prosecuting authorities, they shall communicate the result obtained within the periods fixed in the order or requisition. ART. 297. The attested reports prepared and the statements made by officials of the judicial police, as a consequence of their investigations, shall be considered denunciations for legal purposes. Any other declarations which they may make must be signed and shall have the value of a deposition of a witness in so far as they relate to facts of their own knowledge. In any case the officials of the judicial police are obliged to observe strictly all legal formalities in any proceedings which they may hold, and shall abstain, under their liability, from using means of investigation not authorized by law,

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80 ART. 298. Los jueces de instrucci6n y los fiscales calificaran en un registry reservado el comportamiento de los funcionarios que bajo su inspecei6n presten servicios de policia judicial, y cada semestre, con referencia a dicho registro, comunicarin A los superioree de cada uno de aquillos, para los efectos a que hubiere lugar, la calificaci6n razonada de su comportamiento. Cuando los funcionarios de policia judicial que hubieren de sor corregidos disciplinariamente con arreglo a esta ley fuesen de categoria superior a la de la autoridad judicial 6 fiscal que entendiesen en las diligencias en que se hubiere cometido la falta, se abstendran estos de imponer por si mismos la correction, limitandose a poner lo ocurrido en conocimiento del jefe inmodiato del que debiere ser corregido.

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80 ART. 298. Judges of examination and prosecuting officials shall classify, in a secret register, the conduct of the officials who shall render services of judicial police under their inspection, and every six months, with reference to the said register, they shall communicate to the superiors of each of them the detailed classification of their conduct for the proper purposes. When the officials of the judicial police who should be disciplined in accordance with this law are of a rank superior to that of the judicial or prosecuting authority acting in the proceedings in which the offense was committed, the latter shall abstain from personally imposing the punishment, confining themselves to communicating the occurrence to the immediate chief of the person to be disciplined. 18473-01---11

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TITULO IV. DE LA INSTRUCCI6N. CAPITULA PRIMERO. DEL SUMARIO Y DE LAS AUTORIDADES COMPETENTES PARA INSTRUIRLO. ART. 299. Constituyen el sumario las actuaciones encaminadas a preparar el juicio y practicadas para averiguar y hacer constar la perpetraci6n de los delitos con todas las circunstancias que puedan influir en su calificaci6n, y la culpabilidad de los delincuentes, asegurando sus personas y las responsabilidades pecuniarias de los mismos.' Aur. 300. Cada delito de que conozea la autoridad judicial sera objeto de un sumario. Los delitos conexos se comprenderin, sin embargo, en un solo proceso. ART. 301. Las diligencias del sumario serin secretas hasta que se abra el juicio oral, con las excepciones determinadas en la presente ley: El abogado 6 procurador de cualquiera de las partes que revelare indebidamente el secreto del sumario, sera corregido con multa de 125 a 1,250 pesetas. .En la misma multa incurrira cualquiera otra persona que no siendo funcionario publico cometa la misma falta. El funcionario pablico, en el caso de los parrafos anteriores, incurrira en la responsabilidad que el c6digo penal sefiale en su lugar respectivo. ART. 302. El juez instructor podrs autorizar al procesado 6 procesados para que tomen conocimiento de las actuaciones y diligencias sumarias cuando se relacionen con cualquier derecho que intenten ejercitar, siempre que dicha autorizaci6n no perjudique a los fines del sumario. Segin sentencia de 20 de Septiembre de 1886 las omisiones cometidas en este periodo procesal no pueden constituir motivo para la casacion de una sentencia definitive, tanto porque pueden ser subsanadas de oficio con reposicion de la causa, como porque pueden suplirse a instancia de las partes versantes en ella. En la regla 3a de la circular de la fiscalfa del Tribunal Supremo de 31 de Diciembre de 1882, inserta en la memoria de 15 de Septiembre de 1883, se consign que "los fiscales de las audiencias fijarin su atenci6n en la naturaleza especial de los sumarios, segdn la nueva ley d fin de que se concreten a los puntos verdaderamente esenciales de los mismos, procurando su ms pronta terminaci6n posible." 81

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TITLE IV. THE INVESTIGATION. CHAPTER FIRST. THE SUMARIO AND THE AUTHORITIES COMPETENT TO TAKE COGNIZANCE THEREOF. AR. 299. The sumario consists of the proceedings had to prepare the trial and for the purpose of verifying and evidencing the commission of crimes with all the circumstances which may have a bearing upon their classification and the guilt of the delinquents, securing their persons and the pecuniary liabilities of the same.' ART. 300. Every crime of which a judicial authority takes cognizance shall be the subject of a sumario. Connected crimes, nevertheless, shall be included in one and the same proceeding. ART. 301. The proceedings of the sumario shall be secret until the oral trial is begun, with the exceptions specified in this law. The attorney or solicitor of any of the parties who shall improperly reveal the secret of the sumario, shall be punished by the imposition of a fine of not less than 125 or more than 1,250 pesetas. The same penalty shall be incurred by any other person who, not being a public official, shall commit the same offense. A public official, in the case of the foregoing paragraphs, shall incur the liability which the penal code may fix in the respective place. ART. 302. The judge of examination may authorize the person or persons accused to take cognizance of the proceedings and steps of the sumario when they relate to any right which they may wish to exercise, provided that said authorization shall not prejudice the ends of the sumario. 'According to a decision of September 20, 1886, the omissions incurred at this stage of the proceedings can not serve as a basis for the annulment of a final sentence, because they can be cured by the court and the cause reheard, and they may also be supplied at the instance of the parties thereto. In the third rule of the circular of the office of the Fiscal of the Supreme Court of December 31, 1882, including in the report of September 15, 1883, it was stated that "the fiscales of audiencias shall devote their attention to the special character of the sumarios, according to the new law, in order that they may be limited to the truly essential points of the same, securing the speediest conclusion possible." 81i

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82 Si iste se prolongase mias de dos mess, a contar desde el auto on que se declare el procesamiento de determinada 6 determinadas personas, podran estas pretender del juez instructor que so les de vista de to actuado a fin de instar su mis pronta terminaci6n, a lo que debera acceder la mencionada autoridad judicial on cuanto no lo considered peligroso para el exito de las investigaciones sumariales. Contra el auto denegatorio en uno y otro caso, s6lo procedera el recurso de queja ante el tribunal superior competente. ART. 303. La formaci6n del sumario, ya empiece de oficio, ya a instancia de parte, correspondera a los juices do instrucci6n por los delitos que se cometan dentro de su partido 6 demarcaci6n respectiva, y on su defecto a los demis de la misma ciudad 6 poblaci6n, cuando en ella hubiere mas de uno, y a prevenci6n con ollos 6 por su delegaci6n, a los jueces municipales. Esta disposici6n no es aplicable a las causas encomendadas especialmente por la ley organica a determinados tribunales, pues para ellas podran 6stos nombrar un juez instructor especial, 6 autorizar al ordinario para el seguimiento del sumario. El nombramiento de juez instructor Anicamente podrs recaer on un magistrado del mismo tribunal, 6 en un funcionario del orden judicial en activo servicio de los existentes dentro del territorio de dicho tribunal. Una vez designado, obrara con jurisdicci6n propia e independiente.l Cuando e1 instructor fuese un magistrado, podra delegar sus funciones, en caso de imprescindible necesidad, en el juez de instrucci6n del punto donde hayan de practicarse las diligencias. cEn las causas para cuyo conocimiento sea competente una sala de 10 criminal por la calidad de las personas contra quien se dirija el procedimiento, ;,puede aquilla dictar providencia mandando los procesos al fiscal para que pida 1o que crea procedente respecto a la investigation? Concluida la instrucci6n de las diligencias del sumario en dichas causas, cuando por delegaci6n las instruya un juez, ,A quidn corresponderd dictar el auto de terminaci6n del sumario? En cuanto a la primera parte, es indudable que la sala puede hacer lo que indica la consulta. No hay motivo para que se abstenga el fiscal de pedir la practica de las diligencias que juzgue pertinentes, puesto que en la instrucci6n de estos sumarios, como en la de todos, ejerce el ministerio ptiblico su inspecci6n con arreglo a la ley. Por lo que hace a la segunda, 1a facultad de declarar concluso el sumario en las causas a que la consulta se refiere, pertenete, como en todos los process, al juez instructor, el cual, aunque haya recibido delegaci6n de la audiencia para instruir el sumario, ejerce durante la instrucci6n funciones propias 6 independientes con arreglo al pirrafo 30 del artfculo 303 de la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal."-Consulta ndmero 17 de la Memoria de la Fiscalia del Tribunal Supremo de 1887.

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82 If the latter should extend over a period exceeding two months, dating from the writ indicting one or more specific persons, the latter may demand of the examining judge that they be allowed to examine the proceedings had for the purpose of hastening the termination thereof, to which the said judicial authority must consent in so far as he does not consider it dangerous to the success of the preliminary investigations. An appeal in complaint to the superior court of competent jurisdiction is the only remedy against a refusal in either case. ART. 303. The formation of the sumario, whether begun cee offcio or at the instance of a party, shall pertain to the judges of examination with regard to crimes committed within their judicial district or respective circuit, and in their absence to the others of the same city or town, if there be more than one therein, and upon their request or by their delegation, to the municipal judges. This provision does not apply to causes specially intrusted by the organic law to specific tribunals, as for such causes the latter may appoint a special judge of examination or authorize the ordinary judge to conduct the sumario. As examining judge can be appointed only a justice of the said tribunal or an official of the judicial service in active service on duty within the territory of said tribunal. After being appointed he shall act upon his own and independent jurisdiction.' If the examining judge be an associate justice, he may delegate his functions, in case of unavoidable necessity, to the judge of examination of the place where the proceedings are to be held. 'In causes for the cognizance of which a criminal chamber may be competent by reason of the class of persons against whom the proceedings are directed, can said chamber issue an order transmitting the records to the prosecuting official for him to make such requests concerning the investigation which he may deem proper? Upon the conclusion of the proceedings of the sumario in such causes, when a judge conducts them by delegation, who shall decree the termination of the sumario? "With regard to the first question, there is no doubt that the chamber may take the steps indicated." "There is no reason why the prosecuting official should not request that such steps be taken which he may deem pertinent, because in the conduction of these sumarios, as well as of other sumarios, the prosecuting official exercises a supervision in accordance to law." "With regard to the second, the power to declare the sumario terminated in the causes to which the question refers, is vested, as in all processes, in the examining judge, who, even though he shall have been delegated by the audiencia to conduct the sumario, exercises during the same individual and independent functions in accordance with the third paragraph of article 303 of the law of criminal procedure." (Question No. 17 of the report of the office of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of 1887.)

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83 Cuando cl delito fuese por su naturaleza do aquellos que solamente pueden cometerse por autoridades 6 funcionarios sujetos 4 un fuero superior, los jueces de instrucci6n ordinarios, en casos urgentes, podran acordar las medidas de precauci6n necesarias para evitar su ocultaci6n; pero remitiran las diligencias en el tirmino mas breve posible, que en ninghn caso podr4 exceder de tres dias, al tribunal competente, el cual resolved la incoaci6n del sumario, y, en su dia, sobre si ha 6 no lugar al procesamiento de la autoridad 6 funcionarios inculpados. ART. 304. Las salas de gobierno de las audiencias territoriales podran nombrar tambien un juez instructor especial cuando las causas versen sobre delitos cuyas extraordinarias circunstancias, 6 las de lugar y tiempo de su ejecuci6n, 6 de las personas que en ellos hubiesen intervenido como ofensores a ofendidos, motivaren fundadamente el nombramiento de aquil para la mias acertada investigation 6 para la mis segura comprobaci6n de los hechos. Las facultades de las salas de gobierno seran extensivas alas causas procedentes de las audiencias comprendidas dentro de su demarcaci6n, y los nombramientos deberan recaer en los mismos funcionarios expresados en el articulo anterior de entre los existentes en el territorio, prefiriendo, a ser posible, uno de los magistrados de la misma, cuando no fuere autorizado el juez instructor ordinario para el seguimiento del sumario. Lo mismo las salas do gobierno que los tribunales, cuando hagan uso de la facultad expresada en 6ste y en el precedente articulo, darmn cuenta motivada al Ministerio de Ultramar. ART. 305. El nombramiento de jueces especiales de instrucci6n que se haga conform a los articulos anteriores, sera y habr4 de entenderse s6lo para la instrucci6n del sumario con todas sus incidencias. Terminado 4ste, se remitirl por el juez especial al tribunal a quien segun las disposiciones vigentes corresponda el conocimiento de la causa, para que la prosiga y fallen con arreglo a derecho. CAPITULO II. DE LA FORMACI6N DEL SUMARIO. ART. 306. Conforme a lo dispuesto en el capitulo anterior, los jueces de instrucci6n formaran los sumarios de los delitos pdblicos bajo la inspecci6n directa del fiscal del tribunal competente. La inspecei6n sera ejercida, bien constituyendose 4 fiscal por si 6 por medio de sus auxiliaries al lado del juez instructor, bien por medio

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83 If the crime from its nature be of those which can be committed only by authorities or officials subject to a superior jurisdiction, the ordinary judges of examination may, in urgent cases, order such measures of precaution to be taken which may be necessary to prevent their concealment; but they shall forward the proceedings within the shortest possible period, which in no case shall exceed three days, to the court of competent jurisdiction, which shall pass upon the institution of the sumario, and at the proper time shall decide whether the authority or official accused should or should not be indicted. ART. 304. The chambers of administration of the territorial audiencias may also appoint a special examining judge when the causes involve crimes the extraordinary circumstances of which, or the conditions of the time or place of their execution, or of the per ons involved therein either as aggrieved or authors, should furnish sufficient cause for the appointment of said judge in order to secure a better examination or a more certain verification of the facts. The powers of the chambers of administration shall extend to causes proceeding from the audiencias situated within their circuits, and the appointments must be of the same officials mentioned in the foregoing article from among those on service within the circuit, preference being given, if possible, to one of the associate justices of the same, if the ordinary examining judge should not be authorized to conduct the sumaro. Chambers of administration as well as courts, when they avail themselves of the power mentioned in this and in the foregoing article, shall render a detailed report to the colonial department. ART. 305. The appointment of special judges of examination which may be made in accordance with the foregoing articles shall and must be understood only for the conduction of the sumario with all its incidents. Upon the conclusion thereof the proceedings had therein shall be forwarded by the special judge to the court to which according to the provisions in force the cognizance of the cause pertains, in order that it may continue and decide the same according to law. CHAPTER 11. FORMATION OF THE SUMARIO. ART. 306. In accordance with the provisions of the foregoing chapter, judges of examination shall conduct the ,umario of public crimes under the direct supervision of the public prosecutor of the court of competent jurisdiction. The supervision shall be exercised either by the public prosecutor establishing himself in person or through one of his assistants at the

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84 de testimonios en relaci6n, suficientemente expresivos, que le remitir4 cl juez instructor peri6dicamente y cuantas veces se los reclame, pudiendo en este caso el fiscal hacer presented sus observaciones en atenta comunicaci6n v formular sus pretensiones por requerimientos igualmente atentos. Tambien podri delegar sus funciones en los fiscales municipales. ART. 307. En el caso de que el juez municipal comenzare a instruir las primeras diligencias del sumario, practicadas que sean las mas urgentes Y todas las que el juez de instrucci6n le hubiere prevenido, le remitira la causa, que nunca podr4 retener mas de tres dias. ART. 308. Inmediatamente que los jueces de instrucci6n 6 los municipales, en su caso, tuvieren noticia de la perpetraci6n do un delito, 1o pondran on conocimiento del fiscal de la respectiva audiencia, y los jueces de instrucci6n darmn ademi's parte al president de 6sta de la formaci6n del sumario en relaci6n sucinta suficientemente expresiva del hecho, de sus circunstancias y de su autor, dentro de los dos dias siguientes al en que hubieren principiado a instruirle. Los jueces municipales darin cuenta inmediata de la prevenci6n de las diligencias al de instrucci6n a quien corresponda. ART. 309. Si la persona contra quien resultaren cargos fuere alguna de las sometidas en virtud de disposici6n especial de la ley orgfinica un tribunal exceptional, practicadas las primeras diligencias, y antes de dirigir el procedimiento contra aquilla, esperar4 las 6rdenes del tribunal competente 4 los efectos de 1o prevenido en el parrafo segundo y ltima parte del quinto del art. 303 de esta ley. Si el delito fuere de los que dan motivo a la prisi6n preventiva con arreglo 4 lo dispuesto en esta ley, y el presunto culpable hubiese sido sorprendido infraganli, point ser desde luego detenido y preso, si fuere necesario, sin perjuicio de 1o dispuesto en el parrafo precedente. ART. 310. Los jueces de instrucci6n podran delegar en los municipales la practice de todos los actors y diligencias que esta ley no reserve exclusivamente A los primeros, cuando alguna causa justificada les impida practicarlos por si. Pero procuraran hacer uso moderado de esta facultad, y el tribunal inmediato superior cuidara de impedir y corregir la frecuencia injustificada de estas delegaciones. ART. 311. El juez que instruya el sumario practicar4 las diligencias que Ie propusieren el ministerio fiscal 6 el particular querellante, si no las considera indtiles 6 perjudiciales.

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84 side of the examining judge, or by means of detailed certified statements, sufficiently explicit, which shall be transmitted to him by the examining judge at periodical intervals, and as often as requested, the public prosecutor being permitted in the latter case to submit his remarks in a respectful communication, and his petitions by requisitions equally respectful. He may also delegate his functions to the municipal prosecuting officials. ART. 307. In case that the municipal judge should begin the institution of the preliminary proceedings of the sumartio, as soon as the more urgent steps have been taken, as well as all those which the judge of examination may have ordered, he shall forward the cause to him, and shall never retain it for more than three days. ART. 308. As soon as judges of examination, or municipal judges in a proper case, shall have information of the commission of a crime, they shall inform the prosecuting official of the proper audiencia, and judges of examination shall in addition inform the presiding judge of the latter of the formation of the sumario in a succinct statement sufficiently specific as to the act, its circumstances, and the author thereof within two days after the institution of the same. Municipal judges shall make a report at once of the proceedings had to the proper judge of examination. ART. 309. If the person against whom charges are made be of those subject by virtue of a special provision of the organic law to an exceptional tribunal, after the first proceedings have been had and before instituting proceedings against said person, orders shall be awaited from the competent court for the purposes of the provisions contained in the second paragraph and the last part of the fifth paragraph of article 303 of this law. If the crime be of those which give rise to provisional imprisonment in accordance of the provisions of this law,,and the presumed criminal should have been surprised infraganti, he may be detained at once and placed under arrest, if necessary, without prejudice to the provisions of the foregoing paragraph. ART. 310. Judges of examination may delegate to the municipal judges the holding of all proceedings and taking of all steps which this law does not reserve exclusively to the former, when any just cause prevents them doing so in person. But they shall seek to make a moderate use of this power and the immediate superior court shall take care to prevent and correct an unjustified frequency of these delegations. ART. 311. The judge conducting the sumario shall take all the steps which may be suggested to him by the prosecuting officials or by the private complainant, if he does not consider them useless or prejudicial.

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85 Contra el auto denegatorio de las diligencias pedidas podrs interponerse el recurso de apelaci6n, que sera admitido en un solo efecto para ante la respectiva audiencia 6 tribunal competente. Cuando el fiscal no estuviere en la misma localidad que el juez de instruction, en vez de apelar, recurriri en queja al tribunal competente, acompai'ando al efecto testimonio de las diligencias sumariales que conceptue necesarias, cuyo testimonio debera facilitarle el juez de instrucci6n, y previo informe del mismo, acordara el tribunal lo que estime procedente. ART. 312. Cuando se presentase querella, el juez de instrucci6n, despues de admitirla si fuere procedente, mandara practicar las diligencias que en ella se propusieren, salvo las que considere contrarian a las leyes, 6 innecesarias 6 perjudiciales para el objeto de la querella, las cuales denegar en resoluci6n motivada. ART. 313. Desestimara en la misma forma la querella cuando los hechos en que se funded no constituyan delito, 6 cuando no se considere competente para instruir el sumario objeto de la misma. Contra el auto a que se refiere este articulo procederi el recurso de apelaci6n, que sera admisible en ambos efectos. ART. 314. Las diligencias pedidas y denegadas en el sumario podran ser propuestas de nuevo en el juicio oral. ART. 315. El juez hard constar cuantas diligencias se practicaren a instancia de parte. De las ordenadas de oficio solamente constaran en el sumario aquellas cuyo resultado fuere conducente al objeto del mismo. ART. 316. El querellante podrs intervenir en todas las diligencias del sumario. Si el delito fuere plblico, podrs el juez de instrucci6n, sin embargo de 1o dispuesto en el parrafo anterior, declarar, a propuesta del fiscal 6 de oficio, secreto el sumario para el querellante. ART. 317. El juez municipal tendrs las mismas facultades que el de instrucci6n para no comunicar al querellante particular las actuaciones que practicare. ART. 318. Sin embargo del deber impuesto 6 los jueces municipales de instruir en su caso las primeras diligencias de los sumarios, cuando el juez de instrucci6n tuviere noticia de algfin delito que revista caracter de gravedad, 6 cuya comprobaci6n fuere dificil por circunstancias especiales, 6 que hubiese causado alarma, se trasladard inmediatamente al lugar del delito y procedera a formar el sumario, haciendose cargo de las actuaciones que hubiese practiedao el juez municipal y recibiendo las averiguaciones y datos que le suministren los funcionarios de la policia judicial. Permanecer en dicho lugar el tiempo necesario

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85 An appeal may be taken from all decisions refusing to take the steps requested, which appeal shall be allowed for review only before the proper audiencia or court of competent jurisdiction. If the public prosecutor be not in the same locality as the judge of examination, instead of appealing, he shall enter a complaint before the proper tribunal, attaching for the purpose an abstract of the proceedings which he may consider necessary, which abstract must be furnished him by the judge of examination; and after a report from the latter the court shall decide what it may deem proper. ART. 312. If a complaint be made, the judge of examination, after admitting the same, if proper, shall order such steps to be taken as are suggested therein, excepting those which he may consider contrary to law or unnecessary or prejudicial to the object of the complaint, which he shall refuse in a decision setting forth his reasons. ART. 313. He shall reject the complaint in the same manner when the acts upon which it is based do not constitute a crime or when he does not consider that he has jurisdiction to conduct the sumario which is the object thereof. An appeal for a review and stay of proceedings shall lie from the decision referred to in this article. ART. 314. The proceedings requested and refused in the sumario may again be moved in the oral trial. ART. 315. The judge shall cause a record to be made of all proceedings had at the instance of a party. Of those ordered ex oifolo only such shall appear in the sumario the result of which shall be conducive to the object thereof. ART. 316. The complainant may take part in all the proceedings of the sumario. If the crime be a public one, the judge of examination may, notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing paragraph, declare, on motion of the prosecuting official or ex officio, that the sumario is secret from the complainant. ART. 317. The municipal judge shall have the same powers as the judge of examination not to communicate the proceedings held to the private complainant. ART. 318. Notwithstanding the duty imposed upon municipal judges to take, in a proper case, the first steps in a smartwo, when the judge of examination shall have information of the commission of some crime of a serious character, or the verification of which might be difficult by reason of special conditions, or which may have caused alarm, he shall immediately betake himself to the place where the crime was committed and shall proceed to conduct the sumario, taking charge of the proceedings which may have been had by the municipal judge and receiving the verifications and data furnished him by the officials of

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86 para practicer todas las diligencias, cuya dilaci6n pudiera ofrecer InconvonIOntes. ART. 319. Cuando el Fiscal de la respectiva Audiencia tuviere conocimiento de la perpetraci6n de alguno de los delitos expresados en el articulo anterior, debera trasladarse personalmente, 6 acordar que so traslade al lugar del suceso alguno do sus subordinados para contribuir, con el juez de instrucci6n, al mejor y mas pronto esclarecimiento de los hechos, si otras ocupaciones tanto 6 mas graves no lo impidieren, sin perjuicio de proceder de igual manera en cualquier otro caso en que lo conceptuare conveniente. ART. 320. La intervenci6n del actor civil en ei sumario se limitara a procurar la practice de aquellas diligencias que puedan conducir al mejor 6xito de su acci6n, apreciadas discrecionalmente por el juez instructor. ART. 321. Los jueces do instrucci6n formarin el sumario ante sus secretarios. En casos urgentes y extraordinarios, faltando 6stos, podni' proceder con ia intervenci6n de un notario 6 do ds hombres Buenos mavores de edad, que sepan leer y escribir, los cuales juraran guardar tidelidad y secreto. ART. 322. Las diligencias del sumario que hayan de practicarse fuera de la circunscripcion del juez de instrucci6n 6 del tirmino del juez municipal quo Las ordenaren, tendran lugar en la forma que determina el tit. VIII del libro 1, y serin reservadas para todos los que no deban intervenir en ellas. ART. 323. Sin embargo de lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, cuando el lugar en que so hubiere de practicer alguna diligencia del sumario estuviere fuera de la jurisdicci6n del juez instructor, pero en lugar pr6ximo al punto en que Aste se hallare, y hubiese peligro en demorar aquilla, podrs ejecutarla por si mismo, dando inmediato aviso al juez competente. ART. 324. Cuando al mes de haberse incoado un sumario no se hubiere terminado, el juez darS parte cada semana a los mismos a quienes 1o haya dado al principiarse aquel de las causas que hubiesen impedido su conclusion. Con vista de cada uno do estos parts, los presidentes a quienes se hubiesen remitido y el Tribunal competente acordaran, segin sus respectivas atribuciones, 1o que consideren oportuno para la mas pronta terminaci6n del sumario. Sin perjuicio de 1o dispuesto en este articulo, los juices de instrucci6n estan obligados i dar a los Fiscales de las Audiencias cuantas noti-

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86 the judicial police. He shall remain in said place as long as may be necessary to hold all the proceedings in which delay might cause inconvenience. ART. 319. When the public prosecutor of the respective audiencia shall have information of the commission of any of the crimes mentioned in the foregoing article, he must proceed in person, or order that one of his subordinates proceed to the place of the occurrence, together with the judge of examination, in order to secure a better and more speedy elucidation of the facts, should he not be prevented from so doing by other occupations of as great or greater importance, without prejudice to proceeding in a similar manner in any other case in which he may consider it advisable. ART. 320. The intervention of the civil plaintiff in the smnario shall be confined to securing the taking of such steps as may contribute to the success of his action, which steps shall be passed upon by the examining judge in his discretion. ART. 321. Judges of examination shall conduct the sumario in the presence of their secretaries. In urgent and extraordinary cases, in the absence of the latter, they may proceed with the intervention of one notary or of two hombres buenos of legal age, able to read and write, and who shall take an oath to observe faith and secrecy. ART. 322. The proceedings of the sumario which may have to be held without the jurisdiction of the judge of examination or the district of the municipal judge ordering the same, shall be had in the manner prescribed in Title VIII of the first book, and shall be secret as to persons not connected therewith. ART. 323. Notwithstanding the provisions contained in the foregoing article, when the place in which some proceeding of the sumario is to be held is without the jurisdiction of the examining judge, but at a place near the point where the latter may be, and there should be danger in delaying such proceeding, he may execute it in person, immediately advising the judge of competent jurisdiction. ART. 324. If one month after the beginning of a smmario it should not have been concluded, the judge shall every week inform such persons as he informed at the beginning of said sumario of the causes which may have prevented the conclusion thereof. In view of each of these communications, the presiding judges to whom they may have been transmitted and the court of competent jurisdiction shall order, according to their respective powers, what they may consider proper for a more speedy termination of the .S' G)ar'ao. Without prejudice to the provisions of this article, judges of examination are obliged to give to the prosecuting officials of audiencias any

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87 cias les pidieren, fucra de estos tirminos, sobre el estado y adelanto de los sumarios. ART. 325. De las faltas de celo y actividad en la formaci6n de los sumarios serdn responsables disciplinariamente los jueces do instruccion, y los municipales en su caso, a no ser que 1o fueran criminalmente con arreglo a las eyes.

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87 other information they may request as to the status and progress of s umanros. ART. 325. Judges of examination and municipal judges in a proper case shall be disciplinarily liable for any lack of zeal or activity in the conduction of sumarios, provided they are not criminal liable in accordance to law.

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TITULO V. DE LA COMPROBACION DEL DELITO Y AVERIGUACI6N DEL DELINCUENTE. CAPITULO PRIMERO. DE LA INSPECCI6N OCULAR. ART. 326. Cuando el delito que so persiga haya dejado vestigios 6 pruebas materiales de su perpetraci6n, el juez instructor 6 e1 que haga sus veces los recoger4 para el juicio oral si fuere posible, procediendo a] efecto At la inspecei6n de todo aquello que pueda tener relaci6n con la existencia y naturaleza del hecho. A este fin hara consigner on los autos la descripci6n del lugar del delito, el sitio y estado en que se hallen los objetos que en 41 so encuentren, los accidents del terreno 6 situaci6n de las habitaciones y todos los demis detalles que puedan utilizarse tanto para la acusaci6n como para la defensa. ART. 327. Cuando fuere conveniente para mayor claridad 6 comprobaci6n de los hechos, so levantari el plano del lugar suficientemente detallado, 6 se hara ci retrato de las personas que hubiesen sido objeto del delito, 6 la copia 6 disefio de los efectos 6 instruments del mismo que se hubiesen hallado. ART. 328. Si se tratare de un robo 6 de cualquior otro delito cometido con fractura, escalamiento 6 violencia, el juez instructor deberi describir los vestigios que haya dejado, y consultar el parecer de peritos sobre la manera, instruments, medios 6 tiempo de la ejecuci6n del delito. ART. 329. Para 1levar a efecto lo dispuesto en los articulos anteriores, podri ordenar el juez instructor que no se ausenten durante la diligencia de descripci6n las personas que hubieren sido halladas en el lugar del delito, y que comparezcan ademis inmediatamente las que se encontraren on cualquier otro sitio pr6ximo, recibiendo I todas separadamente la oportuna declaraci6n. ART. 330. Cuando no hayan quedaho huellas 6 vestigios del delito que hubiese dado ocasion al sumario, el juez instructor averiguara y hara constar, siendo possible, si la desaparici6n de las pruebas materiales ha ocurrido natural, casual 6 intencionalmente, y las causas de la 88

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TITLE V. PROOF OF THE CRIME AND VERIFICATION OF THE DELINQUENT. CHAPTER I. THE OCULAR INSPECTION. ART. 326. If the crime prosecuted shall have left traces or material evidence of its commission, the examining judge or person acting in his stead shall collect and keep them for the oral trial, if possible, proceeding for this purpose to make an ocular inspection and a description of all that which might have any connection with the existence and nature of the act. For this purpose he shall include in the record of the proceeding a description of the place of the commission of the crime, the location and condition of the objects found there, the topography or location of the dwellings, and any other details which might be utilized for the accusation or for the defence. ART. 327. If advisable for a better elucidation or verification of the facts, a sufficiently detailed plan shall be made of the place, or photographs of the persons who may have been the subjects of the crime, or a copy or drawing of the effects or instruments of the same which may have been found. ART. 328. If a robbery be involved or any other crime committed by breaking, wrongful entry, or violence, the examining judge must describe the traces which may have been left, and he shall hear the of opinion of experts as to the manner, instruments, means, or time the commission of the crime. ART. 329. In order to carry out the provisions contained in the foregoing articles, the examining judge may order that such persons as may have been found at the place of the commission of the crime shall not absent themselves during these proceedings, and, furthermore, that such other persons as may be found in any other nearby locality present themselves immediately, taking the depositions of each separately. ART. 330. If no traces or evidence of the crime which is the subjectmatter of the ,smario shall have been left, the examining judge shall ascertain and establish, if possible, whether the disappearance of the material proof of the crime was natural, casual, or intentional, and the 18473-01 12

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89 misma 6 los medios quo para ello se hubieren empleado, procediendo seguidamente a recoger y consignar en el sumario las pruebas de cualquiera clase que se puedan adquirir acerca de la perpetraci6n del delito. ART. 331. Cuando el delito fuere de los que no dejan huellas de su perpetracion, el juez instructor procure hacer constar, por declaraciones de testigos y por los demas medios de comprobaci6n, la ejecuci6n del delito y sus circunstancias, asi como la preexistencia de la cosa cuando el delito hubiese tenido por objeto la sustracci6n de la misma. ART. 332. Todas las diligencias comprendidas en este capitulo se extenderdn por escrito en el acto mismo de la inspecci6n ocular, y seran firmadas por el juez instructor, el fiscal si asistiere al acto, el secretario y las personas que se hallaren presents. ART. 333. Cuando al practicarse las diligencias enumeradas on los articulos anteriores hubiere alguna persona declarada procesada como presunta autora del hecho punible, podra presenciarlas, ya sola, ya asistida del defensor que eligiere 6 le fuere nombrado de oficio, si asi lo solicitare, y uno y otro podrn hacer en el acto las observaciones que estimen pertinentes, las cuales se consignaran por diligencia si no fueren aceptadas. Al efecto se pondra en conocimiento del procesado el acuerdo relativo a la practice de la diligencia con la anticipaci6n que permita su indole, y no se suspended por la falta de comparecencia del procesado 6 de su defensor. CAPITULO II. DEL CUERPO DEL DELITO. ART. 334. El juez instructor procurara recoger on los primeros momentos las armas, instrumentos 6 efectos de cualquier clase que puedan tener relaci6n con cl delito y se hallen on e1 lugar en que dste se coneti6 6 en sus inmediaciones, 6 en poder del reo, 6 en otra parte conocida, extendiendo diligencia expresiva del lugar, tiempo y ocasi6n en que se encontraren, describiendolos minuciosamente para que se pueda formar idea cabal de los mismos y de las circunstancias de su hallazgo. La diligencia ser firmada por la persona on cuyo poder fueren hallados, notificandose a la misma el auto en que se mande recogerlos. ART. 3335. Siendo habida la persona 6 cosa objeto del delito, el juez instructor describir detalladamente su estado y circunstancias, y especialmente todas las que tuviesen relaci6n con el hecho punible. Si por tratarse de delito de falsificaci6n cometida en documents 6 efectos existentes en dependencies del Estado hubiere imprescindible

