Cultivation of wheat in permanent alfalfa fields


Material Information

Cultivation of wheat in permanent alfalfa fields
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry ;
Physical Description:
5 p. : 24 cm.
Fairchild, David, 1869-1954
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry :
G. P. O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Catch crops   ( lcsh )
Wheat   ( lcsh )
Alfalfa   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


General Note:
"Issued December 9, 1904."
Statement of Responsibility:
by David Fairchild.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029643843
oclc - 61355815
System ID:

Full Text

I. S. I )DFI'.\ARTMEXIINT M')F .(11I l'tRE.
BUREAU .F Pl.'; !'I :i: 1 1 ,I'; N.. 72, PART I.
1; T ,i ( A1 \\ \ *., : x /; ,
'1 6: 1,L(






I-SIEtD, IDK ',MH : !, 1904.
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1 9 ( :5.

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Wheatan I A ;r I; wIt\ 1 iic flly nIt torthr t teI

Sal to I i 11 t liI t ( e ry IIl nd ,L1 i, f Noti'li A fri<'i. A lfIlfai. :aIltIli IIhI
dohu( tlh es,, i o ti t tlie Il re; I t forag crops ll he' \\world. hliu litl s(
fair irn Allriat: Ilecii eu:llilh it l iztili tli in a shloriii't rialitioi Vx lt
w eat. lit the r n ti experi nn tsl ;i S\vis griicullturist ill .\Alveriai
Wiive ir =o l t linit vlie:l ;isiil aill'ilflf;i a ,ii lie I iri\\i I0 Wh ,ile lil iildvnii-
ta;ie ii aher; i ll' i'\\'-.
)During ii i ex l>hiiir In trip \\htihi thie \vriler iilitl, for li ( )iee of
,'Seedl aii Plaintl lilirtllictlioll aii il I)il-trilmal io ill ioin|)ii i x ilih M r.
('. SScofield. ai vi-il w; mauidie to Sltif.t Al,-ria;. where Mr. (G. lxvf.
ill cuirg lir t e (f stll i -- I lemienit tiherl'. hial- uoll r' iiiliiklid e pxleii-
xiix j ilt Irie l M \7v wio ed- \ lilit i ti he t liiinii l'ro i- iil icr if uiii lling-
wilth wliilh Mr. lHvlf wii- experi'mlenting. ;a field of ;ilf4ilfli OWN l iid in
-rows 3 feet ;ip;tii. Iht'lW eIti lii i li roxw-. Ie ;l-iic'sl in -. lie o-., i\''ry
olhier 'Vell" :i rtyoi of lhirt iixiwle;il. wiie t e i l imkii (lit t -is ol) '\vi t iol i
in AlI" I, i iil liiil tli' 1llelilin t l ti ion of riteir hiu i- In elt i tw at illo to the
ii( thliat -Iitli n r ,itjit it. if il (wit riri llv Ix l i llhet ;i r>lt lilio i -. i k not

A' \lf"ilt'n is. 1 oi iilily l liy n I'r<':it s'sI l',ldill r I ts,\\- iK^v '_i' i\vli ill A liii i'i :' :iiild
\lh .ll -1u 11 lll>i v i1. I|l o -w No "in, QI" w hu il hildi in lliW K si ih vlll\ !inl| then" s]>r<';ilt iil' i /ir tll \vh<';ll <'llli\;I-
tiulit iuln o ti ti, i it i t.ll;ii l, is i t rii i I 1 'u li t i.l-op. .hl hld
ii lvi, il i /-1t:tilly io11I'X ii117 til' (Xrl|i' il n1* M r. l yl < i 'sr ,1o li' l ill l1-4
l>;alper by ll. F;I ir.hii li.
i thn lf |>i'i" ml i r|' \\" ,1, lii;i ll t in I l i l .\I' M ul; i i lim thv ,xiNw l|:i|> r is v iry lxinuldy :iiI
Ill .ls ll' Wh }lu hl l. ill o I; t u, l^ll tl !V U itv l li< lin lqll iil ;t luNquii ll'iii\.
T iml- ithsr\-;ii'n lii- of \\Altii li fili" is ;i isi \\n1 i liyswl 1v. m olb- Q'Mll', ihl idwll
M r'. ( '. S. Scii}f],lH ll *lriiiL' thx'ir .t\|ldI' r;ilhii" s in .\l-;cri;i in V Wli, liHt ;it tlh:ri tiniio
tith rxprrtiiiii il- r {ani witrd f;lr citit.|llh U<, ln rit il i llin.ll 1hlir i
tit fl n- :0 1lt i. sll 1 l' \l ir i ;t ll!' va s; .

