The new Robinson Crusoe


Material Information

The new Robinson Crusoe an instructive and entertaining history, for the use of children of both sexes
Uniform Title:
Robinson der jüngere
Physical Description:
4 v. in 2 : 32 ill. ; 17 cm. (12mo)
Campe, Joachim Heinrich, 1746-1818
Bewick, John, 1760-1795
Stockdale, John, 1749?-1814
Printed for John Stockdale
Place of Publication:
London (opposite Burlington House, Piccadilly)
Publication Date:
2nd ed.


Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1789   ( rbgenr )
Robinsonades -- 1789   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1789
Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Robinsonades   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London


NUC pre-1956,
General Note:
On t.p.: Entered at Stationers Hall.
General Note:
Vol. 1-2: 173, 1 (blank) p., 7 leaves of plates (front. lacking); 156 p., 7 leaves of plates; v.3-4 lacking.
General Note:
Some ill. signed: J. Bewick del. & sculp.
General Note:
Campe named as author on p. 9 of preface.
General Note:
On spine: Robinson Crusoe. 1-2.
General Note:
Translation from a French translation of the German original: Robinson der jüngere.
Statement of Responsibility:
translated from the French ; embellished with thirty-two beautiful cuts.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 023379106
oclc - 23031023
System ID:

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S OME writers have affirmed that
mankind are all born with the fame difpofitions and the fame degree of underftanding; and that education, laws, and cuftoms, create all the difference perceivable between man and man. I confefs, I can hardly bring myfelf to fuppofe that education alone produced the wide difimilarity which exists between the characters of Therfites and Achilles, or thofe of Socrates and Anytus : at the fame time it will ever be an acknowledged truth, that even he who is moft indebted to Nature will reap
A3 but

but fmall advantage from her gifts, unlefs they are improved by mature and judicious cultivation.
It is unneceffary to undertake a ferious demonfiration of a truth univerfally admitted in all ages and nations; a truth confirmed by daily experience, and the pradice of which was the obje& conflantly aimed at by the labours both of the philofopher and the bulk of mankind. The improvement of the latter, as far as it can be effeded by education, has been more attended to in the prefent age than ever it was in any preceding one. If the endeavours ufed to this purpofe have not had all the fuccefs that might be expended from them, they have at leaft excited the attention and directed the minds of men towards an objea, the accomplifhment of which, as it is more or lefs perfea, has ever a pro-

proportionable effed upon the happinefs of families, and confequently upon the ftate of fociety in general.
A great genius of the prefent age has contributed, even by his falfe opinions, towards the accomplishment of this important objed: for the errors of great men are remarked, and the difcuffion of them frequently leads to the truth from which they have deviated. Thus Mr. Rouiffeau's Emilius will, in fpite of the falfe opinions advanced in it, always be a valuable book, both on account of the important truths which it contains, and thofe which it has caufed to be difcovered; and it would be unjuft not to attribute to it at leaf a confiderable enlargement in our ideas concerning education,
To free our fpecies, as far as in us lies, from the ailmhnents and disabilities
A 4 to

8 P R E A C E.
to which Nature fubjeds them from their very birth, is a great objed, but certainly not the only one. It is effintial to fociety that its members be found and robuft in conilitution; but if they are not, at the fame time, honeft, juff, and good, they will be of more prejudice than advantage to fociety. Mr. Rouffeau was perfectly fenfible of this truth; he has paid confiderable attention to it; but, if I may be allowed the affertion, he was frequently deceived both in the nature of focial virtue, and the extent to which it should be pradifed. While he boldly attacks the prejudices under which we are enflayed from our infancy, he has, on the other hand, denied, or endeavoured to render doubtful, many valuable truths which conflitute our happinefs in a more advanced age. While he meant to

to prune away the greedy branches that impeded the growth of the tree, he has, though perhaps without intention, wounded its very roots. Whilft he wishes to affift Nature, he allows Nature too much; and where he thought he found her defedive, he has not always been able to find the beft means of supplying her defeds. In a word, young Emilius is the child of Mr. Rouffeau's fancy, not the child of education.
Neverthelefs, the following work is indebted to that of Mr. Rouflfeau for the form that it bears. Mr. Campe, the author of it, expreffes himfelf thus: "I never read the following paffage in the fecond volume of Emilius without the mofti fenfiblefatisfadion. Nothing upon earth can be fo well calculated to in, spire one with ardour in the execution
A 5 of

T0 P R B F A C E.
of a plan approved by fo great a genius.
Might there not be found means," Lays Rouffeau, to bring together fo many leffons of inftrudion that lie fcattered in fo many books; to apply them through a single objea of a familiar and not uncommon nature, capable of engaging the imitation, as well as rouing and fixing the attention even at fo tender an age ? If one could imagine a fituation, in which all the natural wants of man appear in the cleareft light to the understanding of a child, and in which the means of fatisfying there wants unfold themfelves fucceffively in the fame clear, eafy manner, the lively and natural defcription of fuch a fate thoold be the firif means that I would ufe to fet his imagination at work.
"I fee thine expand already, thou ardent

dent philofopher. But be not in pain; we have found fuch a fituation.. It is defcribed, and no difparagement to your talents, much better than you would defcribe it yourfelf, at leaff with more truth and fimplicity. Sincewe muffthave books, there is one that furnifhes, in my opinion, the beft imagined treatife upon natural education that can poffibly be. This book hall be the firift that I will put into the hands of my Emilius; this fingly hall for a long, time compofe his whole library, and indeed fhall always hold a diftinguifhed place there. It hall be the text to, which all our difcourfes upon natural science hall ferve as a commentary. It hall be the criterion of our tafte andc judgment; and, as long as theft remain uncorrupted, the reading of it will always be agreeable to us. Well,
A 6 then.

12 PRAE F.,AC r.
then, what is this wonderful book? Is it Ariftotle, Pliny,' 'Buf~ ?-No.: it is Rob" fbncrf~ C
0"Robinfdn Cf ifoe, alone inhis ifand, ?deprived of- the affiflance of his- fellow creatures, without tools of any fort, Yet, providing for -his safety and Pub-' liftence, and even procuring himiifeif a fort of. happinefs, prefents 'a fubjea interefling to every age, and which there might be a thoufand Avays of making agreeablk to :children. b~i o e
reaize th idalcirtumftances of the defert ifland, which I ufed at firft as a cornparifon. I grant, it is by no means the fate of man as defined for fociety;

*Mr. Ronifeau is millaken here. -The Old ReRiifon Crrijoe has plenty of tools and infiruments, which iefves from the wreck of a'lhip; whereas the Ne'w Roh~ia/fot Crujoe has nothing but his head and his hands todepend on-for his prefervation. ny

P R E F A C E. 1
nay, probably Emilius might never erperience fuch a fituation; nevertheless, it is that lby which he should effimate the value of every other condition in life. The fureft way to rife fuperior to all prejudice, and to form our judgment upon the true report of things, is to plage'ourfelves in the fituation of a man cut off from all fociety, and to judge of every thing as that man mufI naturally judge, regard being had at the fame time to his own degree of utility in the fphere of existence.
"This frory, cleared of all its unneceffary rubbish, beginning with Robinfon's being (hipwrecked upon his ifland, and ending with the arrival of the veffel that takes him away, hall be both the amufement and inftru6tion of Emilius during the tender age that I peak of., I will have his head run upon

14 P R E FACE.
upon nothing elfe but Robinfon Crufoe; he thall talk inceffantly about his castle'. his goats, and his plantations. He hall learn, not from books, but from things, every fingle particular neceffary to be known in fuch a cafe ; he (hall imagine himfelf to be Robinfon Crufoe, and drefs hinfelf up in fkins, with a great cap on his head, a broad fword by his fide, and, in fhort, the whole of the grotefque drefs and accoutrements with which we generally fee Robinfoa Crufoe's picture reprefented, except thr umbrella, for he hall have no occafion. for that. I will have him ftudy how he should proceed if he happened to be in want of this or that neceffary; he hall examine his hero's condut, and try if he has left nothing undone, or if he went the beft way to work about what he has done he fihall remark where

where he is wrong, and take care not to fall into the fame milake himfelf; for you need not have the leaft doubt but he will be for imitating Robinfon in his whole plan. Nothing, indeed, can be better calculated to pleafe the imagination at that calm period of life,, when, if our wants are fatisfied, and our actions unrestrained, we look no farther for happinefs.
"What advantage may not an able maftiler take of this romantic project in a child! a project to which he himfelf has given birth for the fake of the profitable fruits that may be reaped from it. The child, ever bu'fy and eager to make provifion for his ifland fettlement,will be more ready to learn than the mailer to teach. He will defire to know every thing that is ufeful, and nothing more; you will

have no occafion to fpur him onThe exercife of the natural arts, for which one man alone is fufficient, leads to the invention of the arts of indufitry, which require the co-operation of many hands."
This paflhge from Rouffeau will explain, infinitely better than I can, the utility of a book compofed upon fuch a plan; it now remains to be feen how far Mr. Campe, the author of the following'work, has purfued Mr. Rouffeau's idea.
The public is pretty generally agreed not to depend on the report of tranflators concerning the works which they tranflate, efpecially if their judgment be favourable to the original: and I believe this caution is well founded; for it is no eafy matter to decide with impartiality