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89 causes for said disappearance or the means employed for the purpose, proceeding thereupon to collect and include in the sumario evidence of any kind which it may be possible to secure with regard to the commission of the crime. ART. 331. If the crime be of those which do not leave any evidence of their commission, the judge of examination shall seek to establish, by evidence of witnesses and by all other means of verification, the commission of the crime and the circumstances thereof, as well as the previous existence of the thing, if the object of the crime shall have been the removal thereof. ART. 332. All the proceedings mentioned in this chapter shall be reduced to writing at the time of the ocular inspection, and shall be signed by the examining judge, prosecuting official, if present thereat, the secretary, and the other persons present. ART. 333. If at the time of the proceedings mentioned in the preceding articles there should be some person indicted as the presumed author of the punishable act, he may be present thereat either alone or with the counsel he may select or that assigned him by the court, if he should so request, and either one may at this time make such observations as he may consider pertinent, a record thereof being made if not accepted. For this purpose the order for the holding of this proceeding shall oe communicated to the accused such time in advance as the character thereof will admit, and the proceeding shall not be suspended on account of the nonappearance of the accused or his counsel. CHAPTER I. THE CORPUS DELICTI. ART. 334. The examining judge shall seek to collect during the first moments the arms, instruments, or effects of whatsoever class which may bear upon the crime and which may be at or in the vicinity of the place where the latter was committed, or in the possession of the criminal, or in any other known place, making a record of the place, time, and occasion upon which found, describing the same minutely in order that a clear idea thereof and of the circumstances under which they were found may be formed. The record shall be signed by the person in whose possession they may be found, who shall be notified of the order to collect them. ART. 335. Upon the finding of the person or thing the object of the crime, the examining judge shall describe in detail his or its state and circumstances, and especially all those which hear upon the punishable act. If in view of the fact that a crime of falsification committed in documents or effects existing in dependencies of the State is in ques-

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90 necesidad do tenerlos a la vista para su reconocimiento pericial y examen por parte del juez 6 tribunal, se reclamarn a las correspondientes autoridades, sin perjuicio de devolverlos a los respectivos centros oficiales despues de terminada la causa. ART. 336. En los casos de los dos articulos anteriores, ordenara tambien el juez el reconocimiento por peritos, siempre que est6 indicado para apreciar mejor la relaci6n con el delito, de los lugares, armas, instrumentos y efectos A quo dichos articulos se refieren, haciendose constar por diligencia el reconocimiento y el informed pericial. A esta diligencia podran asistir tambien ei procesado y su defensor en los terminos expresados en el art. 333. ART. 337. Cuando en e1 acto de describir la persona 6 cosa objeto del delito, y los lugares, armas, instruments 6 efectos relacionados con el mismo, estuvieren presents 6 fueren conocidas personas que puedan declarar acerca del modo y form con que aquel hubiese sido cometido, y de las causas de las alteraciones que so observaren en dichos lugares, armas, instrumentos 6 efectos, 6 acerca de su estado anterior, seran examinadas inmediatamente despues de la descripci6n, y sus declaraciones se consideraran como complemento de esta. ART. 338. Los instruments, armas y efectos A que se refiere el art. 334 se sellaran, si fuere possible, acordando su retenci6n y conservaci6n. Las diligencias a que esto diere lugar se firmaran por la persona en cuyo poder se hubiesen hallado, y en su defecto, por dos testigos. Si los objetos no pudieren por su naturaleza conservarse on su formal primitiva, el juez resolved lo que estime m's conveniente para conservarlos del mejor modo possible. Si entree los objetos recogidos se encontraren cosas 6 vasos sagrados, el juez instructor mandara que sean separados de los demas y guardados aparte, evitando toda profanaci6n. ART. 339. Si fuere convenient recibir algin informed pericial sobro los medios empleados para la desaparici6n del cuerpo del delito 6 sobre las pruebas de cualquiera case que en su defecto se hubiesen recogido, el juez ordenara inmediatamente del modo prevenido en el capitulo VII de este mismo titulo. ART. 340. Si la instrucci6n tuviere lugar por causa de muerte violent 6 sospechosa de criminalidad, antes de proceder al enterramiento del cadAver 6 inmediatamente despues de su exhumaci6n, hecha la descripci6n ordenada en el art. 335, se identificari por medio de testigos que, la vista del mismo, den raz6n satisfactoria de su conocimiento. ART. 341. No habiendo testigos de conocimiento, si el estado del cadAver 1o permitiere, se expondr al piblico antes de practicarse la autopsia, por tiempo A lo menos de veinticuatro horas, expresando en

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90 tion, and therefore there should be unavoidable necessity to have the same at hand for their examination by experts and by the judge or court, they shall be demanded of the proper authorities, without prejudice to their being returned to the respective official bureaus upon the conclusion of the cause. ART. 336. In the cases of the two foregoing articles, the judge shall also order the examination by experts, whenever such examination appears advisable in order to better weigh their connection with the crime, of the places, arms, instruments, and effects to which said articles refer, a record being made of the expert examination and report. The accused and his counsel may also attend this proceeding, in accordance with the provisions of article 333. ART. 337. If at the time of describing the person or thing the subject of the crime, and the places, arms, instruments, or effects connected therewith, persons should be present or known who can testify as to the manner and form of the commission of said crime and the causes for the alterations observed in said places, arms, instruments, or effects, or with regard to their previous condition, they shall be examined immediately after the description and their depositions shall be considered supplementary thereto. ART. 338. The instruments, arms, and effects referred to in article 334 shall be sealed, if possible, and their retention and preservation shall be ordered. The proceedings to which this may give rise shall be signed by the person in whose possession they may have been found or, in his absence, by two witnesses. If by reason of their character the objects can not be preserved in their original condition, the judge shall decide what he may deem advisable for their preservation in the best manner possible. If among the objects collected there be any sacred vessels or things, the examining judge shall order that they be separated from the rest and kept apart, avoiding any profanation. ART. 339. Should it be advisable to receive any expert opinion as to the means employed for the removal of the corpus delicti, or as to the evidence of any kind which, in the absence thereof, may have been collected, the judge shall make an order at once in the manner prescribed in Chapter VII of this title. ART. 340. If the examination shall take place by reason of a death by violence or under suspicious circumstances, before proceeding to bury the body or immediately after its disinterment, after the description ordered by article 335 has been made, it shall be identified by witnesses, who upon viewing the same shall give satisfactory reasons for their identification. ART. 341. Should there not be any witnesses of identification, if the condition of the body shall permit, it shall be exhibited to the public for twenty-four hours at least before the holding of the autopsy,

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91 un cartel, que se fijara a la puerta del dep6sito de cadaveres, el sitio, hora y dia on que aquel se hubiese hallado, y el juez que estuviese instruyendo el sumario, a fin de que quien tenga algin dato que pueda contribuir al reconocimiento del cadaver 6 al esclarecimiento del delito y de sus circunstancias lo comunique al juez instructor. ART. 342. Cuando a pesar de tales prevenciones no fuere el cadaver reconocido, recogera el juez todas las prendas del traje con que se le hubiese encontrado, a fin de que puedan servir oportunamente para hacer la identificaci6n. ART. 343. En los sumarios i que se refiere el art. 340, aun cuando por la inspecci6n exterior pueda presumirse la causa de la muerte, se procedert A la autopsia del cadAver por los midicos forenses, 6 en su caso por los quo el juez designe, los cuales, despues de describir exactamente dicha operaci6n, informaran sobre el origen del fallecimiento y sus circunstancias. Para practicer la autopsia se observara lo dispuesto en el art. 353. ART. 344. Con el nombre de medico forense habra en cada juzgado de instrucci6n un facultativo encargado de auxiliar a la administraci6n de justicia en todos los casos y actuaciones en que sea necesaria 6 conveniente la intervention y servicios de su profession en cualquier punto de la demarcaci6n judicial. ART. 345. El medico forense residira en la capital del juzgado para que haya sido nombrado, y no podra ausentarse de ella sin licencia del juez, del president de la audiencia de lo criminal 6 del Ministro de Ultramar, segin que sea por ocho dias a lo mas en el primer caso, veinte en el segundo, y por el tiempo que el Ministro estime conveniente en el tercero. ART. 346. En las ausencias, enfermedades y vacantes, sustituira al medico forense otro profesor que desempefie igual cargo en la misma poblaci6n; y si no le hubiese, el que el juez designe, dando cuenta de ello al Presidente de la Audiencia de lo criminal. Lo mismo sucedera cuando por cualquier otro motivo no pudiese valerse el juez instructor del medico forense. Los que se negaren al cumplimiento de este deber 6 le eludieren, incurrirAn en multa de 62.50 6 250 pesetas; y si insistieren en su negativa, seran procesados como reos do desobediencia grave. ART. 347. El medico forense estA obligado a practicar todo acto 6 diligencia propios de su profesi6n e instituto con el celo, esmero y prontitud que la naturaleza del caso exija y la administraci6n de justicio requiera.

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91 there being stated on a poster, which shall be affixed at the door of the morgue, the place where and hour and day when found, and the judge conducting the sunario, in order that any person having any information which might contribute to the identification of the body or the clearing up of the crime and of its circumstances may communicate the same to the examining judge. ART. 342. If, notwithstanding all these measures, the body should not be identified, the judge shall collect everything found upon the body in order that it may serve for the identification at the proper time. ART. 343. In the sumarios referred to in article 340, even in case the cause of death may be presumed by a superficial examination, the autopsy on the body shall be proceeded with by the official physicians or in a proper case by such persons as the judge may designate, who, after describing said operation exactly, shall make a report upon the cause of death and the circumstances thereof. In making the autopsy the provisions of article 333 shall be observed. ART. 344. Under the name of official physician there shall be in every court of examination one physician charged with assisting the administration of justice in all cases and proceedings in which the intervention and services of his profession may be necessary or advisable at any point of the judicial district. ART. 345. The official physician shall reside at the seat of the court to which he may have been assigned, and may not absent himself therefrom without the permission of the judge, of the presiding judge of the criminal audiencia, or of the Colonial Minister, depending upon whether the absence is not to exceed eight days in the first case, twenty in the second, and the time which the Minister may deem advisable in the third. ART. 346. In cases of absence, sickness, and vacancies, the official physician shall be substituted by another professor performing similar duties in the same town; and should there be none, by the one the judge may designate, a report being made to the presiding judge of the criminal audiencia. The same shall be done when for any other reason whatsoever the examining judge can not avail himself of the services of the official physician. Those who shall refuse to fulfill this duty or shall evade it shall incur a fine of not less than 62.50 or more than 250 pesetas, and if they shall insist in their refusal they shall be tried as guilty of serious disobedience. ART. 347. The official physician is obliged to take all measures and perform all duties pertaining to his profession and office with the zeal, care, and speed which the nature of the case and by the administration of justice require.

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92 ART. 348. Cuando en algn caso, ademas de la intervention del medico forense, el juez estinase necesara la cooperation do uno o mas facultativos, hara el oportuno nombramiento. Lo establecido en el parrafo anterior tendrs tambion lugar cuando, por la gravedad del caso, el medico forense crea necesaria la cooperaci6n de uno 6 mas comprofesores, y el juez lo estimare asi. ART. 349. Siempre que sea compatible con ia buena administration de justicia, el juez podrs conceder prudencialmente un tormino al medico forense para que preste sus declaraciones, evacue los informes y consultas y redacte otros documentos que sean necesarios, permitiendole asimismo designar las horas que tenga por mis oportunas para practicar las autopsias y exhumaciones de los cadaveres. ART. 350. En los casos de envenenamiento, heridas 4 otras lesiones cualesquiera, quedara el medico forense encargado de la asistencia facultativa del paciente, a no ser que (ste 6 su familia prefieran la de uno 6 mas profesores de su elecei6n, en cnyo caso conservara aqui la inspecci6n y vigilancia que le incumbe para llenar el correspondiente serviclo medico-forense. El procesado tender derecho a designar un profesor que, con los nombrados por el juez instructor 6 el designado por la parte acusadora, intervenga en la asistencia del paciente. ART. 351. Cuando el m4dico forense, 6 en su defecto el designado 6 designados por el juez instructor no estuviesen conformed con el tratamiento 6 plan curativo empleado por los facultativos que el paciente 6 su familia hubiesen nombrado, darn parte a dicho juez instructor a los efectos que en justicia procedan. Lo mismo podrs hacer en su caso el facultativo designado por el procesado. El juez instructor, cuando tal discordia resultare, designar mayor numero de profesores para que manifiesten su parecer, y, consignados todos los datos necesarios, se, tendon presentes para cuando en su dia haya de fallarse la causa. ART. 352. Lo dispuesto en los articulos anteriores es aplicable cuando el paciente ingrese en la carcel, hospital a otro establecimiento v sea asistido por los facultativos de los mismos. ART. 353. Las autopsias se harin en un local publico que en cado pueblo 6 partido tendrs destinado la administration para el objeto y para dep6sito de cadaveres. Podr4, sin embargo, el juez de instrucci6n disponer, cuando 1o considere conveniente, que la operaci6n se practique en otro lugar 6 en el domicilio del difunto, si su familia lo pidiere y esto no perjudicare al 6xito del sumario. Si el juez de instrucci6n no pudiere asistir a la operaci6n anat6mica, delegara en un funcionario de policia judicial, dando fe de sn asistencia, asi como de 1o que en aquilla ocurriere, cI secretario de la causa.

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92 ART. 348. If in some case, in addition to the attendance of the official physician, the judge shall consider the cooperation of one or more physicians to be necessary, he shall make the proper appointment. The provisions of the foregoing paragraph shall also apply when, on account of the gravity of the case, the official physician shall consider the cooperation of one or more physicians to be necessary and the judge concurs in said belief. ART. 349. Whenever compatible with the proper administration of justice, the judge may grant in his discretion a period to the official physician within which to give his evidence, prepare the reports, and answer inquiries and prepare any other documents which may be necessary, permitting him likewise to designate such hours as he may consider best adapted for the autopsies and the disinterment of bodies. ART. 350. In cases of poisoning, wounds, and any other bodily injuries, the official physician shall be charged with the professional attendance upon the patient, unless the latter or his family prefer that of one or more professors they may select, in which case the former shall exercise the surveillance and supervision incumbent upon him in order to comply with the duties of the official medical service. The accused shall have the right to designate one professor who, together with those appointed by the examining judge or the one designated by the complainant, shall take part in the attendance upon the patient. ART. 351. When the official physician, or, in his absence, the physician or physicians appointed by the examining judge, shall not agree as to the curative treatment or plan employed by the professors which the patient or his family may have appointed, they shall inform the examining judge for the purposes which may be proper according to justice. The same may be done in a proper case by the professor appointed by the accused. The examining judge, when such disagreement occurs, shall appoint a larger number of professors to give an opinion, and after all the data necessary has been recorded, the same shall be filed for use when the cause is to be decided. ART. 352. The provisions of the foregoing article apply when the patient enters the prison, hospital. or other institution and is attended by the physicians of the same. ART. 353. The autopsies shall be held in the public place which shall be set aside by the administration in every town or judicial district for this purpose and as a morgue. Nevertheless, the examining judge may order, when he considers it advisable, that the operation take place elsewhere, or at the residence of the deceased, if his family shall request it, and if it will not prejudice the success of the swmario. If the examining judge be not able to attend the anatomical operation, he shall delegate an official of the judicial police, the secretary in the cause certifying to his attendance as well as to the occurrences thereat.

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93 ART. 354. Cuando la muerte sobreviniere por consecuencia de algan accidente ocurrido en las vias ferreas yendo 11n tren en marcha, inicamente se detendra iste ei tiempo preciso para separar cl cadaver 6 cadiveres de la via, haciendose constar previamente su situaci6n y e stado, bien por la autoridad 6 funcionario de policia judicial que inmediatamente se presente en el lugar del siniestro, bien por los que accidentalmente se hallen en el mismo tren, bien, en defecto de estas personas, por el empleado de mayor categoria a cuyo cargo vaya, debiendo ser preferidos para el caso los empleados 6 agentes del Gobierno. Se dispondra asimismo lo conveniente para que, sin perjuicio de seguir el trend su marcha, sea avisada la autoridad que deba instruir las primeras diligencias y acordar el levantamiento de los cadaveres; y las personas antedichas recogerin en el acto con prontitud los datos y antecedentes precisos, que comunicaran a la mayor brevedad a laautoridad competente para la instrucci6n de las primeras diligencias, con el fin de que pueda esclarecerse el motivo del siniestro.' ART. 355. Si el hecho criminal que motivare la formaci6n de una causa cualquiera consistiese en lesiones, los medicos que asistieren al herido estaran obligados a dar parte de su estado y adelantos on los periodos que se les sefalen, e inmediatamente que ocurra cualquier novedad que merezca ser puesta en conocimiento del juez instructor. ART. 356. Las operaciones de analisis quimico que exija la sustanciaci6n de los procesos criminales se practicarin por doctores en medicine, en farmacia, en ciencias fisico-quimicas, 6 por ingenieros que se hayan dedicado a la especialidad quimica. Si no hubiere doctores en aquellas ciencias, podran ser nombrados licenciados que tengan los conocimientos y practical suticientes para hacer dichas operaciones. Los jueces de instrucci6n designarin, entre los comprendidos en el parrafo anterior, los peritos que han de hacer el andlisis de las sustancias que en cada caso exija la administration de justicia. Cuando en el partido judicial donde se instruya el proceso no haya ninguno de los peritos a quienes se refiere el pirrafo primero, 6 estin imposibilitados legal o fisicamente de practicer el analisis los que en aquil residieren, el juez instructor lo pondra en conocimiento del presidente de la sala 6 audiencia de 1o criminal, y este nombrari el perito 6 peritos que hayan de practicar dicho servicio entre las per1 Habrd que 1lenar las formalidades que exige este articulo, no s6lo en el caso que haya sobrevenido la muerte por consecuencia do algdn accident ocurrido en las vias f6rreas, sino tambi6n cuando aparezea un cadaver sobre una via f6rrea, ignorindose la causa de la muerte. (Exposici6n del fiscal del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de Septiembre de 1888, mm. 16.)

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93 ART. 354. If death shall occur as a consequence of some accident on a railroad during the progress of a train, said train shall be detained only the time necessary to remove the body or bodies from the road, a record being previously made of their situation and condition, either by the authority or official of the judicial police who may appear at once at the place of the accident, or by those who may accidentally be on the same train, or, in the absence of such persons, by the employee of the highest rank in whose charge the train may be, but preference must be given in such case to the employee or agents of the government. The proper steps shall likewise be taken in order that, without prejudice to the train continuing its course, the authority which is to conduct the first proceedings may be advised and may order the removal of the bodies, and the persons above named shall at once collect the data and information necessary, which they shall communicate as soon as possible to the authority competent to conduct the first proceedings, in order that the cause of the disaster may be ascertained.' ART. 355. If the criminal act giving rise to the institution of any cause whatsoever should consist in bodily injuries, the physicians attending the injured person shall be obliged to make a report of his condition and improvement at such periods as may be fixed, and immediately upon any change taking place which should be brought to the attention of the examining judge. ART. 356. The work of chemical analysis necessary during the hearing of criminal proceedings shall be performed by doctors of medicine, of pharmacy, of the physical chemical sciences, or by engineers who may have devoted themselves to chemical specialties. Should there be no doctors in said sciences, licentiates may be appointed having sufficient knowledge and practice to perform said work. Judges of examination shall appoint, from among those included in the foregoing paragraph, the experts who are to make an analysis of the substances which in each case the administration of justice may require. If in the judicial district where the proceedings are being held there should be none of the experts referred to in the foregoing paragraph, or those residing therein should be legally or physically unable to make the analysis, the judge of examination shall so inform the presiding judge of the criminal chamber or audiencia, and the latter shall appoint the expert or experts who are to perform the service from among the It will be necessary to fulfill the formalities required by this article, not only in case the death shall have occured on account of some railroad accident, but also when a body is found upon a railroad and the cause of death unknown. (Statement of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1888, No. 16.)

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94 sons que design el parrafo primero domiciliadas en el territorio. A] mismo tiempo comunicara el nombramiento de peritos al juez instructor para que ponga a su disposici6n, con las debidas precauciones y formalidades, las sustancias que hayan de ser analizadas. El procesado 6 procesados tendran derecho a nombrar un perito que concurra con los designados por el juez. ART. 357. Los indicados profesores prestaran este servicio en el concepto de peritos titulares, y no podran negarse a efectuarlo sin justa causa, siendoles aplicable en otro caso lo dispuesto en el parrafo segundo del art. 346. ART. 358. Cada uno de los citados profesores que informe como perito en virtud de orden judicial, percibir4 por sus honorarios e indemnizaci6n de los gastos que el desempefio de este servicio le ocasione, la cantidad que se fije en los reglamentos, no estando obligado a trabajar mas de tres horas por dia, excepto en casos urgentes 6 extraordinarios, 1o que se hard constar en los autos. ART. 359. Concluido cl analisis y firmada la declaraci6n correspondiente, los professors pasaran al juez instructor, 6 al president de la sala 6 audiencia de 1o criminal en su caso, una nota firmada de los objetos 6 sustancias analizados y de los honorarios que les correspondan 4 tenor de 1o dispuesto en el articulo anterior. El juzgado dirigira esta nota, con las observaciones que crea justas, al presidente de la audiencia de lo criminal, quien la cursara elevandola al Ministerio de Ultramar, a no encontrar excesivo nhmero de horas que se supongan empleadas en cualquier analisis, en cuyo caso acordar6 que informen tres comprofesores del que Jo haya verificado; y en vista de su dictamen, confirmara 6 rebajar4 los honorarios reclamados a lo que fuere justo, remitiendo todo con su informe al expresado Ministerio. Otro tanto har6 el president de la audiencia cuando el analisis se hubiere practicado durante el juicio oral. ART. 360. El Ministro de Ultramar, si conceptuare excesivos los honorarios, podra tambien, antes de decretar su pago, pedir informe, y en su caso nueva tasaci6n de los mismos, a la Academia de ciencias exactas, fisicas y naturales, y en vista de lo que esta corporaci6n expusiere, 6 de la nueva tasaci6n que practicare, se confirmaran los honorarios 6 se reducirdn a lo que resultare justo, decretindose su pago. ART. 361. Para verificar 6ste so incluira por el Ministro de Ultramar en los presupuestos de cada aflo la cantidad que se concepth0 necesaria. ART. 362. Los profesores mencionados no podrin reclamar otros honorarios que los anteriormente fijados por virtud de este servicio, ni

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94 persons designated in the first paragraph residing in the territory. At the same time he shall communicate the appointment of experts to the examining judge in order that he may place the substances which are to be analyzed at his disposal, with the proper precautions and formalities. The person or persons accused shall have the right to appoint an expert to be present with those appointed by the judge. ART. 357. The said professors shall render this service in the capacity of titular experts, and can not refuse to do so without just cause, the provisions contained in the second paragraph of article 346 being otherwise applicable to them. ART. 358. Each of the said professors who makes a report as an expert by virtue of a judicial order shall receive the sum fixed in the regulations as his fee and in compensation of the expenses which he may incur in the performance of this service, and he shall not be obliged to work more than three hours per day, except in urgent or extraordinary cases, which fact shall be entered upon the record. ART. 359. Upon the conclusion of the analysis and after the signing of the proper declaration, the professors shall forward to the examining judge, or to the presiding judge of the criminal audiencia or chamber, in a proper case, a signed report of the objects or substances analyzed and of their fees, in accordance with the provisions of the foregoing article. The court shall address this report, with the remarks it may consider proper, to the presiding judge of the criminal audiencia, who shall transmit the same to the Colonial Department, unless he shall find that an excessive number of hours appear to have been employed in any analysis, in which case he shall order that three coprofessors of the one who made it shall make a report, and in view thereof he shall confirm or reduce the fees claimed to the just amount, transmitting all with his own report to the said department. The same shall be done by the presiding judge of the audiencia when the analysis is made during the oral trial. ART. 360. The Colonial Minister, if he considers the fees excessive, may also, before ordering their payment, call for a report, and, in a proper case, a new taxation of the same by the academy of exact physical and natural sciences, and in view of the statement this corporation may furnish, or the new taxation made, the fees shall be confirmed, or they shall be reduced to what may be just, and their payment ordered. ART. 361. In order to make this payment the Colonial Minister shall include in the budgets for each year the amount which may be considered necessary. ART. 362. The professors mentioned can not demand other fees than those previously fixed for this service, nor require that the judge or

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95 exigir que el juez 6 tribunal les facilite los medios materials de laboratorio 6 reactivos, ni tampoco auxiliaries subalternos para lenar su cometido. Cuando por falta de peritos, laboratorio 6 reactivos no sea possible practicar el analisis en la circunscripci6n de la audiencia de lo criminal, se practicara en la capital de la provincia, y en ultimo extremo, en la de la isla. ART. 363. Los juzgados y tribunales ordenaran la practice de los analisis quimicos 1nicamente en los casos en que se consideren absolutamente indispensables para la necesaria investigation judicial y la recta administraci6n de justicia.' ART. 364. En los delitos de robo, hurto, estafa y en cualquiera otro en que deba hacerse constar la preexistencia de las cosas robadas, hurtadas 6 estafadas, si no hubiere testigos presenciales del hecho, se recibira informaci6n sobre los antecedents del que se presentare como agraviado, y sobre todas las circunstancias que ofrecieren indicios de hallarse 6ste poseyendo aquillas al tiempo en que resulted cometido el delito. ART. 365. Cuando para la calificaci6n del delito 6 de sus circunstancias fuere necesario estimar el valor de la cosa que hubiese sido su objeto 6 el imported del perjuicio causado 6 que hubiera podido causarse, el juez oira sobre ello al dueflo 6 perjudicado, y acordara despues el reconocimiento pericial en la forma determinada en c1 capitulo VII de este mismo titulo. El juez facilitara a los peritos nombrados las cosas y elementos directos de apreciaci6n sobre que hubiere de recaer el informe, y si no estuvieren a su disposition, les suministrara los datos oportunos que se pudieren reunir, previniendoles, en tal caso, que hagan la tasaci6n y regulaci6n de perjuicios de un modo prudent, con arreglo a los datos suministrados. ART. 366. Las diligencias prevenidas on este capitulo y en el anterior se practicarin con preferencia a las demas del sumario, no suspendidndose su ejecuci6n sino para asegurar la persona del presunto culpable 6 para dar el auxilio necesario a los agraviados por el delito. ART. 367. En ninguin caso se admitirin durante el sumario reclamaciones ni tercerias que tengan por objeto la devoluci6n de los efectos que constituyen el cuerpo del delito, cualquiera que sea su clase y la persona que los reclame. I Los tribunales no pueden rechazar la practica de una prueba que consists en algin analisis qufmico, siempre que entrafle verdadera pertinencia, y aunque en el sumario se haya verificado dicho andlisis, sin que sea preciso que la citada prueba se considere absolutamente indispensable, como exige el art. 363, sino solo que ofrezca probables resultados de importancia. (Eixposicidn dcl Fiscal del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de septiembre de 1883, num. 17.)

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95 court furnish them laboratory appliances or reactive agents, nor subordinate assistants to fulfill their duties. If, on account of the lack of experts, of a laboratory, or reactive agents, it should not be possible to perform the analysis within the jurisdiction of the criminal audiencia, it shall take place in the capital of the province, or, as a last resort, in that of the island. ART. 363. The superior and inferior courts shall order chemical analyses to be made only in cases in which they are considered absolutely indispensable for the necessary judicial investigation and the proper administration of justice. ART. 364. In the crimes of robbery, theft, fraud, or in any other crime in which the previous existence of the things the subject of the robbery, theft, or fraud must appear, should there not be any eyewitnesses to the act, an investigation shall be made as to the antecedents of the person appearing as the injured party, and as to all the circumstances which may offer proof that the latter was in the possession thereof at the time of the commission of the crime. ART. 365. If, for the classification of the crime or of its circumstances, it should be necessary to estimate the value of the thing which may have been the object thereof or the amount of the damage caused or which might have been caused, the judge shall hear the owner or person prejudiced thereon, and shall thereupon order the expert investigation in the manner determined in chapter VII of this title. The judge shall furnish to the experts appointed the things and direct elements to be considered in the report, and should they not be under his control he shall furnish them the proper data which can be collected, admonishing them in such case to make the taxation and appraisal of the losses and damages in a prudent manner, in accordance with the data furnished. ART. 366. The proceedings provided for in this and the preceding chapter shall be had before the others of the sumario, their execution not being stayed except to secure the person of the presumed criminal or to give the assistance necessary to those injured by the crime. ART. 367. In no case shall claims or interventions be admitted during the sumario whose object is the return of the effects which constitute the corp as delicti, whatever be their character or the person demanding the same. Courts can not reject evidence which consists in a chemical analysis, provided it really is pertinent, even though said analysis shall have been made during the sumario, without it being necessary that said evidence be considered absolutely indispensable, as required by article 363, but only that there exist probable important results. (Statement of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1883, No. 17.)

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96 CAPITULO III. DE LA IDENTIDAD DEL DELINCUENTE Y DE SUS CIRCUNSTANCIAS PERSONALES. ART. 368. Cuantos dirijan cargo a determinada persona deberin reconocerla judicialmente, si el juez instructor, los acusadores 6 el mismo inculpado conceptdan fundadamente precisa la diligencia para la identificaci6n de este 6ltimo con relaci6n a los designantes, 4 fin de que no ofrezca duda quidn es la persona a que aquillos se refieren. ART. 369. La diligencia de reconocimiento so practicara poniendo a la vista del que hubiere do verificarlo la persona que haya do ser reconocida, haciendola comparecer en uni6n con otras circunstancias exteriores semejantes. A presencia de todas ellas, 6 desde un punto en quo no pudiere ser visto, segun al juez pareciere mas conveniente, el que deba practicar el reconocimiento manifestara si se encuentra en la rueda 6 grupo la persona a quien hubiese hecho referencia en sus declaraciones, designindola, en caso afirmativo, clara y determinamente. En la diligencia que se extienda se haran constar todas las circunstancias del acto, asi como los nombres de todos los que hubiesen formado la rueda 6 grupo. ART. 370. Cuando fueren varios los que hubieren de reconocer a una persona, la diligencia expresada en el articulo anterior debera practicarse separadamente con cada uno de ellos, sin que puedan comunicarse entree si hasta que se haya efectuado el ultimo reconocimiento. Cuando fueren varios los que hubieren de ser reconocidos por una misma persona, podra hacerse el reconocimiento de todos en un s6lo acto. ART. 371. El que detuviere 6 prendiere a algon presunto culpable tomara las precauciones necesarias para que el detenido 6 preso no haga en su persona 6 traje alteraci6n alguna que pueda dificultar su reconocimiento por quien corresponda. ART. 372. AnAlogas precauciones deberan tomar los alcaldes de las carceles y los jefes de los dep6sitos de detenidos; y si en los establecimientos de su cargo bubiere traje reglamentario, conservaran cuidadosamente el que eleven los presos 6 detenidos al ingresar en el establecimiento, a fin de que puedan vestirlo cuantas veces fuere conveniente para diligencias de reconocimiento. ART. 373. Si se originare alguna duda sobre la identidad del procesado, se procarari acreditar esta por cuantos medios fueren conducentes al objeto. ART. 374. El juez hara constar, con la minuciosidad posible, las sefias personals del procesado, A fin de que la diligencia pueda servir de prueba de su identidad.

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96 CHAPTER III. THE IDENTITY OF THE DELINQUENT AND HIS PERSONAL CIRCUMSTANCES. ART. 368. Whosever shall make a charge against a specific person must identify the same judicially if the examining judge, the complainants, or the accused himself have reason to consider this proceeding necessary for the identification of the latter with regard to those making the charges, in order that there may be no doubt as to what person the former refer. ART. 369. The identification shall take place by placing before the person who is to make it the person to be identified, producing said person in union with other similar external circumstances. In the presence of all of them or from a point where he can not be seen, as the judge may consider more advisable, the person to make the identification shall state if the person to whom he may have referred in his declarations is in the group, and in an affirmative case he shall designate him in a clear and specific manner. In the record made all the circumstances of the act shall be stated, as well as the names of all who may have composed the group. ART. 370. If there be more than one person to identify another person, the proceeding mentioned in the foregoing article must be held separately as to each of them, without their being allowed to communicate with each other until the last identification has been made. If there be several to be identified by one and the same person, their identification may take place at one proceeding. ART. 371. He who shall detain or arrest a presumed criminal shall take the precautions necessary in order that the person detained or arrested shall not make any changes in his person or dress, which may render his identification difficult by the proper person. ART. 372. Similar precautions must be taken by the wardens of prisons and the heads of detention establishments; and if any regulation dress be used in the institutions under their charge, they shall carefully preserve the clothing worn by the persons arrested or detained upon entering the establishment, in order that they may clothe them as often as may be necessary for purposes of identification. ART. 373. If any doubt should arise as to the identity of the accused, said identity shall be sought to be established by all means which may be conducive to this object. ART. 374. The judge shall make a record, with the greatest minuteness possible, of the personal description of the accused, in order that the record may serve as proof of his identity. 18473-0113

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97 ART. 375. Para acreditar la odad del procesado y comprobar la identidad de su persona, se traer al sumario certificaci6n de su inscripci6n de nacimiento en el registro civil 6 de su partida de bautismo, si no estuviere inscrito en el registro. En todo caso, cuando no fuere possible averiguar el registro civil 6 parroquia en que deba constar el nacimiento 6 el bautismo del procesado, 6 no existiesen su inscripci6n y partida; y cuando por manifestar el procesado haber nacido en punto lejano hubiere necesidad de emplear mucho tiempo en traer a la causa la certificaci6n oportuna, no se detendri el sumario y se suplir4 el documento del articulo anterior por informed que acerca do la edad del procesado, y previo su examen fisico, dieren los medicos forenses 6 los nombrados por el juez. ART. 376. Cuando no ofreciere duda la identidad del procesado, y conocidamente tuviese la edad que el c6digo penal requiere para poderle exigir la responsabilidad criminal on toda su extension, podra prescindirse de la justificaci6n expresada en el articulo anterior, si su practice ofreciese alguna dificultad u ocasionase dilaciones extraordinarias. En las actuaciones sucesivas, y durante el juicio, el procesado sera designado con el nombre con que fuere conocido, 6 con ei que 1 mismo dijere tener. ART. 377. Si el juez instructor 1o conceptuase conveniente, podra pedir informed sobre la moralidad del procesado 4 los alcaldes de barrio 6 a los correspondientes funcionarios de policia del pueblo 6 pueblos en que hubiese residido. Estos informed seran fundados, y si no fuere possible fundarlos, se manifestara la causa que 1o impidiere. Los que los dieren no contraeran responsabilidad alguna, sino on caso de malicia probada. ART. 378. Podr ademas el juez recibir declaraci6n acerca de la conducta del procesado a todas las personas que por el conocimiento que tuvieren de 4ste puedan ilustrarle sobre ello. ART. 379. Se traerin a la causa los antecedentes penales del procesado, pididndolos a los juzgados donde se presuma que pueden constar; y respecto de los procesados que hayan residido en la Peninsula e islas adyacentes con posterioridad a la creaci6n del registro central de de penados de 2 de Octubre de 1878, se pedirin tambien al Ministerio de Gracia y Justicia por conducto del de Ultramar. El jefe del registro en el Ministerio esta obligado 4 dar los antecedentes quo se le reclamen 6 certificaci6n negativa on su caso en el improrrogable termino de tres dias, a contar desde aquel en quo se reciba la petici6n, justificando, si asi no 1o hiciere, la causa legitima que lo hubiese impedido.

