Lessons for children of four years old


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Lessons for children of four years old
Physical Description:
2 v. : ; 92 mm. (16mo)
Bache, Benjamin Franklin, 1769-1798
Printed by B.F. Bache
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Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Readers -- 1788   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1788
Readers   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia


Welch, D.A. Amer. children's books,
Rosenbach, A.S.W. Children's books,
General Note:
Baldwin Library holds Part II only.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 021944085
oclc - 33806872
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The LibrarY.






C HARLES, what a clever thing it is to read A little while ago, you know, you could only read little words ; and you were forced

to fpell them---c--a--t, cat; d--o-g, dog. Now you can read pretty flories, and I am going to write you fome.
Do you know why you are better than Pufs ? Pufs can play as well as you; and Pufs can drink milk, and lie upon the carpet; and fhe

can run as fai as you, and faster too, a great deal; and fhe can climb trees better; and fhe can catch mice, which you cannot do. But can Pufs talk? No. Can Pufs read? No. Then that is the reafon why you are better than Pufs---becaufe

you can talk and read. Can, Pompey, your dog, read? No. Will you teach him? Take the pin and point to the words. No--- he will not learn. I never faw a little dog or cat learn to read. But little boys can learn. If you do not learn, Charlesi

you are not good for half as much as a Pufs. You had better be drowned.

What a clock is it, Charles ? It is twelve o'clock. It is noon. Come in the garden then. Now where is

the run? Turn your face t<)-. wards him, Look at the fun. That is South always when it is twelve o'clock, and you look at the fun, your face is towards the South, Now turn to your left hand. Look forwards. That is Eaft. In the morning, when

it is going to be light, you muff look juff there, and prefently you will fee the fun get up. Always in the morning look there for the fun; for the fun rifes in the Eafi. Now turn your back to the fun. Look firaight forwards. That is North.

Now turn to your left hand. Look forwards. That is Well. When you have had your fupper, and it is going to b. night, look for the fun juft there. He is always there when he goes to bed; for the fun fets in the Weft. North, South, Eaft, Weft.


The wind blows. Which way does the wind blow ? Take out your handkerchief. Throw it up. The wind blows it this way. The wind comes from the north. The wind -is north.- It is a

cold wind. The wind was foutherly yesterday, then it Was warm.

Rain comes from the clouds. Look, there are black clouds. How fail they move along Now, they

have hid the fun. They
have covered up the fun, juft as you cover up your; face when you throw a handkerchief over it. There is a little bit of blue fky ftill. Now there is no blue fky at all: it is all black with the clouds. It is very dark,

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like night. It will rain foon. Now it begins. What large drops! The ducks are very glad, but the little birds are not glad; they go and fhelter themfelves under the trees. Now the rain is over. It was only a fhower. Now the flowers finell fweet, and

the fan shines, and the little Birds fing again, and it is not fo hot as it was before it rained.

We will drink tea out of doors. Bring the tea-things. Come, fetch your hat. It

is very pleafant. But here is no table. What muft we do? O, here is a large round ftump of a tree, it will do very well for a table. But we have no chairs. Here is a feat of turf, and a bank almoft covered with violets; we flhall fit here, and you

and Billy may lie on the carpet. The carpet is in the parlour. Yes, there is a carpet in the parlour, but there is a carpet here too. What is it? 'rhe grafs is the carpet out of doors. Pretty green foft carpet!I and it is very large, Ifor it

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spreads every where, over all the fields, and over all the meadows: and it is very pleafant for the fheep and the lambs to lie down upon. I do not know what they would do without it, for they have no feather-bed to fleep upon.