PREF A C E. 17i
partiality where felf-opinion has equal influence with justice in paffing the fentence.
Perhaps fome may not I do concerning this work of Mr. Campe's; particularly, thofe who are fond of metaphyfical treatifes upon education, will, no doubt, be difappointed to find nothing in the New Robinfon Crufoe but things that are ufeful, introduced in an unaffeaed manner, clearly expreffed and demonstrated without pedantry; they will be furprifed to fee children fpeak like children, and their infirudor affume the fimple language of childhood,. in order to make himfelf understood. Thofe who are governed by the fpiritof free thinking will find it Itrange that religion is refpeded and rendered refpedtable in this work; that God is reprefented as the mover of all things, and

Is P R E F A C E.
and the principle to which all our actions should be referred, as well as th motives which determine them, and the fentiments which gave them birth. There are, no doubt, particularities that may be remarked: neverthelefs, at this time of day, to think wifely, w muft not always think with philofophers
"The Old Robinfon Crufoe," fay, Mr. Campe, in his Preface to the original of this work, "independent of its other defeats, is erroneous in one particular fufficient to deftroy every advantage tha this Hiftory might produce, which is, that Robinfon Crufoe is provided with all forts of European tools and inftir ments neceffary to procure him many of thofe conveniencies that belong to fociety. Thus the opportunity is loft of affording the young reader a lively fee bothof the wants of man in a flate Of

of folitude, and the multiplied happinefs of a focial life; another important reafon why I thought proper to depart from the old HiRftory of Robinfon
I have, therefore, divided the time
of my New Robinfon Crufoe's remaining upon the ifland into three periods.
In the firit he is all alone and deftitute of any European tool or inRfrument whatfoever, aflifting himfelf merely by his hands and invention; in order to thew, on the one hand, how helplefs man is in a ftate of folitude, and, on the other, how much refle&ion and perfevering efforts can contribute to the improvement of our condition. In the
fecond period, I give him a companion, on purpofe to fhew how much a man's fituation may be bettered by taking even this fingle Rfep towards fociety. Lafly, in

in the third period, a veffel from Europ is shipwrecked on his ifland, and giv him an opportunity thereby of pro viding himfelf with tools and mot other articles neceffary in common li in order that the young reader may fe how valuable many things are of whic we are accustomed to make very little account, becaufe we have never expe rienced the want of them."

Thus far the French Tranflator' Preface; which containing a very ample explanation of the plan and fcop of the following work, there is littl neceflity to offer any thing in additio to what he has faid upon that fubje& It only remains for the Englifh Tranflator to requeft the indulgence of the Public.

Public, on account of the deviations which he has taken the liberty to make from the original. Many paffages he has found himfelf obliged either to omit entirely, or to throw into a new form, according as the difference of national manners andcharaaer feemed abfolutely to require it. He hopes, however, that this liberty has never been ufed unlefs under circumstances of unavoidable neceflity. For the external form of this little work, it is but juft to observe, that no pains have been fpared to embellifh it, and that the addition of 32 handfome cuts cannot fail of rendering it at once more fprightly and intelligible to the young reader, for whom it is intended. In effed, thee little prints ferve admirably to afford the child a juft conception of the remarkable paffages in a work; and it may, perhaps, be affirmed,

22 P R E F A C E.
affirmed, with truth, that no parts, ev of the moft interesting flories, mak Stronger or more lafting impreflion the memory, than thofe which are fubjets of the cuts.
With there advantages, it is hope the New Robinfon Crufoe will find 1 way to the ftudies of the younger cl of both fexes, and afford them at on both innocent entertainment and mo inftrution.





A GENTLEMAN, of the name of
Billingfley, refided fome years ago at Twickenham, who, having a pretty large family, and but a moderate fortune, determined to undertake himfelf the care of his children's education. He propofed, by this plan, on the one hand, to avoid the enormous expence of keeping them at what are called genteel boarding-fchools, and, on the other, 4tO

to enjoy the pleading obfervation of their in provement in learning, fenfe, and good be haviour: To remark, with filent but a tentive eyes, the gradual advance of h children towards the perfe&ion of reafon an virtue; to affift, with his advice and iftru&ion, their endeavours to become mo learned, honeft, and wife; and to have the happy confcioufnefs, that he should o day be confidered, what all parents ought as the instrument and caufe of his children' eternalwelfare ; all this, he thought, would be more than a fufficient reward for whatever cares and fatigue he flhould undergo in th courfe of their education.
He, therefore, laid down for them a regular plan of tfudy, to which he afterwards iftrily adhered. In this was included a courfe of reading; and fome book, that was at once both inftru&ive and entertaining, afforded them amufement every evening for two or three hours before fupper. But, as this exercife was meant by their father folely to encreafe their fund of knowlege, and enlarg;

ROBINSON CRUSOE. 2enlarge their underflanding, in order that it might appear rather as a relaxation fiom their clofer ftudies, than a labour imposed on them, Mr. Billingfley, in general, undertook the talk of reading himfelf. T'h. following Hiftory of the New Robinfon Crufoe was, during fome weeks, the fubje& of their evening's entertainment; and was thus introduced.
Mr. and Mrs. Billingfley, being feated by the parlour fire, together with Mr. Rofe and Mr, Meredith, two intimate friends of the family, and all the children, whofe names will appear fuccetlively in the courfe of the ftlory, being affembled in their proper places, Mr. Billingfley began his relation as follows :
Mr. Billingfley. Well, my dear children, I have a book for your entertainment this evening that contains a very extraordinary ftory. Some parts of it will make your hair ftand on end, and others will perfe&ly delight you.
VoL.. I. B George.

George. Ah but do not let it be too melancholy, papa.
Harriet. No, my dear papa, not too melancholy; for then it will make us all cry, you know.
Richard. Hold your tongues; papa knows what to read, I warrant you.
Mr. Bill. Do not be uneafy, my dears. I will take care that there fhall not be any thing too tragical in it.
There lived in the town of Exeter a perfon of the name of Crufoe, who followed the profeffion of a broker. He had three fons, the eldeft of whom, having an inclination to ferve in the army, enlifted himfelf as a foldier, went abroad with his regiment to Flanders, and was killed at the battle of Fontenoy.
The fecond entered the Univerfity of Oxford, and made a confiderable progrefs in learning i but purfuing his fludies with too much eagernefs, he impaired his health beyond all poffibility of recovering, and died of a confumption.

There remained, therefore, but the youngelil, whofe name was Robinfon. In him, as he was now become their only fon, Mr. and Mrs. Crufoe placed all their hopes and expectations. They loved him as the apple of their eye, but their love was blind and injudicious.
Geo. What is the meaning of that, papa ?
Mr. Bill. I will tell you-your mother and I love you all, my dear children, as you well know; but for that very reafon we keep you ciofe at your bufinefs every day, and teach you many things both ufeful and agreeable, becaufe we know that to be the beft way to make you good and happy. But Robinfon's parents did not a& in the fame manner. They fuffered their dear child to do whatever he pleafed; and as this dear child liked better to play than to work or to learn any thing, they let him play almoft the whole day long, by which means he learned little or nothing. Now this is what we call 'an injudicious love in parents.
GCeo. I underfland now, papa.
Bz Mr.

