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Arts-based guidance intervention for enhancement of empathy, locus of control, and prevention of violence

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Arts-based guidance intervention for enhancement of empathy, locus of control, and prevention of violence
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Skye, Dianne Lynn, 1949-
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viii, 186 leaves : ; 29 cm.

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Art education ( jstor )
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Arts ( jstor )
Empathy ( jstor )
High school students ( jstor )
High schools ( jstor )
Locus of control ( jstor )
Schools ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )
Violence ( jstor )
Counselor Education thesis, Ph.D ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF ( lcsh )
Alachua County ( local )
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theses ( marcgt )
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Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2001.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 170-184).
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Printout.
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Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Dianne Lynn Skye.

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ARTS-BASED GUIDANCE INTERVENTION
FOR ENHANCEMENT OF EMPATHY, LOCUS OF CONTROL, AND
PREVENTION OF VIOLENCE



By


DIANNE LYNN SKYE


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2001




















Dedicated to my Mom who has lived a life of unconditional love and caring.
Edna Lutz Poling 3/21/13-













ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Sincere thanks are extended to Dr. Robert Myrick for serving as chairman of my

committee. As an educator and mentor, his professional advice and personal

encouragement have been a tremendous influence in my life and work and are greatly

appreciated. Thanks and appreciation are also given to Dr. David Miller who was

consistently kind and patient with my right brain blocks during the process of statistical

analysis. In addition, I would like to acknowledge committee members Dr. Larry Loesch

and Dr. Joe Wittmer for their support. I feel humbled and grateful to have had such

tremendous teaching from these pillars in the profession.

To Dr. Merle Flannery, the professor who first encouraged me to pursue a

doctorate degree, I extend admiration, gratitude, love, and great appreciation. Dr.

Flannery's teachings and phenomenal manner of seeing the world will always be with

me.

Special thanks are given to the art teachers who delivered this art-based

counseling intervention. The study could not have been achieved without the sacrifice of

their time and effort. Especially notable is the courage of Lisa Hudson who stood before

her school board to defend the importance of the study when opposition arose.

Heart-felt gratitude is extended (a) to my husband and friend, Charles, for his

love, support, encouragement to reach my dreams, and the wonderful massages after

many weary hours of work; (b) to my sons T.L. Shane, and Shad Latson, and








Elliott Skye, for my greatest joys and the challenges of motherhood that have deepened

my passion for life-long learning; (c) to my mom who has always been my hero and

example of strength, dignity, and grace; (d) to my daughter-in-law Kristie for the tender

care she extends to my mother, for her friendship, love, data entry; and typing expertise;

(e) to my granddaughters Kyra, Zion, and Kamya who light up my life; (f) and lastly and

most importantly to my Lord and Savior Jesus Christ who is the perfect example of

empathic understanding and who gives my life purpose and meaning.













TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOW LEDGEM NETS ......................................................................................... i

ABSTARCT ............................................................................................................... vii

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 1
Purp se of the Study ................................................................................................. 4
Need for the Study ... ............................................................................................... 4
Theoretical Perspective .................................................................................... o ........ 8
Research Questions............................................................................................. 13
Definition of Terms................................................................................................ 14
Overview of the Remainder of the Study................................................................ 15

2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE............................................................... 17
Problems Associated with the Lack of Empathy..................................................... 18
Problems Associated with Levels of Control .......................................................... 24
Problems Associated with the Risk of Violence...................................................... 29
History of the Therapeutic Aspects of Art Processes............................................... 33
Art Education in the Schools .................................................................................. 38
Large Group Developmental Guidance and Interventions....................................... 42
Art Processes in School and Counseling Literature................................................. 45
Teachers As Facilitators......................................................................................... 49

3 M ETHODOLOGY ..............................................................................................53
Population and Descriptive Report ......................................................................... 53
Sampling Procedures.............................................................................................. 56
Research Design..................................................................................................... 58
Hypotheses............................................................................................................. 59
Teacher-Facilitator Training ................................................................................... 60
Guidance Unit Description............................................................................... 62
Dependent Variables.............................................................................................. 65
Research Procedures............................................................................................... 71
Data Analysis ......................................................................................................... 72








4 RESULTS .............................................................................................................. 74
Data Analysis......................................................................................................... 75
Other Findings........................................................................................................ 81
Sum mary of the Study ............................................................................................ 84

5 SUM M ARY AND CONCLUSIONS ...................................................................... 87
Summ ary ................................................................................................................ 87
Conclusions ............................................................................................................ 89
Discussion.............................................................................................................. 92
Limitations ............................................................................................................. 93
Im plications ............................................................................................................ 95
Recomm endations .................................................................................................. 97

APPENDIX

A CONSENT LETTERS FOR PARTICIPATION .................................................. 100

B RESEARCH PROCEDURES......................................... ..................................... 107

C RESEARCH INSTRUM ENTS.............................. ............................................ .. 113

D TEACHER-FACILATATOR TRAINING MANUAL ......................................... 117

E SUPPLEM ENTAL STATISTICS........................................................................ 146

F OTHER FINDINGS............................................................................................. 148

REFERENCES ......................................................................................................... 170

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ..................................................................................... 185



















vi



















Abstract of Dissertation
Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

ARTS-BASED GUIDANCE INTERVENTION FOR ENHANCEMENT OF
EMPATHY, LOCUS OF CONTROL, AND PREVENTION OF VIOLENCE

By

Dianne Lynn Skye

December 2001

Chairman: Dr. Robert Myrick
Major Department: Counselor Education

A teacher-facilitated large group guidance intervention for high school art

students was evaluated for its effects on locus of control (Children's Nowicki-Strickland

Internal External Locus of Control Scale), risk of violence (The Risk of Eruptive

Violence Scale), and levels of emotional empathy (The Balanced Emotional Empathy

Scale). The intervention was delivered by four art teachers to multi-grade level art

students in four North Central Florida public high schools.

A pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design was used. Intact art classes

were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions to assess the effects of the

dependent variables. The assignment resulted in 78 students in the test groups and 75 in

the control groups.







Six guidance sessions were delivered to the treatment groups within a single

grading period. The unit was developed with literature and art activities that centered on

awareness of empathic feelings and on perceptions of control related to management of

anger and violence. Control groups maintained normal classroom routine.

A mixed model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted on the locus of

control scores, risk of violence scores, and emotional empathy scores, to determine

significant treatment or interaction effects. Treatment effect was obtained on the measure

of locus of control at .05 level of significance. Both males and females in treatment had

lower posttest means (males M=13.21; females M=12.29) than their counterparts in

control (males M=15.50; females M=12.82). Lower scores indicated a movement toward

internal locus of control. No significant treatment or interaction effects were found

during the ANCOVA analysis of the REV or the BEES.

Other findings collected during the experiential process for each session

suggested treatment effectiveness. Written and graphic arts data showed that students

were affected by the content of the counseling intervention.

This type of intervention may be an important vehicle for a synergistic and

parsimonious relationship between guidance and art education. The arts-based

intervention may have the potential to ignite the imagination, strengthen schemata for

alternative choices, develop empathic awareness, and instill the capacity to care. These

benefits in turn may impact locus of control and may promote socially acceptable

violence-free behavior.













CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

An increase in school violence has raised the issue of empathic understanding and

teaching children to care as one of the most interesting and difficult questions in

education today (Barrow, 1975; DeRoche & Williams, 1998; Siccone & Lopez, 2000).

Complex environmental, social, personal, and educational issues stuff the emotional

baggage that is hauled into the classroom by the increasingly diverse student population

(Keys, Bemak, & Lockhart, 1998). Widespread concerns about angry and aggressive

student behaviors produce reactive strategies that often overlook social contexts that

foster the perpetration of violence. The shootings at Columbine High School have

triggered awareness of a reality that could happen in any school, making it important to

assess warning signs and to advocate effective strategies for preventing the manifestation

of violence (Daniels, Arrendondo, & D'Andrea, 1999).

America's youth are burdened by conditions of racism, poverty, unemployment,

neglect, crime, alcohol and drug abuse, and negative peer pressure. Confronted with

these conditions, many students internalize deep anger, accompanied by feelings of

hopelessness and frustration, rendering them ready to react in potentially dangerous ways

(Ascher, 2000). To exacerbate an alarmingly negative trend, the media glorifies violence

and does little to sensitize youth to human pain resulting from negative conditions.

Many individuals feel that they lack control over the outcomes of their lives and

they blame forces outside themselves. Externalized in their locus of control, a somewhat








desensitized generation of students is at risk for initiating acts of violence, intolerance

and crimes of hate.

Violence takes the form of bullying, intimidation, taunts, anger, and physical

aggression stemming from prejudice because of race, religion, gender, ethnicity, and

sexual orientation or disability (Siccone & Lopez, 2000). Although the potential for

violence impacts every student, public education in recent years has lost its power to pass

on core moral values to children that address these issues. The teacher's role has become

the role of one who delivers a value-free exchange of information and skills (DeRoche &

Williams, 1998). With current emphasis on test scores, technology, and the

preoccupation with cognitive processes, ways of knowing have been separated from ways

of caring (Bruner, 1986; Noddings, 1992).

In response to these conditions, there has been a shift in advocacy toward

educational research in the affective domain. Traditionally, the arts and developmental

guidance have provided a caring connection that addresses both cognitive and affective

functioning of the individual. Both the visual arts and developmental guidance give

students a powerful avenue for exploring their worlds, getting to know themselves and

others, and for becoming more highly functioning human beings (Myrick, 1993; Willis &

Schubert, 1991).

Large group developmental guidance is one type of counselor intervention in

schools that blends the cognitive-affective realms of learning. Prevention, social skills,

and understanding the relationship of feelings, thoughts, and behaviors are common goals

of the large group guidance interventions (Faust, 1968). Through the partnership of the

two curricular areas of art and guidance, the question of viable character and affective








education can be considered. Both art and guidance share the goal of understanding the

social, intellectual, emotional, psychological, and creative needs of the student (American

School Counselor Association, 1979; Lowenfeld, 1957), in order to assist the

development process of individuals in all areas.

The development of critical intelligence and the nurture of the human capacity to

care are the focus of recent educational research (Clark & Jenson, 1997; Stout, 1999).

Framed as an arts-based developmental guidance unit with the teacher as facilitator

(Wittmer & Myrick, 1989), a cognitive-affective intervention, Walk a Mile in My Shoes,

was delivered in a classroom where communal deliberation was the method and critical

awareness and mutual understanding were the goals.

The arts are a universal language by which humans define themselves. According

to Stout (1999), "the arts have the capacity to draw together students' thoughts and

feelings, turning them toward the imaginative exploration of the wide world of human

experience" (p. 23). Nucho (1987) concurs with the process of becoming aware through

the arts, which offer the opportunity to decode one's personal imagery, understand the

feelings of others, and assist in the integration of new experiences. Art processes

empower one to discern new avenues for behavior.

Exposure to emotionally arousing stimuli through teacher-facilitated

developmental guidance can create the opportunity to assist change in beliefs and feelings

that lead to changes in behavior. Vicarious experience through exposure to misfortune,

deprivation, or distress of others has the capacity to increase empathic responses (Bamrnett,

Howard, Melton, & Dino, 1982). Passion, often born out of adversity or the inability to

explain the realities of life, brings humans to explore and experience the arts








that serve as ways to record and react to impressions of the world. By incorporating

literature and works of visual art that have emotionally arousing stimuli, art educators as

facilitators in a developmental guidance format can encourage students to consider the

realities of others and to see similarities in their own personal issues and needs. These

stimuli can provide a basis for eliciting discussion about perceptions, feelings, and

behaviors and linking those perceptions to future actions.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an arts-based large

group guidance unit on personal control, risk of initiating violence, and the emotional

empathy of high school students. More specifically, art teachers in north Florida

delivered the intervention to students enrolled in high school art education classes. The

unit consisted of literature, art activities, and discussions that focused on psychological

variables related to reducing teenage violence. An experimental design using pre- and

postmeasures was used to test differences between experimental and control groups.

Need for the Study

Youth violence in schools is rising and permeates every segment of our society.

Especially alarming is the availability of weapons and guns to youth. Indeed, growing

numbers of students are bringing guns to schools each day (Center to Prevent Handgun

Violence, 1990; Stephens, 1994). In 1992, 10% of all high school seniors reported that

they did not feel safe at school while 23% of all seniors reported fights between different

racial and ethnic groups (U.S. Department of Education, Digest of Education Statistics,

1999). Students ages 12 through 18 were victims of nearly 255,000 nonfatal incidents of

violent crime at school (U.S. Department of Education, 1998). Violence also impacts

teachers who were victims of 1,581,000 nonfatal crimes at school between 1992 and








1996 that included theft, rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated and simple assault

(U.S. Department of Education, 1998). During every hour of every school day, 900

teachers are threatened; and 2,000 students and 40 teachers become victims of violence

(Stone, 1994).

Although the sources of violence are deep and long-standing, many education

professionals attribute school violence to conditions outside of the classroom (Stephens,

1994). Among those exacerbating conditions are the breakdown of the family, poor

parenting practices, violent role models, and celebration of violence in the media (Bender

& Bruno, 1990; Met Life, 1994). Negative peer pressure both in and out of school

contributes to violence (Toby, 1994), as do drug and alcohol abuse (U.S. Department of

Justice, 1991), and racism or bias in the form of hate crimes (McCormick, 1999). In

addition, 18.90/% of all children live in poverty (U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of

the Census, 1998). These conditions engender emotional issues that potentially

contribute to the perception of loss of personal control and risk of initiated violence.

The answers to these problems are not simple. It has been argued that the

development of awareness of one's own emotional states and the ability to discern and

interpret the emotional states of others leads to increased empathy. Increased empathy

correlates positively with emotional competence and social competence (Saami, 1990).

These qualities in turn produce constructive coping that results in low levels of problem

behavior and low aggression as reported by teachers, peers, and mothers (Eisenberg,

Fabes, Murphy, Karbon, Smith, & Maszk, 1996).

Individuals who experience more success in coping with stressful situations are

those who generally believe that they are in control of the events of their lives. They








have an internal locus of control orientation (Krause, 1987). In addition, this belief in the

capacity to control or master events in one's life, empowers the individual with the

capability to evaluate potentially threatening situations and the capacity to solve

problems that might cause the stressful encounter (Folkman, 1984, Lazarus & Folkman,

1984).

Greater risk of initiating violence is generally associated with a more negative

outlook on life (Mehrabian, 1997). Some individuals are unable to cope with stress

engendered by oppressive family and social conditions of their lives and turn to violent

behavior in attempt to cope with stress (Chandler, 1985; Herzfeld & Powell, 1986).

These individuals usually attribute the outcomes of the events in their lives to conditions

outside of their control such as fate, luck, or powerful others.

Most school guidance counselors are trained to address issues of aggression and

violence through individual, small group, and classroom guidance interventions. Conflict

resolution, mediation, dispute resolution, stress inoculation, and anger management are

all programs designed to diffuse potentially violent situations (Skovholt, Cognetta, Ye, &

King, 1997). Although these programs are successful preventive strategies, the reality is

that the average high school counselor has between 350 and 530 students to serve. Those

services are further limited by noncounseling role requirements (Hardesty & Dillard,

1994; Napierkowski & Parsons, 1995). According to ACA guidelines, schools should

have one counselor for every 250 students (American Counseling Association, 2000).

Counselors cannot possibly address the personal issues of the entire school population.

High school art teachers are in a position to provide support for violence

intervention programs. Art educators who use a Disciplined Based Art Education (Clark,








1991) curriculum, teach their students to identify emotional and feeling states as well as

artist intentionality in the process of aesthetic criticism and judgment of works of art.

There are therapeutic aspects of art education as skilled art educators nurture students'

feelings of competence in a broadly beneficial way through the processes of recognition,

appreciation, and production of art (Wilson & Rubin, 1997). Art teachers employ

similarities between creative and therapeutic modalities as students are encouraged to

explore both the affective and cognitive processes involved in judging work of other

artists as well as being able to bring concrete representation to their own thoughts and

feelings through the production of visual art.

High school art teachers trained as facilitators can link and extend the activity

process by encouraging a heightened awareness of one's own emotional and cognitive

states as well as an empathic awareness of the personal and social conditions of others as

experienced vicariously through visual and written art forms. The question that remains,

however, is whether providing this direct service through a cognitive-affective large

classroom guidance intervention can increase empathy, affect internal locus of control,

and improve student behavior by reducing initiated violence.

School counseling literature has yielded little or no direct evidence to support

such a claim although the use of art in counseling for individuals with behavior problems

has been used in many settings (Alexander, 1990; Cheatham & Powell, 1986; Geldard &

Geldard, 1999; Gerber, 1994; Hill & Tollerud, 1996; Kramer, 1993; Unsworth, 1990).

Current education literature advocates comprehensive character or moral

education that promotes empathy and caring as an antidote to aggression and violence








(DeRoche & Williams, 1998; Ingall, 1997; Katz, Noddings, & Strike, 1999;

Kirscbenbaum, 1999; Noddings, 1992; Miller, 2000; Siccone & Lopez, 2000). Art

Education literature concurs with the concept that consciousness must be raised in order

for social change to take place (Albers, 1999; Bolin, 1999; Rettig & Rettig, 1999; Stout,

1999; Unsworth, 1990). However, no evidence exists of any outcome study that shows

the effectiveness of a large group classroom guidance intervention facilitated by art

teachers. There is a need to conduct a formal evaluation of art teacher-facilitated

guidance interventions designed to increase empathy and internal locus of control and

lessen the risk of initiated violence.

Theoretical Perspective

Framed as a developmental guidance unit (Myrick, 1993), this study was driven

by the theory that the unit should enhance the personal, social, vocational and academic

growth of the individual. All of those areas are affected by the individual's ability to

have an empathic understanding of others and ability to interact effectively in a world of

relationships.

As an arts-based intervention, this study was also influenced by the

developmental theories of Victor Lowenfeld (1957) in the areas of creative and mental

growth. Lowenfeld embraces the notion that education is largely responsible for attitudes

and actions that are linked to behaviors. Lowenfeld (1957) wrote:

If we lead a rich life it is education which has sensitized us for it; if we
live in a spirit of cooperation, it is education which has in early years
recognized the need for it and thus planted the seed in us; if we live in
peace with ourselves, it is education which recognized spiritual harmony
as one of the greatest contributors to life; if we, however, live in discord
with ourselves, it is also education which has neglected to emphasize
emotional growth, the ability to adjust to new situations, and thus help
us solve our difficulties in life. (p. 1-2)








Emotion and the individual's capacity to experience emotional empathy for others

influences the student's personal, vocational, social, and academic growth, because all of

these areas are contingent on the individual's ability to successfully negotiate

interpersonal relationships.

Emotion plays a critical role in cognitive learning and personality development.

Training in interpersonal and empathic responding can help individuals recognize

different emotive states in themselves and others and can help individuals respond to

others positively, rather than in angry acting-out behaviors that can result in violence

(Cohen & Strayer, 1996; Eisenberg, Fabes, Murphy et al., 1996; Miller & Eisenberg,

1988). Large group guidance framed as an arts-based cognitive-affective intervention,

can provide the emotionally charged learning experiences that tend to increase empathic

feelings, increase positive responses to others, and help facilitate change in thinking,

feelings, and behaviors.

Art is a bridge that joins the creative and integrative capacities of the psyche and

helps contain emotion. This imaginative capacity allows the individual to experience

empathy with different points of view while decentering self and coming face to face

with the condition of others (Greene, 1995). Emotion is held within the process and

within the artwork, providing the individual with a means to reframe and reconsider

alternate ways of knowing, which can lead to change of thinking and behaving (Moon,

1994).

Individuals tend to learn more easily and retain what is learned when it is framed in an

emotional context (Goleman, 1995; Sylwester, 1995). Affective art is a personal

experience that focuses on experience, emotion, and thoughts of the individual,








incorporating at least six of the seven types of human intelligence described by Howard

Gardner (1993) in his Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Research shows that

"experience, particularly in childhood, sculpts the brain" (Goleman, 1995, p. 224).

Neural branching occurs when significant brain work is done that creates synapses

between nerve cells, which is analogous to building muscle through physical exercise

(Cardellichio & Field, 1997). This neural branching allows neural network connections

to shift about throughout life as conditions change and challenges emerge.

Environmental challenge and interactivity are important components in the mental

activity that nurtures synaptic plasticity. The use of emotion, experience, and learning

enhances the brain's construction and ability to make cognitive shifts (Abbott, 1997;

Kotulak, 1996; Sylwester, 1995). Wittmer and Myrick (1989) stated that "regardless of

subject matter or curriculum, the most fundamental psychological basis for learning

occurs when a student is emotionally involved" (p. 17).

Arts-based guidance interventions serve as ways we react to, share, and record our

impressions of the world. Involvement in the arts teaches divergent thinking and

encourage students to discover different answers rather than rote responses. The

aesthetic experience of literature and visual arts linked with facilitative guidance is an

opportunity for students to live vicariously new experiences that have the potential to

increase empathy. Through experiential activity they become embedded in the task and

"learn from the inside out rather than the outside in. Such figuring out requires critical

thinking, analysis, and judgment; students tend to stay on task because they are creating

their own world, not replicating someone else's" (Fowler, 2000, p.2).








Rettig and Rettig (1999) suggested that in addition to the use of real-life

emotional contexts to enhance learning, the use of different senses, promotion of student

self-direction, support of social learning, and encouragement of pattern finding can each

optimize the growth of the brain in terms of learning and experiences. Large group

cognitive-affective guidance interventions delivered by art educators who use literature

and works of art to stimulate empathic response, expand insight through student

participation in art processes. The process engages students in hearing (the literature),

seeing (the work of art), and touching and smelling (the art medium). The senses are

explored vicariously in both the literary and visual arts media that paint a sensuous

portrait of the experience of another human being.

Student self-direction enhances the learning experience when the student is given

the opportunity to tell his or her own story after the social group learning has taken place

by discussion of the story of the writer and the artist. The student extracts meaning from

the group discussion and projects personal meaning into his or her own visual or written

art form. Meaning is enhanced further by the teacher as facilitator who helps the student

verbalize by linking and extending the activity process (Myrick, 1993). Insight is

developed that appeals to both intellect and imagination by applying it to present and past

experiences. Students begin to see a pattern of connections between and among

individuals and societies through works produced by self and others. "The arts humanize

the curriculum while affirming the interconnectedness of all forms of knowing" (Fowler,

2000, p.1).

These multi-sensory activities agree with the work of Howard Gardner (1993) and

his theory of Multiple Intelligences. Experiences stored in several interrelated memory








networks have the power to optimize learning and to enhance the intellectual and

emotional growth of the individual. With these cognitive-affective activities, students

can begin to see that the experiences of others could possibly become their own and be

moved toward response. "When we see the other's reality as a possibility for us, we must

act to eliminate the intolerable, to reduce the pain, to fill the need, to actualize the dream"

(Noddings, 1984, p. 14). In other words, experiential activity can promote the capacity to

care.

The arts enhance the potential for empathy by expanding the capacity to think in

the abstract and to imagine something better. Interconnectedness is brought about by the

realization of shared emotional experiences. Through emotional and sensory-laden

learning experiences, individuals find a sense of belonging to family, society, and culture.

The arts increase the potential for fulfillment of the human need for defining self.

"Empathy for others factors into understanding yourself and feeling connected to your

own kind and the broader your empathy is the greater your ability to interact with people

from more diverse backgrounds. The arts are about, for, and by all of us" (Taylor, 1999,

p. 10).

An arts-based large group guidance unit provides one approach to support student

need for understanding self and others. It is a theoretical approach that promotes

understanding through experiential activity that can impact learning and enhance social

skills needed to be successful in the school and social environment A cognitive-affective

approach emphasizes the examination and possible modification of thoughts, beliefs, and/

or expectations about self and others. "Study of the arts encourages a suppleness of mind,








a toleration for ambiguity, a taste for nuance, and the ability to make trade-offs among

alternative courses of action" (Springfield, 2000, p. 7-A).

Internal locus of control is a phenomenon sometimes considered in relationship to

dispositional and situational empathy. Based on Rotter's theory (1966), a locus of

control orientation is a belief about whether the outcomes of our actions are contingent on

what we do (internal control orientation) or on events outside our personal control

(external control orientation). Perceived locus of control influences our motivation,

expectations, risk-taking, and the outcome of our behaviors. Self-regulation is an

attribute of those with an internal locus of control. An individual with internal locus of

control perceives self as responsible for outcomes in his or her life, while the individual

with external locus of control most often blames society, luck, or some other force

beyond his or her control for personal successes and failures.

It is argued that people who tend to empathize with another's pain or distress are

likely to refrain from or cease aggression because of the emotional discomfort induced by

their vicarious response to the victim's emotional reactions (Eisenberg, 2000; Feshback,

1978). Whether or not an arts-based large group guidance intervention can increase

empathy and create a shift in locus of control continues to be evaluated.

Research Questions

Will students' perception of their locus of control change after they complete the arts-
based guidance unit?
Will students' risk of initiating violence change after completion of the arts-based
guidance unit?
Will high school art students who participate in an arts-based guidance unit have
greater capacity for emotional empathy?
Do the students respond differently to the arts-based guidance unit according to
gender?








Definition of Terms

Affective art. An experiential process that focuses experience, emotion, and self.

It helps the individual recognize feelings that are being experienced while achieving

insight into feelings, thoughts, and behaviors through concentrated awareness. Affective

art processes combine the creative and integrative capacity of the psyche (Furrer, 1982;

Robbins & Sibley, 1976).

Cognitive. Cognitive aspects of an intervention are those processes that bring

about knowledge as individuals increasingly come to understand themselves and others

and gain different perspectives on their own motives and behaviors (Corsini & Wedding,

1995).

Empathy. The state of empathy or the ability to be empathic, is to perceive the

internal frame of reference (emotional components and meanings) of another person as if

one were that person but without losing the "as if' condition, retaining one's own identity

(Rogers, 1980).

External locus of control. The perception or belief that a person's reinforcement

is under the control of others and outcomes of events in one's life are caused by forces

such as luck or chance and lie beyond one's control (Krause, 1987; Rotter, 1990).

Individuals who tend to favor this belief are referred to as externals.

Internal locus of control. The belief that a person has the ability to control

outcomes of events in life through effort, behavior, or personal characteristics such as

ability (Rotter, 1990). Individuals who tend to favor this belief are referred to as
internals.

Large group guidance. A counselor-led or facilitator-led intervention with more

than 10 students in a group. It is structured and exploratory and focuses on the








developmental needs of the students. Ideas, attitudes, feelings, beliefs, and behaviors are

explored. Prevention is a common goal for large group interventions (Myrick, 1993).

Locus of control. The degree to which the individual believes he or she is able to

influence the outcome of a situation (Rotter, 1990).

Teacher-facilitator. An individual who provides a positive, secure, and

nonthreatening classroom atmosphere in which students are encouraged to take risks,

explore ideas and feelings, and encouraged to be open. The teacher-as-facilitator

provides learning situations that are personally meaningful, positive, nonthreatening, self-

evaluated, and feeling focused. Personal growth is encouraged out of caring for others.

Learning is facilitated through open communication and maximizing the factors of

thinking, feeling, and doing (Wittmer & Myrick, 1989). In this study, the teacher-

facilitator delivers the large group guidance intervention.

Violence. A manifestation of anger and aggression that can be defined as a

symptom demonstrated by hostile outbursts (Madow, 1972). Violence can take the form

of bullying, intimidation, taunts, anger, and physical aggression stemming from prejudice

because of race, religion, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or disability (Siccone &

Lopez, 2000).

Overview of the Remainder of the Study

The remainder of the study is organized into four chapters. Chapter 2 reviews the

literature focused on problems associated with lack of empathy, low levels of control,

and the risk of initiated violence. The literature of the history of therapeutic aspects of art

processes, art education in the schools, and developmental guidance and large group

guidance interventions are also reviewed. Literature related to the teacher as facilitator





16

and the dependent variables of this study are also presented in Chapter 2. Research

methodology and the procedures used are described in Chapter 3. Results of the study

are presented in Chapter 4. The summary, conclusions, discussion, limitations,

implications, and recommendations are included in Chapter 5.













CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In 1999, the U.S. Department of Education gave $2.7 million to implement and

upgrade character education as a measure to counteract the multiple killings and

increased violence that have been taking place in our nation's schools (U.S. Department

of Education, 1999). While some schools seek change from the outside by adding guards,

metal detectors, and uniforms; others seek to improve school climate through preventive

measures that increase understanding and universal values (Guerra, 1998).

Empathy and caring are core components of character education that seek to help

students learn and assimilate core ethical values. Carl Rogers (1980) defined empathy as

the state of being able to perceive the internal frame of reference of another with

accuracy and with the emotional components and meanings which pertain thereto as if

one were the person but, without ever losing the "as if" condition. In essence, empathy

broadens the breadth of perception and range of emotional experience. Caring increases

connection, reaching out, and altruistic behaviors.

Those educators responsible for character education are charged with helping to

develop essential human capacities that give students an open-minded understanding and

for helping to develop effective personal response in dealing meaningfully with

complexity. "The process by which this development occurs is the maturing process

afforded by vicarious experience and the empathic identification with both familiar and

remote ideas, events and persons" (Gallo, 1989, p. 99).








Empathy fosters critical and creative thinking and should be adopted as an

important educational goal. Reasoning benefits from empathic understanding. When

empathy increases, the individual is predisposed to good judgment by engaging the

individual more fully with the issue. Thought and action have both cognitive and

affective components, as does empathic response. The cognitive component of empathy

is understanding how another feels, while the affective component is communion by "the

imaginative transposing of oneself into the thinking, feeling and actions of another"

(Gallo, 1989, p. 100).

Empathy is also a prerequisite of compassion and morality. By learning what

others think and feel, the individual is potentially enhanced with wisdom. This can lead

to the ability of making more positive decisions that may reduce the individual's risk for

choosing violent behaviors (Kirschenbaum, 1999).

Problems Associated with the Lack of Empathy

Lack of empathy is associated with Conduct Disorder. According to the

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (American Psychiatric

Association, 1994), the essential feature of Conduct Disorder is a pattern of persistent

behavior in which rights of others and societal norms are violated. Behavioral features

fall into four main categories: Aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm

to people or animals; conduct that causes property loss or damage; deceitfulness or theft;

and serious violation of rules.

Children or adolescents with Conduct Disorder are often aggressive and react

aggressively toward others with such behaviors as bullying, threatening, and intimidating.

They may initiate fights; may use a weapon (bat, brick, broken bottle, knife, or gun) with

the intent to inflict serious physical harm; and may be physically cruel to people or








animals. Other violent actions against others associated with Conduct Disorder include

stealing while mugging, purse snatching, or armed robbery and forcing someone to

engage in sexual activity. Physical violence may involve rape, assault, and in some cases

homicide.

Individuals with Conduct Disorder sometimes deliberately destroy others'

property. These acts of violence may take the form of deliberately setting fires with

intent to cause serious damage. Other deliberate actions with intent to cause damage

could include smashing car windows, school vandalism, or destruction of other real

property.

Characteristically, individuals who lack empathy and display the features of

Conduct Disorder, are deceitful and commonly practice acts of theft. These behaviors

may include breaking into a house, a building, or a car. Habitual lying or breaking

promises is a frequent practice in order to obtain goods or favors or to avoid debts or

obligations. It is not uncommon for individuals with Conduct Disorder to be skilled at

conning others or to steal without confronting the victim by shoplifting and forgery.

Serious violation of rules is also characteristic of individuals with Conduct

Disorder. Pattern behaviors may include staying out late at night despite parental

guidelines; a habit of running away from home overnight; and truancy from school

beginning before the age of 13. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of

Mental Disorders-IV (1994):

Individuals with Conduct Disorder may have little empathy and little
concern for the feelings, wishes, and well-being of others. Especially
in ambiguous situations, aggressive individuals with this disorder frequently
misperceive the intentions of others as more hostile and threatening than is
the case and respond with aggression that they may feel is reasonable and
justified. They may be callous and lack appropriate feelings of guilt or remorse.








It can be difficult to evaluate whether displayed remorse is genuine because these
individuals learn that expressing guilt may reduce or prevent punishment
Individuals with this disorder may readily inform on their companions and try to
blame others for their own misdeeds. (p. 87)

Conduct Disorder is much more common in males but concerns are raised in the

misapplication of Conduct Disorder to individuals, such as persons from war-ravaged

countries, where aggressive behavior is a necessary means of survival. The context of the

individual must be considered when making the diagnosis and must be applied when the

behavior is symptomatic of the underlying dysfunction.

Symptoms vary as the age of the individual increases, along with cognitive and

sexual maturity. Typically, less severe behaviors emerge at first, whereas the more

severe emerge later. Males tend to exhibit the more confrontational forms of aggression

such as fighting, stealing, vandalism and school discipline problems; while females tend

to use more nonconfrontational behaviors such as lying, running away, substance abuse

and prostitution.

Subtypes of Conduct Disorder are provided based on age at onset (Childhood-

Onset Type and Adolescent-Onset Type) and differ in nature of the presenting problems

(mild, moderate, or severe form). Childhood-Onset Type is defined by the onset of at

least one of the characteristics before age 10. Adolescent-Onset Type is defined by the

absence of any criteria characteristic before age 10. Severity specifiers range from

relatively minor harm to others (mild) to considerable harm to others (severe). Table 2-1

describes the diagnostic criteria of Conduct Disorder.








Table 2-1
Diagnostic Criteria for Conduct Disorder (DSM-IV. 1994)


A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others
or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated, as manifested by the
presence of three (or more) of the following criteria in the past 12 months, with at
least one criterion present in the past 6 months.

Aggression to people and animals
Often bullies, threatens, or intimidates others
Often initiates physical fights
Has used a weapon that can cause serious physical harm to others (e.g., a
brick, bat, broken bottle, knife, gun)
Has been physically cruel to people
Has been physically cruel to animals
Has stolen while confronting a victim (e.g., mugging, purse snatching,
extortion, armed robbery)
Has forced someone into sexual activity

Destruction of property
Has deliberately engaged in fire setting with the intention of causing serious
damage
Has deliberately destroyed others' property (other than by fire setting)

Deceitfulness or theft
Has broken into someone else's house, building, or car
Often lies to obtain goods or favors or to avoid obligations (often "cons"
others)
Has stolen items of nontrivial value without confronting a victim (e.g.,
shoplifting, but without breaking and entering; forgery)

Serious violations of rules
Often stays out at nights despite parental prohibitions, beginning before age 13
Has run away from home overnight at least twice while living in parental or
parental surrogate home (or once without returning for a lengthy period)
If often truant from school, beginning before age 13 years

The disturbance in behavior causes clinically significant impairment in social,
academic, or occupational functioning

If the individual is age 18 years or older, criteria are not met for Antisocial
Personality Disorder








Table 2-1 continued

Specify type based on age at onset.
Childhood-Onset Type: onset of at least one criterion characteristic of
ConductDisorder before age 10 years
Adolescent-Onset Type: absence of any criteria characteristic of Conduct
Disorder before age 10 years
Specify severity
Mild: few if any conduct problems in excess of those required to make
the diagnosis and conduct problems cause only minor harm to others
Moderate: number of conduct problems and effect on others intermediate
between "mild" and "severe"
Severe: many conduct problems in excess of those required to make the
diagnosis or conduct problems cause considerable harm to others (pp. 90-91).


Individuals who lack empathy and meet the criteria for Conduct Disorder, have

higher injury rates and are more prone to school expulsion and problems with the law

than are other individuals. Aggressive and violent behavior, vandalism and deliberate

destruction; early tobacco, alcohol, and substance use and abuse; as well as precocious

sexual activity, have the capacity to greatly interfere with school and personal success.

These individuals often have poor relationships with adults and authority figures, rarely

perform at the level predicted by their IQ, and have higher rates of depression, suicidal

thoughts, suicidal attempts, and suicide itself than children without Conduct Disorder

(Shaffer, Fisher, Dulcan, Davies, Piacentini, Schwab-Stone, Lahey, Bourdon, Jensen,

Bird, and Canino,1996b).

Conduct Disorder in 9-to-17 year-olds varies from 1 to 4 %, depending on how

the disorder is defined and its severity (Shaffer, Fisher, Dulcan, Davies, Piacentini,

Schwab -Stone, Lahey, Bourdon, Jensen, Bird, and Canino, and Regier, 1996a). Early

onset of the disorder is seen predominantly in males and appears to be more common in








cities than in rural areas. Between a fourth and half of the children with Conduct

Disorder become antisocial adults (Rutter & Giller, 1984).

Social risk factors for Conduct Disorder include early maternal rejection,

separation from parents with no adequate alternative caregiver, early institutionalization,

family neglect, abuse or violence, parental marital discord, large family size, crowding,

and poverty (Loeber & Stouthamer-Loeber, 1986). The lack of attachment to parents or

family is thought to be one of the main factors leading to the eventual lack of regard for

rules, concern for others, or the rewards of society (Sampson & Laub, 1993).

Increasing emotional ties between parent and child may be an appropriate

intervention, as well as working with high-risk children on social interaction skills.

Providing academic help to reduce school failure can help prevent some of the negative

educational consequences of Conduct Disorder (Johnson & Brechenridge, 1982).

Need to Educate for Empathy

Education today must be that which meets the needs of diverse ethnic heritage,

widely different intellectual capacities, physical difference, and interest difference. Need

for care and empathy in our present culture is acute. Adolescents feel uncared for in

schools and in need for special relation (Noddings, 1992). Noddings, a leading authority

on character education, suggests that education should be organized around centers of

care where each individual feels cared for and where each individual learns to care for

other human beings. It is her contention that education should produce caring people,

instead of focussing exclusively on the drive for academic adequacy.

Empathic caring requires cultivation, determination, and commitment from

educators in order to pass that value on to students. To educate for empathy, awareness








of the consequences of actions toward other people and all life forms must be made

explicit Responsibility for suffering and insistence on justice for all people, opens hearts

to victims of violence, prejudice, and injustice. Empathy is a way of being. It is a self-

sustained awareness of self and others. Breggin (1997) summarizes the consequences of

increasing empathy in self and others:


Empathy is a force; it can motivate us to take stands on behalf of all sentient
beings- everyone and everything that thinks or feels. If more of us allowed
ourselves a full measure of empathy, women would find themselves treated as
equals, men and women would stop humiliating each other, child abuse would
end, racism would vanish, and definitive steps would be taken to end hunger,
poverty, and inadequate medical care. The planet we live on would become
safer from exploitation. (p. 126)


Batson (1991) hypothesized that empathy, due to intrinsic other-orientated

motivation, is likely to lead to other-oriented, altruistic helping behavior. It was found

that when people experience empathy, they infer that they value the welfare of persons in

need (Batson, Batson, Todd, & Brummett, 1995), and develop more positive attitudes

toward members of oppressed groups (Batson, Polycarpou, Harmon-Jones, Imhoff,

Mitchener, Bednar, Klein, & Highberber, 1997). Thus, individuals who have the capacity

to experience empathy would be relatively likely to assist other people, including

members of oppressed or stigmatized groups. Increased empathy would seem to be a

goal of early intervention for school and societal violence as well as for early and late

onset of Conduct Disorder in children and adolescents.

Problems Associated With Levels of Control

Literature on locus of control contrasts characteristics of internal locus of control

with external locus of control. Rotter (1966) emphasized that distinctions are made

depending upon whether or not the individual perceives a relationship between behavior








and what happens in their life. In his theory, a person's actions are predicted on the basis

of values, expectations, and the situation in which the individual finds him or herself.

The location of the locus of control construct is determined in the freedom of

movement, or obtaining positive satisfaction as a result of a set of related behaviors

directed toward a group of functionally related reinforcements. An individual has low

freedom of movement if he or she has a high expectancy of failure or punishment as a

result of his or her behaviors with which the individual tries to obtain the reinforcements

that constitute a particular need. High freedom of movement is generalized expectancy

of success resulting from the ability to remember and reflect upon specific expectancy

behavior or outcome sequences (Lefcourt, 1976).

Perceived control is a generalized expectancy for internal as opposed to external

control reinforcements. Expectancy of internal versus external control of reinforcement

involves a causal analysis of success and failure. The generalized expectancy of internal

control refers to the perception of events as being a consequence of one's own actions

and therefore are perceived as potentially under personal control. Individuals who

perceive that events are unrelated to one's own behavior and therefore beyond personal

control have an external locus of control (Rotter, 1966).

Kelman and Lawrence (1972) conducted a survey that linked locus of control with

responsibility attribution that may have bearing on the link between external locus of

control and the propensity to initiate violent behavior. In their study, a sample of

Americans were questioned about the trial of Lieutenant Calley, the officer in charge of a

platoon of men who were given orders to kill each and every person in the village of My

Lai, including infants, children, women, and the elderly. According to their findings,








resistance to orders and the acceptance of responsibility when one is compliant to them

derives from the individual's maintenance of a framework of personal causation and the

ability to differentiate or asses the quality of demand made upon that individual. This

concept is important when considering negative peer pressure and linking locus of control

to influence resistance to violence and aggression.

Johnson and Gormly (1972) conducted a study that provided some support for the

link between locus of control and resistance to temptation. Fifth grade boys and girls

were classified as cheaters and non-cheaters on the basis of a behavioral test A

significant difference on Crandall's IAR scale was obtained and showed that female

students who cheated were more external that their non-cheating peers. Male students

had results in the same direction.

Midlarski (1971) found that individuals who were more internal on locus of

control were more likely to help another individual than were externals, despite the fact

that they were penalized for doing so. Internals seem to be more tolerant of discomfort in

doing what they consider to be correct than are the externals. In a similar study of

Johnson, Ackerman, Frank, and Fionda (1968), subjects had to make the choice between

resisting pressures to commit immoral acts and suffering ostracism, loneliness, and other

psychological stressors. Internals tolerated pain for actively doing what they considered

correct, while they expressed a willingness to risk social rejection for maintaining what

they construed as proper behavior. These studies support the hypothesis that when an

individual believes that he or she is the responsible agent of the outcomes of his or her

own life, he or she will resist influences that aim to bypass the individual's sense of








moral justice. The individual with internal locus of control is more likely to respond only

to those appeals that address themselves to his or her own beliefs and values.

The concept of deferred gratification in relationship to locus of control may also

have some bearing on the rise of violent and aggressive behaviors. Bialer (1961)

conducted the first empirical study supporting the connection between locus of control

and the ability to defer gratification. He found that deferred gratification was associated

with internal locus of control since internals are better able to maintain the tension

associated with delays than externals. Externals decline to postpone immediately

available pleasures for distant goals when daily events occur. Distant goals require the

sacrifice of immediate pleasure. This inability to defer gratification could conceivable

account for shoplifting, theft, or even perpetration of violence against other individuals.

The external desires immediate gratification to fulfill his wants and needs.

Locus of control has also been correlated with time-related measures (Platt &

Eisenman, 1968). They found that internals have a longer future time perspective than do

externals, which may account for more risk taking behaviors that are associated with

Conduct Disorder and other behavioral disorders that often include violence and

aggression. Related to that study was a study of suicide by Melges and Weisz (1971).