It is a pleafant evening. Come hither, Charles, look at the fun. The fun is in the Weft. Yes, becaufe he is going to fet. How pretty the fun looks! We can look at him now; he is not

fo bright as he was at dinnertime, when he was up high in the fky. And how beautiful the clouds are I There are crimfon clouds, and purple and gold-coloured clouds. Now the fun is going down a great pace. Now we can fee only half

- of him. Now we cannot I fee him at all. Farewel, fun!
till to-morrow morning.
But now, Charles, turn
your face the other way, to the Eaa. What is it
that fines fo behind the trees? Is it a fire? No, it is the moon. It is very

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large; and how red it is like blood. The moon is round now, becaufe it is full moon; but it will not be fo round to-morrow night; it will lofe a little bit: and the next night it will lofe a little bit more; and more the next night; and fo on,

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till it becomes like your bow; then it will not rife till after you are gone to bed; but you may fee it- in the morning, when the fun is up : though it will not fhine fo bright. Then it will not be feen at all for feveral days. Afterwards it will be new moon,

and you will fee it in the afternoon near where the fun fets. Then it will go further and further from the fun, and grow bigger and bigger every day for a fortnight, then it will be full moon again, and rife oppofite to where the fun goes down.

Do you know what raifins are ? They are grapes 4ried a great deal. Grapes, you know, grow upon vines; but raifins are made of larger grapes than thofe upon the vine in the garden: they

come from a great way Of4, Do you know what fugar comes fromS? ugar comes from a cane like a walking Rlick, that grows in the ground; they fqueeze the juice out, and boil it a great deal, and that makes fugar. And what is tea? Tea is a

leaf that grows upon a fhrub, and that is dried a good deal,

Charles wants fome bread and butter---But the bread is not baked. Then bid Chriftopher Clump heat his oves and bake it---But the I!p

I-oaf is not kneaded. Then bid little Margery take the dough and knead it--- But the flour is not ground. Then take it to the mill, and bid Roger the miller grind it
---But the corn is not threfhed. Then bid John Dobbins take his flail and threfh it---

But the wheat is not reaped. Then bid Dick Clodpole
take his fickle and cut it--But the wheat is not fown. Then bid Farmer Diggory take the feed and fow it--But the field is not plowed. Then bid Ralph Wifeacre take the horfes and plow

iti--But the plough is not made. Then go to Humphrey Hiccory the carpenter, and bid him make one---But there is never a plough-fhare. Then bid Firebrafs the fmith go to his anvil and beat one.
---But we have no butter. Then go to market, Sufan,

and buy fome---But the butter is not churned. Then take your churn, Dolly, and churn fome---But the cow is not milked. Then take your pail, Cicely, and milk it---Now, Betty, pray fpread Charles a flice of bread and butter.


Charles, do not you remember the caterpillar we
put into a paper box, with fome mulberry leaves for it to eat ? Let us go and look at it. It is gone---here is no caterpillar---there is fome-.

thing in the box; what is it? I do not know. it is
-a little ball of yellow fluff. Let us cut it. open, per-haps wec may 4.3nd th1-e caterpillar. No, here is nothiing but a
f~rna lttie grub, and it dead, I believe, for it does not MIovC. Pinch it rcni-h

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by the tail. Now it flirs: it is not dead quite. Charles, this grub is your caterpillar; it is indeed. That yellow fuff is filk. The caterpillar fpun all that filk, and covered it fclf up with it ; and then it was turned into this grub. Take it, and lay it in the

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fun; We will come and look at it again to-maorrow morning---Well, this is very fur-, prifing! here is no grub at all to be found. Did not we put it on this aheet of paper laf1 night? Yes, we did And no body has been in the room to meddle with it.

N-)no body at all has been [,,- the room. Is there noLill-Mg Upon the fhect of paper? Yes, here is a white
bute~y Iwonader h1ow it e mec' o the window are fbut. Perhaps the grub is turnedl into a butterfly. It is, i m cd ; .ind look, here

is the empty fhell of the grub. Here is where the butterfly came out. But the,butit rflIy is tc~o big ; this fell could ilbct hold hlim'-. Yes, It did,3 bccaufe his wings were folded up, and lie lay very fnug7. It is the fame, I afi-ure you, Charles;
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all the pretty butterflies that you fee Aflying about were caterpillars once, and crawled on the ground.