Mr. Bill. Robinfon grew up a RTout firipling before his parents. had determined what profeffion they fhould give him. His father was defirous that he fbould learn fome trade, but the fon had not the leaft inclination that way. He faid he should like better to travel, to fee the world, and become acquainted with the various objects and cuf'coms that-foreign countries afford. In fpeaking thus,, young Crufoe tfhewed his ignorance and folly. If he had begun by laying in a good Rock of learning, it would have been another matter. But
what profit could a raw, ignorant boy, like him, gain by feeing foreign countries? When a man wishes to make his way in the world, be it in what country it will, he- ought to be provided beforehand with a tolerable fhare of knowledge; but this.was what Robinfon never once thought of.
lHe was now feventeen years of age. The greateft part of this time he had rnifpent in faunteripg about and playing in the ftreets of Exeter. Every day he was teazing his .father

faher for leave to go and traveL But his father told him that he did not know his own mind,, nor what fort ofa request he was making, and therefore would not hear a word upon the fubje&t. My dear child," his mother would fay to him, Rick to your own country- and never think of ram; bling."
One dayHarriet. -Aha now it begins.
Edw. -Pfhaw! hold your tongueYMr. Bill. One day, when, according to cuffom, he' was strolling about the ftreets, he met one- of his old playfellows, whofe father was captain of a fhip trading to Am. fterdam, and who had juft come down from Plymouth to fee -fome of his relations that lived at Exeter. He told Robinfon that he was to fet off with his father -in a day or two for Amfterdam. .
Charlotte What, papa, by the ftage?
Henry. No, Charlotte, but in a fhip; for you muft crofs the fea to go to Amfiterdam. Well, papa.
Mr Bill. He afked Robinfon if he flhould
B 3 like

like to go with him. "Yes, very well," replied he, but my parents will not confent to it." Pooh faid the other, "come off with me as you are, juff for the frolick. We hall be back again in a month or fix weeks and as to your father and mother, you have only to let them know where you are gone." But," fays Robinfon, I have no money in my pocket." You will not want any," replied his companion; but ifyou Should, when we arrive at Amfterdam, I'll supply you."
Young Crufoe hesitated a few moments, as ifconfidering what resolution he should take ; at 11, flapping his companions hand, he cried, Agreed, my boy! I will go along with you: let us fet off this mornent for Plymouth." At the fame time he commiffioned one of his acquaintances to let his father know (after the expiration of a few hours), that he was only gone to fee the city of Amfterdam, in Holland, and that he should be back in a week or two.
Rich. I do not like this Mr. Robinfon Crufoe.

!M lp

Edw. Nor I neither.
Mr. Rofe. Why fo, Richard?
Rich. Becaufe he feems to make nothing of leaving his father and mother without their permiffion.
Mr. Rc/. You are -extremely right, Richard; he committed there a very rafh, foolifh action, and we should pity -him for his folly. But, thank Heaven, there are not many young perfons nowfo ignorant as not to know their duty towards their parents.
Edw. What-! are there other boys, then; like Robinfon Crufoe ?
Mr. ?Rofe. I have not yet found-any; but one thing I know for certain, which is, that. no good can ever come of young people who behave like him..
Rich. Well, let us hear what becomes of Robinfon.:
Mr.-BiL. A thoit -time after Robinfon and the captain's fon were got on board, the failors weighed anchor and fettheir fails. The wind blew frelh, and they cleared out B5 o

of the harbour, bidding adieu to Plymouth for a fhort while. Young Crufoe was upon the deck with his friend, and almoff out of his wits with joy that he was at length going to begin his travels.
The evening was fine, and the breeze blew fo favourably, that they foon loft fight of the town and harbour of Plymouth. They were now on the open fea, and Robinfon feared with admiration when he faw nothing before him but the fky and the water. By degrees they began to lofe fight of land, and as night came on, they could fee nothing on that quarter but the Eddiffone iighthoufe. This alfo difappeared in a fhort time, and from that moment Robinfon faw nothing above him but the fky, nor before, behind, and all round him, but the fea.
Geo. That muff be a profpe !
MAir. Mered. It is not impoffible but you may fee fuch a one before it be long.
*Geo. OOh hall we go upon the fea ? Ar. Mered. If you will be very attentive while

while you are learning geography, fo as to know which courfe you muff take to go from one place to another.
Mr. Bill. Yes, and if by working conflantly, and being temperate in your victuals, you make your bodies hardy enough to bear the fatigue of fuch a voyage, we may, perhaps, fome day in fummer, take a boat down the river as far as London, where fome of you have never been yet.
All the Children. Oh oh
Mr. Bill. I cannot tell but we may take a trip to Margate for a few weeks, where you will have as wide a profpet of the fei as Robinfon Crufoe had when he was failing out of Plymouth harbour. (Here they, all get up and run about their father. They hang on his neck, his arms, and his knees, exprefing their joy with carefes, clapping of hands, andjumping about.)
Harriet. Will you let me make one of the party ?
Mrs. Bill. Yes, my dear, if you are abte to go fo far.
B 6 Harriet.

34 T H E N E W.
IHarriet. But it is very far, is not it, papa ? Perhaps farther than Richmond, where Mr. Compton lives, and another gentle man that has a great houfe and a large garden-oh! fo large a great deal larger than our garden. I was all through it, was not J, papa ? the day that Charlotte and I were gathering cowflips in the meadow.
4r. Bill. Yes, I remember, and we were looking at the folks plowing.
Harriet. Yes, and we went into a Iinith's forge that was by the road's fide.
Mr. Bill. And afterwards up into a windmill.
Harriet. Ah, yes, where the wind blew, off my bonnet.
Mr. Bill. Which the miller's boy brought back to you again.
Iarriet. That was a good boy; was not he, papa ?
Mr. Bill. Yes, he was a good boy for being fo obliging as to do us a kindnefs, though he had never feen us before.

Harriet. However, you gave him fomething, I fuppofe.
-,Mr. Bill. Certainly, my dear, I gave him fomething; for every one likes to reward thofe that are obliging-But we forgetRobinfon Crufoe. We muff make hafte to overtake him, or elfe we fall lofe fight of him, for he is going at a furious rate.
For two days they had conftantly good weather, and a favourable wind. The third day the fky was darkened with clouds, the wind blew with uncommon violence, and the air grew every moment darker and darker.
In fhort, it was a dreadful form. At one time the lightning flafhed as if the fky was on fire; then fucceeded a pitchy darknefs, like that of midnight, with claps of thunder which they thought would never end. The rain came down in floods, and the violence of the wind toffed the fea about in fuch a manner that the waves fwelled and role mountain high.
Then it would have been worth while to fee

fee how the fhip went fee-faw. One time* large wave carried it, as it were, up to th clouds ; another time it dipped down as if it was going to the bottom of the deep then it rolled to one fide and the other, and lay down fo flat that at times its very maft ernemed to touch the water.
What a noife was amongft the ropes what a clattering upon the deck! The failors were obliged, each of them, to hold faft to fomething or other for fear of bein wafthed overboard. Robinfon Crufoe, whlo had never been accustomed to all this, gre' giddy, felt a ficknefs at his foniomach, and was fo bad that he thought he should have vomited to death. They call it fea-ficknefs.
Rich. That is what he has gained by running away.
Mr. Bill. Oh my poor parents my poor father and mother !" cried he inceffantly; c" they will never fee me more Oh miferable fool that I am to have brought this affliction on them !"
Crack !

Crack! went fomething on the deck. it Heaven have mercy on us !" cried the failors, turning as pale as death, and clafping their hands together. What is the matter ?" afked Robinfon, who was half-dead with affright.
Ah we are all loft !" anfwered one of the feamen; the lightning has shivered our mizen-maftll to pieces," (that is, the hindmoft of the three mafts that are in a fhip,) and the main-maft flands by fo flender a hold that we muft cut it down and throw it overboard."
"We are all loft !" cried out another voice from below; the fhip has fprung a leak, and there are four feet water in the hold."
At thefe words Robinfon, who was fitting down on the cabin floor, fell backwards void of fenfe and motion. All the reft ran to the pumps, in order, if poffible, to keep the veffel afloat. At laft, one of the failors came and fhook Robinfori by the shoulder, afking him if he intended to be the only one who would do nothing for the prefervation of

T t ,T E N Fr
ofthe fhip, but lie there firetched at his length while all the reft of the people wor ed until they were not able to fland.
He tried, therefore, to rife, weak as h was, and took his place at one of th pumps. In the mean time the captain or dered fome guns to be fired as a fignal o diftrefs to other fhips, if there should hap pen to be any within hearing capable of at lifting them. Robinfon, who did not-kno the meaning ofthefe fihots, thought the veffe was fplitting in piecesi and fainted away again. One of the failors, who took his place at the pump, pufhed him on one flide with his foot, and left him there firetched at full length, imagining that he was.deada
They pumped with all their ftrength ; neverthelefs the water fill gained upon them in the hold, and. now they only waited for the moment when the veiTfel would finka In order to lighten her, they threw overboard every thing that they could poffibly (pare, as the guns., bales of goods, hogf .