Their findings indicated that increases in suicide ideation were associated with more

negative evaluation of the personal future and with less internal control. A negative

outlook for the future and external control expectancies were associated with each other

and with suicide ideation.

Researchers have attempted to use locus of control to understand difficulties in

psychological functioning in regard to persons who are emotionally disturbed, learning








disabled, and delinquent Duke and Mullens (1973) found that hospitalized

schizophrenics were more external than hospitalized non-schizophrenics. The

relationship between externality and abnormality has been also shown with alcoholics

(Nowicki & Hopper, 1974). Emotionally disturbed children in residential treatment were

found to be more external in their locus of control (Nelson, Finch, Montgomery, &

Bristow, 1974).

Externality is also associated with subjects with identified learning problems

(Hallahan, Gajar, Cohen, & Tarver, 1978). Nowicki (1981) found that children become

more internal with age, contrary to the findings for learning disabled children. This

suggests that increasing externality may result from the compounding of frustration and

helplessness in children with learning problems over time.

Juvenile delinquency as well as learning disabilities seem to be positively

associated with externality (Duke & Fenhagen, 1975). Beck and Ollendick (1975)

reported that while the overall level of locus of control is more external for the

delinquents, within the delinquent group itself some appear to be more internal. Those

delinquents who are more internal appear to engage in more positive behavior than do

their external peers. Similar to the normal population, delinquents became more internal

as a result of treatment or rehabilitation programs (Eitzen, 1974; Gaar, 1981).

Problems associated with locus of control seem to be linked with the dimension of

externality. Persons with an external locus of control are less successfidul in coping with

stressful situations than are individuals who generally believe that they are in control of

the events of their lives (Krause, 1987). To summarize, those problems include: low

influence resistance; low resistance to temptation; inability to tolerate discomfort while








helping another individual; low ability to defer gratification; short future time

perspective; high suicide ideation; and negative future outlook. Persons who are

emotionally disturbed, who have learning disabilities, and those who are delinquent are

more likely to have an external locus of control.

Problems Associated with the Risk of Violence

The shootings that took place at Columbine High School have brought into focus

the rising levels of violence that are occurring in many schools across the country.

Young people are inundated by the glorification of violence in the media as portrayed on

television, movies, video games, and in popular music. The problem of violence poses

great concerns about the psychological well-being of children, adolescents, and adults.

A recent article in the Journal of Counseling & Development examines the social

context of bullying behaviors in early adolescents. According to Espelage, Bosworth,

and Thomas (2000), bullying behaviors can create serious consequences for both the

victim and the perpetrator. The entire climate of a school can be affected by unchecked

threats and intimidation. Bullies are more at risk of becoming physically abusive as

adults and of having a criminal record.

Bandura (1973, 1986) contended that the external environment contributes to

acquiring and maintaining aggressive behaviors. Children learn from peers and adults to

use aggressive means to achieve their goals. Aggression, which is the antecedent of

violence, has been found to also be associated with peer rejection and peer pressure (The

American Teacher, 1999), degree of drug use in adolescence, and adolescent delinquency

(U. S Department of Justice, 1991). Adult criminality such as abuse, neglect, and other

negative behaviors perpetrated toward youth also exacerbates youth violence.








About 10 % of all 1992 high school seniors reported that they did not feel safe at

school while 23 % reported that there were often fights between different racial/ethnic

groups (U.S. Department of Education, Digest of Education Statistics 1999). In 1996,

students ages 12 through 18 were victims of nearly 255,000 incidents of nonfatal serious

violent crime at school. About 671,000 such crimes took place away from school (U.S.

Department of Education, 1998).

Teachers as well as students are at risk for experiencing violence in the schools.

From 1992 to 1996, teachers were victims of 1,581,000 nonfatal crimes at school,

including 962,000 thefts and 619,000 violent crimes including rape, sexual assault,

robbery, aggravated and simple assault (U.S. Department of Education, 1998).

In 1998, 1,598 children under the age of 18 were murdered (U.S. Department of

Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1998). Although school associated violent

deaths have decreased in recent years, multiple victim homicides in schools have

increased (U. S. Department of Education & U. S. Department of Justice, 1999). 1,470

children under the age of 18 were arrested for murder in 1998; 3,769 were arrested for

rape; 51,360 adolescents were arrested for aggravated assault; and 32,232 young people

under the age of 18 were arrested for having weapons in 1998 (U.S. Department of

Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1998).

Numerous social and environmental stressors impact the propensity for youth

violence. Among other factors include a growing diversity of K-12 student enrollment

All of the school shootings that have occurred over the past several years have been

perpetrated by white male students from middle class and suburban backgrounds.

Factors were evident that cultural-racial factors were implicit in the Columbine tragedy as








Harris and Klebold explicitly stated that they intended to shoot as many non-white

students as they could during their killing spree (Daniels, Arrendondo, &

D'Andrea, 1999). The media also explored the possibility that Christian students were

targeted by the two killers.

Students are finding easy access to hate groups that are involved in racist

behavior. The Southern Poverty Law Center identified 537 hate groups in 1997 (Daniels,

Arrendondo, & D'Andrea, 1999). Groups such as these are experiencing large increases

due to the primary recruiting tool that is provided by the internet.

Tensions from the lack of empathic understanding and the kinds of racial

problems that have been embedded in our consciousness as a nation, are likely to surface

as schools become more culturally diverse. The nation is shifting from a country that is

composed of a majority of persons who come from white European backgrounds to one

of a majority of individuals who are non-white and non-European. In 1997, the diversity

of the enrollment of K-12 students in the United States was 17.0% Black; 14.4%

Hispanic; 3,9% Asian American/Pacific Islander; 1.2% American Indian; 36.5% Non-

White; and 63.5% White (U.S. Department of Education, 1999). To add to the

imbalance, teachers are overwhelmingly represented by White females (84.7%).

Other problems associated with violence in our schools include sexual and gender

violence. Gays, lesbians, and women are devalued by our society. The National Health

and Education Consortium reports that every 12 seconds in the United States a woman is

battered (Daniels, Arredondo, & D'Andrea, 1999). Gays are being beaten and murdered

in our society and devalued often times in the schools.








Poverty promotes forms of personal violence. Poverty is suffered by 13,467,000

children in our country that renders them vulnerable to economic, educational, physical,

psychological and social problems (U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the

Census, 1998). Dignity and self-worth are eroded away, leaving individuals frustrated

and poised to react from the tension with sometimes violent and aggressive behaviors.

Combating the problem of school violence is a monumental task. Schools are

approaching the tide of violence by having zero tolerance policies for serious offenses, by

formal violence prevention and/or violence reduction programs, and by incorporating

conflict management, social skills training, counseling and other therapeutic activities

into the school curriculum. The reality is however, that to accomplish violence

prevention strategies in schools, more counselors and facilitators are needed to do the

work. According to Guerra (1998), there are approximately 90,000 school counselors

working in the U.S. public schools, with an average counselor-to-student ration of 517:1.

President Clinton joined with the U.S. Conference of Mayors that has called for the hiring

of 100,000 new school counselors. With that addition the ratio of counselor-to- students

would decrease to 250:1 (Guerra, 1998).

Still another problem engendered by the risk of violence in schools is the nature

and role of assessment. "The School Shooter," a 52-page study commissioned by the

FBI, backed by the Critical Incident Response Group, and the National Center for the

Analysis of Violent Crime, has been released (Simmons, 2000). The report presents a

four-part assessment tool for use by educators and counselors to identify children and

teens who may be on the edge of violent behavior. Counselors and educators have voiced

concerns about the instrument and according to Simmons (2000), cautions are being








sounded about responsible use of the instrument and the possible harm that could cause

for students who have been identified according to the "The School Shooter."

History of the Therapeutic Aspects of Art Processes

According to psychoanalytic theory, "men naturally create symbols because of the

human mental equipment they inherit" (Feldman, 1970, p. 150). Victor Lowenfeld

(1957), pioneer of art education in his classic Creative and Mental Growth, captured the

essence of the instinctual need and drive that humans have for creative expression:

One of these intrinsic qualities is that every human being is endowed
with a creative spirit. Soon after birth he begins to investigate and
explore the use of his ability for new adventures. New findings in
psychology consider this one of the "basic drives" a drive without
which we cannot exist; the ability to create is probably what distinguishes
man most from animals. (p. 432-433)


Since ancient times, man has resorted to the creative processes for spiritual and

emotional healing and as an avenue for transcendence above the psychic pain wrought by

the struggles and challenges of life. As man moved beyond cave paintings and began

creating art for everyday use, ceremonial use, ritual use, and art as a form of

communication with the spirits, art became infused with meaning. The artist's

involvement with the material took on the form of a magical and spiritual union. The

body, mind, and spirit forces of the external world in relationship to the unconscious and

conscious man created the healing elements in primitive art. The connection between art,

the psyche, the body and the spirit were completely fused in the life of the primitive man

and greatly linked to his psychological well-being.

Ernst Harms, founder and former editor of the International Journal ofArt

Psychotherapy, studied the history of the healing effects of arts by tracing back to biblical








sources which describe how King Saul urged David to cure his depression by playing the

harp (Harms, 1975).

In 1925, Nolan C. Lewis used free painting with adult neurotics as a modality for

healing (Naumburg, 1947). And as early as 1915, Margaret Naumburg, founder of the

Walden School, wrote about her awareness of the relationship between children's

drawings and psychotherapy as she became convinced that free art expression

represented a symbolic form of speech that was basic to all education (Naumburg, 1947).

Under the direction of Nolan C. Lewis, Naumburg initiated an experimental research

program in the use of spontaneous art in therapy with behavior-problem children at New

York State Psychiatric Unit Her prolific writing and seminars spearheaded growing

interest in the field of art as therapy and stimulated mental health professionals and

educators to question and explore the possibilities of art as a therapeutic tool.

Early practitioners of psychoanalysis recognized the value of creative processes

for mental health. Jung (1956) encouraged patients to draw in spontaneous fashion their

innermost feelings and fantasies. "Art was perceived as a revealing and healing activity

by a number of pioneering psychiatrists early in this century" (Vondracek & Corneal,

1995, p. 294). Jung saw art and symbolic creations as a key to the unconscious and

collective unconscious.

Elinor Ulmon, an art educator, trained under Naumburg and added significant

impetus to the development of art as a therapeutic modality. In 1961, she published the

first issue of the Bulletin ofArt Therapy, which continues to be a major publication in the

field. The American Art Therapy Association was officially launched in 1969 with the








goal of art therapy as "help for the individual child or adult to find a more compatible

relationship between his inner and outer worlds" (Corsini, 1981, p.3).

Although the healing and empowering qualities of the creative processes have

been established historically, contemporary use of art as a therapeutic medium has been

received with some criticism. Difficulties arise because managed care has created time

constraints and the need for empirical research. As revealed by numerous case studies,

counseling strategies that employ creative processes have been proven successful with a

wide variety of populations but these methods are difficult to quantify and to produce

measurable outcomes, often requiring more time than brief therapy permits. Vondracek

and Corneal (1995) contend that the nature of the creative experience of producing art is

subjective and perhaps the quantitative methods of research are inadequate or

inappropriate for understanding and evaluating art processes.

Sheppard (1994) studied art processes as healing forces that bring about

"harmony of body, mind, and spirit" (p.103). As a nurse and artist, Sheppard conducted a

qualitative investigation of nurses across the country who answered the question of

"where do we go when we wish to heal ourselves or when we want to re-create

ourselves?" Interviews and written questionnaires formed the basis for this

phenomenological study that produced unanimous response to the notion of art as a

healing force. Sheppard's research involved talk about the healing power of art in the

lives of the nurses who were interviewed as well as in their practices with clients. She

concluded through the study that: (1) Art heals by empowering the individual to bring

forth something from nothing. Suffering is often turned into creative energy, bringing the

creator in touch with personal power through the artistic act. (2) Art heals by offering








individuals a way to understand their deeper selves, by contacting the beauty of

expression of our inner natures. And (3) art heals in a direct fashion when used as a

therapeutic tool, through images and symbols that can enact physical healing.

Dossey, Guzzetta, and Kenner (1985) studied how patients could draw their

disease processes with simple crayons and paper. By combining art with relaxation and

imagery, patients drew healing images. Music and relaxation was researched with

coronary care patients. They reported that they felt better and had fewer complications

than did the control group or relaxation alone group.

The Arts in Medicine movement has reestablished the age-old connection

between body-mind-and spirit "For the nurse or physician in the medical center, art and

healing involves observing how thoughts, emotions, and images change the body. As we

make art, we see images. The images involve the firing of neurons in different areas of

the brain" (Samuels & Lane, 1998, p. 82). According to this study, when an individual

produces art, the possibility of a deep sense of joy or the release of tension, stimulates the

healing state of the body to engage. The hypothalamic pathways of the parasympathetic

nervous system send messages to the cells. A chemical change also takes place in the

brain. The hypothalamus sends messages to the adrenal glands to release endorphins and

neurotransmitters release endorphins, which can relieve pain and make the immune

system more effective. "The endorphins are like opiates, or mind-altering drugs, and they

make a person feel expanded, connected, at one, relaxed, vibrating, tingling, at peace"

(Samuels & Lane, 1998, p. 85). This physiological phenomenon has a positive effect on

the perception of well-being and mental health. Emotional burdens and burnout can be

relieved by engaging in art processes. When an individual creates symbols of internal







experiences, meanings that can be understood by a therapist can be discussed and the

client feels affirmed (Linesch, 1993).

The use of art can enhance the expression of fantasy, which can be a source of

satisfaction and accomplishment, according to Oster and Gould (1987). "By graphically

representing some of these feelings, clients bring them out in the open, confront them,

and learn to gain control over them. When this has been achieved, individuals in therapy

can then begin to feel more in control emotionally, which makes it easier to think for

themselves and gain a better sense of identity" (p. 64).

Moon (1994) cites additional intrinsic healing qualities of art that can promote

healing and mental health: (I) Art is existential. Expression leads to mindfulness, which

leads to change/action. (2) The arts are authentic modes of communication where stories

of selihood can be safely told. (3) Art is soul and from the depths of human experience,

creative processes make meaning visible and concrete. (4) Art is mastery and facilitates a

link with self-discipline, which is bound to self-regard. (5) Images produced by an

individual are living metaphors that invite reverence and respect. (6) Expressive

processes are empowering:

The empowering nature of art therapy is found in its capacity
to accept and embrace distress, not in its desire to rid the patient
of it. The arts bring our deepest fear, loneliness, and anguish to our
attention. Rather than 'cure' these discomforting aspects of life,
art therapy enables the persons to live with them courageously and
with meaning. (Moon, 1994, p. 146)


(7) Art is play-dynamic, sensual, mysterious, filled with fantasy and provides a safe

atmosphere for expression of emotions. And finally, (8) art is relationship because it

engages people with self and others and provides a structure for chaos.








Wadeson (1980) proposed that the creative experience allows one to escape

oneself in a kind of transcendent process that induces the feeling of being part of a more

universal experience than the unique condition of one's own life. She suggested that a

profound understanding of oneself is obtained through that integration, which in itself can

be extremely healing. In essence, art processes are therapeutic by changing ones

physiology and attitude.

Art Education in the Schools

Art education in the schools was pioneered by Victor Lowenfeld (1957), whose

publication of the Eighth Edition of Creative and Mental Growth in 1987,27 years after

his death, is a tribute to the vitality of the author's ideas on art education. His basic

philosophy was to develop in every human being the uppermost potential creative ability.

Lowenfeld lectured at Harvard and Columbia from 1939 to 1946 and became a member

of the faculty of the Pennsylvania State University, where he remained until his death in

1960. There he established the first major center for doctoral research and study in art

education. His writings and teachings have rendered him the most influential figure in

American art education.

Lowenfeld's work contributed to the description and analysis of the evolution of

children's art through a series of developmental stages. The description of these stages

remains a valuable tool for every art teacher and art therapist today (Ulman, 1987).

Lowenfeld stressed the importance of nonvisual (bodily) experience as a resource for

expression. In addition, he stressed the use of creative activity as a means of self-

realization and stressed the establishment of rapport between teacher and student as of

great importance. "The establishment of rapport depends greatly on the teacher's ability

to identify himself with his case, to put himself in his place" (Lowenfeld, 1957).








This feeling of empathy is one of the most important prerequisites, according to

Lowenfeld (1957).

Lowenfeld's monumental chapter on "Therapeutic Aspects of Art Education" that

appeared in the Third Edition (1957) assists art educators today in clarifying problems in

the schools through analyzing the extreme cases that he brought forward in this work.

The influence of the broadening effect of art on the development of speech, the relieving

effect of creative activity upon our emotions, and the influence on our mental growth has

been demonstrated by mentally defective subjects whose rigid patterns were difficult to

change, but nevertheless, changed. Lowenfeld's work further impacts contemporary art

education in the schools by confirming that through improving sensory experiences, self

concept is elevated, tension is alleviated, and the self gains contact and connection with

the environment.

Fowler (2000) of the Getty Foundation, contends that when we have strong arts

programs in the schools, we have strong schools. According to Fowler (2000), "The arts

humanize the curriculum while affirming the interconnectedness of all forms of

knowing" (p. 1). Art in the schools teaches divergent thinking and encourages students to

come up with different answers rather than ingrained learned responses. Creative

problem solving that is encouraged by the arts, invites student participation in the

learning process instead of telling them how to think. Art engages the minds of students

and encourages them to sort out alternatives through the medium of expression. Critical

thinking, analysis, and judgment are all involved in engagement with the creative

process. Art is an engaging way to learn and fosters independent thinking, which is the

basis of creativity.








Art education in the schools is a way to bridge the individual to a broader culture.

It is a basic way by which individuals define who they are. Taylor (1999) forges a link

between the performing artists and art educators by encouraging the aptitude of creating

the capacity for imagining something that does not exist which in turn fosters empathy.

"Empathy for others factor into understanding yourself and feeling connected to your

own kind and the broader your empathy is, the greater your ability to interact with people

from more diverse backgrounds. The arts are about, for, and by all of us" (Taylor, 1999,

p. 10). The arts in schools put students in touch with their own and other people's

feelings. The arts develop capacity for compassion and humaneness. In concert with

Taylor, Fowler (2000) of the Getty foundation contends that it is not intellect that

connects us to other people; it is feeling. The arts give us a means for communicating

human essence and serve as ways we can identify with those who live with us on our

planet. The arts teach respect.

Art in schools serves as language. Murray Sidlin, conductor of the New Haven

Symphony, is cited by Boyer (2000):

When words are no longer adequate, when our passion is greater
than we are able to express in a usual manner, people turn to art.
Some people go to the canvas to paint; some stand up and dance.
But we all go beyond our normal means of communicating and this
is the common human experience for all people on this planet.
(Boyer, 2000. p. 1)

Art education is basic according to Boyer (2000) because it expands language. The arts

are languages that reach all people at their deepest most essential level. The quality of a

civilization is often measured by the breadth of the symbols it uses.

Art education plays an important role in the school curricula: the release of

students' imaginations (Greene, 1995) and to reveal in a visual sense the students' beliefs








about themselves, their roles and their place in society. Willis and Schubert (1991)

perceive art education as a powerful way for students to explore their world, know

themselves, and become better human beings. Miller (2000) contends that there is

"mounting evidence that suggests that the study of the arts actually increases the growth

of neural pathways, aids in improving memory, and promotes creative problem solving"

(p.75). The arts in schools are important to every discipline (Amrnstine, 1990; 1995;

Collins, 1995; Eisner, 1991; Greene, 1995; Harste, 1994).

The inclusion of character education in art education is one proactive response to

the condition of the world. The affective curricular focus is aimed toward educational

and social change. Ethnographic studies are conducted exploring socio-political beliefs

students bring to their artwork; working with refugees; teaching students with physical

limitations; issues of success at learning; and the study of folk art as a catalyst for

learning are some of the important issues with which art educators are grappling (Bolin,

1999). One of the thrusts of art education is to raise the people's consciousness, which is

the first step to social change.

Ideas drawn from connective aesthetics (Gablik, 1995) and enlightened listening

(Levin, 1989) are among important issues brought to art education in the schools today.

Feminist pedagogy (Sandell, 1991), including caring, connections, community, modeling,

dialogue, practice and confirmation (Noddings, 1984, 1992) are examined through action

research projects by art educators and artists (Irwin, Crawford, Mastri, Neale, Robertson,

& Stephenson, 1997). Art teachers are employing deconstructionist practices as

reconstructionist curriculum in order to educate students to be attentive to nuance (Gude,

2000).







Art education in the schools provides a proactive approach to prevention of drop-

outs (Unsworth, 1990) and the development of empathy (Stout, 1999) by forging a caring

connection between teacher and student. Rather than being the information giver, the art

teacher becomes a facilitator who takes a more empathic approach. A moral-cognitive

approach to education has its foundation in the arts where students' thoughts and feelings

can be turned toward imaginative exploration. Through aesthetic experience, students

can live new experiences and move beyond the limitations of self
karg Group Develomnnal Guidanc and hIntrvnions

Large group developmental guidance is a parsimonious and facilitative attempt to

reach large numbers of students through proactive and preventative interventions planned

around a series of lessons that are part of an organized guidance curriculum (Myrick,

1993). Large group guidance is supported by many in the literature as a means of coping

with the growing numbers in counselor student loads (Borders & Drury, 1992; Corey,

1995; and Praport 1993). Counselors become available to greater numbers of students

through large group counseling units (May & Housley, 1996; Phillips & Phillips, 1992).

Strong support exists for the effectiveness of large group guidance interventions (Prout &

Prout, 1998).

Before counselors were employed in the schools, students were dependent upon

classroom teachers to help with any personal, social, or career-related issues. As

developmental guidance became instituted throughout our schools, counseling and

guidance curriculum has been designed to enhance personal, social, vocational, and

academic growth of the student "The primary goal is to help students learn more

effectively and efficiently" (Myrick, 1993, p. 1).








The Developmental Model of Guidance and Counseling

Since human development occurs in stages over time, the developmental guidance

approach is based on the rationale that the developmental process can be enhanced.

Planned, age-appropriate educational interventions are developed that help students

acquire knowledge, basic skills, self awareness, and attitudes necessary for successful

mastery of normal developmental tasks essential for effective functioning and happiness

(Borders & Drury, 1992; Wittmer, 1993). Personal services are offered to students

through the developmental guidance curriculum in which life skills are identified and

emphasized as a part of helping to prepare students for adulthood. The guidance

curriculum is complementary to the academic curriculum (Myrick, 1993).

The developmental model gives students the opportunity to investigate problems

that they might encounter in their personal development in advance of onset.

Developmental guidance interventions are often focused on helping students understand

themselves and others. Developmental guidance counselors assist students in making the

connection between thinking, feelings, and behaviors so they can make responsible

choices while understanding their own and others' feelings.

The opportunity for learning about self and others is an essential part of the

organized curriculum of developmental guidance. Skills that are learned around this

basic premise enhance the total learning experience of the student Caring conditions that

promote the respect and dignity in an environment of positive interpersonal interaction

support the developmental model. Conditions of caring, understanding, acceptance,

respect, and trustworthiness are among the values that are promoted by developmental








guidance and have been cited as most desirable in a helping relationship (Carkhuff&

Berenson, 1967; Rogers, 1957).

Among the goals that most characterize the developmental guidance and

counseling model are: (1) understanding the school environment; (2) understanding self

and others; (3) understanding attitudes and behavior; (4) decision making and problem

solving; (5) interpersonal and communications skills; (6) school success skills; (7) career

awareness and educational planning; and (8) community pride and involvement (Myrick,

1993).

Large Group Guidance Interventions

Prevention, human growth and development, study skills, social skills, making

friends, conflict resolution, college and careers choices are examples of large group

developmental guidance units. Units are planned and outlined with a specific number of

sessions, usually between six and eight class period sessions.

Activities that engage the students in experiential learning and promote both

cognitive and affective domains are included in the session planning. These types of

activities that utilize multiple learning styles and intelligence (Gardner, 1993) and which

have a feeling-focus (Wittmer & Myrick, 1989) are those which have the most

fimdamental psychological basis for learning. Art activities, metaphors, games, magic,

humor, literature, role playing, and creative writing are examples of experiential

activities.

Many reasons are cited in the literature for the efficacy of group-work that apply

to large group developmental guidance. Reasons for using group-work can be

summarized as follows: (1) Social learning is largely done in groups; therefore group-

work provides a relevant context for practice. (2) People with similar needs can provide








mutual support for each other, and help with mutual problem solving. (3) Group

members can learn from the feedback from other members. (4) Group members can try

new roles, from seeing how others react, and can be supported and reinforced.

(5) Groups can be catalysts for developing latent resources and abilities. (6) Groups are
more suitable for certain individuals, e.g., those who find the intimacy of individual work
too intense. And (7) groups can be more democratic, sharing power and responsibility
(Leibman, 1986).

Art Processes in School and Counseling Literature

Hoffman and Lamme (1989), authors of the book Learning from the Inside Out,

express the commitment of the inclusion of the expressive arts within the educational

curriculum. Children make connections between unfamiliar ideas and their own lived-

through experience in order to find personal meaning in new information. This is the

process of learning from the inside. It is the contention of these authors that expressive

arts contribute significantly to learning, while fostering divergent thinking, the

development of the imagination, and self and other awareness. Creative modalities are

powerful connections that join cognitive and affective experiences. According to these

scholars, the creative arts make curriculum come alive, giving meaning and value to the

learning experience.

Cochran (1996) utilized play and art therapy to help culturally diverse students

overcome barriers to school success. Citing Axline (1947) and Oaklander (1978) as

pioneers in the field of play, art is seen as a component of play. Axline (1947) defined

the significance of play and play therapy this way:

Play therapy is based upon the fact that play is the child's natural
medium of self-expression. It is an opportunity which is given to
the child to "play out" his [or her] feelings and problems just as,
in certain types of adult therapy, an individual "talks out" his [or her]
difficulties. (p.9)








Play and art are both healing and growth oriented processes. Using expressive art

in school counseling activities gives the student the opportunity to work symbolically

through confusions, anxieties, and conflicts (Cochran, 1998).

Hill and Tollerud (1996) infused art and creative experiences in group counseling

for restoring dignity to at-risk youth. The authors defined dignity as "a perception of

respect and competence that allows a person to feel valued, to be authentic, to grow and

learn, and to value and care about others" (p.122). Hill and Tollerud advocated the use of

art as a valuable part of restoring personal dignity that affects one's ability to interact

peacefully with others. Creativity and self-expression are facilitated by the counselor

who encourages students to write, keep a journal, draw, work with clay, and experiment

with other artistic endeavors. Dignity is enhanced by creative experiences because they

foster self-worth (Brown, 1971) and link students to their own uniqueness.

Kahn (1999) encouraged the school counselor to use arts-based interventions with

adolescents. Issues of self-esteem, behavior, and interventions focused on alcohol use

and abuse are among those addressed in this practical and empowering model of

counseling.

Chochran (1998) advocated the use of art and play (Child Centered Play Therapy)

to promote the counseling relationship in order to facilitate change in students with

conduct disorder. Art and play provide safe and appropriate means of expressing intense

feelings that might otherwise be expressed through violent and aggressive ways.

Parker (1999) incorporated art in both counseling and consultation interventions

as a means for building in rituals into family dynamics. This author advocated ritual as a

means of understanding personal significance and roles in relation to others. Ritual gives







security, structure, and meaning to the individual's life and enriches the family

experience. By drawing symbols (Jung, 1970; May, 1991) to express meaning for family

or to encapsulate precious family experiences, powerful lingering memories are made.

Symbolic action can be especially effective in conveying abstract concepts such as love,

unity, and forgiveness which are all empowering qualities that enhance both the success

of the family and the personal, educational, and social success of the individual.

Creativity and humor are important elements in the enhancement of student

resilience according to Parr, Montgomery, and DeBell (1998). These authors contend

that "Resilience can be manifested in and nurtured by creativity. The creative arts

provide an outlet for students to express their feelings, to work out their issues, and to

explore life. Creative problem solving often opens up new possibilities, clearing the way

for alternative solutions never considered before" (p.27).

Omizo, Omizo, and Kitaoka (1999) utilized art and guided affective and cognitive

imagery to enhance the self-esteem among Hawaiian children in a public elementary

school. Among the issues effectively addressed in this study through art and guided

visualization were: problem solving, self-defeating behaviors, self-affirmation, family,

relaxation, self-esteem, and enhancement of the imagination. A MANOVA on the

posttest dependent measures revealed significant differences between experimental and

control groups on general self-esteem and on academic/school-related self-esteem.

The importance of the use of the arts in therapy and counseling for Native

Americans was discussed by Dufrene and Coleman (1994). These authors advise that

any counseling orientation or approach is usually recognized as an intrusion by Native

Americans, and strongly suggest acknowledgment of spirituality and art in the Native








culture with Native clients. The authors contend that since Native Americans regard art

and ritual as an element of life, the counselor and educator should consider investigation

of dance, poetry, and the plastic and graphic arts as possibility for inclusion in the

counseling intervention.

Hayes (2000) wrote about the power of artistic expression to convey life

experiences and to facilitate communication. The author suggested art as a solo approach

to open the door for other psychotherapeutic interventions. Mask-making was cited as an

experiential activity that helps individuals that have been institutionalized. According to

Hayes (2000), masks can assist individuals who are depressed, who have personality

disorders, or who are abusing drugs to reclaim their identity. Artistic expression is often

the first step in involving institutionalized individuals in treatment

Sabol-Grinberg (2000) reviewed an author's attempt to help people connect

through the healing arts. Among those that were mentioned are dance, art, music, and

creative writing. "Expressions can be an image or a series of images- not necessarily

words. Just as music facilitates emotion, so does art" (Sabol-Grinberg, 2000, p.11).

Visual arts provide a non-threatening approach for children and adolescents to

express innermost thoughts, feelings and ideas (Geldard & Geldard, 1999). By drawing a

picture, young persons can externalize thoughts or feelings, and by placing themselves in

the picture, he or she can be observed as separate from self. This allows one to reframe,

and adjust attitudes, feelings, and beliefs, and reintegrate those cognitions into

consciousness. Art in therapy or group counseling experiences can assist one in working

through conflicting ideas and feelings; exploration of feelings; development of insight;

exploration of family relationships, and identification of themes. Art assists in








relationship building between counselor and client and is a natural symbolic language

that enhances personal meaning and sense of self.

Teachers As Facilitators

ACA guidelines recommend that schools should have one counselor for every 250

students. Currently, the average ratio is an average of 513 students to one counselor

(Guerra & Schmidt, 1999). Although counselors are trained to work with the many

problems that are facing our youth today, it impossible for counselors to forge a caring

connection with each individual student that can make a difference for them personally,

socially, emotionally, and cognitively.

Counselors are bridging the gap by training teachers in facilitative techniques and

stressing the infusion of affect in the school environment. To assist in providing this

caring connection for all students, more emphasis is being placed upon cooperation,

communication, and collaboration. Affect within the school setting can be thought of as

personal awareness, creative behavior, interpersonal understanding (within and across

groups), affect in teaching styles and methods, and affect as experienced with adult

models. Affect enters the curriculum when any experience influences how young people

see themselves, the world around them, and their place in that world (Beane, 1990).

Bemak (2000) discusses the role of the counselor as collaborator who provides in-

service in facilitative methods to classroom teachers. By de-expertizing the school

counselor, the goal of developmental guidance is achieved. "Teachers are the heart of a

schools guidance program. They work directly with students in their classes and student-

teacher relationships influence the school atmosphere" (Myrick, 1993, p. 61). Good

guidance permeates the entire school environment where each individual is respected and

valued.








Davis and Garrett (1998) recommend a proactive approach by counselors to

bridge the gap between counseling and teaching. Because of frequent contact between

students and teachers, students often feel more comfortable talking with a teacher rather

than a counselor about their concerns. Counselors can actually capitalize on this dynamic

by asking teachers to attend initial counseling sessions with students. Teachers add

valuable insight and often achieve a sense of empowerment when they have a close

working relationship with the counselor. "Having them participate in the facilitative

relationship as an expert or mentor only reaffirms their professionalism and expertise as

an educator, as well as giving them a first-hand view of what the school counselor does"

(Davis & Garrett, 1998, p. 55).

Wittmer and Myrick (1989) discuss the powerful impact that a teacher as

facilitator can have on the lives of his or her students. According to these pioneers in the

field of developmental guidance, a teacher who is committed to facilitating learning is

one who is attentive, genuine, understanding, respectful, knowledgeable, and

communicative. In addition, they provide learning situations where learning is personally

meaningful, positive and nonthreatening, self-initiated, self-evaluated, and feeling-

focussed.

Wittmer and Myrick (1989) have collected data from students about teachers who

have had a positive impact Among those qualities of facilitative teachers that are listed

by students are: good listeners, empathic, caring, concerning, genuine, warm, interested,

knowledgeable, trusting, friendly, sense of humor, dynamic, and ability to communicate.

Wittmer and Myrick (1989) express that "If we are to facilitate personal growth, we must

have the ability and the courage to enter into the lives of our students, feeling their








failures, successes, triumphs, and disappointments. We must be willing to share their

hurt and their pride" (p. 19).

The willingness to hold paradox together is the mark of a facilitative teacher.

Action and rest, thought and feeling, tears and laughter are intimate and inseparable

companions (Palmer, 1998). The individual needs both community and solitude; both

relationship and individuality. When individuality splits from community, it is no longer

rich and fulfilling but becomes loneliness and isolation. When community splits from

solitude, it becomes an impersonal crowd rather than a rich network of culture. The

facilitative teacher assists understanding of self and others as the individual develops

within a network of caring, cooperation, and communication.

Art Teacher as Facilitator

The art classroom is a natural environment for the development of understanding

of self and others. Art media naturally dredges up the emotional content of the

unconscious and symbols expressed in artistic expressions are fertile ground for working

through personal issues relating to ideas, beliefs, feelings, and behaviors. In the art

classroom, head is not separated from heart; facts are not separated from feelings; theory

is not separated from practice; and teaching is not separated from learning. Due to the

richly affective content of the art curriculum that links humankind in a web of creative

experience and celebration of diversity, connections are naturally made between self and

medium, self and others, student and teacher.

The art teacher is in the position to be naturally facilitative. The art educator

often looks at teaching as his or her art and the students as the medium. Empathic

understanding is a core concept of art education, infused as a standard of practice in the

curriculum. Benchmarks of standards of practice focus on understanding diversity and








the celebration of cultural contributions to the richness of artistic heritage (Florida

Department of Education, Sunshine State Standards, 2000).

Merle Flannery (1995) in her book Principles of Teaching Art, described the

type of impact that a facilitative and empathic teacher can have on students within the

schools:

The art teacher, as artist of the human soul, has the task of being
a unique living force that unfolds through another living force- the
student There is a dynamism between teacher and student To
develop this dynamism to its full potential, the artist (teacher or
painter) must learn about his or her medium. Knowledge of the
medium, gives the artist the aesthetic power to allow for and to help
themedium become most fully itself. The artist can act through the
medium while at the same time letting it take its own direction.
The medium "gives" itself to the artist and lets itself be formed,
actualizing this particular potential in the hands of a particular
artist. The artist's aesthetic vision and power is able to bring new
form to the medium which would not have been possible without
the particular teacher's unique action (p.237-238).

Palmer (1998) discussed the fact that good teachers facilitativee teachers) possess

a capacity for connectedness. He contended that the connections are not made with

methods but in the heart where intellect and emotion and spirit converge within self. This

space in the heart of the teacher is the crucible where the potential and the truth of each

individual student is encouraged to be heard, to be appreciated, to be celebrated.

According to Palmer (1998), the facilitative teacher reads between the lines and listens to

the voice before it is spoken:

What does it mean to listen to a voice before it is spoken? It means making
space for the other, being aware of the other, paying attention to the other,
honoring the other. It means not rushing to fill our student's silences with
fearful speech of our own and not trying to coerce them into saying things
that we want to hear. It means entering empathically into the student's
world so that he or she perceives you as someone who has the promise of
being able to hear another person's truth. (Palmer, 1998, p.46)













CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a teacher

facilitated large group counseling intervention on locus of control, level of risk of

initiated violence, and level of emotional empathy of high school art students in grades

nine, ten, eleven, and twelve. More specifically, the arts-based intervention focused on

experiential processes that actively engage students in affective, perceptual kinds of

understanding that lead to creative expression and communication as a form of action.

This intervention was aimed at helping students identify their own beliefs, feelings, and

emotions as well as to encourage their active involvement in trying to sense, perceive,

share, and conceptualize another person's manner of experiencing the world. In addition,

this intervention was involved in helping students increase internal resources that assist in

moderating violent behavior by refraining from an empathic point of reference.

Treatment and control groups completed pre-and postmeasures of locus of

control, risk of initiated violence, and emotional empathy. Art teachers were trained as

facilitators prior to delivery of the counseling intervention.
Populaton

The population of interest was ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade art

students from public high schools in north Central Florida. Originally, 7 public high

schools in Alachua County were invited to participate in the study, including 1

Developmental Research School. In addition, 2 high schools in Levy County; 1 high








school in Gilcrest County; and 1 high school in Clay County were invited to participate.

One or two schools from each of the counties agreed to take part in the study, however, 3

dropped out before completion of the intervention and postmeasures.

The resultant sample of participating schools consisted of 1 Developmental

Research School (University of Florida), 2 high schools from Alachua County, and 1

high school from Gilcrest County. The students ranged from ages 14-18 and were from

several racially and economically diverse north central Florida communities.

The population of Alachua County, the largest county in the study, was

approximately 250,000 in 2000. This number includes 55,000 University of Florida

students. Alachua County public schools, as reported by the Florida Department of

Education (2001), had approximately 9,104 students in 7 high schools. Racial and ethnic

makeup of the schools' students included approximately 61% White, 30% African

American 5% Hispanic, 3.5% Asian, and less than 1% Native American/Alaskan Native

students. The breakdown of gender was approximately 50% male and 50% female. Of

those students, 21% received free and reduced lunch.

In those high schools, 37,331 acts of aggression and violence were reported for

the 1999-2000 school year. Of those cases, 70% were perpetrated by males and 30% by

females (Florida Department of Education 2000). Violence may be defined differently

among the schools but districts across the state are probably comparable.

The two Alachua County High Schools that completed the study were Gainesville

High School and Hawthorne High School. Demographically, Gainesville High School

had 1,842 students: 950 females and 892 males. Of those students 1,086 were White; 560

African American; 117 Hispanic; 63 Asian; 2 Native American/Alaskan Native; and 14







Mixed Race students (School Board of Alachua County, phone conversation, May 2001).

The high school population consisted of 52% female students and 48% of male students.

Hawthorne High School had a total of 302 students for the 2000-20001 school

year (School Board of Alachua County, phone conversation, May 2001). Of the students

193 were White; 105 African American; 3 Hispanic; 0 Asian; and 1 Native American.

Gender breakdown was approximately 500% female and 50% male.

P.K. Yonge, the Developmental Research School of the University of Florida, had

418 high school students in the academic year 2000-2001, and a racial and ethnic makeup

of 281 White; 86 African American; 31 Hispanic; 6 Asian; 3 American Indian/ Alaskan

Native students; and 11 Multi-Racial. Gender breakdown consisted of 46% male and

54% female.

Gilcrest County had a population of 9,667 in 2000 (NACO, National Association

of Counties, 2001). Bell High School, another participant in the study, reported having

379 students (Bell High School, phone conversation, May 2001). Bell students were

predominately White with 375 in that category; 2 African American; 2 Hispanic; 0

Asians; 0 Native American/Alaskan Native; and 0 Multi-Racial. Gender breakdown was

50% male and 50 % female.

Statewide demographics are similar to those of Alachua County and those of P.K.

Yonge Developmental Research school with the exception being the African American

and Hispanic populations. African American students state-wide in a district average

26% while the state average for Hispanic students is 17%. Some of Florida's districts in

South Florida have an increased concentration of Hispanic students, which could account

for the increase in mean. Statewide, statistics are probably similar to those in Alachua








County for act of aggression and violence. However, the problem with interpretation of

the numbers stems from definitions of violence which vary from school to school and

district to district.

Limited reports from the schools participating in the study suggest that males are

more likely than females to be involved in incidents of violence and aggression. Data

also suggests that whites are more likely than students of other ethnic or racial categories

to be involved in aggression or violence.
amplig Procedures

Permission to conduct the study was requested of the University of Florida's

Institutional Review Board. Following that approval, the Departments of Research and

Evaluation of the Alachua County, Gilcrest County, Levy County, and Clay County

School Boards were approached for approval to administer the guidance interventions.

Each principal received a copy of the application for research that explained the purpose

of the study, briefly summarized the research design, and projected the amount of time

involved to complete the study. An accompanying letter was sent to the principles and

art teachers (Appendix A). Principals and art teachers decided collaboratively whether or

not to volunteer their school for the study.

Within each school choosing to participate, high school art students were

considered as the target population consisting of students from grades nine, ten, eleven,

and twelve. The teachers' classes were coded. One intact class was randomly assigned

as the experimental group and another class was randomly assigned as the control group.

A letter (Appendix A) was sent to the parents of students in both the experimental and

control groups concerning the nature of the intervention and asking permission to include

their child in the research study. Those students whose parents gave permission








participated as an intact class. Any students of the experimental and control group who

did not return parental permission were positioned in another area of the school to work

on previously assigned work during the delivery of the pre-and postmeasures and during

the intervention if they were in the experimental group. Students in the control group

who returned parental permission took the pre-and postmeasures but did not receive the

intervention.

Resultant Sample

Of the 7 art teachers from Alachua, Gilcrest, Levy, and Clay counties in north

central Florida who initially agreed to participate in the study, 4 were able to complete

the intervention and the posttests within the allotted time frame of the study. The sample

included approximately N=1 53 students from 4 high schools. The assignment resulted in

78 students in the test group and 75 in the control group. Demographics from each of the

participating schools can be found on Tables 3-1 and 3-2.

Table 3-1
Total Enrollment and Lunch Status by Participating School

School # Enrollment % Free/Reduced Lunch
1 302 48.7
2 379 45
3 1842 16.3
4 ,418 20

Table 3-2
Students by Race for Participating School

School # % of Student by Race
White Af. American Hispanic Asian Native American Mixed
1 64 35 .010* 0.000* .003* .003*
2 99 .005* .005* 0.000* 0.000* 0.000*
3 59 30 .060* .030* .010* .007*
4 67 21 .070* .014* .007* .026*
*Notes less than 1%








Approximately 153 students participated in the study. Of those students, 78 were

assigned to treatment and 75 to control groups. The size of the intact groups varied from

17-23 students per large group guidance test group and from 15-25 for control group.

The demographics for the total sample as well as the treatment and control groups can be

found in Table 3-3 and Table 3-4.