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97 ART. 375. In order to show the age of the accused and prove the identity of his person, a certified copy of his birth record in the civil registry or of his baptismal certificate, should he not be inscribed in the registry, shall be produced at the sumario. In every case, if it be not possible to ascertain the civil registry or parish in which the birth or the baptism of the accused should appear, or his record of birth or haptism should not exist, and when by reason the accused stating that he was born at a point at some distance, it should be necessary to employ much time in order to produce the proper certificate at the cause, the sanuario shall not be stayed, and the document mentioned in the foregoing article shall be supplied by a report of the official physicians or of those appointed by the judge as to his age and after his physical examination. ART. 376. If there be no doubt as to the identity of the accused, and he is known to have attained the age which the penal code requires in order that he may be held criminally liable to the fullest extent, the proof mentioned in the foregoing article may be dispensed with, if the production thereof should offer any difficulty or occasion any extraordinary delay. In the subsequent proceedings and during the trial the accused shall be designated by the name by which he is known or by that which he claims. ART. 377. If the examining judge should consider it advisable, he may call for reports as to the moral character of the accused, of the ward mayors or of the proper police officials of the town or towns in which he may have resided. These reports shall set forth the reasons therefor, and should it not be possible to state reasons, the cause for not doing so shall be stated. Those who shall give these reports shall not incur any liability whatsoever except in case of malice duly proven. ART. 378. The judge may furthermore take testimony as to the conduct of the accused of all persons who, in view of their acquaintance with him, can give information thereon. ART. 379. The criminal antecedents of the accused shall be produced in the cause, being requested of the courts where it is presumed they may be of record; and with regard to persons accused who may have resided in the Peninsula and adjacent islands after the establishment of the central register of criminals of October 2, 1878, they shall also be requested of the Department of Grace and Justice through the Colonial Department. The chief of. the register in the department is obliged to furnish the antecedents requested of him, or a negative certificate in a proper case, within a period of three days, not subject to extension, from the date of the receipt of the request, stating, should he not do so, the legitimate cause which prevented him from furnishing the same.

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98 En los juzgados se atender4 tambien preferentemente al cumplimiento de este servicio, debiendo ser corregidos disciplinariamente los funcionarios que lo posterguen. ART. 380. Si el procesado fuere mayor de nueve ailos y menor de quince, el juez recibira informaci6n acerca del criterio del mismo, y especialmente, de su aptitud para apreciar la criminalidad del echo quo hubiese dado motivo a la causa. En esta informaci6n seran oidas las personas que puedan deponer con acierto por sus circunstancias personales y por las relaciones que hayan tenido con el procesado antes y despues de haberse ejecutado el hecho. En su defecto se nombraran dos profesores de instrucci6n primaria para que en uni6n del medico forense, 6 del que haga sus veces, examinen al procesado y emitan su dictamen. ART. 381. Si el juez advirtiere on el procesado indicios de enajenaci6n mental, le sometera inmediatamente a la observaci6n de los medicos forenses on el establecimiento en que estuviese preso, 6 en otro publico, si fuere mas 4 prop6sito 6 estuviese en libertad. Los medicos darin on tal caso su informed del modo expresado en el capitulo VII de este titulo. ART. 382. Sin perjuicio de 1o dispuesto en el articulo anterior, el juez recibira informaci6n acerca de la enajenaci6n mental del procesado en la forma prevenida en el articulo 380. ART. 383. Si la dementia sobreviniera despues de cometido el delito, concluso que sea el sumario, se mandara archivar la causa por e1 tribunal competente hasta que el procesado recobre la salud, disponiendose ademas respecto de Cste 1o que el c6digo penal prescribe para los que ejecutan el hecho en estado de dementia. Si hubiese alghn otro procesado por raz6n del mismo delito quo no se encontrase en el caso del anterior, continuara la causa solamente en cuanto al mismo. ART. 384. Desde que resultare del sumario alg6n indicio rational de criminalidad contra determinada persona, se dictary auto declarandola procesada y mandando que se entiendan con ella las diligencias en la forma y del modo dispuesto en este titulo y en los demas de esta ley. El procesada podra, desde el momento de serlo, aconsejarse de letrado, mientras no estuviere incomunicado, y valerse de e1, bien para instar la pronta terminaci6n del sumario bien para solicitar la practice de diligencias que le interesen, y para formular pretensiones que afectan a su situaci6n. En el primer caso podra recurrir en queja a la audiencia, y en los otros dos apelar para ante la misma, si el juez instructor no accediese a sus deseos.

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98 Courts shall also take special care to fulfill this service at once, and such officials as postpone the same shall be disciplined. ART. 380. If the accused be more than nine years and under fifteen years of age, the judge shall hear evidence as to his judgment and especially as to his ability to distinguish the criminal character of the act which may have given rise to the cause. At this hearing shall be heard such persons as are able to give positive evidence on account of their personal circumstances and the relations they may have had with the accused before and after the commission of the act. In their absence two professors of primary education shall be appointed, who, together with the official physician or the person acting in his stead, shall examine the accused and give their opinion. ART. 381. If the judge shall notice in the accused signs of mental aberration, he shall immediately subject him to the observation of the official physicians in the institution in which he may be under arrest, or in another public institution if better adapted to the purpose or if the accused be at liberty. The physicians shall in such case make their report in the manner prescribed in Chapter VII of this title. ART. 382. Without prejudice to the provisions of the foregoing article, the judge shall take testimony on the mental aberration of the accused in the manner prescribed in art. 380. ART. 383. If the insanity should occur after the commission of the crime, upon the termination of the sumario the cause shall be ordered filed by the court of competent jurisdiction until the accused shall recover his health, such other measures being taken with regard to the latter as are prescribed by the penal code for those committing the act while insane. Should there be another person accused of the same crime who is not in the same condition as the former, the cause shall continue only with regard to said person. ART. 384. As soon as it shall appear from the sumario that there is reasonable indication of the criminality of a specific person, a writ of indictment shall issue and an order that proceedings be had in the manner and form prescribed in this and the other titles of this law. The accused may, from the moment he is indicted, secure the counsel of an attorney, while not incommunicado, and avail himself of his services either to secure a speedy termination of the sumario, or to request the taking of such steps as may be of interest to him and make demands affecting his condition. In the first case he may complain to the audiencia, and in the other two cases take an appeal to the same, if the judge of examination should not accede to his wishes.

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99 Estas apelaciones no seran admisibles mas que en un solo efecto. Para cumplir lo determinado en este articulo, el juez instructor dispondr4 que el procesado menor de edad sea habilitado de procurador y abogado, a no ser que e1 nismo 0 su representante legal designen personas que merezean su confianza para dicha representaci6n y defensa. CAPITULO IV. DE LAS DECLARACIONES DE LOS PROCESADOS. ART. 385. El juez, de oficio 6 a instancia del ministerio fiscal 6 del querellante particular, hard que los procesados presten cuantas declaraciones considere convenientes para la averiguaci6n de los hechos, sin que ni el acusador privado ni e1 actor civil puedan estar presentes al interrogatorio, cuando asi to disponga el juez instructor. ART. 386. Si el procesado estuviere detenido, se le recibir4 la primera declaraci6n dentro del termino de veinticuatro horas. El plazo podr prorrogarse por otras cuarenta y ocho si mediare causa grave, la cual se expresara en la providencia en que se acordase la prorroga. ART. 387. No se exigira juramento 4 los procesados, exhortindoles solamente a decir verdad, y advirti6ndoles el juez de instrucci6n que deben responder, de una inanera precisa, clara y conforme a la verdad, a las preguntas que les fueren hechas. ART. 388. En la primera declaraci6n sera preguntado el procesado por su nombre, apellidos paterno y materno, apodo, si lo tuviere, edad, naturaleza, vecindad, estado, profesi6n, arte, oficio 6 modo de vivir, si tiene hijos, si fu6 procesado anteriormente, por que delito, ante que juez 6 tribunal, que pena se le impuso, si la cumpli6, si sabe leer y escribir, y si conoce el motivo por que se le ha procesado. ART. 389. Las preguntas que se le hagan en todas las declaraciones que hubiere de prestar se dirigirin a la averiguaci6n de los hechos y a la participaci6n en ellos del procesado y de las demos personas que hubieren contribuido a ejecutarlos 6 encubrirlos. Las preguntas seran directas, sin que por ningfn concepto puedan hac6rsele de un modo capcioso 6 sugestivo. Tampoco se podrd emplear con el procesado genero alguno de coaccion o amenaza. ART. 390. Las relaciones que hagan los procesados 6 respuestas que den seran orales. Sin embargo, 01 juez de instrucci6n, teniendo siempre en cuenta las circunstancias de aqudllos y la naturaleza de la causa,

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99 These appeals shall be admissible for a review of the proceedings only. In order to comply with the provisions of this article, the judge of examination shall order that an indicted person under legal age be assigned a solicitor and attorney, unless he himself or his legal representative designate persons who enjoy their confidence to act in his behalf and defense. CHAPTER IV. DECLARATIONS OF THE ACCUSED. ART. 385. The judge, at his own instance or on motion of the public prosecutor or of the private complainant, shall have the accused make as many declarations as he may consider advisable for the verification of the facts, and neither the private accuser nor the civil plaintiff can be present at the interrogatory when it is thus ordered by the examining judge. ART. 386. If the accused should be under arrest, his first declaration shall be taken within a period of twenty-four hours. This period may be extended forty-eight hours more, should there be serious cause therefor, which cause shall be stated in the order of extension. ART. 387. No oath shall be administered to accused persons, who shall only be admonished to tell the truth, and the judge of examination shall advise them that they must answer in a clear, precise, and truthful manner such questions as may be put to them. ART. 388. In the first declaration the accused shall be asked his name, paternal and maternal surnames, nickname (should he have any), age, nativity, residence, conjugal condition, profession, art, trade, or means of livelihood, if he has any children, if he has been previously criminally prosecuted, for what crime, before what judge or court, what punishment was imposed upon him, whether he served his sentence, whether he is able to read and write, and if he knows the reason for his indictment. ART. 389. The questions put to him in all declarations which he may be obliged to make shall be directed to the verification of the acts and the participation of the accused therein and of the other persons who may have been accessories before or after the fact. The questions shall be direct, and it shall not be permissible to propound them in a captious or suggestive manner. Nor shall any coercion or threats whatsoever be employed against the accused. ART. 390. The statements made by the persons accused or answers which they give shall be oral. Nevertheless, the judge of examination, always taking into consideration their circumstances and the

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100 podra permitirles que redacten a su presencia una contestaci6n escrita sobre puntos dificiles de explicar, 6 que tambien consulten a su presencia apuntes o notas. ART. 391. Se pondran de manifesto al procesado todos los objetos quo constituyan el cuerpo del delito 6 los que el juez considere conveniente, 4 fin de que los reconozca. Se le interrogara sobre la procedencia de dichos objetos, su destino y la raz6n de haberlos encontrado en su poder; y en general sera siempre interrogado sobre cualquiera otra circunstancia que conduzea al esclarecimiento de la verdad. El juez podra ordenar al procesado, pero sin emplear ning6n genero de coacci6n, que escriba 4 su presencia algunas palabras 6 frases cuando esta medida la consider atil para desvanecer las dudas que surjan sobre la legitimidad de un escrito que se le atribuya. ART. 392. Cuando el procesado rehuse contester 6 se finja loco, sordo 6 mudo, el juez instructor le advertir4 que no obstante su silencio y su simulada enfermedad, se continuar4 la instrucci6n del proceso. De estas circunstancias se tomar4 raz6n por el secretario, y el juez instructor procedera 4 investigar la verdad de la enfermedad que aparente el procesado, observando 4 este efecto lo dispuesto en los respectivos articulos de los capitulos II y VII de este mismo titulo. ART. 393. Cuando el examen del procesado se prolongue mucho tiempo, 6 el namero do preguntas que se le hayan hecho sea tan considerable que hubiese perdido la serenidad de juicio necesaria para contestar a lo demis que deba preguntarsele, se suspenders el examen, concediendo al procesado el tiempo necesario para descansar y recuperar la calma. Siempre se hara constar en la declaraci6n misma el tiempo que se baya invertido en el interrogatorio. ART. 394. El juez que infringiere 1o dispuesto en el articulo anterior y en el 389 sera corregido disciplinariamente, 4 no ser que incurriere en mayor responsabilidad. ART. 395. El procesado no podra, a pretexto de incompetencia del juez, excusarse de contestar a las preguntas que se le dirijan, si bien podra protestar la incompetencia, consignindose asi en los autos. ART. 396. So permitir4 al procesado manifestar cuanto tenga por conveniente para su exculpaci6n 6 para la explicaci6n de los hechos, evacuandose con urgencia las citas que hiciere y las demas diligencias que propusiere, si el juez las estima conducentes para la comprobaci6n de sus manifestaciones. En ning6n caso podran hacerse al procesado cargos ni reconvencienes, ni se leers part alguna del sumario mas que sus declaraciones anteriores si lo pidiere, 4 no ser que el juez hubiese autorizado la publicidad de aquel en todo 6 en part.

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100 character of the cause, may permit them to prepare in his presence a written answer upon points difficult to explain, or also that they consult notes or memoranda in his presence. ART. 391. All the objects which constitute the eorpus delicti or those which the judge may consider advisable shall be exhibited to the accused for his identification. He shall be questioned upon the origin of said objects, their purpose, and the reason they were found in his possession; and in general he shall be questioned on any other circumstance which may tend to establish the truth. The judge may order the accused, but without employing any coercion whatsoever, to write in his presence some words or sentences, if he considers this measure useful to dissipate the doubts which may arise as to the legitimacy of some writing attributed to him. ART. 392. If the accused shall refuse to answer or shall feign insanity, deafness, or muteness, the judge of examination shall admonish him that, notwithstanding his silence and simulated illness, the proceedings shall continue. The secretary shall make a record of these circumstances and the examining judge shall proceed to investigate the reality of the illness which the accused feigns, observing for this purpose the provisions contained in the respective articles of Chapters II and VII of this title. ART. 393. If the examination of the accused is extended over a lengthy period, or the number of questions put to him is so great that he should have lost the serenity of mind necessary to answer the other questions to be asked him, the examination shall be suspended, the accused being allowed the time necessary to rest and recover his calmness. The duration of the interrogatory shall always be recorded in the declaration itself. ART. 394. A judge violating the provisions of the foregoing article and of article 389 shall be disciplined, unless he incurs greater liability. An. 395. The accused can not, under the pretext of the want of jurisdiction of the judge, excuse himself from answering the questions put to him, although he may plead to the jurisdiction, such plea being entered upon the record. ART. 396. The accused shall be permitted to state what he may consider proper as to his exculpation or for the explanation of the acts, such citations as he may make and other proceedings suggested by him being promptly executed if the judge should consider them conducive to the verification of his statements. In no case can charges or reconventions be made against the accused, nor shall any part whatsoever of the sumario be read to him, excepting his previous depositions, should he so request, unless the judge shall have authorized the publicity of the sumario in whole or in part.

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101 ART. 397. El procesado podr4 dictar por si mismo las declaraciones. Si no lo hiciere, 1o hara el juez, procurando, en cuanto fuere posible, consignar las mismas palabras de que aquil se hubiese valido. ART. 398. Si el procesado no supiere el idioma espafiol 6 fuere sordomudo, .se observari lo dispuesto en los articulos 440, 441 y 442. ART. 399. Cuando el juez considere conveniente el examen del procesado en el lugar de los hechos acerca de los cuales deba ser examinado, 6 ante las personas 6 cosas con ellos relacionadas, se observara lo dispuesto en el articulo 438. ART. 400. El procesado podra declarar cuantas veces quisiere, y el juez le recibira inmediatamente la declaraci6n, si tuviere relaci6n con la causa. ART. 401. En la declaraci6n se consignaryn integramente las preguntas y las contestaciones. ART. 402. El procesado podria leer la declaraci6n, y el juez le enterara de que le asiste este dorecho. Si no usare de 6l, la leery el secretario en su presencia. ART. 403. Se observara lo dispuesto en el articulo 450 respecto & tachaduras 6 enmiendas. ART. 404. La diligencia se firmary por todos los que hubiesen intervenido en el acto, y se autorizar4 por el secretario. ART. 405. Si en las declaraciones posteriores se pusiere el procesado en contradicci6n con sus declaraciones primeras 6 retractare sus confesiones anteriores, deber4 ser interrogado sobre el m6vil de sus contradicciones y sobre las causas do su retractaci6n. ART. 406. La confesi6n del procesado no dispensary al juez de instrucci6n de practicar todas las diligencias necesarias a fin de adquirir el convencimiento de la verdad de la confesi6n y de la existencia del delito. Con este objeto, el juez instructor interrogard al procesado confeso para que explique todas las circunstancias del delito y cuanto pueda contribuir a comprobar su confession, si fue autor o compice y si conoce 4 algunas personas que fueren testigos 6 tuvieron conocimiento del hecho.' ART. 407. Respecto a la incomunicaci6n 2 de los procesados, so obsorvara lo dispuesto on los articulos 506 al 511. iEsto se entiende mientras la causa est4 on sumario; pues si al abrirse el juicio oral el procesado confiesa su delito y su defensor se conforma con la confesi6n, siendo correctional la pena aplicable, se dicta sentencia sin necesidad de mas tramites, segdn los articulos 688 y 694. La confesi6n no basta para condenar por delitos cometidos por medio de la imprenta, con arreglo al articulo 820. 2 Vase en el Apindice I, la Orden ndm. 109, de Julio 13 de 1899.

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101 ART. 397. The accused may himself dictate the depositions. Should he not do so, the judge shall do so, seeking, in so far as possible, to record the very words which the former may have used. ART. 398. Should the accused not know the Spanish language or be a deaf-mute, the provisions of articles 440, 441, and 442 shall be observed. ART. 399. When the judge considers it advisable to examine the accused at the place of the acts upon which he is to be examined, or in the presence of the persons or things related thereto, the provisions of article 438 shall be observed. ART. 400. The accused may declare as often as he wishes, and the judge shall immediately take his deposition, if it bears any relation to the cause. ART. 401. The questions and answers shall be literally embodied in the deposition. ART. 402. The accused may read the deposition and the judge shall inform him of such right. Should he not avail himself of this right, the secretary shall read it in his presence. ART. 403. The provisions of article 450 shall be observed with regard to erasures or changes. ART. 404. The proceeding shall be signed by all who may have taken part therein and shall be authenticated by the secretary. ART. 405. If in subsequent depositions the accused should contradict his first statements or should retract his previous confessions, he must be interrogated as to the reasons for his contradictions and the causes for his retraction. ART. 406. The confession of the accused shall not excuse the judge from taking all the steps necessary in order to be convinced of the truth of the confession and the existence of the crime. With this end in view the examining judge shall interrogate the confessed criminal in order that he may explain all the circumstances of the crime and all that may contribute to verify his confession, if he was the principal or an accomplice, and if he knows any persons who were witnesses or may have knowledge of the acts. ART. 407. With regard to the incommunication2 of the accused the provisions of articles 506 to 511 shall be observed. 1 This is understood while the cause is at the stage of the sumario, because if at the opening of the oral trial the accused confesses to the crime and his counsel consents to the confession, the penalty applicable being a correctional one, sentence shall be passed without the necessity of further proceedings, in accordance with articles 688 and 694. A confession is not sufficient for a conviction for crimes committed by means of the press, in accordance with article 820. 2 See in Appendix I, order No. 109, of July 13, 1899.

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102 ART. 408. No se leerin al procesado los fundamentos del auto de incomunicaci6n cuando le fuere notificado, ni se le dara copia de ellos. ART. 409. Para recibir declaraci6n al procesado menor de edad, no habra necesidad de nombrarle curador. CAPITULO V. DE LAS DECLARACIONES DE LOS TESTIGOS.' ART. 410. Todos los que residan en el territorio espailol, nacionales 6 extranjeros, quo no estin impedidos, tendran obligaci6n de concurrir al llamamiento judicial para declarar cuanto supieren sobre lo que les fuere preguntado, si para ello se les cita con las formalidades prescritas en la ley.' ART. 411. Se exceptfian de 1o dispuesto en el articulo anterior, el Rey, su consorte, el Principe heredero y el Regente del Reino. ART. 412. Estaran exentos tambien de concurrir al 1lamamiento del juez, pero no de declarar: 1.0 Las demos personas Reales. 2.0 Los Ministros de la Corona. 3.0 Los presidentes del Senado y del Congreso de los Diputados. 4.0 El presidente del Consejo de Estado. 5.0 Las autoridades judiciales de categoria superior i la del que recibiere la declaraci6n. 6.0 El gobernador general de la isla, el gobernador civil y jefe de hacienda de la provincia, el capitan general del distrito y el gobernador militar en cuyo territorio se hubiere de recibir la declaraci6n. 1Este capitulo determina las solemnidades y requisitos de las declaraciones testificales, durante el sumario, ante el juez de instrucci6n. Comenrtdo el juicio, el examen de los testigos se verifica segdn los articulos 701 d 722. 'Teniendo en cuenta lo dispuesto en los articulos 410 y 420 de la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal, se ha ofrecido la duda de si todos los testigos que no comparezean d declarar, incurren en ]a sanci6n establecida en el ltimo de dichos articulos. Esta duda s6lo nace de haberse expresado en el articulo 410 la obligaci6n de los testigos de concurrir al llamamiento judicial, para declarar cuanto supieren sobre lo que les fuere preguntado, afiadiendo las siguientes palabras: "Si para ello se les cita con las formalidades previstas en la ley." Y como hay casos en que, segin el articulo 430 de dicha lcy, puede citarse verbalnente d un testigo, ha habido quien crea que entonces no son aplicables las correcciones 6 responsabilidades del citado articulo 420. Con s6lo fijarse en que este texto legal impone dichas correcciones 6 responsabilidades al testigo que no concurra al 1lamamiento judicial 6 se resista d declarar en torminos absolutos, 6 sea sin hacer distinci6n alguna respecto d la forma que se emple6 para su citaci6n, se comprende que es indiferente para que se le pueda aplicar dicho articulo, que hubiere sido citado verbalmente 6 con las formalidades prescritas en la ley.-Memoria de la Fiscalia del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de Septiembre de 1888, nmero 18.

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102 ART. 408. The reasons for the order of incommunication shall not be read to the accused when notified thereof, nor shall a copy of the same be given him. ART. 409. In order to take the deposition of an accused person under age the appointment of a curator shall be unnecessary. CHAPTER V. DEPOSITIONS OF WITNESSES.' ART. 410. All persons residing within Spanish territory, whether natives or foreigners, who are not prevented therefrom, shall be obliged to appear upon a judicial citation to declare all they may know in the matter upon which they may be questioned, provided they be cited with the formalities prescribed by law.2 ART. 411. The King, his consort, the crown prince, and the regents of the Kingdom are excepted from the provisions of the foregoing article. ART. 412. The following shall also be exempted from answering the citation of the judge, but not from testifying: 1. The other royal personages. 2. The Ministers of the Crown. 3. The president of the Senate and of the Congress of Deputies. 4. The president of the Council of State. 5. The judicial authorities of a rank higher than that of the judge receiving the deposition. 6. The governor-general of the island, the civil governor, the chief of finance of the province, the captain-general of the district, and the military governor within whose jurisdiction the testimony is to be taken. 'This chapter prescribes the formalities and requisites of depositions of witnesses during the sumario before the judge of examination. After the trial has commenced, the examination of the witnesses takes place in accordance with articles 701 to 722. 2Taking into consideration the provisions of articles 410 and 420 of the law of criminal procedure, the doubt has arisen as to whether all witnesses who do not appear to testify incur the penalty prescribed in the latter article. This doubt arises only from the fact that article 410 states the obligation of witnesses to appear upon a judicial call to testify to all they may know upon the matters on which they are questioned, the following words being added: "If they are cited therefor with the formalities prescribed by law," and as there are cases in which, according to article 430 of said law, a witness can be cited verbally, some believe that then the corrections or liabilities of the said article 420 do not apply. In simply observing that this legal text imposes said corrections or liabilities upon a witness who does not appear upon a judicial call, or refuses to testify in absolute terms, that is to say, without making any distinction whatsoever with regard to the form employed for his citation, it will be understood that it makes no difference in the application of said article to him that he shall have been cited verbally or with the formalities prescribed by law. (Report of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1888, No. 18.)

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103 7.0 Los embajadores y demas representantes diplomaticos acreditados cerca del Gobierno espalol. 8.0 Los capitanes generates del ej4rcito y armada. 9.0 Los arzobispos y obispos. ART. 413. Cuando fuere necesaria 6 convenient la declaraci6n do alguna de las personas designadas on el articulo anterior, el juez pasara a su domicilio 6 residencia oficial, previo aviso, sefialindole dia y hora. ART. 414. La resistencia de cualquiera de las personas mencionadas en el articulo 412 a recibir en su domicilio 6 residencia oficial al juez, 6 a declarar cuanto supieren sobre lo que les fuere proguntado respecto a los hechos del sumario, se pondrs en conocimiento del Tribunal Supremo para los efectos que procedan. So exceptian de lo dispuesto en el parrafo anterior las personas mencionadas en el numero 70 de dicho articulo. Si incurrieren estas en la resistencia expresada, el juez lo comunicara inmediatamente al Ministro de Ultramar remitiendo testimonio instructivo, y se abstendra de todo procedimiento respecto de ellas hasta que el Ministro le comunique la real orden que sobre el caso se dictare. ART. 415. Las personas comprendidas en los nhmeros 2.0, 3 o, 4 0, 5.0 6.0, 8.0, and 9.0 del articulo 412, podrin informer por escrito sobre los hechos de que tengan conocimiento por raz6n de sus cargos. De la misma mantra podran informar los funcionarios del orden judicial 6 ministerio fiscal que so encuentren en este caso. Serin invitadas a prestar su declaraci6n por escrito las personas comprendidas en el nulmero 7.o, remitiendose al efecto al Ministerio de Ultramar con atenta comunicaci6n para el de Estado, un interrogatorio que comprenda todos los extremos a que deban contestar, a fin de que puedan hacerlo por la via diplomatica. ART. 416. Estan dispensados de la obligaci6n de declarar: 1. Los parientes del procesado en linea directa, ascendente 6 descendente; su c6nyuge, sus hermanos consanguineos 6 uterinos y los laterales consanguineos hasta el segundo grado civil, asi como los parientes naturals a que se refiere el numero 3.0 del articulo 261. El juez instructor advertira al testigo quo so halla comprendido on el parrafo anterior que no tiene obligaci6n do declarar en contra del procesado; pero puede hacer las manifestaciones que consider oportunas, consignandose la contestaci6n que diere a esta advertencia.' 1 Aunque los parientes del procesado y derms personas que, con arreglo 4 este articulo y los dos siguientes, no pueden ser obligados 4 declarar, hubieran declarado en el sumario, no estin por ello en el deber de declarar en el juicio oral.-Exposicidn del Fiscal del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de Septiembre de 1888, numero 19. Ann cuando al recibirse declaraci6n por el juez instructor al hermano de un pro-

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103 7. Ambassadors and other diplomatic representatives accredited to the Spanish Government. 8. The captains-general of the army and navy. 9. Archbishops and bishops. ART. 413. When the testimony of any of the persons mentioned in the foregoing article should be necessary or advisable, the judge shall go to their domicile or official residence, after notifying them in advance, fixing a day and hour. ART. 414. The refusal of any of the persons mentioned in article 412 to receive the judge at their domicile or official residence, or to declare all they may know as to what may be asked them with regard to the facts of the sumario, shall be communicated to the Supreme Court for the proper purposes. The persons mentioned in subdivision 7 of said article are excepted from the provisions of the foregoing paragraph. If said persons should thus object, the judge shall immediately communicate it to the colonial minister, transmitting a certified copy of the interrogatory, and he shall abstain from taking any proceeding with regard to them until the minister communicates to him the royal order which may issue in the case. ART. 415. The persons included in subdivisions 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 of article 412 may testify in writing as to the facts of which they have information by reason of their offices. The officials of the judiciary or of the prosecuting department included in this case may testify in the same manner. The persons mentioned in subdivision 7 shall be requested to give their testimony in writing, there being forwarded for this purpose to the colonial department, with a respectful communication for the State Department, an interrogatory which shall embrace all questions which they must answer, in order that they may do so through diplomatic channels. ART. 416. The following are excused from the obligation of testifying: 1. The relatives of the accused in a direct ascending or descending line, his spouse, his uterine brothers or sisters, and his lateral blood relatives up to and including the second civil degree, as well as the natural parents referred to in subdivision 3 of article 261. The examining judge shall inform the witness included in the foregoing paragraph that he is not obliged to testify against the accused, but that he may make the statements which he may deem proper, the answer which he may give to this notice being recorded.' 1 Even though the parents of the accused and other persons, who, in accordance with this and the two following articles, can not be forced to testify, shall have testified at the sumario, they are not thereby obliged to testify at the oral trial. (Statement of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1883, No. 19.) Even though at the time an examining judge takes the testimony of a brother of

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104 2.o El abogado del procesado respecto A los hechos que 6ste le hubiere confiado en su calidad de defensor. Si alguno de los testigos so encontrase on las relaciones indicadas en los parrafos precedentes con uno 6 varios de los procesados, estara obligado a declarar respect a 1os demas, A no ser que su declaraci6n pudiera comprometer a su pariente 6 defendido. ART. 417. No podran sor obligados A declarar como testigos: 1.0 Los eclesiasticos y ministros de los cultos disidentes sobre los hechos quo les fueren revelados on el ejorcicio de las funciones de su minister. 2.0 Los funcionarios plblicos, tanto civiles como militares, de cualquiera clase que sean, cuando no pudieran declarar sin violar el secret que por raz6n do sus cargos estuviesen obligados A guardar, 6 cuando, procediendo en virtud de obediencia debida, no fueren autorizados por su superior jerarquico para prestar la declaraci6n quo se les pida. 3.0 Los incapacitados fisica 6 moralmente. ART. 418. Ningin testigo podra ser obligado A declarar acerca de una pregunta cuya contestaci6n pueda perjudicar material 6 moralmente y de una mantra directa 6 important, ya a la persona, ya a la fortuna de alguno de los parientes A que se refiere el articulo 416. Se exceptha el caso on que el delito revista suma gravedad por atentar a la seguridad del Estado, A la tranquilidad plblica 6 A la sagrada persona del Rey 6 do su sucesor. ART. 419. Si el testigo estuviere fisicamente impedido de acudir al lamamiento judicial, el juez instructor que hubiere de recibirle la declaraci6n se constituira en su domicilio, siempre que el interrogatorio no haya de poner en peligro la vida del enfermo. ART. 420. El que sin star impedido no concurriere al primer llamamiento judicial, excepto las personas mencionadas en ei articulo 412, 6 se resistiere A declarar 1o que supiese acerca de los hechos sobre que fuere preguntado, A no star comprendido en las exenciones de los articulos anteriores, incurrirA en la multa de 12.50 a 125 pesetas; y si persistiere en su resistencia, sera conducido, en el primer caso, a la cesado durante el sumario no se consignara, como exige ei articulo 416 de la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal, la contestaci6n de este testigo a la advertencia que le fu6 dirigida sobre la facultad que le asistfa de no declarar contra su hermano; y aunque no hubiera debido acordarse, como so acord6 en el acto del juicio oral a instancia del fiscal que se diese lectura 6 la declaraci6n que habia prestado, por haberse negado a declarar en aquel acto, estas faltas de procedimiento de ninguna manera estan comprendidas entre las que dicha ley de enjuiciamiento en su articulo 911 y en los demas que so refieren al recurso de casaci6n por quebrantamiento de forma menciona como suficientes para que se estime el mismo precedente.-Sentencia de 7 de Diciembre de 1888. La exenci6n de la obligaci6n de declarar otorgada por este articulo, no puede estimarse subordinada 4 la facultad que concede A las partes el 730.-Sentencia de 13 de Noviembre de 1885.

