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The relationship of empathy to scholastic success with implications for student personnel workers

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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES


EDUCATION LIBRARY





















THE RELATIONSHIP OF EMPATHY

TO SCHOLASTIC SUCCESS

WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR

STUDENT PERSONNEL WORKERS









By
FRANK MAY CHAMBERS










A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION








UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
June, 1954










ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The writer is indebted to all the students and

residence hall counselors who gave their time and minds

to the experiment. Also, he is indebted to Dr. Leon N.

Henderson, chairman of the committee, and to each of the

committee members Dr. Richard J. Anderson, Dr. Charles R.

Foster, Dr, Elmer D. Hinokley, Dr. J. B. White# and Dr.

We Max Wise for their valuable aid and encouragement.,

Sincere thanks is due Dr. Vynce A. Hines for his counsel

concerning the hypothesis of the study and Dr. Herbert

A. Meyer for his advice about the statistical procedure.

Acknowledgment should also be made to all my

graduate student associates for their kindly criticism

and advice concerning the 'iisertation.











TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . ii

LIST OF TABLES. . . . . . . v

Chapter

It INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF PROBLEM, & . 1
The Problem . . . . # a 6
Limitations of the Study* .* e o * # 7
Need for the Studyo * # # # # # * 9
Purpose of the Study.* 9 # # 0 # # 15
Presentation of the Study # # # # # 15

II. THE NATURE OF IEMPATHY. , . 16
Empathy and Related Concepts. . . # 16
The Psychological Mechanism of Empathy* # 21
Empathy as a Factor in Socialization* # # # 25
An Operational Concept of Empathy and Its
Measurement . . . #. # . . 26
Observations on the Occurrence and Use
of Empathy * * . . . . 27
Summary 0. . . . a * * 32

III* RELATED STUT-IES. . . . 33
Techniques Used to Measure Empathy. # 34
Refinements in the Measurement of
Empathy . . . . # # . 40
Summary a # a # o # # o 42

IV. THE SIGNIFICANCE OP F MPATHY TO STUDENT
PERSONN.L 'JKORK . . . . . . .. 43
Aims and Objectives of Higher Education 45
The Philosophy of Student Personnel Work, 48
Implementation of the Student Personnel
Philosophy * * # # # # # # # # o 50
Empathy and Personnel Work* . . . a 52
Summary * * . o . * 57

V. EMPATHY AND SCHOLASTIC SUCCESS . . . 58
The Rationale of the Study. 58
The Test of Empathy # ... . 59
Scoring of the Test. .# 61
The Selection of Subjects and
Administration of the Test* a 62
Sources of the Data . . 64


iii










TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)

Page

Analysis and Interpretation of the Data 66
Summary . . . # . . .* 83

VI. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS ANID IMPLICATIONS. *. . 84
Summary. . # # . 0 84
Philosophical Summary. . .. . . 84
Historical Summary . .# * 86
Empathy and Scholastic Success . 87
Empathy and Student Personnel Work . 89
Implications for Personnel Workers. . . 90
Guiding Principles. . . 90
Administrative Principles. # # 91
Needed Studies . . . . . 92
General Implications and Conclusions. . 94

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . 97

APPEIDICES . . . . . . . . . . 102

A* The Empathy Test, Part I # . . . # 105

B. The Empathy Test, Part II * # # # * 106

C. Letter from Henry Chauncey, President,
Educational Testing Service, Princeton, N.J.. 109

BIOGRAPHICAL DATA .9 . . . . . . . . 110












LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1. A. C. F. (L) Scores, Empathy Test Scores,
and Grade Point Averages of Fifty-five
College Freshmen .* ... . 67

2. Subjects in Rank Order by Empathy Score 68

30 Subjects in Rank Order by Grade Point
Average . . . . . . . . .* 69

4. Subjects in Rank Order by A. C. E. (L)
Score . . . # * * * . 70

5. Calculation of the Coefficient of Corre-
lation Between Empathy Test Scores and
A. C. E. (L) Scores * * * * *. . 72

6. Calculation of the Coefficient of Corre-
lation Between Empathy Test Scores and
Grade Point Averages . o o. .* * 73

7, Calculation of the Coefficient of Corre-
lation Between A. C. E. (L) Scores and
Grade Point Averages . . .. 75