Table 3-3
Demographics of Sample by Sex and Race

Demographics
Groupings Female Male M NA A H AA W
Total sample n=153
Treatment 40 38 7 0 1 1 14 55

Control ,41 34 2 1 5 5 17 45

Table 3-4
Demograhics of Sample by Age and Class in School

Demographics
Groupings Age Class in School
14 15 16 17 18 19 9 10 11 12
Total Sample, n= 153 9 49 39 40 14 2 52 41 38 22
Treatment, n=78 6 29 16 19 6 2 31 19 18 10
Control. n= 75 3 20 23 21 8 0 21 22 20 12


Research Design

The research design that was used in this study was a pre-post control group

design with intact classes, as shown in Table 3-5. Students completed the Children's

Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (CNSIE); the Risk of

Eruptive Violence Scale (REV); and the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES),

after random assignment to the treatment or control groups. Following the delivery of the







intervention, all measures were given again. The control group design and use of pre-

and postmeasures served to control for most sources of internal validity (Mertens, 1998).

High school art teachers trained as facilitators delivered the Walk a Mile in My

Shoes intervention. A workshop was presented by the researcher that included training in

high facilitative techniques for processing the experiential cognitive-affective activities.

The Facilitator's Manual was also reviewed during the training workshop (Appendix D).

Table 3-5
Prepost Control Group Design


Conditions Pre Post
Treatment R Oi 02 03 X Oi 02 03
Control R 01 02 03 01 02 03
R = Random assignment of classes to groups
X = Large group guidance intervention for high school art students
Oi= Children's Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control Scale
02= Risk of Eruptive Violence Scale (REV)
03= (CNSIE) Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES)


The following hypotheses were evaluated at the .05 level of significance in this

study:

* There will be no significant difference between the treatment and control group on
locus of control, as measured by the Children's Nowicki-Strickland Internal External
Locus of Control Scale (CNSIE).

* There will be no significant difference between students in the treatment and
control group on risk of initiated violence, as measured by the Risk of Eruptive
Violence Scale (REV).

* There will be no significant difference between treatment and control group students
on emotional empathy, as measured by the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale
(BEES).

* There will be no significant interaction between treatment and gender.







Teacher-Facilitator Training

The researcher trained all of the art teachers who agreed to participate in the

study. Those involved in the study were all State of Florida certified art teachers.

Among the four teachers who finished the study, 1 holds a bachelor's degree, 2 hold a

master's degree, and 1 holds both a master's and specialist degree. The average

experience of the group of teachers was 20 years.

The "Teacher as Facilitator" (Table 3-6) workshop was held to train each of the

participating art teachers. At the workshop, the teachers received a guidance kit

containing the description of the project, information about the research procedures,

timelines, and guidelines to follow. Copies of the dependent measures with detailed

instructions and a training manual was also dispersed to the facilitator trainees.

The training manual included outlines of facilitative techniques, scripts for each

intervention activity and questions for processing the activities. Overheads of artwork,

audiotapes with recorded literature and hard copies of the printed literature were included

in the manual for the teacher. All materials were reviewed and discussed.

A simulation of the cognitive-affective activities was conducted to give teachers

first-hand experience regarding the experimental conditions of the study. The simulation

and all workshop materials were covered in attempt to control for differences in delivery

of the intervention. The procedures for collecting data were also explained. All teachers

were invited to consult with the researcher as needed.

Intact art classes were randomly assigned to treatment and control conditions.

Teachers were then given instructions on number-coding pre- and postmeasures to

protect the identity of the participants. Instructions for the administration of the








dependent instruments were reviewed and questions answered to insure uniformity of

delivery. All of the materials in the guidance kit as well as the student materials were

reviewed. The objectives and procedures for each activity were emphasized, as well as

encouragement to follow the facilitator's scripted leads, facilitative responses, and

processing questions.

Table 3-6
Teacher as Facilitator Workshop Outline

* Nature of the Study

* Relations of Emotional Empathy With Control and Violence

Negative correlation of risk of initiated violence with emotional empathy and
their relationship to locus of control
Characteristics of aggression and violence in schools
Extent of the problem
Empathy and the art connection
Teacher as facilitator: Extending that which you already do
Reducing the risk of initiated violence through cognitive-affective intervention

* Research Procedures
Overview of the Design
Randomization
Informed consent
Collecting pre- and posttest data

* Simulation of Delivery of Large Group Guidance Intervention

* Time-Line and Dates for Returning Materials

* Questions and Answers



Consistent and uniform procedure was practiced by the participants in the

intervention activities simulation experience. All of the art and literature used in the

intervention activities was discussed along with the possible emotional states that could

be evoked by the works explored. Questions were posed and answered.







Teachers were reminded of the research procedures throughout its duration by

calls of encouragement and clarification by the researcher. The researcher carried a cell

phone to insure immediate response to the teachers' consultation needs.

Guidance Unit Pescripfion

With the art teacher as facilitator, the group counseling intervention was delivered

in a large group format with intact high school art classes. The intervention was

delivered in six sessions that took place over a time frame of a single grading period.

Each session constituted forty-five to fifty minutes. This approach assisted teachers in

lesson planning and was less disruptive to their regular curriculum. The first meeting

with the students was used to administer and collect the dependent premeasures. The six

sessions focused on the arts-based guidance unit and activities. Postmeasures were

administered after the intervention was completed.

The intervention was designed around the theme of Walk A Mile in My Shoes.

Upon first introducing the study to the students, the teacher as facilitator classified goals

for the large group guidance process and thanked students for their willingness to

participate in the experimental research. Trust and acceptance was extended by insuring

students that their responses would not be judged or graded. Activities were preceded by

psycho-educational background information concerning the growing diversity of our

nation and the nature of school and societal violence. Discussion questions that were

outlined in the facilitator's manual were generated to set the stage for defining empathy

and linking lack of understanding with non-acceptance, discrimination, and other

negative attitudes and actions. A brief outline of the sessions can be found in Table 3-7.

The complete Walk a Mile in My Shoes intervention can be found in Appendix D.








Table 3-7
Walk a Mile in My Shoes: Guidance to End Violence

Session # Title of Session Content Objectives

Session #1 "I Shined Their Shoes" 1. Increase knowledge of link of
lack of empathy to violence
2. Explore issues that impact
behavior
3. Experiential art and literature
activity to express feelings and
cognitions through word and
Understanding Suffering from Racism symbols

Session #2 "My Shoes Came from 1. Link control and empathy
the Dumpster" 2. Reinforce goals 1,2,3 above

Understanding Suffering from Poverty and Homelessness
Session #3 "My Shoes Carry a Heavy 1. Link thinking, feelings, behavior
Load" 2. Reinforce goals above

Understanding Suffering from Weight Bigotry and Sexism

Session #4 "My Shoes Never Touch 1. Increase knowledge of self and
the Ground" others
2. Reinforce goals from previous
sessions
Understanding Suffering from Physical and/or Mental Disabilities

Session #5 "He Hit Me With His Shoe 1. Increase knowledge of emotional
then Assaulted Me" and physical scars that affect mood
and behavior
2. Reinforce goals from above
Understanding Suffering from Abuse and Domestic Violence

Session #6 "Persecution Accompanies 1. Increase knowledge of need to
the Path of My Shoes" accept, respect, and live at peace
with each others' differences
2. Reinforce above goals
Understand Suffering from Cultural or Religious Intolerance Termination.







After the introductory material, Walk a Mile in My Shoes was then moved into the

activity phase. Students listened to passages from literature and viewed works of art that

were highly emotive, involving human beings in various life situations. Students were

encouraged to sense, perceive, conceptualize and respond as if they were the main

characters in both the art and the literature that was being experienced. The goal was to

embrace some of the phenomenological perspective of the character and try to perceive

the world in some measure as experienced by that individual.

Students responded initially with stream of consciousness writing. They were

instructed to identify feelings and to write how they were feeling without worrying about

grammar and punctuation. After the writing, symbolic images were drawn, painted, or

modeled from clay, to recreate moods and meanings.

After engagement with the media, teachers processed the experiential learning by

asking open questions about thinking, feeling, and doing. Teachers used clarifying,

summarizing, and feeling-focussed responses to expand the activity and link participants'

ideas. To make the leap (linking and extending the activity process), teachers encouraged

students to identify their own faulty beliefs, reframe, and extend the experience to

possible future situations.

Students learned to identify how the lack of empathic understanding can lead to

aggression and violence and were encouraged to use empathic self-talk to intercede when

they felt at-risk for self-initiate violence. Students were encouraged to have the

understanding that each individual is personally responsible for breaking the chain of

indifference, prejudice, oppression, abuse, and neglect that is engendered by lack of

empathic understanding of others. Locus of control was explored while linking activities.







The Walk a Mile in My Shoes unit ended by summarizing what had been covered

throughout the six sessions. Students were invited to talk about their experiences and

describe what kind of beliefs, attitudes, and strategies for understanding and accepting

others they would employ in the future. Students reviewed how lack of empathic

understanding exacerbates negative attitudes, anger, oppression, and initiated violence

and were encouraged to take what they had learned into their peer groups, families, and

into their future.

Students who participated in treatment were compared to the control group

students on the dependent measures, with the control group maintaining normal

classroom routine during the intervention phase of the study. Both groups were given the

instruments measuring locus of control, risk of initiated violence, and empathy during the

same time frame.

Dependent Variables

The following measures were used to assess effects of treatment: the Children's

Nowicki-Strickland Internal External Locus of Control Scale (CNSIE), the Risk of

Eruptive Violence Scale (REV), and the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES).

The CNSIE is found in Appendix C. The BEES and the REV scales have not been

included in Appendix C, since the author of these scales, Albert Mehrabian, restricts the

duplication of any of his test items in the published document.


Children's Nowicki-Strickland Internal External Locus of Control Scale (CNSE


A pencil and paper self-report measure of 40 yes or no questions, the Children's

Nowicki-Strickland Internal External Locus of Control Scale was developed in 1969 and

is appropriate for children ages 9-18. Constructed on the basis of Rotter's (1966)







definition of the internal-external control of reinforcement dimension as an attempt to

measure locus of control in children, the items describe various reinforcement situations

across interpersonal and motivational areas. Reinforcement situations include affiliation,

achievement, and dependency (Nowicki & Strickland, 1973). Scores are based on the

number of responses that indicate an external locus of control orientation to the

statement, with possible score ranges of from 0-40. Higher scores indicate a more

external locus of control than do the lower scores.


Nowicki and Strickland's sample included students of average intelligence in

Grades 3 through 12 from all socioeconomic groups. Extensive samples of reports on

internal consistency and reliability estimates for the CNSIE are almost all found to be

above the .60 level (Nowicki & Duke, 1983). Since the CNSIE is additive and items are

not comparable nor are they arranged according to difficulty, split-half reliabilities

probably tend to underestimate the true internal consistency scale (Nowicki & Duke,

1983).

Nowicki and Strickland (1973) report data showing moderate relationships among

the CNSIE and other measures of locus of control. There were significant correlations of

.31 and .51 for black third (N=182) and seventh graders (N=171) when comparisons were

made to the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility scale (Crandall, Katkovsky, &

Crandall, 1965). The correlation with the Bialer-Cromwell scale was found to be

significant at .41 (g < .05) for 26 white students ages 9-11 (Nowicki & Duke, 1983).

Although the literature does not point to studies that suggest a direct correlation

between levels of emotional empathy and locus of control, Winkler and Doherty (1983)

relate individual locus of control to problem-solving behavior in two cross-cultural







samples of married couples. According to their findings, greater externality was

associated with higher levels of verbal aggression and of physical violence. Externality

was also associated with angry response style. Internals reported less verbal and physical

aggression and were less likely to respond with anger to a provocative statement from

their spouse. These results gave empirical support to the hypothesized relationship

between externality and aggression. External wives were more likely to respond by

kidding or teasing when provoked.

Risk of Erungtive Violence Scale (REV)

The Risk of Eruptive Violence Scale (Mehrabian, 1996) was designed to discern

individuals who generally convey a non-aggressive outward appearance and non-violent

behaviors, but who on rare occasions can snap and initiate violence and destruction. The

rationale that is given by the author of the measure is that some individuals who appear

quiet, withdrawn and restrained, can actually be seething with anger, carrying frustration

concerning their wishes to hurt individuals who have offended them or whom they have

imagined offend them (Mehrabian, 1996). The REV is a 35-item pencil and paper self-

report of agreement or disagreement with each of the items listed in the measure. A 9-

point Likert-type scale is used to indicate (+4) very strong agreement through (-4) very

strong disagreement with the statements. The scale is meant to provide an accurate

description of attitudes and feelings. The REV takes approximately 10 minutes to

administer. Acquiescence bias is controlled for by 24 items that are positively worded or

positively scored and by 11 items that are worded in such a way that disagreement shows

more risk of violence. These items are negatively scored. This balance of negatively

worded items against positively worded ones contributes to the control for the unwanted








agreeableness. Acquiescence bias is only partially controlled for due to the unequal

number of positively worded items.

When correlating the REV with other measures, norms are not necessary and

unstandardized raw scores are sufficient for the correlation. To compare scores with the

rest of the population, however, the norms of the REV of the general population are as

follows: Mean = -59 and Standard Deviation = 48. There is a general population trend to

disagree with items of the REV. Sex differences reveal male norms as: Mean = -33 and

Standard Deviation = 57. Female norms are: Mean = -85 and Standard Deviation = 39.

Gender differences reveal that males are generally more violent than women.

The REV has been shown to be very high in internal consistency with a

coefficient alpha of.94 (Mehrabian, 1996). The REV has been factor analyzed for a

principal components solution. The eigenvalue plot and the Scree Test (Catell, 1966)

revealed a one-factor solution with eigenvalues of the first three factors as 13.75,2.42,

and 1.91, respectively (Mehrabian, 1997).

High convergent validity of the REV is indicated by its correlation with two other

scales of aggression and violence. According to Mehrabian (1997), the REV correlated

.74 (p < .01) with the brief Anger and Aggression Scale (Maiuro, Vitaliano, & Cahnlm,

1987) and .56 with the Violence Risk Scale (Plutchik & Van Praag, 1990). Spearman's

formula to correct for attenuation yielded a correlation of .93 between the REV and the

Brief Anger and Aggression Scale and a corrected correlation of.78 between the REV

and the Violence Risk Scale.

Miller and Eisenberg (1996) have found that violence and empathy have negative

intercorrelation. The REV is negatively correlated with both the emotional Empathic







Tendency Scale (Mehrabian & Epstein, 1972) and the balanced Emotional Empathy

Scale (Mehrabian, 1996). Correlations are -.43 (p < .01) and -.50 (p < .01) respectively.

The Risk of Eruptive Violence Scale also correlates negatively (Q = -.49, p < .01) with a

general measure of Optimism-Pessimism (Scheier, Carver & Bridges, 1994).

Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES)

The Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES) was designed by Albert

Mehrabian in 1996 to help distinguish persons who typically are able to experience more

of others' feelings from persons who are less responsive to the emotional experiences of

others. An updated version of the Emotional Empathic Tendency Scale (EETS), the

BEES, measures both the vicarious experience of others' feelings and interpersonal

positiveness in a balanced way. It is a questionnaire with 30 items and uses a 9-point

Likert-style format. Individuals answer with responses ranging from very strong

agreement (+4) to very strong disagreement (-4). 15 of the items are worded as positive

instances of presence of empathic feelings and 15 indicate the absence of such feelings to

reduce bias due to acquiescence (Urbina, 1999). The test is designed to measure the

emotional, rather than the cognitive aspects of empathy and is appropriate for individuals

and groups ages 15 and older. It is a hand scored measure and yields a single total-scale

score. It can be used with individuals and groups and takes approximately 10-15 minutes

to administer.

The validity of the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale is evidenced indirectly

with high positive correlation of .77 with the earlier version, the Emotional Empathic

Tendency Scale (EETS) (Mehrabian & Epstein, 1972). Reviews of available literature

indicate strong validity of the scale (Chlopan, McCain, Carbonell, & Hagen 1985;








Mehrabian, Young, & Sato, 1988). Experimental evidence from the EETS yielded that

persons with higher emotional empathic tendency scores, compared with those with

lower scores are more likely to be affiliative, non-aggressive, score higher on measures of

moral judgment, have arousable and pleasant temperaments, and rate positive social traits

as important. In addition, highly empathic individuals are more prone to be altruistic in

their behavior toward others and are more likely to volunteer to help others (Mehrabian,

Young, & Sato, 1988).

The Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES) relates significantly and

negatively with a correlation of-.31 to the Maiuro, Vitaliano, and Cahnlm (1987) Scale of

Aggression at V< .01. (Mehrabian, 1997). In the same study, the BEES significantly and

negatively related to the Risk of Eruptive Violence (REV) (Mehrabian, 1996) measure

with a correlation of -.50 at p < .01. The BEES consistently exhibited stronger relations

with the measures of aggression, violence and optimism than the earlier version

of the scale, the EETS, indicating greater construct validity of the BEES. Miller and

Eisenberg (1988) found generally low but significant negative relations between the

EETS and its variants with measures of aggressive and externalizing/antisocial behaviors.

According to Johnson (1999) in his review of the BEES, the construct validity of

the measure has been studied in terms of pleasure, arousal, and dominance, which are

factors specified in Mehrabian's (1997) personality model. A regression equation

weighted equally on the pleasure and arousal factors indicates that highly empathic

individuals tend to be both pleasant (positive) and arousable (reactive). Although further

testing is recommended before the instrument can qualify as a clinical instrument, test

reviewers indicate that it can be viewed as an adequate measure for research purposes.








Johnson (1999) also reports adequate internal consistency (reliability) of the BEES

(Cronbach's alpha=.87).

The norms for the full-length Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES) are:

Mean = 45 and Standard Deviation = 24 (Mehrabian, 2000). These numbers reflect

combined male and female norms and are applicable and appropriate most of the time.

Male norms are as follows: Mean = 29 and Standard Deviation = 28. Female norms tend

to be generally higher (Mehrabian, Young, & Sato, 1988) and are: Mean = 60 and

Standard Deviation = 21. Raw scores are computed for each subject by summing

responses to the 15 positively worded items and by subtracting from this quantity the sum

of the individual's responses to the negatively worded items. The raw scores are then

converted to z scores, yielding an easy interpretation of the meaning of the score. When

correlating with other variables, unstandardized raw scores are sufficient without norms.

The BEES lends itself to statistical analysis done on samples that include

individuals of both sexes and age ranges.

Research Procedures

The art instructor at each of the participating schools administered all of the

pretreatment measures approximately one week before delivering the large group

guidance intervention. To insure confidentiality, all answer sheets were coded. The

investigator was provided with information regarding the school, age, gender, and race of

each individual participant for use in the analysis. Gender was the variable of interest in

regard to the treatment.

During the Facilitator Workshop, art teachers were trained in uniform procedures

for the delivery of the Children's Nowicki-Strickland Internal External Locus of Control








Scale (CNSIE), the Risk of Eruptive Violence Scale (REV), and the Balanced Emotional

Empathy Scale (BEES). Teachers were instructed to read all of the items of each

measure to the students in order to control for differences in delivery and differences in

reading levels of the participants. All of the pre-instrumentation was collected and

delivered to the researcher prior to the delivery of the treatment intervention. Uniform

time frame for delivery of the intervention was adhered to by the participating teachers.

The six treatment sessions took place within a single grading period with each

session taking approximately 45-50 minutes. Upon terminating the intervention, the

teachers again administered the CNSIE, the REV, and the BEES to students in both the

treatment and control groups. All data was placed in large envelopes and was collected

and analyzed by the researcher.

Data Anplysis

A mixed model ANCOVA was performed on all measures for both the treatment

and control groups in order to determine whether the observed differences between

means were due to chance or to systematic differences among treatment populations

(Shavelson, 1996). Predictable individual differences were removed from the dependent

variable, providing a truer estimate of experimental error and a more powerful test of the

null hypothesis. Pretest scores served as the covariate to adjust posttest scores. Random

assignment of groups to either control or treatment conditions increased the validity for

using the ANCOVA.

The ANCOVA examined two main effects of gender and group. An alpha level

of .05 significance was set for each of the hypotheses. The .05 level of significance gave





73


sufficient power and was a reasonable probability level for determining the effectiveness

of the intervention strategy for high school art students.













CHAPTER
RESULTS

This study examined the effectiveness of a large group counseling intervention for

high school art students with teachers as facilitators. Art teachers delivered the

intervention to art classes mixed with students from grades nine, ten, eleven, and twelve.

Arts-based sessions were designed to influence students' perceived levels of control, risk

of initiated violence, and levels of empathic awareness.

The effectiveness of the large group counseling intervention was assessed by

analysis performed on pre-and postmeasures using an analysis of covariance model

(ANCOVA). Three dependent measures were used to gather data related to the effects of

the intervention. The measures included the (a) Children's Nowicki- Strickland Locus of

Control Scale (CNSIE), (b) Risk of Eruptive Violence Scale (REV), and (c) Balanced

Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES).

Data on the three dependent measures were collected from 153 students in grades

nine, ten, eleven, and twelve attending 4 public high schools. Intact art classes were used

in a convenience sample of an experimental research design of randomly assigned

treatment and control classes. The assignment resulted in 78 students in the test group

and 75 students in the control group. Assumptions were checked to provide support for

the use of ANCOVA as an appropriate statistical analysis. Results may be found in

Appendix E. All statistical tests were conducted at a .05 confidence level.








Data Analysis

Three dependent variables were used to investigate four hypotheses.

Supplemental statistics supporting correlation of variables can be found in Appendix E.

Students' Perceived Locus of Control

The Children's Nowicki-Strickland Internal External Locus of Control Scale

(CNSIE) was used to investigate the effects of treatment on the students' perceived locus

of control. Scores on this instrument could range from a possible 0-40, with points

assigned for each corresponding external choice. Higher scores indicate a more external

control orientation than lower scores that indicate more internal control orientation.

External control orientation is associated with more problematic behavior.

The first hypothesis focused on the locus of control construct:

Hoi: There will be no significant difference between treatment and control
group on locus of control, as measured by the Children's Nowicki-
Strickland Internal External Locus of Control Scale (CNSIE).

An ANCOVA was conducted on the CNSIE to test the stated null hypothesis (Table 4-1).

Main effects of treatment. A Significant treatment effect was found for the

CNSIE scores at .05. Both males and females in the treatment group had lower posttest

means than their counterparts in the control groups. Males in the control group had a

posttest mean of 15.50, while posttest mean for treatment males was 13.21. Females in

the control group had a posttest mean of 12.82, while females in treatment had a posttest

mean of 12.29 (Table 4-2).

Group and gender both appear to influence the CNSIE according to the ANCOVA

results. Therefore, Hoi was rejected. A significant interaction was found between gender

and pre-CNSIE (1p=.025). The significant interaction of gender by pre-CNSIE is plotted

on Figure 4-1.









Table 4-1
Statisic Results ANCOVA- CNSIE

Source SS df MS F Sig.

Corrected 2175.012 5 435.002 29.163 .000
Model
Intercept 221.833 1 221.833 14.871 .000
Pre-CNSIE 1882.816 1 1882.816 126.222 .000
Group 63.709 1 63.709 4.271 .041*
Gender 117.165 1 117.165 7.855 .006*
Gender*Pre- 76.209 1 76.209 5.109 .025*
CNSIE
Group*Gender 2.595 1 2.595 .174 .677
Error 2192.752 147 14.917
Corrected
Total 4367.765 152
R Squared=.498 (Adjusted R Squared=.481)
*Significance at p < .05

Table 4-2
Dscritive Statistics Post-CNSIE

Group Gender N Mean SD
Treatment Female 41 12.29 6.16
Male 37 13.21 4.51
Total 78 12,73 5.42
Control Female 41 12.82 5.01
Male 34 15.50 5.20
Total 75 14.04 5.24
Total Female 82 12.56 5.59
Male 71 14.30 4.95
Total 153 13,37 5.36

As Figure 4-1 shows, when comparing those who scored low on the pretest, males

were more external than females on the posttest On the other hand, when scoring high

on the pretest, females were more external than males on the posttest These findings

indicate that females in this sample who tended to be internal on locus of control initially

were more internal than the boys on the posttest who were internals. It also indicates that








girls in the sample who tended to be more external initially on locus of control were

higher or more external than the boys on the posttest who tend to be externals.


I ,- GENDER
0 X X
6 3Iw --
.I6 KMale

0 -." Female
0 10 20 30

Pre CNSIE

Figure 4-1. Gender by Pre-CNSIE Interaction

Students'Perception of Risk of Eruptive Violence

To investigate the effects of treatment on the students' perceptions of their

personal risk of initiated violence, the results of the REV scale were subject to analysis

(Table 4-3). Levene's test of equality of error variance tested the null hypothesis that the

error variance of the dependent variable was equal across groups. Tests of between-

subjects effects was used to analyze pre and post scores of both treatment and control

groups to determine if a gender interaction existed (Table 4-3).








Table 4-3
Statistical Results ANCOVA- REV


Source SS df MS F p
Corrected 361370.947 4 90342.737 83.401 .000
Model
Intercept 3336.955 1 3336.955 3.081 .081
Pre-REV 304327.975 1 304327.975 280.944 .000*
Group 2248.301 1 2248.301 2.076 .152
Gender 3054.585 1 3054.585 2.820 .095
Group*Gender 695.286 1 695.286 .642 .424
Error 160318.399 148 1083.232
Corrected
Total 521689.346 152
R Squared=.693 (Adjusted R Squared=.684)
*Significance at 11 < .05

Females in the treatment group had a posttest mean of -49.85. Males in treatment

had a posttest mean of -23.16. Control group females had a posttest mean of

-60.53 while posttest mean for males in control was -12.38 (Table 4-4). Scores for both

positively and negatively worded items created a range with higher scores corresponding

to higher risk of eruptive violence.

Table 4-4
Descriptive Statistics Post-REV


Treatment
Treatment


Control


Total


,Gender
Female
Male
Total
Female
Male
Total
Female
Male
Total


N
41
37
78
41
34
75
82
71
153


Mean
-49.85
-23.16
-37.19
-60.53
-12.38
-38.70
-55.19
-18.00
-37.93


SD
54.33
55.06
55.95
48.12
66.23
61.56
51.28
60.47
5S-58


violence:


The second hypothesis tested focused on the construct of risk of initiated


I








Ho2 There will be no significant difference between treatment and control
group on risk of initiated violence as measured by the Risk of Eruptive
Violence Scale (REV).

Main effects of treatment. There was not a significant treatment effect for this

dependent measure. Therefore the stated null hypothesis was not rejected. Statistical

results can be found on Table 4-3.

Students' Perception of Emotional Empathy

The Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES) was used to measure the

dependent variable of perception of emotional empathy. Levene's test of equality of

variance checked the ANCOVA assumption of equal variance and a test of between-

subjects effects was also conducted (Table 4-5). Scores were determined by scaled

answers to positively and negatively worded items with the higher scores corresponding

to higher levels of emotional empathy.

The following null hypothesis was tested with regard to the construct of perceived

emotional empathy:

Hos There will be no difference between the treatment and control
group as measured by the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES).

Table 4-5
Statistical Results ANCOVA-BEES

Source SS df MS F p
Corrected 183018,832 4 45754.708 94.217 .000
Model
Intercept 2646.091 1 2646.091 5.499 .021*
Pre-BEES 141026.694 1 141026.694 290.400 .000*
Group 1269.022 1 1269.022 2.613 .108
Gender 2402.524 1 2402.534 4.947 .028*
Group*Gender 64.018 1 64.018 .132 .717
Error 71873.064 148 485.629
Corrected
Total 254891.895 152
R Squared=.718 (Adjusted R Squared=.710) *Significance at 1 < .05









Females in the treatment group had a posttest mean score of 37.36 while males in

treatment resulted in a posttest mean score of 8.4. Females in the control group had a

posttest mean of 37.19 and males had a posttest mean of .26 (Table 4-6).

Table 4-6
Descriptive Statistics Post-BEES

Group Gender N Mean SD
Treatment Female 41 37.36 38.10
Male 37 8.45 32.86
Total 78 23.65 38.34
Control Female 41 37.19 31.65
Male 34 .26 47.93
Total 75 20.45 43.69
Total Female 82 37.28 34.81
Male 71 4.53 40.69
Total 153 22.08 40.95

Main effects of treatment It appears that the level of emotional empathy was not

impacted by the treatment as measured by the BEES. Since no significant difference was

found, the null hypothesis was not rejected. However, a gender main effect was indicated

in the test of between-subjects effects. (Table 4-6).

Both treatment and control groups males scored lower than females in both

groups at p=.028. Lower scores indicated a lower level of perceived emotional empathy.

This however, showed no significant influence of treatment A more detailed statistical

report can be found in Table 4-5.

The following null hypothesis was examined with regard to interaction of

treatment and gender and the dependent variables:

Ho4: There will be no significant interaction between treatment and gender
as measured by the CNSIE, REV, and the BEES.







Two-way interactions. The treatment effect by gender was examined with the ANCOVA

model using posttest means to test the null hypothesis. A test of between-subjects effects

was conducted to determine if the covariate interacted with the fixed variable of gender.

Although a significant gender and pre-CNSIE interaction was found at 9=.016 and a

gender effect was found with both pre and post-BEES, no significant interactions were

found between treatment and gender as measured by the CNSIE, REV, or the BEES.

Therefore, the null hypothesis H04 was not rejected.

Other Fndins

The arts-based teacher facilitated counseling intervention for high school art

students utilized literature and both contemporary and classic visual art forms to stimulate

discussion and address the dependent variables. Delivered in six sessions, content

focused on the enhancement of empathy, locus of control, and the prevention of

violence. An experiential activity was included in each session.

Because of the nature of this study, it was important to try to explore what the

students were experiencing. Therefore, students were invited to identify feelings and

emotions as if they were the characters in the art and literature and also express in writing

and in graphic form how that exploration influenced their own thinking, feeling, and

behaving. The researcher collected the writing and artwork from the students. For

instance, the following are some examples from the written and visual expressions

rendered by some of the treatment participants. Other examples can be found in

Appendix F. Student writings are not edited for spelling or grammar and are quoted

exactly as written. Original artwork was done in both color and black media. Student

intentionality may be somewhat affected due to the black and white copy of the images.





Student Responses to Session One Goal: Understanding Suffering from Racism


wY


Sc S a

QXAJ. cJ(U( c ,,-,e AAJUr 01o joo 6 1 +ker 0


Figure 4.2. Student Artwork Session One: "We Shouldn't Care What Color Someone Is"
"I feel like people in this world today never gave up the lock and key toward
racism. Because right now as a Black African-American, I still don't feel safe.








I'm afraid one day someone might hurt me just for the color of my skin. But I won't let

my guard down. I am ready and able to defend myself."

"I think it [the incident portrayed in the art and literature] was wrong. I have

always been raised that everyone is the same-equal. It really hurts me to know that this

kind of stuff actually happens in today's world. Maybe not in that kind of situation

[referring to the literature], but with people calling other people Niggers or Crackers.

That's just like walking up to someone and calling that person a Bitch."

"As the character I am enraged. That man shouldn't have kicked me. I am also

sad. Sad that some one would do this to me. It isn't right. I think I am sad. I am sad

that people do these kind of things to others. It couldn't be more wrong. If I saw that

happening, I would help the kid. But fighting would be my last resort!"

[Reaction to the literature] I would feel hate and enraged toward them but at the

same time I would feel sonrry for the men who kicked me because they are so closed-

minded and just have no idea they are so hateful. I felt really angry because people can

be so uninformed and just plain out stupid. It really upsets me when I hear about or see

things like this. When you see someone mistreated like that you just wanna scream."

"I would feel ashamed and embarrassed. Mostly shocked. I would wonder, what

did I do to him? Why is he so mad at me? I would be embarrassed and ashamed because

of my skin color because I'm not like everyone else and there's nothing I could do about

it I would want not to hurt or cause equally inflicting pain on this person, I would just

want to explain and make these people understand what it's like to be different I feel sad

that people actually did go through misery and embarrassment as well as [being] victims

of discrimination."































Figure 4-3. Student Artwork Session One: "The Monster of Racism"

Summary of the Study

A summary of the results of the ANCOVAs for this study are presented below.

Results are organized by dependent variable. Of the four hypothesis in this study only

one was rejected.

Students' Perception of Locus of Control Orientation as Measured by the CNSIE Scale

* There was a significant difference between the way treatment and control group
students rated their own locus of control orientation following the intervention.

* There was a significant difference between the way males and females rated their
own locus of control orientation.

* There was a significant gender and Pre-CNSIE interaction. When comparing those
who scored low on the pretest, males scored higher and were more external than
females on the posttesLt. On the other hand, when scoring high on the pretest, females
were more external than males on the posttest. These findings seem to indicate that
females in this sample who tended to be internal on locus of control initially were







more internal than the boys on the posttest who were internals. It also indicates that
girls in the sample who tended to be more external initially on locus of control were
higher or more external than the boys on the posttest who tend to be externals.

Students' Perceptions of Risk of Initiated Violence on the REV Scale

" There was no significant difference between the way in which treatment and control
group students rated their own risk of initiated violence.

* There was no significant difference in the way males and females rated their own
level of risk of initiated violence.

Student's Perceptions of Levels of Emotional Empathy on the BEES Scale

* There was no significant difference in the way treatment and control group students
rated themselves on levels of emotional empathy.

* Gender was a main effect in the tests of between-subjects effects for the BEES.
Girls in the sample scored higher than did the boys on the dependent measure,
indicating that the girls perceived themselves as having more emotional empathy than
did the boys.

" There was no significant gender and treatment interaction for the BEES.

Other Findings

* Students who participated in treatment expressed empathic feelings in written
form that identified their perceptions of the experiences of the characters depicted in
literature and art in the experiential large group counseling sessions.

* Students expressed their own feelings and beliefs in written form in response to
art and literature presented in the large group counseling sessions.

* Students used various art media to create graphic images that reflected their
reactions to the literature, art, and to their own written responses to the experiential
counseling sessions.

* Affective data collected from the arts-based intervention suggests the potential of the
intervention to:
ignite the imagination
to give students an opportunity to freely express themselves both verbally and
artistically
to open opportunities for alternative choices
to develop empathic awareness
to influence the capacity to care.
These may decrease initiated violence. More examples are found in Appendix F.







Results of Correlations Among Dependent Measures

* The Children's Nowicki-Strickland Internal External Locus of Control
(CNSIE) Scale has a significant positive correlation with the Risk of Eruptive
Violence (REV) Scale. This supports the notion that individuals with external locus
of control have more problematic behavior than internal individuals.

* The Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES) has a significant negative
correlation with both the CNSIE and the REV, which indicates that individuals with
higher levels of empathy tend to also have lower risk of initiated violence and are
more internal in their perceptions of locus of control. Table of supplemental statistics
supporting this summary may be found in Appendix E.

In the next chapter, conclusions are made based on results presented in Chapter 4.

Methodological limitations, implications, and recommendations for additional research


are discussed.













CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

SlTOMFYl

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an arts-based

teacher-facilitated large group counseling intervention. Specifically, high school art

students from grades nine, ten, eleven, and twelve in multi-age intact classes from 4

public high schools participated in the study (N=153). The study was designed to

increase personal control and empathic awareness while decreasing the risk of initiated

violence. Classes were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Adjusted

group means were used in the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for each of the

dependent measures.

Four art teachers who had received training and a scripted training manual,

delivered the intervention to the art students. An intervention of six sessions featured

information with visual art and literature that focused on helping students understand the

social, physical, and emotional conditions of others and how understanding can reduce

the risk of initiated violence. Sessions were devoted to issues of racism, poverty, body

bigotry, disability, abuse, and religious and ethnic persecution. The intervention was

delivered in a single grading period.

The group format provided a setting where students were able to freely discuss

the topics and write about feelings that were identified by stepping into the shoes of the

characters presented in the art and literature. Students were also given the opportunity to

87








express their feelings symbolically through an experiential art activity associated with

each session. Facilitators stressed to the students that neither their art nor their writings

would be judged or censored in any way.

Art students who participated in the test groups were compared to the art students

in the control groups on three dependent variables. The first dependent variable, locus of

control, was measured by the Nowicki-Strickland Internal External Locus of Control

Scale (CNSIE). Students responded to 40 statements by circling yes or no as each

response was read to them by the teacher-facilitator. Scores were based on the number of

responses that indicated external locus of control orientation concerning the statement.

The scores had a possible range of 0-40. Higher scores indicated a more external

orientation than did the lower scores. External responses as raw numbers were used in

the ANCOVA analysis. The related hypothesis HOi was rejected.

The second variable, risk of initiated violence, was measured by the Risk of

Eruptive Violence Scale (REV). The REV asked students to rate themselves in terms of

items related to their tendency to have aggressive, violent, or destructive behavior. The

REV contains 35 items that were read to the students. Students responded by reporting

their degree of agreement or disagreement with each item in terms of a number on a

Likert-type scale. Responses to sums of negatively worded items were subtracted from

sums of positively worded items to obtain the students' scores. Raw scores were used in

the ANCOVA analysis to compare treatment and control groups. Higher scores

represented a higher risk of initiated violence. H02, which dealt with this construct was

not rejected.








The third dependent variable, students' perceptions of level of emotional

empathy, was measured by the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES). Items on

this instrument focus on one's tendency to feel vicariously the emotional experiences of

others. Questions on the 30-item scale were read to the students by the teacher-

facilitators and students responded by indicating degree of agreement or disagreement

with each item by choosing a number on a Likert-type scale. Scores were obtained by

subtracting the sums of responses to negatively worded items from sums of responses to

positively worded items. Total raw scores were analyzed using the ANCOVA. Higher

scores indicated individuals who are generally more responsive to the emotional

expressions and experiences of others. H03, which focused on students' perceptions of

balanced empathy, was not rejected. Additionally, H04, which dealt with interaction

between treatment and gender was not rejected.

Other findings were collected from the test group as responses to the arts-based

information presented in the large group counseling intervention. Sketches, drawings,

paintings and written responses were among the symbolic data collected. Students

reflected by writing and producing graphic symbols about thoughts, feelings, and

behaviors from both their own and the characters' views in the art and literature.

Conclusions

The outcomes of the study were mixed. Conclusions are discussed with regard to

each of the dependent variables and the experiential data.

Students' Perceptions of Locus of Control

Group and gender both effected the results of the CNSIE. The ANCOVA

performed for this dependent measure revealed significant treatment effectiveness at .05.








A significant interaction between gender and pre-CNSIE was also revealed by the

ANCOVA analysis.

Overall pre-and posttest means indicated that girls in the sample tended to be

more internal than did the males of the sample. Students in the treatment group had

lower posttest mean scores than did students in the control group, showing treatment

effectiveness. The higher scores of control group students indicated more external

orientation of locus of control.

External orientation is associated with a tendency for more problematic behavior.

Persons with an external locus of control may be less successful in coping with stressful

situations than are individuals who generally believe that they are in control of the events

of their lives. Problems associated with external locus of control include: low influence

resistance; low resistance to temptation; inability to tolerate discomfort while helping

another individual; low ability to defer gratification; short future time perspective; high

suicide ideation; and negative future outlook. Persons who are emotionally disturbed,

persons who have learning disabilities, and individuals who are delinquent are more

likely to have an external locus of control.

On the other hand, individuals with internal locus of control orientation tend to

show more pro-social behavior as well as having a tendency to show more insight about

their own social behaviors and the consequences that evolve from them. Males, who are

more internal, tend to show more insight and to be more cooperative. This characteristic

is especially important when considering peer pressure and its effect on violence. It is

therefore concluded that this guidance unit has the potential to influence internality and

may reduce violence.







Students' Perceptions of Risk of Eruptive Violence

The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) performed on this dependent measure

revealed that there was not a significant difference between treatment and control group

students for perceived risk of violence. Therefore, it was concluded that the arts-based

large group counseling intervention did not significantly impact the students' propensity

toward initiated violence.

Student's Perceived Level of Emotional Empathy

The ANCOVA for this dependent measure showed no significant difference

between perceptions of emotional empathy of students in the treatment and control

groups. It was concluded that the arts-based counseling intervention did not significantly

impact the levels of emotional empathy of the students.

The only variable that significantly effected the BEES scores was the gender of

the participant Females in both treatment and control groups scored significantly higher

than did the males on the postmeasure. The higher scores of the females indicated higher

levels of perceived emotional empathy.

Other Findig

Written and pictorial reactions were collected from the students in the treatment

group. Their reflections were responses to the information, discussion, art, and literature

that composed the arts-based large group counseling intervention. Students were

instructed to identify feelings through reflective writing by stepping into the shoes of the

characters that were represented in visual art and selections of literature. They were also

instructed to write about their own personal feelings and to represent those feelings in

symbolic graphic form.








Various studio media were offered for the experiential activities including colored

markers, charcoal, watercolor, and pastels. Students also made preliminary sketches and

then used clay to create sculptural images that celebrated their own bodies. This activity

followed the session on body bigotry.

Many of the student writings and visual images reflected an understanding of the

feelings that were presented by individuals portrayed in the art and literature. Some

students responded with empathic awareness of pain or suffering due to the conditions of

racism, bigotry, oppression, abuse, or disability. Other students responded with an

ambivalent attitude that reflected knowledge of the emotional and physical state of the

character but with personal feelings that were contrary. As indicated by the art and

written material that was collected, students expressed themselves freely, which seems to

indicate synergistic action due to the intervention. Words, symbols, and graphic schemata

emerged as images from the cognitive-affective processes. Students identified feelings,

beliefs, and projected possible behaviors that could result from the cognitive and

affective states that were revealed through the art and literature. This information added

depth to the data collected.

Discussion

Results of the current study suggest that the arts-based counseling intervention

appeared to significantly impact locus of control but did not significantly impact the risk

of initiated violence, or the emotional empathy of high school art students as measured by

the instruments selected. It was interesting to note, however, that the variable of gender

had a significant main effect on two of the dependent measures.