Charles, you muft not go out into the fields by yourfef, nor without leave.

You are a very little boy, you know; and if you were to venture out by yourself you would be loft; then you would cry, and night would come, and it would be dark, and you could not find your way home, and you would have no bed; you would be

forced to lie down in the fields upon the wet cold grafs, and perhaps you would die, and that would be a fad tale to tell.
I will you tell a Rory about a lamb. 'There was once a Shepherd, who had a great many flheep and-lambs,

He took a great deal of care of them, and gave them
fweet frefh grafs to eat, and clear water to drink; and if they were fick he was very good to them-; and when they climbed up a fleep hill, and the, lambs were tired, he ufed to carry them in his

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arms; and when they were all eating their fuppers in the field, he ufed to fit upon a file, and play them a tune) and fing to them; and fo they were the happieft fheep and lambs in the whole world. But every night this Shepherd ufed to pen them up

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in a fold. Do you know
-what a heep-fold is ? Well, I will tqll you. It is a place like the cou;t; but inflead of pales there are hurdles, which are made of flicks that will bend, fuch as ofier twigs; and they are twifted arnd made very faft, fo that noB6

thing can creep in, and nothing can get out. Well, andfo every night when it grew dark and cold, the Shepherd called all his flock, fheep and lambs, together, and drove them into the fold, and penned them up, and thcre they lay as fnug and

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warmni and comfortable h could be, and nothing could get in to hurt them, and the dogs lay round on the outfide to guard them, and to bark if any body came near; anid in the morning the Shepherd unpenned the fold, and let them all out again.

Now they were all very happy as I told you, and loved the Shepherd dearly, that was fo good to them--all except one foolish little lamb. And this lamb did not like to be f ut up every night in the fold; and Ihe came to her mother, who

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was a wife old fheep, and faid to her, I wonder why we are fhut up fo every night! I the dogs are not fhut up, and why fhold we be fhut up? I think it is very hard, and I will get away if I can, I am refolved, for I like- to run about where I pleafe,

and I think it is very plea-. fant in the woods by moonlight---Then the old fheep faid to her, you are very filly, you little laJ, you had better flay in the fold. The Shepherd is fo good to us, that we should always do as he bids us ; and if you wander

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ibut by y6urfclf, I dare fay you will come to fome harm. I da:e fay not, faid the little lamb: ad fo whenthe evening caine, and the shepherd called them all to come into the fold, fhe would not come, but crept flily under a hedge and hid herfelf; and when

the tell of the lambs w--re all in the fold an~d faft aflxep% lie came out, anid jun~pedt and friiked, and dan-cd aKbout; and Ilie got out of
te field, and gct into
foreft full of trees, and a very fierce wolf came rufhling out of a cave, and howled very

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loud. Then the filly lainb wiflaed the had been flhut up in the fold; but the fold was a great way off---and the wolf faw her, and feized her, and carried her away to a difmal dark den, -all covered with bones and blood; and there the wolf had two

cubs, and the wolf faid to them, Here, I have brought you a young fat lamb---and fo the cubs took her, and growled over her a little while, and then tore her to pieces, and eat her up.

Gold is of a deep yellow colour. It is very pretty and bright. It is exceeding heavy; heavier than any thing elfe. Men dig it out of the ground. Shall I take my fpade and get fome? No,

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there is none in the fields hereabouts: It comes from a great way off; and it lies deeper a great deal than you could dig with your fpade. Guineas are made of gold; and half joes. This watch is gold; and the lookingglafs frame, and the picture

frames are gilt with gold. Here is fome leaf gold. What is leaf gold ? It is gold beat very thin; thinner than leaves or paper.
Silver is white and thininig. The fpoons are filver; and the waiter is filver; and french crowns, and dollars,

and half dollars, and quartet dollars. Silver comes from a great way off too.
Copper is red. The teakettle is made of copper; and brafs is made of copper. Brafs is bright and yellow like gold almost. The andirons are made of brafs; and the

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locks upon the doors, and this candleflick, dnd this fkil. let. What is this green upon the skillet? It is rufty; the green is verdegris; it would kill you, if you were to eat it.