8. Calculation of the Mean and S. D. of Em-
pathy Scores . . . . . o 76

9. Calculation of the Mean and S. D. W
Grade Point Averages * * * * o 77

10. Calculation of the Mean and S. D. of A. C.
E. (L) Scores . . . . . . . 78

11. Calculation of Partial Coefficients of
Correlation * *...... * * 9 79

12. Calculation of Multiple Coefficient of Corre-
lation of A. C. E. (L) Score and Empathy
Test Score, With Grade Point Average . 82














CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION ATND STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

In the daily interaction of people some individuals

appear to have certain qualities not found in others, at least

not to the same extent. Some of these qualities appear to

contribute to successful social interaction. The qualities

in which this study is interested are those of sensitivity

or awareness to the needs and desires of others* They are,

among others, qualities of warmth and affection. These qual-

ities in a leader, will aid him in seeing the attitudes and

feelings of his students or constituents. Furthermore, the

individual who has these qualities, perceives more clearly

what is expected of him by a leader, a teacher, or his com-

radeso Individuals with this ability are thought of as being

more "human". They not only understand themselves but also

the reasons for the actions and beliefs of their associates*

They seem to be able to put themselves in another's place#

"This ability," states Reumners, "holds every promise of being

the 'giftie' of Robert Burns: 'To see ourselves as others see
U81"0l


1H. H. Remuers, "A Quantitative Index of Social-
Psychological Empathy," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry,
XX (January, 1950), 164,....








2

Understanding other people is the most complex prob-

lem in the realm of perception. In every day situations, one

depends necessarily on his capacity to perceive and predict

the behavior, thoughts, and feelings of the other person:

Presumably, one abstracts some vague generaliza-
tions of the personality from the variety of observed
situations and actions, or expressed thoughts and feel-
ings of another. On the basis of such an abstraction,
the observer makes predictions, accurately or Inac-
curately, about the person he perceives. Our social-
ization is reared on this foundation of perception of
persons in terms of prediction. The credit manager
forecasts the ability and willingness of the customer
to pay his bills* The diplomat forecasts the readi-
ness of his via a via to accept or reject propositions*
The therapist makes not only a diagnosis but a prog-
nosis of his client. All the subtle interchanges of
love and friendship rest, howsoever insecurely, on this.-
tenuous skill in perception and prediction,2

Individual perceptions are in many instances inade-

quate and because of their importance in every day social re-

lationships there is need to know a great deal more about the

nature and degree of such abilities. Social psychologists

have observed these phenomena and have termed this ability

to perceive the attitudes and feelings of another, empathy

or roleotaking.

The Book of the Prophet Ezekiel provides evidence

concerning the recognition of these concepts in Biblical

times. Ezekiel, at the command of the Lord, entered into

Israel to remonstrate with the Israelites and explain to
Q\
2I E. Bender, and Ae H. Hastorf, "The Perception
of Persons: Vorecasting Another Person's Response on Three
Personality Scales," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psay-
chology, XLV (July, 1950), 556.










them their transgressions. Ezekiel was instructed to live

among the Israelites in order to understand their viewpoint.

He described the experience of putting himself in the place

of the Israelites$

Then I came to them of the captivity at Tel-abib,
that dwelt by the river of Chebar* and I sat where
they sat and remained there astonie d-"amoRngWEh
severn"ays.3

Theodore Lippe (1851 1914) a German psychologist

was especially interested in the nature of human responses

in activities related to the arts. Rugg has summarized

Lipps theory thus:

He insisted that act and object, all the elements
of the whole situation, constitute a unity* The human
being not only makes himself one with the entire situ-
ation, the feels himself into' the object he has con-
templated.-

Lipps called his theory "einfuhling", generally

translated "empathy".