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104 2. The attorney of the accused, with regard to the facts which the latter may have confided to him as his counsel. If any of the witnesses should bear the relations indicated in the foregoing paragraph to one or more of the accused, he shall be obliged to testify with regard to the others, unless his evidence might compromise his relative or client. ART. 417. The following can not be obliged to testify as witnesses: 1. Ecclesiastics and ministers of the dissenting cults, as to the facts revealed to them in the exercise of the functions of their ministry. 2. Public officials, civil as well as military, of whatsoever class, when they can not testify without violating secrets which by reason of their office they may be obliged to preserve, or when, acting by virtue of obedience due, they should not be authorized by their hierarchical superior to give the testimony requested of them. 3. Those physically or morally incapacitated. ART. 418. No witnesses can be forced to testify upon a question an answer to which might materially or morally and in a direct and important manner prejudice either the person or the fortune of any of the relatives referred to in article 416. The case is excepted where the crime is of great gravity by reason of its being an attempt against the security of the State, the public peace, or the sacred person of the King or of his successors. ART. 419. If the witness should be physically unable to answer the judicial call, the examining judge who may have to take his deposition shall go to his residence, provided that the interrogatory will not endanger the life of the sick person. ART. 420. He who not being unable to do so, should not attend at the first judicial call, excepting the persons mentioned in article 412, or should refuse to testify as to what he may know with regard to the facts upon which he may be interrogated, if not included in the exceptions of the foregoing articles, shall incur a fine of from 12.50 to 125 pesetas; and should he persist in his refusal, he shall be conducted, in an accused person during the sumario there should not be recorded, as required by article 416 of the law of criminal procedure, the answer of this witness to the notice given him as to his privilege of not testifying against his brother; and even though it should not have been ordered, as was ordered at the oral trial on motion of the prosecutor, that his previous deposition be read on account of his refusal to testify at the trial, these breaches of procedure are in no wise included among those which said law of procedure in its article 911, and in the others which relate to appeals for annulment for breach of form, mentions as sufficient for the allowance of such appeal. (Decision of December 7, 1883.) The exemption from the obligation to testify granted by this article can not be considered as subordinated to the privilege granted the parties by art. 730. (Decision of November 13, 1885.) 18473-01 14

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105 presencia del juez instructor por los dependientes de la autoridad y procesado por el delito de denegaci6n de auxilio que respecto de los testigos y peritos define el c6digo penal, y en el segundo caso sera tambidn procesado por el de desobediencia grave a la autoridad. La multa seri impuesta en el acto de notarse 6 cometerse la falta.' ART. 421. El juez de instrucci6n, 6 municipal en su caso, har4 concurrir a su presencia y examinara a los testigos citados en la denuncia 6 en la querella, 6 en cualesquiera otras declaraciones 6 diligencias, y a todos los demis que supieren hechos 6 circunstancias 6 poseyeren datos convenientes para la comprobaci6n 6 averiguaci6n del delito y del delincuente. Se procurer, no obstante, omitir la evacuaci6n de citas impertinentes 6 inftiles.2 ART. 422. Si el testigo residiere fuera del partido 6 termino municipal del juez que instruyese el sumario, 6ste se abstendra de mandarle comparecer a su presencia, a no ser que 1o considered absolutamente necesario para la comprobaci6n del delito 6 para el reconocimiento de la persona del delincuente, ordenandolo en este caso por auto motivado. Tambien deber6 evitar la comparecencia: de los empleados de vigilancia pdblica que tengan su residencia en punto distinto de la capital del juzgado, de los jefes de establecimientos publicos 6 privados euyas funciones sean de servicio permanent, de los jefes de estaci6n, maquinistas, fogoneros, conductores, telegrafistas, factores, recaudadores, guardaagujas u1 otros agentes que desempefien funciones anlogas, a los cuales citara por conducto de sus jefes inmediatos cuando absolutamente sea indispensable su comparecencia. Habiendo surgido la duda de si A un testigo insolvente que deja de comparecer en el juicio oral, puede declardrsele sujeto a la prisi6n subsidiaria por la multa que se le hubiere impuesto, cuando por su carencia de bienes no puede satisfacerla, la Fiscalfa del Tribunal Supremo, A quien se elev6 consulta sobre el particular, contest: "En manera alguna la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal no autoriza semejante procedimiento. El articulo 420 declara 1o que debe hacerse en el caso que el testigo multado, por su no comparecencia en el juicio, persistiere en ella; esto es, que sea conducido ante el tribunal por los agentes de la autoridad, 6 procesado por el delito de denegaci6n de auxilio. La ley no dice en parte alguna que los multados sufran la prisi6n subsidiaria, caso de insolvencia, y por 1o tanto, se aplicara A los mismos lo dispuesto en el artfculo referido. "-Consulta 6a de la memoria de la Fiscalia del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de Septiembre de 1887. Es indiferente.para que pueda aplicarse este artfculo que el testigo hubiera sido citado verbalmente 6 con las formalidades prescritas en la ley.-Exposicion del Fiscal del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de Septiembre de 1888, ntmero 18. 2 A tenor del artfculo 790, en las causas por flagrante delito, cuando deponen varios testigos, s6lo deben consignarse las declaraciones de los mts importantes.

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105 the first case, into the presence of the examining judge by the employes of the authorities and tried for the crime of refusing assistance which the penal code defines with regard to witnesses and experts, and in the latter case he shall also be tried for the crime of serious disobedience to the authorities. The fine shall be imposed at the time the offense is noticed or committed.' ART. 421. The judge of examination, or the municipal judge in a proper case, shall cause to appear before him and shall examine the witnesses cited in the denunciation or complaint, or in any other declarations or proceedings, and all others who shall have knowledge of facts or circumstances or shall possess information of use in the proof or verification of the crime and of the delinquent. Nevertheless, the service of impertinent or useless citations shall be sought to be avoided.2 ART. 422. If the witness resides without the judicial district or the municipal district of the judge conducting the smnario, the latter shall abstain from ordering him to appear before him, unless he shall consider it absolutely necessary for the verification of the crime or for the identification of the person of the delinquent, ordering him in such case to appear by a writ setting forth his reasons. He must also avoid the appearance: Of the employes of the public surveillance who may reside at a point, other than the seat of the court, of the heads of public or private institutions whose duties constitute a permanent service, of station chiefs, engineers, firemen, conductors, telegraphers, factors, collectors, switchmen, or other agents discharging similar duties, whom he shall cite through their immediate chiefs when their appearance is absolutely necessary. The doubt having arisen as to whether an insolvent witness who shall fail to appear at the oral trial can be declared subject to imprisonment in lieu of the fine which may have been imposed upon him, when he can not pay it on account of hot having property with which to do so, the fiscal of the Supreme Court, to whom this question was submitted, replied: Not at all; the law of criminal procedure does not authorize such a practice. Article 420 specifies what should be done in case a witness who has been fined for nonappearance at the trial shall continue in default; that is to say, that he be brought before the court by the agents of the authorities for the crime of refusing assistance. The law does not say anywhere that persons fined shall suffer imprisonment in lieu thereof in case of insolvency, and therefore the provisions of the aforesaid article shall apply to them." (Sixth question of the report of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1887.) It makes no difference in the application of this article whether the witness has been cited verbally or with the formalities prescribed by law. (Statement of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1883, No. 18.) 2 In accordance with article 790, in causes for flagrant crimes when several witnesses testify, only the depositions of the most important shall be recorded.

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106 ART. 423. En el caso de la regla general comprendida en el parrafo primero del articulo anterior, asi como en el del segundo, cuando la urgencia de la declaraci6n fuese tal que no permitiera la dilaci6n consiguiente a la citaci6n del testigo por conducto de sus jefes inmediatos y el empleado de que se trate no pudiera abandonar el servicio que presta sin grave peligro o estorsi6n para el phblico, el juez instructor de la causa comisionari para recibir la declaraci6n al que To fuera del termino municipal 6 del partido en que se hallare el testigo. ART. 424. Si el testigo residiere en el extranjero, se dirigir4 suplicatorio por la via diplomatica y por conducto del Ministerio de Ultramar al juez extranjero competente para recibir la declaraci6n. El suplicatorio debe contener los antecedents necesarios e indicar las preguntas que se han de hacer al testigo, sin perjuicio de que dicho juez las amplie segun le sugieran su discrecion y prudencia. Si la compareconcia del testigo ante ei juez instructor 6 tribunal fuere indispensable y no se presentase voluntariamente, se pondrs en conocimiento del Ministerio de Ultramar para que adopte la resoluci6n quo estime oportuna. ART. 425. Si la persona llamada a declarar ejerciere funciones 6 cargo p'blico, se dar4 aviso, al mismo tiempo que se practique la citaci6n, a su superior inmediato, para que le nombre sustituto durante su ausencia, si To exigiere asi el interns 6 la seguridad pfblica. ART. 426. Los testigos serin citados en la forma establecida on el tit. VII del libro primero do esta ley. ART. 427. Cuando el testigo no hubiere de comparecer ante e1 juez instructor para prestar la declaraci6n, se harin constar en el suplicatorio, exhorto 6 mandamiento que se expida, las circunstancias precisas para la designaci6n del testigo y las preguntas a que deba contestar, sin perjuicio de las que el juez 6 tribunal quo le recibiere la declaraci6n considered convenient hacerle para el mayor esolarecimiento de los hechos. ART. 428. El secretario del juez comisionado que haya de autorizar la declaraci6n expedir la cedula prevenida en el art. 175 con todas las circunstancias expresadas en ei mismo, y la do haberse de recibir la declaraci6n en virtud de suplicatorio, exhorto 6 mandamiento. ART. 429. Los testigos que dependan de la jurisdicci6n militar, podran, segb'n el juez de instrucci6n To estime oportuno, ser examinados por e1 mismo como los demis testigos, 6 por el juez militar competente. En el primer caso, el juez do instrucci6n deberi mandar que la citaci6n hecha a] testigo se ponga en conocimiento del jefe del cuerpo a que perteneciere. En el segundo caso se observar6 To dispuesto en los dos articulos anteriores.

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106 ART. 423. In the case of the general rule included in the first paragraph of the foregoing article as well as in that of the second, when the urgency of the declaration should be such as not to admit of the delay consequent to the citation of the witness through his immediate chiefs, and the employe in question should not be able to abandon the service which he renders without serious danger or inconvenience to the public, the examining judge in the cause shall commission the judge of the municipal district or of the judicial district within whose jurisdiction the witness may be to take the deposition. ART. 424. If the witness should reside abroad, letters requisitorial shall be directed through diplomatic channels and the colonial department to the foreign judge competent to take the deposition. The letters requisitorial must contain the information necessary and indicate the questions which are to be put to the witness, without prejudice to said judge amplifying said questions prudently and in his discretion. If the appearance of the witness before the examining judge or court be indispensable and he should not voluntarily appear, his conduct shall be communicated to the colonial department in order that it may take the action which it may consider proper. ART 425. If the person called upon to testify should discharge public duties or fill a public office, notice shall be given to his immediate superior at the time the citation is served in order that a substitute may be appointed during his absence if the public interest or security so requires. ART. 426. Witnesses shall be cited in the manner prescribed in Title VII of the first book of this law. ART. 427. If the witness is not to appear before the examining judge to testify, the details necessary for the designation of the witness and the questions he is to answer shall be embodied in the letters rogatory, letters requisitorial, or mandate issued, without prejudice to the questions which the judge or court receiving his deposition may consider advisable to put to him in order better to ascertain the facts. ART. 428. The secretary of the judge commissioned who is to authenticate the deposition, shall issue the certificate prescribed in article 175 with all the details mentioned therein, and with a statement to the effect that the deposition must be taken by virtue of letters requisitorial, letters rogatory, or a mandate. ART. 429. Witnesses under military jurisdiction may, in the discretion of the judge of examination, be examined by him as other witnesses, or by the military judge of competent jurisdiction. In-the former case the judge of examination must order that the citation of the witness be brought to the notice of the commander of the corps to which he may belong. In the latter case the provisions of the two foregoing articles shall be observed.

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107 Si algan testigo dependiente de la jurisdicci6n militar rehusare comparecer ante el juez de instrucci6n, 6 se negare a prestar juramento 6 a contestar al interrogatorio que so le hiciere, el juez de instrucci6n se dirigir4 al superior del testigo desobediente, cuyo superior, ademis de corregir al testigo, de 10 cual darn inmodiato conocimiento al juez instructor, le hara comparecor ante 6ste para declarar. ART. 430. Los testigos podran ser citados personalmente donde fueren habidos. Cuando sea urgente el examen de un testigo, podri citarsele verbalmente para que comparezca on el acto, sin esperar a la expedici6n de la cedula prescrita en el art. 175, haciendo constar, sin embargo, en los autos el motivo de la urgencia. Tambien podrs en igual caso constituirse 01 juez instructor en el domicilio de un testigo 6 en el lugar en que so oncuentre, para recibirle declaraci6n. ART. 431. El juez instructor podrs habilitar a los ageutes de policia para practicar las diligencias de citaci6n verbal 6 escrita, si lo considera conveniente. ART. 432. Si el testigo no tuviere domicilio conocido 6 se ig"norare su paradero, el juez instructor ordenar4 1o convenient a los funcionarios de policia, 6 oficiar4 a la autoridad administrativa a quien corresponda para quo averighien y le den parte del resultado dentro del plazo quo les hubiere fijado. Transcurrido este plazo sin haber averiguado el paradero del testigo, se publicara la cedula de citaci6n en el peri6dico oficial del pueblo de la residencia del juez, y en su defecto, en cualquier otro que alli se publique. Se insertar4 tambien la cedula, si el juez lo estima conveniente, en los peri6dicos oficiales 6 particulars de la capital de la provincia y del lugar donde se presima hallarse el testigo, y en la Gaceta de la capital de la isla. En estos casos se unira a los autos un ejemplar de cada peri6dico en quo se hubiere publicado la citaci6n. ART. 433. Al presentarse a declarar los testigos entregaran al secretario la copia de la cedula de citaci6n. Los testigos puberes prestaran juramento de decir todo 1o que supieren respect a lo que les fucre preguntado. El juez instructor, antes de exigir al testigo pdber el juramento y de interrogar al impdber, les instruir4 de la obligaci6n quo tienen de ser veraces, y de las penas con que el c6digo castiga el delito de falso testimonio en causa criminal.

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107 If any witness under military jurisdiction should refuse to appear before the judge of examination, or should refuse to take the oath or answer the interrogatories put to him, the judge of examination shall address himself to the superior of the disobedient witness, which superior in addition to disciplining the witness, of which he shall give immediate notice to the examining judge, shall compel him to appear before the latter and testify. Aur. 430. Witnesses may be cited in person when found. If the examination of a witness be urgent, he may be cited orally to appear at once, without awaiting the issue of the writ prescribed in article 175, but the reason for the urgency must appear upon the record. Also, in a similar case, the examining judge may betake himself to the domicile of a witness or to the place where he may be, in order to receive his deposition. ART. 431. The examining judge may deputize police agents to serve oral or written citations if he considers it advisable. ART. 432. If the witness should not have a known residence or his whereabouts is unknown, the judge of examination shall issue the proper orders to the police officials, or shall communicate with the proper administrative authority, in order that they may ascertain it and inform him of the result within the period which he may have fixed. Upon the expiration of such period without the whereabouts of the witness having been ascertained, the writ of citation shall be published in the official newspaper of the town of the residence of the judge, and in the absence thereof, in any other newspaper published there. The writ shall also be inserted, if the judge shall deem it advisable, in the official or private newspapers of the capital of the province and of the place where it is presumed the witness may be, and in the Gazette of the capital of the island. In such cases a copy of each newspaper in which the citation may have been published shall be attached to the proceedings. ART. 433. Upon appearing to testify, the witnesses shall deliver to the secretary the copy of the writ of citation. Witnesses who have reached the age of puberty shall take an oath to state all they may know upon what may be asked them. The examining judge, before administering an oath to a witness who has reached the age of puberty, and before questioning one who has not, shall inform them of their obligation to be truthful and of the penalties with which the code punishes the crime of false testimony in a criminal cause.

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108 ART. 434. El juramento se prestar6 en nombre de Dios. Los testigos prestarin el juramento con arreglo 6 su religion. ART. 435. Los testigos declararan separada y secretamente 6 presencia del juez instructor y del secretario. Si lo hicieren en otra forma, salvo los casos especiales sefialados en esta ley, sera corregido disciplinariamente el juez instructor, a no ser que incurra en responsabilidad criminal por la falta. ART. 436. El testigo manifestara primeramente su nombre, apellidos paterno y materno, edad, estado y profesi6n, si conoce 6 no al procesado y 6 las demas partes, v si tiene con ellos parentesco, amistad 6 relaciones de cualquiera otra clase, si ha estado procesado y la pena que se le impuso. El juez dejar4 al testigo narrar sin interrupci6n los hechos sobre los cuales declare, y solamente le exigira las explicaciones complementarias que sean conducentes a desvanccer los conceptos oscuros 6 contradictorios. Despues le dirigirt las preguntas que estime oportunas para el esclarecimiento de los hechos. ART. 437. Los testigos declararan de viva voz, sin quo les sea permitido leer declaraci6n ni respuesta alguna que even escrita. Podran, sin embargo, consultar algun apunte 6 memoria que contenga datos dificiles de recordar. El testigo podra dictar las contestacioncs por si mismo. ART. 438. El juez instructor podra mandar que se conduzca al testigo al lugar en que hubieren ocurrido los hechos, y examinarle alli 6 poner a su presencia los objetos sobre que hubiere de versar la declaraci6n. En este ultimo caso podra el juez instructor poner a presencia del testigo dichos objetos, solos 6 mezclados con otros semejantes, adoptando ademis todas las medidas que su prudencia le sugiera para la mayor exactitud de la declaraci6n. ART. 439. No se haran al testigo preguntas capciosas ni sugestivas, ni se empleara coaccion, engano, promesa ni artificio alguno para obligarle 6 inducirle 6 declarar on determinado sentido. ART. 440. Si el testigo no entendiere 6 no hablare el idioma espafol, se nombrara un interprete, que prestara 6 su presencia juramento de conducirse bien y fielmente en el desempefio de su cargo. Por este medio se haran at testigo las preguntas y se recibirin sus contestaciones, que Cste podra dictar por su conducto. En este caso, la declaraci6n deber6 consignarse en el proceso en el idioma empleado por el testigo y traducido 6 continuaci6n al espafiol. ART. 441. El interpreted sera elegido entree los que tengan titulo de tales, si los hubiere en el pueblo. En su defecto, sera nombrado un maestro del correspondiente idioma; y si tampoco le hubiere, cualquiera persona quo 1o sepa.

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108 ART. 434. The oath shall be taken in the name of God. The witnesses shall take the oath in accordance with their religion. ART. 435. The witnesses shall testify separately and secretly in the presence of the examining judge and of the secretary. Should they do so in any other manner, excepting the special cases mentioned in this law, the examining judge shall be disciplined, unless he incurs criminal liability by reason of the offense. ART. 436. The witness shall first state his name, paternal and maternal surnames, age, conjugal condition, and profession; whether he is or is not acquainted with the accused and other parties; if he is related to them or bears friendship or any other relations to them; if he has been criminally prosecuted and the penalty imposed upon him. The judge shall permit the witness to narrate without interruption the facts upon which he testifies, and shall only require of him such supplementary explanations as may tend to dissipate obscure or contradictory statements. Thereupon he shall put such questions to him as he may deem proper to elucidate the facts. ART. 437. Witnesses shall testify viva voce, without being permitted to read any written deposition or answer which they may have. Nevertheless they may consult any note or memorandum containing data difficult to remember. The witness may dictate his answers in person. ART. 438. The examining judge may order that the witness be conducted to the place where the acts were committed and be there examined, or that the objects upon which his testimony is to be taken be brought before him. In the latter case, the examining judge may place before the witness said objects alone or mixed with other similar objects, taking in addition any other measures in his discretion to secure as exact a declaration as possible. ART. 439. No captious or suggestive questions shall be put to the witness, nor shall coercion, deceit, promises, or artifices of any kind be employed to force or induce him to testify in a specific sense. ART. 440. If the witness should not understand or speak the Spanish language, an interpreter shall be appointed, who shall take an oath in his presence to conduct himself well and faithfully in the discharge of his duties. By this means the questions shall be put to the witness and his answers received, which he may dictate through the interpreter. In such case the deposition must be entered upon the record in the language employed by the witness and translated immediately thereafter into Spanish. ART. 441. The interpreter shall be selected from among persons having a certificate as such, if there be any in the town. In their absence a teacher of the respective language shall be appointed; and if there be no teacher, any other person acquainted therewith.

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109 Si ni aun de esta manera pudiera obtenerse la traducci6n, y las revelaciones que se esperasen del testigo fueren importantes, se redactara el pliego de preguntas que hayan de dirigirsele, y se remitira 4 la oficina de interpretaci6n de lenguas del Ministerio de Estado para que, con preferencia a todo otro trabajo, sean traducidas al idioma que hable el testigo. El interrogatorio ya traducido se entregar4 al testigo para que a presencia del juez se entered de su contenido y redacte por escrito en su idioma las oportunas contestaciones, las cuales se remitiran del mismo modo que las preguntas a la interpretaci6n de lenguas. Estas diligencias las practicaran Jos juices con la mayor actividad. ART. 442. Si el testigo fuere sordomudo y supiere leer, se le harin por escrito las preguntas. Si supiere escribir, contestara por escrito. Y si no supiere lo uno ni lo otro, so nombrar4 un interprete, por cuyo conducto se le barn las preguntas y se recibiran sus contestaciones. Sera nombrado interpreted un maestro titular de sordomudos si lo hubiere en el pueblo, y en su defecto cualquiera que supiere comunicarse con el testigo. El nombrado prestara juramento a presencia del sordomudo antes de comenzar 4 desempenar el cargo. ART. 443. El testigo podr leer por si mismo la diligencia de su declaraci6n; si no pudiere, por hallarse en alguno de los casos comprendidos en los articulos 440 y 442, se Ia leery el interprete, y en los demas casos el secretario. El juez advertir4 siempre 4 los interesados el derecho que tienen de leer por si mismos sus declaraciones. ART. 444. Estas seran firmadas por el juez y por todos los que en ellas hubiesen intervenido, si supieren y pudieren hacerlo, autorizandolas el secretario. ART. 445. No se consignaran en los autos las declaraciones de los testigos que, segin el juez, fuesen manifiestamente inconducentes para la comprobaci6n de los hechos objeto del sumario. Tampoco se consignarin en cada declaraci6n las manifestaciones del testigo que se hallen en el mismo caso, pero se consignara siempre todo lo que pueda servir asi de cargo como descargo. En el primer caso se hara expresi6n, por medio de diligencia, de la comparecencia del testigo y del motivo de no escribirse su declaraci6n. ART. 446. Terminada la declaraci6n, el juez instructor hara saber al testigo la obligaci6n de comparecer para declarar de nuevo ante el tribunal competent cuando se le cite para ello, asi como la de poner en conocimiento de dicho juez instructor los cambios que hiciere hasta ser citado para el juicio oral, bajo apercibimiento, si no lo cumple, de

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109 If the translation can not be obtained even in this manner and the revelations expected of the witness should be important, the list of questions to be put to him shall be prepared and forwarded to the office of interpretation of languages of the Department of State in order that they may be translated before any other work into the language spoken by the witness. The interrogatory thus translated shall be delivered to the witness in order that in the presence of the judge he may acquaint himself with the contents thereof and prepare the proper answers in writing in his own language, which shall be forwarded in the same manner as the questions to the interpretation of languages. These steps shall be taken by the judges as promptly as possible. ART. 442. If the witness be a deaf mute and able to read, the questions shall be put to him in writing. If he is able to write he shall answer in writing. And if he is unable either to read or write, an interpreter shall be appointed through whom the questions shall be put to him and his answers received. A titular teacher of deaf mutes shall be appointed interpreter if there be any in the town, and in the absence of such anyone able to communicate with the witness. The person appointed shall take an oath in the presence of the deaf mute before entering upon the discharge of his duties. ART. 443. The witness may read the record of his deposition in person; should he not be able to do so on account of being included in any of the cases mentioned in articles 440 and 442, the interpreter shall read it to him or the secretary in other cases. The judge shall always inform the persons interested of their right to read their depositions themselves. ART. 444. Such depositions shall be signed by the judge and by all those who may have taken part therein, should they be able to do so, being authenticated by the secretary. ART. 445. The depositions of witnesses who, in the opinion of the judge, should be manifestly irrelevant to establish the acts which are the subject-matter of the sumario, shall not be made a matter of record. Nor shall similar statements of a witness be embodied in each deposition, but all that may serve for the prosecution or for the defense must always be included. In the first case an entry shall be made upon the record of the appearance of the witness and of the reason for not writing his deposition. ART. 446. Upon the conclusion of the testimony of the witness, the judge of examination shall inform him of his obligation to appear to testify again before the court of competent jurisdiction when cited therefor, as well as of his duty to inform said examining judge of the change of residence he may make until he is cited for the oral trial,

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110 ser castigado con una multa de 12.50 a 125 pesetas, a no ser que incurriere en responsabilidad criminal por la falta. Estas prevenciones se haran constar al final de la misma diligencia de la declaraci6n. ART. 447. El juez de instrucci6n, al remitir el sumario al tribunal competente, ponder en su conocimiento los cambios de domicilio que los testigos le hubiesen participado. Lo mismo har4 respecto de los que se lo participen despus que hubiese remitido el sumario, hasta la terminaci6n de la causa. ART. 448. Si el testigo manifestare, al hacerle la prevenci6n referida en el art. 446, la imposibilidad de concurrir por haber de ausentarse de la isla y tambien en el caso en que hubiere motivo racionalmente bastante para temer su muerte 6 incapacidad fisica 6 intelectual antes de la apertura del juicio oral, el juez instructor hard saber al reo que nombre abogado en el termino de veinticuatro horas, si aun no le tuviere, 6 de lo contrario que se le nombrar4 de oficio, para que le aconseje en el acto de recibir la declaraci6n del testigo. Transcurrido dicho termino, el juez recibira juramento y volvera 4 examinar 4 este a presencia del procesado y de su abogado defensor, y a presencia asimismo del fiscal y del querellante, si quisieren asistir at acto, permitiendo a &stos hacerle cuantas preguntas tengan por conveniente, excepto las que ei juez desestime como manifiestamente impertinentes. En la diligencia se consignarn las contestaciones a estas preguntas, y sera firmada por todos los asistentes. ART. 449. En caso de inminente peligro de muerte del testigo, se proceder4 con toda urgencia a recibirle declaraci6n en la formal expresada en el articulo anterior, aunque el procesado no pudiese ser asistido de letrado. ART. 450. No se haran tachaduras, enmiendas ni entrerrenglonaduras en las diligencias del sumario. A su final so consignaran las equivocaciones que se hubieren cometido. CAPITULO VI. DEL CAREO DE LOS TESTIGOS Y PROCESADOS. ART. 451. Cuando los testigos 6 los procesados entre si 6 aquillos con estos discordaren acerca de algin hecho 6 de alguna circunstancia que interese en el sumario, podrs el juez celebrar careo entre los que estuvieren discordes, sin que esta diligencia deba tener lugar, por regla general, mas que entre dos personas a la vez.

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110 with the admonition that his failure to do so will be punished with a fine of not less than 12.50 or more than 125 pesetas, unless he should incur criminal liability by reason thereof. These admonitions shall be entered at the foot of the record of the deposition. ART. 447. The judge of examination, in transmitting the sumario to the court of competent jurisdiction, shall inform the same of the changes of domicile which the witnesses may have communicated. The same shall be done with regard to those who inform him of such changes after the transmission of the sunario until the cause is terminated. ART. 448. If the witness should state, when given the admonition referred to in article 446, that it will be impossible for him to appear on account of being obliged to absent himself from the island and also in case there should be a cause reasonably sufficient to fear his death or physical or intellectual disability before the beginning of the oral trial, the examining judge shall instruct the accused to appoint an attorney within the period of twenty-four hours, should he not yet have one, and that otherwise one will be assigned to him ex officio to counsel him at once to have the testimony of the witness taken. Upon the expiration of this term the judge shall administer the oath and shall again examine the latter in the presence of the accused and his counsel, and also in that of the public prosecutor and of the complainant, should they desire to attend the proceeding, the latter being permitted to ask as many questions as they may deem advisable, excepting such as the judge may reject as manifestly impertinent. The answers to these questions shall be entered upon the record, which shall be signed by all present. ART. 449. In case of the imminent danger of the death of the witness, his deposition shall be taken as speedily as possible, in the manner mentioned in the foregoing article, even though the accused should not have the assistance of an attorney. AR. 450. No erasures, corrections, or interlineations shall be made in the proceedings of the sumario. At the end thereof the errors which may have been committed shall be recorded. CHAPTER VI. CONFRONTATION BETWEEN THE WITNESSES AND THE ACCUSED. ART. 451. When the witnesses or the accused disagree among themselves, or the former with the latter, as to some fact or some circumstance of moment in the surnario, the judge may cause those disagreeing to confront each other; but this proceeding, as a general rule, must take place only between two persons at the same time.

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111 ART. 452. El careo se verificari ante el juez, leyendo el secretario a los procesados 6 testigos entree quienes tenga lugar el acto las declaraciones que hubiesen prestado, y preguntando el primero a los testigos, despues de recordarles su juramento y las penas del falso testimonio, si se ratifican en ellas 6 tienen alguna variaci6n quo hacer. El juez manifestara en seguida las contradicciones que resulten en dichas declaraciones, e invitara a los careados para que se pongan do acuerdo entree si. ART. 453. El secretario darn fe de todo 1o que ocurriere en el acto del careo y de las preguntas, contestaciones y reconvenciones que mutuamente se hicieren los careados, asi como de lo que so observare en su actitud durante el acto, y firmar4 la diligencia con todos los concurrentes, expresando, si alguno no 1o hiciere, la raz6n que para ello alegue. ART. 454. El juez no permitira que los careados se insultan 6 amenacen. ART. 455. No se practicaran careos sino cuando no fuere conocido otro modo de comprobar la existencia del delito 6 la culpabilidad de alguno de los procesados.' CAPITULO VII. DEL INFORMED PERICIAL. ART. 456. El juez acordara el informe pericial cuando para conocer 6 apreciar algdn hecho 6 circunstancia important en el sumario fuesen necesarios 6 convenientes conocimientos cientificos 6 artisticos. ART. 457. Los peritos pueden ser 6 no titulares. Son peritos titulares los que tienen titulo oficial de una ciencia 6 arte cuyo ejercicio est6 reglamentado por la administration. Son peritos no titulares los que, careciendo de titulo oficial, tienen, sin embargo, conocimientos 6 practice especiales en alguna ciencia 6 arte. ART. 458. El juez se valdri de peritos titulares con preferencia a los que no tuviesen titulo. ART. 459. Todo reconocimiento pericial so har por dos peritos. Se except6a el caso on que no hubiese mas de uno en el lugar, y no fuere possible esperar la liegada de otro sin graves inconvenientes para el curso del sumario. ART. 460. El nombramiento se hara saber a los peritos por medio de oficio, que les seri entregado por alguacil 6 portero del juzgado 'Existiendo datos suficientes a juicio del tribunal sentenciador y por lo que realmente de la causa aparece, para comprobar la delincuencia del procesado, no ha incurrido dicho tribunal en el quebrantamiento de forma del num. 1.0, art. 911, al denegar la practica del careo. (Sentencia de Febrero 16 de 1884.)

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111 ART. 452. The confrontation shall take place before the judge, the secretary reading to the accused or witnesses between whom the proceeding is to be held the depositions they may have made, and asking the witnesses, after reminding them of their oath and the penalties for false testimony, whether they ratify the same or desire to make some change. The judge shall thereupon state the contradictions which appear from said depositions, and shall request those confronting each other to come to an agreement. ART. 453. The secretary shall certify to all that takes place at the confrontation and to the questions, answers, and reconventions which the persons confronting each other may make, as well as to what he may observe in their conduct during the proceeding, and shall sign said certification together with all those present, stating, if any should not sign, the reason alleged therefor. ART. 454. The judge shall not permit the persons confronting each other to insult or threaten each other. ART. 455. No confrontation shall take place unless no other means to verify the existence of the crime or the guilt of any of the accused is known.' CHAPTER VII. EXPERT EVIDENCE. ART. 456. The judge shall call for an expert opinion if, to ascertain or weigh some important fact or circumstance in the summario, scientific or artistic knowledge should be necessary or advisable. ART. 457. The experts may or may not be titular. Titular experts are those who have an official diploma in some science or art the exercise of which is governed by the administration. Nontitular experts are those who, not possessing an official diploma, have nevertheless some special knowledge or practice in some science or art. ART. 458. The judge shall avail himself of the services of titular experts in preference to those who are not such. ART. 459. Every expert investigation shall be made by two experts. The case is excepted where there is only one expert in the place and it should not be possible to await the arrival of another one without serious damage to the progress of the sumario. ART. 460. The appointment shall be communicated to the experts officially in writing, which document shall be delivered to them by a 1 If there be data sufficient, in the opinion of the sentencing court and from what really appears from the cause, to prove the guilt of the accused, the court in refusing to hold the confrontation, has not incurred the breach of form mentioned in No. 1 of article 911. (Decision of February 16, 1884.)

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112 con las formalidades prevenidas para la citaci6n de los testigos, reemplazindose la cedula original para los efectos del art. 175, por un atestado one extenders el alguacil 6 portero encargado de la entrega. ART. 461. Si la urgencia del caso to exige, podra hacerse el llamamiento verbalmente de orden del juez, haciendolo constar asi en los autos, pero extendiendo siompre el atestado prevenido en el articulo anterior el encargado del cumplimiento de la orden de l1amamiento. ART. 462. Nadio podra negarse 4 acudir al liamamiento de juez para desempefiar tin servicio pericial, si no estuviere legitimamente impedido. En este caso debera ponerlo en conocimiento del juez en ei acto de recibir e1 nombramiento, para que se provea 4 lo que haya lugar. ART. 463. El perito que, sin alegar excusa fundada, deje de acudir al 1lamamiento del juez 6 se niegue a prestar el informed, incurrira en las responsabilidades sefialadas para los testigos en e1 art. 420. ART. 464. No podran prestar informed pericial acerca del delito, cualquiera que sea la persona ofendida, los que segan el art. 416 no estan obligados 4 declarar como testigos. El perito que, hallandose comprendido en alguno de los casos de dicho articulo, preste el informed sin ponor antes esta circunstancia en conocimiento del juez que le hubiese nombrado, incurrira en la multa de 12.50 a 125 pesetas, a no sor quo el hecho dire lugar 4 responsabilidad criminal. ART. 465. Los que presten informed como peritos en virtud de orden judicial, tendran derecho 4 reclamar los honorarios 6 indemnizaciones que sean justas, si no tuvieren en concept de tales peritos retribuci6n fija satisfecha por el Estado, por la provincia 6 por el municipio. ART. 466. Hocho el nombramiento de peritos, se notificar4 inmediatamente, asi al actor particular, si lo hubiere, como al procesado, si estuviere 4 disposici6n del juez 6 se encontrare on el mismo lugar de la instrucci6n, 6 a su representante, si le tuviere. ART. 467. Si el reconomiento e informe periciales pudieren toner lugar de nuevo en el juicio oral, los peritos nombrados no podran ser recusados por las partes. Si no pudiere reproducirse en el juicio oral, habr6 lugar a la recusacion. ART. 468. Son causa de recusaci6n de los peritos: La El parentesco de consanguinidad 6 afinidad dentro del cuarto grado con el querellante 6 con el reo. 2.a El interns directo 6 indirecto en la causa 6 en otra semejante. 3.a La amistad intima 6 enemistad manifiesta.