heads, &c. But all that was of no manner of fervice.
However, another fhip had heard their signals of difltrefs, and, as the form begaa about this time to abate confiderably, ventured to fend out her boat, in order, ifpoffible, to fave the -crew. But the boat could not come near, the waves running too high. At length, however, they came near enough to throw a rope to the people who were on board, by means of whic h they towed the boat clofe under the fhip's fern, and then every one who could make ufe of his legs eagerly jumped into it. Robinfon, who could not fand.upon his, was tumbled in haftily by fome of the feamen more compafflionate than the reft. They had hardly rowed many minutes, before the flhip, which was ftill pretty near them, funk before their eyes. Happily the form was now almost totally abated, otherwife the waves would inevitably have swallowed up the boat, which was then as fult of.people as it could hold. After many

40 T H E NE W
ny dangers it got fafe at length to the i where they were all taken in.
Geo. Ah well, I am glad, however, th the poor people were not drowned.
Edw. I was fadly in pain for them.
Harriet. Well, this will teach rmaI Robinfon never to be fo naughty again.
Mrs. Bill. That is juft my opinion to Let us hope that he will be the better this danger.
Henry. Well, what became of him a ter ?
Mr. Bill. The flup that had taken hi' and the reft of the crew in, was bound t London. In four days fhe arrived at t Nore, and the next day came to anchor the river.
Charlotte. What is the Nore, papa ?
Mr. Bill. The Nore is a fmall favd bank at the mouth of the Thames, whe a veffel is constantly rationed, which ha up two lights every night to be a guide ti hips that enter the river.
They now landed, and happy was ea 0DJ

ene to have thus efcaped the dangers of the fea. As to Robinfon, his firft care was to fee London, and for this purpofe he fpent a day or two in rambling all over the city, where he met with fuch a variety of new obje&s as entirely put the remembrance of palft dangers out of his head, as well as all thoughts of the future. Happening one day to meet the captain with whom he had fet fail from Plymouth, he received an invitation to dine with him, which was very agreeable to Robinfon, as he had fpent what little money he had borrowed from the captain's fon, and his pocket now was not able to afford him a single meal. At dinner the captain afked him what particular motive he had for going to Amfierdam, and what he intended to have done there. Robinfon anfwered him frankly, that he had nothing in view but his amufement ; that he had come off unknown to his father and mother, and at prefent did not know what to do with himfelf.
Unknown to your father and mother 1"

,+I T-H BE N< E' W!
cried the captain, laying down his ki and fork: "Good heavens! why did not know, that before ? Believe me, imp dent young man, if I -had known .fo mui at Plymouth, I would not have taken y on board of my fhip, if you had offered a million of money."
Robinfon fat with down-caft eyes blu ing for thame, and unable to anfwer a fi gle word.:.
The honeft captain continued to reprefe to. him the folly that he had, been guilty and told him that he could never be hap unlefs he- repented of what he had don and obtained forgivenefs of his parents. there words Robinfonrwept bitterly.
c But. what. -can I do now?" cried. at length, fobbing heavily. "What can y do ?" faid-the.captain: Return to yo parents, fall on your knees before them and, like a fenfible and dutiful lad, imply their pardon for your imprudence: that 4 what you can do, and what you- ought


Harriet. Ah, papa, I like this captain much ; he was a very good-man.
Mr. Bill. My dgar, he did what every one ought to do when he fees his fellowcreature fall into an error; he endeavoured to bring this young" man back to his duty.
SWill you take me with you to Plymouth again ?" faid Robinfon.
Who, I ?" faid the captain: Have you forgot, then, that my'fhip is loft? It may be a confiderable time before I return there in a thip of my own : but as for you, there is not a moment to lofe; you should go aboard of.the very firft veffel that fails for Plymouth, if it were even to-day.
But," fays Robinfon, "I have no mo ney."
Well," faid the honeft captain, I will lend you a couple of guineas outof the little that I have to fpare. Go down to the river, and get aboard of fome veffel that is bound for Plymouth, unlefs you rather chufe to travel by land. If your repentance is fincere, God will blefs your return, and

and make it happier than your outfet been." With thefe words, having mn an end of dinner, he hook Robinfon the hand, and withed him a good voya who parted from him with many thanks f his kindnefs and good advice.
Edw. What, is he going back ho' again already ? I thought the ftory w only beginning.
Mrs. Bill. Are not you fatisfied, the my dear Edward, that he should go hom to his parents, and put an end to the forro and diftrefs that they fuffer on his account
Mr. Mered. And are you not pleafed t find that he fees his error, and is willing make amends for it?
Edw. Yes-that-to be fure. But thought to hear fomething diverting befo it came to that.
Alr. Bill. Well, he is not returned hom yet. Let us hear the remainder of his ad ventures.
While he was. walking'down towards th river, his head was filled with various re fleaion

fie&ions. What will my father and mother fay," thought he to himfelf, if I go back to them now ? Certainly they will punifh me for what I have done. And then all my companions, and every one elfe that hears of it, what game they will make of me for returning fo foon, after feeing only two or three fireets of London !"
This thought made him flop thort. One moment he feemed determined not to go home yet; again, he refleced on what the captain had told him, that he would never be happy unlefs he returned to his parents. For a long time he was at a lofs what to refolve on. At length, however, he went down to the river; but there he learned, to his great fatisfa&ion, that there was not a single veffel in the river bound for Plymouth. The perfon who gave him this information was a captain of a fhip in the African trade, who was shortly to fet fail for the coaftof Guinea.
Charlotte. Where is the coaft of Guinea, papa ?
Mr. Bill.

46 T H E N EW
Mr. Bill. Henry can tell you that l knows where it- lies.
Henry. Don't you remember there is country called Africa ? Very, well s one pa of the coaftCharlotte. Coaft What is that?
Henry. The land that lies along by th fea-fide. Hold, here's Fenning's Geogra phy: look at-this little map. All this pa of Africa that turns down here is called th Coaft of Guinea.
Mr. Bill. 'And Englifh hips fail to ih coaft in order to trade there. The perfo who fpoke with Robinfon was captain o one of thofe fhips.
When he found that the young man ha fo eager a defire for travelling, and would have been forry to return fo foon to PlyT mouth, he propofed to him to take a trip t the-Coaft of Guinea. Robinfon at firft wa flartled at the idea : but when the captai aflured him that the voyage would be ex. ceeding pleafant; that, fo far from coftin him any thing, it might turn out a ver rofitabbe

profitable adventure. Robinfon's eyes be gan to fparkle, and his pafflion for travellin; revived in his breaft with fuch force tha he immediately forgot every advice which the honeft Plymouth captain had given him, and all the good refolutions that he himnifelf had taken but fo fhort a time before.
SBut," faid he, after confidering a while within himfelf, I have only two guineas in the world; what ufe can I make of fo fmall a fum in trading at the place that you mention ?"
I will lend you five more," faid the captain; that will be quite fufficient to purchafe you goods, which, if we have but tolerable fuccefs, may make your fortune."
And what fort of goods muft I purchafe ?" faid Robinfon.
All forts of toys and playthings," anfwered the captain ; glafs, beads, knives, fciffars, hatchets, ribbands, guns, &c. of which the negroes of Africa are fo fond that they will give you a hundred times the value in gold, ivory, and other things."
VoL. I. C Robinfon

4. T H E NEW
Robinfon was not able to contain himself for joy. He forgot, at once, his parents, friends, and country, Captain," faid he, SI am willing to go along with you when. you pleafe."
Agreed!" replied -the other, taking him by the hand, and thus the matter was fettled.
Rich. Well, now it is all over; I fhall never have the leaf pity any more for fuch a blockhead as Robinfon, whatever misfortunes may happen to him.
Mr. Bill. No pity, Richard?
Rich. No, papa: why is he fuch a fool as to forget a fecond time his duty to his parents ? Providence, no doubt, will pu nifh him afreth for it.
Mr. Bill. And do you think that a man deferves no pity who is unfortunate enough zo forget his parents, and to draw down upon himfelf the chaftifement of Heaven I grant he is himfelf the caufe of every thing that happens to him; but is not he for th very reafon fo much the more unfortunate ?