The philosopher Mead described a similar phenomenon

as role-taking, an essential mechanism in exercising intelli-

gence:

***..the process of exercising intelligence is the process
of delaying, organizing, and selecting a response or
reaction to the stimuli of the given environmental situ-
ation. The process is made possible by the mechanism
of the central nervous system, which permits the indi-
vidualts taking of the attitude of the other toward him-
self, and thus becoming an object to himself. This is

3Ezekiel 31l5.
4Harold Rugg, Foundations for American Education,
p* 211. New York: worldl d Book Company, 1947.








4

the most effective means of adjustment to the social en-
vironment, and indeed to the environment in general,
that the individual has at his disposal
There appears to be little doubt that empathy and

role-taking are synonymous* The relationship of empathy and

role-taking as similar mental processes is found in this

statement by Rogers; "The ability to empathize may be another

way of saying that one person is capable of taking the role

of the other *.,*"6
The continuing interest in social sensitivity or
empathic ability leads to the problem of determining how gen-

eralized the ability may be& Dymond was led to effect an op-

erational definition of empathy in an attempt to measure em-

pathic ability "The imaginative transposing of oneself into

the thinking, feeling, and acting of another and so structur-

ing the world as he does is termed empathy."7
Dymond proceeded to develop a scale of empathic

ability by measuring the disparity between a subject's pre-

dictions of the responses of an associate and the responses

which an associate actually makes.8 The total deviation Is

5George Ho Mead, Mind, Self and Society, p. 99.
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1934a
6Carl R. Rogers, Client-Centered Counseling, p. 548.
New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1951

7Rosalind F. Dymond, "A Scale for the Measurement of
AEmpathic Ability", Journal of Consulting Psychology, XIII
(April, 1949), 127.. .
8lbid., p. 128.








a
assumed to be a measure of empathic ability the smaller

the deviation, the better the empathy score. Dymond measur-
ed this trait in different people and found she could predict

differences among individuals.9 However, evidence suggests

that Dymond's measure of empathy is subject to the Influence

of projection by the subject making the rating.10
Bender and Hastorf termed Dymondfs measure "raw em-

pathy", and proceeded to make refinements of the empathic

measurements. As a result of their study, they have conclud-
ed that the evidence is convincing for using a refined empathy

score (with correction applied for the effect of projection)

as an operational measure of empathic ability. Furthermore#

their refined empathy score is consistent enough that it
appears to be a measure of generalized empathic ability or

social sensitivity.1

The observations of social scientists and clinicians
find evidence that it is through the empathic process that the

individual achieves selfhood, understanding of others, and

9Dymond, "Personality and Empathy", Journal of Con-
sulting Psychology, XIV (October, 1950), 349.

10A, H. Hastorf, and I. E. Bender, "A Caution Re-
specting the Measurement of Empathic Ability", Journal of
Abnormal and Social Psychology, XLVII (April, 12) p. 574-
76.
ll* E. Bender, and A. H. Hastorf, "On Measuring
Generalized Empathic Ability*', Journal of Abnormal and Social
Psychology, XLVIII (October, 19553), 505.e"-








6

insight about oneself,12 It would appear that the social ad-

justment which is facilitated by this process may also prove

a facilitating mechanism in a learning situation. At this

point, one might suggest that an experiment be made to ascer-

tain the relationship between such an ability as empathy with

some measure of learning.

The Problem

The supposition of this study is stated as a null

hypothesis: that students with high empathic ability achieve

no better scholastic success, as measured by grade point

standing, than those with low empathic ability.

More specifically it is the intent of the study tot

1. Determine whether a significant relationship ex-

ists between empathic ability and scholastic success when in-

telligence, as measured by the American Council on Education

Psychological Examination ("L" or verbal score), is maintain-

ed constant.

2. Describe the implications of these findings for

student personnel workers#

The instrument to measure empathy will be that de-

vised by Bender and Hastorf3 in which a refined index of

12Gardner Murphy, Personality: A Biosocial Approach
to Origins and Structure, pp. 545, 546. New York: Harper and
Brother, 1947,
13I1 E. Bender, and A. H. Hastorf, "On Measuring
Generalized Empathic Ability", Journal of Abnormal and Social
Psychology, XLVIII (October, 1953), 503-06.