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112 bailiff or porter of the court with the formalities prescribed for the citation of witnesses, the original writ for the purposes of article 175 being substituted by an attested statement which the bailiff or porter entrusted with the service shall draft. ART. 461. If the urgency of the case shall so require, the call may be made verbally by order of the judge, such fact appearing in the proceedings, but the attested statement prescribed by the foregoing article must always be made by the person entrusted with the service of the summons. ART. 462. No one can refuse to answer the call of a judge to fulfill an expert service, unless legitimately prevented from so doing. In such case he must inform the judge thereof upon receiving his appointment, in order that the proper action may be taken. Aur. 463. An expert who, without giving a good excuse, shall fail to answer the call of the judge or refuse to give his opinion, shall incur the liabilities prescribed for witnesses by article 420. ART. 464. No expert opinion as to the crime, whosoever be the peison injured, can be given by those who, according to article 416, are not obliged to testify as witnesses. An expert who, being included in any of the cases of said article, should express an opinion without previously informing the judge who may have appointed him of this circumstance, shall incur a fine of not less than 12.50 or more than 125 pesetas, unless the act should give rise to criminal liability. ART. 465. Persons who shall make a report as experts by virtue of a judicial order shall be entitled to claim the fees or indemnity which may be just, provided they do not receive as such experts a fixed compensation paid by the State, the province, or the municipality. ART. 466. After the appointment of experts has been made, the private plaintiff, should there be any, as well as the accused, if he should be under the control of the judge or at the place where the investigation is being held, or his representative, should he have any, shall be notified of such appointment. ART. 467. If the expert examination and opinion could take place again during the oral action, the experts appointed can not be challenged by the parties, If it can not take place again during the oral action, a challenge may be interposed. ART. 468. The following are causes for challenge of experts: 1. Relationship by consanguinity or affinity within the fourth degree with the complainant or the accused. 2. A direct or indirect interest in the cause or in another similar one. 3. Intimate friendship or manifest enmity. 18473--01 15

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113 ART. 469. El actor 6 procesado que intente recusar al perito 6 peritos nombrados por el juez, debera hacerlo por escrito antes de empezar la diligencia pericial, expresando la causa de la recusaci6n y la prueba testifical quo ofrezca, y acompafiando la documental 6 designando el lugar on quo 6sta se halle si no la tuviere a su disposici6n. Para la presentaci6n de este escrito no estara obligado 4 valerse do procurador. ART. 470. El juez sin levantar mano, examinara los documents quo produzca el recusante y oira a los testigos que present en el acto, resolviendo lo que estime justo respect de la recusaci6n. Si hubiere lugar 4 ella, suspender el acto pericial por el tiempo estrictamente necesario para nombrar el perito que haya do sustituir al recusado, hacerselo saber y constituirse el nombrado on el lugar correspondiente. Si no la admitiere, se procedera como si no se hubiese usado do la facultad de recusar. Cuando el recusante no produjese los documentos, pero designare el archivo 6 lugar en que se encuentren, el juez instructor los reclamara y examinara una vez recibidos sin detener por esto el curso de las actuaciones; y si de ellos resultase justificada la causa de la recusaci6n, anular4 el informe pericial que se hubiese dado, mandando que se practique do nuevo esta diligencia. ART. 471. En el caso del parrafo segundo del art. 467, el querellanto tendrs derecho 4 nombrar 4 su costa un perito que intervenga on el acto pericial. El mismo derecho tendrs el procesado. Si los querellantes 6 los procesados fuesen varios, so pondran respectivamente de acuerdo entre si para hacer el nombramiento. Estos peritos deboran ser titulares, 4 no ser que no los bubiere do esta clase en el partido 6 demarcaci6n, en cuyo caso podran ser nombrados sin tftulo. Si la practice de la diligencia pericial no admitiere espera, so procedera como las circunstancias 1o permitan para que el actor y el procesado puedan intervenir en ella. ART. 472. Si las parts hicieren uso de la facultad que se les concede en el articulo anterior, manifestaran al juez el nombre del perito, y ofrecerin, al hacer esta manifestaci6n, los comprobantes do tenor la cualidad de tal perito la persona designada. En ningin caso podran hacker uso de dicha facultad despues do empezada la operaci6n de reconocinionto.

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113 ART. 469. The plaintiff or accused who should desire to challenge the expert or experts appointed by the judge, must interpose it in writing before the beginning of the expert investigation, stating the cause of challenge and the evidence of witnesses which he offers and accompanying the documentary evidence or stating the place where the latter may be found if not at his disposal. He shall not be required to avail himself of the services of a solicitor to interpose such challenge. ART. 470. The judge, without taking any action, shall examine the documents which the challenging party may produce, and shall hear the witnesses he may present at once, deciding thereupon what he may consider just with regard to the challenge. If the challenge be sustained, he shall suspend the expert investigation such time as may be strictly necessary to appoint an expert to take the place of the one challenged, to inform him thereof, and to establish the person appointed in the proper place. Should he overrule the challenge the proceedings shall be continued as if no challenge had been interposed. If the challenging party should not produce the documents, but should designate the archives or place where they may be found, the judge of examination shall call for them and shall examine them as soon as received, without thereby staying the course of the proceedings, and if the cause of challenge should appear justified therefrom, he shall annul the expert opinion which may have been rendered, ordering that this proceeding take place de novo. ART. 471. In the case of the second paragraph of article 467, the complainant shall have the right to appoint an expert at his own cost to make the expert examination. The accused shall have the same right. Should there be more than one complainant or person accused, they shall come to an agreement among themselves, respectively, in making the appointment. These experts must be titular, unless there should be none of this class in the judicial district or circuit, in which case experts without a certificate may be appointed. If the holding of the expert examination should not admit of delay, the proceedings shall be had as the conditions may permit in order that the plaintiff and the accused may take part therein. AR. 472. If the parties should avail themselves of the privilege granted them by the foregoing article, they shall indicate to the judge the name of the expert, and shall submit, upon making this designation, evidence of the person appointed being such expert. In no case shall they be permitted to avail themselves of this privilege after the investigation has begun.

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114 ART. 473. El juez resolvers sobre la admisi6n de dichos peritos en la forma determinada en el art. 470 para las recusaciones. ART. 474. Antes de darse principio al acto pericial, todos los peritos, asi los nombrados por el juez como los quo lo hubiesen sido por las parts, prestarsn juramento, conform al art. 434, de proceder bien y fielmente en sus operaciones y de no proponerse otro fin ms que el de descubrir y declarar la verdad. ART. 475. El juez manifestara clara y determinadamente 6 los peritos el objeto do su informe. ART. 476. Al acto pericial podrsn concurrir, on el caso del parrafo segundo del articulo 467, 01 querellante, si lo hubiere, con representaci6n, y el procesado con la suya aun cuando estuviere preso, en cuyo caso adoptars las precauciones oportunas. ART. 477. El acto pericial sera presidido por el juez instructor 6, en virtud de su delegaci6n, por ei juez municipal. Podra tambidn delegar en el caso del art. 353 en un funcionario do policia judicial. Asistir4 siempre el secretario que actuo on la causa. ART. 478. El informe pericial compronders, si fuere possible: 1.0 Descripci6n de la persona 6 cosa que sea objeto del mismo on ei estado 6 del modo on que se halle. El secretario extenders esta descripci6n, dictsndola los peritos y subscribiendola todos los concurrentes. 2.0 Relaci6n detallada de todas las operaciones practicadas por los peritos y de su resultado, extondida v autorizada en la misma forma que la anterior. 3.0 Las conclusions que en vista de tales datos formulen los peritos, conform a los principios y reglas da su ciencia 6 arte. ART. 479. Si los peritos tuvieren necesidad de destruir 6 alterar los objetos que analicen, debers conservarse, 4 ser posible, part de ellos en poder del juez para quo, en caso necesario, pueda hacerse nuevo analysis. ART. 480. Las parts quo asistieron 4 las operaciones 6 reconocimientos podrsn someter a los peritos las observaciones que estimen convenientes, haciendose constar todas on la diligencia. ART. 481. Hecho el reconocimiento, podrsn los peritos, si lo pidieren, retirarse por el tiempo absolutamento preciso al sitio que el juez les sefiale para deliberar y redactar las conclusions. ART. 482. Si los peritos necesitaren descanso, el juez 6 e1 funcionario que le represente podr concederles para ello cl tiempo necesario. Tambien podrs suspender la diligencia hasta otra hora a otro dia, cuando lo exigiere su naturaleza. En este caso, el juez 6 quien le represented adoptars las precauciones convenientes para evitar cualquiera alteraci6n en la materia de la diligencia pericial.

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114 ART. 473. The judge shall pass upon the admission of said experts in the manner prescribed in article 470 for challenges. ART. 474. Before beginning the expert proceedings, all the experts, those appointed by the judge as well as those appointed by the parties, shall take an oath in accordance with article 434 to well and faithfully perform their duty and for no other purpose than to establish and declare the truth. ART. 475. The judge shall, in a clear and specific manner, indicate to the experts the subject of their report. ART. 476. In the case of the second paragraph of article 467, the complainant, if there be any, together with his counsel, and the accused with his counsel, even though imprisoned, in which case the proper precautions shall be taken, may attend the expert examination. Awr. 477. The expert proceedings shall be presided over by the examining judge or, by virtue of his delegation, by the municipal judge. He may also delegate his duties to an official of the judicial police in the case of article 353. The secretary acting in the cause must always be present. AR. 478. The expert report shall include, if possible1. A description of the person or thing the subject-matter thereof in the state or manner in which it may be found. The secretary shall write this description, which shall be dictated by the experts and signed by all persons present. 2. A detailed statement of all the steps taken by the experts, and of the result thereof, made and authenticated in the same manner as the former. 3. The findings of the experts, in view of such data, in accordance with the principles and rules of their science or art. ART. 479. If the experts should find it necessary to destroy or alter the objects which they may analyze, a portion thereof must be retained in the possession of the judge if possible, in order that a new analysis may be made if necessary. ART. 480. The parties attending the operations or examinations may make such remarks to the experts as they may deem advisable, all of them being recorded in the proceedings. ART. 481. After the examination, the experts may, should they request it, retire as long as necessary to the place which the judge may fix for deliberation and the preparation of their findings. ART. 482. If the experts should require a rest, the judge or the official representing him may grant therefor the time necessary. He may also postpone the proceedings to another hour or day when the nature thereof so requires. In such case, the judge or person representing him shall take the precautions advisable in order to prevent any alteration in the matter of the expert examination.

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115 ART. 483. El juez podra, por su propia iniciativa 6 por reclamaci6n de las partes presented 6 de sus defensores, hacer a los peritos, cuando produzean sus conclusiones, las preguntas que estime pertinentes y pedirles las aclaraciones necesarias. Las contestaciones de los peritos se consideraran como parte de su informe. ART. 484. Si los peritos estuvieren discordes y su namero fuere par, nombrar otro el juez. Con intervenci6n del nuevamente nombrado, se repetiran, si fuere posible, las operaciones que hubiesen practicado aquellos y se ejecutarAn las demis que parecieren oportunas. Si no fuere posible la repetici6n de las operaciones ni la practice de otras nuevas, la intervenci6n del perito Altimamente nombrado se limitara a deliberar con los demos, con vista de las diligencias de reconocimiento practicadas, y a formula luego con quien estuviere conforme, 6 separadamente si no lo estuviere con ninguno, sus conclusiones motivadas. ART. 485. El juez facilitar4 a los peritos los medios materials necesarios para practicar la diligencia que les encomiende, reclamandolos de la administration pfblica 6 dirigiendo a Ia autoridad correspondiente un aviso previo si existieren preparados para tal objeto, salvo 1o dispuesto especialmente en el art. 362.

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115 ART. 483. The judge may, on his own initiative, or at the request of the parties present, or of their counsel, put such questions to the experts, when they submit their findings, as he may consider pertinent, and demand the necessary explanations. The answers of the experts shall be considered as a portion of their report. ART. 484. If the experts should not agree and their number be even, the judge shall appoint another expert. With the assistance of the last expert appointed, the work done by the first experts shall be repeated, if possible, and such other work shall be performed which may appear proper. If the repetition of the work or new operations should not be possible, the intervention of the expert last appointed shall be limited to deliberating with the rest, in view of the investigation made, and afterwards preparing his findings with the reasons therefor together with whomsoever agrees with him, or separately, should he not agree with any of them. ART. 485. The judge shall furnish the experts the material means necessary to make the examination entrusted to them, demanding the same of the public administration or addressing to the proper authorities a notice in advance should they already be prepared for such purpose, reserving the special provisions of article 362.

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TfTULO VI. DE LA CITACI6N, DE LA DETENCI6N Y DE LA PRISON PROVISIONAL. CAPITULO PRIMERO. DE LA CITACI6N. ART. 486. La persona a quien so impute un acto punible deberd ser citada s6lo para ser oida, a no ser que la ley disponga 1o contrario, 6 que desde luego proceda su detenci6n.' ART. 487. Si el citado, con arreglo a lo prevenido en el articulo anterior, no compareciere ni justificare causa legitima que se 1o impida, la orden de comparecencia podra convertirse en orden de detenci6n. ART. 488. Durante la instrucci6n de la causa, el juez instructor podra mandar comparecer a cuantas personas convenga oir por resultar contra ellas algunas indicaciones fundadas de culpabilidad. CAPITULO II. DE LA DETENClIN. ART. 489. Ningdn espailol ni extranjero podri ser detenido sino en los casos y en la formal que las eyes prescriban.' ART. 490. Cualquiera persona puede detener: 1.0 Al que intentare cometer un delito en el momento de ir a cometerlo. 2.0 Al delincuente infraganti. 'Las personas a quien se cita y oye con arreglo a este articulo, no es necesario que presten juramento; basta que declaren bajo promesa de decir verdad, puesto que no son examinadas como testigos, y si como posibles participes del hecho criminal. (Exposicid6n del Fiscal del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de Septiembre de 1883, nim. 20.) 2 Reproduce el precepto del art. 40 de la Constituci6n vigente. Segin el mismo articulo, todo detenido sera puesto en libertad 6 entregado a la autoridad judicial, dentro de las veinticuatro horas siguientes al acto de la detenci6n, y toda detenci6n se dejar4 sin efecto 6 elevara a prisi6n dentro de las setenta y dos horas de haber sido entregado el detenido al juez competente, debiendo la providencia que se dicte notificarse al interesado dentro del mismo plazo. La cita de la infracci6n de los arts. 489, 282, y 297 como de mera forma 6 procedimiento, es ineficaz al efecto del recurso de casaci6n por infracci6n de ley. (Sentencia de 29 de marzo'de 1887.) 116

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TITLE VI. THE CITATION, THE DETENTION, AND THE PROVISIONAL IMPRISONMENT. CHAPTER FIRST. THE CITATION. ART. 486. A person charged with a punishable act must be cited only for the purpose of being heard, unless the law shall provide otherwise or unless his immediate detention should be proper.1 ART. 487. If the person cited in accordance with the provisions of the foregoing article should not appear nor give any good cause which prevents him from so doing, the order of appearance may be changed into an order of arrest. ART. 488. During the progress of the cause the examining judge may order the appearance of as many persons as it may be advisable to hear on account of there being some apparent indications of guilt against them. CHAPTER II. THE DETENTION. ART. 489. No Spaniard or foreigner can be arrested, excepting in the manner and in the cases prescribed by law.' ART. 490. Any person may place under arrest1. He who shall attempt to commit a crime, at the moment he is about to commit it. 2. A delinquent captured in fragranti. 1 Persons who are cited and heard in accordance with this article are not required to take an oath; it is sufficient that they testify under a promise to tell the truth, as they are not examined as witnesses, but as possible participants in the criminal act. (Statement of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1883, No. 20.) 2 This repeats the precept of article 4 of the Constitution in force. According to the said article every person detained shall be set at liberty or turned over to the judicial authorities within twenty-four hours after the detention, and every detention shall be annulled or changed to imprisonment within seventy-two hours after the person detained has been turned over to the judge of competent jurisdiction, the warrant which may issue being communicated to the person interested within the same period. A citation of the violation of articles 489, 282, and 287 as of mere form or procedure is inefficacious for an appeal for annulment of judgment for violation of law. (Decision of March 99, 1887.) 116

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117 3.0 Al que se fugare del establecimiento penal en que so halle extinguiendo condena. 4.o Al que se fugare de la carcel en que estuviere esperando su traslaci6n al establecimiento penal 6 lugar en que deba cumplir la condena que se le hubiese impuesto por sentencia firme. 5.0 Al que se fugare al ser conducido al establecimiente 6 lugar mencionados en el numero anterior. 6.0 Al quo se fugare estando detenido 6 preso por causa pendiente. 7.0 Al procesado 6 condenado que estuviere on rebeldia. ART. 491. El particular que detuviere a otro justificara,,si 6ste 1o exigiere, haber obrado en virtud do motivos racionalmente saficientes para creer que el detenido se hallaba comprendido en alguno de los casos del articulo anterior. AuT. 492. La autoridad 6 agent de policia judicial tender obligaci6n de detener: 1.0 A cualquiera que se halle en alguno de los casos del art. 490. 2.0 Al que estuviere procesado por delito que tenga senalada en el C6digo pena superior a la de prisi6n correctional.' 3.0 Al procesado por delito a que est6 seilalada pena inferior, si sus antecedentes 6 las circunstancias del hecho hicieren presumir que no comparecera cuando fuere lamado por la autoridad judicial. Se exceptila de 1o dispuesto en el parrafo anterior al procesado que presto en el acto fianza bastante, 4 juicio de la autoridad 6 agent que intente detenerlo, para presumir racionalmente que comparecera cuando le lame el juez 6 tribunal competent. 4.o Al que estuviere en el caso del numero anterior, aunque todavia no se hallase procesado, con tal que concurran ]as dos circunstancias siguientes: 1.a Que la autoridad 6 agent tenga motivos racionalmente bastantes para creer en la existencia de un hecho que present los caracteres de delito. 2.a Que los tenga tambidn bastantes para creer que la persona a quien intent detener tuvo participaci6n en el. ART. 493. La autoridad 6 agente do policia judicial tomar4 nota del nombre, apellido, domicilio y demas circunstancias bastantes para la averiguaci6n e identificaci6n de la persona del procesado 6 del delincuente a quienes no detuviere por no estar comprendidos en ninguno de los casos del articulo anterior. Esta nota sera oportunamente entregada al juez 6 tribunal quo conozea 6 deba conocer de la causa. 'Este inciso ha sido modificado para Cuba de este modo: "Al que estuviere procesado por delito que segun el C6digo penal mereciere de denominacion de delito grave." (Vta.se en el Apendice 1, la Orden No. 109, de Julio 13 de 1899.)

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117 3. He who shall escape from a penal institution in which he may be serving a sentence. 4. He who shall escape from a prison in which he may be awaiting his transfer to a penal institution or place in which he is to serve the sentence which may have been imposed upon him by a final sentence. 5. He who shall escape while being conducted to the institution or place mentioned in the foregoing number. 6. He who shall escape while under arrest or detention awaiting trial. 7. A person accused or convicted who may be in default. AiR. 491. A private individual detaining another person shall state, if the latter so requires, that he has acted by virtue of reasons reasonably sufficient to believe that the person detained was included in any of the cases mentioned in the foregoing article. ART. 492. An authority or agent of the judicial police shall be obliged to place under arrest1. Any person included in any of the cases of article 490. 2. Any person accused of a crime to which the code affixes a penalty higher than that of prisi6n correctional.' 3. A person accused of a crime to which a lower penalty is affixed, if his antecedents or the circumstances of the act should raise a presumption that he will not appear when called upon by the judicial authorities. From the provisions of the foregoing paragraph is excepted the accused who at once furnishes bail sufficient, in the judgment of the authority or agent who desires to place him under arrest, to allow a reasonable presumption that he will appear when called upon by the judge or court of competent jurisdiction. 4. A person included in the provisions of the foregoing subdivision, although not yet undergoing trial, provided that the two conditions following are attendant: 1. That the authority or agent should have reasonable cause to believe the existence of an act presenting the characteristics of a crime. 2. That he shall also have sufficient cause to believe that the person he desires to arrest participated therein. ART. 493. The authority or agent of the judicial police shall record the name, surname, domicile, and other circumstances which may be sufficient for the verification and identification of the person of the accused or of the delinquent not detained on account of not being included in any of the cases of the foregoing article. This record shall be delivered at the proper time to the judge or court taking cognizance or which is to take cognizance of the cause. 'This paragraph has been amended for Cuba as follow: "Persons who may be undergoing trial for a grave offense, as defined by the penal code." (See order No. 109, July 13, 1899, in Appendix I.)

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118 ART. 494. Dicho juez 6 tribunal acordara tambien la detenci6n de los comprendidos en el art. 492, a prevenci6n con las autoridades y agentes de policia judicial. ART. 495. No se podrs detener por simples faltas, a no ser que el presunto reo no tuviese domicilio conocido ni diesel fianza bastante a juicio de la autoridad 6 agente que intent detenerle. ART. 496. El particular, autoridad 6 agente de policia judicial que detuviere a una persona en virtud do lo dispuesto en los precedents articulos, debera ponerla en libertad 6 entregarla al juez mis pr6ximo al lugar en quo hubiere hecho la detenci6n, dentro de las veinticuatro horas siguientes al acto de la misma. Si demorare la entrega, incurrir en la responsabilidad que establece el C6digo penal, si la dilaci6n hubiere excedido de veinticuatro horas.' ART. 497. Si el juez 6 tribunal 4 quien se hiciese la entrega fuere el propio de la causa, y la detenci6n se hubiese hecho segin lo dispuesto en los numeros 1.0, 2.o, y 6.o, y caso referente al procesado del 7.o, del art. 490 y 2.o, 3.o, y 4.o, del art. 492, elevara la detenci6n 4 prisi6n 6 la dejar4 sin efecto en el tirmino de setenta y dos horas, a contar desde quo el detenido le hubiese sido entregado. Lo propio y en identico plazo hara el juez 6 tribunal respecto de la persona cuya detenci6n hubiere 1 mismo acordado. ART. 498. Si el detenido en virtud de lo dispuesto en el num. 6.0 y primer caso del 7.o del art. 490, y 2.0 y 3.0 del art. 492, hubiese sido entregado a un juez distinto del juez 6 tribunal quo conozea de la causa, extender el primero una diligencia expresiva de la persona quo bubiere hecho la detenci6n, de su domicilio v demas circunstancias bastantes para buscarla e identificarla, de los motivos que d&ta manifestase haber tenido para la detenci6n, y del nombre, apellido y circunstancias del detenido. Esta diligencia sera firmada por el juez, el secretario, la persona que hubiese ejecutado la detenci6n y demas concurrentes. Por el quo no 1o hiciere firmaran dos testigos. Inmediatamente despu6s serin remitidas estas diligencias y la persona del detenido a disposici6n del juez 6 tribunal que conociese de la causa. ART. 499. Si el detenido 1o fuese por estar comprendido en los numeros 1.0 y 2.0 del articulo 490 y en el 4.o del 492, el juez de instruccion a quien se entregue practicara las primeras diligencias y elevara 1 El funcionario public que detuviere a una persona y no la entregare a la autoridad judicial dentro de veinticuatro horas, incurre en la responsabilidad del articulo 200 del Codigo penal. El 502 determine la pena aplicable al que fuera de los casos permitidos en la ley, aprehendiere d una persona para presentarla a la autoridad. ( Viase el Apbtdice II.)

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118 ART. 494. Said. judge or court shall also order the arrest of those included in the provisions of article 492, upon the suggestion of the authorities and agents of the judicial police. ART. 495. No person can be detained by reason of simple misdemeanors unless the presumed criminal should not have a known domicile or not give sufficient bond in the judgment of the authority or agent intending to detain him. ART. 496. A private individual, authority or agent of the judicial police who shall detain a person by virtue of the provisions of the foregoing articles must set him at liberty or deliver him to the judge nearest to the place where the arrest was made within 24 hours thereafter. Should he delay the delivery, he shall incur the liability established by the penal code, if the delay shall have exceeded 24 hours.' ART. 197. If the judge or court to whom the delivery is made should be the judge who is competent to take cognizance of the cause, and the arrest shall have been made according to the provisions of Nos. 1, 2, and 6, and the case relating to the accused of number 7 of article 490, and 2, 3, and 4 of article 492, he shall raise the detention to imprisonment or shall annul the same within 72 hours from the date of the delivery of the person detained. The same shall be done within a similar period by the judge or court with regard to the person whose detention he himself may have ordered. ART. 498. If the person detained by virtue of the provisions of number 6, and the first case of 7 of article 490, and 2 and 3 of article 492, shall have been delivered to a judge other than the judge or court taking cognizance of the cause, the former shall prepare a memorandum of the person making the detention, of his domicile, and other circumstances sufficient to seek and identify the same, of the reasons the latter may have alleged for making the dentention, and of the name, surname, and circumstances of the person detained. This memorandum shall be signed by the judge, the secretary, the person making the detention, and the other persons present. Two witnesses shall sign in the place of any one not doing so. Immediately thereupon these memoranda and the person detained shall be placed at the disposal of the judge or court taking cognizance of the cause. ART. 499. If the person detained should be so by reason of being included in the provisions of numbers 1 and 2 of article 490 and number 4 of article 492, the judge of examination to whom he may be xA public official who shall detain a person and shall not turn him over to the judicial authorities within twenty-four hours incurs the liability prescribed in article 200 of the penal code. Article 502 specifies the punishment applicable to a person who shall arrest a person in order to turn him over to the authorities outside of the cases permitted by law. (See Appendix II.)

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119 la detenci6n a prisi6n, 6 decretara la libertad del detenido, seg6n proceda, en el termino sefialado en el articulo 497. Hecho esto, cuando e1 no fuese juez competent, remitira a quien 1o sea las diligencias y la persona del preso, si lo hubiere. ART. 500. Cuando el detenido 1o sea por virtud de las causas 3.a, 4.a, 5.a y caso referente al condenado de la 7.a del art. 490, e1 juez a quien se entregue 6 quo haya acordado ]a detenci6n, dispondra que inmediatamente sea remitido al establccimiento 6 lugar donde debiere cumplir su condena. ART. 501. El auto elevando la detenci6n a prisi6n 6 dejindole sin efecto so pondra en conocimiento del ministorio fiscal, y se notificara al querellanto particular, si 1o hubiere, y al procesado, al cual so le hara saber asimismo el derecho que le asiste para pedir de palabra 6 por escrito la reposici6n del auto, consignandose en la notificaci6n las manifestaciones quo hiciere. CAPITULO III. DE LA PRISl6N PROVISIONAL. ART. 502. Mientras que la causa se hallo en estado de sumario, solo podra decretar ]a prisi6n provisional el juez de instrucci6n 6 el que former las primeras diligencias, 6 ei que, en virtud de comisi6n 6 interinamente, ejerza las funciones do aquil. ART. 503. Para decretar la prisi6n provisional seran necesarias las circunstancias siguientes: 1.a Que conste en la causa la existencia de un hecho que presented los caracteres de delito. 2.a Que este tenga senfalada pena superior a la do prisi6n correccional, segin la escala general comnprendida en el C6digo Penal, 6 bien que, aun cuando tenga sefialada pena inferior, consider el juez necesaria la prisi6n provisional, atendidas las circunstancias del hecho y los antecedentes del procesado, hasta que presto la fianza quo le sefiale. 3.a Que aparezean en la causa motivos bastantes para creer responsable criminalmente del delito 4 la persona contra quien se haya do dictar el auto de prison. 1 Este ptrrafo ha sido modificado para Cuba como sigue: "Que este delito sea de los ilamados por el C6digo Penal delitos graves 6 bien que, aun cuando sea de los delitos menos graves considered el juez necesaria la prisi6n correccional, atendidas las circunstancias del hecho y los antecedentes del procesado, hasta que preste la fianza que le sefiale." (VWase en el Apendice I, la Orden num. 109 de Julio 13 de 1899.)

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119 delivered shall take the first steps and shall raise the detention to imprisonment, or shall decree that the person detained be set at liberty, as may be proper, within the period fixed in article 497. Hereupon, if said judge should not have jurisdiction, he shall forward to the competent judge the memoranda and the person of the prisoner, if there be any. ART. 500. When the person detained is so by virtue of the third, fourth, and fifth causes, and the case relating to the condemned of the seventh cause of article 490, the judge to whom he may be delivered, or who shall have decreed the detention, shall order that he be transferred immediately to the institution or place where he is to serve his sentence. ART. 501. The public prosecutor, the private complainant, if there be any, and the accused shall be informed of the writ raising the detention to imprisonment or annulling the same, the latter being furthermore informed of his right to request a rehearing, orally or in writing, the statements he may make being embodied in the notice. CHAPTER III. PROVISIONAL IMPRISONMENT. ART. 502. While the cause is at the stage of the sumario, provisional imprisonment can be decreed only by the judge of examination or the one conducting the first steps, or the person who by virtue of a commission or temporarily exercises the functions of the former. ART. 503. In order to decree the provisional imprisonment, the following circumstances shall be necessary: 1. That the existence of an act presenting the characteristics of a crime is established in the cause. 2. That a penalty higher than prisidn correccional be affixed thereto according to the general scale embraced in the penal code, or that even though a lower penalty be affixed thereto the judge shall consider provisional imprisonment necessary, in view of the circumstances of the act and the antecedents of the accused, until he shall give the bond which he may require.' 3. That there shall appear in the case motives sufficient to believe that the person against whom the writ of imprisonment is to issue is criminally liable for the crime. 'This paragraph has been amended for Cuba as follows: "That this offense be included in those termed grave in the Penal Code, or when, even though it be a minor offense, the judge, considering the circumstances of the case and the antecedents of the accused, may consider his provisional confinement necessary until be shall give the bail required." (See in Appendix I, order 109, of July 13, 1899.)

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120 ART. 504. Proceder tambien la prisi6n provisional cuando coneurran la primer y tercera circunstancias del articulo anterior, y el procesado no hubiese comparecido sin motivo legitimo al primer lamamiento del juez 6 tribunal que conociere de la causa. No obstante io dispuesto en el articulo anterior, aunque el delito tenga sefialada pena superior a la de prision correctional, cuando el procesado tonga buenos antecedentes 6 se pueda creer fundadamente que no tratara de sustraerse a la acci6n de la justicia, y cuando ademis el delito no haya producido alarm ni sea de los que se cometan con frecuencia en el territorio de la respectiva provincia, podra el juez 6 tribunal acordar, mediante fianza, la libertad del inculpado. ART. 505. Para levar a efecto el auto de prisi6n se expediran dos mandamientos: uno cometido al alguacil del juzgado 6 portero del tribunal 6 al funcionario de policia judicial que haya de ejecutarlo, y otro al alcaide de la carcel que deba recibir al preso. En el mandamiento se consignara a la letra el auto de prisi6n, el nombre, apellido, naturaleza, edad, estado y domicilio del procesado, si constaren; el delito que de lugar al procedimiento; si se procede de oficio o a instancia de parte, y si la prison ha do ser con comunicacion 6 sin ella. Los alcaides de las carceles no recibiran a ninguna persona en clase de preso sin que se les entregue mandamiento de prisi6n. ART. 506. La incomunicaci6n de los detenidos 6 presos s6o podra durar el tiempo absolutamente preciso para evacuar las citas hechas en las indagatorias relativas al delito que haya dado lugar al procedimiento, sin que, por regla general, deba durar mas de cinco dias. El incomunicado podri asistir con las precauciones debidas a las diligencias periciales en que le d4 intervenci6n esta ley cuando su presencia no pueda desvirtuar el objeto de incomunicaci6n. ART. 507. Si las citas hubieren do evacuarse fuera del territorio de la isla 6 4 larga distancia, la incomunicaci6n podra durar el tiempo prudencialmente preciso para evitar la confabulaci6n. ART. 508. El juez 6 tribunal que conozca de la causa, podra, bajo su responsabilidad, mandar que vuelva a quedar incomunicado el preso aun despues de haber sido puesto on comunicaci6n, si la causa ofreciere Este pirrafo ha sido modificado para Cuba como sigue: "No obstante 1o dispuesto en el articulo anterior, aunque el hecho que motiva la causa aparezca como constitutivo de delito grave, cuando el procesado tenga buenos antecedentes 6 se pueda creer fundadamente que no tratarA de sustraerse a la acci6n de la justicia, y cuando ademis el delito no haya producido alarma ni sea de los que se cometan con frecuencia en el territorio de la respectiva provincia, podra el juez 6 tribunal acordar, mediante fianza, la libertad del inculpado." ( Vase en el Apendice I, la Orden num. 109 de Julio 13 de 1899.)

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120 ART. 504. Provisional imprisonment shall also be proper when the first and third circumstances of the foregoing article are attendant and the accused shall not have appeared without legitimate cause at the first call of the judge or court taking cognizance of the cause. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article, even though a penalty higher than prisidn correctional be affixed to the crime, when the accused shall have good antecedents or there shall be good reasons to believe that he will not attempt to evade justice, and when furthermore the crime shall not have produced alarm nor be of those which are frequently committed within the territory of the respective province, the judge or court may order that the accused be released on bail.' ART. 505. To carry out the order of imprisonment two mandates shall be issued, one addressed to the bailiff of the court or porter of the tribunal or to the official of the judicial police who is to execute the same, and another to the warden of the prison which is to receive the prisoner. The mandate shall contain the order of imprisonment in full; the name, surname, birthplace, age, conjugal condition, and domicile of the accused, if known; the crime which gave rise to the proceeding; if the proceedings are ex ofcio or at the instance of a party, and if the imprisonment is to be ordinary or incomunicado. The wardens of the prisons shall receive no person as a prisoner unless an order of imprisonment be delivered to them. AnT. 506. The incommunication of the persons detained or imprisoned can last only the period absolutely necessary to serve the citations made in the investigations of the crime which may have given rise to the proceedings, and must, as a general rule, not exceed five days. The incomunicado person may, with the proper precautions, attend the expert proceedings, which this law allows him to attend, when his presence shall not defeat the object of the incommunication. An. 507. If the citations shall have to be served outside of the territory of the island or at a great distance, the incommunication may continue the period reasonably necessary to prevent confabulation. ART. 508. The judge or court taking cognizance of the cause may order, under his liability, that a prisoner be again placed incomunicado, even after it has been raised, if good reasons should appear in the 1 This paragraph has been amended for Cuba as follows: Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding article, although the act giving rise to the case appears to constitute a grave offense, when the defendant shall have good antecedents, or it may for good reason be believed that he will not attempt to evade justice, or when the crime may not have produced alarm, or where it is not one frequently committed in the territory of the province, the judge or court may release the accused on bail." (See in Appendix I, order 109, of July 13, 1899.) 18473-01 16

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121 meritos para ello; pero la segunda incomunicaci6n no excedera nunca de tres dias, salvo lo dispuesto en el articulo precedent. Se instruira al procesado de la parte dispositiva del auto motivado en que se decrete la nueva incomunicaci6n. ART. 509. Se permitiran al preso incomunicado los libros y efectos que 61 se proporcione, si no ofrecieren inconveniente A juicio del Juez instructor. ART. 510. Tambien podra el Juez instructor permitir quo se facilite al incomunicado, si lo pidiere, recado de escribir, cuando, A su juicio, no ofrezca inconvenient este permiso; pero en la providencia en que lo concede adoptar las medidas oportunas para evitar que se frustren los efectos de la incomunicaci6n. ART. 511. El preso incomunicado no podra entregar ni recibir carta ni papel alguno sino por conducto y con licencia del juez instructor, el cual se enterara de su contenido para darles 6 negarles curso. ART. 512. Si el presunto reo no fuere habido en su domicilio y se ignorase su paradero, se expedira requisitoria a los jueces de instrucci6n en cuyo territorio hubiese motivos para sospechar que aquel se halle; y en todo caso se publicara aquilla en la Gaceta do la capital do la isla y en un peri6dico de la localidad 6 de la capital de la provincia respectiva, fijandose tambidn copias autorizadas, en formal de edicto, en el local del juzgado 6 tribunal que conociere de la causa y en el de los juices de instrucci6n a quienes se hubiese requerido.' ART. 513. En la requisitoria se expresaran el nombre y apellido, cargo, profesi6n at oficio, si constaren, del procesado rebelde, y las seias en virtud de las que pueda ser identificado, el delito por que se le process, el territorio donde sea de presumir que se encuentra, y la carcel a donde deba ser conducido. ART. 514. La requisitoria original y un ejemplar de cada peri6dico en que se hubiese publicado so uniran a la causa. ART. 515. El juez 6 tribunal que hubiese acordado la prisi6n del procesado rebelde y los juices do instrucci6n a quienes se enviaren las requisitorias, pondran en conocimiento de las autoridados y agents de policia judicial de sus respectivos territorios las circunstancias mencionadas en el articulo 513. ART. 516. El auto se ratificara en todo caso 6 se repondra, oldo el presunto reo, dentro de las setenta y dos horas siguientes al acto de la prison. ART. 517. El auto ratificando el de prisi6n y el de soltura del preso se notificwran a las mismas personas que el de prisi6n. SWase en el Ap6ndice I, la orden ndm. 181 de Abril 30 de 1900.