Iron is very hard. It is not pretty, but I do' not know what we should do without it, for it makes us a great many things. Go and afk the cook whether fe can roaft her meat without a fpit. Well, what does the fay? She fays fhe can-

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not. But the fpit is made of iron; and fo is the pot and. kettle, the fhovel, and tongs. Go and aik Dobbin if he can plow without the ploughfhare. Well, what does he fay ? He f~ays No, he cannot. But the plough-fhare is made of iron. Will iron

How hard he works! The fparks fly about, pretty bright parks What is the blackfmith making? He is making nails, and horfe fhoes, and a great'many things.
Steel is made of iron. Steel is very bright, and fharp, miand hard.

Knives and fciffars are made of ficel.
Lead is foft, and very heavy. Here is a piece: lift it. The fpout is lead, and bullets are made of lead. Will lead melt in the fire? Try: put fome on the thotel: hold it over the fire.

Now it is all melted. 'Pou: it into this bafon of water How it hiffes! what prett things it has made !
Tin is white and foft. It is bright too. The canifter are covered with tin.

Quickfilver is very bright :r like filver; and it is very
heavy. See how it runs about! You cannot catch it. You cannot pick it up.
There is quickfilver in the


Gold, Silver, Copper, Iron, Lead, Tin, Quickfilver, One, two, three, four, five, fix, feven---What? Metals--They are all dug out of the ground.


Marble- is dug out of the
- ground. It is very hard ~ you cannot cut it with a knife; but the ftone-cutter can cut it. ,There is white marble, and black, and gre en, and red, and yellow
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marble. The chimney piece is made of marble.
Stones come out of the ground, and flints. Here are two flints: they are very hard: -rike them both together. Ah! here is fire here are fparks. Gravel is dug out of gravel' pits, They

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put it into carts, and the make gravel walks with i or elfe mend the roads wit it. Chalk and fuller's eart are dug out of the ground Coals come out of the ground e Men dig great deep pits, an
g fo they go down into them
and get the coal with pick C3

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xes, and bring it up. Thofe men are colliers: they are ery black. A great many aings come out of the round; fure it is very deep! es, it is very deep. If you ,ere to dig a hundred years, 3u would never come to the )ttom, it is fo deep.

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Charles, here is a ring ft you to play with. See hoi it fparkles! Hold it again the fun. I fee all coloui in it. What is this bright shining ftone ? It is a Dia mond. It is very hard; yoi may write upon the glafs witj it. A Ruby is red; bright

trimfon red. An Emerald s green. A Topaz is yellow. SSapphire is blue. The
Amethyft is purple. The garnet red. The Beryl light ,reen. All there are dug out 4f the earth. They are called wels---precious ftones. And
-ere is a white round bead,

which is very pretty; it i in an ear-ring. What is it It is a pearl. And does tha come out of the ground too No, it comes out of the fea Pearls are found in oyfter shells.
Will ftones melt in th fire ? No.

SDoes glafs come out of he ground? No. People hake glafs in a glafs-houfe. C!hey have great fires burning ,11 day and all night. You hall go to a glafs-houfe fome ay and fee them make it.

A tree has a root that go under the ground a gre way. The roots are lik its legs: the tree could n( land without them. The the tree has a trunk; a larg thick, firait trunk. Th

s its body. Then the tree as branches. Thofe are ke arms. They fpread out ery far. Then there are Ioughs; and upon the ~ughs, Jeaves, and bloffoms. Tere is a bloffom upon the pple-tree. Will the blof>m be always upon the tree ?