7

empathy has been shown to be a consistent measure of a gener-

alized ability. The test will be given to a group of under-

graduate college students. The student's grade point stand-

ing and his score on the American Council on Education Psy-

chological Examination (A.C.*F), will be obtained from offi-

cial records of the University.

The independent relationship of the t". :'. variables;

empathy, Intelligence, and grade point average will be com-

pared using the method of partial correlation. The findings

of this experiment will be used as a basis for accepting or

rejecting the (null) hypothesis of the study# The implica-

tions of these findings will be discussed from the viewpoint

of the philosophy and practices of student personnel work.

Limitations of the Study

I. This study does not suggest new procedures in

student personnel work. It does attempt to show whether

there may be implications for personnel workers in improv-

ing the workability of empathy among students.

2. It is important to realize that the rejection of

a null hypothesis does not force the acceptance of a contrary

view.14 A significant statistical correlation between empathic

14J. J. B. Morgan, "Credence Given to One Hypothesis
Because of the Overthrow of It's Rivals," American Journal of
Psychology, LVIII (January, 1945), 62.










ability and grade point standing does not necessarily prove

that empathic ability affects scholastic success; it simply

means that high and low empathizers do actually differ in

scholastic success. But the acceptance of a positive hypoth-

esis -- it should be noted -- is usually the end result of a

series of experiments* Furthermore, it is a logical as well

as a statistical conclusion.

3* The American Council on Education Psychological

Examination (L or verbal score) used to measure intelligence

has been shown to have a relatively high correlation with in-

dividual and group teats purported to measure abstract Intelli-

gence.15 In Super16, Anderson and others reported correlations

of f49 and .51 between two different forms of the A.C.E. (L)

test and the Wechsler-Bellevue individual test of intelligence#

4. Scholastic success, as measured by grade point

standing, has many shortcomings as a measure of success; how-

ever, it is an arbitrary dimension against which most colleges

and students expect evaluation. Until better measures of suc-

cess are developed and accepted it remains an expedient and

prevalent criterion against uhich prediction and methods of

improving student performance may be evaluated.

15Donald E, Super, Appraising Vocational Fitness,
p. 118. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1949.
16Ibid., p. 118.










Need for the Study

Interest in human nature is probably as old as human

history. There have been many clever individuals possessed

of insight and skill in manipulating human behavior. The

statesmen, writers, and strategists of every age have been

skilled in analyzing human motives and in playing upon human

sentiments, prides, and interests. Only recently has the

knowledge about human nature been systematized and subjected

to scientific analysis.

LaPiere and Farnsworth have defined this new science

of social psychology as: "The study of the processes by which

the human animal acquires from social experience those behav-

ior characteristics which make him a socialized human being.,17
It is evident that this definition is based upon the concept

that the origin of most human behavior lies in social experi-

ence. In other words, what the individual is, depends in part#

upon other individuals.

In general, the aim of social research is to under-

stand social life and thereby gain a greater measure of con-

trol over social behavior. Such research should promote the

happiness and effectiveness of individuals in a society.

Social scientists are only recently aware that behav-

ior cannot be analyzed into component parts in order to

17R. To LaPiere, and Po RB Farnsworth, Social Psy-
chology, p. 3. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.,
1936.










understand the individual or group. On the contrary, there

is increasing emphasis upon studying behavior in action and

more especially social interaction:

...During the decade of 1930 to 1940. ...Social psy-
chology was characterized by a marked acceleration of
a shift in theory and method from atomistic static
analysis of attributes of persons and groups to an ori-
entation and approach which could be called interac-
tional. This trend required theorists and research
workers to explain any given behavior as a functional
part of a specified dynamic system of interacting ele-
ments, According to the emerging conceptions, the be-
havior of persons and groups could not be explained as
the outcropping of the attributes or "nature possessed
by them but as parts of an interactive process in a 1
"field" or situation of which they were component parts

These personal interrelationships are obviously im-

portant to the happiness and effectiveness of man. It is

through understanding others that we learn about ourselves.