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121 cause; but the second incommunication can never exceed three days, reserving the provisions of the foregoing article. The accused shall be informed of the reasons stated in the writ which orders the second incommunication. ART. 509. An incomunicado prisoner shall be allowed the books and effects which he may procure himself, should there be no objection in the judgment of the examining judge. ART. 510. The examining judge may also permit that the incomunicado prisoner, should he request it, be furnished writing material, if in his judgment this permission shall not offer objection; but in the order granting such permission he shall take the proper measures to prevent that the effects of the incommunication be defeated. ART. 511. An incommunicado prisoner can not deliver nor receive any letter or paper whatsoever, except through and with the permission of the examining judge, who shall examine the contents thereof in order to allow or refuse its delivery. ART. 512. If the presumed criminal be not found at his residence and his whereabouts be unknown, a requisition shall be directed to the judges of examination within whose jurisdiction there is reason to suspect that he may be found; and in any case said requisition shall be published in the Gazette of the capital of the island and in a newspaper of the locality or of the capital of the proper province, authenticated copies being also affixed, in the form of edicts, in the court or tribunal taking cognizance of the cause and in that of the judges of examination to whom the requisition may have been directed.' ART. 513. In the requisition shall be stated the name and surname, office, profession or trade, if known, of the accused person in default, and the marks by which he can be identified, the crime for which he is prosecuted, the territory where it is presumed that he may be found, and the prison to which he is to be taken. ART. 514. The original requisition and a copy of each newspaper in which it may have been published shall be attached to the cause. ART. 515. The judge or court ordering the imprisonment of an accused person in default, and the judges of examination to whom the requisitions may be sent, shall inform the authorities and agents of the judicial police of their respective territories of the circumstances mentioned in article 513. ART. 516. The decree shall be ratified in every case and shall be returned, after the presumed criminal has been heard, within seventytwo hours after the arrest. ART. 517. Notice of the order ratifying the decree of imprisonment and that ordering the release of the imprisoned person shall be served upon the same persons as those upon whom notice of the decree of imprisonment was served. 'See in Appendix I, Order No. 181 of April 30, 1900.

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122 Contra ellos podra interponerse recurso de apelaci6n. Inmediatamente despues de dictados, y dentro de las mismas setenta y dos horas, so expedira al alcaide de la carcel en que se hallare el preso el correspondiente mandamiento en la forma expresada en el art. 505. ART. 518. Los autos en que so decrete 6 deniegue la prisi6n 6 excarcelaci6n serin apelables s6lo en ei efecto devolutivo. La tramitaci6n so ajustara a 1o dispuesto en el tit. X del libro primero de esta ley. ART. 519. Todas las diligencias do prisi6n provisional so sustan ciarAn en pieza separada. CAPITULO IV. DEL TRATAMIENTO DE LOS DETENIDOS 6 PRESOS. ART. 520. La detenci6n, 10 mismo que la prisi6n provisional, deben efectuarse de la manera y on la forma que perjudiquen To menos posible a la persona y a la reputaci6n del inculpado. Su libertad no debe restringirse sino en los limits absolutamente indispensables para asegurar su persona e impedir las comunicaciones que puedan perjudiear la instrucci6n de la causa. ART. 521. Los detenidos estaran, A ser posible, separados los unos de los otros. Si la separaci6n no fuese posible, el j uez instructor 6 tribunal cuidara de que no so reunan personas de diferente sexo ni los co-reos en una misma prisi6n, y de que los j6venes y los no reincidentes se fallen separados de los de edad madura y de los reincidentes. Para esta separaci6n se tendran en cuenta el grado de educaci6n del detenido, su edad y la naturaleza del delito que se le impute. ART. 522. Todo detenido 6 preso puede procurarse a sus expensas las comodidades y ocupaciones compatibles con el objeto do su detenci6n y con el regimen de la carcel, siempre quo no comprometan su seguridad 6 la reserva del sumario. ART. 523. Cuando el detenido 6 preso doseare ser visitado por un ministro de su region, por un medico, por sus parientes o personas con quienes est6 en relaci6n de intereses, 6 por las que puedan darle sus consejos, debera permitirsele con las condiciones prescritas en el reglamento de carceles, si no afectasen al secreto y 6xito del sumario. La relaci6n con el abogado defensor no podra impedirsele mientras estuviere en comunicaci6n.

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122 An appeal lies from such decrees. Immediately after being issued, and within the same period of seventy-two hours, the proper mandate shall be issued to the warden of the prison in which the prisoner may be, in the manner prescribed in article 505. ART. 518. Decisions decreeing or refusing to order the imprisonment or release may be appealed from for a review of the proceedings only. The proceedings shall be adjusted to the provisions of Title X of the first book of this law. ART. 519. All proceedings relating to provisional imprisonment shall be conducted in a separate record. CHAPTER IV. TREATMENT OF PERSONS DETAINED OR IMPRISONED. ART. 520. The detention, as well as the provisional imprisonment, must be effected in the manner and form which shall least injure the person and reputation of the person accused. His liberty must not be restricted except within the limits absolutely indispensable to secure his person and prevent communications which may be of prejudice to the cause. ART. 521. Persons detained shall, in so far as possible, be kept separated from each other. If such separation should not be possible, the judge of examination or court shall seek to prevent that persons of different sexes or cocriminals be placed in the same prison, and that young persons and those who are not recidivists be kept separated from those of more mature age and recidivists. In making this separation the degree of education of the person detained, his age, and the character of the crime charged against him shall be taken into consideration. ART. 522. Every person detained or imprisoned may at his own expense procure the commodities and occupations compatible with the object of his detention and with the prison regulations, provided that they do not affect his security or the secrecy of the sumario. ART. 523. When the person detained or imprisoned should desire to be visited by a minister of his religion, by a physician, by his relatives or persons with whom he has joint interests, or by persons who may give him advice, he must be allowed to receive such visits under the conditions prescribed by the prison regulations, should they not affect the secrecy and success of the sumario. Consultations with his coun sel can not be forbidden him while he is not incommunicado.

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123 ART. 524. El juez instructor autorizar, en cuanto no se perjudique el Cxito de la instrucci6n, los medios de correspondencia y comunicaci6n de que pueda hacer uso el detenido 6 preso. Pero en ningun caso debe impedirse a los detenidos 6 presos la libertad de escribir a los funcionarios superiores del orden judicial. ART. 525. No se adoptari contra el detenido 6 preso ninguna medida extraordinaria de seguridad sino en caso de desobediencia, de violencia 6 de rebeli6n, 6 cuando haya intentado 6 hecho preparativos para fugarse. Esta medida deber4 ser temporal, y solo subsistir4 el tiempo estrictamente necesario. ART. 526. El juez instructor visitar6 una vez por semana, sin previo aviso ni dia determinado, las prisiones de la localidad, acompaflado de un individuo del ministerio fiscal, que podri ser el fiscal municipal delegado al efecto por el fiscal de la respective audiencia; y donde exista este tribunal, harin ]a visit el president del mismo 6 el de la sala de 1o criminal y un magistrado, con un individuo del ministerio fiscal y con asistencia del juez instructor. En la visit se enterarn do todo lo concerniente l Ia situaci6n de los presos 6 detenidos, y adoptarin las medidas que quepan dentro de sus atribuciones para corregir los abusos que notaren. ART. 527. Los detenidos 6 presos, mientras se hallen incomunicados, no podran disfrutar de los beneficios expresados en el presented capitulo, y regiran, respecto de los mismos, las disposiciones del capitulo anterior.

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123 ART. 524. The examining judge shall authorize, in so far as not prejudicial to the success of the investigation, the means of correspondence and communication of which the person detained or prisoner may avail himself. But in no case can persons detained or imprisoned be prevented from writing to the superior officials of the judiciary. ART. 525. No extraordinary measures of safety shall be taken against the person detained or imprisoned, except in case of disobedience, violence, or mutiny, or when he shall have attempted or made preparations to escape. Such measures must be temporary, and shall only continue such time as may be strictly necessary. ART. 526. The examining judge shall visit the prisons of the locality once a week without previous notice nor on a determined day, accompanied by a member of the department of public prosecution, who may be the municipal fiscal delegated for such purpose by the fiscal of the respective audiencia; and where such tribunal is established, the visit shall be made by the presiding judge of the same or of the criminal chamber and one associate justice, with one member of the department of public prosecution and with the attendance of the examining judge. During their visit they shall take cognizance of all that concerns the condition of the prisoners or persons detained, and shall take the measures within their power to correct any abuses they may notice. ART. 527. Detained or imprisoned persons, while incomunicado, can not enjoy the privileges mentioned in this chapter, and shall be governed by the provisions contained in the foregoing chapter.

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TITULO VII. DE LA LIBERTAD PROVISIONAL DEL PROCESADO. ART. 528. La prisi6n provisional s6lo durar4 lo que subsistan los motivos que la hayan ocasionado. El detenido 6 preso sera puesto en libertad en cualquier estado de la causa en que resulte su inocencia. Todas las autoridades que intervengan en un proceso estaran obligadas a dilatar 1o menos posible la detenci6n y la prisi6n provisional de los inculpados 6 procesados. ART. 529. Cuando el procesado 1o fuere por delito a que estuviese senalada pena inferior a la prisi6n correctional, segin la escala general del c6digo penal, y no estuviere por otra part comprendido en el numero 3.o del articulo 492 6 en el parrafo primero del articulo 504 de esta ley, el juez 6 tribunal que conociere de la causa decretare si ei procesado ha de dar 6 no fianza para continuar en libertad provisional. En el mismo auto, si el juez decretare la fianza, fijar4 la calidad y cantidad de la que se hubiere de prestar.' Este auto se pondri en conocimiento del ministerio fiscal, y se notificara al querellante particular y al procesado, y seri apelable en un solo efecto. ART. 530. El procesado que hubiere de estar en libertad provisional, con 6 sin fianza, constituiri apud acta obligaci6n de comparecer en los dias que le fueren sefialados en el auto respectivo, y ademis cuantas veces fuere lamado ante el juez 6 tribunal que conozca de la causa. ART. 531. Para determinar la calidad y cantidad de la fianza se tomaran en cuenta la naturaleza del delito, el estado social y antece1 Los dos primeros pirrafos del articulo 529 de la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal, se entenderdn en 1o sucesivo redactados de este modo para Cuba: "El procesado tendrd derecho al beneficio de la libertad bajo flanza, siempre que lo fuere por delito que pueda ser comprendido en la definici6n que el articulo 6.o del c6digo penal da de los delitos menos graves. Si el procesado por uno de estos delitos no hubiere comparecido, sin motivo legftimo, al primer 1lamamiento de la autoridad judicial, estar4 en las facultades discrecionales del juez instructor el admitirle 6 no el beneficio de la libertad bajo fianza. "En el auto en que el juez decretare la fianza, fijarni la calidad y cantidad de la que se hubiere de prestar." ( Vase en el Apendice 1, la orden nim. 109 de Julio 13 de 1899.) 124

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TITLE VII. TEMPORARY LIBERTY OF THE ACCUSED. ART. 528. Provisional imprisonment shall continue only such time as the causes which gave rise thereto may subsist. The person detained or imprisoned shall be set at liberty at any stage of the cause when his innocence is established. All the authorities taking part in a proceeding shall be obliged to make the detention or provisional imprisonment of accused persons as short as possible. ART. 529. If the accused be charged with a crime to which is affixed a penalty lower than prisidn correctional, according to the general scale of the penal code, and on the other hand should not be included in the provisions of subdivision 3 of article 492 or in the first paragraph of article 504 of this law, the judge or court taking cognizance of the cause shall decree whether the accused is or is not to be granted the benefit of bail. In the same decree fixing the bail, the judge shall determine the amount as well as the character thereof.' This decree shall be communicated to the public prosecutor and notice shall be served upon the private complainant and the accused, and it may be appealed for a review of the proceedings only. ART. 530. A person accused who is to enjoy temporary liberty, with or without bail, shall constitute apud acta an obligation to appear on the day which may be set in the respective decree and furthermore as often as he might be called before the judge or court taking cognizance of the cause. ART. 531. In order to determine the amount and character of the bail, the nature of the crime, the social status and the antecedents of the 1 The first two paragraphs of article 529 of the Law of Criminal Procedure are amended for Cuba to read as follows: "The defendant shall have the right to the benefit of bail, provided he is charged with an offense included under the definition of minor offenses, given in article 6 of the Penal Code. If a person indicted for one of these offenses should, without good reason, fail to appear at the first call of the judicial authority, the examining judge shall have discretionary power to grant or to refuse him the benefit of bail. In the decree by which the judge orders the bail, its character and amount shall be stated." (See in Appendix 1, order 109, of July 13, 1899.) 124

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125 dentes del procesado y las demas circunstancias que pudieren influir en el mayor 6 menor interns de este para ponerse fuera del alcance de la autoridad judicial. ART. 532. La fianza se destinara a responder de la comparecencia del procesado cuando fuere lamado por el juez 6 tribunal que conozca de la causa. Su importe serviri para satisfacer ]as costas causadas on el ramo separado formado para su constituci6n, y el resto se adjudicara al Estado. ART. 533. Es aplicable a las flanzas que se ofrezcan para obtener la libertad provisional de un procesado todo cuanto a su naturaleza, manera de constituirse, de ser admitidas y calificadas y de sustituirse, so determina en los articulos 591 y siguientes, hasta el 596 inclusive del titulo IX de este libro. ART. 534. Si al primer lamamiento judicial no compareciere el acusado 6 no justificare la imposibilidad de bacerlo, se sefialar al fiador personal 6 al dueflo de los bienes de cualquiera clase dados on fianza, el termino de diez dias para que presente al rebelde. ART. 535. Si el fiador personal 6 dueno de los bienes do la fianza no presentare al rebelde en el termino fijado, se procedera a hacer Csta efectiva, declarandose adjudicada al Estado y baciendo entrega de ella a la administration mas pr6xima de rental, con deducci6n de las costas indicadas al final del articulo 532. ART. 536. Para realizar toda fianza se procedera por la via de apremio. Si se tratare de una fianza personal, se procedera tambien por la via de apremio contra los bienes del fiador hasta hacer efectiva la cantidad que se haya fijado al admitir la referida fianza. Los efectos piblicos, acciones y obligaciones de ferrocarriles y obras pdblicas y demas valores mercantile 6 industriales so enajenaran por agent de bolsa 6 corredor en su defecto. Si no le hubiere en el lugar de la casa, se remitirin para su enajenaci6n al juez 6 tribunal de la plaza mais pr6xima en que lo haya. Los demas muebles dados en prenda, asi como los inmuebles hipotecados, se venderin en piblica subasta, previa tasaci6n. ART. 537. Cuando los bienes de la fianza fueren del domino del procesado, se realizari y adjudicari 6sta al estado inmediatanente que aquil dejare de comparecer al lamamiento judical 6 de justificar la imposibilidad de hacerlo. ART. 538. En todas las diligencias de enajenaci6n de bienes de las fianzas y de la entrega de su importe en las administraciones de hacienda publica intervendra el ministerio fiscal.

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125 accused shall be taken into consideration, as well as all other circumstances which may bear upon the greater or lesser interest of the latter to place himself beyond the jurisdiction of the judicial authority. ART. 532. The purpose of the bail shall be to answer for the appearance of the accused when called by the judge or court taking cognizance of the cause. The amount thereof shall serve to satisfy the costs incurred in the separate record required thereby, and the balance shall be adjudicated to the State. ART. 533. The provisions of articles 591 to 596, inclusive, of Title IX of this book, relating to the character, manner of constituting, admitting, and classifying, as well as substituting bonds, is applicable to bonds offered to obtain the temporary liberty of an accused person. ART. 534. If the accused should not appear at the first judicial call or should not give a good reason preventing him from so doing, a period of ten days shall be allowed the personal bondsman, or the owner of the property of whatsoever kind given in bond, within which to produce the person in default. ART. 535. If the personal bondsman or the owner of the property constituting the bond should not produce the person in default within the period fixed, the bail shall be forfeited and it shall be adjudicated to the State and turned over to the nearest revenue collector, deducting the costs mentioned at the end of article 532. ART. 536. In order to recover upon any bond compulsory process shall be employed. If a personal bond should be involved, judicial proceedings shall also be brought against the property of the bondsman to the extent necessary to recover the amount which may have been fixed upon the admission of the said bond. Public securities, stock, and obligations of railroads and public works and other similar commercial or industrial securities shall be disposed of through an exchange broker or an agent in his absence. Should there be none in the place of the cause, they shall be forwarded for disposal to the judge or court of the nearest place where there may be one. Other personal property given in pledge, as well as mortgaged real property, shall be sold at public sale after being appraised. ART. 537. If the property constituting the bond should belong to the accused, it shall be sold and the proceeds adjudicated to the State if the person accused fails to appear upon the judicial call or does not justify his inability to do so. ART. 538. In all proceedings involving the alienation of property constituting bonds and of the delivery of the proceeds into the administrations of the public treasury, the department of public prosecution shall intervene.

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126 El fiscal de la audiencia podrai delegar su intervenci6n en el fiscal municipal donde se encuentre el juez de instrucci6n, 6 bien reclamar que se le remita el expediente cuando tenga estado, procurando, a ser posible, deducir sus pretensiones en un solo dictamen. ART. 539. Los autos de prisi6n y libertad provisionales y de fianza seran reformables de oficio 6 a instancia de parte d urante todo el curso de la causa. En su consecuencia, el procesado podra ser preso y puesto en libertad cuantas veces sea procedente, y la fianza podra ser aunentada 6 disminuida en cuanto resulte necesario para asegurar las consecuencias del juicio. ART. 540. Si el procesado no present 6 amplia la fianza en el termino que se le senale, sera reducido a prison. ART. 541. Se cancelara la fianza: 1.0 Cuando ci fiador 1o pidiere, presentando a la vez al procesado. 2.0 Cuando este fuere reducilo a prisi6n. 3.0 Cuando se dictare auto firme de sobreseimiento 6 sentencia firme absolutoria, 6 cuando, siendo condenatoria, se presentare el reo para cumplir la condena. 4o. Por muerte del procesado, estando pendiente la causa. ART. 542. Si se hubiere dictado sentencia firme condenatoria, y el procesado no compareciere al primer llamamiento 6 no justificare la imposibilidad de hacerlo, se adjudicara la fianza al Estado en los terminos establecidos en el articulo 535. ART. 543. Una vez adjudicada la fianza, no tendri acci6n el fiador para pedir la devoluci6n, queddndole a salvo su derecho para reclamar la indemnizaci6n contra el procesado 6 sus causas habientes. ART. 544. Las diligencias de prisi6n y libertad provisionales y fianza se sustanciaran en pieza separada.

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126 The fiscal of the audiencia may delegate his intervention to the municipal fiscal at the place where the judge of examination may be, or demand that the record of the proceedings be forwarded to him when concluded, seeking in so far as possible to embody his desires in one and the same order. ART. 539. Decrees of imprisonment and temporary liberty and bonds may be changed at the instance of the court or of a party at any stage of the cause. Consequently the accused may be imprisoned and placed at liberty as often as required, and his bail may be increased or reduced in so far as may be necessary to assure the consequences of the action. ART. 540. If the person accused does not present or increase the bond within the period allowed him, he shall be committed to prison. ART. 541. The bond shall be canceled1. Upon the request of the bondsman upon the surrender of the accused. 2. When the latter is committed to prison. 3. When a final decree of dismissal or a final sentence of acquittal is rendered, or in case of conviction, if the criminal should appear to serve his sentence. 4. By the death of the accused during the pendency of the cause. ART. 542. If a final condemnatory sentence should have issued, and the accused should not appear at the first call or should not establish his inability to do so, the bond shall be forfeited to the State in the manner prescribed in article 535. ART. 543. After the bond has been forfeited, the bondsman shall have no right of action for the return thereof, but he shall reserve his right of action for indemnity against the person accused or his successors in right. ART. 544. Proceedings upon imprisonment and temporary liberty and bond shall be had in a separate record.

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TITULO VIII. DE LA ENTRADA Y REGISTRO EN LUGAR CERRADO, DEL DE LIBROS Y PAPELES Y DE LA DETENCI6N Y APERTURA DE LA CORRESPONDENCE ESCRITA Y TELEGRAFICA. ART. 545. Nadie podr entrar en el domicilio de un espafiol 6 extranjero residente en Espala sin su consentimiento, excepto en los casos y en la forma expresamente previstos en las eyes. ART. 546. El juez 6 el tribunal que conociere de la causa podrs decretar la entrada y registro, de dia 6 do noche, en todos los edificios y lugares publicos, sea cualquiera el territorio en que radiquen, cuando hubiere indicios de encontrarse alli el procesado 6 efectos 6 instrumentos del delito, 6 libros, papeles 6 otros objetos que puedan servir para su descubrimiento y comprobaci6n. ART. 547. Se reputarin edificios 6 lugares publicos para la observancia de 1o dispuesto en este capitulo: 1.0 Los que estuvieren destinados a cualquier servicio oficial, militar 6 civil del Estado, de la provincia 6 del municipio, aunque habiten alli los encargados de dicho servicio, 6 los de la conservaci6n y custodia del edificio 6 lugar. 2.0 Los que estuvieren destinados a cualquier establecimiento de reunion o recreo, fueren o no licitos. 3.0 Cualesquiera otros edificios 6 lugares cerrados quo no constituyeren domicilio de un particular con arreglo a lo dispuesto en el articulo 554. 4.0 Los buques del Estado. ART. 548. El juez necesitara para la entrada y registro en el palacio de cualquiera de los cuerpos colegisladores la autorizaci6n del presidente respectivo. ART. 549. Para la entrada y registro en los templos y demis lugares religiosos bastard pasar recado de atenci6n a las personas a cuyo cargo estuvieren. ART. 550. Podra asimismo el juez instructor ordenar en los casos indicados en ol articulo 546 la entrada v registro, de dia 6 de noche, si la urgencia lo hiciere necesario, on cualquier edificio 6 lugar cerrado 6 parte de 1 que constituya domicilio de cualquier espafiol 6 extranjero residente en Espatia; pero precediendo siempre el consentimiente del interesado, conforme se previene en el articulo 6.0 de la Constituci6n, 6 a falta de consentimiento, en virtud de auto motivado que se notificara 127

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TITLE VIII. ENTRY AND SEARCH OF CLOSED PLACES, OF BOOKS AND PAPERS, AND THE DETENTION AND OPENING OF WRITTEN AND TELEGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. ART. 545. No one can enter the domicile of a Spaniard or foreigner residing in Spain without his consent, excepting in the cases and in the manner expressly provided for by law. ART. 546. The judge or court taking cognizance of the cause may order an entry and search, by day or night, of any public buildings and places, whatever be the district in which situated, if there are indications that the accused or the effects or instruments of the crime, or books, papers, or other objects which may serve in the discovery and verification thereof are to be found there. ART. 547. The following shall be considered public buildings or places for the observance of the provisions of this chapter: 1. Those destined to any official, military, or civil service of the State, province, or municipality, even though the persons entrusted with said service or the persons in charge of the care and custody of the building or place reside in the same. 2. Those destined to any establishment for meetings or recreation, licit or otherwise. 3. Any other closed buildings or places which do not constitute the residence of a private individual in accordance with the provisions of article 554. 4. The vessels of the State. ART. 548. The judge shall require for the entry and search of the palace of any of the Colegislative Bodies the authority of the respective president. ART. 549. For the purpose of entering and searching temples and other religious places, a respectful communication to the persons in charge thereof shall be sufficient. ART. 550. The examining judge may also, in the cases indicated in article 546, order the entry and search, by day or night, if the urgency of the case should so require, of any building or closed place or part thereof which may constitute the residence of any Spaniard or foreigner residing in Spain; but always after the consent of the person interested has been obtained as provided by article 6 of the Constitution, or in the absence of consent by virtue of an order setting forth 127

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128 a la persona interesada inmediatamente, 6 1o mias tarde, dentro do las veinticuatro horas do haberse dictado.' ART. 551. Se entender4 que presta su consentimiento aquel que, requerido por quien hubiere de efectuar la entrada y registro para que los permita, ejecuta por su parte los actors necesarios que de e1 dependan para que puedan toner efecto, sin invocar la inviolabilidad que reconoce al domicilio el articulo 6.0 do la Constituci6n del Estado. ART. 552. Al practicer los registros deberan evitarse las inspecciones infitiles, procurando no perjudicar ni importunar al interesado mas de lo necesario, y so adoptarin todo genero do precauciones para no comprometer su reputaci6n, respetando sus secretos si no interesaren a la instrucci6n. AuT. 553. Los agents de policia podran asimismo proceder de propia autoridad al registro do un lugar habitado cuando haya mandamiento de prisi6n contra una persona y traten de l1evar a efecto su captura, cuando un individuo sea sorprendido en flagrante delito 6 cuando un delincuente, inmediatamente perseguido por los agents de la autoridad, se oculte 6 refugie en alguna casa. ART. 554. Se reputan domicilio para los efectos de los articulos anteriores: 1.0 Los Palacios Reales, esten 6 no habitados por el Monarca al tiempo de la entrada 6 registro. 2.0 El edificio 6 lugar cerrado 6 la part de e1 destinada principalmente a la habitaci6n de cualquier espafiol 6 extranjero residents en Espana y de su familia. 3.o Los buques nacionales mercantes. ART. 555. Para registrar en el Palacio en que se halle residiendo el Monarca solicitara el juez real licencia por conducto del mayordomo mayor de S. M. ART. 556. En los sitios reales en que no so hallare e1 Monarca al tiempo del registro sera necesaria la licencia del jefe 6 empleado del servicio de S. M. que tuviere i. su cargo la custodia del edificio, 6 la del quo haga sus veces cuando se solicitaro, si estuviere ausente. ART. 557. Las tabernas, casas de comidas, posadas y fondas no se reputaran como domicilio de los que se encuentren 6 residan on ellas accidental 6 temporalmento; y lo serdn tan s6lo de los taberneros, hosteleros, posaderos y fondistas que se hallen a su frente y habiten alli con sus familias en la part del edificio a este servicio destinada. ART. 558. El auto de entrada y registry. en el domicilio de un particular sera siempre fundado, y el juez expresara en e1 concretamente Para la recta inteligencia y aplicaci6n do este articulo, hay que tender presente 1o que disponen los articulos 566, 567 y 568.

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128 the reasons for the action, which shall be served upon the person interested at once or not later than 24 hours after its issue.1 ART. 551. It shall be understood that a person gives his consent who, upon being requested by the person who is to make the entry and search to allow the same, performs on his part the acts necessary depending upon him for such entry and search to take place, without invoking the inviolability which article 6 of the Constitution of the State recognizes in a domicile. ART. 552. Useless inspections shall be avoided in making the searches, it being sought not to prejudice nor importune the person interested more than necessary, and all precautions possible shall be taken not to compromise his reputation, his secrets being respected, should they not interest the investigation. ART. 553. Police agents may also proceed upon their own responsibility in making the search of some inhabited place when a warrant of arrest has been issued against a person and they are attempting to capture him, when an individual is surprised at a flagrant crime, or when a delinquent being immediately pursued by the authorities shall conceal himself or take refuge in some house. ART. 554. For the purposes of the foregoing article the following are considered domiciles: 1. The royal palaces, whether or not inhabited by the Monarch at the time of the entry or search. 2. A building or closed place, or that portion thereof destined principally to the dwelling of any Spaniard or foreigner residing in Spain and of his family. 3. National merchant vessels. ART. 555. In order to search the palace in which the Monarch is residing the royal judge shall request permission through the chief major domo of His Majesty. ART. 556. In reservations where the Monarch may not be at the time of the search the permission of the chief or employee of the service of His Majesty in charge of the custody of the building or the person acting in his stead, if the former be absent, shall be necessary. Aur. 557. Taverns, eating houses, restaurants, and saloons shall not be considered the domicile of those who may be there or reside in the same accidentally or temporarily, but shall be considered the domicile only of the tavern, restaurant, or saloon keepers in charge thereof and who dwell there with their families with regard to that part of the building set aside for such purpose. ART. 558. The warrant for the entry and search of the domicile of a private party shall always set forth the reasons therefor, and the 1 The provisions of articles 566, 567, and 568 must be borne in mind in order to properly understand and apply this article. 18473-01 17

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129 el edificio 6 lugar cerrado en que haya de verificarse, si tendrs lugar tan s6lo de dia y la autoridad 6 funcionario que los haya de practicer. ART. 559. Para la entrada y registro en los edificios destinados a la habitaci6n 6 oficina do los representantes de naciones extranjeras acreditadas cerca del Gobierno de Espafia, les pedir4 su venia el juez por medio de atento oficio, en el que les rogara que conteston en el termino de doce horas. ART. 560. Si transcurriere este termino sin haberlo hecho, 6 si el representante extranjero denegare la venia, el juez lo comunicar inmediatamente al Ministro de Ultramar, empleando para ello el telegrafo, si lo hubiere. Entre tanto quo el Ministro no le comunique su resoluci6n, se abstendra de entrar y registrar en el edificio; pero adoptara las medidas de vigilancia a que se refiere el articulo 567. AuT. 561. Tampoco podrs entrar y registrar on los buques mercantes extranjeros sin la autorizaci6n del eapitan, 6 si 6ste la denegare, sin la del c6nsul do su naci6n. En los buques extranjeros de guerra, la falta do autorizaci6n del comandante se suplir4 por la del embajador 6 ministro de la naci6n a quo pertenezean. Aur. 562. Se podrs entrar on las habitaciones de los c6nsules extranjeros y en sus oficinas, pasandoles previamente recado do atenci6n y observando las formalidades prescritas en la Constituci6n del Estado y on las eyes. ART. 563. Si el edificio 6 lugar cerrado estuviere on el territorio propio del juez instructor, podrs encomendar la entrada y registro al juez municipal del territorio en quo el edificio 6 lugar cerrado radiquen, 6 4 cualquiera autoridad 6 agente de policia judicial. Si el quo 1o hubiose ordenado fuere cl juez municipal, podrs encomondarlo tambien a dichas autoridades 6 agentes de policia judicial. Cuando el edificio 6 lugar cerrado estuviere fuera del territorio del juez, encomendar4 ste la practica de las operaciones al juez do su propia categoria del territorio en quo aquollos radiquen, el cual a su vez podrs encomendarlas a las autoridades 6 agents de policia judicial. ART. 564. Si se tratare de un edificio 6 lugar pflblico comprendido en los nmoros 1.0 y 3.o del articulo 547, el juez oficiara a la autoridad 6 jefe do quo aquollos dependan on la misma poblaci6n. Si 6ste no contestare en el termino que so le fije en el oficio, se notificara c1 auto en quo se disponga la entrada y registro al encargado de la conservaei6n 6 custodia del edificio 6 lugar on que se hubiere de entrar y registrar. Si se tratare do buques del Estado, las comunicaciones se dirigiran a los comandantes respectivos.

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129 judge shall state therein concisely the building or closed space to be entered and searched, whether it is to take place in the daytime only, and the authority or official to perform the service. ART. 559. For the entry and search of buildings used for the residence or office of the representatives of foreign nations accredited to the Government of Spain, the judge shall ask their consent in a respectful communication, in which he shall request them to reply within the period of twelve hours. ART. 560. If such period should expire without any answer being made, or if the foreign representative should refuse his consent, the judge shall at once communicate such refusal to the Colonial Minister by telegraph, if there be any. Until the Minister communicates his decision, he shall abstain from entering and searching the building, but he shall take the measures of surveillance referred to in article 567. ART. 561. Nor can he enter and search foreign merchant vessels without the authority of the captain, or, if the latter should refuse it, without that of the consul of his nation. In the case of foreign men-of-war, the lack of authorization of the commander shall be supplied by that of the ambassador or minister of the nation to which they may belong. ART. 562. The dwellings and offices of foreign consuls may be entered, a respectful communication being first sent them, and the formalities prescribed by the constitution of the State and by the laws being observed. ART. 563. If the building or closed place should be situated within the district of the examining judge, he may entrust the entry and search to the municipal judge of the territory in which the building or closed place may be situated, or to any authority or agent of the judicial police. If a municipal judge ordered it, he may also entrust said entry and search to said authorities or agents of the judicial police. If the building or closed place be situated outside the jurisdiction of the judge, the latter shall entrust the commission to the judge of the same category in the territory in which it may be situate, who in his turn may entrust the proceedings to the authorities or agents of the judicial police. AuT. 564. If a building or public place included in numbers 1 and 3 of article 547 should be in question, the judge shall communicate in writing with the authority or chief in charge thereof in the same town. If the latter should not reply within the period fixed in the communication, the decree ordering the entry and search shall be communicated to the person entrusted with the care or custody of the building or place to be entered and searched. If vessels of the State should be in question, the communications shall be addressed to the proper commanders.