Oh! my dear child, may Heaven preferve you and every one of us from that mod: terrible of all punifhments, to feel that we alone have caufed our own wretchednefs! But whenever we hear'of fuch an unfortunate perfon, we should confider that he-is our brother, our poor deluded brother; we should fhied over him tears of compaffion, and offer up to Heaven the prayers of brotherly love in his behalf.
All were filent for a few moments; after which Mr. Billingfley continued in the following words:
Robinfon made hafte to lay out his feyen guineas. He purchafed with them fuch articles as the captain had mentioned to him, and had them carried on board.
After fome days, the wind being favourable, the captain weighed anchor, and they fet fail.
Henry. What courfe should they hold to arrive at Guinea ?
M1r. Bill. Here, you have Fenning's Geography: I mould think you cannot be at
C a lofs

5,o -THE NE W
.a lofs to know, as you pointed out to -your fifter the Coaft of Guinea juft now. However, I will hew you their courfe. You fee, from London here they go down the Thames, and come into the Downs. Af,terwards they fteer Weft, through the Britifh .Channel, and enter the great Atlantic Ocean, in which they continue their courfe here clofe by the Canary Iflands, and fo part the Cape Verd Iflands, until at laft they land hereabouts on the Coaft of Guinea.
Henry. But at what particular rpot will they land ?
Mr. Bill. Perhaps there, near Cape Coaft Caftle.
Mrs. Bill. Well, now I think it is high time for us to fet fail towards the land of upper. What think ye, children ?
Geo. I am not the leaft hungry, mama.
Harriet. And I would rather hear the Itory too.
Mr. Bill. To-morrow, my dears, to morrow evening we fhall have the reft of Robinfon's adventures. At prefent we will put him by and prepare for fupper.



T HE next evening the whole company
having taken their places as before, Mr. Billingfley continued his flory in the following terms:
Robinfon's fecond voyage began as favourably as the firft. They had already cleared the Channel without any accident, and were now in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean: here they met with fuch contrary winds for feveral days fucceffively, that they found themfelves driven a confiderable way towards the coaft of America.
Here, my dear children, I have brought you a large map, which will thew you much better than a fminall one the courfe which the fhip fhould have held, and that which the wind obliged her to take. They wanted to fleer down all along this way, fo; but becaufe they had a fide wind from that quarter, they were driven, in fpite of themfelves, towards this part, where you fee
C 3 America

America lie. I will lay it down he>% on the table that we may all caft our eyes upon it whenever there is occafion.
One evening the fleerfman declared that he faw a fire at a great diftance, and that he heard the firing of guns from the fame quarter. All hands immediately haftened upon deck, where they both faw the fire and could diftinftly hear the report of feveral guns. The captain examined his maps, and found there was no land on that quarter within the diftance ofa hundred leagues; and they all unanimoufly concluded that what they faw could be nothing elfe but a thip on fire.
It was immediately refolved to affift the veffel in difbrefs, and they accordingly fleered that way. In a very fhort time their conje~tures were verified; for they beheld a large fhip all in flames, and burning with the greatest fury.
The captain instantly ordered five guns to be fired as a fignal to the poor people who were on board the burning thip, that help

a- R 17 ..........

help was at hand. Scarcely was this order put in execution, before they faw, with terror and aftonifhment, the fhip which had been on fire blow up with a dreadful explofion; and immediately after every thing funk, and the fire was feen no more. It is to be obferved, that the flames had, at length, reached the powder room, and this was the caufe of the fhip's blowing up.
Nobody could tell as yet what was become of the poor people belonging to her. There was a poffibility that they might have taken to their boats before the veff4 blew up; for which reafon the captain continued firing guns the whole night, in order to inform them on what quarter the fhip was that defired to affift them. He alfo ordered all the lanterns to be hung out; that they might have a chance of feeing the fhip in the night time.
At break of day they difcovered, by, means of their gaffes, two boats full of people, tcffing about at the mercy of the waves. They could perceive that the
C 5 wind

wind was againft them, but that they rowed with all their force towards the fhip. Immediately the captain ordered the colours to be hoifted as a fignal that he faw their diftrefs, and was ready to relieve them. At the fame time the fhip made all the fail poffible towards them, and in the fpace of half an hour happily came up with them.
There were fixty in the boats, men, women, and children, who were all taken on board. It was an affeding fcene to behold the a&ions of there poor people when they faw themfelves fo happily delivered. Some fobbed and wept for joy, others Jamented as if their danger was butjuft begun; fome jumped about upon the deck as if they had loft their wits, others were wringing their hands, and as pale as death; feveral of them were laughing like mad people, and danced and shouted for joy; others, on the contrary, flood flock-ftill as if fpeechlefs and infenfible, and could not utter a fingle word.
Sometimes one or two amongft them fell on

on their knees, lifted up their hands to Heaven, and with a loud voice returned thanks to God, whofe providence had fo miraculoufly faved them from perishing.
Some of them again would ftart up, dance about like children, tear their cloaths, cry and fall down in fainting fits, from which they could with difficulty be recovered. There was none of the fhip's crew, though ever fo hardened, that could help shedding tears at the fight of thefe poor people's extravagant behaviour.
Among them happened to be a young prieft, who ated with more firmnefs and dignity than any of the reff. As foon as he fet his foot upon the deck, he fell upon his face, and feemed to have loft all fenfe and motion. The captain went to affift him, thinking that he had fwooned away; but the clergyman calmly thanked him for his good-nature, and faid, Allow me firft to return thanks to my Creator for our deiverance ; I will afterwards endeavour to hew you how lively a fenfe I entertain of
C 6 your

your extreme kindness to us." Upon this the captain politely withdrew.
The prieft remained a few minutes in this pofture of humble proftration ; after which, rIfing chearfully, he went to the captain to tefrify his gratitude to him for the civility that he had fhewn to him and his people. This done, he turned to his companions in misfortune, and faid, My dear friends,
-calm the agitation of your minds. The Being who is fupremely good, hath vouchfafed to stretch out a father's hand over you. You should lift up your hearts to him, and thank him without delay for the unexpe&ed prefervation of your lives." There were several of them who a&ed in conformity to his exhortations, and immediately began to return thanks to Heaven with fervour and devotion.
After this the prieft gave the captain an account who they were, and what had happened to them.
The fhip that was burnt was a large French merchantman, bound for Quebec

.-Here, you fee; 3 this fpot in AmericaThe fire broke out in the fail room, and burned with fuch rapidity as baffled all their endeavours to flop it. They had barely time to fire fome guns as fignals of their diflrefs, and then to take to their boats, uncertain of the deffiny that awaited them. The moff likely profpe6 before them in that moment of horror was, that, upon the leaft fwell of the fea, the waves would fwallow up them and their boats, or elfe that they muff perifh with hunger, as they had been able to fave nothing from the fhip on fire but a fmall quantity of bifcuit and water, fufficient for a few days.
Charlotte. What occafion had they to carry water with them ? They were on the water.
Mr. Bill. You forget, my dear Charlotte, that the water of the fea is falt and unfit for drinking.
Charlotte. So, fo!
Mr. Bill. In this diffrefsful fituation they heard the guns that were fired by the EnglIh

5 T H-E NE W
lifh fhip, and foon after obferved the liglt of their lanterns. They paffed all tha long and difmal night between hope and fear, exerting all their strength to get to th fhip, but continually driven ba-k by th winds and waves. At length, however, th long-wifhed-for appearance of day put a end to their diltrers.
Robinfon all this time had been filled with the molt dreadful reflections. Heavens! faid he to himfelf, if thefe people, among, whom there are certainly many good and devout perfons, have fuffered fo great dif trefs, what muft not I expea, who have a&ed with fo much ingratitude towards my poor parents !" This thought lay heavy at his heart. Pale and filent, like one whofo confcience is not good, he fat in a corner, with his hands clafped together, and fcarce ly daring even to pray, becaufe he feared left God would have no regard to his prayers.
The people who were faved from the boats, and were almoft exhaufted with fatigue,.