As Lindgren says:

Understanding is basic, because knowledge of the
causes of behavior of oneself and others constitutes
the entering wedge of insight and acceptance. Hatred
and intolerance, as well as the other attitudes that
keep people apart and prevent cooperation and agreement,
diminish under the impact of insight and understanding
into one's own feelings and attitudes and the motivation
of others. Understanding everything may not constitute
forgiving everything, but it is the first step on the
road leading to acceptance, tolerance, and respect.1 9

The improvement of human relationships is a concern

between individuals, social groups, racial groups and nations.


18Leonard S. Cottrell, quoted in Walter Coutu,
Emergent Human Nature, (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1949), p. vii.
19Henry Co Lindgren, Psychology of Personal and
Social Adjustment, p, 458. New York: American Book Company,
1953.








11

The happiness and effectiveness of individuals and groups, and

the survival of present civilization will depend upon the co-

operation of people* Mayo2O believes, that such understanding

and eventual cooperation cannot take place without communica-

tion between groups and individuals. Before one can communi-

cate one must have the ability to understand the communication.

A major effort is being put forth in the social sci-

ences to understand the dynamics of social interaction between

groups as well as individuals. Probably the most intensive,
21
as well as best known, have been the studies of Mayoe2. In

educational institutions, Moreno has introduced sociometric

analysis as an aid in understanding human behavior.22 The

psychologist, Kurt Lewin; anthropologist, Margaret Mead; and,

sociologist, Kimball Young; and, others are representative

leaders in the academic disciplines who have accepted an inter-

actional approach to the study of man in his personal relation-

ships.

The improvement of these dynamic relationships awaits

the development of instruments or techniques by which the

quality and/or degree of human interactions may be understood.

20Elton Mayo, The Social Problems of an Industrial
Civilization, p. 22. Andover, Massachusetts: The Andover
Press, 1945a
21Ibid., chap. iv,
22J. L. Moreno, Who Shall Survive? A New Approach to
the Problem of Human Interrelatlons, Washington, D. D..
Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Company, 1954,








12

Stuart Chase, in a recent book, describes this responsibility

of the social scientists

It is important that social scientists realize their
vital new role, and devote themselves with treat single-
mindedness to the task of accumulating more verified
knowledge and ever sharper engineering tools. The future
of civilization, if not of mankind, may depend upon what
they can accomplish in the next few decades.*

One of the sharper engineering tools badly needed is

an index of the ability of individuals and members of groups

to "put themselves in another's shoes"* In psychological

terms, it is the ability to predict, or introject oneself

into, the responses of others, whether individuals or groups,

particularly responses of a social-emotional, attitudinal sort.

This concept is obviously that of empathy*

The empathic processes appear to be a basic mechanism

in the social experiences of man. Through this process, the

individual achieves self-understanding as well as understand-

ing of others# It is necessary to understand others in order

to communicate with them effectively* There must be an aware-

ness about other's feelings, which is frequently at odds with

what the person actually says# At the same time, the indivi-

dual must be aware of his own feelings, which have their ef-

fect on others through the medium of mutual exchange of feel-

ing-tone.


23Stuart Chase, The Proper Study of Mankind, p. 305.
New York: Harper and Brothers, 1948.










Purpose of the Study --

The specific purpose of this study is to investigate

empathy as a factor in the scholastic success of students.

The grade point standing, as a measure of scholastic success,

is a social symbol in American culture. Scholastic honors

are given to students with outstanding grades. The satisfac-

tory "C" is satirically called the "gentleman's" grade. The
college graduates with superior grades are frequently recom-

mended to employment representatives who visit the campus.

Scholastic failure is frequently a stigma in American culture.

A description of the place of empathy in social con-

cepts will help in understanding the implications about the

influence of empathy on social symbols. More specifically#

it should be purposeful in the study to describe how the em-

pathic process relates to education.

The results of the experimental testing of the hy-

pothesis of this study may have implications concerning the

development of empathy as a factor in scholastic success.