No, it will fall off foon: perhaps it will fall off tonight. But then do you know what comes inflead of the bloffom? What? The fruit. After the apple-bloffoms, there will be apples. Then if the bloffom falls off to-night, fall I come

here and get an apple toSmorrow ? No, you mull have patience: there will not be ripe apples a great 4 while yet. There,, will be k i rft a little little thing hardSly bigger than a pin's head. jThat will fwell, and grow bigger every day, and harder,

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till at laft it will come to be a great apple. But you muff not eat it yet; you muff let it hang till the fun has made it red, and till you can pull it off eafily. Now it is ripe; it is as red as your cheeks. Now gather it andt eW t.
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Has a flower a root too? Yes: here is a cowflip ; we will pull it up. See here are roots like firings ; here is the Item of the cowflip; here is the foot-ftalk; here is the flower cup ; here are i the leaves of the flower; and a pretty flower it is:

Est I
ydlow with crimfon pots. Hre are the feeds. If the feeds are put in the ground, when they are ripe, another flower will grow up.

A fhe Horfe is a Mare. A young Horfe is a Colt. A

very young horfe is a Foal.
A fhe Lion is a Lionefs.
Tiger, Tigrefs.
Bull, Cow, Calf, Ox Boar, Sow, Pig, Hcg.
Sheep, Ram, Ewe. Lamb, Wether.
Dog, Bitch, Puppy, Whelp.

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Cat, Kitten. Cock, Hen, Chicken. Gander, Goofe, Gofling.
Drake, Duck, Duckling.
Eagle, Eaglet.
Stag, Buck, Doe, Hart, Hind, Fawn.
Hare, Leveret.

he comes out, and prowls bout to find fomething to He eats cows, and fheep, a horfes; and he would e you too, if.you were with his reach. The Lionefs no mane. She is like great dog. Any body woxi be afraid of a Lion if he w

S come. Yes any body
ould be afraid of a Lion, a harles: but you need not
e afraid of dogs, they are t ood creatures. I will tell
ou a ftory.
There was once a little
oy, who was a fad coward.
e was afraid of every thing

almoft. He was afraid the two little kids, Nan and Billy, when they ca, and put their nofes throu the pales of the court; a he would not pluck Bi by the beard. What a fi little, boy he was! Pr what was his name? Ns

eed I hall not tell you i s name, for I am ashamed a him. Well, he was very u uch afraid of dogs too;
always cried if a dog 3il ked; and ran away, and fil ok hold of hia mamma's r ron like a baby. What olifh fellow he was! fqor

dogs do not hurt, you kno they love little boys, play with them. Didy ever fee a dog eat up a lii boy? No, never, I d fay. Well; fo this im little boy was walking himfelf one day, and a pr ty black dog came out

W ufe, and faid Bow wow w, wow; and came to little boy, and jumped "on him, and wanted to d y with him; but the
tle boy ran away. The 9 ran after him, and cried Pr der, Bow, bow, wow;
t he only meant to fay,

Oood-morrow, how do do? but this little boy fadly frightened, and away as faft as ever he co without looking before b and he tumbled into a i dirty ditch, and there he crying at the bottom of ditch, for hae could not

y out: and I believe he would have lain there all day, but the dog was fo good-natued,
o that he went to the houfe hi where the little boy lived, L v on purpofe to tell them le where he was. So when he
came to the houfe, he ot scratched at 'the door, and

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raid, Blow wow; for he could not fpeak any plainer, So they opened the door.
What do you want, you black dog? We do not know you. Then the dog went to Ralph the fervant, and pulled him by the coat, and pulled him till he brought

him to the ditch; -and, the Idog and Ralph together got the little boy out of the ditch ; .but he was all over mud, and quite wet, and every body laughed at him becaufe he was a coward.
Now, Charles, my pen is tired, I cannot write any

more at prefent; but if you are a good boy, perhaps I may write you fome more Rories another time. Farewel.