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130 ART. 565. Cuando 01 edificio 6 lugar fueren de los comprendidos en el nmero 2.0 del articulo 547, la notificaci6n se hara 6 la persona que se halle al frente del establecimiento de reunion 6 recreo, 6 a quien haga sus veces si aquil estuviere ausente. ART. 566. Si la entrada y registro sc hubieren de hacer en el domicilio de un particular, se notificara el auto 6 6ste; y si no fuere habido a la primer diligencia en busca, a su encargado. Si no fuere tampoco habido el encargado, se hara la notificaci6n a cualquiera otra persona mayor do edad que se hallare en ci domicilio, prefiriendo para esto 6 los individuos de la familia del interesado. Si no se halla a nadie, se hara constar por diligencia, quo se extenders con asistencia de dos vecinos, los cuales deberin firmarla. ART. 567. Desde el momento en que el juez acuerde la entrada y registro en cualquier edificio 6 lugar cerrado, adoptar6 las medidas de vigilancia convenientes para evitar la fuga del procesado 6 la sustracci6n de los instrumentos, efectos del delito, libros, papeles 6 cualesquiera otras cosas que hayan de ser objeto del registro. ART. 568. Practicadas las diligencias que so establecen en los articulos anteriores, se procedera a la entrada y registro, empleando para ello, si fuere necesario, el auxilio de la fuerza. ART. 569. El registro so hara a presencia del interesado 6 de la persona que legitimamente le represented. Si aqul no fuere habido 6 no quisiere concurrir ni nombrar representante, se practicard a presencia de un individuo de su familia mayor de edad. Si no lo hubiere, se hara a presencia de dos testigos, vecinos del mismo pueblo. El registro se practicara siempre a presencia del secretario y dos testigos, sin contar los de quo habla el parrafo anterior, extendidndose acta, que firmaran todos los concurrentes. La existencia del interesado, de su representante, de los individuos de su familia y de los testigos 6 presenciar el registro, producir6 la responsabilidad declarada en el c6digo penal 6 los reos del delito de desobediencia grave a la autoridad, sin perjuicio de que la diligencia se practique. Si no se encontrasen las personas u objetos que se busquen ni apareciesen indicios sospechosos, se expidir6 una certificaci6n del acta a la part interesada, si la reclamare. ART. 570. Cuando el registro so practique en el domicilio de un particular y espire el dia sin haberse terminado, el que 1o haga requerir al interesado 6 a su representante, si estuviere present, para que per-

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130 ART. 565. If the building or place be of those included in number 2 of article 547, the notice shall be served upon the person at the head of the meeting or recreation establishment, or to the person acting in his place, should the former be absent. ART. 566. If the entry and search should have to be made in the residence of a private person, the order shall be communicated to the latter; and should he not be found at the first call, it shall be delivered to his representative. If his representative should not be found, the notice shall be served upon any other person of legal age who may be found at the residence, preference being given to the members of the family of the person interested. If no one be found, a record of this fact shall be made, which shall be prepared in the presence of two neighbors, who must affix their signatures thereto. ART. 567. As soon as a judge orders the entry and search of any building or closed place he shall take such measures of surveillance as may be necessary to prevent the flight of the accused or the removal of the instruments, effects of the crime, or books, papers, or any other things which are to be the subject of the search. ART. 568. After the steps established in the foregoing articles have been taken, the entry and search shall be proceeded with, recourse being had to force if necessary. ART. 569. The search shall be made in the presence of the person interested or of the person legally representing him. If the former be not found or should not desire to be present or appoint a representative, the search shall be conducted in the presence of a member of his family of legal age. Should there be no such member it shall be conducted in the presence of two witnesses, residents of the same town. The search shall always be made in the presence of the secretary and of two witnesses, without counting those referred to in the foregoing paragraph, a record being made which shall be signed by all persons present. The attendance at the search of the person interested, of his representative, of the members of his family, and of the witnesses shall produce the liability declared in the penal code upon those guilty of serious disobedience to the authorities, without prejudice to the proceedings, being held. If the persons or objects sought for can not be found, and no suspicious indications shall appear, a certified transcript of the record shall be issued to the party interested, upon his request. ART. 570. If a search be made of the domicile of a private individual and the day shall close without its being concluded, the person conducting the same shall request the person interested or his representative,

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131 mita la continuaci6n durante la noche. Si se opusiere, se suspenders la diligencia, salvo 1o dispuesto en los articulos 546 y 550, cerrando y sellando el local 6 los muebles en que hubiere de continuarse, en cuanto esta precauci6n se considere necesaria para evitar la fuga de la persona 6 la sustracci6n de las cosas que se buscaren. Prevendrs asimismo el que practique el registro a los que se fallen en el edificio 6 lugar de la diligencia, que no levanten los sellos, ni violenten las cerraduras, ni permitan que 1o hagan otras personas, bajo la responsabilidad establecida en el c6digo penal. ART. 571. El registro no se suspenders sino por el tiempo en que no fuere posible continuarle, y so adoptarn, durante la suspension, las medidas de vigilancia a que so refiere el articulo 567. ART. 572. En la diligencia de entrada y registro en lugar cerrado se expresaran los nombres del juez, 6 de su delegado, que la practique, y de las demas personas que intervengan, los incidentes ocurridos, la hora en que se hubiese principiado y concluido la diligencia, y la relacion del registro por el orden con que se haga, asi como los resultados obtenidos. ART. 573. No se ordenara el registro de los libros y papeles de con tabilidad del procesado 6 de otra persona, sino cuando hubiere indicios graves de que de esta diligencia resultara el descubrimiento 6 Ia comprobaci6n de alg6n echo 6 circunstancia importante en la causa. ART. 574. El juez recoger4 los instruments y efectos del delito y podr recoger tambien los libros, papeles 6 cualesquiera otras cosas que se hubiesen encontrado, si esto fuere necesario para el resultado del sumario. Los libros y papeles que se recojan serin foliados, sellados y rubricados en todas sus hojas por el juez, por el secretario, por el interesado 6 los que hagan sus veces, y por las demas personas que hayan asistido al registro. ART. 575. Todos estan obligados a exhibir los objetos y papeles que se sospeche puedan tener relaci6n con la causa. Si el que los retenga se negare a su exhibici6n, sera corregido con multa de 62.50 4 250 pesetas, y cuando insistiera en su negative, si el objeto 6 papel fueren de importancia y el delito grave, sera procesado como autor del de desobediencia 4 la autoridad, salvo si mereciera la calificaci6n legal de encubridor. ART. 576. Ser4 aplicable al registro de papeles y efectos 1o establecido en los articulos 552 y 569. ART. 577. Si para determinar sobre la necesidad de recoger las cosas que se hubiesen encontrado en el registro fuere necesario alg6n reconocimiento pericial, se acordar en el acto por el juez en la forma establecida en el capitulo VII del titulo V.

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131 if present, to permit the continuation thereof during the night. Should he object the proceedings shall be suspended,.reserving the provisions of articles 546 and 550, closing and sealing the room or furniture where it is to be continued, whenever this precaution is considered necessary to prevent the flight of the person or the removal of the things sought for. The person making the search shall also warn the persons in the building or place where the search is being made not to remove the seals or break the locks, nor permit other persons to do so, under the liability established in the penal code. ART. 571. The search shall be suspended only the time during which it may not be possible to continue the same, and during the suspension the measures of surveillance referred to in article 567 shall be taken. ART. 572. In the record of the entry and search of a closed place shall be stated the names of the judge, or of his delegates, conducting the same, and of the other persons taking part therein, the incidents which may have occurred, the hour the search was begun and concluded, and a detailed statement of the search in the order in which it was made, as well as of the results obtained. ART. 573. The search of books and papers of accounts of the accused or of any other person shall not be ordered, except when there are serious indications that such search would result in the discovery or verification of some fact or circumstance of importance in the cause. ART. 574. The judge shall collect the instruments and effects of the crime, and may also take the books, papers, or any other things which may have been found, if this should be necessary for the purposes of the sumario. The books and papers taken shall be foliod, stamped, and rubricated upon every sheet by the judge, by the secretary, by the person interested or the party acting in his stead, and by the other persons who may have attended the search. ART. 575. All are obliged to exhibit the objects and papers which it is suspected may bear upon the cause. If the person retaining the same should refuse to exhibit them he shall be corrected by the imposition of a fine of from 62.50 to 250 pesetas, and if he shall insist in his refusal, if the object or papers should be of importance and the crime a grave one,.he shall be tried for the crime of disobedience to the authority, unless he should deserve the legal classification of an accomplice. ART. 576. The provisions of articles 552 and 569 are applicable to the search of papers and effects. ART. 577. If in order to determine as to the necessity of collecting the things which may have been found during the search an expert examination should be necessary, it shall be ordered at once by the judge in the manner prescribed by Chapter VII of Title V.

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132 ART. 578. Si el libro que haya de ser objeto del registro fuere el protocolo de un notario, se proceder4 con arreglo a lo dispuesto on la ley del notariado. Si se tratare de un libro del registro de la propiedad, so estara a lo ordenado en la ley hipotecaria. Si se tratare de un libro del registro civil 6 mercantil, se estara a lo quo se disponga en la ley y reglamentos relativos a estos servicios. ART. 579. Podr4 el juez acordar la detenci6n de la correspondencia privada, postal y telegrafica que el procesado remitiere 6 recibiere, y su apertura y examen, si hubiere indicios de obtener por estos medios el descubrimiento 6 la comprobaci6n de algin hecho 6 circunstancia importante de la causa. ART. 580. Es aplicable a la detenci6n de la correspondencia lo dispuesto on los articulos 563 y 564. Podrs tambidn encomendarse la practica de esta operaci6n al administrador de correos y tel4grafos 6 jefe de la oficina en que la correspondencia deba hallarse. ART. 581. El empleado que haga la detenci6n remitir4 inmediatamente la correspondencia detenida al juez instructor de la causa. ART. 582. Podr4 asimismo el juez ordenar que por cualquiera administration de telegrafos se le faciliten copias de los telegramas por ella transmitidos, si pudieran contribuir al esolarecimiento de los hechos de la causa.' ART. 583. El auto motivado acordando la detenci6n y registro de la correspondencia 6 la entrega de copias de telegramas transmitidos, determinar4 la correspondencia que haya de ser detenida 6 registrada, 6 los telegramas cuyas copies hayan de ser entregadas, por inedio de la 1 Por real orden comunicada nor el M1inisterio de Gracia y Justicia 4 los presidentes de las audiencias el 12 de Diciembre de 1883, se resolvi6: L.o Que las administraciones de tel6grafos deben facilitar las copias de los telegramas, tanto del servicio interior como del international, por ellos transmitidos, 4 los jueces y tribunales competentes, cuando se los reclanan en virtud de lo dispuesto en los articulos 579 y siguientes de la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal y con las solemnidades en los mismos consignadas. 2.o Que asimismo estan obligadas dichas administraciones 4 exhibir A los jueces y tribunales los originales de los telegramas para su inspecci6n, descripei6n 6 reconocimiento por peritos, y en general, para cumplimentar cualquiera providencia relativa al juicio criminal, siempre que se solicite por escrito y auto motivado con arreglo a la citada ley. Y 3.o Que igualmente deben las administraciones de tel6grafos entregar al juez instructor 6 tribunal competente los originales de los telegramas expedidos, tanto del servicio interior como del international, cuando en auto motivado y por escrito manifiesten la necesidad imprescindible de tenerlos 4 la vista para su reconocimiento pericial 6 examen ocular para que figuren en el juicio como cuerpos del delito 6 piezas de convicci6n, debiendo en este caso quedarse la administraci6n con copia legalizada de dichos originales y exigir del juez 6 tribunal que los devuelva despubs de terninada la causa.

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182 ART. 578. If the book which is to oe the subject-matter of the search should be the protocol of a notary, the provisions contained in the notarial law shall be observed. If a book of the registry of property should be in question, the provisions of the mortgage law shall be observed. If a book of the civil or commercial registry should be involved, the provisions of the law and regulations relating to these services shall be observed. ART. 579. The judge may order the detention of private postal and telegraphic correspondence which the accused may transmit or receive and the opening and examination thereof, if there should be indications of arriving by these means at the discovery or verification of some fact or circumstance of importance in the cause. AR. 580. The provisions contained in articles 563 and 564 are also applicable to the detention of correspondence. The performance of this duty may also be entrusted to the administrator of posts and telegraphs or to the chief of the office in which the correspondence should be. ART. 581. The employee detaining the correspondence shall immediately forward the same to the examining judge of the cause. ART. 582. The judge may likewise order that any telegraph administration furnish copies of telegrams transmitted by it if they might contribute to the elucidation of the'facts in the cause.' ART. 583. The decree setting forth the reasons ordering the detention and search of correspondence, or the delivery of telegrams transmitted, shall specify the correspondence to be detained or examined, or the telegrams, copies of which are to be delivered, by means By a royal order transmitted by the Department of Grace and Justice to the presiding judges of audiencias on December 12, 1883, it was decided: 1. That the administrations of telegraphs must furnish the copies of telegrams of the domestic as well as of the international service, transmitted by them, to competent judges and courts when called upon to do so by virtue of the provisions of articles 579 et seq., of the Law of Criminal Procedure, and with the formalities prescribed therein. 2. That said administrations are also obliged to show to judges and courts the originals of the telegrams for their inspection, description, or examination by experts, and in general for compliance with any judicial order relating to the criminal action, provided the request be made in writing and the reasons for the request set forth in accordance with the said law. And 3. That the administrations of telegraphs must likewise deliver to the competent examining judge or court the originals of the telegrams transmitted of the domestic as well as of the international service when they shall state the absolute necessity of having the same at hand for an expert investigation or ocular examination, in order that they may figure in the action as corpi delicti or exhibits, but in such case the administration must retain a certified copy of said originals and require the judge or court to return the same upon the conclusion of the cause.

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133 designaci6n de las personas a cuyo nombre se hubieren expedido, 6 por otras circunstancias igualmente concretas. ART. 584. Para la aportura y registro de la correspondencia postal sera citado el interesado. Este, 6 la persona que designe, podra presenciar la operaci6n. ART. 585. Si el procesado estuviere en rebeldia, 6 si citado para la apertura no quisiese presenciarla ni nombrar persona para que To haga en su nombre, el juez instructor procedera, sin embargo, a la apertura de dicha correspondencia. ART. 586. La operaci6n se practicara abriendo el juez por si mismo la correspondencia, y despues do leerla para si, apartara la que baga referencia a los hechos de la causa y euya conservaci6n consider necesaria. Los sobres y hojas de esta correspondencia, despues de haber tomado el mismo juez las notas necesarias para la practica de otras diligencias de investigaci6n a que la correspondencia diere motivo, se rubricaran por todos los asistentes y se sellarin con el sello del juzgado, oncerrandolo todo despues en otro sobre, al que se pondrs el r6tulo necesario, conservindolo el juez en su poder durante ei sumario, bajo su responsabilidad. Este pliego podrs abrirse cuantas veces el juez 1o consider preciso, citando previamente al interesado. ART. 587. La correspondencia que no so relacione con la causa sera entregada en el acto al procesado 6 a su representante. Si aquel estuviere on rebeldia, se entregard cerrada a un individuo de su familia, mayor de edad. Si no fuere conocido ningun pariente del procesado, se conservar4 dicho pliego, cerrado, en poder del juez hasta que haya persona a quien entregarlo, segtin.1o dispuesto en este articulo. ART. 588. La apertura de la correspondencia se har4 constar por diligencia, en la que se referira cuanto en aquella hubiese ocurrido. Esta diligencia sera firmada por el juez instructor, el secretario y demis asistentes.

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133 of the designation of the persons to whom addressed, or by other equally specific circumstances. ART. 584. The person interested shall be cited for the opening and examination of correspondence. The latter, or the person he may designate, may be present thereat. ART. 585. If the person accused should be in default, or if upon being cited to attend the opening he should not desire to be present, nor appoint any other person to attend in his name, the examining judge shall nevertheless proceed to open said correspondence. ART. 586. The work shall be conducted by the judge himself opening the correspondence, and after reading it to himself he shall lay aside that which refers to the acts, the subject of the cause, and the preservation of which he may consider necessary. The envelopes and sheets of this correspondence, after the said judge has made the notes necessary for the performance of other work of investigation to which the correspondence may give rise, shall be rubricated by all those present, and shall be sealed with the seal of the court, all being afterwards enclosed in another package, upon which the proper endorsement shall be placed, and the judge shall retain the same in his possession during the sumario, under his liability. This package may be opened as often as the judge may consider it necessary, the person interested being previously cited. ART. 587. Correspondence which does not relate to the cause shall be delivered to the accused or to his representative at once. If the former should be in default, it shall be delivered sealed to a member of his family of legal age. If no relative of the accused be known, said package shall be kept sealed in the possession of the judge until there is a person to whom delivery can be made according to the provisions of this article. ART. 588. A record shall be made of the opening of the correspondence, in which shall be stated all that may have occurred thereat. This record shall be signed by the examining judge, the secretary, and other persons present.

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TfTULO IX. DE LAS FIANZAS Y EMBARGOS. ART. 589. Cuando del sumario resulten indicios de eriminalidad contra una persona, so mandar4 por el juez que presto fianza bastante para asegurar las responsabilidades pecuniarias que en definitive puedan declararse procedentes, decretindose en el mismo auto el embargo de bienes suficientes para cubrir dichas responsabilidades, si no prestare la fianza. La cantidad de 4sta se fijar4 en el mismo auto y no podrs bajar de la tercera parte mas de todo el imported probable de las responsabilidades pecuniarias. ART. 590. Todas las diligencias sobre fianzas y embargos se instruirin en pieza separada. ART. 591. La fianza podr4 ser personal, pignoraticia 6 hipotecaria. Podr4 constituirse en metalico 6 en efectos phblicos al precio de cotizaci6n, bien fueren del procesado, bien de otra persona, depositdndose en el establecimiento destinado al efecto. Serin tambien admisibles, 4 juicio del juez 6 tribunal, las acciones y obligaciones de ferrocarriles y obras pihblicas y demis valores mercantiles 0 industrials cuya cotizaci6n on bolsa haya sido debidamente autorizada, los cuales se depositarin como los anteriores. Las fianzas sobre prendas que consistan en cualesquiera otros bienes muebles serin igualmente admisibles a juicio del juez 6 tribunal, previa tasaci6n, y se depositaran, seghn su clase, de la manera prescrita en los articulos 600 v 601.1 ART. 592. Podr4 ser fiador personal todo espafiol do buena conducta y avecindado dentro del territorio del tribunal, que est6 en el pleno goce de los derechos civiles y politicos y venga pagando con tries aios de anterioridad una contribution directa, al menos de 100 pesetas anuales, procedente de bienes inmuebles de su propiedad personal; 6 de 200 por raz6n de subsidio con establecimiento abierto. No se admitir4 como fiador al quo 1o sea 6 hubiese sido de otro hasta que est cancelada la primera fianza, a no ser que tonga, a juicio del juez 6 tribunal, responsabilidad notoria para ambas. 1Segun el articulo 533, las disposiciones de este articulo y siguientes, hasta el 596, son aplicables 4 las fianzas que se ofrezcan para obtener la libertad provisional de un procesado. 134

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TITLE IX. BONDS AND ATTACHMENTS. ART. 589. If the sumario should show indications of criminality against any person, the judge shall order that he give a bond sufficient to secure the pecuniary liabilities which may finally be declared to lie, the same decree ordering the attachment of sufficient properties to meet such liabilities should he not give bond. The amount of the latter shall be fixed in the same decree and can not be less than one-third more than the entire probable amount of the pecuniary liabilities. ART. 590. All proceedings upon bonds and attachments shall be conducted upon a separate record. ART. 591. The bond may be personal, pignorative or mortgage. It may be constituted in coin or in public securities at the market price, whether the property of the accused or of another person, and shall be deposited in the institution set aside for the purpose. The stock and obligations of railroads and public works, as well as other commercial and industrial securities whose quotation upon the exchange may have been duly authorized, shall also be admissible in the discretion of the judge or court, and shall be deposited in the same manner as the former. Bonds on pledges which consist of any other personal property shall also be admissible in the discretion of the judge or court, after their appraisal, and shall be deposited, according to their class, in the manner prescribed in articles 600 and 601.' ART. 592. Any Spaniard of good conduct residing within the territory of the jurisdiction of the court in the full enjoyment of his civil and political rights, and who has paid for three years prior thereto a direct tax of 100 pesetas at least per annum on real estate of his own ownership, or of 200 pesetas by way of subsidy on his business, may be a personal bondsman. No person shall be admitted as a bondsman who is or has been that of another until the first bond has been cancelled, unless he is, in the opinion of the judge or court, well known to be responsible for both. According to article 533 the provisions of this and of the following articles up to article 596 apply to bonds offered to obtain the temporary liberty of an accused person. 134

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135 Cuando se declare bastante la fianza personal, se fijar4 taibien la cantidad de que el fiador ha de responder. ART. 593. La fianza hipotecaria podra sustituirse por otra en metalico, efectos publicos 6 valores y demas muebles de los enumerados en el articulo 591, en la siguiente proporci6n: el valor de los bienes de la hipoteca sera doble quo ei del metilico senalado para la fianza, una cuarta parte mas que 6ste el de los efectos 6 valores al precio de cotizaci6n. Si la sustituci6n si hiciere por cualesquiera otros muebles dados en prenda, deber4 ser el valor de 6stos doble que el de la fianza constituida en lfietilico. ART. 594. Los bienes de las fianzas hipotecaria y pignoraticia seran tasados por dos peritos nombrados por el juez instructor 6 tribunal que conozca de la causa, y los titulos de propiedad relativos a las fincas ofrecidas en hipoteca se examinaran por el ministerio fiscal, debiendo declararse suficientes por el mismo juez 6 tribunal cuando asi proceda. ART. 595. La fianza hipotecaria podra otorgarse por escritura publica 6 apud acta, librandose en este 6ltimo caso el correspondiente mandamiento para su inscripci6n en el registro de la propiedad. Devuelto el mandamiento por el registrador, se unirA 4 la causa. Tambien se unira 4 ella el resguardo que acredite el dep6sito del metilico, asi como el de los efectos publicos y demas valores en los casos on que se constituya de esta manera la fianza. ART. 596. Contra los autos que el juez dicte calificando la suficiencia de las fianzas procedera el recurso de apelaci6n. ART. 597. Si en el dia siguiente al de la notificaci6n del auto dictado con arreglo a lo dispuesto en el articulo 589 no se prestase la fianza, se procedera al embargo de bienes del procesado, requiriendole para que sefale los suficientes 4 cubrir la cantidad que se hubiese fijado para las responsabilidades pecuniarias. ART. 598. Cuando el procesado no fuere babido, se har4 el requerimiento a su mujer, hijos, apoderado, criados 6 personas que se encuentren en su domicilio. Si no se encontrare ninguna, 6 si las quo so encontraren, o el procesado 6 apoderado en su caso, no quisieren sefialar bienes, se procedera a embargar los que se reputen de la pertenencia del procesado, guardandose el orden establecido en el articulo 1445 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil, y bajo la prohibici6n contenida en los articulos 1446 y 1447 de la misma. ART. 599. Cuando senalaren bienes y el alguacil encargado de hacer el embargo creyere que los sealados no son suficientes, embargara ademas los que considered necesarios, sujetindose a 1o prescrito en el articulo anterior. Veanse en el Apindice III, los articulos de referencia.

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135 When a personal bond is declared sufficient, the amount for which the bondsman is to answer shall also be fixed. ART. 593. The mortgage bond may be substituted by another one in cash, public securities or bonds, and other movables of those enumerated in article 591 in the following proportion: The value of the property of the mortgage shall be double that in cash fixed for the bond, that of bonds or securities one-fourth more than the latter at the market price. If the substitution should be made by any other movables given in pledge, the value of the latter must be double that of the cash bond. ART. 594. The property constituting the mortgage and pignorative bonds shall be appraised by two experts appointed by the examining judge or court taking cognizance of the cause, and the titles of property relating to the estates offered in mortgage shall be examined by the public prosecutor and must be declared to be sufficient by the said judge or court when proper. ART. 595. The mortgage bond may be executed by means of a public instrument or apud acta, there being issued in the latter case the proper mandate for its inscription in the registry of property. After the mandate has been returned by the register it shall be attached to the cause. The receipt showing the deposit of the cash shall also be attached thereto, as well as that for the public securities and other obligations in the cases in which the bond is thus constituted. ART. 596. An appeal lies from the decision of the judge classifying the sufficiency of the bonds. ART. 597. If upon the day following the notification of the decision rendered in accordance with the provisions of article 589 no bond should be furnished, the attachment of property of the accused shall be proceeded with, he being requested to indicate property sufficient to cover the amount which may have been fixed for the pecuniary liabilities. ART. 598. If the accused should not be found, the request shall be made of his wife, children, agent, servants or persons found in his residence. If no one should be found therein, or if the accused or agent, in a proper case, should not desire to designate property, such property as is believed to belong to the accused shall be attached, the order established in article 1445 of the law of civil procedure being observed under the prohibition contained in articles 1446 and 1447 of the same.' ART. 599. When they indicate property and the sheriff charged with levying the attachment should not consider it sufficient, he shall attach furthermore such property as he may consider necessary, subject to the provisions of the foregoing article. 'See in Appendix III the articles referred to.

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136 ART. 600. Si los bienes embargados consistieran en metilico, efectos pfblicos, valores mercantiles 6 industriales cotizables, alhajas de oro, plata 6 pedreria, se depositaryn en el establecimiento publico destinado al efecto; los dems bienes muebles se entregarin en dep6sito, bajo inventario por el encargado de hacer el embargo, al vocino con casa abierta quo nombre. El depositario firmara la diligencia del recibo, obligandose 4 conservar los bienes a disposici6n del juez 6 tribunal que conozea de la causa, 6 en otro caso, 4 pagar la cantidad para cuyo afianzamiento se haya hecho el embargo, sin perjuicio de la responsabilidad criminal on que pudiere incurrir. El depositario podri recoger y conservar en su poder los bienes embargados, 6 dejarlos bajo su responsabilidad, en el donicilio del procesado. ART. 601. Si los bienes embargados fueren semovientes, se requerir4 al procesado para que manifieste si opta por que se enajenon 6 por que se conserven en dep6sito y administraci6n. Si obtare por la enajenaci6n, so procedera a la venta en phblica subasta, previa tasaci6n, hasta cubrir la cantidad seflalada, quo se depositary en el establecimiento p6blico destinado al efecto. Si obtare por el dep6sito y administraci6n, se nombrar por el juez un depositario administrador, que recibirt los hienes bajo inventario y se obligara a rendir al juzgado cuenta justificada de sus gastos y productos cuando se le mande. ART. 602. El depositario administrador cuidara de que los semovientes den los productos propios de su clase con arreglo 4 las circunstancias del pals, y procurara su conservaci6n y aumento. Si creyere conveniente enajenar todos 6 algunos semovientes, pedira al juzgado la correspondiente autorizaci6n. Se enajenaran, aun contra la voluntad del procesado y la opinion del depositario administrator, siempre que los gastos de administraci6n y conservaci6n excodan de los productos que dieren, a menos quo el pago de dichos gastos se asegure por el procesado a otra persona 4 su nombre. ART. 603. Cuando se embarguen bienes inmuebles, el juez determinara si el embargo ha de ser 6 no extensivo a sus frutos y rentas. ART. 604. Cuando se decrete ci embargo de bienes inmuebles so expedir4 mandamiento para que se haga la anotaci6n prevenida en la ley hipotecaria. ART. 605. Si se embargaron sementeras, pueblas, plantios, frutos, rentas y otros bienes semejantes, podra el juez decretar, si atendidas

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136 ART. 600. If the property attached should consist of cash, public securities, commercial or industrial securities which are quoted, gold or silver jewelry, or precious stones, they shall be deposited in the public establishment set aside for the purpose; other personal property shall be deposited in accordance with an inventory by the person entrusted with the attachment, with the resident having an office he may designate. The depositary shall sign a receipt, binding himself to preserve all the property subject to the orders of the judge or court having cognizance of the cause, or otherwise to pay the amount for the security of which the attachment may have been made, without prejudice to the criminal liability he may incur. The depositary may collect and preserve in his possession the property attached or leave it under his liability in the residence of the accused. ART. 601. If the property attached should consist of live stock, the accused shall be required to state whether he wishes the same sold or kept in deposit and administration. Should he wish its sale, the sale thereof shall be proceeded with at public auction after its appraisal, to the extent necessary to cover the amount fixed, which shall be deposited in the public establishment set aside for the purpose. Should he choose the deposit and administration thereof, the judge shall appoint a depositary-administrator, who shall receive the property under inventory and shall bind himself to render to the court a properly vouched account of his expenses and profits upon demand. ART. 602. The depositary-administrator shall see that the live stock give the profits pertaining to their class in accordance with the conditions of the country, and shall endeavor to preserve and increase the same. Should he deem it advisable to sell all or some stock, he shall request the proper authorization of the court. They shall be sold, even against the will of the accused and the opinion of the depositary-administrator, whenever the cost of administration and preservation exceeds the profits they give, unless the payment of said expenses be assured by the accused or by another person on his behalf. ART. 603. When real property is attached, the judge shall decide whether or not the attachment is to extend to its fruits and rents. ART. 604. When the attachment of real property is decreed, a mandate shall be issued ordering that the notice be entered which the mortgage law requires. ART. 605. If plantings, fruits, rents, or other similar property should be attached, the judge may decree, if he should deem it advisable in 18473-01 18

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137 las circunstancias To creyere conveniente, que continue administrandolos el procesado por si 6 por medio de la persona que designe, en cuyo caso nombrara un interventor. En el caso do quo el procesado manifestare no querer administrar por si, 6 de que el juez no estimare conveniente confiarle la administraci6n, so nombrara persona quo se encargue do ella, pudiendo on este caso designar el procesado un interventor de su confianza. ART. 606. El juez determinard, bajo su responsabilidad, si el administrador ha de afianzar el buen cumplimiento del cargo y el imported de la fianza en su caso. ART. 607. El administrador tendra derecho a una retribuci6n1.0 Del 1 por ciento sobre e1 producto liquido de la venta do frutos. 2.0 Del 5 por ciento sobre los productos liquidos de la administration que no procedan de la causa exprosada en el parrafo anterior. Si no so enajenaren bienes, 6 no hubiere productos liquidos, el juez sefialari el premio quo haya de percibir el administrador, seg6n la costumbro del pueblo en que la administration so ejorza. ART. 608. El administrador ponder en conocimiento del interventor los actors administrativos que se propongaejecutar, y si 6ste no los creyere convenientes, lo hard las observaciones oportunas. Pero si el administrador insistiere on liovar a ofecto los atos administrativos d quo so hubeise opuesto el interventor, darn 6sto cuenta al juez, quien resolvera lo mas conveniente. ART. 609. Cuando el administrador no hubiese dado fianza, el interventor tendra una de las haves del local 6 area en quo se custodian los frutos 6 so deposit ei precio de su venta, 6adoptari cl jucz las medidas quo creyore convenientes para evitar todo perjuicio. AR. 610. Si el embargo consistiera on pensions 6 sucldos, se pasara oficio d quin hubiere do satisfacerlos para que detenga la parte quo determine c1 articulo 1449 do la ley do enjuiciaeionto civil.1 So alzard la retenci6n luego que quedo cnbierta la cantidad nandada aianzar. ART. 611. Si duranto el curso del juicio sobrevinioren motivos bastantes para creer que las responsabilidades pecuniarias que en definitiva puedan exigirse excederin do la cantidad prefijada para asegurarlas, se mandara por auto ampliar la fianza 6 embargo. ART. 612. Tambien se dictary auto mandando reducir la fianza v el embargo 6 menor cantidad quo la prefijada, si resultasen motivos bastantes para creer quo la cantidad mandada afianzar os superior a las 1 V6ase en el Apindice III el articulo de referencia.

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137 view of the circumstances, that the accused continue administering the same in person or through the person he may designate, in which case an intervenor will be appointed. Should the accused express a desire not to administer it himself, or if the judge should not deem it advisable to entrust the administration to him, a person to take charge thereof shall be appointed, in which case the accused may appoint an intervenor in whom he has confidence. ART. 606. The judge shall determine, under his liability, whether the administrator is to give bond for the faithful discharge of his duties and the amount thereof in a proper case. ART. 607. The administrator shall be entitled to a compensation: 1. Of one per cent of the net proceeds of the sale of products. 2. Of five per cent of the net proceeds of the administration not arising from the cause mentioned of the foregoing paragraph. If no property should be sold or there should be no net proceeds, the judge shall fix the sum which the administrator is to receive, according to the customs of the town in which the administration is conducted. ART. 608. The administrator shall inform the intervenor of the administrative acts which he proposes to take, and if the latter should not consider them advisable he shall make the proper remarks. If the administrator should insist in carrying out the administrative acts to which the intervenor may have objected, the latter shall report to the judge, who shall decide what may be advisable. ART. 609. If the administrator should not have given bond, the intervenor shall keep one of the keys of the place or storehouse in which the products are kept or in which the proceeds of their sale are deposited, or the judge shall take the measures he may deem advisable to prevent any loss. ART. 610. If the attachment should be of pensions or salaries, a communication shall be addressed to the person who is to pay the same in order that he may retain such portion thereof as is prescribed by article 1449 of the law of civil procedure. The detention shall be raised as soon as the amount ordered secured has been covered. AR. 611. If during the course of the action sufficient causes should arise to lead to a presumption that the pecuniary liabilities which may definitely be required will exceed the amount previously fixed to secure the same, the bond or attachment shall be ordered increased by a decree of the court. ART. 612. An order shall also issue requiring the reduction of the bond and the attachment to a lesser amount than that fixed, should there be sufficient cause to believe that the amount of the same is higher 1 See in Appendix III the article referred to.

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138 responsabilidades pecuniarias que en definitive pudieren imponerse al procesado. ART. 613. Cuando legue el caso de tener que hacer efectivas las responsabilidades pecuniarias a que se reflere este titulo, se procedera de la manera prescrita en el articulo 536. ART. 614. En todo lo que no est6 previsto en este titulo, los jueces y tribunales aplicaran lo dispuesto en la legislaci6n civil sobre fianzas y embargos.

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138 than the pecuniary liabilities which may definitely be imposed on the accused. ART. 613. If it shall become necessary to enforce the pecuniary liabilities referred to in this title, the provisions prescribed by article 536 shall be observed. ART. 614. Judges and courts shall apply the provisions of the civil laws on bonds and attachments in all that is not provided for in this title.