Furthermore, the study may indicate that academic learning

involves mastery of facts rather than sensitivity to the ef-

fect of these facts upon individuals or groups.

The philosophy of personnel work states that its

aim is to educate the total individual. This philosophy

assumes that many abilities in the individual make up the

total person. Recent research has isolated a so-called









14

ability known as empathy. Empathic ability is thought to be

a factor Influencing the social and educative process. In

order to help the individual make use of this ability in his

personal success it would appear that it should be related

to the present accepted measure of personal success -- that

is the scholastic grades. If it appears that this ability

is related to the grade point standing, it would prove the

operation of this ability and the necessity for personnel

workers to make further study of empathy so as to bring about

its improvement or greater workability in the individual.

This ability appears to be a social-focused ability and there-

fore the responsibility for its development would lie in the

hands of personnel workers and all those who deal with stu-

dents.

It is not reasonable to assume that any student is suc-

cessful in college without a certain amount of scholastic

success; therefore, the relationship of empathy to scholas-

tic grades would show the importance of this social-focused

ability in the success of the student. As in all social the-

ory, such an ability is only useful in its relationship to

established goals.

If, on the other hand, this measurement were found not

to *be related to academic goals it may imply that a social

ability, such as empathy, is not necessary in obtaining a col-

lege degree and, programs which develop these abilities may

only be side issues to this objective of the college graduate.










Presentation of the Study

In the following chapters this study will explore

in more precise detail the mechanism of empathy and its im-

portance to student personnel workers. Chapter II will de-

scribe in detail the operation and psychological nature of

empathy. Chapter III is a review of experimental investi-

gations. In Chapter IV, the significance of the basic mech-

anism of empathy will be related to the philosophy and prac-

tices of- student personnel work. The experimental data and

findings of an investigation to determine the relation of

empathy to scholastic success, is presented in Chapter V.

The final chapter will summarize the study as well as state

the conclusions and implications about the importance of

empathy to scholastic success and its significance to per-

sonnel workers, the individual, and society*
















CHAPTER IX


THE NATURE OP EMPATHY

In order to know what empathy is, it is necessary

to clarify its place among related concepts and to under-

stand it as a psychological mechanism. Then it is possible

to see its use in socialization, how it operates, how it can
be measured and most important of all to show its practical

occurrence and use, in every phase of human life*

Empathy and Related Concepts

The term "empathy" itself, presents some problems

since it has been used in literature with a variety of mean-

ings. Also other terms have been used with the same or very

similar meaning to that which will be used in this study,

namely, the imaginative transposing of oneself into the think-

ing, feeling, and acting of another and so structuring the

world as he does. In attempting to explain empathy the term

must be distinguished from such overlapping terms as: sympathy,

insight, identification, and projection.

Mead describes sympathy as arising from the empathic

process:

The attitude that we characterize as that of sympa-
thy in the adult springs from this same capacity to take










role of the other person with whom one is socially In*
plicated. It is not included in the direct response of
help, support, and protection. This is a direct impulse,
or in lower forms, a direct instinct, which is not at
all incompatible with the exercise, on occasion, of the
opposite instincts. The parent, that on occasion acts
in the most ordinary parental fashion may, with seeming
heartlessness, destroy and consume their offspring.
Sympathy always implies that one stimulates himself to
his assistance and consideration of others by taking in
some degree the attitude of the person whom one is as-
sisting. The common term for this is "putting yourself
in his place."s

Koestler too, has reasoned similarly and he states,

"Empathy becomes sympathy when to this mental resonance in

added the desire to collaborate or help."

It is then, possible, to distinguish between empathy

and sympathy as when one perceives the agony of a lost child
(empathy) and the feeling or desire one has to comfort the

wanderer (sympathy). On the other hand, there appears to be

considerable overlapping of these mental processes. As Mur-

phy says:

The earliest forms of sympathy, for example, which,
as we saw earlier depend on analogies between oneself
and another, grow rapidly as one experiences more and
more situations through which he sees others pass, be-
ing thereby permitted to share their experiences by
virtue of an analogy with his own. *.,There is no
sharp line of cleavage between "sympathy" and "empathy"e;
the latter term is usually applied to putting oneself
in the place of either a living or a non-living thing.3

IMead, op. cit., p. 366.
2A Koestler, Insight and Outlook, p. 360. New York:
The Macmillan Company, 1949.
3Murphy, op cite pp. 493-94.