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/' QB A 81,9(56,7< QF &O


ARTS-BASED GUIDANCE INTERVENTION
FOR ENHANCEMENT OF EMPATHY, LOCUS OF CONTROL, AND
PREVENTION OF VIOLENCE
Tj 7
By
DIANNE LYNN SKYE
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
2001

Dedicated to my Mom who has lived a life of unconditional love and caring.
Edna Lutz Poling 3121113-

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Sincere thanks are extended to Dr. Robert Myrick for serving as chairman of my
committee. As an educator and mentor, his professional advice and personal
encouragement have been a tremendous influence in my life and work and are greatly
appreciated. Thanks and appreciation are also given to Dr. David Miller who was
consistently kind and patient with my right brain blocks during the process of statistical
analysis. In addition, I would like to acknowledge committee members Dr. Larry Loesch
and Dr. Joe Wittmer for their support. I feel humbled and grateful to have had such
tremendous teaching from these pillars in the profession.
To Dr. Merle Flannery, the professor who first encouraged me to pursue a
doctorate degree, I extend admiration, gratitude, love, and great appreciation. Dr.
Flannery’s teachings and phenomenal manner of seeing the world will always be with
me.
Special thanks are given to the art teachers who delivered this art-based
counseling intervention. The study could not have been achieved without the sacrifice of
their time and effort. Especially notable is the courage of Lisa Hudson who stood before
her school board to defend the importance of the study when opposition arose.
Heart-felt gratitude is extended (a) to my husband and friend, Charles, for his
love, support, encouragement to reach my dreams, and the wonderful massages after
many weary hours of work; (b) to my sons T.L. Shane, and Shad Latson, and
HI

Elliott Skye, for my greatest joys and the challenges of motherhood that have deepened
my passion for life-long learning; (c) to my mom who has always been my hero and
example of strength, dignity, and grace; (d) to my daughter-in-law Kristie for the tender
care she extends to my mother, for her friendship, love, data entry; and typing expertise;
(e) to my granddaughters Kyra, Zion, and Kamya who light up my life; (f) and lastly and
most importantly to my Lord and Savior Jesus Christ who is the perfect example of
empathic understanding and who gives my life purpose and meaning.
IV

TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
ACKNOWLEDGEMNETS iii
ABSTARCT vii
CHAPTERS
1 INTRODUCTION 1
Purpose of the Study 4
Need for the Study 4
Theoretical Perspective 8
Research Questions 13
Definition of Terms 14
Overview of the Remainder of the Study 15
2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 17
Problems Associated with the Lack of Empathy 18
Problems Associated with Levels of Control 24
Problems Associated with the Risk of Violence 29
History of the Therapeutic Aspects of Art Processes 33
Art Education in the Schools 38
Large Group Developmental Guidance and Interventions 42
Art Processes in School and Counseling Literature 45
Teachers As Facilitators 49
3 METHODOLOGY 53
Population and Descriptive Report 53
Sampling Procedures 56
Research Design 58
Hypotheses 59
Teacher-Facilitator T raining 60
Guidance Unit Description 62
Dependent Variables 65
Research Procedures 71
Data Analysis 72
v

4 RESULTS 74
Data Analysis 75
Other Findings 81
Summary of the Study 84
5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 87
Summary 87
Conclusions 89
Discussion 92
Limitations 93
Implications 95
Recommendations 97
APPENDIX
A CONSENT LETTERS FOR PARTICIPATION 100
B RESEARCH PROCEDURES 107
C RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS 113
D TEACHER-FACILATATOR TRAINING MANUAL 117
E SUPPLEMENTAL STATISTICS 146
F OTHER FINDINGS 148
REFERENCES 170
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 185
vi

Abstract of Dissertation
Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
ARTS-BASED GUIDANCE INTERVENTION FOR ENHANCEMENT OF
EMPATHY, LOCUS OF CONTROL, AND PREVENTION OF VIOLENCE
By
Dianne Lynn Skye
December 2001
Chairman: Dr. Robert Myrick
Major Department: Counselor Education
A teacher-facilitated large group guidance intervention for high school art
students was evaluated for its effects on locus of control (Children’s Nowicki-Strickiand
Internal External Locus of Control Scale), risk of violence (The Risk of Eruptive
Violence Scale), and levels of emotional empathy (The Balanced Emotional Empathy
Scale). The intervention was delivered by four art teachers to multi-grade level art
students in four North Central Florida public high schools.
A pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design was used. Intact art classes
were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions to assess the effects of the
dependent variables. The assignment resulted in 78 students in the test groups and 75 in
the control groups.
Vll

Six guidance sessions were delivered to the treatment groups within a single
grading period. The unit was developed with literature and art activities that centered on
awareness of empathic feelings and on perceptions of control related to management of
anger and violence. Control groups maintained normal classroom routine.
A mixed model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted on the locus of
control scores, risk of violence scores, and emotional empathy scores, to determine
significant treatment or interaction effects. Treatment effect was obtained on the measure
of locus of control at .05 level of significance. Both males and females in treatment had
lower posttest means (males M=13.21; females M= 12.29) than their counterparts in
control (males M= 15.50; females M= 12.82). Lower scores indicated a movement toward
internal locus of control. No significant treatment or interaction effects were found
during the ANCOVA analysis of the REV or the BEES.
Other findings collected during the experiential process for each session
suggested treatment effectiveness. Written and graphic arts data showed that students
were affected by the content of the counseling intervention.
This type of intervention may be an important vehicle for a synergistic and
parsimonious relationship between guidance and art education. The arts-based
intervention may have the potential to ignite the imagination, strengthen schemata for
alternative choices, develop empathic awareness, and instill the capacity to care. These
benefits in turn may impact locus of control and may promote socially acceptable
violence-free behavior.
vm

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
An increase in school violence has raised the issue of empathic understanding and
teaching children to care as one of the most interesting and difficult questions in
education today (Barrow, 1975; DeRoche & Williams, 1998; Siccone & Lopez, 2000).
Complex environmental, social, personal, and educational issues stuff the emotional
baggage that is hauled into the classroom by the increasingly diverse student population
(Keys, Bemak, & Lockhart, 1998). Widespread concerns about angry and aggressive
student behaviors produce reactive strategies that often overlook social contexts that
foster the perpetration of violence. The shootings at Columbine High School have
triggered awareness of a reality that could happen in any school, making it important to
assess warning signs and to advocate effective strategies for preventing the manifestation
of violence (Daniels, Arrendondo, & D’Andrea, 1999).
America’s youth are burdened by conditions of racism, poverty, unemployment,
neglect, crime, alcohol and drug abuse, and negative peer pressure. Confronted with
these conditions, many students internalize deep anger, accompanied by feelings of
hopelessness and frustration, rendering them ready to react in potentially dangerous ways
(Ascher, 2000). To exacerbate an alarmingly negative trend, the media glorifies violence
and does little to sensitize youth to human pain resulting from negative conditions.
Many individuals feel that they lack control over the outcomes of their lives and
they blame forces outside themselves. Externalized in their locus of control, a somewhat
1

2
desensitized generation of students is at risk for initiating acts of violence, intolerance
and crimes of hate.
Violence takes the form of bullying, intimidation, taunts, anger, and physical
aggression stemming from prejudice because of race, religion, gender, ethnicity, and
sexual orientation or disability (Siccone & Lopez, 2000). Although the potential for
violence impacts every student, public education in recent years has lost its power to pass
on core moral values to children that address these issues. The teacher’s role has become
the role of one who delivers a value-free exchange of information and skills (DeRoche &
Williams, 1998). With current emphasis on test scores, technology, and the
preoccupation with cognitive processes, ways of knowing have been separated from ways
of caring (Bruner, 1986; Noddings, 1992).
In response to these conditions, there has been a shift in advocacy toward
educational research in the affective domain. Traditionally, the arts and developmental
guidance have provided a caring connection that addresses both cognitive and affective
functioning of the individual. Both the visual arts and developmental guidance give
students a powerful avenue for exploring their worlds, getting to know themselves and
others, and for becoming more highly functioning human beings (Myrick, 1993; Willis &
Schubert, 1991).
Large group developmental guidance is one type of counselor intervention in
schools that blends the cognitive-affective realms of learning. Prevention, social skills,
and understanding the relationship of feelings, thoughts, and behaviors are common goals
of the large group guidance interventions (Faust, 1968). Through the partnership of the
two curricular areas of art and guidance, the question of viable character and affective

3
education can be considered. Both art and guidance share the goal of understanding the
social, intellectual, emotional, psychological, and creative needs of the student (American
School Counselor Association, 1979; Lowenfeld, 1957), in order to assist the
development process of individuals in all areas.
The development of critical intelligence and the nurture of the human capacity to
care are the focus of recent educational research (Clark & Jenson, 1997; Stout, 1999).
Framed as an arts-based developmental guidance unit with the teacher as facilitator
(Wittmer & Myrick, 1989), a cognitive-affective intervention, Walk a Mile in My Shoes,
was delivered in a classroom where communal deliberation was the method and critical
awareness and mutual understanding were the goals.
The arts are a universal language by which humans define themselves. According
to Stout (1999), “the arts have the capacity to draw together students’ thoughts and
feelings, turning them toward the imaginative exploration of the wide world of human
experience” (p. 23). Nucho (1987) concurs with the process of becoming aware through
the arts, which offer the opportunity to decode one’s personal imagery, understand the
feelings of others, and assist in the integration of new experiences. Art processes
empower one to discern new avenues for behavior.
Exposure to emotionally arousing stimuli through teacher-facilitated
developmental guidance can create the opportunity to assist change in beliefs and feelings
that lead to changes in behavior. Vicarious experience through exposure to misfortune,
deprivation, or distress of others has the capacity to increase empathic responses (Barnett,
Howard, Melton, & Dino, 1982). Passion, often bom out of adversity or the inability to
explain the realities of life, brings humans to explore and experience the arts

4
that serve as ways to record and react to impressions of the world. By incorporating
literature and works of visual art that have emotionally arousing stimuli, art educators as
facilitators in a developmental guidance format can encourage students to consider the
realities of others and to see similarities in their own personal issues and needs. These
stimuli can provide a basis for eliciting discussion about perceptions, feelings, and
behaviors and linking those perceptions to future actions.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an arts-based large
group guidance unit on personal control, risk of initiating violence, and the emotional
empathy of high school students. More specifically, art teachers in north Florida
delivered the intervention to students enrolled in high school art education classes. The
unit consisted of literature, art activities, and discussions that focussed on psychological
variables related to reducing teenage violence. An experimental design using pre- and
postmeasures was used to test differences between experimental and control groups.
Need for the Study
Youth violence in schools is rising and permeates every segment of our society.
Especially alarming is the availability of weapons and guns to youth. Indeed, growing
numbers of students are bringing guns to schools each day (Center to Prevent Handgun
Violence, 1990; Stephens, 1994). In 1992,10% of all high school seniors reported that
they did not feel safe at school while 23% of all seniors reported fights between different
racial and ethnic groups (U.S. Department of Education, Digest of Education Statistics,
1999). Students ages 12 through 18 were victims of nearly 255,000 nonfatal incidents of
violent crime at school (U.S. Department of Education, 1998). Violence also impacts
teachers who were victims of 1,581,000 nonfatal crimes at school between 1992 and

5
1996 that included theft, rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated and simple assault
(U.S. Department of Education, 1998). During every hour of every school day, 900
teachers are threatened; and 2,000 students and 40 teachers become victims of violence
(Stone, 1994).
Although the sources of violence are deep and long-standing, many education
professionals attribute school violence to conditions outside of the classroom (Stephens,
1994). Among those exacerbating conditions are the breakdown of the family, poor
parenting practices, violent role models, and celebration of violence in the media (Bender
& Bruno, 1990; Met Life, 1994). Negative peer pressure both in and out of school
contributes to violence (Toby, 1994), as do drug and alcohol abuse (U.S. Department of
Justice, 1991), and racism or bias in the form of hate crimes (McCormick, 1999). In
addition, 18.9% of all children live in poverty (U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of
the Census, 1998). These conditions engender emotional issues that potentially
contribute to the perception of loss of personal control and risk of initiated violence.
The answers to these problems are not simple. It has been argued that the
development of awareness of one’s own emotional states and the ability to discern and
interpret the emotional states of others leads to increased empathy. Increased empathy
correlates positively with emotional competence and social competence (Saami, 1990).
These qualities in turn produce constructive coping that results in low levels of problem
behavior and low aggression as reported by teachers, peers, and mothers (Eisenberg,
Fabes, Murphy, Karbon, Smith, & Maszk, 1996).
Individuals who experience more success in coping with stressful situations are
those who generally believe that they are in control of the events of their lives. They

6
have an internal locus of control orientation (Krause, 1987). In addition, this belief in the
capacity to control or master events in one’s life, empowers the individual with the
capability to evaluate potentially threatening situations and the capacity to solve
problems that might cause the stressful encounter (Folkman, 1984, Lazarus & Folkman,
1984).
Greater risk of initiating violence is generally associated with a more negative
outlook on life (Mehrabian, 1997). Some individuals are unable to cope with stress
engendered by oppressive family and social conditions of their lives and turn to violent
behavior in attempt to cope with stress (Chandler, 1985; Herzfeld & Powell, 1986).
These individuals usually attribute the outcomes of the events in their lives to conditions
outside of their control such as fate, luck, or powerful others.
Most school guidance counselors are trained to address issues of aggression and
violence through individual, small group, and classroom guidance interventions. Conflict
resolution, mediation, dispute resolution, stress inoculation, and anger management are
all programs designed to diffuse potentially violent situations (Skovholt, Cognetta, Ye, &
King, 1997). Although these programs are successful preventive strategies, the reality is
that the average high school counselor has between 350 and 530 students to serve. Those
services are further limited by noncounseling role requirements (Hardesty & Dillard,
1994; Napierkowski & Parsons, 1995). According to ACA guidelines, schools should
have one counselor for every 250 students (American Counseling Association, 2000).
Counselors cannot possibly address the personal issues of the entire school population.
High school art teachers are in a position to provide support for violence
intervention programs. Art educators who use a Disciplined Based Art Education (Clark,

7
1991) curriculum, teach their students to identify emotional and feeling states as well as
artist intentionally in the process of aesthetic criticism and judgment of works of art.
There are therapeutic aspects of art education as skilled art educators nurture students’
feelings of competence in a broadly beneficial way through the processes of recognition,
appreciation, and production of art (Wilson & Rubin, 1997). Art teachers employ
similarities between creative and therapeutic modalities as students are encouraged to
explore both the affective and cognitive processes involved in judging work of other
artists as well as being able to bring concrete representation to their own thoughts and
feelings through the production of visual art.
High school art teachers trained as facilitators can link and extend the activity
process by encouraging a heightened awareness of one’s own emotional and cognitive
states as well as an empathic awareness of the personal and social conditions of others as
experienced vicariously through visual and written art forms. The question that remains,
however, is whether providing this direct service through a cognitive-affective large
classroom guidance intervention can increase empathy, affect internal locus of control,
and improve student behavior by reducing initiated violence.
School counseling literature has yielded little or no direct evidence to support
such a claim although the use of art in counseling for individuals with behavior problems
has been used in many settings (Alexander, 1990; Cheatham & Powell, 1986; Geldard &
Geldard, 1999; Gerber, 1994; Hill & Tollerud, 1996; Kramer, 1993; Unsworth, 1990).
Current education literature advocates comprehensive character or moral
education that promotes empathy and caring as an antidote to aggression and violence

8
(DeRoche & Williams, 1998; Ingall, 1997; Katz, Noddings, & Strike, 1999;
Kirschenbaum, 1999; Noddings, 1992; Miller, 2000; Siccone & Lopez, 2000). Art
Education literature concurs with the concept that consciousness must be raised in order
for social change to take place (Albers, 1999; Bolin, 1999; Rettig & Rettig, 1999; Stout,
1999; Unsworth, 1990). However, no evidence exists of any outcome study that shows
the effectiveness of a large group classroom guidance intervention facilitated by art
teachers. There is a need to conduct a formal evaluation of art teacher-facilitated
guidance interventions designed to increase empathy and internal locus of control and
lessen the risk of initiated violence.
Theoretical Perspective
Framed as a developmental guidance unit (Myrick, 1993), this study was driven
by the theory that the unit should enhance the personal, social, vocational, and academic
growth of the individual. All of those areas are affected by the individual’s ability to
have an empathic understanding of others and ability to interact effectively in a world of
relationships.
As an arts-based intervention, this study was also influenced by the
developmental theories of Victor Lowenfeld (1957) in the areas of creative and mental
growth. Lowenfeld embraces the notion that education is largely responsible for attitudes
and actions that are linked to behaviors. Lowenfeld (1957) wrote:
If we lead a rich life it is education which has sensitized us for it; if we
live in a spirit of cooperation, it is education which has in early years
recognized the need for it and thus planted the seed in us; if we live in
peace with ourselves, it is education which recognized spiritual harmony
as one of the greatest contributors to life; if we, however, live in discord
with ourselves, it is also education which has neglected to emphasize
emotional growth, the ability to adjust to new situations, and thus help
us solve our difficulties in life. (p. 1-2)

9
Emotion and the individual’s capacity to experience emotional empathy for others
influences the student’s personal, vocational, social, and academic growth, because all of
these areas are contingent on the individual’s ability to successfully negotiate
interpersonal relationships.
Emotion plays a critical role in cognitive learning and personality development.
Training in interpersonal and empathic responding can help individuals recognize
different emotive states in themselves and others and can help individuals respond to
others positively, rather than in angry acting-out behaviors that can result in violence
(Cohen & Strayer, 1996; Eisenberg, Fabes, Murphy et al., 1996; Miller & Eisenberg,
1988). Large group guidance framed as an arts-based cognitive-affective intervention,
can provide the emotionally charged learning experiences that tend to increase empathic
feelings, increase positive responses to others, and help facilitate change in thinking,
feelings, and behaviors.
Art is a bridge that joins the creative and integrative capacities of the psyche and
helps contain emotion. This imaginative capacity allows the individual to experience
empathy with different points of view while decentering self and coming face to face
with the condition of others (Greene, 1995). Emotion is held within the process and
within the artwork, providing the individual with a means to reframe and reconsider
alternate ways of knowing, which can lead to change of thinking and behaving (Moon,
1994).
Individuals tend to learn more easily and retain what is learned when it is framed in an
emotional context (Goleman, 1995; Sylwester, 1995). Affective art is a personal
experience that focuses on experience, emotion, and thoughts of the individual,

10
incorporating at least six of the seven types of human intelligence described by Howard
Gardner (1993) in his Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Research shows that
“experience, particularly in childhood, sculpts the brain” (Goleman, 1995, p. 224).
Neural branching occurs when significant brain work is done that creates synapses
between nerve cells, which is analogous to building muscle through physical exercise
(Cardellichio & Field, 1997). This neural branching allows neural network connections
to shift about throughout life as conditions change and challenges emerge.
Environmental challenge and interactivity are important components in the mental
activity that nurtures synaptic plasticity. The use of emotion, experience, and learning
enhances the brain’s construction and ability to make cognitive shifts (Abbott, 1997;
Kotulak, 1996; Sylwester, 1995). Wittmer and Myrick (1989) stated that “regardless of
subject matter or curriculum, the most fundamental psychological basis for learning
occurs when a student is emotionally involved” (p.17).
Arts-based guidance interventions serve as ways we react to, share, and record our
impressions of the world. Involvement in the arts teaches divergent thinking and
encourage students to discover different answers rather than rote responses. The
aesthetic experience of literature and visual arts linked with facilitative guidance is an
opportunity for students to live vicariously new experiences that have the potential to
increase empathy. Through experiential activity they become embedded in the task and
“learn from the inside out rather than the outside in. Such figuring out requires critical
thinking, analysis, and judgment; students tend to stay on task because they are creating
their own world, not replicating someone else’s” (Fowler, 2000, p.2).

11
Rettig and Rettig (1999) suggested that in addition to the use of real-life
emotional contexts to enhance learning, the use of different senses, promotion of student
self-direction, support of social learning, and encouragement of pattern finding can each
optimize the growth of the brain in terms of learning and experiences. Large group
cognitive-affective guidance interventions delivered by art educators who use literature
and works of art to stimulate empathic response, expand insight through student
participation in art processes. The process engages students in hearing (the literature),
seeing (the work of art), and touching and smelling (the art medium). The senses are
explored vicariously in both the literary and visual arts media that paint a sensuous
portrait of the experience of another human being.
Student self-direction enhances the learning experience when the student is given
the opportunity to tell his or her own story after the social group learning has taken place
by discussion of the story of the writer and the artist. The student extracts meaning from
the group discussion and projects personal meaning into his or her own visual or written
art form. Meaning is enhanced further by the teacher as facilitator who helps the student
verbalize by linking and extending the activity process (Myrick, 1993). Insight is
developed that appeals to both intellect and imagination by applying it to present and past
experiences. Students begin to see a pattern of connections between and among
individuals and societies through works produced by self and others. “The arts humanize
the curriculum while affirming the interconnectedness of all forms of knowing” (Fowler,
2000, p.l).
These multi-sensory activities agree with the work of Howard Gardner (1993) and
his theory of Multiple Intelligences. Experiences stored in several interrelated memory

12
networks have the power to optimize learning and to enhance the intellectual and
emotional growth of the individual. With these cognitive-affective activities, students
can begin to see that the experiences of others could possibly become their own and be
moved toward response. “When we see the other’s reality as a possibility for us, we must
act to eliminate the intolerable, to reduce the pain, to fill the need, to actualize the dream”
(Noddings, 1984, p. 14). In other words, experiential activity can promote the capacity to
care.
The arts enhance the potential for empathy by expanding the capacity to think in
the abstract and to imagine something better. Interconnectedness is brought about by the
realization of shared emotional experiences. Through emotional and sensory-laden
learning experiences, individuals find a sense of belonging to family, society, and culture.
The arts increase the potential for fulfillment of the human need for defining self.
“Empathy for others factors into understanding yourself and feeling connected to your
own kind and the broader your empathy is the greater your ability to interact with people
from more diverse backgrounds. The arts are about, for, and by all of us” (Taylor, 1999,
p. 10).
An arts-based large group guidance unit provides one approach to support student
need for understanding self and others. It is a theoretical approach that promotes
understanding through experiential activity that can impact learning and enhance social
skills needed to be successful in the school and social environment. A cognitive-affective
approach emphasizes the examination and possible modification of thoughts, beliefs, andI
or expectations about self and others. “Study of the arts encourages a suppleness of mind,

13
a toleration for ambiguity, a taste for nuance, and the ability to make trade-offs among
alternative courses of action” (Springfield, 2000, p. 7-A).
Internal locus of control is a phenomenon sometimes considered in relationship to
dispositional and situational empathy. Based on Rotter’s theory (1966), a locus of
control orientation is a belief about whether the outcomes of our actions are contingent on
what we do (internal control orientation) or on events outside our personal control
(external control orientation). Perceived locus of control influences our motivation,
expectations, risk-taking, and the outcome of our behaviors. Self-regulation is an
attribute of those with an internal locus of control. An individual with internal locus of
control perceives self as responsible for outcomes in his or her life, while the individual
with external locus of control most often blames society, luck, or some other force
beyond his or her control for personal successes and failures.
It is argued that people who tend to empathize with another’s pain or distress are
likely to refrain from or cease aggression because of the emotional discomfort induced by
their vicarious response to the victim’s emotional reactions (Eisenberg, 2000; Feshback,
1978). Whether or not an arts-based large group guidance intervention can increase
empathy and create a shift in locus of control continues to be evaluated.
Research Questions
• Will students’ perception of their locus of control change after they complete the arts-
based guidance unit?
• Will students’ risk of initiating violence change after completion of the arts-based
guidance unit?
• Will high school art students who participate in an arts-based guidance unit have
greater capacity for emotional empathy?
• Do the students respond differently to the arts-based guidance unit according to
gender?

14
Definition of Terms
Affective art. An experiential process that focuses experience, emotion, and self.
It helps the individual recognize feelings that are being experienced while achieving
insight into feelings, thoughts, and behaviors through concentrated awareness. Affective
art processes combine the creative and integrative capacity of the psyche (Furrer, 1982;
Robbins & Sibley, 1976).
Cognitive. Cognitive aspects of an intervention are those processes that bring
about knowledge as individuals increasingly come to understand themselves and others
and gain different perspectives on their own motives and behaviors (Corsini & Wedding,
1995).
Empathy. The state of empathy or the ability to be empathic, is to perceive the
internal frame of reference (emotional components and meanings) of another person as if
one were that person but without losing the “as if’ condition, retaining one’s own identity
(Rogers, 1980).
External locus of control. The perception or belief that a person’s reinforcement
is under the control of others and outcomes of events in one’s life are caused by forces
such as luck or chance and lie beyond one’s control (Krause, 1987; Rotter, 1990).
Individuals who tend to favor this belief are referred to as externals.
Internal locus of control. The belief that a person has the ability to control
outcomes of events in life through effort, behavior, or personal characteristics such as
ability (Rotter, 1990). Individuals who tend to favor this belief are referred to as
internals.
Large group guidance. A counselor-led or facilitator-led intervention with more
than 10 students in a group. It is structured and exploratory and focuses on the

15
developmental needs of the students. Ideas, attitudes, feelings, beliefs, and behaviors are
explored. Prevention is a common goal for large group interventions (Myrick, 1993).
Locus of control. The degree to which the individual believes he or she is able to
influence the outcome of a situation (Rotter, 1990).
Teacher-facilitator. An individual who provides a positive, secure, and
nonthreatening classroom atmosphere in which students are encouraged to take risks,
explore ideas and feelings, and encouraged to be open. The teacher-as-facilitator
provides learning situations that are personally meaningful, positive, nonthreatening, self-
evaluated, and feeling focussed. Personal growth is encouraged out of caring for others.
Learning is facilitated through open communication and maximizing the factors of
thinking, feeling, and doing (Wittmer & Myrick, 1989). In this study, the teacher-
facilitator delivers the large group guidance intervention.
Violence. A manifestation of anger and aggression that can be defined as a
symptom demonstrated by hostile outbursts (Madow, 1972). Violence can take the form
of bullying, intimidation, taunts, anger, and physical aggression stemming from prejudice
because of race, religion, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or disability (Siccone &
Lopez, 2000).
Overview of the Remainder of the Study
The remainder of the study is organized into four chapters. Chapter 2 reviews the
literature focussed on problems associated with lack of empathy, low levels of control,
and the risk of initiated violence. The literature of the history of therapeutic aspects of art
processes, art education in the schools, and developmental guidance and large group
guidance interventions are also reviewed. Literature related to the teacher as facilitator

16
and the dependent variables of this study are also presented in Chapter 2. Research
methodology and the procedures used are described in Chapter 3. Results of the study
are presented in Chapter 4. The summary, conclusions, discussion, limitations,
implications, and recommendations are included in Chapter 5.

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In 1999, the U.S. Department of Education gave $2.7 million to implement and
upgrade character education as a measure to counteract the multiple killings and
increased violence that have been taking place in our nation’s schools (U.S. Department
of Education, 1999). While some schools seek change from the outside by adding guards,
metal detectors, and uniforms; others seek to improve school climate through preventive
measures that increase understanding and universal values (Guerra, 1998).
Empathy and caring are core components of character education that seek to help
students leam and assimilate core ethical values. Carl Rogers (1980) defined empathy as
the state of being able to perceive the internal frame of reference of another with
accuracy and with the emotional components and meanings which pertain thereto as if
one were the person but, without ever losing the “as if’ condition. In essence, empathy
broadens the breadth of perception and range of emotional experience. Caring increases
connection, reaching out, and altruistic behaviors.
Those educators responsible for character education are charged with helping to
develop essential human capacities that give students an open-minded understanding and
for helping to develop effective personal response in dealing meaningfully with
complexity. ‘The process by which this development occurs is the maturing process
afforded by vicarious experience and the empathic identification with both familiar and
remote ideas, events and persons” (Gallo, 1989, p. 99).
17

18
Empathy fosters critical and creative thinking and should be adopted as an
important educational goal. Reasoning benefits from empathic understanding. When
empathy increases, the individual is predisposed to good judgment by engaging the
individual more fully with the issue. Thought and action have both cognitive and
affective components, as does empathic response. The cognitive component of empathy
is understanding how another feels, while the affective component is communion by “the
imaginative transposing of oneself into the thinking, feeling and actions of another”
(Gallo, 1989, p. 100).
Empathy is also a prerequisite of compassion and morality. By learning what
others think and feel, the individual is potentially enhanced with wisdom. This can lead
to the ability of making more positive decisions that may reduce the individual’s risk for
choosing violent behaviors (Kirschenbaum, 1999).
Problems Associated with the Lack of Empathy
Lack of empathy is associated with Conduct Disorder. According to the
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (American Psychiatric
Association, 1994), the essential feature of Conduct Disorder is a pattern of persistent
behavior in which rights of others and societal norms are violated. Behavioral features
fall into four main categories: Aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm
to people or animals; conduct that causes property loss or damage; deceitfulness or theft;
and serious violation of rules.
Children or adolescents with Conduct Disorder are often aggressive and react
aggressively toward others with such behaviors as bullying, threatening, and intimidating.
They may initiate fights; may use a weapon (bat, brick, broken bottle, knife, or gun) with
the intent to inflict serious physical harm; and may be physically cruel to people or

19
animals. Other violent actions against others associated with Conduct Disorder include
stealing while mugging, purse snatching, or armed robbery and forcing someone to
engage in sexual activity. Physical violence may involve rape, assault, and in some cases
homicide.
Individuals with Conduct Disorder sometimes deliberately destroy others’
property. These acts of violence may take the form of deliberately setting fires with
intent to cause serious damage. Other deliberate actions with intent to cause damage
could include smashing car windows, school vandalism, or destruction of other real
property.
Characteristically, individuals who lack empathy and display the features of
Conduct Disorder, are deceitful and commonly practice acts of theft. These behaviors
may include breaking into a house, a building, or a car. Habitual lying or breaking
promises is a frequent practice in order to obtain goods or favors or to avoid debts or
obligations. It is not uncommon for individuals with Conduct Disorder to be skilled at
conning others or to steal without confronting the victim by shoplifting and forgery.
Serious violation of rules is also characteristic of individuals with Conduct
Disorder. Pattern behaviors may include staying out late at night despite parental
guidelines; a habit of running away from home overnight; and truancy from school
beginning before the age of 13. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders-IV (1994):
Individuals with Conduct Disorder may have little empathy and little
concern for the feelings, wishes, and well-being of others. Especially
in ambiguous situations, aggressive individuals with this disorder frequently
misperceive the intentions of others as more hostile and threatening than is
the case and respond with aggression that they may feel is reasonable and
justified. They may be callous and lack appropriate feelings of guilt or remorse.

20
It can be difficult to evaluate whether displayed remorse is genuine because these
individuals learn that expressing guilt may reduce or prevent punishment.
Individuals with this disorder may readily inform on their companions and try to
blame others for their own misdeeds, (p. 87)
Conduct Disorder is much more common in males but concerns are raised in the
misapplication of Conduct Disorder to individuals, such as persons from war-ravaged
countries, where aggressive behavior is a necessary means of survival. The context of the
individual must be considered when making the diagnosis and must be applied when the
behavior is symptomatic of the underlying dysfunction.
Symptoms vary as the age of the individual increases, along with cognitive and
sexual maturity. Typically, less severe behaviors emerge at first, whereas the more
severe emerge later. Males tend to exhibit the more confrontational forms of aggression
such as fighting, stealing, vandalism and school discipline problems; while females tend
to use more nonconfrontational behaviors such as lying, running away, substance abuse
and prostitution.
Subtypes of Conduct Disorder are provided based on age at onset (Childhood-
Onset Type and Adolescent-Onset Type) and differ in nature of the presenting problems
(mild, moderate, or severe form). Childhood-Onset Type is defined by the onset of at
least one of the characteristics before age 10. Adolescent-Onset Type is defined by the
absence of any criteria characteristic before age 10. Severity specifiers range from
relatively minor harm to others (mild) to considerable harm to others (severe). Table 2-1
describes the diagnostic criteria of Conduct Disorder.

21
Table 2-1
Diagnostic Criteria for Conduct Disorder (DSM-IV, 1994)
â–  A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others
or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated, as manifested by the
presence of three (or more) of the following criteria in the past 12 months, with at
least one criterion present in the past 6 months.
Aggression to people and animals
- Often bullies, threatens, or intimidates others
- Often initiates physical fights
- Has used a weapon that can cause serious physical harm to others (e.g., a
brick, bat, broken bottle, knife, gun)
- Has been physically cruel to people
- Has been physically cruel to animals
- Has stolen while confronting a victim (e.g., mugging, purse snatching,
extortion, armed robbery)
- Has forced someone into sexual activity
Destruction of property
- Has deliberately engaged in fire setting with the intention of causing serious
damage
- Has deliberately destroyed others’ property (other than by fire setting)
Deceitfulness or theft
- Has broken into someone else’s house, building, or car
- Often lies to obtain goods or favors or to avoid obligations (often “cons”
others)
- Has stolen items of nontrivial value without confronting a victim (e.g.,
shoplifting, but without breaking and entering; forgery)
Serious violations of rules
- Often stays out at nights despite parental prohibitions, beginning before age 13
- Has run away from home overnight at least twice while living in parental or
parental surrogate home (or once without returning for a lengthy period)
- If often truant from school, beginning before age 13 years
• The disturbance in behavior causes clinically significant impairment in social,
academic, or occupational functioning
• If the individual is age 18 years or older, criteria are not met for Antisocial
Personality Disorder

22
Table 2-1 continued
Specify type based on age at onset.
- Childhood-Onset Type: onset of at least one criterion characteristic of
ConductDisorder before age 10 years
- Adolescent-Onset Type: absence of any criteria characteristic of Conduct
Disorder before age 10 years
Specify severity
- Mild: few if any conduct problems in excess of those required to make
the diagnosis and conduct problems cause only minor harm to others
- Moderate: number of conduct problems and effect on others intermediate
between “mild” and “severe”
- Severe: many conduct problems in excess of those required to make the
diagnosis or conduct problems cause considerable harm to others (pp. 90-91).
Individuals who lack empathy and meet the criteria for Conduct Disorder, have
higher injury rates and are more prone to school expulsion and problems with the law
than are other individuals. Aggressive and violent behavior; vandalism and deliberate
destruction; early tobacco, alcohol, and substance use and abuse; as well as precocious
sexual activity, have the capacity to greatly interfere with school and personal success.
These individuals often have poor relationships with adults and authority figures, rarely
perform at the level predicted by their IQ, and have higher rates of depression, suicidal
thoughts, suicidal attempts, and suicide itself than children without Conduct Disorder
(Shaffer, Fisher, Dulcan, Davies, Piacentini, Schwab-Stone, Lahey, Bourdon, Jensen,
Bird, and Canino,1996b).
Conduct Disorder in 9-to-17 year-olds varies from 1 to 4 %, depending on how
the disorder is defined and its severity (Shaffer, Fisher, Dulcan, Davies, Piacentini,
Schwab -Stone, Lahey, Bourdon, Jensen, Bird, and Canino, and Regier, 1996a). Early
onset of the disorder is seen predominantly in males and appears to be more common in

23
cities than in rural areas. Between a fourth and half of the children with Conduct
Disorder become antisocial adults (Rutter & Giller, 1984).
Social risk factors for Conduct Disorder include early maternal rejection,
separation from parents with no adequate alternative caregiver, early institutionalization,
family neglect, abuse or violence, parental marital discord, large family size, crowding,
and poverty (Loeber & Stouthamer-Loeber, 1986). The lack of attachment to parents or
family is thought to be one of the main factors leading to the eventual lack of regard for
rules, concern for others, or the rewards of society (Sampson & Laub, 1993).
Increasing emotional ties between parent and child may be an appropriate
intervention, as well as working with high-risk children on social interaction skills.
Providing academic help to reduce school failure can help prevent some of the negative
educational consequences of Conduct Disorder (Johnson & Brechenridge, 1982).
Need to Educate for Empathy
Education today must be that which meets the needs of diverse ethnic heritage,
widely different intellectual capacities, physical difference, and interest difference. Need
for care and empathy in our present culture is acute. Adolescents feel uncared for in
schools and in need for special relation (Noddings, 1992). Noddings, a leading authority
on character education, suggests that education should be organized around centers of
care where each individual feels cared for and where each individual learns to care for
other human beings. It is her contention that education should produce caring people,
instead of focussing exclusively on the drive for academic adequacy.
Empathic caring requires cultivation, determination, and commitment from
educators in order to pass that value on to students. To educate for empathy, awareness

24
of the consequences of actions toward other people and all life forms must be made
explicit. Responsibility for suffering and insistence on justice for all people, opens hearts
to victims of violence, prejudice, and injustice. Empathy is a way of being. It is a self-
sustained awareness of self and others. Breggin (1997) summarizes the consequences of
increasing empathy in self and others:
Empathy is a force; it can motivate us to take stands on behalf of all sentient
beings- everyone and everything that thinks or feels. If more of us allowed
ourselves a full measure of empathy, women would find themselves treated as
equals, men and women would stop humiliating each other, child abuse would
end, racism would vanish, and definitive steps would be taken to end hunger,
poverty, and inadequate medical care. The planet we live on would become
safer from exploitation, (p. 126)
Batson (1991) hypothesized that empathy, due to intrinsic other-orientated
motivation, is likely to lead to other-oriented, altruistic helping behavior. It was found
that when people experience empathy, they infer that they value the welfare of persons in
need (Batson, Batson, Todd, & Brummett, 1995), and develop more positive attitudes
toward members of oppressed groups (Batson, Polycarpou, Harmon-Jones, Imhoff,
Mitchener, Bednar, Klein, & Highberber, 1997). Thus, individuals who have the capacity
to experience empathy would be relatively likely to assist other people, including
members of oppressed or stigmatized groups. Increased empathy would seem to be a
goal of early intervention for school and societal violence as well as for early and late
onset of Conduct Disorder in children and adolescents.
Problems Associated With Levels of Control
Literature on locus of control contrasts characteristics of internal locus of control
with external locus of control. Rotter (1966) emphasized that distinctions are made
depending upon whether or not the individual perceives a relationship between behavior

25
and what happens in their life. In his theory, a person’s actions are predicted on the basis
of values, expectations, and the situation in which the individual finds him or herself.
The location of the locus of control construct is determined in the freedom of
movement, or obtaining positive satisfaction as a result of a set of related behaviors
directed toward a group of functionally related reinforcements. An individual has low
freedom of movement if he or she has a high expectancy of failure or punishment as a
result of his or her behaviors with which the individual tries to obtain the reinforcements
that constitute a particular need. High freedom of movement is generalized expectancy
of success resulting from the ability to remember and reflect upon specific expectancy
behavior or outcome sequences (Lefcourt, 1976).
Perceived control is a generalized expectancy for internal as opposed to external
control reinforcements. Expectancy of internal versus external control of reinforcement
involves a causal analysis of success and failure. The generalized expectancy of internal
control refers to the perception of events as being a consequence of one’s own actions
and therefore are perceived as potentially under personal control. Individuals who
perceive that events are unrelated to one’s own behavior and therefor beyond personal
control have an external locus of control (Rotter, 1966).
Kelman and Lawrence (1972) conducted a survey that linked locus of control with
responsibility attribution that may have bearing on the link between external locus of
control and the propensity to initiate violent behavior. In their study, a sample of
Americans were questioned about the trial of Lieutenant Calley, the officer in charge of a
platoon of men who were given orders to kill each and every person in the village of My
Lai, including infants, children, women, and the elderly. According to their findings,

26
resistance to orders and the acceptance of responsibility when one is compliant to them
derives from the individual’s maintenance of a framework of personal causation and the
ability to differentiate or asses the quality of demand made upon that individual. This
concept is important when considering negative peer pressure and linking locus of control
to influence resistance to violence and aggression.
Johnson and Gormly (1972) conducted a study that provided some support for the
link between locus of control and resistance to temptation. Fifth grade boys and girls
were classified as cheaters and non-cheaters on the basis of a behavioral test. A
significant difference on Crandall’s IAR scale was obtained and showed that female
students who cheated were more external that their non-cheating peers. Male students
had results in the same direction.
Midlarski (1971) found that individuals who were more internal on locus of
control were more likely to help another individual than were externals, despite the fact
that they were penalized for doing so. Internals seem to be more tolerant of discomfort in
doing what they consider to be correct than are the externals. In a similar study of
Johnson, Ackerman, Frank, and Fionda (1968), subjects had to make the choice between
resisting pressures to commit immoral acts and suffering ostracism, loneliness, and other
psychological stressors. Internals tolerated pain for actively doing what they considered
correct, while they expressed a willingness to risk social rejection for maintaining what
they construed as proper behavior. These studies support the hypothesis that when an
individual believes that he or she is the responsible agent of the outcomes of his or her
own life, he or she will resist influences that aim to bypass the individual’s sense of

27
moral justice. The individual with internal locus of control is more likely to respond only
to those appeals that address themselves to his or her own beliefs and values.
The concept of deferred gratification in relationship to locus of control may also
have some bearing on the rise of violent and aggressive behaviors. Bialer (1961)
conducted the first empirical study supporting the connection between locus of control
and the ability to defer gratification. He found that deferred gratification was associated
with internal locus of control since internals are better able to maintain the tension
associated with delays than externals. Externals decline to postpone immediately
available pleasures for distant goals when daily events occur. Distant goals require the
sacrifice of immediate pleasure. This inability to defer gratification could conceivable
account for shoplifting, theft, or even perpetration of violence against other individuals.
The external desires immediate gratification to fulfill his wants and needs.
Locus of control has also been correlated with time-related measures (Platt &
Eisenman, 1968). They found that internals have a longer future time perspective than do
externals, which may account for more risk taking behaviors that are associated with
Conduct Disorder and other behavioral disorders that often include violence and
aggression. Related to that study was a study of suicide by Melges and Weisz (1971).
Their findings indicated that increases in suicide ideation were associated with more
negative evaluation of the personal future and with less internal control. A negative
outlook for the future and external control expectancies were associated with each other
and with suicide ideation.
Researchers have attempted to use locus of control to understand difficulties in
psychological functioning in regard to persons who are emotionally disturbed, learning

28
disabled, and delinquent Duke and Mullens (1973) found that hospitalized
schizophrenics were more external than hospitalized non-schizophrenics. The
relationship between externality and abnormality has been also shown with alcoholics
(Nowicki & Hopper, 1974). Emotionally disturbed children in residential treatment were
found to be more external in their locus of control (Nelson, Finch, Montgomery, &
Bristow, 1974).
Externality is also associated with subjects with identified learning problems
(Hallahan, Gajar, Cohen, & Tarver, 1978). Nowicki (1981) found that children become
more internal with age, contrary to the findings for learning disabled children. This
suggests that increasing externality may result from the compounding of frustration and
helplessness in children with learning problems over time.
Juvenile delinquency as well as learning disabilities seem to be positively
associated with externality (Duke & Fenhagen, 1975). Beck and Ollendick (1975)
reported that while the overall level of locus of control is more external for the
delinquents, within the delinquent group itself some appear to be more internal. Those
delinquents who are more internal appear to engage in more positive behavior than do
their external peers. Similar to the normal population, delinquents became more internal
as a result of treatment or rehabilitation programs (Eitzen, 1974; Gaar, 1981).
Problems associated with locus of control seem to be linked with the dimension of
externality. Persons with an external locus of control are less successful in coping with
stressful situations than are individuals who generally believe that they are in control of
the events of their lives (Krause, 1987). To summarize, those problems include: low
influence resistance; low resistance to temptation; inability to tolerate discomfort while

29
helping another individual; low ability to defer gratification; short future time
perspective; high suicide ideation; and negative future outlook. Persons who are
emotionally disturbed, who have learning disabilities, and those who are delinquent are
more likely to have an external locus of control.
Problems Associated with the Risk of Violence
The shootings that took place at Columbine High School have brought into focus
the rising levels of violence that are occurring in many schools across the country.
Young people are inundated by the glorification of violence in the media as portrayed on
television, movies, video games, and in popular music. The problem of violence poses
great concerns about the psychological well-being of children, adolescents, and adults.
A recent article in the Journal of Counseling & Development examines the social
context of bullying behaviors in early adolescents. According to Espelage, Bosworth,
and Thomas (2000), bullying behaviors can create serious consequences for both the
victim and the perpetrator. The entire climate of a school can be affected by unchecked
threats and intimidation. Bullies are more at risk of becoming physically abusive as
adults and of having a criminal record.
Bandura (1973, 1986) contended that the external environment contributes to
acquiring and maintaining aggressive behaviors. Children learn from peers and adults to
use aggressive means to achieve their goals. Aggression, which is the antecedent of
violence, has been found to also be associated with peer rejection and peer pressure (The
American Teacher, 1999), degree of drug use in adolescence, and adolescent delinquency
(U. S Department of Justice, 1991). Adult criminality such as abuse, neglect, and other
negative behaviors perpetrated toward youth also exacerbates youth violence.