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TITULO X. DE LA RESPONSABILIDAD CIVIL DE TERCERAS PERSONAS.' ART. 615. Cuando en la instrucci6n del sumario aparezca indicada la existencia de la responsabilidad civil de un tercero con arreglo a los articulos respectivos del c6digo penal, 6 por haber participado alguno por titulo lucrative de los efectos del delito, el juez, a instancia del actor civil, exigir4 fianza a Ia persona contra quien result ha responsabilidad, 6 en su defecto embargara, con arreglo a to dispuesto on el titulo IX de este libro, los bienes que sean necesarios. ART. 616. La persona a quien se exigiere la fianza 6 cuyos bienes fueren embargados, podrs durante e1 sumario manifestar por escrito las razones que tenga para que no so la consider civilmente responsable, y ]as pruebas quo pueda ofrecer para el mismo objeto. ART. 617. El juez darn vista del escrito a la part 4 quien interese, y esta To evacuar4 en el termino de tres dias, proponiendo tambidn las pruebas que deban practicarse en apoyo de su pretension. ART. 618. Seguidamente el juez decretar4 la prActica de las pruebas propuestas y resolvers sobre las pretensions formuladas, siempre que pudiere hacerlo sin retraso, ni perjuicio del objeto principal de la instruccion. ART. 619. Para todo to relative a la responsabilidad civil de un tercero y 4 los incidentes 4 que diere lugar la ocupaci6n y on su dia la restituci6n de cosas que se hallaren on su poder, se formar4 pieza separada, pero sin quo por ningfin motive se entorpezca ni suspenda el cursor de la instrucci6n. ART. 620. Lo dispuesto en los articulos anteriores se observara tambidn respecto s cualquiera pretension que tuviere por objeto la restituci6n 4 su dueio de alguno do los efectos e instrumentos del delito quo se hallaren en poder do un tercero. 1 En el c6digo penal determinan los articulos 17 4 19, qu6 personas son subsidiariamente responsables de la devoluci6n de la cosa objeto del delito, reparaci6n del daflo causado 6 indemnizaci6n de perjuicios; y el 126 del mismo, sanciona en todo caso la obligation de restituir los efectos de un hecho punible adquiridos 4 titulo lucrativo. ( Vase el Apindice II.) 139

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TITLE X. CIVIL LIABILITY OF THIRD PERSONS.1 ART. 615. If during the course of the sunario the existence of civil liability of a third person is indicated in accordance with the respective articles of the penal code, or on account of any person having acquired profit from the effects of the crime without consideration, the judge, at the instance of the civil plaintiff, shall require a bond of the person against whom the liability appears, or in his absence he shall attach, in accordance with the provisions of title IX of this book, such property as may be necessary. ART. 616. The person of whom a bond is required or whose property is attached may, during the course of the sumario, state in writing his reasons for not being considered civilly liable, and the evidence he can offer to the same end. ART. 617. The judge shall refer the document to the party interested, and the latter shall return the same within the period of three days, also suggesting the evidence to be taken in support of his contention. ART. 618. Thereupon the judge shall decree the taking of the evidence proposed and shall pass upon the claims made, provided that he can do so without retrogression or prejudice to the principal object of the examination. ART. 619. A separate record shall be made of all that relates to the civil liability of a third person and to the incidents which the occupation may occasion, and at the proper time the restitution of the things which may be in his possession, but without in any manner hindering or suspending the course of the examination. ART. 620. The provisions of the foregoing articles shall also be observed with regard to any claim for the restitution to their owner of any of the effects and instruments of the crime in the possession of a third person. Articles 17 to 19 of the Penal Code specify what persons are subsidiarily liable for the return of the thing, the object of the crime, the repair of the damage caused or indemnity for losses; and article 126 of the same sanctions in every case the obligation of restoring the effects of a punishable act acquired without a good consideration. (See Appendix IL) 139

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140 La restituci6n a su duef~o de los instruments y objetos del delito no podrs verificarse en ning'n caso hasta despuds que se haya celebrado el juicio oral, excepto en el previsto en el articulo 844 de esta ley. ART. 621. Los autos dictados en estos incidentes so llevaran & efecto, sin perjuicio de que las partes 4 quienes perjudiquen puedan reproducir sus pretenciones en el juicio oral, o de la action civil correspondiente, que podr"n entablar en otro caso.

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140 The restitution to their owner of the instruments and objects of the crime can never take place until after the oral trial has been held, excepting in the case mentioned in article 844 of this law. ART. 621. The orders made in these incidents shall be executed without prejudice to the parties injured thereby renewing their claims at the oral trial, or to the proper civil action, which they may otherwise bring.

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TfTULO XI. DE LA CONCLUSION DEL SUMARIO Y DEL SOBRESEIMIENTO. CAPITULO PRIMERO. DE LA CONCLUSI6N DEL SUMARIO. ART. 622. Practicadas las diligencias decretadas de oficio a a instancia de parte por el juez instructor, si este considerase terminado el sumario, lo declarara asi, mandando remitir los autos y las piezas de conviction a] tribunal competente para conocer del delito. Cuando no haya acusador privado y el ministerio fiscal considered quo en el sumario se han reunido los suficientes elementos para acer la calificaci6n de los hechos y poder entrar on el trimite del juicio oral, lo hara presente al juez de instrucci6n para que sin mis dilaciones se remita lo actuado al tribunal competente.' V6ase en el Ap6ndice I, la Orden No. 181 de 30 de Abril de 1900. Con lo dispuesto en el presente capftulo, guardan alguna relaci6n las dos siguientes consults hechas en 1887 6 Ia fiscalia del Tribunal Supremo: En las causas para cuyo conocimiento sea competente una sala de lo criminal por la calidad de las personas contra quienes so dirija el procedimiento, tpuede aquilla dictar providencias mandando pasar los procesos al fiscal para que pida lo que crea procedente respect de la investigaci6n? Conclufda la instrucci6n de las diligencias del sumario en dichas causas, cuando por delegaci6n las instruya un juez de instruc6i6n, Za quin corresponde dictar el auto de terminaci6n del sumario? La contestaci6n (instruccidn 17 de la Memoria de 1887) fu6 como sigue: En cuanto A la primera parte es indudable que la sala puede hacer 1o que indica la consulta. No hay motivo alguno para que se abstenga el fiscal de pedir la pr4ctica de las diligencias que juzgue pertinentes, puesto que en la instrucci6n de estos sumarios, Como en la de todos, ejerce el ministerio piblico su inspecci6n con arreglo a la ley. Por lo que hace A la segunda, ]a facultad de declarar concluso el sumario en las causas u que la consulta se refiere, pertenece como en todos los procesos al juez instructor, el cual, aunque haya recibido delegaci6n de la audiencia para instruir el sumario, ejerce durante la instrucci6n funciones propias 6 independientes con arreglo al pbrrafo tercero del artfculo 303 de la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal. Ann cuando aparezca que un procesado se halla exento de responsabilidad, el juez instructor no puede abstenerse de practicer todas las diligencias esenciales del sumario. (Exposici6n del Fiscal del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de Septiembre de 1883, nmb. 12.) Para las actuaciones del sumario establecidas desde el articulo que anotamos al 633, 141

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TITLE XI. CONCLUSION OF THE SUMARIO AND DISMISSAL OF PROCEEDINGS. CHAPTER FIRST. CONCLUSION OF THE SUMARIO. ART. 622. After the proceedings decreed at the instance of the court or of a party have been held by the examining judge, if the latter should consider the umario concluded he shall so state, transmitting the records of the proceedings and exhibits to the court competent to take cognizance of the crime. If there be no private accuser and the public prosecutor shall consider that sufficient elements have been collected in the surnario to make the classification of the acts and to begin the proceedings of the oral trial, he shall so inform the judge of examination in order that the proceedings had may be forwarded to the court of competent jurisdiction without delay.' 1See in Appendix I, Order No. 181, of April 30, 1900. The two following questions, submitted to the office of the fiscal of the Supreme Court in 1887, bear some relation to the provisions of this chapter: "In causes in which a criminal chamber is competent, by reason of the character of the persons against whom the proceedings are brought, can said chamber make orders transmitting the records to the fiscal, for him to request what he may deem proper as to the investigations? "Upon the conclusion of the proceedings of the sumario in such cases, when they are conducted by a judge of examination by delegation, who is competent to decree the termination of the sumario?" The answer (Instruction 17 of the report of 1887) was as follows: "With regard to the first, there is no doubt as to the power of the chamber to (1o so. "There is no reason whatsoever for the fiscal to abstain from demanding the taking of such steps as he may deem pertinent, because in the conduction of these, sumarios, as well as in that of all of them, the public prosecutor exercises his supervision in accordance with law. "With regard to the second, the power to declare the termination of a sumario in the causes referred to in the question is vested, as in all processes, in the examining judge, who, even though he shall have been delegated by the audiencia to conduct the sumario, exercises during the proceedings proper and independent functions in accordance with the third paragraph of article 303 of the law of criminal procedure." Even though it shall appear that an accused person is exempt from liability, the examining judge can not abstain from holding all the essential proceedings of the sumario. (Report of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1883, number 12.) Days upon which courts and tribunals are not sitting in accordance with law an 141

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142 ART. 623. Tanto en uno como on otro caso se notificarii el auto de conclusion del sumario al querellante particular, si le hubiese, aun son h6biles los dfas en que los juzgados y tribunales vacaren con sujeci6n 6 la ley. (Exposicion del Fiscal del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de Septiembre de 1883, nmero 13.) A varios fiscales de audiencias ha ocurrido la duda de si, dado el espfritu de la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal, y la letra de sus artfculos 622 y 630, pueden el juez de instrucci6n y la audiencia, en sus respectivos casos, declarar que no esti terminado un sumario, y acordar la practice de diligencias en contra de la opini6n del ministerio fiscal. La cuesti6n que se propone es una de las mis importantes y de mayor dificultad que ofrece la aplicaci6n del nuevo sistema de procedimientos criminales. Para resolverla, hay que tender muy en cuenta el principio A que obedece la reform del enjuiciamiento en 10 criminal, y las solemnes declaraciones que se consignan en el notable pre6mbulo de la ley vigente. El principio acusatorio, que informa el nuevo sistema, conduce 16gicanente hacia la resolution en determinado sentido. Cierto es que ese principio no so ha desarro11ado por complete, pero cierto es tambidn que 6 sus efectos serdn casi ilusorios, 6 han de afectar A una cuesti6n de tanta gravedad e importancia. Separadas las funciones de la instrucci6n sumarial, de las que competen al tribunal sentenciador; encargadas aqu6llas 4 un juez bajo la inspecei6n del ministerio fiscal, reservado 4 Este el ejercicio de la acci6n penal, en cuanto siguifica la representaci6n del inter6s social, se tienen los puntos de vista, cuyo desenvolvimiento y consecuencias producen la resoluci6n que se pretend. La letra del segundo parrafo del artlculo 622 de la ly de enjuicimiento criminal contribuye a facilitar dicha resoluci6n. El lenguaje que emplea Ia ly este demonstrando que, respect al particular de quo se trata, el ministorio fiscal no so oncuentra en la misma situaci6n que ordinariamente ocupa en los asuntos en que interviene. No hace una propuesta en dicho caso, que el juez 6 tribunal ante quien se presenta es libre para estimar 6 denegar, segun entienda procedente. No; el ministerio fiscal, si cree terminado el sumario, 1o manifiesta, to hace presence al juez do instrucci6n, y 6ste no puede desatender esa manifestaci6ni, y esta, por tanto, en Ia necesidad de remitir sin mi6s dilaciones lo actuado al tribunal competente. He aquf una novedad importantfsima, que viene A descubrir uno de los efectos mie sensibles de la reforma del sistema procesal. El juez instructor puede, conforme at primer pirrafo del citado art. 622, declarar terminado el sumario. Luego el ministerio fiscal examinar ante la audiencia la resoluci6n judicial, y dir4 si esti 6 no conform con ella. Pero ese derecho que en cierto modo, esto es, sujeto 4 la apreciaci6n que despu6s haga el ministerio fiscal, asiste al juez instructor, 1o tiene tambi6n, y en terminos absolutos, el expresado ministerio. Cuando el fiscal, por los medios do inspecci6n que la ley reconoce en la formaci6n de los sumarios entienda que se han lilenado los fines que para esas actuaciones exige el articulo 299 de la ley do enjuiciamiento criminal, y considere que en el sumario se han reunido los suficientes elementos para hacer la calificaci6n de los hechos y poder entrar en el trimite del juicio oral, tiene expedito el derecho de manifestarlo asf para que se d6 por terminado dicho sumario. En este punto, lo mismo que en todo cuanto constituye la esencia, puede decirse asf, de las funciones encomendadas al ministerio fiscal, no puede ser juez de su conducta ni el de instrucci6n, ni el tribunal que luego ha de sentenciar. Atento el fiscal A las disposiciones legales, dentro de su conciencia, con absoluta independencia de juices y tribunals, examina, medita y resuelva lo que entiende pro-

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142 ART. 623. In either case notice of the termination of the sumario shall be served upon the private complainant, if there be any, even legal for the proceedings of the sumario provided for in this article up to article 633. (Report of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1888, number 13.) Various fiscales of audiencias have been in doubt as to whether, in view of the spirit of the law of criminal procedure and of the letter of articles 622 and 630, the judge of examination or the audiencia, in their respective cases, can declare that a sumario is not terminated and order the taking of steps against the opinion of the prosecuting officials. The question proposed is one of the most important and of the greatest difficulty which the application of the new system of criminal proceedings offers. In order to decide it, it is absolutely necessary to consider the principle which is the basis for the reform in the criminal procedure and the formal declarations which are embodied in the preamble of the law in force. The accusatory principle, which the new system embodies, logically leads to a decision in a specific sense. It is true that this principle has not been fully developed, but it is also true that the effects thereof must be almost illusory, or that they must affect a question of such gravity and importance. By separating the functions of the preliminary investigation from those pertaining to the sentencing court; by intrusting the former to a judge under the supervision of the prosecuting department, reserving to the latter the exercise of the penal action, on behalf of the social interests, the points of view are obtained the development and consequences of which produce the resolution desired. The letter of the second paragraph of article 622 of the Law of Criminal Procedure contributes to facilitate said decision. The language employed in the law shows that, with regard to the point in question, the prosecuting department is not in the same situation which it ordinarily occupies in matters in which it takes part. It does not make a recommendation in such case, which the judge or court to whom it is made is free to accept or reject, as he may deem proper. No; the prosecuting department, if it believes that the sumario is terminated, states this fact, brings it to the attention of the judge of examination, and the latter can not ignore this statement, and is therefore obliged to transmit the proceedings had to the court of competent jurisdiction without further delay. Here we find a most important change, which shows one of the most notable effects of the reform of the system of procedure. The examining judge may, in accordance with the first paragraph of the said article 622, declare the sumario terminated. Thereupon the prosecuting department shall examine the judicial decision before the audiencia, and shall state whether or not he agrees thereto. But this right of the examining judge, subject afterwards to the decision of the prosecuting department, is also vested in absolute terms in the said department. When the fiscal, by the means of the supervision which the law grants him in the conduction of sumarios, is of the opinion that the ends have been attained which article 299 of the law of criminal procedure requires for these proceedings, and shall consider that sufficient elements have been collected in the sumario to make the classification of the acts and enter upon the proceedings of the oral trial, he has the right to state this fact in order that the sumario may be declared terminated. In this point, as well as in all which constitutes the essence, so to say, of the functions intrusted to the prosecuting department, neither the judge of examination nor the court which is afterwards to pronounce sentence can pass upon his conduct. The fiscal conscientiously observing the legal provisions, absolutely independent of judges and courts, examines, considers, and decides what he may consider proper

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143 cuando s61o tenga el caricter do actor civil, al procesado y a las demis personas contra quienes resulte responsabilidad civil, emplazandoles cedente en un asunto; y asi como no puede recibir una imposici6n que altere su criterio respecto 4 la calificaci6n quo hace de los hechos justiciables, asf tampoco puede, con mayorfa de raz6n, sujetar su opini6n y ajustar su conducta al juicio 6 resoluci6n de quien por iespetables funciones que desempefie no tiene la delicada y alta misi6n de ejercitar la acci6n publica en representaci6n de los interests sociales, cuya defensa en primer t6rmino se le halla conflada. L, Significa lo anterior que los tribunales hayan de seguir indefectiblemente siempre la opini6n fiscal? De ningin modo, porque hay que distinguir aquellos puntos en que el ministerio pfiblico resuelve con la manifestaci6n de su opini6n, de los otros en que, exponiendo su criterio, el tribunal cuenta con la plenitud de facultades que requieren la buena administraci6n de justicia. La dificultad podrA presentarse al distinguir unos de otros asuntos, pero se conseguirA vencer con s6lo toner en cuenta la misi6n especial que esti lamado 4 cumplir el ministerio publico, que no se confunde ni se puede confundir con la que tienen los tribunales. Cuando se trate de determinar si la acci6n penal estei suficientemente preparada y si se ha de ejercitar 6 no, abriendo el correspondiente juicio, entonces, en ambos casos, el ministerio fiscal, independientemente, pero bajo so propia responsabilidad, obra como estima acertado, y no se limita i proponer, sino 4 resolver, salvo cuando haya un acusador privado que opine de distinto modo, en cuyo caso el tribunal puede y debe decidir y fallar con plenitud de facultades. Consecuencia 16gica 6 indeclinable de cuanto se ha expuesto es que el juez de instrucci6n tiene necesidad de seguir el criterio fiscal respecto 4 declarar terminado el sumario. Resta la segunda parte de la cuesti6n, es decir, la relativa al art. 630 de la citada ley de enjuiciamiento criminal. Para resolverla puede aplicarse todo lo dicho respect al principio acusatorio y espfritu de la reform del procedimiento, asf como lo relativo 4 las especiales funciones del ministerio fiscal como representante de la acci6n piblica. De todo ello resulta que tambidn las audiencias 6 salas de 1o criminal se hallan en el mismo deber que los juices de instrucci6n de declarar terminado un sumario, si el ministerio fiscal asf 1o pide, y no hay acusador privado que lo contradiga. Al legar 4 esta part de la consulta, hay que tener en cuenta dos circunstancias especiales que pueden afectarla. Consisted la primera en que, asf como tratindose del juez instructor, puede 6ste, conforme al parrafo primero del articulo 622, declarar de oficio terminado el sumario, refiriendose al tribunal sentenciador, no le da la ley esta facultad. Resulta la segunda del diferente lenguaje que usa dicha ley en el segundo pdrrafo del articulo 622 del que emplea en el 630. Segun la letra de aqu6l, y aun sin fijarse en otras consideraciones, el juez se halla en la necesidad de resolver conforme el fiscal le hace present 6 manifiesta. Pero seg6n la del artfculo 630, no se sujeta al tribunal de una mantra expresa y terminante a la opini6n fiscal. Si la primera circunstancia merece fijar la atenci6n, su influencia se significard en favor de la resoluci6n indicada, puesto quo si puede el juez de instrucci6n acordar de oficio la terminaci6n de un sumario, y ello no obstante, ha de sujetarse al criterio del fiscal, con mayorfa de raz6n ha de seguir este criterio el tribunal que de oficio no alcanza esa facultad. La segunda circunstancia no parece al infrascrito que puede merecer tanta importancia, que descubra en la ley una inconsecuencia con el espiritu a que obedece. Ciertamente, el artfculo 630 no dice mAs que el tribunal dictard auto confirmado 6

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143 though he should only have the character of a civil plaintiff, upon the accused and upon the other persons who may have incurred civil liain a matter; and as he can not be affected by anything altering his judgment with regard to the classification which he makes of the punishable acts, neither can he, with better reason, subject his opinion and adjust his conduct to the judgment or decision of a person who, whatever high functions he may discharge, does not have the delicate and high mission of exercising the public action on behalf of the social interests, the defense of which is primarily intrusted to him. Does the foregoing signify that courts must invariably follow the opinion of the fiscal? Not at all, because it is necessary to distinguish between those points where the prosecuting department decides with a statement of his opinion, and those in which manifesting his opinion, the court is vested with the full power required for a proper administration of justice. Difficulty may be encountered in distinguishing between these two points, but it can be surmounted by considering'the special mission of the prosecuting department, which is not and can not be confounded with that of the courts. When the question is to determine whether the penal action is sufficiently prepared and whether or not it is to be exercised, and a proper action instituted, then, in either case, the prosecuting department shall independently, but under its own liability, act as it may deem proper, and does not limit itself to proposing, but to deciding, unless there shall be a private accuser of a different opinion, in which case the court may and must decide with full powers. A logical and unavoidable consequence of the foregoing is that the judge of examination must follow the judgment of the fiscal with regard to declaring the termination of the sumario. The second part of the question remains, that is to say, that relating to article 630 of the aforesaid law of criminal procedure. In order to decide it, it is necessary to apply all that has been said with regard to the accusatory principle and the spirit of the reform of the procedure, as well as all that relates to the special functions of the prosecuting department as the representative of the public action. It appears hereupon that audiencias or criminal chambers are under the obligation, like judges of examination, to declare a sanario terminated, if the prosecuting department so requests, and there is no private accuser opposing it. In arriving at this point of the question it is necessary to consider two special circumstances which may affect it. The first consists in that the law does not give him this power, as in speaking of the judge of examination the latter may, in accordance with the first paragraph of article 622, declare the sumario terminated, and transmit it to the sentencing court. The second results from the different language used by said law in the second paragraph of article 622 and that of 630. According to the letter of the former, and even without other considerations, the judge is obliged to decide in accordance with what the fiscal reports or states. But according to article 630 the court is not subjected in an express and final manner to the opinion of the fiscal. If the first circumstance deserves attention it must be considered in favor of the decision indicated, because if the judge of examination can order the termination of a surnario at his own instance, and this, notwithstanding, must subject himself to the opinion of the fiscal, there is greater reason for the court, which can not exercise this power at his own instance, to follow his judgment. The second circumstance the undersigned believes can not deserve so much importance as to discover in the law an inconsistency in its spirit. It is true that article 630 says only that the court shall render a decision affirming

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144 para que comparezcan ante la respectiva audiencia en el termino de diez dias, 6 en el de sesenta si el emplazamiento fuese ante el Supremo. A la vez so pondrs en conocimiento del ministerio fiscal cuando la causa verse sobre delito en que tenga intervenci6n por raz6n de su cargo.' revocando el del juez de instrucci6n relativo 4 la terminaci6n del sumario. Pero esto no significa que el tribunal, contra las razones expuestas, tenga facultad para separarse del criterio fiscal. Habra pedido el ministerio fiscal la confirmaci6n 6 revocaci6n del auto expresado, y por eso el tribunal, segdn ]a letra del artfculo 630 podr4 confirmar6 revocar. (Exposisibn del fiscal del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de Septiembre de 1883, ndmero 25.) Menos decisiva que la expuesta y aun contradictoria es la opinion de la propia fiscalia, manifestada en la memoria de 15 de Septiembre de 1884, seg6n la que la determinaci6n de hallarse concluso el sumario corresponde al juez, bajo la maus completa libertad de juicio," dice, "dentro de la ley, por una raz6n que excusa la alegaci6n de toda otra; por la de ser el juez unico responsable del acuerdo;" y afiade: "la atribuci6n del ministerio fiscal se limita 4 exigir esa misma responsabilidad, en su dia y en su caso, si creyese baber lugar a ella." Al tribunal corresponde resolver si procede el sobreseimiento 6 la apertura del juicio oral en el caso en que el ministerio fiscal y el acusado privado opinen de distinta manera. (Circular de la fiscalia del Tribunal Supreno de 1 de Noriembre de 1883.) En la instrucci6n 7. de 1as que acompafian 4 la memoria d 1886, so recomienda que los fiscales estin a la instrucci6n 25 arriba citada, y afnade: "cuidando d protestar siempre que contra su dictamen se revocare un auto de esta clase." Remitido un sumario a ]a audiencia, debern notificarse al ministerio fiscal todas las providencias que so dicten en cuantos asuntos sea parte el mnismo, sin que quepa hacer distinci6n entre providencias que afectan y otras que son indifereutes 4 la acusaci6n. (Exposicidn del fiscal del Tribunal Supremo de 15 Septiembre de 1883, nmero 85.) Declarado rebelde un procesado sin pronunciamiento alguno sobre termination del sumario, la audiencia de Madrid en su fallo (de 4 Julio de 1883) consign el siguiente: Considerando que conforme a lo dispuesto en el articulo 840 de la ley do enjuiciamiento criminal, cuando, como en el presente caso, la causa se encuentra on sumario, una vez practicadas las diligencias conducentes, debe declararse terminado el sumario y acordar adems 1o que establece el 622 de la propia ley, todo sin perjuicio de la declaraci6n de rebeldfa que previene el 839, y declarard terminado el sumario. Ha ofrecido vacilaciones el cumplimiento del artfculo 623 de la propia ley en cuanto a si los procesados a quienes ha de emplazarse para su comparecencia en la respectiva audiencia dentro de un termino marcado, han de ser requeridos a fin de que nombren procurador y letrado que les represented y defiendan. La ley, por suponer sin duda queconarreglo40lo dispuesto en su articulo 118, ese requerimiento debeestar hecho para toda ocasi6n en que pueda producir legales efectos, no ha vuelto a exigir en otros artfculos la prdctica de tal diligencia. Mas como puede acontecer que no se haya practicado, 6 que el procurador y letrado designados, residiendo en la capitalidad del juzgado de instrucci6n, no est6n habilitados para ejercer sus funciones en la poblaci6n donde haya de celebrarse el juicio, serfa siempre conveniente que en el trmite sefialado por el citado articulo 623 se hagaun nuevo requerimiento 4 los procesados, salvo fnicamente el caso de que, requeridos conforme el articulo 118 hubiesen renunciado

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144 bility, summoning them to appear before the proper audioncia within the period of ten days, or sixty days if the summons should be to appear before the Supreme Court. At the same time it shall be communicated to the public prosecutor if the cause involves a crime in which he should intervene by reason of his office.' or revoking that of the judge of examination relating to the termination of the sumario. But this does not signify that the court, in contravention of the reasons stated, can act contrary to the judgment of the fiscal. The prosecuting department may have requested the affirmation or revocation of the decision mentioned, and therefore the court, according to the letter of article 630, may affirm or revoke it. (Report of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1883, No. 25.) The opinion of the same office, as contained in the report of September 15, 1884, is less decisive and even contradictory, according to which the determination of the conclusion of the sumario pertains to the judge "under the most complete liberty of judgment within the law, for a reason which renders the alleging of any other useless, because the judge is the only one responsible for the decree," and the power of the prosecuting official is limited to enforcing this liability at the proper time and in a proper case, if he deems that it lies." It is the duty of the court to decide whether a dismissal of the proceedings or the opening of the oral trial should take place, in case the public prosecutor and the private accuser are of different opinions. (Circular of the office of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of November 19, 1888.) In the seventh instruction which accompanies the report of 1886, it is recommended that the fscales observe the twenty-fifth instruction above cited, adding: taking care to protest whenever a decree of this character is revoked against their opinion." After a sumario has been transmitted to the audiencia, all orders issuing in any matters which are a part thereof must be communicated to the public prosecutor, no distinction being made between orders which do and those which do not affect the accusation. (Report of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1883, No. 35.) If an accused person be declared in default without any utterance as to the termination of the sumario, the audiencia of Madrid in its decision (of July 4, 1883) stated as follows: Considering that in accordance with the provisions of article 840 of the law )f criminal procedure, when, as in the present case, the cause has reached the sum-rio stage, after the proper proceedings have been had, the sumario must be declared terminated and the steps provided for by article 622 of the said law must be taken, all without prejudice to the declaration of default prescribed in article 839, and shall declare the sumario terminated." 1There have arisen doubts in the compliance of article 623 of this law as to whether accused persons who must be summoned for appearance before the proper audiencia within a specific period should be required to appoint a solicitor and an attorney to represent and defend them. The law, no doubt supposing that as in accordance with article 118 this demand must be made in every case in which it might produce legal effects, has not made a similar specification in other articles. But as it may occur that the demand was not made, or that the solicitor and attorney designated, residing in the seat of the court of examination, are not empowered to discharge their duties in the town where the trial is to be held, it would always be advisable that at the proceedings mentioned in article 623 a new demand be made of the accused, excepting only when, the demand having been made in accordance with article 118, they should have absolutely renounced the right to appoint counsel. And even in 18473-01-19

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145 ART. 624. Si el juez instructor reputare falta el hecho que hubiese dado lugar al sumario, mandara remitir el proceso al juez municipal, consultando el auto en que asi lo acuerde con el tribunal superior competente.' ART. 625. Asi que sea firme el auto por haberle aprobado dicho superior tribunal, 6 por haberse desestimado e1 recurso de casaci6n que en su caso haya podido interponerse, se emplazara a las partes para que en el termino de cinco dias conparezean ante 01 juez municipal a quien corresponda su conocimiento. Recibidos los autos por el juez municipal, se sustanciara el juicio con arreglo 6 lo dispuesto en el libro VI de esta ley. ART. 626. Fuera de los casos previstos en los dos articulos anteriores, el tribunal que reciba los autos y piezas de convicci6n mandara pasarlos al ponente por e1 tiempo que falte para cumplir e1 tirmino del emplazamiento, abriendo antes los pliegos y demss objetos cerrados y sellados que hubiere remitido el juez de instrucci6n. Do la apertura so extenders acta por el secretario, on la cual so hara constar el estado en que se hallaren.2 absolutamente el derecho de nombrarse defensores. Y aun en tal caso, debe respetarse el ejercicio de este renunciado derecho, cualquiera que sea el estado del juicio en que, sin producir embarazo 4 su progresiva y regular marcha, los procesados designen procuradores y letrados 4 quienes puede admitirse sin perjuicio de estimar como v41ido y subsistente cuanto se hubiese practicado 4 petici6n de los defensores y representantes que de oficio se les nombraron, por no haber hecho uso de su preferente derecho mis oportunamente. (Circular del presidente del Tribunal Supremo de 14 de Junio de 1883.) ADebe ser oido el ministerio fiscal por el tribunal superior competente antes de que se dicte resoluci6n confirmando 6 revocando el auto del inferior, en que se declare falta el hecho que hubiese dado lugar al sumario? "Indudablemente debe ser ofdo el ministerio fiscal, antes de dictarse la resoluci6n de quo se trata. No importa que en los articulos 624 y 625 de la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal, que se ocupan de este particular, se guarde silencio acerca de la intervenci6n que, para resolver sobre el mismo, ha de tener el ministerio fiscal, porque es de esencia, y hasta rudimentario, que en todas las causas en que se trate de hechos que revistan caracteres de delitos pdblicos, es part el expresado ministerio, y no es posible prescindir de 61, cuando se ha de tomar una resoluci6n importante, que fija la naturaleza juridica del asunto. Si contra lo que es rational y l6gico suponer, se diera el caso extrafio de que un tribunal entendiese lo contrario, habria una necesidad indeclinable de utilizar los recursos legales, para que nunca se pudiera creer que el ministerio fiscal hacfa dejaci6n 6 abandono de lo que constituye uno de sus mds sagrados deberes." (Exposicidn citada de 1883, nunero 26.) Vease en el Apindice I, la orden No. 181 de 30 de Abril de 1900. 2Este articulo ha sido modificado para Cuba como sigue: "Fuera de los casos previstos en los dos articulos anteriores, el tribunal que reciba los autos y piezas de convicci6n se limitary y la apertura de los pliegos y demise obje-

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145 ART. 624. If the examining judge should consider the act which gave rise to the sumario a misdemeanor, he shall order the process to be forwarded to the municipal judge, submitting the order thereon for consultation to the competent superior tribunal.' ART. 625. As soon as the order becomes final by reason of the approval thereof by said superior court, or on account of the nonadmission of the appeal for annulment of judgment which in a proper case may have been interposed, the parties shall be summoned to appear within a period of five days before the municipal judge to whom the cognizance thereof pertains. After the record of the proceedings has been received by the municipal judge, the action shall proceed in accordance with the provisions of Book VI of this law. ART. 626. With the exception of the cases provided for in the two foregoing articles, the court receiving the record of the proceedings and exhibits shall order them forwarded to the Ponente for such period as may be lacking to make up the period of the summons, first opening the packages and other closed and sealed parcels which the judge of examination may have forwarded. The secretary shall make a record of the opening, in which he shall state the condition in which they were found.2 such case the exercise of this renounced right must be respected, whatever be the stage of the action that, without embarrassing its progress and regular course, the accused designate solicitors and attorneys who shall be admitted without prejudice to considering as valid and in force all that may have been done on motion of the counsel assigned them by the court, by reason of their not having availed themselves of their right at the proper time. (Circular of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of June 14, 1883.) Must the prosecuting official be heard by the competent superior court before a decision is rendered affirming or revoking that of the lower court declaring the act which gave rise to the sumario to be a misdemeanor? "Undoubtedly the prosecuting official must be heard before the decision referred to is rendered. It makes no difference that articles 624 and 625 of the law of criminal procedure, which treat hereof, are silent as to the intervention which in order to render a decision the prosecuting official must have, because it is essential and even rudimentary that in all causes involving acts which have the character of public crimes, the said prosecuting department be a party, and it is impossible not to consider the same, when an important decision is to be rendered fixing the juridical character of the matter. If against all that is rational and logical, the unusual case should occur of a court believing the contrary, it would be absolutely necessary to avail one's self of the legal remedies, in order that it shall never be considered that the prosecuting department neglects or abandons what constitutes one of its most sacred duties." (Report cited of 1883, No. 26.) See in Appendix I, Order No. 181, of April 30, 1900. 2 This article has been amended for Cuba as follows: "Excepting the cases provided for in the two preceding articles, the court which received the records and exhibits in a case shall limit itself to opening the parcels

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146 ART. 627. Transcurrido dicho termino, se pasarin para instrucci6n por otro, que no bajara de tres dias ni excederi de diez, segun el volumen del proceso, al ministerio fiscal, si la causa versa sobre delito en que deba tenor intervenci6n, y despues al procurador del querelante, si so hubiese personado. Si la (ausa excediere de mil folios, podrs prorrogarse el termino, sin que en ningun caso pueda exceder la pr6rroga de otro tanto mas. Al ser devuelta, so acompafiara escrito conformindose con el auto del inferior que haya declarado terminado el sumario, 6 pidiendo la practica de nuevas diligencias.' ART. 628. Devuelta la causa 6 recogida de powder del ultimo quo la hubiere recibido, se pasara inmediatamente al ponente con los escritos presentados por termino de tries dias.2 ART. 629. El tribunal, al mandar entrogar la causa, dispondri lo que consider conveniente para que el fiscal 6 el querellante on su caso puedan examinar la correspondencia, libros, papeles y demis piezas de convicci6n sin peligro do alteraci6n en su estado.8 tos cerrados y sellados que hubiere remitido el juez de instrucci6n, extendidndose ac