A1 .1 I 'll h l li. .
Itit ii I iti Il \'ImI [ I'/I .
I N 11"t,11 I *i N %i> %n It s I :nW i I ID ,
11'"Wi nulii ti/l ,, R Q ,< \Orii 'ii lir M1: 6. 'x 'i

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prac'tieed in regions inII America which are similar to the dry up)lands
of western Algeria so far a- cliimate and soil .are concerned, and it
has seemed worth while to describe this simple method which Mr.
Rvl' hais discovered and which lie has 11now inI satisfactorYv O)erationll
oM Ii s place.
In response to a letter of inquiry, Ihe writer received a 'omiii1niit-
catiol from Mr. Ivf. dated Atugust 12, 19i0)4. of which a free trans-
lation from thlie French follows:
I believe e ;llsl1e all Illore Ifliily that lueril is dtestiled to play a;I inplsortlllt
riole ill aill dry conllltries where foirn;,e is srce. The valle of Ilhe intercalary
solve thlie reat p)rotbleml of Il5 l ectolsmsica;tl lmallslre 'i)]>. After InIimeroutts trials
with ]lan:h ltillig lsierti in rows :it litfft'reltt dlist;all'es ;pwrt. we lihave ;it last
found al t n dlisa;llie' 4)o1 ailio t 4<) il lhes letwvleels diioblIie ri, s of the plant isi
Illost satisflactory. The dlistance between the sili.l4, rowvs is ultlifs'rinlyv about
I in1ih1es. Folwrerly \\-e soweds thle lhernl i single mrow- but s we have found it
surer to SoW it ill double rows. Wi'li good seekers I lie work iof sowilng is nIot
dilliiult. The splace of 410 illt'hes betweel ti he 1 owite riow\s of lilieelln we sow
odillarily with lloy three rows of wle;it or other e" ea l. eahls rmvw ocupvting
:inhoit 7 inches ;inli tlhe double sow of lucerii 12- i lchs-, making a; total of 40
incles. The snpie lietw\eeni I lit' t\X)o 'ows i(f lI'erlil is ('1lt ivateid two oM. 1ihree4
I lines. In oile of I liese cullti;vatiolis I he eIrtih is turned towi'ad tile rows of
lucer ii; in tlie other, awa;y frolil them. After earll cult ivatiosi a harl-olW ( a1d0
so-llletilises a roller I is rull over the groullnd, plIrovidiis there arle stories o1' large
cliods. These sl;4eslets bet\ve' l els l ) ws it l''ers air s lVl ls onll i oe eI var oud )If
every two, tlhe yield ill :.i..' diing tile earl ill which 1ln14 gountld is left falow
cOmilpellsat ili" lsigely for the loss which is iillcutrred ly lsol p siltinig thle groilid.
In very "oid soils .our good isdisselioiis varieties oif hicerti raikle suelh :i a m towh
tlsat the rotvs joil onle ;liother, .iiotwitlistanlding; tlie conssidtra-ibtle listalscel of
nearly 4() inches which selmiarat;ies tlhi. A field dlsriling t li fallow period looks
ias if i t lihd eel sllown llbroadssisst. osir at least drilled in linies \':ry iclotse Itoeis'ser.
\W' get this, otill dry soil. witlhout irrigastioI, tw'o or tli*ree eslttinlins of 4 llceri., 'ind
pastulrage milore or1 less aibulinlulit during; I lie re'siaiindler of tlse yv;lr. W' feared
liHat lierili millilt injure tihe eer'als lasted lblwen ilie nlow", buit there hias
belsn ltio rsieasol for this feari. I would add tliait ait the limi iiI' th lip 1mvi ig pre-
prsatory Io soviig If lie gri'ouilld we take lpaills to slit oilf with Ilie colter ;ild
plowshlare, hoth io st which al' leptl well ssha:I pllseeliel. iisses if lill hicernIs rot)ts.
This topteratilon ill a ;Ileiasure' checks Ilhe growth of tils ht151er dsIurilig tie ve;eta-
il've period of tlihe cereals: b ilt beilg a l plaint of vi.o.roils spreadiss lialiils, it
soioI sends out tnew' rooIts iand slioolst ilt such ;a wa;vy tlat thle lollowilig year it
lias ) reg; ined all of its fortl'er l" ig'r.
Theree e very scolisidenlisble ad'\alistages ill this insetlloId off cullstre. The luceltii
setids its 'roots fromi 1 l:; itIelrs (.2I S t4) ! fet dep into liew subsoiil and
draw's from it the water ce'ss;ary fo its g'growthl. It a;Ibsolrls, as well. ilitnrogeti
I'rotil te atllmosphlere'' which is llie titler sorely'( of foodil. Fromsi tlt rsots, which
;lare amptielltleld perioldically, is secured a g'reell fertilizer which. ascorldisng to
melillsi'lls expe'rimenlits, is elllliv'alelt to :I ,oosl dressing sof bartysarld 1i1:111llar'.
I8st llis liauililre., iln tlie forl li of Illiip t:IIted rools, phlys still aillother ride quite
as ililllortall ll ill 41 dr land. It sevl'Ves Ilie l'pllrp]ose of :1 \v;wtatet reservoirs. Inl fart.