30
About 10 % of all 1992 high school seniors reported that they did not feel safe at
school while 23 % reported that there were often fights between different racial/ethnic
groups (U.S. Department of Education, Digest of Education Statistics 1999). In 1996,
students ages 12 through 18 were victims of nearly 255,000 incidents of nonfatal serious
violent crime at school. About 671,000 such crimes took place away from school (U.S.
Department of Education, 1998).
Teachers as well as students are at risk for experiencing violence in the schools.
From 1992 to 1996, teachers were victims of 1,581,000 nonfatal crimes at school,
including 962,000 thefts and 619,000 violent crimes including rape, sexual assault,
robbery, aggravated and simple assault (U.S. Department of Education, 1998).
In 1998,1,598 children under the age of 18 were murdered (U.S. Department of
Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1998). Although school associated violent
deaths have decreased in recent years, multiple victim homicides in schools have
increased (U. S. Department of Education & U. S. Department of Justice, 1999). 1,470
children under the age of 18 were arrested for murder in 1998; 3,769 were arrested for
rape; 51,360 adolescents were arrested for aggravated assault; and 32,232 young people
under the age of 18 were arrested for having weapons in 1998 (U.S. Department of
Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1998).
Numerous social and environmental stressors impact the propensity for youth
violence. Among other factors include a growing diversity of K-12 student enrollment.
All of the school shootings that have occurred over the past several years have been
perpetrated by white male students from middle class and suburban backgrounds.
Factors were evident that cultural-racial factors were implicit in the Columbine tragedy as

31
Harris and Klebold explicitly stated that they intended to shoot as many non-white
students as they could during their killing spree (Daniels, Arrendondo, &
D’Andrea, 1999). The media also explored the possibility that Christian students were
targeted by the two killers.
Students are finding easy access to hate groups that are involved in racist
behavior. The Southern Poverty Law Center identified 537 hate groups in 1997 (Daniels,
Arrendondo, & D’Andrea, 1999). Groups such as these are experiencing large increases
due to the primary recruiting tool that is provided by the internet.
Tensions from the lack of empathic understanding and the kinds of racial
problems that have been embedded in our consciousness as a nation, are likely to surface
as schools become more culturally diverse. The nation is shifting from a country that is
composed of a majority of persons who come from white European backgrounds to one
of a majority of individuals who are non-white and non-European. In 1997, the diversity
of the enrollment of K-12 students in the United States was 17.0% Black; 14.4%
Hispanic; 3,9% Asian American/Pacific Islander; 1.2% American Indian; 36.5% Non-
White; and 63.5% White (U.S. Department of Education, 1999). To add to the
imbalance, teachers are overwhelmingly represented by White females (84.7%).
Other problems associated with violence in our schools include sexual and gender
violence. Gays, lesbians, and women are devalued by our society. The National Health
and Education Consortium reports that every 12 seconds in the United States a woman is
battered (Daniels, Arredondo, & D’Andrea, 1999). Gays are being beaten and murdered
in our society and devalued often times in the schools.

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Poverty promotes forms of personal violence. Poverty is suffered by 13,467,000
children in our country that renders them vulnerable to economic, educational, physical,
psychological and social problems (U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the
Census, 1998). Dignity and self-worth are eroded away, leaving individuals frustrated
and poised to react from the tension with sometimes violent and aggressive behaviors.
Combating the problem of school violence is a monumental task. Schools are
approaching the tide of violence by having zero tolerance policies for serious offenses, by
formal violence prevention and/or violence reduction programs, and by incorporating
conflict management, social skills training, counseling and other therapeutic activities
into the school curriculum. The reality is however, that to accomplish violence
prevention strategies in schools, more counselors and facilitators are needed to do the
work. According to Guerra (1998), there are approximately 90,000 school counselors
working in the U.S. public schools, with an average counselor-to-student ration of 517:1.
President Clinton joined with the U.S. Conference of Mayors that has called for the hiring
of 100,000 new school counselors. With that addition the ratio of counselor-to- students
would decrease to 250:1 (Guerra, 1998).
Still another problem engendered by the risk of violence in schools is the nature
and role of assessment. “The School Shooter,” a 52-page study commissioned by the
FBI, backed by the Critical Incident Response Group, and the National Center for the
Analysis of Violent Crime, has been released (Simmons, 2000). The report presents a
four-part assessment tool for use by educators and counselors to identify children and
teens who may be on the edge of violent behavior. Counselors and educators have voiced
concerns about the instrument and according to Simmons (2000), cautions are being

33
sounded about responsible use of the instrument and the possible harm that could cause
for students who have been identified according to the “The School Shooter.”
History of the Therapeutic Aspects of Art Processes
According to psychoanalytic theory, “men naturally create symbols because of the
human mental equipment they inherit” (Feldman, 1970, p. 150). Victor Lowenfeld
(1957), pioneer of art education in his classic Creative and Mental Growth, captured the
essence of the instinctual need and drive that humans have for creative expression:
One of these intrinsic qualities is that every human being is endowed
with a creative spirit. Soon after birth he begins to investigate and
explore the use of his ability for new adventures. New findings in
psychology consider this one of the “basic drives” a drive without
which we cannot exist; the ability to create is probably what distinguishes
man most from animals, (p. 432-433)
Since ancient times, man has resorted to the creative processes for spiritual and
emotional healing and as an avenue for transcendence above the psychic pain wrought by
the struggles and challenges of life. As man moved beyond cave paintings and began
creating art for everyday use, ceremonial use, ritual use, and art as a form of
communication with the spirits, art became infused with meaning. The artist’s
involvement with the material took on the form of a magical and spiritual union. The
body, mind, and spirit forces of the external world in relationship to the unconscious and
conscious man created the healing elements in primitive art. The connection between art,
the psyche, the body and the spirit were completely fused in the life of the primitive man
and greatly linked to his psychological well-being.
Ernst Harms, founder and former editor of the International Journal of Art
Psychotherapy, studied the history of the healing effects of arts by tracing back to biblical

34
sources which describe how King Saul urged David to cure his depression by playing the
harp (Harms, 1975).
In 1925, Nolan C. Lewis used free painting with adult neurotics as a modality for
healing (Naumburg, 1947). And as early as 1915, Margaret Naumburg, founder of the
Walden School, wrote about her awareness of the relationship between children’s
drawings and psychotherapy as she became convinced that free art expression
represented a symbolic form of speech that was basic to all education (Naumburg, 1947).
Under the direction of Nolan C. Lewis, Naumburg initiated an experimental research
program in the use of spontaneous art in therapy with behavior-problem children at New
York State Psychiatric Unit Her prolific writing and seminars spearheaded growing
interest in the field of art as therapy and stimulated mental health professionals and
educators to question and explore the possibilities of art as a therapeutic tool.
Early practitioners of psychoanalysis recognized the value of creative processes
for mental health. Jung (1956) encouraged patients to draw in spontaneous fashion their
innermost feelings and fantasies. “Art was perceived as a revealing and healing activity
by a number of pioneering psychiatrists early in this century” (Vondracek & Corneal,
1995, p. 294). Jung saw art and symbolic creations as a key to the unconscious and
collective unconscious.
Elinor Ulmon, an art educator, trained under Naumburg and added significant
impetus to the development of art as a therapeutic modality. In 1961, she published the
first issue of the Bulletin of Art Therapy, which continues to be a major publication in the
field. The American Art Therapy Association was officially launched in 1969 with the

35
goal of art therapy as “help for the individual child or adult to find a more compatible
relationship between his inner and outer worlds” (Corsini, 1981, p.3).
Although the healing and empowering qualities of the creative processes have
been established historically, contemporary use of art as a therapeutic medium has been
received with some criticism. Difficulties arise because managed care has created time
constraints and the need for empirical research. As revealed by numerous case studies,
counseling strategies that employ creative processes have been proven successful with a
wide variety of populations but these methods are difficult to quantify and to produce
measurable outcomes, often requiring more time than brief therapy permits. Vondracek
and Corneal (1995) contend that the nature of the creative experience of producing art is
subjective and perhaps the quantitative methods of research are inadequate or
inappropriate for understanding and evaluating art processes.
Sheppard (1994) studied art processes as healing forces that bring about
“harmony of body, mind, and spirit” (p.103). As a nurse and artist, Sheppard conducted a
qualitative investigation of nurses across the country who answered the question of
“where do we go when we wish to heal ourselves or when we want to re-create
ourselves?” Interviews and written questionnaires formed the basis for this
phenomenological study that produced unanimous response to the notion of art as a
healing force. Sheppard’s research involved talk about the healing power of art in the
lives of the nurses who were interviewed as well as in their practices with clients. She
concluded through the study that: (1) Art heals by empowering the individual to bring
forth something from nothing. Suffering is often turned into creative energy, bringing the
creator in touch with personal power through the artistic act. (2) Art heals by offering

36
individuals a way to understand their deeper selves, by contacting the beauty of
expression of our inner natures. And (3) art heals in a direct fashion when used as a
therapeutic tool, through images and symbols that can enact physical healing.
Dossey, Guzzetta, and Kenner (1985) studied how patients could draw their
disease processes with simple crayons and paper. By combining art with relaxation and
imagery, patients drew healing images. Music and relaxation was researched with
coronary care patients. They reported that they felt better and had fewer complications
than did the control group or relaxation alone group.
The Arts in Medicine movement has reestablished the age-old connection
between body-mind-and spirit. “For the nurse or physician in the medical center, art and
healing involves observing how thoughts, emotions, and images change the body. As we
make art, we see images. The images involve the firing of neurons in different areas of
the brain” (Samuels & Lane, 1998, p. 82). According to this study, when an individual
produces art, the possibility of a deep sense of joy or the release of tension, stimulates the
healing state of the body to engage. The hypothalamic pathways of the parasympathetic
nervous system send messages to the cells. A chemical change also takes place in the
brain. The hypothalamus sends messages to the adrenal glands to release endorphins and
neurotransmitters release endorphins, which can relieve pain and make the immune
system more effective. “The endorphins are like opiates, or mind-altering drugs, and they
make a person feel expanded, connected, at one, relaxed, vibrating, tingling, at peace”
(Samuels & Lane, 1998, p. 85). This physiological phenomenon has a positive effect on
the perception of well-being and mental health. Emotional burdens and burnout can be
relieved by engaging in art processes. When an individual creates symbols of internal

37
experiences, meanings that can be understood by a therapist can be discussed and the
client feels affirmed (Linesch, 1993).
The use of art can enhance the expression of fantasy, which can be a source of
satisfaction and accomplishment, according to Oster and Gould (1987). “By graphically
representing some of these feelings, clients bring them out in the open, confront them,
and learn to gain control over them. When this has been achieved, individuals in therapy
can then begin to feel more in control emotionally, which makes it easier to think for
themselves and gain a better sense of identity” (p. 64).
Moon (1994) cites additional intrinsic healing qualities of art that can promote
healing and mental health: (1) Art is existential. Expression leads to mindfulness, which
leads to change/action. (2) The arts are authentic modes of communication where stories
of selfhood can be safely told. (3) Art is soul and from the depths of human experience,
creative processes make meaning visible and concrete. (4) Art is mastery and facilitates a
link with self-discipline, which is bound to self-regard. (5) Images produced by an
individual are living metaphors that invite reverence and respect. (6) Expressive
processes are empowering:
The empowering nature of art therapy is found in its capacity
to accept and embrace distress, not in its desire to rid the patient
of it. The arts bring our deepest fear, loneliness, and anguish to our
attention. Rather than ‘cure’ these discomforting aspects of life,
art therapy enables the persons to live with them courageously and
with meaning. (Moon, 1994, p. 146)
(7) Art is play-dynamic, sensual, mysterious, filled with fantasy and provides a safe
atmosphere for expression of emotions. And finally, (8) art is relationship because it
engages people with self and others and provides a structure for chaos.

38
Wadeson (1980) proposed that the creative experience allows one to escape
oneself in a kind of transcendent process that induces the feeling of being part of a more
universal experience than the unique condition of one’s own life. She suggested that a
profound understanding of oneself is obtained through that integration, which in itself can
be extremely healing. In essence, art processes are therapeutic by changing ones
physiology and attitude.
Art Education in the Schools
Art education in the schools was pioneered by Victor Lowenfeld (1957), whose
publication of the Eighth Edition of Creative and Mental Growth in 1987, 27 years after
his death, is a tribute to the vitality of the author’s ideas on art education. His basic
philosophy was to develop in every human being the uppermost potential creative ability.
Lowenfeld lectured at Harvard and Columbia from 1939 to 1946 and became a member
of the faculty of the Pennsylvania State University, where he remained until his death in
1960. There he established the first major center for doctoral research and study in art
education. His writings and teachings have rendered him the most influential figure in
American art education.
Lowenfeld’s work contributed to the description and analysis of the evolution of
children’s art through a series of developmental stages. The description of these stages
remains a valuable tool for every art teacher and art therapist today (Ulman, 1987).
Lowenfeld stressed the importance of nonvisual (bodily) experience as a resource for
expression. In addition, he stressed the use of creative activity as a means of self-
realization and stressed the establishment of rapport between teacher and student as of
great importance. “The establishment of rapport depends greatly on the teacher’s ability
to identify himself with his case, to put himself in his place” (Lowenfeld, 1957).

39
This feeling of empathy is one of the most important prerequisites, according to
Lowenfeld (1957).
Lowenfeld’s monumental chapter on “Therapeutic Aspects of Art Education” that
appeared in the Third Edition (1957) assists art educators today in clarifying problems in
the schools through analyzing the extreme cases that he brought forward in this work.
The influence of the broadening effect of art on the development of speech, the relieving
effect of creative activity upon our emotions, and the influence on our mental growth has
been demonstrated by mentally defective subjects whose rigid patterns were difficult to
change, but nevertheless, changed. Lowenfeld’s work further impacts contemporary art
education in the schools by confirming that through improving sensory experiences, self
concept is elevated, tension is alleviated, and the self gains contact and connection with
the environment.
Fowler (2000) of the Getty Foundation, contends that when we have strong arts
programs in the schools, we have strong schools. According to Fowler (2000), “The arts
humanize the curriculum while affirming the interconnectedness of all forms of
knowing” (p. 1). Art in the schools teaches divergent thinking and encourages students to
come up with different answers rather than ingrained learned responses. Creative
problem solving that is encouraged by the arts, invites student participation in the
learning process instead of telling them how to think. Art engages the minds of students
and encourages them to sort out alternatives through the medium of expression. Critical
thinking, analysis, and judgment are all involved in engagement with the creative
process. Art is an engaging way to learn and fosters independent thinking, which is the
basis of creativity.

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Art education in the schools is a way to bridge the individual to a broader culture.
It is a basic way by which individuals define who they are. Taylor (1999) forges a link
between the performing artists and art educators by encouraging the aptitude of creating
the capacity for imagining something that does not exist which in turn fosters empathy.
“Empathy for others factor into understanding yourself and feeling connected to your
own kind and the broader your empathy is, the greater your ability to interact with people
from more diverse backgrounds. The arts are about, for, and by all of us” (Taylor, 1999,
p. 10). The arts in schools put students in touch with their own and other people’s
feelings. The arts develop capacity for compassion and humaneness. In concert with
Taylor, Fowler (2000) of the Getty foundation contends that it is not intellect that
connects us to other people; it is feeling. The arts give us a means for communicating
human essence and serve as ways we can identify with those who live with us on our
planet. The arts teach respect.
Art in schools serves as language. Murray Sidlin, conductor of the New Haven
Symphony, is cited by Boyer (2000):
When words are no longer adequate, when our passion is greater
than we are able to express in a usual manner, people turn to art.
Some people go to the canvas to paint; some stand up and dance.
But we all go beyond our normal means of communicating and this
is the common human experience for all people on this planet.
(Boyer, 2000. p. 1)
Art education is basic according to Boyer (2000) because it expands language. The arts
are languages that reach all people at their deepest most essential level. The quality of a
civilization is often measured by the breadth of the symbols it uses.
Art education plays an important role in the school curricula: the release of
students’ imaginations (Greene, 1995) and to reveal in a visual sense the students’ beliefs

41
about themselves, their roles and their place in society. Willis and Schubert (1991)
perceive art education as a powerful way for students to explore their world, know
themselves, and become better human beings. Miller (2000) contends that there is
“mounting evidence that suggests that the study of the arts actually increases the growth
of neural pathways, aids in improving memory, and promotes creative problem solving”
(p.75). The arts in schools are important to every discipline (Amstine, 1990; 1995;
Collins, 1995; Eisner, 1991; Greene, 1995; Harste, 1994).
The inclusion of character education in art education is one proactive response to
the condition of the world. The affective curricular focus is aimed toward educational
and social change. Ethnographic studies are conducted exploring socio-political beliefs
students bring to their artwork; working with refugees; teaching students with physical
limitations; issues of success at learning; and the study of folk art as a catalyst for
learning are some of the important issues with which art educators are grappling (Bolin,
1999). One of the thrusts of art education is to raise the people’s consciousness, which is
the first step to social change.
Ideas drawn from connective aesthetics (Gablik, 1995) and enlightened listening
(Levin, 1989) are among important issues brought to art education in the schools today.
Feminist pedagogy (Sandell, 1991), including caring, connections, community, modeling,
dialogue, practice and confirmation (Noddings, 1984,1992) are examined through action
research projects by art educators and artists (Irwin, Crawford, Mastri, Neale, Robertson,
& Stephenson, 1997). Art teachers are employing deconstructionist practices as
reconstructionist curriculum in order to educate students to be attentive to nuance (Gude,
2000).

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Art education in the schools provides a proactive approach to prevention of drop¬
outs (Unsworth, 1990) and the development of empathy (Stout, 1999) by forging a caring
connection between teacher and student. Rather than being the information giver, the art
teacher becomes a facilitator who takes a more empathic approach. A moral-cognitive
approach to education has its foundation in the arts where students’ thoughts and feelings
can be turned toward imaginative exploration. Through aesthetic experience, students
can live new experiences and move beyond the limitations of self.
Large Group Developmental Guidance and Interventions
Large group developmental guidance is a parsimonious and facilitative attempt to
reach large numbers of students through proactive and preventative interventions planned
around a series of lessons that are part of an organized guidance curriculum (Myrick,
1993). Large group guidance is supported by many in the literature as a means of coping
with the growing numbers in counselor student loads (Borders & Drury, 1992; Corey,
1995; and Praport 1993). Counselors become available to greater numbers of students
through large group counseling units (May & Housley, 1996; Phillips & Phillips, 1992).
Strong support exists for the effectiveness of large group guidance interventions (Prout &
Prout, 1998).
Before counselors were employed in the schools, students were dependent upon
classroom teachers to help with any personal, social, or career-related issues. As
developmental guidance became instituted throughout our schools, counseling and
guidance curriculum has been designed to enhance personal, social, vocational, and
academic growth of the student. “The primary goal is to help students learn more
effectively and efficiently” (Myrick, 1993, p. 1).

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The Developmental Model of Guidance and Counseling
Since human development occurs in stages over time, the developmental guidance
approach is based on the rationale that the developmental process can be enhanced.
Planned, age-appropriate educational interventions are developed that help students
acquire knowledge, basic skills, self awareness, and attitudes necessary for successful
mastery of normal developmental tasks essential for effective functioning and happiness
(Borders & Drury, 1992; Wittmer, 1993). Personal services are offered to students
through the developmental guidance curriculum in which life skills are identified and
emphasized as a part of helping to prepare students for adulthood. The guidance
curriculum is complementary to the academic curriculum (Myrick, 1993).
The developmental model gives students the opportunity to investigate problems
that they might encounter in their personal development in advance of onset.
Developmental guidance interventions are often focused on helping students understand
themselves and others. Developmental guidance counselors assist students in making the
connection between thinking, feelings, and behaviors so they can make responsible
choices while understanding their own and others’ feelings.
The opportunity for learning about self and others is an essential part of the
organized curriculum of developmental guidance. Skills that are learned around this
basic premise enhance the total learning experience of the student. Caring conditions that
promote the respect and dignity in an environment of positive interpersonal interaction
support the developmental model. Conditions of caring, understanding, acceptance,
respect, and trustworthiness are among the values that are promoted by developmental

44
guidance and have been cited as most desirable in a helping relationship (Carkhuff &
Berenson, 1967; Rogers, 1957).
Among the goals that most characterize the developmental guidance and
counseling model are: (1) understanding the school environment; (2) understanding self
and others; (3) understanding attitudes and behavior; (4) decision making and problem
solving; (5) interpersonal and communications skills; (6) school success skills; (7) career
awareness and educational planning; and (8) community pride and involvement (Myrick,
1993).
Large Group Guidance Interventions
Prevention, human growth and development, study skills, social skills, making
friends, conflict resolution, college and careers choices are examples of large group
developmental guidance units. Units are planned and outlined with a specific number of
sessions, usually between six and eight class period sessions.
Activities that engage the students in experiential learning and promote both
cognitive and affective domains are included in the session planning. These types of
activities that utilize multiple learning styles and intelligences (Gardner, 1993) and which
have a feeling-focus (Wittmer & Myrick, 1989) are those which have the most
fundamental psychological basis for learning. Art activities, metaphors, games, magic,
humor, literature, role playing, and creative writing are examples of experiential
activities.
Many reasons are cited in the literature for the efficacy of group-work that apply
to large group developmental guidance. Reasons for using group-work can be
summarized as follows: (1) Social learning is largely done in groups; therefore group-
work provides a relevant context for practice. (2) People with similar needs can provide

45
mutual support for each other, and help with mutual problem solving. (3) Group
members can learn from the feedback from other members. (4) Group members can try
new roles, from seeing how others react, and can be supported and reinforced.
(5) Groups can be catalysts for developing latent resources and abilities. (6) Groups are
more suitable for certain individuals, e.g., those who find the intimacy of individual work
too intense. And (7) groups can be more democratic, sharing power and responsibility
(Leibman, 1986).
Art Processes in School and Counseling Literature
Hoffman and Lamme (1989), authors of the book Learning from the Inside Out,
express the commitment of the inclusion of the expressive arts within the educational
curriculum. Children make connections between unfamiliar ideas and their own lived-
through experience in order to find personal meaning in new information. This is the
process of learning from the inside. It is the contention of these authors that expressive
arts contribute significantly to learning, while fostering divergent thinking, the
development of the imagination, and self and other awareness. Creative modalities are
powerful connections that join cognitive and affective experiences. According to these
scholars, the creative arts make curriculum come alive, giving meaning and value to the
learning experience.
Cochran (1996) utilized play and art therapy to help culturally diverse students
overcome barriers to school success. Citing Axline (1947) and Oaklander (1978) as
pioneers in the field of play, art is seen as a component of play. Axline (1947) defined
the significance of play and play therapy this way:
Play therapy is based upon the fact that play is the child’s natural
medium of self-expression. It is an opportunity which is given to
the child to “play out” his [or her] feelings and problems just as,
in certain types of adult therapy, an individual “talks out” his [or her]
difficulties, (p.9)

46
Play and art are both healing and growth oriented processes. Using expressive art
in school counseling activities gives the student the opportunity to work symbolically
through confusions, anxieties, and conflicts (Cochran, 1998).
Hill and Tollerud (1996) infused art and creative experiences in group counseling
for restoring dignity to at-risk youth. The authors defined dignity as “a perception of
respect and competence that allows a person to feel valued, to be authentic, to grow and
learn, and to value and care about others” (p.122). Hill and Tollerud advocated the use of
art as a valuable part of restoring personal dignity that affects one’s ability to interact
peacefully with others. Creativity and self-expression are facilitated by the counselor
who encourages students to write, keep a journal, draw, work with clay, and experiment
with other artistic endeavors. Dignity is enhanced by creative experiences because they
foster self-worth (Brown, 1971) and link students to their own uniqueness.
Kahn (1999) encouraged the school counselor to use arts-based interventions with
adolescents. Issues of self-esteem, behavior, and interventions focussed on alcohol use
and abuse are among those addressed in this practical and empowering model of
counseling.
Chochran (1998) advocated the use of art and play (Child Centered Play Therapy)
to promote the counseling relationship in order to facilitate change in students with
conduct disorder. Art and play provide safe and appropriate means of expressing intense
feelings that might otherwise be expressed through violent and aggressive ways.
Parker (1999) incorporated art in both counseling and consultation interventions
as a means for building in rituals into family dynamics. This author advocated ritual as a
means of understanding personal significance and roles in relation to others. Ritual gives

47
security, structure, and meaning to the individual’s life and enriches the family
experience. By drawing symbols (Jung, 1970; May, 1991) to express meaning for family
or to encapsulate precious family experiences, powerful lingering memories are made.
Symbolic action can be especially effective in conveying abstract concepts such as love,
unity, and forgiveness which are all empowering qualities that enhance both the success
of the family and the personal, educational, and social success of the individual.
Creativity and humor are important elements in the enhancement of student
resilience according to Parr, Montgomery, and DeBell (1998). These authors contend
that “Resilience can be manifested in and nurtured by creativity. The creative arts
provide an outlet for students to express their feelings, to work out their issues, and to
explore life. Creative problem solving often opens up new possibilities, clearing the way
for alternative solutions never considered before” (p.27).
Omizo, Omizo, and Kitaoka (1999) utilized art and guided affective and cognitive
imagery to enhance the self-esteem among Hawaiian children in a public elementary
school. Among the issues effectively addressed in this study through art and guided
visualization were: problem solving, self-defeating behaviors, self-affirmation, family,
relaxation, self-esteem, and enhancement of the imagination. A MANO V A on the
posttest dependent measures revealed significant differences between experimental and
control groups on general self-esteem and on academic/school-related self-esteem.
The importance of the use of the arts in therapy and counseling for Native
Americans was discussed by Duffene and Coleman (1994). These authors advise that
any counseling orientation or approach is usually recognized as an intrusion by Native
Americans, and strongly suggest acknowledgment of spirituality and art in the Native

48
culture with Native clients. The authors contend that since Native Americans regard art
and ritual as an element of life, the counselor and educator should consider investigation
of dance, poetry, and the plastic and graphic arts as possibility for inclusion in the
counseling intervention.
Hayes (2000) wrote about the power of artistic expression to convey life
experiences and to facilitate communication. The author suggested art as a solo approach
to open the door for other psychotherapeutic interventions. Mask-making was cited as an
experiential activity that helps individuals that have been institutionalized. According to
Hayes (2000), masks can assist individuals who are depressed, who have personality
disorders, or who are abusing drugs to reclaim their identity. Artistic expression is often
the first step in involving institutionalized individuals in treatment.
Sabol-Grinberg (2000) reviewed an author’s attempt to help people connect
through the healing arts. Among those that were mentioned are dance, art, music, and
creative writing. “Expressions can be an image or a series of images- not necessarily
words. Just as music facilitates emotion, so does art” (Sabol-Grinberg, 2000, p.l 1).
Visual arts provide a non-threatening approach for children and adolescents to
express innermost thoughts, feelings and ideas (Geldard & Geldard, 1999). By drawing a
picture, young persons can externalize thoughts or feelings, and by placing themselves in
the picture, he or she can be observed as separate from self. This allows one to reframe,
and adjust attitudes, feelings, and beliefs, and reintegrate those cognitions into
consciousness. Art in therapy or group counseling experiences can assist one in working
through conflicting ideas and feelings; exploration of feelings; development of insight;
exploration of family relationships, and identification of themes. Art assists in

49
relationship building between counselor and client and is a natural symbolic language
that enhances personal meaning and sense of self.
Teachers As Facilitators
ACA guidelines recommend that schools should have one counselor for every 250
students. Currently, the average ratio is an average of 513 students to one counselor
(Guerra & Schmidt, 1999). Although counselors are trained to work with the many
problems that are facing our youth today, it impossible for counselors to forge a caring
connection with each individual student that can make a difference for them personally,
socially, emotionally, and cognitively.
Counselors are bridging the gap by training teachers in facilitative techniques and
stressing the infusion of affect in the school environment. To assist in providing this
caring connection for all students, more emphasis is being placed upon cooperation,
communication, and collaboration. Affect within the school setting can be thought of as
personal awareness, creative behavior, interpersonal understanding (within and across
groups), affect in teaching styles and methods, and affect as experienced with adult
models. Affect enters the curriculum when any experience influences how young people
see themselves, the world around them, and their place in that world (Beane, 1990).
Bemak (2000) discusses the role of the counselor as collaborator who provides in-
service in facilitative methods to classroom teachers. By de-expertizing the school
counselor, the goal of developmental guidance is achieved. “Teachers are the heart of a
schools guidance program. They work directly with students in their classes and student-
teacher relationships influence the school atmosphere” (Myrick, 1993, p. 61). Good
guidance permeates the entire school environment where each individual is respected and
valued.

50
Davis and Garrett (1998) recommend a proactive approach by counselors to
bridge the gap between counseling and teaching. Because of frequent contact between
students and teachers, students often feel more comfortable talking with a teacher rather
than a counselor about their concerns. Counselors can actually capitalize on this dynamic
by asking teachers to attend initial counseling sessions with students. Teachers add
valuable insight and often achieve a sense of empowerment when they have a close
working relationship with the counselor. “Having them participate in the facilitative
relationship as an expert or mentor only reaffirms their professionalism and expertise as
an educator, as well as giving them a first-hand view of what the school counselor does”
(Davis & Garrett, 1998, p. 55).
Wittmer and Myrick (1989) discuss the powerful impact that a teacher as
facilitator can have on the lives of his or her students. According to these pioneers in the
field of developmental guidance, a teacher who is committed to facilitating learning is
one who is attentive, genuine, understanding, respectful, knowledgeable, and
communicative. In addition, they provide learning situations where learning is personally
meaningful, positive and nonthreatening, self-initiated, self-evaluated, and feeling-
focussed.
Wittmer and Myrick (1989) have collected data from students about teachers who
have had a positive impact. Among those qualities of facilitative teachers that are listed
by students are: good listeners, empathic, caring, concerning, genuine, warm, interested,
knowledgeable, trusting, friendly, sense of humor, dynamic, and ability to communicate.
Wittmer and Myrick (1989) express that “If we are to facilitate personal growth, we must
have the ability and the courage to enter into the lives of our students, feeling their

51
failures, successes, triumphs, and disappointments. We must be willing to share their
hurt and their pride” (p.19).
The willingness to hold paradox together is the mark of a facilitative teacher.
Action and rest, thought and feeling, tears and laughter are intimate and inseparable
companions (Palmer, 1998). The individual needs both community and solitude; both
relationship and individuality. When individuality splits from community, it is no longer
rich and fulfilling but becomes loneliness and isolation. When community splits from
solitude, it becomes an impersonal crowd rather than a rich network of culture. The
facilitative teacher assists understanding of self and others as the individual develops
within a network of caring, cooperation, and communication.
Art Teacher as Facilitator
The art classroom is a natural environment for the development of understanding
of self and others. Art media naturally dredges up the emotional content of the
unconscious and symbols expressed in artistic expressions are fertile ground for working
through personal issues relating to ideas, beliefs, feelings, and behaviors. In the art
classroom, head is not separated from heart; facts are not separated from feelings; theory
is not separated from practice; and teaching is not separated from learning. Due to the
richly affective content of the art curriculum that links humankind in a web of creative
experience and celebration of diversity, connections are naturally made between self and
medium, self and others, student and teacher.
The art teacher is in the position to be naturally facilitative. The art educator
often looks at teaching as his or her art and the students as the medium. Empathic
understanding is a core concept of art education, infused as a standard of practice in the
curriculum. Benchmarks of standards of practice focus on understanding diversity and

52
the celebration of cultural contributions to the richness of artistic heritage (Florida
Department of Education, Sunshine State Standards, 2000).
Merle Flannery (1995) in her book Principles of Teaching Art, described the
type of impact that a facilitative and empathic teacher can have on students within the
schools:
The art teacher, as artist of the human soul, has the task of being
a unique living force that unfolds through another living force- the
student. There is a dynamism between teacher and student. To
develop this dynamism to its full potential, the artist (teacher or
painter) must learn about his or her medium. Knowledge of the
medium, gives the artist the aesthetic power to allow for and to help
the medium become most fully itself. The artist can act through the
medium while at the same time letting it take its own direction.
The medium “gives” itself to the artist and lets itself be formed,
actualizing this particular potential in the hands of a particular
artist. The artist’s aesthetic vision and power is able to bring new
form to the medium which would not have been possible without
the particular teacher’s unique action (p.237-238).
Palmer (1998) discussed the fact that good teachers (facilitative teachers) possess
a capacity for connectedness. He contended that the connections are not made with
methods but in the heart where intellect and emotion and spirit converge within self. This
space in the heart of the teacher is the crucible where the potential and the truth of each
individual student is encouraged to be heard, to be appreciated, to be celebrated.
According to Palmer (1998), the facilitative teacher reads between the lines and listens to
the voice before it is spoken:
What does it mean to listen to a voice before it is spoken? It means making
space for the other, being aware of the other, paying attention to the other,
honoring the other. It means not rushing to fill our student’s silences with
fearful speech of our own and not trying to coerce them into saying things
that we want to hear. It means entering empathically into the student’s
world so that he or she perceives you as someone who has the promise of
being able to hear another person’s truth. (Palmer, 1998, p.46)

CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a teacher
facilitated large group counseling intervention on locus of control, level of risk of
initiated violence, and level of emotional empathy of high school art students in grades
nine, ten, eleven, and twelve. More specifically, the arts-based intervention focused on
experiential processes that actively engage students in affective, perceptual kinds of
understanding that lead to creative expression and communication as a form of action.
This intervention was aimed at helping students identify their own beliefs, feelings, and
emotions as well as to encourage their active involvement in trying to sense, perceive,
share, and conceptualize another person’s manner of experiencing the world. In addition,
this intervention was involved in helping students increase internal resources that assist in
moderating violent behavior by reframing from an empathic point of reference.
Treatment and control groups completed pre-and postmeasures of locus of
control, risk of initiated violence, and emotional empathy. Art teachers were trained as
facilitators prior to delivery of the counseling intervention.
Population
The population of interest was ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade art
students from public high schools in north Central Florida. Originally, 7 public high
schools in Alachua County were invited to participate in the study, including 1
Developmental Research School. In addition, 2 high schools in Levy County; 1 high
53

54
school in Gilcrest County; and 1 high school in Clay County were invited to participate.
One or two schools from each of the counties agreed to take part in the study, however, 3
dropped out before completion of the intervention and postmeasures.
The resultant sample of participating schools consisted of 1 Developmental
Research School (University of Florida), 2 high schools from Alachua County, and 1
high school from Gilcrest County. The students ranged from ages 14-18 and were from
several racially and economically diverse north central Florida communities.
The population of Alachua County, the largest county in the study, was
approximately 250,000 in 2000. This number includes 55,000 University of Florida
students. Alachua County public schools, as reported by the Florida Department of
Education (2001), had approximately 9,104 students in 7 high schools. Racial and ethnic
makeup of the schools’ students included approximately 61% White, 30% African
American 5% Hispanic, 3.5% Asian, and less than 1% Native American/Alaskan Native
students. The breakdown of gender was approximately 50% male and 50% female. Of
those students, 21% received free and reduced lunch.
In those high schools, 37,331 acts of aggression and violence were reported for
the 1999-2000 school year. Of those cases, 70% were perpetrated by males and 30% by
females (Florida Department of Education 2000). Violence may be defined differently
among the schools but districts across the state are probably comparable.
The two Alachua County High Schools that completed the study were Gainesville
High School and Hawthorne High School. Demographically, Gainesville High School
had 1,842 students: 950 females and 892 males. Of those students 1,086 were White; 560
African American; 117 Hispanic; 63 Asian; 2 Native American/Alaskan Native; and 14

55
Mixed Race students (School Board of Alachua County, phone conversation, May 2001).
The high school population consisted of 52% female students and 48% of male students.
Hawthorne High School had a total of 302 students for the 2000-20001 school
year (School Board of Alachua County, phone conversation, May 2001). Of the students
193 were White; 105 African American; 3 Hispanic; 0 Asian; and 1 Native American.
Gender breakdown was approximately 50% female and 50% male.
P.K. Yonge, the Developmental Research School of the University of Florida, had
418 high school students in the academic year 2000-2001, and a racial and ethnic makeup
of 281 White; 86 African American; 31 Hispanic; 6 Asian; 3 American Indian/ Alaskan
Native students; and 11 Multi-Racial. Gender breakdown consisted of 46% male and
54% female.
Gilcrest County had a population of 9,667 in 2000 (NACO, National Association
of Counties, 2001). Bell High School, another participant in the study, reported having
379 students (Bell High School, phone conversation, May 2001). Bell students were
predominately White with 375 in that category; 2 African American; 2 Hispanic; 0
Asians; 0 Native American/Alaskan Native; and 0 Multi-Racial. Gender breakdown was
50% male and 50 % female.
Statewide demographics are similar to those of Alachua County and those of P.K.
Yonge Developmental Research school with the exception being the African American
and Hispanic populations. African American students state-wide in a district average
26% while the state average for Hispanic students is 17%. Some of Florida’s districts in
South Florida have an increased concentration of Hispanic students, which could account
for the increase in mean. Statewide, statistics are probably similar to those in Alachua

56
County for act of aggression and violence. However, the problem with interpretation of
the numbers stems from definitions of violence which vary from school to school and
district to district.
Limited reports from the schools participating in the study suggest that males are
more likely than females to be involved in incidents of violence and aggression. Data
also suggests that whites are more likely than students of other ethnic or racial categories
to be involved in aggression or violence.
Sampling Procedures
Permission to conduct the study was requested of the University of Florida’s
Institutional Review Board. Following that approval, the Departments of Research and
Evaluation of the Alachua County, Gilcrest County, Levy County, and Clay County
School Boards were approached for approval to administer the guidance interventions.
Each principal received a copy of the application for research that explained the purpose
of the study, briefly summarized the research design, and projected the amount of time
involved to complete the study. An accompanying letter was sent to the principles and
art teachers (Appendix A). Principals and art teachers decided collaboratively whether or
not to volunteer their school for the study.
Within each school choosing to participate, high school art students were
considered as the target population consisting of students from grades nine, ten, eleven,
and twelve. The teachers’ classes were coded. One intact class was randomly assigned
as the experimental group and another class was randomly assigned as the control group.
A letter (Appendix A) was sent to the parents of students in both the experimental and
control groups concerning the nature of the intervention and asking permission to include
their child in the research study. Those students whose parents gave permission

57
participated as an intact class. Any students of the experimental and control group who
did not return parental permission were positioned in another area of the school to work
on previously assigned work during the delivery of the pre-and postmeasures and during
the intervention if they were in the experimental group. Students in the control group
who returned parental permission took the pre-and postmeasures but did not receive the
intervention.
Resultant Sample
Of the 7 art teachers from Alachua, Gilcrest, Levy, and Clay counties in north
central Florida who initially agreed to participate in the study, 4 were able to complete
the intervention and the posttests within the allotted time frame of the study. The sample
included approximately N=153 students from 4 high schools. The assignment resulted in
78 students in the test group and 75 in the control group. Demographics from each of the
participating schools can be found on Tables 3-1 and 3-2.
Table 3-1
Total Enrollment and Lunch Status by Participating School
School #
Enrollment
% Free/Reduced Lunch
1
302
48.7
2
379
45
3
1842
16.3
4
418
20
Table 3-2
Students by Race for Participating School
School #
% of Student bv Race
White
Af. American Hisnanic Asian
Native American
Mixed
1
64
35
.010* 0.000*
.003*
.003*
2
99
.005*
.005* 0.000*
0.000*
0.000*
3
59
30
.060* .030*
.010*
.007*
4
67
21
.070* .014*
.007*
.026*
*Notes less than 1%

58
Approximately 153 students participated in the study. Of those students, 78 were
assigned to treatment and 75 to control groups. The size of the intact groups varied from
17-23 students per large group guidance test group and from 15-25 for control group.
The demographics for the total sample as well as the treatment and control groups can be
found in Table 3-3 and Table 3-4.
Table 3-3
Demographics of Sample bv Sex and Race
Demographics
Groupings Female Male M NA A H AA W
Total sample n=153
Treatment 40 38 7 0 1 1 14 55
Control 41 34 2 1 5 5 17 45
Table 3-4
Demographics of Sample bv Age and Class in School
Demographics
Groupings Age Class in School
14
15
16
17
18
19
9
10
11
12
Total Sample, n=153
9
49
39
40
14
2
52
41
38
22
Treatment, n= 78
6
29
16
19
6
2
31
19
18
10
Control, n= 75
3
20
23
2L
8
0
21
22
20
12
Research Design
The research design that was used in this study was a pre-post control group
design with intact classes, as shown in Table 3-5. Students completed the Children’s
Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (CNSIE); the Risk of
Eruptive Violence Scale (REV); and the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES),
after random assignment to the treatment or control groups. Following the delivery of the

59
intervention, all measures were given again. The control group design and use of pre-
and postmeasures served to control for most sources of internal validity (Mertens, 1998).
High school art teachers trained as facilitators delivered the Walk a Mile in My
Shoes intervention. A workshop was presented by the researcher that included training in
high facilitative techniques for processing the experiential cognitive-affective activities.
The Facilitator’s Manual was also reviewed during the training workshop (Appendix D).
Table 3-5
Prepost Control Group Design
Conditions
Pre
Post
Treatment
R
Oí O2
Os X
Oi O2 O3
Control
R
Qi O2
Q2
Oi O2 03
R = Random assignment of classes to groups
X = Large group guidance intervention for high school art students
Oi= Children’s Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control Scale
Ch= Risk of Eruptive Violence Scale (REV)
03= ÍCNSIE1 Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES)
Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were evaluated at the .05 level of significance in this
study:
â–  There will be no significant difference between the treatment and control group on
locus of control, as measured by the Children’s Nowicki-Strickland Internal External
Locus of Control Scale (CNSIE).
â–  There will be no significant difference between students in the treatment and
control group on risk of initiated violence, as measured by the Risk of Eruptive
Violence Scale (REV).
â–  There will be no significant difference between treatment and control group students
on emotional empathy, as measured by the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale
(BEES).
â–  There will be no significant interaction between treatment and gender.