tigue, had now taken fome refre{hment, when their captain, holding a large purfe full of money in his hand, came up to the Ihip's captain, and told him that whatever monpy they had been able to fave from their thip was in that purfe, which he begged him to accept as a flight mark of the gratitude which they all entertained towards him for the prefervation of their lives.
1 God forbid," anfwered the captain, c< that I should accept your offers I have done no more than humanity required of me, and I am convinced that you would have done the fame thing if you had been in our place, and we in yours."
In vaih did the Frenchman prefs him to accept the purfe ; the captain perfifted in refusing it, and begged him to fay no more about it.-It was now debated where they should land the people that had been faved. To carry them to Guinea did not appear advifeable for two reafons. In the firft place, why hold thofe poor people be obliged to make fo long a voyage to a country where

wher&aey had not the leaft bufinefs in the world ? And befides there were not provi, fions enough aboard for fo many people to hold out until they should arrive at Guinea.
At length the captain generoufly refolve to go a hundred leagues out of his way fo the fake of there poor people, and to carr them to Newfoundland, where they migh have an opportunity of returning to Franc in fome of the hips employed in the cod fifhery.
Harriet. What is that ?
Rich. Do not you remember what papa has told us about the cod fifth ; how the come down from the North feas to the very banks of Newfoundland, where people fit for them and catch them in fuch quantities
Harriet. Oh, yes! now I recollet&.
Rich. Look here on the map: this i. Newfoundland up here, near to America, and thofe dotted fpots are the banks where they fifh for the cod.
Mr. Bill. To Newfoundland, therefore, they bent their courfe and as it happened to

to be the middle of the fifhing feafon, they found feveral French veffels there, which took on board the people of the fhip that had blown up. Their gratitude to the Englifh captain was too great to be expreffed in words.
As he had now, therefore, conduaed themrn to thips of their own nation, he returned with a favourable wind, in order to continue his own voyage to the Coaft of Guinea. The thip cut the waves with the fwiftnefs of a bird that wings its airy way toush the fkies, and in a thort time they had failed fome hundred leagues. This was what Robinfon Crufoe liked; things never could go too faft for him, as he was of a reftlefs, unfettled difpofition.
Their courfe now was moltly dire&ed to the Southward. One day as they were fleering in that dire&ion, they perceived a large IhiR making up towards them. Prefently after they heard them fire fome guns of diftrefs, and could difcern that they had loft their foremaft and their bowfprit.

Edw. Bowfprit ? What is that?
Mr. Bill. Why, furely, you cannot ha forgot what that is.
Edw. Ah! right! It is a little ma t does not Rfland firaight up like the reft, b comes out floping, fo, from the fore-part the hip.
Mr. Bill. Very well. They fleered the courfe towards the fhip that was in dire and when they were within hearing of eac other, the people aboard of her cried ou "For Heaven's fake have compa-on on us and fave our lives We are at the laff ex mity, and muff perifh it you do notrelie. us."
The captain, therefore, afked them i what confifted their diftrefs ; when one their number anfwered thus:
We are Englifhmen, bound for th French Ifland of Martinico"-See, children here it lies in the Welft -Indies-" ~ took in a cargo of coffee there; and whi we were lying at anchor, and juft re dy to depart, our captain and mate, wit mof


moft of the fhip's crew, went afhore one day to get in a few things forthe fhip's tife. In their abfence, there arofe fo violent a florm that our cable was broke, and we were driven out from the harbour into the open fea. The hurricane"
Geo. What is that, papa ?
Mr. Bill. It is a kind of whirlwind occafioned by many winds blowing from different quarters, one against the other.-cc The hurricane," continued he, blew firioufly three days and three nights. We loft our mafts, and were driven fome hundreds of leagues out to fea. Unfortunately we are moft of us paffengers, with but one feaman and a boy or two on board to work the fhip; fo that for nine weeks we have been driven about at the mercy of the winds and waves: all our provifions are gone, and many of us are, at this moment, dying with hunger."
Immediately the good captain ordered out his boat, took forne provifions, and went aboard

64- TRE N EW
aboard the fhip, accompanied by Ro fon Crufoe.
They found the crew reduced to moft deplorable condition poffible: t all looked as if they were flarved, and r of them could hardly fland. But whent went into the cabin-Heavens! what shocking fpetacle they beheld.! A i ther, with her fon and a young maid ferva were firetched on the floor, and, to all a pearance, ftarved to death. The motl already quite fliff, was fitting on the group between two chairs tied together, with face leaning against one of the planks of fhip's fide. The maid fervant was ftretch at her length beside her miftrefs, and h one of her arms clafped round the foot the table. As to the young man, he laid upon a bed, and had fill in his mou a piece of a leather glove, of which he h gnawed away the greatefl part.
Harriet. Oh! papa what a shocking a count this is !

Mr. Bill. Right-I had forgot that yo-u ,did not with to hear any thing melancholy. Well, then, I will pafs by this ftory.
Adll. Oh no! Oh no! Dear papa, let us .have the whole of it now.
Mr. Bill. As you pleafe. I muff tell you then, in the firft place, who thefe poor people were that lay firetched in this deplorable manner.
They were coming paffengers in this fhip from America to England. The whole crew faid that they were very worthy people. The mother was fo remarkably fond of her fon, that the refufed all manner of nourishment purpofely that her fon might have fomething to eat, and this excellent young man had done the fame thing, in order to referve every thing for his mother. The faithful maid fervant was more concerned for her mafter and miftrefs than for herfelf.
They were thought to be dead, all three, but, on examination, appeared to have fome remains of life; for, after a few drops

66 THt NEW
drops of broth had been forced into mouths, they began, by degrees, to a their eyes. But the mother was now weak to fwallow any thing; and The figns that they should confine their at tions to her fon. In effe&, the expire few minutes after.
The other two were brought to the felves by the force of cordials, and as were in the flower of their age, the capt by his attentive care, fucceeded in reform' them to life. But when the young n turned his eyes upon his, mother, andf that he was dead, the fhock made him again into a fwoon, from which it was difficult to recover him. However, th were fortunate enough to bring him to fenfes again, and he was, in a fhort tii perfealy re-eftablifhed; as was alfo the f vant maid.
The captain furnished the flhip in dit trefs with all the provifions that he could poffibly fpare: he ordered his carpenter t put up mafts for them in the room of tha tha

dhar had been broken, and gave the crew proper inftrutions for conveying themfelves to the neareft land, which was that of the Madeira Iflands. He bent his courfe thither alfo, on purpofe to take in more pro. vifions.
One of there iflands, you know, is called Madeira, from which the reft take their name.
Henry. Yes, I know it; they belong to the Portuguefe.
Rich. From them the fine Madeira wine comes: does it not?
Geo. And the fugar canes.
Mr. Bill. The fame. At this ifland the captain caft anchor ; and Robinfon went afhore with him in the afternoon.
He could never fufliciently admire the beautiful profpe& which this fertile ifle affords. As far as his eyes could fee, the mountains were all covered with vines. How his mouth watered at the fight of the delicious grapes that hung on them and how did he regale himfelf when the captain paid

paid for him that he might have leave cat his fill!
They understood from thofe who we in the vineyards, that in making wine th did not prefs the grapes here in a wine pre as they do in other countries
Geo. How then?
Mr. Bill. They tumble the grapes into large tub, and then tread upon them wi their feet, or bruife them with their elbow
Harriet. Oh fie! I fhall not like to dri Madeira wine for the future.'
Rich. Now I should not like to drink i if it were even made with the wine prefs.
Charlotte. Why ?
Rich. Ah you were not here when pa fhewed us that wine is not good young people. If you we'e to know all harm that it can do them!
Charlotte. Is he in earneft, papa ?
Mr. Bill. Yes, my dear; nothing can more true. Children that drink wine r other ftrong liquors often, become we and filly.