SThe lFl'eich Iallie li. s'io is aloplied inll Algeri;a. a;s elsewhere, tos .tll' sin st
.S'uIiwt litii.. whliich in A tes'ric;s is called ;llfatlf;l.

Ithesfe 3)tl 3. i ll 3 d it' liolu ill.. i,'n l,' ;t,' Il Il| ittl. lH S ,w, tmgc1t" lXi II ii ltul3l33. t1t'.3 11 T
wsol. am! in) these the' r~iit "mitrr .ir |thus ruiislitult ro'sr irvits of hninhlity, ;il tint S;HI)<> tOtit samel+ Imnakin u iii nl )ntii
"ill th(n s(il a1nd s lli) i ill tlhlis \%a y Ill'I l lK l n Ul'l'i hlllrlll ;lu,,[ ll ,,i ttl+ n l1 )m I thll
(,rT'all. w 3ich .i3'3 a lre r, Ii +li lh \ ,I +l the i-ii 3" ws. an dl '133iny it ll r 1 ol ii" (x3*\ \t+ tl'' 3 il
I I ln' S ll'|I 3 itn".
(lIl' illl ige'itI< %llX'* ivi i. < l'. l3,'v' 'l x xi. ll l lin, l.,', 3 'ii i t lt.s itoll
i.33'' I I|e .3 ;lll thint,. t' (',3 ;w. i lll l', m l l33.1 hlnl l ll tllltii \':lt<' called l1, I'.l'i)vc w( i' <, (1 '' i ii. Th'e' 'o3tn el,' X.rilii" air<' ;is s i 'ii .II ; i 3l ngla'i.'.
:is tiln, latter iro j \mirl. i' ainm l 3 !3 3 i<. x '+ ;a. il l y'3 \\" ill last t'ir ',('\i+( il r3ent 3 i'\ .3
Jf Ilt ;al\vways. d(elt'.dina thi3'3l.n1d.s. \ agtaxrix,.l3', ; ."ins it O 'w 'd3 +whi+ theyi
inl'l'll k ll iill t1lil<,i Iolf l' il3 kil3 (l ihy tl .': A l ,non3 t tx'. c, i ili..q1 ls .1"U).ii
h(1 3 T 1v i >Is o p w lli(h. + is i ll 11`. l '1t". 0 > .tl'.Xl| iil|'l ;S, l3 | ; 1't 3, ill. i3 lll' a l e' ar3 ln' i )1 '|
gate this.
A \ I ol+ll f-1' (l" ttlltiv;Hta l'r- hl \-v .nl (er.-o ils. ( 114. ]i)lri> tnll jii in Tunis \\ ri')t nnw <-crntlylI t )<* \\t:ha hi l s t>in n a, ny -ii
lWr< a(;lts 1 12:4-5'5 acre: s i tof i iis inii'('hIl:iry rinliuirr. \As tIIr Iniy itlIUI l'3rs W'lt'll t';,il'. a ll I'. |'' tIi Il)W t 3'4\l Ws ii' ll ; is l l' as o n ;" ".nl' .l il V il' W:i'.3
S1h t,' tl \rWi ll I Xt3'' l3 k s '\1t. stitrlx <,n .|il\ 1 ;; hlO nil whith h l :l bIien (41H i 'r 1t(>'|, \h 3irIh l':l I I r+f 3l ( 1' r iilei 133. 1 ]i('li.\
that. (oiur iltlig; trow hiv mts l <>r \i nli !;rii \n ioh+ e\|plmr .mil h iil(licl, (" mi cl l ,h i l
WTr rgio s, bl l but ulnder the'se c,)ditihm, i Wii (l tv arl r talkdeln
in o-d>T tilil n ing yu, i.: [> l ts tii pnnotu 'il3. <)It > (+ \v m ll rsim allish,,rl. noi
rnl' t 3ts. t \m ulld (hs1t3 y l H3 o 3h'i: Q(,I Ili. 1 i ll- '3 ,llilH'\ ( IIi' llii;ll>o' A Ni l ioll'N highI
Ipl:3teau o I AI 'ig'rim al t;lh ( ': iI si> ci ldt it n "i t r, resenlild s .in<-i larly tliat ()I
thie dry states in tlite (+t ml :itiid \va'wl 'tc n iwirthmi s oif powr "mo,,nly.

\un'tlhvr (0t n ,t ;I place I,!' tla l W tln linumii| tll n hlo of c lti\;ti )ni call
lo(' fininil in tliv ,IfiW r ,giil of thlin (nimntr\v is \,\, ll \vol rlli 11inling;" ("%t.
ill vito uof tht' l'Aw'l that M) ,l ;I+ (an >x nriin'iltar aml ~'" lj)riac i-
Cal a f'arnier an M r. Itvf hOn!- l)ri)iiu)on(.'t(l it a (.(unInt ',i~al -nti ... int
AM 2-, i1.,1 after -Ovt'ral yarn of trial.


II l $ 1II 2 I Il 1 '111 1 I
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