60
Teacher-Facilitator Training
The researcher trained all of the art teachers who agreed to participate in the
study. Those involved in the study were all State of Florida certified art teachers.
Among the four teachers who finished the study, 1 holds a bachelor’s degree, 2 hold a
master’s degree, and 1 holds both a master’s and specialist degree. The average
experience of the group of teachers was 20 years.
The “Teacher as Facilitator” (Table 3-6) workshop was held to train each of the
participating art teachers. At the workshop, the teachers received a guidance kit
containing the description of the project, information about the research procedures,
timelines, and guidelines to follow. Copies of the dependent measures with detailed
instructions and a training manual was also dispersed to the facilitator trainees.
The training manual included outlines of facilitative techniques, scripts for each
intervention activity and questions for processing the activities. Overheads of artwork,
audiotapes with recorded literature and hard copies of the printed literature were included
in the manual for the teacher. All materials were reviewed and discussed.
A simulation of the cognitive-affective activities was conducted to give teachers
first-hand experience regarding the experimental conditions of the study. The simulation
and all workshop materials were covered in attempt to control for differences in delivery
of the intervention. The procedures for collecting data were also explained. All teachers
were invited to consult with the researcher as needed.
Intact art classes were randomly assigned to treatment and control conditions.
Teachers were then given instructions on number-coding pre- and postmeasures to
protect the identity of the participants. Instructions for the administration of the

61
dependent instruments were reviewed and questions answered to insure uniformity of
delivery. All of the materials in the guidance kit as well as the student materials were
reviewed. The objectives and procedures for each activity were emphasized, as well as
encouragement to follow the facilitator’s scripted leads, facilitative responses, and
processing questions.
Table 3-6
Teacher as Facilitator Workshop Outline
â–  Nature of the Study
â–  Relations of Emotional Empathy With Control and Violence
- Negative correlation of risk of initiated violence with emotional empathy and
their relationship to locus of control
- Characteristics of aggression and violence in schools
- Extent of the problem
- Empathy and the art connection
- Teacher as facilitator: Extending that which you already do
- Reducing the risk of initiated violence through cognitive-affective intervention
â–  Research Procedures
- Overview of the Design
- Randomization
- Informed consent
- Collecting pre- and posttest data
â–  Simulation of Delivery of Large Group Guidance Intervention
â–  Time-Line and Dates for Returning Materials
â–  Questions and Answers
Consistent and uniform procedure was practiced by the participants in the
intervention activities simulation experience. All of the art and literature used in the
intervention activities was discussed along with the possible emotional states that could
be evoked by the works explored. Questions were posed and answered.

62
Teachers were reminded of the research procedures throughout its duration by
calls of encouragement and clarification by the researcher. The researcher carried a cell
phone to insure immediate response to the teachers’ consultation needs.
Guidance Unit Description
With the art teacher as facilitator, the group counseling intervention was delivered
in a large group format with intact high school art classes. The intervention was
delivered in six sessions that took place over a time frame of a single grading period.
Each session constituted forty-five to fifty minutes. This approach assisted teachers in
lesson planning and was less disruptive to their regular curriculum. The first meeting
with the students was used to administer and collect the dependent premeasures. The six
sessions focused on the arts-based guidance unit and activities. Postmeasures were
administered after the intervention was completed.
The intervention was designed around the theme of Walk A Mile in My Shoes.
Upon first introducing the study to the students, the teacher as facilitator classified goals
for the large group guidance process and thanked students for their willingness to
participate in the experimental research. Trust and acceptance was extended by insuring
students that their responses would not be judged or graded. Activities were preceded by
psycho-educational background information concerning the growing diversity of our
nation and the nature of school and societal violence. Discussion questions that were
outlined in the facilitator’s manual were generated to set the stage for defining empathy
and linking lack of understanding with non-acceptance, discrimination, and other
negative attitudes and actions. A brief outline of the sessions can be found in Table 3-7.
The complete Walk a Mile in My Shoes intervention can be found in Appendix D.

63
Table 3-7
Walk a Mile in Mv Shoes: Guidance to End Violence
Session # Title of Session Content Objectives
Session # 1 “I Shined Their Shoes” 1. Increase knowledge of link of
lack of empathy to violence
2. Explore issues that impact
behavior
3. Experiential art and literature
activity to express feelings and
cognitions through word and
Understanding Suffering from Racism symbols
Session #2 “My Shoes Came from 1. Link control and empathy
the Dumpster” 2. Reinforce goals 1,2,3 above
I Inderstanding Suffering from Poverty and Homelessness
Session #3 “My Shoes Carry a Heavy 1. Link thinking, feelings, behavior
Load” 2. Reinforce goals above
Understanding Suffering from Weight Bigotry and Sexism
Session #4 “My Shoes Never Touch 1. Increase knowledge of self and
the Ground” others
2. Reinforce goals from previous
sessions
Understanding Suffering from Physical and/or Mental Disabilities
Session #5
‘He Hit Me With His Shoe
then Assaulted Me”
1.
Increase knowledge of emotional
and physical scars that affect mood
and behavior
2. Reinforce goals from above
Understanding Suffering from Abuse and Domestic Violence
Session #6
‘Persecution Accompanies
the Path of My Shoes”
1.
Increase knowledge of need to
accept, respect, and live at peace
with each others’ differences
2. Reinforce above goals
Understand Suffering from Cultural or Religious Intolerance Termination.

64
After the introductory material, Walk a Mile in My Shoes was then moved into the
activity phase. Students listened to passages from literature and viewed works of art that
were highly emotive, involving human beings in various life situations. Students were
encouraged to sense, perceive, conceptualize and respond as if they were the main
characters in both the art and the literature that was being experienced. The goal was to
embrace some of the phenomenological perspective of the character and try to perceive
the world in some measure as experienced by that individual.
Students responded initially with stream of consciousness writing. They were
instructed to identify feelings and to write how they were feeling without worrying about
grammar and punctuation. After the writing, symbolic images were drawn, painted, or
modeled from clay, to recreate moods and meanings.
After engagement with the media, teachers processed the experiential learning by
asking open questions about thinking, feeling, and doing. Teachers used clarifying,
summarizing, and feeling-focussed responses to expand the activity and link participants’
ideas. To make the leap (linking and extending the activity process), teachers encouraged
students to identify their own faulty beliefs, reframe, and extend the experience to
possible future situations.
Students learned to identify how the lack of empathic understanding can lead to
aggression and violence and were encouraged to use empathic self-talk to intercede when
they felt at-risk for self-initiate violence. Students were encouraged to have the
understanding that each individual is personally responsible for breaking the chain of
indifference, prejudice, oppression, abuse, and neglect that is engendered by lack of
empathic understanding of others. Locus of control was explored while linking activities.

65
The Walk a Mile in My Shoes unit ended by summarizing what had been covered
throughout the six sessions. Students were invited to talk about their experiences and
describe what kind of beliefs, attitudes, and strategies for understanding and accepting
others they would employ in the future. Students reviewed how lack of empathic
understanding exacerbates negative attitudes, anger, oppression, and initiated violence
and were encouraged to take what they had learned into their peer groups, families, and
into their future.
Students who participated in treatment were compared to the control group
students on the dependent measures, with the control group maintaining normal
classroom routine during the intervention phase of the study. Both groups were given the
instruments measuring locus of control, risk of initiated violence, and empathy during the
same time frame.
Dependent Variables
The following measures were used to assess effects of treatment: the Children’s
Nowicki-Strickland Internal External Locus of Control Scale (CNSIE), the Risk of
Eruptive Violence Scale (REV), and the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES).
The CNSIE is found in Appendix C. The BEES and the REV scales have not been
included in Appendix C, since the author of these scales, Albert Mehrabian, restricts the
duplication of any of his test items in the published document.
Children’s Nowicki-Strickland Internal External Locus of Control Scale (CNSIE!
A pencil and paper self-report measure of 40 yes or no questions, the Children’s
Nowicki-Strickland Internal External Locus of Control Scale was developed in 1969 and
is appropriate for children ages 9-18. Constructed on the basis of Rotter’s (1966)

66
definition of the internal-external control of reinforcement dimension as an attempt to
measure locus of control in children, the items describe various reinforcement situations
across interpersonal and motivational areas. Reinforcement situations include affiliation,
achievement, and dependency (Nowicki & Strickland, 1973). Scores are based on the
number of responses that indicate an external locus of control orientation to the
statement, with possible score ranges of from 0-40. Higher scores indicate a more
external locus of control than do the lower scores.
Nowicki and Strickland’s sample included students of average intelligence in
Grades 3 through 12 from all socioeconomic groups. Extensive samples of reports on
internal consistency and reliability estimates for the CNSIE are almost all found to be
above the .60 level (Nowicki & Duke, 1983). Since the CNSIE is additive and items are
not comparable nor are they arranged according to difficulty, split-half reliabilities
probably tend to underestimate the true internal consistency scale (Nowicki & Duke,
1983).
Nowicki and Strickland (1973) report data showing moderate relationships among
the CNSIE and other measures of locus of control. There were significant correlations of
.31 and .51 for black third (N=182) and seventh graders (N=171) when comparisons were
made to the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility scale (Crandall, Katkovsky, &
Crandall, 1965). The correlation with the Bialer-Cromwell scale was found to be
significant at .41 (p < .05) for 26 white students ages 9-11 (Nowicki & Duke, 1983).
Although the literature does not point to studies that suggest a direct correlation
between levels of emotional empathy and locus of control, Winkler and Doherty (1983)
relate individual locus of control to problem-solving behavior in two cross-cultural

67
samples of married couples. According to their findings, greater externality was
associated with higher levels of verbal aggression and of physical violence. Externality
was also associated with angry response style. Internals reported less verbal and physical
aggression and were less likely to respond with anger to a provocative statement from
their spouse. These results gave empirical support to the hypothesized relationship
between externality and aggression. External wives were more likely to respond by
kidding or teasing when provoked.
Risk of Eruptive Violence Scale (REV)
The Risk of Eruptive Violence Scale (Mehrabian, 1996) was designed to discern
individuals who generally convey a non-aggressive outward appearance and non-violent
behaviors, but who on rare occasions can snap and initiate violence and destruction. The
rationale that is given by the author of the measure is that some individuals who appear
quiet, withdrawn and restrained, can actually be seething with anger, carrying frustration
concerning their wishes to hurt individuals who have offended them or whom they have
imagined offend them (Mehrabian, 1996). The REV is a 35-item pencil and paper self-
report of agreement or disagreement with each of the items listed in the measure. A 9-
point Likert-type scale is used to indicate (+4) very strong agreement through (-4) very
strong disagreement with the statements. The scale is meant to provide an accurate
description of attitudes and feelings. The REV takes approximately 10 minutes to
administer. Acquiescence bias is controlled for by 24 items that are positively worded or
positively scored and by 11 items that are worded in such a way that disagreement shows
more risk of violence. These items are negatively scored. This balance of negatively
worded items against positively worded ones contributes to the control for the unwanted

68
agreeableness. Acquiescence bias is only partially controlled for due to the unequal
number of positively worded items.
When correlating the REV with other measures, norms are not necessary and
unstandardized raw scores are sufficient for the correlation. To compare scores with the
rest of the population, however, the norms of the REV of the general population are as
follows: Mean = -59 and Standard Deviation = 48. There is a general population trend to
disagree with items of the REV. Sex differences reveal male norms as: Mean = -33 and
Standard Deviation = 57. Female norms are: Mean = -85 and Standard Deviation = 39.
Gender differences reveal that males are generally more violent than women.
The REV has been shown to be very high in internal consistency with a
coefficient alpha of .94 (Mehrabian, 1996). The REV has been factor analyzed for a
principal components solution. The eigenvalue plot and the Scree Test (Catell, 1966)
revealed a one-factor solution with eigenvalues of the first three factors as 13.75,2.42,
and 1.91, respectively (Mehrabian, 1997).
High convergent validity of the REV is indicated by its correlation with two other
scales of aggression and violence. According to Mehrabian (1997), the REV correlated
.74 (p < .01) with the brief Anger and Aggression Scale (Maiuro, Vitaliano, & Cahn,
1987) and .56 with the Violence Risk Scale (Plutchik & Van Praag, 1990). Spearman’s
formula to correct for attenuation yielded a correlation of .93 between the REV and the
Brief Anger and Aggression Scale and a corrected correlation of .78 between the REV
and the Violence Risk Scale.
Miller and Eisenberg (1996) have found that violence and empathy have negative
intercorrelation. The REV is negatively correlated with both the emotional Empathic

69
Tendency Scale (Mehrabian & Epstein, 1972) and the balanced Emotional Empathy
Scale (Mehrabian, 1996). Correlations are -.43 (p < .01) and -.50 (p < .01) respectively.
The Risk of Eruptive Violence Scale also correlates negatively (r = -.49, p < .01) with a
general measure of Optimism-Pessimism (Scheier, Carver & Bridges, 1994).
Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES')
The Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES) was designed by Albert
Mehrabian in 1996 to help distinguish persons who typically are able to experience more
of others’ feelings from persons who are less responsive to the emotional experiences of
others. An updated version of the Emotional Empathic Tendency Scale (EETS), the
BEES, measures both the vicarious experience of others’ feelings and interpersonal
positiveness in a balanced way. It is a questionnaire with 30 items and uses a 9-point
Likert-style format. Individuals answer with responses ranging from very strong
agreement (+4) to very strong disagreement (-4). 15 of the items are worded as positive
instances of presence of empathic feelings and 15 indicate the absence of such feelings to
reduce bias due to acquiescence (Urbina, 1999). The test is designed to measure the
emotional, rather than the cognitive aspects of empathy and is appropriate for individuals
and groups ages 15 and older. It is a hand scored measure and yields a single total-scale
score. It can be used with individuals and groups and takes approximately 10-15 minutes
to administer.
The validity of the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale is evidenced indirectly
with high positive correlation of .77 with the earlier version, the Emotional Empathic
Tendency Scale (EETS) (Mehrabian & Epstein, 1972). Reviews of available literature
indicate strong validity of the scale (Chlopan, McCain, Carbonell, & Hagen 1985;

70
Mehrabian, Young, & Sato, 1988). Experimental evidence from the EETS yielded that
persons with higher emotional empathic tendency scores, compared with those with
lower scores are more likely to be affiliative, non-aggressive, score higher on measures of
moral judgment, have arousable and pleasant temperaments, and rate positive social traits
as important. In addition, highly empathic individuals are more prone to be altruistic in
their behavior toward others and are more likely to volunteer to help others (Mehrabian,
Young, & Sato, 1988).
The Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES) relates significantly and
negatively with a correlation of -.31 to the Maiuro, Vitaliano, and Cahn (1987) Scale of
Aggression at p< .01. (Mehrabian, 1997). In the same study, the BEES significantly and
negatively related to the Risk of Eruptive Violence (REV) (Mehrabian, 1996) measure
with a correlation of -.50 at p < .01. The BEES consistently exhibited stronger relations
with the measures of aggression, violence and optimism than the earlier version
of the scale, the EETS, indicating greater construct validity of the BEES. Miller and
Eisenberg (1988) found generally low but significant negative relations between the
EETS and its variants with measures of aggressive and extemalizing/antisocial behaviors.
According to Johnson (1999) in his review of the BEES, the construct validity of
the measure has been studied in terms of pleasure, arousal, and dominance, which are
factors specified in Mehrabian’s (1997) personality model. A regression equation
weighted equally on the pleasure and arousal factors indicates that highly empathic
individuals tend to be both pleasant (positive) and arousable (reactive). Although further
testing is recommended before the instrument can qualify as a clinical instrument, test
reviewers indicate that it can be viewed as an adequate measure for research purposes.

71
Johnson (1999) also reports adequate internal consistency (reliability) of the BEES
(Cronbach’s alpha= 87).
The norms for the full-length Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES) are:
Mean = 45 and Standard Deviation = 24 (Mehrabian, 2000). These numbers reflect
combined male and female norms and are applicable and appropriate most of the time.
Male norms are as follows: Mean = 29 and Standard Deviation = 28. Female norms tend
to be generally higher (Mehrabian, Young, & Sato, 1988) and are: Mean = 60 and
Standard Deviation = 21. Raw scores are computed for each subject by summing
responses to the 15 positively worded items and by subtracting from this quantity the sum
of the individual’s responses to the negatively worded items. The raw scores are then
converted to z scores, yielding an easy interpretation of the meaning of the score. When
correlating with other variables, unstandardized raw scores are sufficient without norms.
The BEES lends itself to statistical analysis done on samples that include
individuals of both sexes and age ranges.
Research Procedures
The art instructor at each of the participating schools administered all of the
pretreatment measures approximately one week before delivering the large group
guidance intervention. To insure confidentiality, all answer sheets were coded. The
investigator was provided with information regarding the school, age, gender, and race of
each individual participant for use in the analysis. Gender was the variable of interest in
regard to the treatment.
During the Facilitator Workshop, art teachers were trained in uniform procedures
for the delivery of the Children’s Nowicki-Strickland Internal External Locus of Control

72
Scale (CNSIE), the Risk of Eruptive Violence Scale (REV), and the Balanced Emotional
Empathy Scale (BEES). Teachers were instructed to read all of the items of each
measure to the students in order to control for differences in delivery and differences in
reading levels of the participants. All of the pre-instrumentation was collected and
delivered to the researcher prior to the delivery of the treatment intervention. Uniform
time frame for delivery of the intervention was adhered to by the participating teachers.
The six treatment sessions took place within a single grading period with each
session taking approximately 45-50 minutes. Upon terminating the intervention, the
teachers again administered the CNSIE, the REV, and the BEES to students in both the
treatment and control groups. All data was placed in large envelopes and was collected
and analyzed by the researcher.
Data Analysis
A mixed model ANCOVA was performed on all measures for both the treatment
and control groups in order to determine whether the observed differences between
means were due to chance or to systematic differences among treatment populations
(Shavelson, 1996). Predictable individual differences were removed from the dependent
variable, providing a truer estimate of experimental error and a more powerful test of the
null hypothesis. Pretest scores served as the covariate to adjust posttest scores. Random
assignment of groups to either control or treatment conditions increased the validity for
using the ANCOVA.
The ANCOVA examined two main effects of gender and group. An alpha level
of .05 significance was set for each of the hypotheses. The .05 level of significance gave

73
sufficient power and was a reasonable probability level for determining the effectiveness
of the intervention strategy for high school art students.

CHAPTER 4
RESULTS
This study examined the effectiveness of a large group counseling intervention for
high school art students with teachers as facilitators. Art teachers delivered the
intervention to art classes mixed with students from grades nine, ten, eleven, and twelve.
Arts-based sessions were designed to influence students’ perceived levels of control, risk
of initiated violence, and levels of empathic awareness.
The effectiveness of the large group counseling intervention was assessed by
analysis performed on pre-and postmeasures using an analysis of covariance model
(ANCOVA). Three dependent measures were used to gather data related to the effects of
the intervention. The measures included the (a) Children’s Nowicki- Strickland Locus of
Control Scale (CNSIE), (b) Risk of Eruptive Violence Scale (REV), and (c) Balanced
Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES).
Data on the three dependent measures were collected from 153 students in grades
nine, ten, eleven, and twelve attending 4 public high schools. Intact art classes were used
in a convenience sample of an experimental research design of randomly assigned
treatment and control classes. The assignment resulted in 78 students in the test group
and 75 students in the control group. Assumptions were checked to provide support for
the use of ANCOVA as an appropriate statistical analysis. Results may be found in
Appendix E. All statistical tests were conducted at a .05 confidence level.
74

75
Data Analysis
Three dependent variables were used to investigate four hypotheses.
Supplemental statistics supporting correlation of variables can be found in Appendix E.
Students’ Perceived Locus of Control
The Children’s Nowicki-Strickland Internal External Locus of Control Scale
(CNSIE) was used to investigate the effects of treatment on the students’ perceived locus
of control. Scores on this instrument could range from a possible 0-40, with points
assigned for each corresponding external choice. Higher scores indicate a more external
control orientation than lower scores that indicate more internal control orientation.
External control orientation is associated with more problematic behavior.
The first hypothesis focussed on the locus of control construct:
Hoi: There will be no significant difference between treatment and control
group on locus of control, as measured by the Children’s Nowicki-
Strickland Internal External Locus of Control Scale (CNSIE).
An ANCOVA was conducted on the CNSIE to test the stated null hypothesis (Table 4-1).
Main effects of treatment. A Significant treatment effect was found for the
CNSIE scores at .05. Both males and females in the treatment group had lower posttest
means than their counterparts in the control groups. Males in the control group had a
posttest mean of 15.50, while posttest mean for treatment males was 13.21. Females in
the control group had a posttest mean of 12.82, while females in treatment had a posttest
mean of 12.29 (Table 4-2).
Group and gender both appear to influence the CNSIE according to the ANCOVA
results. Therefore, Hoi was rejected. A significant interaction was found between gender
and pre-CNSIE (p=.025). The significant interaction of gender by pre-CNSIE is plotted
on Figure 4-1.

76
Table 4-1
Statistical Results ANCOVA- CNSIE
Source
SS
df
MS
F
Sig.
Corrected 2175.012
5
435.002
29.163
.000
Model
Intercept
221.833
1
221.833
14.871
.000
Pre-CNSIE
1882.816
1
1882.816
126.222
.000
Group
63.709
1
63.709
4.271
.041*
Gender
117.165
1
117.165
7.855
.006*
Gender* Pre-
76.209
1
76.209
5.109
.025*
CNSIE
Group*Gender
2.595
1
2.595
.174
.677
Error
2192.752
147
14.917
Corrected
Total
4367.765
152
R Squared=.498 (Adjusted R Squared=.481)
♦Significance at p < .05
Table 4-2
Descriptive Statistics Post-CNSIE
Group
Gender
N
Mean
SD
Treatment
Female
41
12.29
6.16
Male
37
13.21
4.51
Total
78
12.73
5.42
Control
Female
41
12.82
5.01
Male
34
15.50
5.20
Total
75
14.04
5.24
Total
Female
82
12.56
5.59
Male
71
14.30
4.95
Total
153
13.37
5.36
As Figure 4-1 shows, when comparing those who scored low on the pretest, males
were more external than females on the posttest. On the other hand, when scoring high
on the pretest, females were more external than males on the posttest. These findings
indicate that females in this sample who tended to be internal on locus of control initially
were more internal than the boys on the posttest who were internals. It also indicates that

77
girls in the sample who tended to be more external initially on locus of control were
higher or more external than the boys on the posttest who tend to be externals.
Pre CNSIE
Figure 4-1. Gender by Pre-CNSIE Interaction
Students’Perception of Risk of Eruptive Violence
To investigate the effects of treatment on the students’ perceptions of their
personal risk of initiated violence, the results of the REV scale were subject to analysis
(Table 4-3). Levene’s test of equality of error variance tested the null hypothesis that the
error variance of the dependent variable was equal across groups. Tests of between-
subjects effects was used to analyze pre and post scores of both treatment and control
groups to determine if a gender interaction existed (Table 4-3).

78
Table 4-3
Statistical Results ANCOVA- REV
Source
SS
df
MS
F
P
Corrected
361370.947
4
90342.737
83.401
.000
Model
Intercept
3336.955
1
3336.955
3.081
.081
Pre-REV
304327.975
1
304327.975
280.944
.000*
Group
2248.301
1
2248.301
2.076
.152
Gender
3054.585
1
3054.585
2.820
.095
Group*Gender 695.286
1
695.286
.642
.424
Error
160318.399
148
1083.232
Corrected
Total
521689.346
152
R Squared=.693 (Adjusted R Squared=.684)
♦Significance at g < .05
Females in the treatment group had a posttest mean of -49.85. Males in treatment
had a posttest mean of -23.16. Control group females had a posttest mean of
-60.53 while posttest mean for males in control was -12.38 (Table 4-4). Scores for both
positively and negatively worded items created a range with higher scores corresponding
to higher risk of eruptive violence.
Table jF4
Descriptive Statistics Post-REV
Group
Gender
N
Mean
SD
Treatment
Female
41
-49.85
54.33
Male
37
-23.16
55.06
Total
78
-37.19
55.95
Control
Female
41
-60.53
48.12
Male
34
-12.38
66.23
Total
75
-38.70
61.56
Total
Female
82
-55.19
51.28
Male
71
-18.00
60.47
Total
153
-37.93
58.58
The second hypothesis tested focussed on the construct of risk of initiated
violence:

79
Ho2 There will be no significant difference between treatment and control
group on risk of initiated violence as measured by the Risk of Eruptive
Violence Scale (REV).
Main effects of treatment. There was not a significant treatment effect for this
dependent measure. Therefore the stated null hypothesis was not rejected. Statistical
results can be found on Table 4-3.
Students’ Perception of Emotional Empathy
The Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES) was used to measure the
dependent variable of perception of emotional empathy. Levene’s test of equality of
variance checked the ANCOVA assumption of equal variance and a test of between-
subjects effects was also conducted (Table 4-5). Scores were determined by scaled
answers to positively and negatively worded items with the higher scores corresponding
to higher levels of emotional empathy.
The following null hypothesis was tested with regard to the construct of perceived
emotional empathy:
Ho3 There will be no difference between the treatment and control
group as measured by the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES).
Table 4-5
Statistical Results ANCOVA-BEES
Source
SS
df
MS
F
p
Corrected
183018,832
4
45754.708
94.217
.000
Model
Intercept
2646.091
1
2646.091
5.499
.021*
Pre-BEES
141026.694
1
141026.694
290.400
.000*
Group
1269.022
1
1269.022
2.613
.108
Gender
2402.524
1
2402.534
4.947
.028*
Group*Gender 64.018
1
64.018
.132
.717
Error
71873.064
148
485.629
Corrected
Total
254891.895
152
R Squared=.718 (Adjusted R Squared=.710) *Significance at g < .05

80
Females in the treatment group had a posttest mean score of 37.36 while males in
treatment resulted in a posttest mean score of 8.4. Females in the control group had a
posttest mean of 37.19 and males had a posttest mean of .26 (Table 4-6).
Table 4-6
Descriptive Statistics Post-BEES
Group
Gender
N
Mean
SD
Treatment
Female
41
37.36
38.10
Male
37
8.45
32.86
Total
78
23.65
38.34
Control
Female
41
37.19
31.65
Male
34
.26
47.93
Total
75
20.45
43.69
Total
Female
82
37.28
34.81
Male
71
4.53
40.69
Total
153
22.08
40.95
Main effects of treatment. It appears that the level of emotional empathy was not
impacted by the treatment as measured by the BEES. Since no significant difference was
found, the null hypothesis was not rejected. However, a gender main effect was indicated
in the test of between-subjects effects. (Table 4-6).
Both treatment and control groups males scored lower than females in both
groups at p=.028. Lower scores indicated a lower level of perceived emotional empathy.
This however, showed no significant influence of treatment. A more detailed statistical
report can be found in Table 4-5.
The following null hypothesis was examined with regard to interaction of
treatment and gender and the dependent variables:
Ho4: There will be no significant interaction between treatment and gender
as measured by the CNSIE, REV, and the BEES.

81
Two-wav interactions. The treatment effect by gender was examined with the ANCOVA
model using posttest means to test the null hypothesis. A test of between-subjects effects
was conducted to determine if the covariate interacted with the fixed variable of gender.
Although a significant gender and pre-CNSIE interaction was found at p=.016 and a
gender effect was found with both pre and post-BEES, no significant interactions were
found between treatment and gender as measured by the CNSIE, REV, or the BEES.
Therefore, the null hypothesis H04 was not rejected.
Other Findings
The arts-based teacher facilitated counseling intervention for high school art
students utilized literature and both contemporary and classic visual art forms to stimulate
discussion and address the dependent variables. Delivered in six sessions, content
focussed on the enhancement of empathy, locus of control, and the prevention of
violence. An experiential activity was included in each session.
Because of the nature of this study, it was important to try to explore what the
students were experiencing. Therefore, students were invited to identify feelings and
emotions as if they were the characters in the art and literature and also express in writing
and in graphic form how that exploration influenced their own thinking, feeling, and
behaving. The researcher collected the writing and artwork from the students. For
instance, the following are some examples from the written and visual expressions
rendered by some of the treatment participants. Other examples can be found in
Appendix F. Student writings are not edited for spelling or grammar and are quoted
exactly as written. Original artwork was done in both color and black media. Student
intentionality may be somewhat affected due to the black and white copy of the images.

82
Student Responses to Session One Goal: Understanding Suffering from Racism
Figure 4.2. Student Artwork Session One: “We Shouldn’t Care What Color Someone Is”
“I feel like people in this world today never gave up the lock and key toward
racism. Because right now as a Black African-American, I still don’t feel safe.

83
I’m afraid one day someone might hurt me just for the color of my skin. But I won’t let
my guard down. I am ready and able to defend myself.”
“I think it [the incident portrayed in the art and literature] was wrong. I have
always been raised that everyone is the same-equal. It really hurts me to know that this
kind of stuff actually happens in today’s world. Maybe not in that kind of situation
[referring to the literature], but with people calling other people Niggers or Crackers.
That’s just like walking up to someone and calling that person a Bitch.”
“As the character I am enraged. That man shouldn’t have kicked me. I am also
sad. Sad that some one would do this to me. It isn’t right. I think I am sad. I am sad
that people do these kind of things to others. It couldn’t be more wrong. If I saw that
happening, I would help the kid. But fighting would be my last resort!”
[Reaction to the literature] “ I would feel hate and enraged toward them but at the
same time I would feel sorry for the men who kicked me because they are so closed-
minded and just have no idea they are so hateful. I felt really angry because people can
be so uninformed and just plain out stupid. It really upsets me when I hear about or see
things like this. When you see someone mistreated like that you just wanna scream.”
“I would feel ashamed and embarrassed. Mostly shocked. I would wonder, what
did I do to him? Why is he so mad at me? I would be embarrassed and ashamed because
of my skin color because I’m not like everyone else and there’s nothing I could do about
it. I would want not to hurt or cause equally inflicting pain on this person, I would just
want to explain and make these people understand what it’s like to be different. I feel sad
that people actually did go through misery and embarrassment as well as [being] victims
of discrimination.”

84
Figure 4-3. Student Artwork Session One: “The Monster of Racism”
Summary of the Study
A summary of the results of the ANCOVAs for this study are presented below.
Results are organized by dependent variable. Of the four hypothesis in this study only
one was rejected.
Students’ Perception of Locus of Control Orientation as Measured bv the CNSIE Scale
â–  There was a significant difference between the way treatment and control group
students rated their own locus of control orientation following the intervention.
â–  There was a significant difference between the way males and females rated their
own locus of control orientation.
â–  There was a significant gender and Pre-CNSIE interaction. When comparing those
who scored low on the pretest, males scored higher and were more external than
females on the posttest. On the other hand, when scoring high on the pretest, females
were more external than males on the posttest. These findings seem to indicate that
females in this sample who tended to be internal on locus of control initially were

85
more internal than the boys on the posttest who were internals. It also indicates that
girls in the sample who tended to be more external initially on locus of control were
higher or more external than the boys on the posttest who tend to be externals.
Students’ Perceptions of Risk of Initiated Violence on the REV Scale
â–  There was no significant difference between the way in which treatment and control
group students rated their own risk of initiated violence.
â–  There was no significant difference in the way males and females rated their own
level of risk of initiated violence.
Student’s Perceptions of Levels of Emotional Empathy on the BEES Scale
â–  There was no significant difference in the way treatment and control group students
rated themselves on levels of emotional empathy.
â–  Gender was a main effect in the tests of between-subjects effects for the BEES.
Girls in the sample scored higher than did the boys on the dependent measure,
indicating that the girls perceived themselves as having more emotional empathy than
did the boys.
â–  There was no significant gender and treatment interaction for the BEES.
Other Findings
â–  Students who participated in treatment expressed empathic feelings in written
form that identified their perceptions of the experiences of the characters depicted in
literature and art in the experiential large group counseling sessions.
â–  Students expressed their own feelings and beliefs in written form in response to
art and literature presented in the large group counseling sessions.
â–  Students used various art media to create graphic images that reflected their
reactions to the literature, art, and to their own written responses to the experiential
counseling sessions.
â–  Affective data collected from the arts-based intervention suggests the potential of the
intervention to:
- ignite the imagination
- to give students an opportunity to freely express themselves both verbally and
artistically
- to open opportunities for alternative choices
- to develop empathic awareness
- to influence the capacity to care.
These may decrease initiated violence. More examples are found in Appendix F.

86
Results of Correlations Among Dependent Measures
• The Children’s Nowicki-Strickland Internal External Locus of Control
(CNSIE) Scale has a significant positive correlation with the Risk of Eruptive
Violence (REV) Scale. This supports the notion that individuals with external locus
of control have more problematic behavior than internal individuals.
• The Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES) has a significant negative
correlation with both the CNSIE and the REV, which indicates that individuals with
higher levels of empathy tend to also have lower risk of initiated violence and are
more internal in their perceptions of locus of control. Table of supplemental statistics
supporting this summary may be found in Appendix E.
In the next chapter, conclusions are made based on results presented in Chapter 4.
Methodological limitations, implications, and recommendations for additional research
are discussed.

CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Summary
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an arts-based
teacher-facilitated large group counseling intervention. Specifically, high school art
students from grades nine, ten, eleven, and twelve in multi-age intact classes from 4
public high schools participated in the study (N=153). The study was designed to
increase personal control and empathic awareness while decreasing the risk of initiated
violence. Classes were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Adjusted
group means were used in the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for each of the
dependent measures.
Four art teachers who had received training and a scripted training manual,
delivered the intervention to the art students. An intervention of six sessions featured
information with visual art and literature that focused on helping students understand the
social, physical, and emotional conditions of others and how understanding can reduce
the risk of initiated violence. Sessions were devoted to issues of racism, poverty, body
bigotry, disability, abuse, and religious and ethnic persecution. The intervention was
delivered in a single grading period.
The group format provided a setting where students were able to freely discuss
the topics and write about feelings that were identified by stepping into the shoes of the
characters presented in the art and literature. Students were also given the opportunity to
87

88
express their feelings symbolically through an experiential art activity associated with
each session. Facilitators stressed to the students that neither their art nor their writings
would be judged or censored in any way.
Art students who participated in the test groups were compared to the art students
in the control groups on three dependent variables. The first dependent variable, locus of
control, was measured by the Nowicki-Strickland Internal External Locus of Control
Scale (CNSIE). Students responded to 40 statements by circling yes or no as each
response was read to them by the teacher-facilitator. Scores were based on the number of
responses that indicated external locus of control orientation concerning the statement.
The scores had a possible range of 0-40. Higher scores indicated a more external
orientation than did the lower scores. External responses as raw numbers were used in
the ANCOVA analysis. The related hypothesis HOi was rejected.
The second variable, risk of initiated violence, was measured by the Risk of
Eruptive Violence Scale (REV). The REV asked students to rate themselves in terms of
items related to their tendency to have aggressive, violent, or destructive behavior. The
REV contains 35 items that were read to the students. Students responded by reporting
their degree of agreement or disagreement with each item in terms of a number on a
Likert-type scale. Responses to sums of negatively worded items were subtracted from
sums of positively worded items to obtain the students’ scores. Raw scores were used in
the ANCOVA analysis to compare treatment and control groups. Higher scores
represented a higher risk of initiated violence. HO2, which dealt with this construct was
not rejected.

89
The third dependent variable, students’ perceptions of level of emotional
empathy, was measured by the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES). Items on
this instrument focus on one’s tendency to feel vicariously the emotional experiences of
others. Questions on the 30-item scale were read to the students by the teacher-
facilitators and students responded by indicating degree of agreement or disagreement
with each item by choosing a number on a Likert-type scale. Scores were obtained by
subtracting the sums of responses to negatively worded items from sums of responses to
positively worded items. Total raw scores were analyzed using the ANCOVA. Higher
scores indicated individuals who are generally more responsive to the emotional
expressions and experiences of others. HO3, which focussed on students’ perceptions of
balanced empathy, was not rejected. Additionally, HO4, which dealt with interaction
between treatment and gender was not rejected.
Other findings were collected from the test group as responses to the arts-based
information presented in the large group counseling intervention. Sketches, drawings,
paintings and written responses were among the symbolic data collected. Students
reflected by writing and producing graphic symbols about thoughts, feelings, and
behaviors from both their own and the characters’ views in the art and literature.
Conclusions
The outcomes of the study were mixed. Conclusions are discussed with regard to
each of the dependent variables and the experiential data.
Students’ Perceptions of Locus of Control
Group and gender both effected the results of the CNSIE. The ANCOVA
performed for this dependent measure revealed significant treatment effectiveness at .05.

90
A significant interaction between gender and pre-CNSIE was also revealed by the
ANCOVA analysis.
Overall pre-and posttest means indicated that girls in the sample tended to be
more internal than did the males of the sample. Students in the treatment group had
lower posttest mean scores than did students in the control group, showing treatment
effectiveness. The higher scores of control group students indicated more external
orientation of locus of control.
External orientation is associated with a tendency for more problematic behavior.
Persons with an external locus of control may be less successful in coping with stressful
situations than are individuals who generally believe that they are in control of the events
of their lives. Problems associated with external locus of control include: low influence
resistance; low resistance to temptation; inability to tolerate discomfort while helping
another individual; low ability to defer gratification; short future time perspective; high
suicide ideation; and negative future outlook. Persons who are emotionally disturbed,
persons who have learning disabilities, and individuals who are delinquent are more
likely to have an external locus of control.
On the other hand, individuals with internal locus of control orientation tend to
show more pro-social behavior as well as having a tendency to show more insight about
their own social behaviors and the consequences that evolve from them. Males, who are
more internal, tend to show more insight and to be more cooperative. This characteristic
is especially important when considering peer pressure and its effect on violence. It is
therefore concluded that this guidance unit has the potential to influence intemality and
may reduce violence.

91
Students’ Perceptions of Risk of Eruptive Violence
The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) performed on this dependent measure
revealed that there was not a significant difference between treatment and control group
students for perceived risk of violence. Therefore, it was concluded that the arts-based
large group counseling intervention did not significantly impact the students’ propensity
toward initiated violence.
Student’s Perceived Level of Emotional Empathy
The ANCOVA for this dependent measure showed no significant difference
between perceptions of emotional empathy of students in the treatment and control
groups. It was concluded that the arts-based counseling intervention did not significantly
impact the levels of emotional empathy of the students.
The only variable that significantly effected the BEES scores was the gender of
the participant Females in both treatment and control groups scored significantly higher
than did the males on the postmeasure. The higher scores of the females indicated higher
levels of perceived emotional empathy.
Other Findings
Written and pictorial reactions were collected from the students in the treatment
group. Their reflections were responses to the information, discussion, art, and literature
that composed the arts-based large group counseling intervention. Students were
instructed to identify feelings through reflective writing by stepping into the shoes of the
characters that were represented in visual art and selections of literature. They were also
instructed to write about their own personal feelings and to represent those feelings in
symbolic graphic form.

92
Various studio media were offered for the experiential activities including colored
markers, charcoal, watercolor, and pastels. Students also made preliminary sketches and
then used clay to create sculptural images that celebrated their own bodies. This activity
followed the session on body bigotry.
Many of the student writings and visual images reflected an understanding of the
feelings that were presented by individuals portrayed in the art and literature. Some
students responded with empathic awareness of pain or suffering due to the conditions of
racism, bigotry, oppression, abuse, or disability. Other students responded with an
ambivalent attitude that reflected knowledge of the emotional and physical state of the
character but with personal feelings that were contrary. As indicated by the art and
written material that was collected, students expressed themselves freely, which seems to
indicate synergistic action due to the intervention. Words, symbols, and graphic schemata
emerged as images from the cognitive-affective processes. Students identified feelings,
beliefs, and projected possible behaviors that could result from the cognitive and
affective states that were revealed through the art and literature. This information added
depth to the data collected.
Discussion
Results of the current study suggest that the arts-based counseling intervention
appeared to significantly impact locus of control but did not significantly impact the risk
of initiated violence, or the emotional empathy of high school art students as measured by
the instruments selected. It was interesting to note, however, that the variable of gender
had a significant main effect on two of the dependent measures.

93
Mean posttest scores seem indicated that males scored higher than females on
both pre and post-measures of locus of control, showing that males of the sample were
generally more external and perhaps more prone to react to stimuli outside themselves.
The characteristic of externality is positively correlated with high risk of eruptive
violence. These results might suggest that the counseling intervention include
components that address negative peer pressure.
The females who scored low on both pre and post-measures of locus of control
scored lower than the males who also scored low on both measures. Females, who
scored high on both pre and postmeasures, scored higher than the males who scored high
on both pre and postmeasures. Females in the sample were more extreme in their
tendencies on locus of control than were males. These results call for further
investigation of additional variables that impact extreme scores on locus of control.
Females in both treatment and control groups tended to score higher with regard
to the construct of emotional empathy. There was no significant treatment influence, but
it is interesting to note that higher scores indicate greater tendency to understand the
emotions and experiences of others. High empathy correlated positively with internal
locus of control and negatively with high risk of eruptive violence (Appendix E).
Results of the study indicated that alternate forms of analysis in addition to
quantitative means could provide important information when assessing the effectiveness
of an arts-based counseling intervention.
Limitations
Sample size posed limitations. Seven public schools agreed to take part in the
study. Permission from superintendents and principals was obtained. Art teachers were

94
positive and agreed that the intervention was appropriate and timely in light of recent
school violence. However, halfway through the study, the superintendents and/or school
boards of three of the participating schools pulled their schools out of the study.
Additionally, student attrition in the remaining schools decreased the sample size.
Although no clear-cut reasons for dropping out of the study were cited by
administrators, sensitivity of the subject matter may have been a factor. During the
intervention, art students explored issues of racism, poverty, body bigotry, disability,
abuse, and religious and ethnic persecution. Content was presented and discussed
concerning how lack of empathy can impact personal control and risk of initiated
violence.
The brevity of the intervention may also have been a limitation to the study.
Although meeting for six sessions is a common format for large group counseling in
public schools, the issues presented were immersed with value-laden social implications.
The problems addressed in the sessions have been building for decades and cannot be
easily reduced to a six-session intervention.
Closely associated with the complexity of sensitivity of the intervention could be
the limitation due to social desirability. Control group students may have responded in a
manner that they perceived to be most socially desirable, consequently narrowing the gap
of difference between treatment and control group data.
Instruments used to measure the dependent variables presented an additional
limitation. It is probable that the instruments were not sensitive enough to the constructs
being addressed. The subject matter of the intervention dealt with emancipatory
perspectives. Since these issues are humanistic in nature, personal contact and data that

95
emerge from a qualitative study may have been more definitive in terms of student
change.
Testing effect could be have been another limitation to this study. Primed by the
memory of responses to the pre-measures, treatment and control group responses on the
post-measures may have been similar to their previous answers.
School principals or superintendents volunteered their school’s participation in
the study. The lack of random selection of schools presents a limitation in the ability to
generalize results, as does the use of intact classes. In this study, the population being
studied was high school art students from public schools in three north central Florida
districts. Those who volunteered were representative of a range of those districts’
demographics. There can be no generalization of results beyond this current study.
Implications
The results of this study contribute limited information to administrators, teachers,
and school counselors about the effectiveness of a large group counseling intervention for
art students. The implication is that there is a growing urgency for collaborative work in
reaching the large number of students who are in need of guidance services and strategies
for empathic understanding and reducing violence in our schools.
The implication is that arts-based large group counseling interventions with high
school art students have the potential to effect changes in perceptions. Due to the ratio of
students per guidance counselor, it is sometimes difficult for counselors to schedule large
group and small group guidance interventions on the high school level. The demands of
scheduling, consultation, and crisis intervention utilize much of the counselor’s time.