Charlotte. Gracious! I'll never drink wine any more.
Mr. Bill. You will a& very wifely, my dear.
As the captain was obliged to flop here fome time to repair his thip which had received a little damage, poor Robinfon, at the end of a few days, began to grow tired of his fituation. His reftlefs temper wanted fome change, and he wished to have wings that he might fly all over the world in as Ihort a time as poffible.
Juff at this interval arrived a Portuguefe thip that came from Lifbon, and was bound for Brazil, in South America.
Henry (pointing to the map). Is it not this country here, belonging to the Portuguefe, and where fo much gold-duff and pre.cious ftones are found ?
Mr. Bill. The very fame.
Robinfon got acquainted with the captain of this flhip, and hearing him talk of gold-duft and precious fitones, he would have given the world to make a voyage to
VoL. I. D Brazil,

Brazil, where he thought he should fill hi pockets with diamonds.
Edw. He did not know, I fuppofe, tha in that country nobody dares to gather go duft or precious ones, which are the fo property of th& king of Portugal.
Mr. Bill. And the reafon that he did n know was, becaufe when he was young would never learn any thing.
Finding, therefore, that the Portugu captain was difpofed to take him along wi him as one of his crew, and that the En lifh thip would be obliged to flop at Ia a fortnight longer, he could not refift h deflire of rambling. He, therefore, told hi good friend, the Englifh captain, blunl that he was going to leave him, and take a voyage to Brazil. The captain had learned from Robinfon himself, a thi time before, that he was rambling thus about the world without the knowledge or confer of his parents, was glad to get rid of hi He agreed to take Robinfon's venture which confifted of toys and hardware, fo the,

the money that he had lent him in England, and gave him besides all manner of good advice.
Robinfon, therefore, went aboard the portuguefe; and now behold him failing for Brazil. They paffed pretty near the ifland of Teneriff.
Harriet. Where that high mountain is to be feen, called the Peak of Teneriff; eh, papa ?
Rich. Aye, aye, don't interrupt.
Mr. Bill. It was an admirable profpe&, even long after fun-fet in the evening, when all the fea was covered with gloomy darknefs, to fee the top of that mountain, one of the higheft in the whole world, fhine with the rays of the fun as if it had been all on fire.
Some days after they faw another fight upon the fea, which was very agreeable. A large number of flying fiffies rofe upon the furface of the water. They gliftened like po.. lifted filver, fo that they threw forth a firong light from their bodies, as it were in rays.
D 2 Charlotte.

Charlotte. What, are there fifhes th ly ?
Mr. Bill. Yes, Charlotte; and I thin4 on a certain day, you and I faw one.
Geo. Ah, yes; that was when we wer in town laft Whitfuntide : but for all tha papa, it had neither feathers nor wings.
Mr. Bill. But it had a couple of long fins, which ferve it as wings when it rifcs above the furface of the water.
For feveral days fueceffively the voyag was as fine as poffible; but all of a fudde1 a violent hurricane arofe from the SouthEaft. The waves frothed and rofe mnioun. tain high, toffing the veffel too and fro This dreadful stormm continued for fix days fucceffively, and carried the thip fo far out of her way, that neither the. captain nQo any perfon on board knew where they were. However, by their reckoning, they fuppofed that they could not be far from the Caribbee Iflands. They lie hereabouts.
The feventh morning, exactly at daybreak, one of the failors threw the whole crew

crew into a fit of extravagant joy, by crying out from the maft head, Land!
Mrs. Bill. This call comes very feafonably, for fupper is almoft ready in the next room. To-morrow we fhall hear the reft Geo. O dear mama, only let us heat how they landed, and what happened- to them afterwards. I should be contented with a bit of dry bread; if papa would but go on.
Mr. Bill. Well, my dear, as your mama only fays that fupper is almoft ready; perhaps there may be a few minutes to fpare. If fhe will indulge you until fupper is quite ready, I am -content.
Mrs. Bill. I have no objedion : fo that you may go on until I call you, which fhall be when every thing is perfectly ready.
All the children. Oh that will do. That is charming!
Mr. Bill. To proceed, therefore, with my flory :
The whole crew haftened upon deck to D 3 fee

fee what land this was but in the ve moment tleir joy was changed into terr and consternation: the hip firuck, an all rhofe who were upon the deck receive fo violent a fhock as almost to throw the baclkwards.
Rich. What was the matter?
Mr. Bill. The thip had run upon a fad bank, and fluck faith as fuddenly as if it had been nailed to the fpot. Then the foaming waves dafhed over the deck with fuch violence, that they were all obliged to take refuge in the cabin and between decks, for fear of being carried overboard.
Nothing was now to be heard amongift thel crew but lamentable cries, groans, and fighs that would have foftened a heart of Rftone. Some were praying, others wept aloud; fome tore their hair like people in defpair, others were half dead, and ftupidly infenfi ble. Amongft this laft clafs was Robinfon Crufoe, who was literally more dead than alive.
Suddenly fome one cried out that the fhip

flip had fplit. There dreadful tidings brought them all to new life. They rap haftily upon deck, lowered the boat as faft as poffible, and all jumped into it with the moft precipitate hafte.
But there were now fo many people in the boat, that its fides were fcarcely four inches above the water. The land was fill far, off, and the form fo violent, that ,very' one thought it impoffible to reach ,t fhore. Neverthelefs, they exerted their whole strength in rowing, and fortunately the wind drove them towards land. All t once they beheld a wave, mountain hiJ, rolling towards the boat.
At this dreadful fight the whole crew fat motionlefs, and dropped their oars. The huwp wave ftrikes the boat, overfets it, and all are at once fwallowed up in the enraged deep!
Here Mr. Biliingfley made a flop; the whole company remained filent, and many of them could not help fighing with cormpallion for the fate of the poor feamen. At length Mrs. Billingfley arriving with the
D 4 news

news that fupper was ready, put an end t theft mdancholy ideas.


GEORGE. Dear papa, is poor Robinfork
Crufoe loft for good? Is he dead?
Mr. Bill. We left him laft night in th agt imminent danger of lofing his life the boat being overfet.
Robinfon was fwallowed up in the fea along with the reft of the fhip's company; but the fame wave, that dreadful wave which had buried him in the deep, at its return drew him along with it, and dathedl him towards the fhore. He was, thrown with fuch violence upon a piece of a rock, that the pain occafioned by the jolt routed him from the Rate of almost infenfibility that he was in before. He opened his eyes, and


and feeing himfelf, contrary to all expe&6tation, upon dry ground, he exerted the laft efforts of his fitrength to gain the top of the beach.
He reached it at length, but the moment that he arrived at this fpot of fafety he fainted away with fatigue, and remained a long time without fenfe or motion.
When he recovered, he opened his eyes and looked round. Heavens, wh t a profpea The fhip, the boat, his cormpanions, all loft! There was nothing to be feen but a few broken planks, which the waves drove towards the fhore, He alone was faved out of the whole t'ip's company.
Trembling at once with fear and joy, he fell upon his knees, lifted up his hands towards Heaven, and, while he thed4 a flood of tears, returned thanks aloud to the I4aker of Heaven and Earth for his miracilos prefervation.
Rich. But, papawhy did GodAlnighty

fave Robinfon Crufoe alone, and fuffer the reft to perifh?
Mr. Bill. My dear Richard, are you always able to difcover the reafons why we who are fo much older than you, and who love you tenderly, at towards you in this manner or that ?
Rich. No.
Mr. Bill. Lately, for inflance, when the 'day was fo fine, and we had all fo great a fancy to go on a nutting party, what did I do?
Rich. I have not forgot it. Poor Edwa'rd Was obliged to flay at home and keep h4oufe, and the reft of us were forced to go to Richmoid, and not on the nutting party.
Mr. Bill. But why was I fo cruel to poor Edward, not to let him go with us ? Edw. Ah, I know the reafon of that. James came prefently after, and took me to Lady Caftleton's. Frederick, my old playfellow, wasjuft come home from fchool, and-begged his mamna to fend for me.

Afr. Bill. And was not that better than to go a nutting?
Edw. Oh yes, a hundred times.
Mr. Bill. I had Oent word before to Lady Caftleton, that you should go and fee her fon, as fhe requefted; and therefore it was that I ordered you to flay at home. And, Richard, what did you meet at Richmond?
Rich. I met you there, papa, and my mama. You were there before me.
Mr. Bill. That too I knew; and, therefore, I made you for that time go to Richmond, and not on the nutting party. My intention in all this never once entered your heads, for you did not know my reafons. But why did not I tell you thefe reafons ?
Rich. That you might afford us an unexpe6ted pleafure.
Mr. Bill. Juft fo. Well, my dear children, do you not think that our heavenly Father loves his children, that is to fay, all mankind, as much as we love you ?
Geo. Certainly, and more.
Mr. Bill. And have you not learnt long

ago, that God knows all things better than we poor mortals do, whole knowledge is fo contraded, and who can fo feldom tell what is really for our own advantage.
Rich. Yes; I believe it. God has a knowledge that is without bounds, and, therefore, knows every thing that will come to pafs; a knowledge that we have no idea of.
Mr. Bill. Since, therefore, God loves all mankind as his children, and is at the fame time fo wife that he alone knows what is really ufeful for us, it is impoffible but he should do what is beft for our interest.
Geo. Without doubt, and fo he does continually.
Mr. Bill. But are we always able to dif-cover the reafons why God doth any a&ioa that affeas us in one particular manner ra-' ther than in another?
Rich. To difcover them, we should have as much knowledge and wifdom as God himfelf.
-Mr. Bill, Well, my dear Richard, d~'o YQ

you wifh now to repeat the question that you afked me juft now?
Rich. What question ?
Mr. Bill. Why the Supreme Difpofer of things faved only Robinfon Crufoe, and fuffered the reft to perifh ?
Rich. No.
AWr. Bill. Why not ?
Rich. Becaufe I fee now that it was an unreafonable question.
Mr. Bill. Unreafonable! How?
Rich. Becaufe our Maker knows very well why he does any ation, and we are not capable of knowing it.
Mr. Bill. The Ruler of the Univerfe had therefore reafons which were wife, excellent, and worthy of himfelf, for fuffering the whole crew to perith,, and, faving only the life of Robihfon Crufoe. But there reafons are infcrutable to us. We may, indeed, carry our conjectures to a certain length, but we ought never to flatter ourfelves that we have hit upon the truth. For instance, infinite wifdom might forefee ihat

82 T H E N EW.
that a longer life would be more hurtful than advantageous to thofe whom he fuffered to perith: they might fall into great difireffes, or even become wicked: for that reafon, perhaps, he removed them, from this world, and conducted their immortal fouls to a place where they are happier than here. As for Robinfon Crufoe, probably his life was preferved to the end that affliaion might be a fchool of wifdom to him; for God, being a kind father, all wife and all juft, fends-adverfity to turn the hearts of men, when they are blindly infe nfible to his goodnefs and fupport.
Keep this in remembrance, my dear child, through ,the course of your life. You may meet with accidents and reverfes in which you cannot perceive the defign of Providence. Then, infiead of rafhily endeavouring to reafkn or explain the feeming inconfiftency, fay to yourself, God knows better than I what is for my good; I will, therefore, fuffer with chearfulnefsthis rmiffortune which he rends me as a triaL I am con-

convinced that his difpenfations of good and evil are ever intended to render us better than we are; I, for my part, will therefore labour to become fo, and certainly God will blefs and reward my endeavours."
Henry. Did Robinfon think fo upon that occafion ?
Mr. Bill. Yes, then when he had been in fo great danger of perilhi-,g, and faw himfelf cut off from all the world,. then he felt fincerely how unjuit and blameable his condu& had been; then he prayed to Heaven, on his knees, for pardon; and then he took the ftedfaft refolution of amending his life, and of never doing any aaion contrary to. the warning of his, confcience.
Edw. But. ihat did he do after that ?
Mr. Bill. When the joy that he felt on his happy deliverance had a little fubfided, he began to refle& on his fituation. He looked about him, but could fee nothing except trees and thickets i he could not perceive, on any fide, the leaft mark that the country was inhabited.

This was a dreadful necefity impofed upon him; to live all alone in a ftrange country! But his anxiety was tiill more dreadfully increafed whenthis reflection occurred to him, What, if there should be wild beaftsor favages here,. fo that I fiould not be able to live a moment in fafety !
Charlotte. What are favages, papa'?
Rich. S,.ages are wild men. Havw you never heard talk of them, Charlotte ?: In countries, a great, great way off from this, there are men nearly as wild as beafts.
Geo. That go almoftiiaked---nWhat do, you think of that ?
Henry. Aye, and know fcarce any thing, in the world. They cannot build themfelves houfes, nor make gardens, nor fowl and plant, as we do.
Harriet. And they eat raw meat and raw fifh. I heard my papa tell of them-Did not you, papa ?
Rich. And would you think it? Thef poor creatures are entirely ignorant of their Maker,

Maker, becaufe they never had any perfon to infitrua them.
Henry. It is for that reafon too that they are fo barbarous. You would hardly believe that fome of them eat human flelh.
Charlotte. Oh what wicked men
Mr. Bill. What poor unhappy men! you should fay. Alas thefe poor people are fufficiently to be pitied, that they have been brought up in this ignorance, and live like brutes.
Charlotte. Do they ever come here?
Mr. Bill. No: the countries where there unfortunate people live are fo far off, that they never come here. Their number alfo grows lefs every day, becaufe other civilized men, who come amongf them, endeavour to inltru&t and civilize them.
Henry. Were there, then, any of thofe fa vages in the country where Robinfon Crufoe was thrown by the form ?
Mr. Bill. That he could not tell himfelf as yet. But having formerly heard that there were favages in the islands in this part of

reprefented to him afrelh the tranfation of the preceding day. Diflurbed with t roultuous dreams, he fancied he full faw the waves fwelling round him, and the fhip finking. The cries of the feamen flill founded in his ears.. After this, he ima. gined himfelf tranfported into the prefence of his parents: they appeared overwhelmed with forrow and diftrefs for the lofs of their beloved fon: they fighed, wept, lifted up their hands to Heaven, and were utterly deftitute of comfort. A cold fweat broke out all over his body: he cried aloud, L am not loft, my dear parents; I am restored to you once more :" and with there words, making a motion in his fleep as if to embrace his parents, he loft his feat amongft the branches, and fell down out of the tree.
Harriet. Oh poor Robinfon!
Gro. I fuppofe he is killed now.
Mr. Bill. Fortunately for him, he had not fixed himfelf far up in the tree ; and the grafs was fo high upon the ground that his fall was not very fevere. In effe6t, the flight pain which it occasioned him he hardly

hardly felt, in comparison to the anguifh that he had fuiffered in the conflicts of his dream, and which ftill agitated his whole body. I-Fe, therefore, climbed up once more into the tree, and lay there quietly until fun-rife.
He then began earneftly to confider how 'he should procure himfeif food. He had no fort of visuals fuch as we ufe in this part of the world, neither bread, nor meat, 'nor vegetables, nor milk ; and, had he even been master of a joint of meat, he had neither fire, nor fpit to roaft it on, nor pot to boil it in. All the trees that he had feen hitherto were logwood-trees, which' never bear any fruit.
Rich. What fort of trees are they, papa?
Mr. Bill. There are trees the wood of which is of confiderable ufe in dying. They grow in fome countries of South America, and much of the logwood is brought to Europe. When it is boiled, the water turns

turns of a reddifh black colour, and dyers make ufe of it to give a fhade to other co. Jours.~
But to return to Robinfon Crufoe.
Still uncertain what he should do, he came down from the tree. As he had eaten nothing the day before, hunger began to be exceedingly troublefome to him. He rambled about for feveral miles, but found nothing, except grafs, and trees that bore no fruit.
It was impoffible now to add to his diffrefs: Muft I, then, perifh with hunger at laft cried he, fobbing and looking up towards Heaven. However, neceffllity reanimated him with frefh ftrength to go and fearch carefully along the Ihore for fomething eatable.
But in vain: nothing but logwoodtrees and Indian willow; nothing but grafs and fand. At length, fatigued, weakened, and exhausted, he threw himfelf down with his face to the ground, burft into tears, and wished

wified that he had periflhed in the waves of the fea rather than be preferved only to die a miferable death by hunger.
He thought of nothing, therefore, now but of waiting in this forlorn fituation for the flow and dreadful approach of death; when, turning by chance, he faw a cormorant devouring a fifh that he had taken. Immediately he recolle6ed that he had fomewhere read the following words:
The Lord, who feeds with bounteous hand
The feather'd tenants of the air,
Will furely over MAN expand
The wings of his paternal care.
He then reproached himfelf with having put fo little truft in Divine Providence; and, rifing haftily, he determined to walk as far as ever his ftrength would permit him. lHe shaped his courfe, therefore, along the fhore, and looked narrowly abcut to difcover, if poffible, fomething that might ferve him for food.
At length he perceived a number ofoy(ter shells lying on the fhore. He ran eagerly
VOL. 1. E toN .

towards the fpot where they were, and care Fully examined all round it, hoping to find oyfters thereabouts. He did find fomrne, ani his joy was inexpreffible.
Rich. Are there oyfters on land then ?
Mr. Bill. Why no, not properly. On the contrary, they belong to the fea and live in it. There they faften themfelves to rocks, one upon another, in immenfe quantities. Such a heap of them is called a bed of oyflers. Now, the waves, in dafhing against this, loofens feveral of the oyfters, and the tide carries them towards the fhore. Afterwards, when the tide ebbs, and it is lov water, thefe oyfters are left on the beach, where it is then dry.
Charlotte. You fay when the tide ebbs, papa, what is that?
Harriet. What, don't you know that ? It is when the water that was fo high before, runs back, and grows quite fhallow.
Charlotte. What water ?
Harriet. Why, the fea water, or a river like our Thames, where the tide comes up.