96
The implication is that teachers are in a unique position for collaboration with guidance
counselors and for facilitating guidance materials with subject-area content.
A parsimonious approach is to train teachers to be facilitators who actively
contribute to a developmental guidance program. This study suggests the use of art
teachers due to their familiarity with affective material inherent in the fine arts. The
implication is that art education has traditionally encouraged the study and expression of
value-laden material. It is this researcher’s belief that a partnership between guidance
and art is a natural one. Both areas deal with matters of the mind and heart. However, it
should be noted that this type of intervention alone is not adequate. The brevity of the
intervention only brushes the surface of the issues. The intervention alone cannot
promise cognitive and affective changes that produce a violence-free environment.
This study contributes to an expanding body of literature on strategies for
reducing violence in schools. Research indicates that males with internal locus of control
tend to show more pro-social behavior as well as having a tendency to show more insight
about their own social behaviors and the consequences that evolved from them (Crandall
& Crandall, 1983). Males who tend to be more internal, tend to show more insight They
tend to more cooperative. Therefore, the implication is that a guidance unit that has the
potential to influence intemality would also be prone to reduce violence.
Externals who tend to be more dependent on approval by peers, may be less
affected by a guidance unit. Therefore, the implication is that it is important to continue
to investigate the construct of locus of control in relation to school violence and how to
design more effective guidance units that can reach these external individuals.

97
High empathy positively correlates with internal locus of control. The implication
is that high empathic individuals have high internal locus of control and are not prone to
violent behavior (negative correlation found in Appendix E). It is important then, to
investigate further the construct of empathy in relation to school violence. It seems
relevant to continue exploration of empathy, locus of control, and risk of violence in
connection with one another.
Recommendations
Since there was difficulty in achieving and/or maintaining participation, a primary
recommendation would be that greater attention must be paid to the solicitation of
participants. Administrators should be approached in person rather than by letter when
petitioning for participation in this type of study. This method of solicitation may
address questions and misconceptions more directly and create greater opportunity for the
administrator to see the relevance of the materials developed for the study. Dropout rate
may be reduced through personal contact by the researcher.
A research recommendation is to extend the study with a different population.
What would it look like if the study were used with students in an alternative setting for
behavior modification? These students could be compared to students in regular settings.
An additional recommendation would be to use this type of arts-based
intervention as an adjunct to other violence prevention strategies. Students have an
opportunity to learn about control orientation and to practice empathic awareness through
discussion, written, and symbolic form. Action opens the potential for students to
perceive themselves as part of a solution in which they have a voice. Students actively

98
engaged in the conversation of change are more empowered than those whose behaviors
are controlled or modified from external sources.
Another recommendation would be to utilize arts-based guidance interventions in
small group counseling settings as well as with individuals. Arts-based research is a
holistic approach to education and addresses all learning styles. Children make
connections between unfamiliar ideas and their own lived-through experience in order to
find personal meaning in new information. Arts-based counseling interventions give
students the opportunity to try on new ideas and behaviors through verbal as well as
experiential practice. This is the process of learning from the inside-out. Arts-based
interventions foster divergent thinking, develop the imagination, and encourage self and
other awareness. Creative modalities are powerful connections that join cognitive and
affective experiences. Creative arts make information come alive, giving meaning and
value to the learning experience.
Another recommendation is to train all teachers in facilitative techniques. The
guidance counselor can collaborate in such a manner that developmental guidance
becomes available to all students. Facilitative teachers model empathy, encourage
control, and are able to diffuse violent behaviors through respect and caring.
A final recommendation is for teachers to advocate for the immersion of affective
education into the curriculum. The art of caring can be modeled and taught in every
subject area. The teacher-facilitator can be an effective agent of social change.
Facilitative techniques communicate the value of caring to students. Caring tends to
increase empathic understanding. Increased empathy would seem to be a goal of early
intervention for the prevention of school and societal violence.

APPENDIX A
CONSENT LETTERS FOR PARTICIPATION

Department of Counselor Education
PO Box 117046 University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Distinguished School Board Members;
My name is Dianne Skye. I have been a high school art teacher for over twenty
years, with my last eleven years of teaching at P.K. Yonge Developmental Research
School. Currently, I am finishing my Ph.D. in Counselor Education at the University of
Florida and desire to investigate the results of a unit for the prevention of violence. The
intervention is in the form of teacher facilitated large group guidance for high school art
students. Art and literature form the basis of the intervention designed to increase
emotional empathy, affect locus of control, and decrease initiation of violence. Art
activities and expressive writing will be included in the intervention format.
Attached, you will find a request to principals for their high school’s voluntary
participation in a study that would allow me to share information and intervention
strategies with an art teacher at the various schools and at the same time meet UF
requirements for completion of my degree.
Art teachers will be asked to attend a 2 hour workshop that would provide current
information about initiated violence, emotional empathy that leads to understanding self
and others, and locus of control. We will examine in the workshop the role of the teacher
as facilitator and how affective education can be a vital addition to violence prevention
programs. I will focus on the nature of my own research and provide specific
information needed to carryout the study.
I will be available to the schools and the art teachers throughout the study. Thank
you for taking time to consider the attached request and I look forward to working with
those who choose to participate. If you have any questions, please call me at (352) 392-
1554, extension 253 or (352) 373-6033.
Sincerely,
Dianne Skye
Counselor and Artist /Educator
100

101
Department of Counselor Education
PO Box 117046 University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Dear High School Principal;
My name is Dianne Skye. I have been a high school art teacher for over twenty
years, with my last eleven years of teaching at P.K. Yonge Developmental Research
School. Currently, I am finishing my Ph.D. in Counselor Education at the University of
Florida and desire to investigate the results of a unit for the prevention of violence. The
intervention is in the form of teacher facilitated large group guidance for high school art
students. Art and literature form the basis of the intervention designed to increase
emotional empathy, affect locus of control, and decrease initiation of violence. Art
activities and expressive writing will be included in the guidance format.
Attached, you will find a request for your school’s voluntary participation in a
study that would allow me to share information and intervention strategies with an art
teacher at your school and at the same time meet UF requirements for completion of my
degree.
The art teacher at your school knows that this request is coming. Since the
attached request is so brief, I felt the need to alert art teachers as to the nature of their
commitment if your school participates. Additionally, art teachers will be asked to attend
a 2 hour workshop that would provide current information about initiated violence,
emotional empathy that leads to understanding self and others, and locus of control. We
will examine in the workshop the role of the teacher as facilitator and how affective
education can be a vital addition to violence prevention programs. I will focus on the
nature of my own research and provide specific information needed to carryout the study.
I will be available to you or your school’s art teacher throughout the study. Thank
you for taking time to consider the attached request and I look forward to working with
those who choose to participate. If you have any questions, please call me at (352) 392-
1554, extension 253 or (352) 373-6033.
Sincerely,
Dianne Skye
Counselor and Artist /Educator

102
Department of Counselor Education
PO Box 117046 University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Dear High School Art Teacher:
My name is Dianne Latson Skye. I have been an art teacher for over twenty years
and am a doctoral student at the University of Florida under the supervision of Dr. Robert
Myrick in the Counselor Education Department. I am conducting a study that involves
examining the effectiveness of a teacher facilitated large group guidance intervention for
high school art students. Art, literature, and art activities form the basis of the
intervention that is designed to increase understanding of self and others by vicarious
experience of various aspects of the human condition. The study will examine levels of
emotional empathy, locus of control, and perceptions of risk of initiated violence. Since
art teachers deal with diversity, feelings and emotions on a daily basis, it is my belief that
affective education can best be delivered by artist/educators as an essential contribution
to violence prevention strategies.
If you choose to participate, you will be asked to complete several tasks that
include attending a two hour workshop, coordinating the study in your school,
administering pre and post test instruments, and delivering the large group guidance
intervention. These activities will take place during eight 50-minute classroom periods.
Thee first session will be used to deliver premeasures, the intervention will be delivered
in the next six sessions, and the eighth session will be used for delivery of the
postmeasures. The intervention is to be delivered during a single grading period.
Results of the study will be reported in the form of group data only. Individual
data, including names of teachers and schools will be coded by number and kept
confidential to the extent provided by law.
If you have questions, please contact me at (352) 373-6033 or 392-1554 ext 253.
Or you may reach my supervisor, Dr. Myrick at 392-0731, Questions about research
participants’ rights may be directed to the UFIRB office, University of Florida, Box
112250, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; (352) 392-0433.
I have read the information above and voluntarily agree to participate in Dianne
Skye’s study. I have received a copy of this information.
Teacher’s Signature
Date

103
Department of Counselor Education
PO Box 117046 University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Dear Parent/Guardian,
My name is Dianne Skye. I am a graduate student in the Department of
Counselor Education at the University of Florida, under the supervision of Dr. Robert
Myrick, conducting research on the effectiveness of a teacher facilitated large group
counseling intervention for high school art students. The purpose of this study is to
compare the perceptions of students who take part in the intervention with those who do
not participate. The results of the study may help teachers and administrators understand
the importance of affective education designed to increase understanding of self and
others as a vital component of violence prevention strategies. The art teacher at your
child’s school will lead the large group guidance intervention.
Half of the art students who participate will be randomly assigned to participate in
the large group guidance for the prevention of violence which will take place over six
classroom sessions during a single grading period. Each session will last about fifty
minutes and will be facilitated by the art teacher who will use art and literature to focus
the discussion and process student’s feelings and experiences. Students will respond to
the art and literature by engaging in discussion, writing, and through art activities. Art
students not receiving the intervention will maintain their regular school routine, helping
to determine the effectiveness of the guidance intervention.
All art students who participate, even if they are not selected for participation in
the guidance sessions, will be asked to complete three instruments about how they see
themselves. The instruments will take about forty minutes of their time prior to the
beginning of the intervention and again at the conclusion of the intervention after the six
classroom sessions have been completed. The art teacher will read the instruments to the
students. Student answer sheets will be number coded and their identity will be kept
confidential to the extent provided by law. Results will only be reported in the form of
group data and will be available upon request in July. Participation or non-participation
in this study will not affect the student’s grades or progress in the art program.
You and your child have the right to withdraw consent for your child’s
participation at any time without consequence. Your child will be given information
about the nature of violence and how empathic understanding of the experiences and
feelings of others can promote acceptance. Knowledge of self and others, empathic
understanding, and increased control are potential benefits for students participating in
the study. No compensation is offered for participation. If you have any questions about
this research project please contact me at (352) 373-6033 or (352) 373-6033. Or you may
contact my faculty supervisor, Dr. Robert Myrick, at 392-0731. Questions or concerns
about research participant’s rights may be directed to the UFIRB office, University of
Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; (352) 392-0433.

104
Return this portion of the consent to your child’s art teacher by
if you would like your child to participate.
I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily give my consent for my child,
, to participate in Dianne Skye’s study involving a large
group guidance intervention for high school art students. I have received a copy of this
description.
Parent/Guardian
Date
2nd Parent/Witness
Date

105
Assent Agreement for All High School Art Students
In Treatment and Control Groups
The following paragraph is to be read to the students by the high school art
teacher prior to completion of pre-post instruments. The name of each art teacher will go
in the blank. After the script is read, students will be given the assent form at the bottom
to sign.
Hello Class,
As your art teacher, , I am helping a University of
Florida student, Dianne Skye, gather information about the way you see yourselves. I
would like to ask you to complete three short checklists with me today and again at a
later time. I will read them to you. Only myself and the University of Florida student will
see your individual answers. Your answer sheets will be number coded and your
confidentiality will be protected to the extent provided by the law.
If you choose to take part, you may stop at any time and you will not have
to answer any questions you do not want to.
I understand my rights as a participant in this study and I agree to voluntarily
participate
Student Signature
Date

APPENDIX B
RESEARCH PROCEDURES

1.
2.
.3.
.4.
5.
.6.
7.
8.
9.
.10.
.11.
.12.
.13.
14.
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ig the Arts-Based Guidance Study
Principal Investigator: Dianne Skye 281-8183 cell
(352) 392-1554, ext. 253 work;
(352) 373-6033 home
Checklist of Procedures
Participate in Facilitator Training
Random Assignment of Treatment and Control Groups
Send out Parent Permission Letters to All Participants
Collect Parent Permission Slips From Both Treatment and Control
Groups
Read Assent Script to All Students Being Tested
Collect Signature Slips
Guide Students Through Personal Data Sheets
Pretest Both Treatment and Control Groups
Call Researcher When Pretest is Complete. Give Signature Slips,
Student Data Sheets, and Pretest Materials to Researcher
Read Assent Script to Treatment Group
Collect Signature Slips
Deliver Arts-Based Guidance Intervention to Treatment Group
Posttest All Students in Treatment and Control Groups
Return Posttest Materials and Survey to Researcher
Instructions for Random Assignment to Treatment and Control Groups
Since the study utilizes a convenience sample with two intact classes from each
participating school, random assignment to treatment and control groups will be done by
simply flipping a coin to determine which class will receive treatment and which class
will be designated as the control group.
Pre and Posttest Data Collection
Data is collected for each student whose parent has given permission for his or her
participation in the study whether they have been assigned to treatment or the control
group. Pretest data will be collected prior to the beginning of the intervention. Posttest
data, using the same instruments and procedures, will be collected upon completion after
the intervention has been delivered.
107

108
Assent Agreement and Student Data Form
Read the assent agreement script to all students participating in the study before
completing the pretest instruments. Collect the assent forms then pass out the instrument
booklets with the student data sheet as the first page.
Then say: “Look at the student data sheet which is the first page of your
instrument booklet. The number of your participating school has already been
circled for you. Now go to number 2 and pencil in the last four digits of your social
security number. Circle the appropriate responses to gender, age, ethnicity, and
grade in school. When you have completed that, write the last four digits of your
social security number on the top of each of the remaining pages of the booklet. If
you do not know your social security number, lightly pencil your name at the top of
the booklet and your initials on the top of each page. I will put the last four digits of
your social security number if you do not know it. And remember, your
confidentiality will be protected to the extent of the law. You are all very familiar
with testing conditions. I would like to remind you that there is no talking in order
to give everyone an opportunity to consider their answers without distraction or
interference.”
Children’s Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (CNSIE)
Then say: “The first scale is used to find out what students think about
certain things. I will be reading the questions to you and as you follow along with
me, circle a “Yes” or a “No” to indicate how you feel. There are no right or wrong
answers and no one else besides the researcher and myself will see your answers.
Your parents or your other teachers will not see your answers. Don’t take too much
time thinking about your answers. Just circle the answer that indicates most
accurately how you feel. Find # 1 on the answer sheet and let’s begin. Please do not
move ahead but mark each answer after the question is read to you.”
Give students a minute to stretch and then move on to the next instrument when the
CNSIE is finished.
Risk of Eruptive Violence Scale
Say: “Turn the page of your booklet to the (REV) SCALE. This scale will
also be read to you but the answering format is somewhat different. I will read each
question to you and you will indicate the degree of your agreement or disagreement
with each of the statements by writing the numerical value that best describes your
attitudes accurately and generally- that is, the way you actually feel about things.
Number 9 indicates very strong agreement with the question, with the scale
descending in agreement to number 1 which indicates very strong disagreement. Do
not answer how you think things should be, but how you actually feel. And again,
remember that your confidentiality is protected and no one else besides the
researcher and myself will see your answers. Please mark each statement after it is
read to you and do not jump ahead in your answer booklet.”

109
Give students a minute to stretch before beginning the final scale.
Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale
Say: “Thank you students for your cooperation and excellent behavior.
The last scale will be answered in the same way that you answered the previous one.
Try to describe yourself and your attitudes accurately and generally, that is, the wav
you are in most situations— not the way you are in specific situations or the way you
hope to be. These answers are strictly about you and the way you think and feel.
After I read each question, indicate your degree of agreement or disagreement with
the statement. 9 indicates very strong agreement. The scale descends in degree of
agreement with 1 indicating a very strong disagreement with the statement as it
applies to you as an individual. Find #1 on your answer sheet. Let’s begin.”
Remind students to double check to make sure that they have filled in the personal data
sheets completely, circling the correct answer for each of the questions. If any student
has not filled in the last four digits of their social security numbers, remind them to
lightly pencil in their names so you can fill in the numbers later. Tell the students that the
data sheets with their identification numbers will be destroyed after the researcher has
recorded the demographic information for her study. Data Sheets are to be completed for
both pre-test and post instruments.

110
Personal Data Sheet
Circle the appropriate response to each of the following:
1.
School 1 2
3 4 5
6
7
2.
Last 4 digits in
Social Security #
3.
Gender
1.
Female
2.
Male
4.
Age
1.
Age 13 or younger
2.
Age 14
3.
Age 15
4.
Age 16
5.
Age 17
6.
Age 18
7.
Age 19 or older
5.
Ethnicity
1.
Mixed Race
2.
Native American or
Pacific Islander
3.
Asian
4.
Hispanic
5.
African-American
6.
White Non-Hispanic
6.
Grade in School
1.
Grade 9
2.
Grade 10
3.
Grade 11
4.
Grade 12
A / B ** Remember that your confidentiality is protected to the limit of the law.

Ill
Checklist of Materials to be Reí
LUMilil
to the Researcher
Please return the following information to Dianne Skye. Call her after administering pre¬
test and post-test so she can pick them up from you.
281-8183 cell
(352) 392-1554, ext. 253 work;
(352) 373-6033 home
Parent Permission Slips for both Treatment and Control Groups
Assent Signatures from all Students Participating in both Treatment and Control
Student Data Sheets with Pretest Materials
Assent Signatures from Students Participating in Arts-Based Intervention
Student Data Sheets with Posttest Materials
Student Packets with Stream of Consciousness Writing and Art Expressions
Claywork if Teacher as Facilitator Does Not Have Access to a Kiln

APPENDIX C
RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS

Children’s Nowicki-Strickland Internal External Locus of Control Scale
Circle Yes or No for each question as the item is read
Yes
No
(1)
Do you believe the most problems will solve themselves
if you just don’t fool with them?
Yes
No
(2)
Do you believe that you can stop yourself from catching a cold?
Yes
No
(3)'
Are some kids just born lucky?
Yes
No
(4)
Most of the time do you feel that getting good grades means a
great deal to you?
Yes
No
(5)
Are you often blamed for things that just aren’t your fault?
Yes
No
(6)
Do you believe that if somebody studies hard enough he or she
can pass any subject?
Yes
No
(7)
Do you feel that most of the time it doesn’t pay to try hard
because things never turn out right anyway?
Yes
No
(8)
Do you feel that if things start out well in the morning that it’s
going to be a good day no matter what you do?
Yes
No
(9)
Do you feel that most of the time parents listen to what their
children have to say?
Yes
No
(10)
Do you believe that wishing can make good things happen?
Yes
No
(11)
When you get punished does it usually seem its for no good
reason at all?
Yes
No
(12)
Most of the time do you find it hard to change a friend’s mind?
Yes
No
(13)
Do you think that cheering more than luck helps a team to
win?
Yes
No
(14)
Do you feel that it’s nearly impossible to change your parent’s
mind about anything?
Yes
No
(15)
Do you feel that your parents should allow you to make most of
your own decisions?
Yes
No
(16)
Do you feel that when you do something wrong there’s very
little you can do to make it right?
113

114
Yes
No
(17)
Yes
No
(18)
Yes
No
(19)
Yes
No
(20)
Yes
No
(21)
Yes
No
(22)
Yes
No
(23)
Yes
No
(24)
Yes
No
(25)
Yes
No
(26)
Yes
No
(27)
Yes
No
(28)
Yes
No
(29)
Yes
No
(30)
Yes
No
(31)
Yes
No
(32)
Do you believe that most kids are just born good at sports?
Are most of the other kids your age stronger than you are?
Do you feel that one of the best ways to handle most problems
is just not to think about them?
Do you feel that you have a lot of choice in who your friends
are?
If you find a four leaf clover do you believe that it might bring
you good luck?
Do you often feel that whether you do your homework has
much to do with what kind of grades you get?
Do you feel that when a kid your age decides to hit you, there’s
little you can do to stop him or her?
Have you ever had a good luck charm?
Do you believe that whether or not people like you depends on
how you act?
Will your parents usually help you if you ask them to?
Have you felt that when people were mean to you it was usually
for no reason at all?
Most of the time, do you feel that you can change what might
happen tomorrow by what you do today?
Do you believe that when bad things are going to happen they
just are going to happen no matter what you try to do to stop
them?
do you think that kids can get their own way if they just keep
trying?
Most of the time do you find it useless to try to get your own
way at home?
Do you feel that when good things happen they happen because
of hard work?

115
Yes
No
(33)
Do you feel that when somebody your age wants to be your
enemy there’s little you can do to change matters?
Yes
No
(34)
Do you feel that it is easy to get friends to do what you want
them to?
Yes
No
(35)
Do you usually feel that you have little to say about what you
get to eat at home?
Yes
No
(36)
Do you feel that when someone doesn’t like you there’s little
you can do about it?
Yes
No
(37)
Do you usually feel that it’s almost useless to try in school
because most other children are just plain smarter than you
are?
Yes
No
(38)
Are you the kind of person who believes that planning ahead
makes things turn out better?
Yes
No
(39)
Most of the time, do you feel that you have little to say about
what your family decides to do?
Yes
No
(40)
Do you think it’s better to be smart than to be lucky?

APPENDIX D
TEACHER-FACILITATOR TRAINING MANUAL

WALK A MILE IN MY SHOES
Guidance to End Violence
Unit Objectives:
♦ To help students understand the nature of empathy and how it relates to
personal control.
♦ To help students understand the link between the lack of empathy and initiated
violence.
♦ To give students the opportunity to explore personal, social, psychological,
and emotional issues that impact behavior.
♦ To allow students to experience the perspective of another through art and
literature and to express feelings and cognitions through words and symbols
associated with experiential learning.
These objectives will be reinforced in every session with the additional emphasis
on particular issues highlighted in each session.
SESSION ONE: “I SHINED THEIR SHOES”
Focussed Objective:
♦ To help students understand the experience of one suffering from racism
and oppression.
Materials Needed:
Overhead projector and cassette tape player
Overheads of overview of school violence statistics and definition of empathy
Artwork that graphically explores the nature and emotions associated with racism
Audiotape of excerpt from literature dealing with racism.(Selection for this
session: Nigger by Dick Gregory, pages 10-11. Overheads, and audiotape
included in manual. Alternate selection of literature: The Bluest Eyes by Toni
Morriston)
Paper, pencils (included)
Colored markers (included)
Opening Statement:
Say: “Hello class, today we are starting the first of six session that deal with
the nature of empathy and how the lack of empathy can impact behavior and
lead to violence. Since this is a University of Florida study, I will be reading
most of the information to you to make sure that the study is delivered
consistently by all of the teachers involved. The subject matter is not meant
to shock you, but to create a greater awareness. I think you will find it to be
interesting and fun. We will be using artwork and literature to explore
117

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portions of people’s lives and attempt to understand thoughts, feelings, and
experiences from their perspectives. You will also have an opportunity to
identify those feelings in written form and in symbolic form through various
art materials. Your work and your words will be kept private, so feel free to
express yourselves in an uncensored manner as you write and symbolize the
feelings you experience through these works of art and literature.”
Activity: Discussion to Introduce Empathy: Links to Control and Violence
Have students sit in their normal seating arrangement or in an arrangement that
will ensure that all students can see the overheads and hear the taped literature.
Say: “First of all, I want to hear from you. What does it mean to be
empathic, or to have empathy for someone? “ (Allow several responses,
acknowledging contributions, linking similar answers). Then say, “In contrast,
what is the difference between sympathy and empathy?” (Allow several
answers and then put up the first overhead)
Overhead #l(Read the definition aloud) WALK A MILE IN MY SHOES.
Empathy: empathy or the ability to be empathic, is to perceive the internal
frame of reference (emotions and meanings) of another person as if you were
that person. You do this without loosing your own identity. It means
understanding the thinking and feelings of another person as if you were
walking in their shoes. When you are able to empathize, you are able to
understand more accurately what it means to be that person. In addition,
you can use that understanding to adjust your personal judgments, attitudes,
and behaviors toward that person.
Say: “Empathy is what allows us to connect with other human beings. When
we more accurately perceive another’s feelings and imagine feeling that same
way ourselves, we are empathic. It requires that we understand that all
people share the same kinds of feelings and emotions. We accept those
emotions as something we could possibly feel in that person’s same
circumstance, then we move much closer to an understanding of ourselves
and others.”
Say: “Lack of empathy can result in lack of self- control and result in violent
behaviors toward others. Let’s look at some of the many forms that violence
takes in schools and in society.”
Overhead #2 and #3 (Read the information) “Violence takes the following
forms: bullying; intimidation; taunting; anger; physical aggression, verbal or
emotional abuse stemming from racism, sexism, religious or ethnic
persecution; course jokes or stereotypical remarks; gender inequity;
persecution due to sexual orientation; discrimination due to body type or

119
physical or mental disability. A violent person reacts without considering the
circumstances of another.
Ask: “Can you think of any other forms of discrimination, prejudice, or
racism that are not mentioned on this list that could possibly result in
violence?” (Allow for responses, reflect or paraphrase to acknowledge individual
responding).
Sav: “You don’t have to share your personal experience out loud, but think
to yourself about a time when you were emotionally or physically hurt due to
actions of another person. We’re going to be looking at some of these
conditions that cause humans to suffer emotionally and physically. An
overview includes:” (Put up overhead #4).
Overhead #4. (Read information) “Many conditions contribute to an increase
in violence: Guns and weapons on school campuses; breakdowns in a family,
poor role models, and celebration of violence in the media. Drug and alcohol
use and abuse, racism and hate crimes, and poverty all can create conditions
that potentially contribute to the perception of loss of personal control and
risk of initiated violence.”
Sav: “When you get really irritated at someone for something that they have
said or done, before reacting, consider how conditions in that person’s life
might be impacting his or her behavior. You may not fully understand that
individual’s circumstances. Let’s take a look at some art and literature
related to the physical and emotional experiences of one suffering from
racism.
As you are listening to the literature and viewing the art, try to
experience it as though you are the main character. Step into their shoes,
allow yourself to experience the thoughts and emotions of that character.”
Activity: Art and Literature: Experiential Link to Learning
Overheads #5, #6, #7, #8 (Put up each over head for about 30 seconds while the
tape is playing the literature excerpt. Leave #8 up while the students work on the
response activity.)
Pass out lined paper for written responses and plain white paper and colored
markers for art activity.
Sav: “As if you were the main character, first write how you are feeling about
what has happened as though it has happened to you. Identify the names of
your feelings by referring to the feelings chart in your handout if your need
to. Then write reflections about your feelings, what you are thinking, and
what you may feel like doing.
When you are finished with your writing, take the paper and markers
and in your choice of either symbolic, non-objective, or abstract style, use

120
color, line, and shape to express the thoughts and emotions you described in
your writing. Your work does not have to be realistic, although it can be if
you want it to. Please remember that neither your writing nor your artwork
will be judged for its artistic merit This is a brief process. Feel free to
express yourself.”
Literature taken from: Nigger: An Autobiography by Dick Gregory
Page 10-11 [Edited to soften language and content]
I’ve dyed a lot of shoes, Momma, down on my hands and knees in the
taverns, dying shoes and shining shoes. I never told you too much about the things I
did and the things I saw, Momma, remember the time 1 came home with my teeth
knocked in and my lip all cut? Told you I tripped downstairs. Momma, I got
kicked. Right in the face.
It was Saturday afternoon, my big hustling day. 1 was ten, but I looked like I
was seven. There were a lot of people in the tavern, drinking beer, and 1 was
shining this white woman’s shoes. They were white and brown shoes, summer
shoes. The men sitting at the bar were laughing
White and brown shoes. I didn’t want to get the brown polish on the white
part so I put my other hand on the back of the white woman’s leg to steady
myself.....One of the white men, a man who wasn’t laughing came off his stool
He kicked me right in the mouth
The bartender jumped over the bar and grabbed me with one hand and my
shoeshine box with the other. “Sorry, boy, it’s not your fault, but I can’t have you
around.” Out on the sidewalk he gave me five-dollar bill.
When I saw all the blood and pieces of tooth on my shirt, I got scared if I
could get kicked in the mouth a couple more times today, and get five dollars each
time, man, I’d be all right
Processing the Activity:
Say: “You have experienced a taste of what racism is like. Ask: What are
some of the feelings that you experienced? (Allow for several responses,
acknowledging and linking.) Ask: What are some things that you were
thinking as your stepped into the character’s shoes? Ask: When you find
yourself reacting in a negative way to someone of a group that has
experienced many forms of racism and oppression, what could you do to
increase your self-control and perhaps develop greater empathy for that
individual? (Allow for several responses. Then perhaps add: “Individuals of
color in this country have endured many forms of oppression. If we try to
put ourselves in their place, or ‘walk a mile in their shoes’, we will stop and
think before responding and strive for a greater understanding.”
Overhead #9 (Read material). “Psychological studies of people with deeply
rooted prejudices reveal that they generally fear failure. They tend to lack
self-awareness, and have low self-esteem. They have little faith in themselves

121
or in other people. Afraid and insecure, they tend to wear a mask that hides
what they are really like inside. This helps them feel in control or like they
fit in. Their lives become centered on their search for approval. People who
are prejudiced blame others who are different from themselves for the
inadequacies they themselves feel.
As one researcher concluded, their failures and inadequacies become
a burden for them to bear and, as a result, they often target other people as
scapegoats. The degree of their self-hatred is likely reflected in the intensity
of their hatred for the scapegoat group. (B.K. Bryant in Teaching Tolerance
by Sara Bullard)
Summary Statement:
Say: We are living in an increasingly diverse society. We are widely different
in many ways. Although we are different, very human being has the need to
feel cared about and understood. We need to be aware of the consequences
of our attitudes and actions toward other humans.
Empathy is a force. When we open our hearts and minds to
understand the conditions under-which our fellow human beings live and
endure, we will temper our responses with compassion, sensitivity and the
respect that every human being needs and deserves.
You can make a big difference in the quality of our world by striving
to understand what it’s like to ‘Walk a Mile in Another’s Shoes.’”
“Thank you for your participation, openness, and honesty. Our next session
will deal with understanding suffering from poverty and homelessness.”

122
SESSION TWO: “MY SHOES CAME FROM THE DUMPSTER”
Focussed Objective:
♦ To help students understand the experience of one suffering from poverty
and deprivation.
Materials Needed:
Overhead projector and cassette tape player
Overheads about poverty
Artwork overheads that graphically explore the nature and emotions associated
with poverty and deprivation
Audiotape of excerpt from literature dealing with poverty. Selection for this
session: Amazing Grace by Jonathan Kozol, pages 21-23.
(Overheads, audio tape, and hard copies included in manual)
Paper (included)
Charcoal (included)
Opening Statement:
Put up Overhead #1. (Have students sit in their normal seating arrangement or in
an arrangement that will ensure that all students can see the overheads and hear
the taped literature.)
Say. “Although we live in the richest nation of the world, the reality is that
individuals in every state of the Union are going to bed hungry, people are
without clothing, shelter, and go without the basic necessities of life. Over 12
million children live in poverty in the United States. More than 4 million
poor children are under the age of six. Let’s take a look at some of the
consequences.”
Overhead #2. (Read the material aloud).
‘The most well-documented effect of childhood poverty is on
educational achievement Children's life chances are influenced because
those who grow up poor often have lower literacy rates, higher rates of
dropping out, and higher delinquency rates. Illiteracy is strongly correlated
to delinquency and criminal behavior. Another major consequence of
poverty is that low income often leads to residence in extremely poor
neighborhoods characterized by social disorganization and few resources for
child development”
Overhead #3. (Read the material aloud)
“Child poverty also influences nutrition and health. Statistics show that poor
children often experience diminished physical health. Inadequate nutrition
has marked effects on the growth and possibly the mental development of
children. Poor children suffer from emotional and behavioral problems more

123
often than children who are not raised in poverty. These effects, however,
are less strong than the effect of poverty on educational achievement.”
Activity: Discussion on the Consequences of Poverty
Sav: “I want to hear from you. What are some of things that children from
low-income families have to deal with in school each day?” (Allow several
responses, acknowledging contributions, linking similar answers. If students are
not initiating, give them some hints© “What about clothing? What are some
of the issues surrounding clothing and shoes?”... “What about free and
reduced lunches, do you think children who receive these services are ever
embarrassed or feel labeled or separated from the other students?”
“What about issues surrounding taking friends home for a sleep-over,
birthday party, or just to hang out?” “What are some of the feelings or
reservations that you think children could have surrounding those kinds of
experiences that are common place to many of us?”
Sav: “When you are able to empathize, you are striving to understand what
it means to be another person. Empathic individuals are able to use that
understanding to influence their own judgments, attitudes, and behaviors
toward others.”
Ask: “How can we begin to understand and empathize with the experiences
of a person living in poverty?” (Allow for responses, reflect or paraphrase to
acknowledge individual responding).
Ask: “Can you think of any other forms of discrimination, prejudice, or
oppression that individuals from poor circumstances face in our society?”
(Allow for several responses, acknowledging and summarizing)
Ask: “We learned from the research information that those living in
poverty are more likely to have delinquent or even criminal behavior. What
do you think causes those kinds of actions?” (Allow for responses)
Ask: “Since the emotional burdens that accompany poverty are so great,
what are some ways that we as can help reduce those burdens for students at
school?” (If students have trouble initiating response, remind students that
making fun, teasing, making insensitive comments about clothing, homes,
physical appearance, etc. are all form of violence and add to the already
emotionally stressful conditions that people in poverty are suffering.)
Ask: “Have you ever seen someone who was being teased and made fun of
because of his or her clothes, no-name brand shoes, or some other issue
related to having less materially than others? How did you feel when you
saw that happening?”

124
Sav: “Before reacting in a hurtful way to someone, consider possible
conditions that may influence his or her life. Let’s take a look at some art
and literature related to the physical and emotional experiences of one
suffering from poverty. Sometimes we have the misconception that everyone
has control over his or her condition in life. As you are listening to the
literature and viewing the art, try to experience the thoughts and emotions of
that character.”
Activity: Art and Literature: Experiential Link to Learning
Overheads #4, #5, #6, #7, #8 (Put up each over head for about 30 seconds while
the tape is playing the literature excerpt. Leave #8 up while the students work on
the response activity.)
Pass out lined paper for written responses and plain white paper and charcoal for
art activity.
Sav: “From the point of view of the female victim, first write how you are
feeling about what has happened as though it has happened to you. Identify
your emotions, what you are thinking, and what you may feel like doing.
When you are finished with your writing, take the paper and charcoal and
use line and shape to express what you described in your writing. Your work
does not have to be realistic, although it can be if you want it to. Neither your
writing nor your artwork will be judged for its artistic merit. This is a brief
process. Feel free to express yourself.”
Literature taken from Amazing Grace: The Lives of Children and the Conscience
of a Nation by Jonathan Kozol.
Pages 21-23 [Edited]
She grew up in Harlem and the Bronx and went to segregated public
schools, not something of her choosing, nor that of her mother and her father. She
finished high school, studied bookkeeping at a secretarial college, and went to work,
beginning at 19. When she married, at the age of 25, she had to choose her husband
from that segregated “marriage pool.” to which our social scientists sometimes quite
icily refer, of frequently unemployable black men, some of whom have been
involved in drugs or spent some time in prison. From her husband, after many
years of what she thought to be monogamous matrimony, she contracted the AIDS
virus.
She left her husband after he began to beat her. Cancer of her fallopian
tubes was detected at this time, then cancer of her uterus. She had three operations.
Too frail to keep on with the second of two jobs that she had held, in all, for nearly
20 years, she was forced to turn for mercy to the City of New York.
In 1983, at the age of 39, she landed with her children in a homeless shelter
two blocks from Times Square, in an old hotel in which the plumbing did not work
and from which she and David and his sister had to carry buckets to a bar across

125
the street in order to get water. After spending close to four years in three shelters
in Manhattan, she was moved by the city to the neighborhood where she now lives
in the South Bronx
Processing the Activity:
Say: “You have experienced a small taste of the consequences of poverty.”
Ask: “What are some of the feelings that you experienced?”
(Allow for several responses, acknowledging and linking.)
Ask: “What are some things that you were thinking as your stepped into the
character’s shoes?”
Ask: “When you find yourself reacting in a negative way to someone who is
suffering from poverty, what could you do to increase your self-control and
perhaps develop greater empathy for that individual?” (Allow for several
responses.) Then perhaps add:
Sav: “Individuals suffering from the conditions of poverty in this country
endure emotional and social pressure. If we try to put ourselves in their
place, we will stop and think before responding in a negative way and strive
for a greater understanding of the condition of others.”
Summary Statement:
Say: “As our empathy increases, so does our ability to have self control over
insensitive thoughts and words that wound the spirits of others. Our
sensitivity can promote peaceful relationships and even inspire us to take
action to do our parts in helping to improve the condition of the lives of
others. You can make a big difference in the quality of our world by striving
to understand what it’s like to ‘Walk a Mile in Another’s Shoes.”
“Thank you for your participation, openness, and honesty. Our next session
will deal with understanding suffering from discrimination due to body type
and stereotypical standards of beauty.”

126
SESSION THREE: “MY SHOES CARRY A HEAVY LOAD”
Focussed Objective:
♦ To help students understand some of the experiences of those who suffer
from weight bigotry.
Materials Needed:
Overhead projector and cassette tape player
Overheads about weight bigotry in America
Artwork overheads that graphically explore the nature and emotions associated
with issues of weight
Audiotape and hard copies for students of excerpt from literature dealing with
weight bigotry and sexism. Selection for this session: The Next Generation of
Activists by Roxy Walker. (Reprinted from Summer 1995 issue of Radiance;
http://www.radiancemagazine.com/suuuer95_rwalker.html)
(Overheads, audio tape, and hard copies included in manual)
Paper (included)
Individual bags of clay for each student (included)
(Have students sit in their normal seating arrangement or in an arrangement that
will ensure that all students can see the overheads and hear the taped literature.)
Opening Statement:
Sav: “Millions of men and women in our society suffer because of their body
type. Thin people in our society, especially thin women, benefit enormously,
while overweight individuals are often overlooked and left out. Weight
bigotry is a form of prejudice that divides people into artificial categories
designated as inferior and superior.”
Overhead #1 and #2. Read the material aloud).
Sav: “When racism was at its most powerful in America, white people
profited from it in a variety of ways even if they did not support it In this
country, being white carries privilege while members of other races may
suffer.
When anti-Semitism was a greater force than it is today, Jews paid
the price while Gentiles, prejudiced or not, stepped with relative ease into
jobs, neighborhoods, hotels, restaurants, social circles, and country clubs.
And now, as a result of body bigotry, it is the obese individual, and
not his or her thinner counterpart, who endures pain of prejudice. Disgusted
looks, comments, and stereotypical thinking come everywhere.”
(Overhead #2) Overweight men or women are often faced with smirking or
pitying stares from others. They receive unwanted diet advice and often
receive substandard medical care from those doctors who scold, threaten,

127
and misdiagnose purely on body size. Insensitive individuals may tease and
make rude comments at swimming pool and beach.” (W. Charisse Goodman:
The Invisible Woman)
Overhead #3. (Read the material aloud)
Say: “The American culture benefits by ignoring body stereotypes that fuel
weight prejudice. The weight loss industry profits approximately $33 billion
per year. Encouraging body hatred is extremely profitable.
Holding on to these standards of obsessive thinness is cruel and
damaging. Stereotypes about body size ignore real accomplishments and
qualities of character. The focus is shallow when physical characteristics are
the standards by which one is judged.”
Overhead #4 (Read the material aloud)
Sav: “Let’s look at a list of hurtful assumptions that millions of women and
men hold who participate in weight prejudice. These stereotypes inflict pain
and suffering. Some of them include: Big people are lazy; fat people fear the
opposite sex; obese people look alike; The large woman is compared to a dog,
a pig, a cow, a hippo, or an elephant; a fat person is not seen as human.
Weight prejudice, together with other aspects of appearance
obsession, promotes competition between women who can live up to the
anorexic standards. As a result, the large woman must fight not only for
equality with men but also for a level playing field with thin women. It’s
hard to say which is the more difficult” (W. Charisse Goodman: The
Invisible Woman)
Activity: Discussion on the Consequences of Weight Bigotry
Sav: “It’s time to hear from you.”
Ask: “What are some of things that obese individuals have to deal with in
school each day?” (Allow several responses, acknowledging contributions,
linking similar answers. If students are not initiating, give them some hints: not
being chosen for athletic teams; difficulty with relationships and dating; students
and teachers treating them differently ; not having the same kinds of trendy clothes
that other teens are wearing)
Ask: “What kinds of feelings do you think an obese person has to deal
with?” (loneliness, feelings of inferiority, shame, embarrassment...)
Ask: “What kinds of bigoted behavior have you personally seen that could
hurt the feelings of a large person?”
Ask: “What kinds of unhealthy choices do some overweight individuals
sometimes turn to because of the emphasis our society puts on being thin?’
(Facilitate brief discussion about anorexia and bulimia).

128
Ask: “What are some ways that we as individuals can help reduce that
emotional burden in relationship to students at school?” (If students have
trouble initiating response, remind students that making fun, teasing, making
insensitive comments about physical appearance, etc. are all form of violence and
add to the already emotionally stressful conditions that large people are suffering)
Sav: “When you find yourself being tempted to make a rude comment or
having stereotypical thoughts about someone who is large, think about how
you might feel in their circumstance.”
Let’s take a look at some art and literature related to the physical and
emotional experiences of one suffering from weight bigotry. Sometimes we
have the mistaken idea that everyone has control over his or her condition in
life. As you are listening to the literature and viewing the art, try to
experience it as though you are the main character. Step into their shoes,
allow yourself to experience the thoughts and emotions of that character.”
Activity: Art and Literature: Experiential Link to Learning
Overheads #5, #6, #7, #8, #9 (Put up each over head for about 30 seconds while
the tape is playing the literature excerpt. Leave #9 up while the students work on
the response activity.)
Literature taken from The Next Generation of Activists by Roxy Walker
Edited from the Summer 1995 issue of
Radiance, http://radiancemagazine.com/summer 95_rwalker.html
A crowded dance floor where young people of every shape, size, and color get
along and let the music move them. I’m in the middle of it all, dancing with myself,
having the time of my life, free of everything until
“Hey, Lard Ass!” “ I didn’t know cows could dance... if that’s what you’re
doing.” “Why do they let fat people in here anyway? They take up too much space.
Fatso!” Four guys make ignorant comments and gestures to me- a night so
incredibly free ruined by four obnoxious guys!
I’m Roxy Walker a fat woman in the 1990’s, and I’m fighting
stereotypes....
A hurtful incident was in sixth grade. In art class I sat alone, working very
hard, hoping to win some approval. When the teacher finally complimented me in
front of the class, I was thrilled. I thought, Now they’ll have to accept me. It didn’t
happen. The next day I came to class and found my art folder and all my work had
been destroyed. Someone had ripped some things and stapled other things. None of
my work would go into the art show because someone had destroyed it all....
I never felt truly accepted or acceptable in high school. Besides the students
who made fun of me, I had problems with various adults and school officials. ...I
can talk about the gym teacher who made me walk three to four times what other

129
students had to run, just because 1 had a doctor’s not saying I couldn’t run I was
often separated from everyone else.
Pass out lined paper for written responses and plain white paper and clay for art activity.
Sav: “From the point of view of the individual suffering from being obese,
first write about this young woman’s experience as though you were in her
shoes. Write down your emotions, what you are thinking, and what you may
feel like doing.
When you are finished, take out the clay that you have been given and
use it to celebrate your own body. You may want to do a preliminary sketch
first to plan your piece. The work does not have to be realistic, although it
can be if you want it to. You can create a small image of yourself, a part of
your body that you feel proud of, or a caricature. Neither your writing nor
your artwork will be judged for its artistic merit. Feel free to express yourself
and celebrate any part or all of your body with the clay.’
Processing the Activity:
Say: “You have experienced a glimpse of what it may be like to feel the pain
from weight bigotry.”
Ask: “What are some of the feelings that you experienced from the point of
view of the character in the literature?” (Allow for several responses,
acknowledging and linking.)
Ask: “What are some things that you were thinking as your stepped into the
character’s shoes?”
Ask: “What was it like to have to think of your own body and celebrate it
or a part of it that you feel is attractive?” (This may be hard for the students to
disclose. You may want to add:
Sav: Everyone’s body is sacred and deserves being treated with respect
Regardless of your size or weight, you have an incredible body and should
treat it well.
Ask: When you find yourself reacting in a negative way to someone who is
suffering from issues of weight or sexism, what could you do to increase your
self-control and perhaps develop greater empathy for that individual? (Allow
for several responses.) Then perhaps add:
Summary Statement:
Say: ‘Individuals suffering from weight bigotry and sexism in this country
endure emotional and social pressure. Empathize. Don’t judge unfairly.”

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SESSION FOUR: “MY SHOES NEVER TOUCH THE GROUND”
Focussed Objective:
♦ To help students understand some experiences of individuals who suffer
from physical or mental disabilities.
Materials Needed:
Overhead projector and cassette tape player
Overheads about disability in America
Artwork overheads that graphically explore the nature and emotions associated
with issues of mental and physical disabilities
Audiotape from literature dealing with physical disability. Selection for this
session: Izzy, Willy-Nilly by Cynthia Voigt, p. 21-22; 98-99.
(Overheads, audiotape, and hard copies included in manual)
Paper and pencils for writing (included)
Watercolors, brushes, paper, and water containers (included)
(Have students sit in their normal seating arrangement or in an arrangement that
will ensure that all students can see the overheads and hear the taped literature.)
Opening Statement:
Sav: “One of the major difficulties facing individuals with disabilities is the
reactions they receive from other people. Many people are afraid of someone
with a handicap, whether physical or mental or both.”
Ask: “What are some reactions people have either outwardly or inwardly
when they are in the presence of someone with a disability?” (Allow for
several responses and then add the following)
Sav: “If not afraid, many people are at the very least uncomfortable with
what they see and feel emotionally when they experience someone with a
physical handicap. Many people are cautious and timid around individuals
with handicaps. Some people keep their distance. Although curious and
wanting to be friends, some people just don't know where to start. Most of
the time, those reactions stem from not understanding the nature of the
disability”
Ask: “What are some kinds of disabilities that are possibly suffered by
individuals in a school setting?”
Overhead #1 (Read the material aloud).
Sav: “Many Americans suffer from some type of disability.

131
15% of the general population, approximately 38 million people, experience
some activity limitation due to chronic health conditions or impairments. 54
million people, live with some level of disability. About half that number
(experience severe disability.” (National Health Interview Survey (NHIS),
fielded by the National Center for Health Statistics, and the Survey of Income and
Program Participation (SIPP), implemented by the U.S. Bureau of the Census)
Overhead #2. (Read the material aloud)
Say: “Many Americans use wheelchairs and other assist devices.
According to 1994 National Health Interview Data, an estimated 7.4 million
Americans rely on devices to compensate for mobility impairments: 4.8
million use canes, 1.8 million use walkers, 1.6 million use wheelchairs. 4.2
million Americans use hearing aides; 1.7 million use back braces.”
Overhead #3. (Read the material aloud)
Sav: “Of all school-age children, 650,000 are limited in mobility, 470,000
have a self-care limitation, 2,743,000 have a communication limitation, and
5,237,000 have a limitation in learning ability. Overall, 6,075,000 school-age
American children have some type of functional limitation.” (1994 National
Health Interview)
Ask: “Looking at these statistics, what is the prevalent disability suffered by
school-age children? (learning disabilities) Ask: What makes a learning
disability different than other forms of disabilities? (It’s very important here
to stress that unlike other physical impairments, the learning disabled individual
often suffers in silence. He or she looks like everyone else- no wheelchair,
hearing aide, or crutches.)
Ask: What is a learning disability? Can anyone give some examples?”
Overhead #4. (Read material aloud)
Say: “Neurological in origin, learning disabilities interfere with a
person's ability to store, process, or use information. Learning disabilities
can affect the ability to read, write, listen, and speak, as well as to solve math
or word problems. This creates a gap between ability and what a person can
actually do. Having a learning disability does not mean that an individual is
retarded or cannot learn. It simply means that he or she learns and
processes information in a way different from others. This can be very
frustrating to that individual. One of the most exasperating feelings that one
can experience is difficulty in reading, since much of our education system is
hinged on success in that area.”
Overhead #5 (Read the material aloud)

132
Say; “This is sometimes a hard topic to talk about, especially since so many
people are affected by learning disabilities. Let’s look at a list of some
feelings that learning disabled individuals experience:”
♦ 1 go home crying almost everyday. I just sit there on my bedroom floor,
and let it out. Is it me? I wonder, are others feeling the same way?
♦ I hate when my teachers say I am lazy. I wish more people would know
about Dyslexia.
♦ I want to read more then any thing in the world. I want to go into a
library and pick up a book and read it then and there.
♦ Dejected.
♦ Mad, Frustrated, cheated, cursed nobody gives a ....
♦ I hate it when my teachers used to say that I was Dumb.
♦ Confused, Embarrassed because what makes sense in my mind, doesn't
make sense in my words.
♦ From 8th to 10th grade I did not talk to anyone. I was depressed and
miserable.
♦ The fear of picking up a book is awful.
♦ Feeling “stupid” is worse than anything I can ever imagine.
Activity: Discussion and Practical Application
Sav: “The feelings that individuals with learning disabilities experience are
sometimes overwhelming. It’s not surprising that many individuals with
these types of disabilities feel devalued in the eyes of society. They may feel
isolated and rejected by peers. High school is the prime time that individuals
feel the need for a peer group where they can find safety and acceptance.”
Ask: “What are some practical ways that everyone can help a learning
disabled individual or an individual with a physical impairment feel
accepted?” (Never resort to name calling or impatience when someone is having
difficulty reading; volunteer to do some peer tutoring; include all individuals with
disabilities in social activities; be an advocate and activist- make sure the school
is equipped to handle disabilities; be a real friend.)
Activity: Art and Literature: Experiential Link to Learning
Say: ‘The literature we are using today relates to a physical disability that
carries with it many emotional scars. As you listen today, really strive to put
yourself in the character’s place. It is not a far-fetched story. It could
happen to anyone.”
Overheads #6, #7, #8, #9, #10 (Put up each over head for about 30 seconds while
the tape is playing the literature excerpt. Leave #10 up while the students work
on the response activity.)

133
Literature taken from Izzy, Willy-Nilly by Cynthia Voigt
Pages 21-22 [Edited]
The air outside the door was black and cold, refreshing. I was a little
nervous about Marco, but-you just don’t ask somebody else’s date to take you home
unless your date really can’t, unless you want the reputation of being more trouble
that it’s worth to take you out.
In his car, heading down along the dark roads, Marco asked me if I’d had a
good time. I told him I had. He said maybe we might do it again sometime, and I
laughed inside myself. He was checking me out, to be sure I’d say I’d go out with
him again. “You’ll have to ask me and see, won’t you?” I teased.
“You’re a cool kid,” he said. But he was driving too fast and slipping
through stop signs without stopping, and I didn’t feel at all cool
I didn’t know how fast he was going, or why he decided on a long straight
stretch to play the swerving game, swinging the car from side to side of the two-lane
road, his arms swinging the steering wheel from one side to the other I felt the
weight of the car swing out of control before I hear Marco’s voice, cursing, and I
watched the tree-an elm-rise up at me. The car lights had swung off of it by the time
the tree got to me. That was aU I remembered. I remembered everything....
That was the last time I saw him, or heard him. He disappeared from my
life, taking half of my right leg with him....
Pass out lined paper for written responses and plain watercolor paper, water
containers, and watercolors for art activity.
Sav. “First, write how you are feeling about what has happened to the main
character in the literature as though it has happened to you. When you are
finished writing, take out your watercolors. Use the art process to freely
express the emotions.
Processing the Activity:
Say. “You have been trying to experience something of what it could be like
to feel the emotional pain of suffering from a disability.”
Ask: “What are some of the feelings that you experienced?” (Allow for
several responses, acknowledging and linking.)
Ask: “What are some things that you were thinking as your stepped into the
character’s shoes?”
Ask: “What was is like to be able to express your feelings in words and
color?”

134
Ask: “When you find yourself reacting in a negative way to someone who is
suffering from the emotional and physical burdens of a disability, what could
you do to increase your self-control and perhaps develop greater empathy for
that individual?”(Allow for several responses.)
Summary Statement:
Say: ‘To repeat from previous sessions: empathy for others is a way of
being. Empathy is the foundation for positive and meaningful human
relationships because it rejects hurting or harming others.
‘Thank you for your participation, openness, and honesty. Our next session
will deal with understanding suffering from domestic violence and childhood
sexual abuse.”

135
SESSION FIVE: “HE HIT ME WITH HIS SHOE THEN ASSAULTED ME”
Focussed Objective:
♦ To help students understand a glimpse of the experience of those who
suffer from domestic violence and childhood sexual abuse.
Materials Needed:
Overhead projector and cassette tape player
Overheads with abuse statistics and warning signs
Artwork overheads that graphically explore the nature and emotions associated
with issues of domestic violence and sexual abuse
Audiotape from literature dealing with domestic violence and sexual abuse.
Selection for this session: The Prince of Tides by Pat Conroy, pages 478-480; 489
(Overheads, audiotape, and hard copies included in manual)
Paper (included)
Watercolors and brushes (included)
Opening Statement:
Sav: “Due to the sensitivity of the subject we are going to be dealing with
today, the format will change slightly. We will view the art and listen to the
literature first. You may feel reluctant to discuss these issues. Hopefully, the
literature and the art experience will give us a lead for discussion.”
Activity: Art and Literature: Experiential Link to Learning
(Play the audio-tape and view art overheads #1, #2, #3, #4, and #5. Put each
overhead up for several seconds, leaving #5 overhead up during the entire art
process.)
Sav: “Listen carefully to the literature selection for emotions, sensations,
and thoughts. After the selection has finished, use stream of consciousness
writing to express how you would feel if you were the main character. Then,
use the watercolor media to visually express that experience. Remember,
your work is not censored or judged. The process is what is important here.”
Literature taken from The Prince of Tides by Pat Conroy
Pages 478-480 [Edited to soften the language]
Randy cut my shirt off from behind and told me to loosen my belt Not
knowing what he wanted, I undid my belt and my pants fell to the floor. I was from
rural South Carolina. I did not know a boy could be raped. But my teacher had
come to my house “Tell me your name, pretty boy, before I cut your
freaking pretty throat,” he whispered.
‘Torn,” I said in a voice I did not recognize

136
“Please,” I said as he grabbed my larynx with his left hand and squeezed so
hard I thought I would lose consciousness. I felt the blade along my waist as he cut
through my underwear. Then he took my hair and forced me to my knees. I did
not know what he was doing until I felt his penis against my rear.
“No,” I begged.
He pulled my hair back hard and drew blood on my rear with the pressure of
his knife and whispered, “I’ll screw you while your bleeding to death, Tommy. It
don’t make no difference to me.”....When he entered me I tried to scream but could
not. I could give no voice no utterance to such degradation, to such profuse
shame I had to summon up a reserve of discipline to keep from telling it alL
I do not think the rape affected me as profoundly as my adherence to those laws of
concealment and secrecy my mother had put into effect
Processing the Activity:
Ask: “Moving past the discomfort in hearing the passage, what would you
say were the main emotions that you would have been experiencing if you
had been the character Tom?” (Summarize: terror; fear; pain; horror; disgust;
shame; humiliation; anger;, hatred; feeling of being paralyzed physically,
emotionally, mentally; helplessness; hopelessness, etc.)
Say: “The character Tom in this passage is relating to a therapist a trauma
that happened to him when he was a little boy. He had not talked with a
single person about this incident until this time. Domestic violence and
childhood sexual abuse often silences its victims. Children are often
threatened that they will be harmed, or a loved one or a pet will be killed if
they tell anyone. Domestic violence and sexual abuse takes place in virtually
every socio-economic class and every race and ethnic group in our country.
The after-effects of sexual abuse can have devastating effects in a person’s
life. Trust, relationships, intimacy, and safely issues are all affected when a
person experiences sexual abuse.”
Ask: “What are some types of violence that can take place in the home
setting?” (Allow for several responses, summarizing and linking answers).
Overhead #6 (Read the material aloud).
Say: “984,000 children nationwide were victims of documented cases of some
form of abuse in 1998. The violence perpetrated against them consisted of:
53.5% neglect
2.4% medical neglect
22.7% physical abuse (including sexual abuse)
6% emotional abuse
Overhead #7. (Read the material aloud)

137
Say: “Sexual abuse of children is unfortunately a growing problem in this
country. An average of 5.5 children per 10,000 enrolled in day care are
sexually abused, an average of 8.9 children out of every 10,000 are abused in
the home.”
Prevalence Rates:
♦ 1 in 6 females are sexually abused. (More commonly abused by
close relative and in the home.)
♦ 1 in 10 males are sexually abused. (More commonly abused
outside the home.)
Overhead #8. (Read the material aloud)
Sexual abuse is highly underreported due to:
• threats received by the perpetrator
* guilt and shame
4 fear of not being believed or of being blamed (being
accused of lying is not uncommon among abuse survivors,
especially when a family member is the perpetrator of the
abuse)
4 fear of being labeled ‘homosexual’ in male victims, or of
not being a man because they allowed the abuse to occur.
Sav: “We’ve talked a great deal throughout these sessions about how
circumstances and experiences can influence thinking, feelings, and
behaviors. An individual who is suffering the pain and shame of domestic
violence or sexual abuse is carrying physical, emotional, and mental baggage.
Abuse can impact every area of his or her life.
Overhead #9 (Read material aloud)
Sav: “Although research has shown a vast difference in the severity of
aftereffects of sexual abuse survivors, some of the issues that a sexual abuse
victim may have to deal with are:”
Emotional Symptoms
4 Unsupported fears
4 Fear of abandonment
4 Low self-esteem, guilt, shame
4 Exaggerated or diminished feeling of power and control
4 Difficulty with trust
Cognitive Symptoms
4 Intrusive images or thoughts about sex (flashbacks)
4 Seeing sex as a means to exert power
4 Rigid boundaries or lack of boundaries
4 Confusing sex and love
4 Poor body image
4 Lack of memory surrounding periods of sexual abuse

138
♦ Difficulty with authority figures
Behavioral Symptoms
♦ Physical complaints related to the abuse
♦ Self injurious behavior
♦ Engaging in physically dangerous behaviors
♦ Sexual dysfunction
♦ Promiscuity
Summary Statement:
Say: “It should be emphasized that type and severity of symptoms from
sexual abuse vary widely from individual to individual. The important thing
is that if you have been sexually abused, you should seek help. Talk to
someone with whom you feel safe. A friend, a teacher, a pastor, a counselor-
perhaps any one of these could assist you in getting the help you need. There
are many books, web pages, and therapists who can help you on a journey to
healing and there is hope.”
Say. “Thank you for your participation. This is a sensitive subject for
discussion and one that is important to consider when we are striving to
increase our empathy for others and monitor our own behaviors.
Our final session will deal with understanding individuals suffering
religious or ethnic persecution.”

139
SESSION SIX: “PERSECUTION ACCOMPANIES THE PATH FOR MY
SHOES”
Focussed Objective:
♦ To help students understand some experiences of those suffering from the
pain of religious and ethnic persecution.
♦ To review what has been learned in the previous sessions and terminate
the intervention.
Materials Needed:
Overhead projector and cassette tape player
Overheads with abuse statistics and warning signs
Artwork overheads that graphically explore the nature and emotions associated
with issues of religious and ethnic persecution.
Audiotape from literature dealing with religious or ethnic persecution. Selection
for this session: The Color of Water by James McBride, pages 39; 80-81
(Overheads, audiotape, and hard copies included in manual)
Paper (included)
Colored pencils (included)
Opening Statement and Review:
Sav: “Today is our final session.. We have discussed in depth, what it is like
to ‘Walk a Mile in Someone Else’s Shoes.’ We have talked about feelings,
thoughts, and behaviors that are associated with the pain of various life
circumstances. We’ve learned that violence is often the result of intolerance
and the lack of empathic understanding of others. By making an effort to
understand from another individual’s point of view, we are able to more
easily control our own thoughts, attitudes, and behaviors.”
Ask: “For the purposes of review, what are some of the issues that have been
discussed in the previous sessions that cause people pain and suffering?”
(Acknowledge responses and summarize: pain from racial prejudice; suffering
from oppression due to poverty and social class; pain from weight bigotry and
sexism; suffering from oppression and exclusion due to mental and physical
disabilities; pain from the shame and suffering due to domestic violence and
sexual abuse).
Sav: “Today we are going to be discussing one of the oldest forms of
oppression and intolerance: suffering due to religious persecution and ethnic
discrimination.”
Overhead #1 (Read the material aloud).

140
Sav: “Thousands of religious believers were martyred in the last few years.
Many others have suffered imprisonment, torture, burning, enslavement and
starvation. In many cases, conflicts have many root causes: racial, ethnic,
religious, economic, etc. This makes it difficult to determine the main cause
of the strife.”
Overhead #2. (Read the material aloud)
Sav: “The most common serious religious attacks in this country appear to
be antisemitic actions by skinheads and a small minority of extreme right
wing political and religious groups. Usually, attacks take the form of
desecration of Jewish synagogues, cemeteries, etc. In addition, over 200
million Christians in more than 40 countries worldwide face the prospect of
persecution because of their religion.”
Overhead #3. (Read the material aloud)
Sav: “A handwritten diary filled with German words, Nazi rhetoric
and messages of hate revealed that the two gunmen responsible for the
massacre at Columbine High School had been plotting their lethal
rampage for almost a year. They planned to burn the school down and that
the massacre was intentionally timed to coincide with Adolf Hitler's birth
date, April 20. It is believed that some students were targeted by the killers
because of their race or religious faith.”
Activity: Discussion and Practical Application
Ask: “Throughout history, both past and contemporary, what have been
some examples of religious persecution?” (Acknowledge responses and assist if
necessary by suggesting that one of the main reasons people migrated to the “New
World” was in search of religious freedom; the Jews suffered unspeakable crimes
at the hands of the Nazis who considered themselves to be the superior race with
the superior religion; currently and for centuries, there has been violence and
strife in the Mid East because of religious and ethnic differences; the Protestants
and Catholics fought for many years in Ireland, etc.).
Ask: “What are some examples of religious and ethnic persecution in this
country just in the past few years? (The church burnings that took place in
Florida and across the country; the attack on the Jewish school, etc.)
Ask: “Getting closer to home, what are some incidents in this community, or
your school, or even in your own life that have resembled religious
persecution?” (Acknowledge those who share and their courage to speak
publicly about it.)
Activity: Art and Literature: Experiential Link to Learning

141
Say: ‘The literature we are using today relates to an individual’s experience
of growing up Jewish in the South. This is a true story from the book The
Color of Water by James McBride. It covers a broad spectrum of issues
including religious and racial prejudice, issues of poverty, issues of
interracial relationships, differences in living in the North and South, and
issues of conversion from Judaism to Christianity. Listen carefully to this
woman’s experience and put yourself in her place, trying to feel what she is
experiencing from her point of view.”
Overheads #4, #5, #6, #7, #8. #9, #10 (Put up each over head for about 30 seconds
while the tape is playing the literature excerpt Leave #10 up while the students
work on the response activity.)
Literature from The Color of Water by James McBride
Page 39; 80-81 [Edited]
Suffolk was a one-horse town back then, one big Main Street, a couple of
movie theaters- one for black folks, one for white folks- a few stores, a few farms
nearby, and a set of railroad tracks that divided the black and white sections of
town. The biggest event Suffolk had seen in years was a traveling sideshow that
came through town on the railroad tracks, with a stuffed whale in a boxcar. The
folks loved that. They loved anything different, or new, or from out of town, except
for Jews. In school the kids called me “Christ killer” and “Jew baby.” That name
stuck with me for a long time. “Jew baby.” You know it’s so easy to hurt a child
Nobody liked me. That’s how I felt as a child. I know what it feels like when
people laugh at you walking down the street, or snicker when they hear you
speaking Yiddish, or just look at you with hate in their eyes. You know a Jew living
Suffolk when I was coming up could be lonely even if there were fifteen of them
standing in the room, I don’t know why; it’s that feeling the nobody likes you; that’s
how I felt, living in the South. You were different from everyone and liked by very
few. There were white sections of Suffolk, like the Riverview section, where Jews
weren’t allowed to own property That was the law there and they meant it.
Pass out lined paper for written responses and plain white paper, colored pencils for art
activity.
Sav. “As though you were the main character, write down your emotions,
what you are thinking, and what you may feel like doing. When you are
finished with your writing, use colored pencils to create a visual statement
about your feelings.”
Processing the Activity:
Sav: “You have experienced a taste of what it is like to feel the emotional
pain of suffering from religious and ethnic discrimination.”

142
Ask: “What are some of the feelings that you experienced? (Allow for several
responses, acknowledging and linking.) What are some things that you were
thinking as your stepped into the character’s shoes?”
Say: “Individuals who experience this kind of trauma, may find it difficult to
identify with words their feelings and pain. They may go for years without
discussing their experiences with anyone. Sometimes, oppressed victims turn
to the creative arts to find relief, release, healing, and a voice for those
innermost feelings. Great works of art often flow from one’s pain as well as
their passion. You can go to the internet and find numerous web pages on
every one of these issues. Many survivors of the Holocaust have turned to art
and memorials have been created to house these works of art.”
Ask: ‘1)0 you think it is possible to perpetrate violence on another human
being if one has really taken the time to strive for empathic understanding of
that individual’s circumstances?”
Ask: “Is violence a response or a reaction?
Ask: “What would you consider to be the necessary ingredients for self-
control?” (Suggest the following if there are few responses: striving to
understand empathically; thinking before speaking or acting; remembering that if
I was in that same situation, I may have similar feelings, attitudes, and actions).
Summary Statement: Put up final overhead as Summary and read #11.
Say. “Empathy for others is a way of being. Every human being has the need
to feel cared about and understood. We need to be aware of the
consequences of our attitudes and actions toward other humans. The
inability to relate to the pain or suffering of others can breed violent
behavior.
Empathy is a force. It is the foundation for positive and meaningful
human relationships because it rejects hurting or harming others. It can
motivate us to take stands for others and help to improve the condition of the
lives of others.
You can make a big difference in the quality of our world by striving
to understand what it’s like to ‘Walk a Mile in Another’s Shoes.’ ”
Sajü ‘Thank you so much for your participation, openness, and honesty.
Hopefully, you have gained very important information that can enhance your life
and your character.”

143
Feelings Word List
Negative Feelings
Mild Negative Feelings
unpopular, listless, moody, lethargic, gloomy, dismal, discontented, tired,
indifferent, unsure, impatient, dependent, unimportant, regretful, bashful, puzzled,
self-conscious, edgy, upset, reluctant, timid, mixed-up, sullen, provoked
Moderate Negative Feelings
suspicious, envious, enmity, aversion, dejected, unhappy, bored, forlorn,
disappointed, wearied, inadequate, ineffectual, helpless, resigned, apathetic, shy,
uncomfortable, baffled, confiised, nervous, tempted, tense, worried, perplexed,
troubled, disdainful, contemptuous, alarmed, annoyed, provoked
Strong Negative Feelings
disgusted, resentful, bitter, detested, fed-up, frustrated, sad, depressed, sick,
dissatisfied, fatigued, worn-out, useless, weak, hopeless, forlorn, rejected, guilty,
embarrassed, inhibited, bewildered, frightened, anxious, dismayed, apprehensive,
disturbed, antagonistic, vengeful, indignant, mad, tom
Intense Negative Feelings
hate, unloved, abhor, despised, angry, hurt, miserable, pain, lonely, cynical,
worthless, impotent, futile, accursed, abandoned, estranged, degraded, humiliated,
shocked, panicky, trapped, horrified, afraid, scared, terrified, threatened,
infuriated, furious, exhausted
Positive Feelings
Intense Positive Feelings
loved, adored, idolized, alive, wanted, lustful, worthy, pity, respected, empathy,
awed, enthusiastic, zealous, courageous

144
Strong Positive Feelings
enchanted, ardor, infatuated, tender, vibrant, independent, capable, happy , proud,
gratified, worthy, sympathetic, important, concerned, appreciated, consoled,
delighted, eager, optimistic, joyful, courage, hopeful, valiant, brave, brilliant
Moderate Positive Feelings
liked, cared for, esteemed, affectionate, fond, excited, patient, strong, gay,
inspired, anticipating, amused, yearning, popular, peaceful, appealing,
determined, pleased, excited, jolly, relieved, glad, adventurous, peaceful,
intelligent
Mild Positive Feelings
friendly, regarded, benevolent, wide awake, at-ease, relaxed, comfortable,
content, keen, amazed, alert, sure, attractive, approved, untroubled, graceful,
turned on, warm, amused, daring, comfortable, smart, interested

APPENDIX E
SUPPLEMENTAL STATISTICS

Table E-l
Pearson Correlation Supporting Relationship of Dependent Measures
PreCNSIE
PostCNSIE
PreREV
PostREV
PreBEES
PostBEES
PreCNSIE
1.000
.675*
.431*
.344*
-.361*
-.331*
POstCNSIE
.675*
1.000
.394*
.394*
-.362*
-.407*
PreREV
.431*
.394*
1.000
.826*
-.703*
-.610*
PostREV
.344*
.394*
.826*
1.000
-.620*
-.630*
PreBEES
-.361*
-.362*
-.703*
-.620*
1.000
.839*
PostBEES
-.331*
-.407*
-.610*
-.630*
.839*
1.000
♦♦Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2 tailed),
a. Listwise N=153
146

APPENDIX F
OTHER FINDINGS

The following are some examples from each session of other findings in the form
of written and graphic expression.
Figure F-l. Student Artwork Session One: “The Consequences of Racism”
Student Responses to Goal of Session Two: Understanding Suffering from Poverty
“I wish I could help people just like her [the character in the literature]. Make her
realize that she is cared about and loved. If only some of us could take our entire lives of
happiness and give her a drop of that happiness. Just a little bit. She would be more
148

149
grateful than most of the richest people I know. It made me feel so sad that this is a real
Figure F-2. Student Artwork Session Two: “Faceless Nameless Poverty”

150
“I [speaking as the character from literature] would feel like an outcast to the
world, like I had just been thrown aside, mistreated. I would feel sorrow for my children
and hope they aren’t so neglected by the world as I had been, that someone might care
enough to give them more than I ever had.”
“I think this is very sad and if I saw someone in this situation I would be
empathetic and definitely get her help. It’s really sad how some people can just slip
through the system and how people cannot care to do anything about it.”
Figure F-3. Student Artwork Session Two: “Slipping Through the System”

151
[Speaking from the point of view of the character from the literature] “I’m
depressed. I was doing good until my husband cheated on me. Now I’m living in a
homeless shelter with my kids. I’m sick and can’t stand it. I’m so stressed I can’t hardly
take the pressure. This leads me to do illogical things because I am so desperate. The
whole time I wish I were rich so then I know I could be in better health and support my
kids. I can’t support my kids once I die, so I hope they are aright.”
[Speaking from personal reaction] “I’m shocked to know that some people live
this way. It just isn’t fair how some people can be so poor and how others could be
billionaires. I wish that there was a way for millionaires to give some of their extra
money to poor people.”
Figure F-4. Student Artwork Session Two: “My Shoes Came From the Dumpster”

152
[Reacting empathically as the character] “It’s wrong! I have worked hard all my
life. I feel betrayed by God. I feel overwhelmed with anger not towards anyone or
anything but to know I will have to leave my children behind KILLS me inside. The
guilt inside because of that is just spilling out uncontrollably. Some days I just want to
leave, be taken from this evil world. Others I wish I could stay here, see my children get
married, have children of their own and live a happy life.”
[Personal reflection] “I feel bad for the woman in the story. I have gone through
the pain and suffering of someone you love having AIDS so I can really relate to what
her son is feeling. It’s probably worse for him because of the fact it’s his mother. I wish
I could just say ‘poof be gone, and all the pain, crime, poverty, suffering and everything
that is wrong in this world would disappear.”
Student Responses to Session Three: Understanding Suffering from Weight Bigotry
“Human beings are all equals. Doesn’t matter your skin, weight, money, or
whatever. We have all the same feelings and it makes us different from other [living]
beings. Racism is terrible and doesn’t matter what kind of racism. We can’t label people
by what they look like, but by what they’ll do. People who are rejected for being
different might feel very bad, experiencing feelings of frustration and loneliness, etc.
I’ve never experienced something like that, but large people suffer so much, I guess- in
the theater, on the bus seat or plane seat, restrooms. [The] world is made for thin people!
But it has to be changed, and fat people should be accepted as they are and be respected
as citizens.”
“I don’t think anyone should be judged by how much weight some one has or
hasn’t. It is true that most designer clothes are for slimmer people and that’s not right. In

153
today’s society, thin and in shape people are recognized more. People sometimes turn to
dangerous methods and that’s not right either. In order to stop the prejudices, I think we
need to teach more about eating disorders and then have more companies that produce
larger clothing. [Reaction to the character in the literature] Geez, those people were
really mean. I don’t know why people insisted on being so horrible. I think she has the
correct attitude about herself though. Why were people so mean to her? I think she has a
good idea about life and she has her opinions. How come the teachers were not punished
more? No one should be treated like that.”
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Figure F-5. Student Artwork Session Three: “Lets’ Be Friends”

154
“I think I can help stop body weight discrimination by making a stand. We can
become friends with larger people. They probably feel sad, lonely, ashamed and more. I
can’t feel sorry, because pity won’t make them feel better. That’s not cool to make her
feel bad after her fun. She shouldn’t have been discriminated [against] because of her
weight. She shouldn’t have been discriminated [against] by teachers. That’s not cool at
all. Why did they be so mean to such a strong woman.”
[From the character’s point of view] “I am very depressed and upset about all
these things. All these names such as ‘fat ass’ and ‘hippo,’ they kill me inside. There’s
not much I can say or do to make these people stop because they will keep saying it
more. I can’t [help] that I am overweight. People just can’t understand this. I’ve never
had a true friend.” [Personal reaction] “ I feel very sorry for people like this. I know I’m
not the smallest person in the world myself, but I don’t have people calling me names. It
makes me so angry that people do this to other people with no problem. The only reason
people say this is to draw attention away from themselves.”
[Empathic reaction to the character] “It makes me so mad that people can be so
inconsiderate. Sometimes I wish they would become fat and I would be skinny and
popular. Maybe then I would be liked. I wouldn’t make fun of any fat people though
because I know how it feels. They would learn from others. I just tell myself I’m mature
and pretty, and just because of immature losers, I am not going to be depressed.”
[Personal reaction] “I feel sad that fat, skinny, short, tall people get made fun of, but they
shouldn’t let it get to them. No matter how much it hurts. One day the immature people
who make fun of others will grow up and learn their lesson.”

155
[Empathic reaction to the character] “I would feel sad, lonely, and discriminated
against. I would probably be mean towards others because of it.” [Personal reaction] “I
would never let someone be left out just because of their weight. I have never acted
toward someone in this way, and definitely never will. There are so many great friends
out there and just people to know that are big, little, tall, and short and people need to
realize beauty is simply skin deep, we are all unique and special in our own ways.”
Figure F-6. Student Sketches for Clay Experiential Session Three: “Celebrate My Body”
The art experiential in this session was aimed at celebrating the body. Students
were given clay and asked to sculpt a symbol that represented a feature of their own body

156
that they most appreciated. Clay forms were not made available to the researcher.
Students did preliminary sketches prior to creating their sculptures.
Student Responses to Session Four: Understanding Suffering From Disabilities
[Student reaction from the character’s point of view] “In one breath, I am
extremely depressed. Everything I enjoyed doing, I will never be able to do again. In
another breath though, I am scared. I’m scared about what my friends will think, how
people will treat me. Will I become an outcast, and be lonely and depressed through the
rest of school? Why did it happen to me?” [Personal reaction] “I feel sorry for anyone
who has to go through being disabled. To me it seems unfair that someone has to be
totally different than the majority of others.-to one day be doing what you love and the
next depressed because you will never be able to again.”
“If I was that girl I would feel real sad. I would be angry at the people that stare
and gock at me like I’m a fucking sideshow. They don’t even ask me how I feel or what
I like. They are just too scared to talk to me. That would make me feel depressed that no
one would come near me.” [Personal reaction] “If I saw the girl I don’t really know
what I would say. I would probably stare too, but I would ask her how she’s feeling. I’d
talk to her because I know she’s got to be sad.”
[Student reaction as if the character from the literature] “I would have felt sad for
my loss but not just because I lost my leg but also because of the way I had treated those
that had disability.” (Personal reflection] “This is unfortunate but I think that you can
rise above anything. My dad lost both of his legs in the Vietnam War but if you were to
get to know him, it definitely isn’t the first thing that you notice. All dark clouds have a
silver lining.”

157
Figure F-7. Student Artwork Session Four: “Every Cloud Has a Silver Lining”
[From the character’s point of view] “I felt very depressed to feel like this, and
ashamed that I treated other disabled people very badly and now people will treat me this
way, but I guess what goes around comes around.” [Personal reflection] “I feel upset
that people feel this way [toward disabled people].
[Speaking as the character] “I don’t understand why this happened to me. Just
because I couldn’t look at some girl’s face God is punishing me. It‘s not fair.”

158
[Personal reflection] “I feel guilty because I sometimes am mean to people that are like
me and I’m sorry for it This story has helped me understand that disabled people are just
like me but they might need a little help and I feel sorry for anyone that has to be like
that.”
[In response as the character] “I am frustrated about everything. Pm scared
because I don’t know what is going to happen when everyone sees me in school or
walking around. I’m sad because now all my work with sports is ruined. I can’t cheer
anymore and can’t do anything.” [Personal reflection] “I feel bad for her. It would be
hard for me to deal with the problems that she will have to face in her future.”
Figure F-8. Student Artwork Session Four: “I Feel Sad for Them”

159
[Personal Reflection] “I would feel despair knowing that I would forever be
stripped of my ability to blend in. Not that there is one design of a human that makes one
appear normal, but a physical defect is a permanent and disabling scar.”
— 1
â– â– â– â– 
Figure F-9. Student Artwork Session Four: “The Despair of Disability”

160
Student Responses to Session Five: Understanding Suffering from Abuse
[Personal Student Response] “It was extremely hard to listen to this. It was so
very specific and graphic. Jesus, how painful-both physically and emotionally- it must be
to be raped, especially if I was that boy. The frustration, the total and utter humiliation of
being fucked by a man and having to say I love it when in fact the goddamn penis is
ripping away at your insides... .and your self-esteem. It’s awful. How powerful.”
1 1
Figure F-10. Student Artwork Session Five: “Power and Rape”
“I don’t know how I would feel because I couldn’t imagine something like that
happening to me. It hurts to know that someday my kids will have to grow in a world
like this someday. I’m totally disgusted. I couldn’t believe that someone would do
something like that to another person. How could anyone hurt a child. I don’t
understand people.”

161
[Reaction as if in the character’s shoes] “I’m humiliated. Being raped is awful
and I feel like I am an outcast, that now because of what happened I will be treated
differently. I’m scared of it happening again. Not just to me, but everyone around me.
A person who rapes another human being deserves to go to Hell.” [Personal point of
view] “It makes me sad to hear someone has to go through being raped. I’m scared that
the same thing could happen to me or someone I care about. It is a shame that anyone
would have to go through something like that. I feel sorry for what the victim is feels.”
Figure F-l 1. Student Artwork Session Five: ‘Humiliation and Isolation”

162
Figure F-12. Student Artwork Session Five: “Eyes of Terror”
[Reaction as if the character] “I am very scared. Why would anyone want to do
this to another human being? I don’t know if I should tell or not. If I tell, what will
happen to me or my family?” [Personal reflection] “I feel sorry for the little boy.

163
Nobody should have to go through any of that. I also feel sorry for the boy’s family.
Something like that could damage a person for life.
Figure F-13. Student Artwork Session Five: “Afraid to Tell”
Student Response to Session Six: Understanding Suffering from Religious Persecution
[Empathic Response] “I feel disgraced and dishonored that I am to be judged and
placed according to my religion.” [Personal Reaction] “I feel that we need to grow up
and get along. Who cares what they’re doing. Worry about yourself.”

164
[Personal Reaction] “Yes, I have had an experience when people didn’t like me
because I acted different. I wasn’t ghetto and bad 1 was good and quiet. I don’t know
that’s what happened. I feel sad, confused, ashamed, and angry.”
[Personal Reaction] “Racism is a tough subject I’m Jewish. It’s hurtful and
Figure F-14. Student Artwork Session Six: “Religion and Racism”

165
Figure F-15. Student Artwork Session Six: “Why ?!”
“I know people that get discriminated because of their color and race. The other day, a
kid had his Bible tucked under his arm. I knew he was a religious person. While I read

166
his Bible, he offered some other Books of Hope. Then, this Antichrist kid grabbed it
from him and tried ripping it up. I grabbed it but I saw the frustration in the kid’s face.”
“From the character’s point of view I feel depressed because people are telling me
how my life will turn out because of what I believe and what my family believes. For

167
children to have to go through this is absurd. From my point of view it makes me sad,
because I am lucky that I have not had to go through this. Something so hurtful such as
someone’s belief can ruin a life.
Figure F-17. Student Artwork Session Six: “Stop the Persecution”
“Someone should not be persecuted because of their beliefs. What a person feels
and believes has nothing to do with everyone else’s. This town has issues. Why were
they so hateful toward everyone? The character should not have tried to be different

168
because people made fun. But I understand why she did it. Violence is a response that
should be controlled.”
Figure F-18. Student Artwork Session Six: “Different is Not Abnormal”
“One God, one love. Who are you to tell me that I am wrong? Love is love.”
“What can I do to stop racism [or any other form of persecution]? (1) Reach out to
people; (2) Talk to them [the persecutors] and say that’s not nice and they are childish;
(3) Respond by putting myself [in their situation] and accept things different. I know I
should feel good about myself regardless of my weight, height, and color.”

169
Figure F-19. Student Artwork Session Six: “Reach Out and Accept”

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Dianne Lynn Skye was bom May 4, 1949, in Lancaster, Ohio, the daughter of
Edna and Richard D. Poling. She received her Bachelor of Fine Arts degree from Ohio
University in 1970, and in 1985 her Master of Art Education from the University of
Florida. Masters and Specialists degrees in Counselor Education were received in 1999,
also from the University of Florida.
Dianne began her career as an Artist-Educator in 1971, teaching middle school art
in Ohio. In 1974 she moved to Puerto Rico to do free-lance work and design art
workshops for children. While living in Puerto Rico two of Dianne’s sons were bom and
a life-long relationship with the island was initiated.
In 1983, Dianne contracted with the School Board of Alachua County Florida as
an elementary art teacher. Subsequently, she taught art at the middle school level and has
been teaching for the University of Florida Developmental Research School as the high
school art teacher for the past eleven years. Dianne is a Florida Certified Art Teacher,
Florida Certified School Counselor, National Board Certified Counselor, and registered
Mental Health Counselor Intern. Her professional affiliations include the National
Education Association, American Counseling Association, American Association of
Christian Counselors, Florida Art Therapy Association, Association for Multicultural
185

186
Counseling and Development, the Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values
in Counseling, and the National Association of Laboratory Schools.
Over the past thirty years, Dianne has worked as an Artist-Educator whose
passion is providing students with the empowering and therapeutic aspects of art. Her
philosophy of teaching revolves around learning about self and others through creative
experiential modalities. She views the expressive arts as a vital means for balance,
reflection, healing, growth, and as a powerful tool for increasing self esteem. Dianne
believes that art is the thread that weaves together the tapestry of humanity and provides
a means for caring connection. As a facilitative teacher, Dianne feels that the art studio is
the ideal setting for students to express themselves freely and to work through personal
and social concerns in a safe and non-judgmental environment. Dianne has spent her adult
lifetime working with youth and assisting them with the types of issues that have been
addressed in this study. Her multicultural family has driven her to advocate for all
students and to look at ways to positively impact their thinking, feelings, and behaviors.
Dianne has lived in Gainesville, Florida, since 1977. She lives with her husband
Charles Skye and has enjoyed the blessing of raising her sons T.L., Shane, and Shad
Latson, and Elliott Skye. Her most delightful experience is the interaction with her
granddaughters Kyra, Kamya, and Zion. Dianne values the time spent with her live-in
mother Edna Poling and feels very blessed to have the opportunity to learn from her
wisdom and counsel. Dianne is presently working toward certification as a Christian
Counselor and hopes to use the many valuable life lessons and family experiences to
enhance both her counseling and art professions.

N
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Robert D. Myrick, Chair
Professor of Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
/ Distinguished Service Professor
of Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
M. David Miller
Professor and Chair Person of
Educational Psychology

This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of
Education and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
December 2001
Dean, Graduate School

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