Empathy is viewed, then, as a more objective and neu-

tral process. It may lead to positive feelings and closer

social relations, as when it results in sympathy, but this is

not necessarily the case.

Insight may also be thought of as a product of the

empathic process. It is apparent that empathy contributes

to insight; however, insight requires more profound evalua-

tion of one's own psychological structure. Murphy discrim-

inates thus:

In judging oneself, the first problem is insight, an
objective integral view. ...The rubrics which guide an
individual in learning to judge others are not neces-
sarily useful in judging himself. He struggles autisti-
cally against the use of many of the available cues.
The answer is usually the one which John Levy once gave;
insight can seldom be increased directly by a hammer-
and-tongs method; rather, as a person works with his
deeper problems, with the network of his motives, and
discovers what he really wants, he finds that he has
achieved insight. Insight comes as a late cognitive
expression of the readjustment of the motive pattern.4

Dymond, also, concludes that insight is a product of

the empathic process:

Insight into oneself seems to require the ability
to stand off and look at oneself from the point of view
of others. In order to see ourselves as others see us,
we need to structure the situation from their perspec-
tive or transpose ourselves into their thinking and
feeling* Insight into others also appears to be 5depend-
ent upon the ability to take the role of others.

4Lbid., pp. 659-60.

5Rosalind F. Dymond, "Personality and Empathy,"
Journal of Consulting Psycholog-* XIV (October, 1950), 544.








19
Increasingly, clinicians are coming to accept this
position, particularly those of the Roger's school of client-

centered therapy* In a quotation from Raskin, Rogers states,
"As time has gone by we have come to put increasing stress on

the *client-centerednessB of the relationship because it is

more effective the more completely the counselor concentrates

upon trying to understand the client as the client sees him-

self."6
In contrast to the empathic process which enables one

to structure the social situation, insight, gained through
empathy as well as other mechanisms, is the product of a deep-

er probing of psychological structures.
Identification is the psychological mechanism of mak-

ing one's self another person to the extent of losing ones
own identity. Healy, Bronner, and Bowers, define identifica-
tion as:
**...the unconscious molding of one's own Ego after the
fashion of one who has been taken as a model. Primary
identification is the earliest expression of an emo-
tional tie with a person.
Empathy does not imply that one would unconsciously

like to be the other person or to be implicated emotionally*
Rogers makes this distinction very clearly!

6Rogers, op. cit., p* 50.

7W. Healy, Augusta Bronner, and Annas Mae Bowers,
The Structure and Meaning of Psychoanalysis, p. 230. New
York: Alfred Knopf, 1950.










The experiencing with the client, the living of him
attitudes, is not in terms of an emotional involvement
or emotional identification on the counselor's part, but
rather an empathic identification where the counselor is
perceiving the hopes and fears of the client through im-
mersion in an empathic process...8

Dymond states, "Identification appears to be a very

special kind of role-taking; one that is more lasting, less

frequent, and more emotional than is implied in the term em-

pathy."9

Projection is almost the reverse process of the em-

pathic process. It involves endowing another with one's own

attitudes and feelings. Projection appears to be a normal

mechanism of the infant and to operate in varying degrees in

different Indtviduals into adult life. Murphy says:

From this indeterminateness of the boundaries of the
self, especially in infancy but to some degree through-
out life, follows the process of projection by virtue of
which experiences arising from one's own sensory proc-
ess of projection are felt to belong to others, the
motives of others are judged by analogy with one's own,
and the world1is peopled with individuals essentially
like oneself.A

Dymond also, views empathy and projection as contra-

ry:

Projection seems to be an antithetical process to


8Carl R. Rogers, "The Attitude and Orientation of the
Counselor," Journal of Consulting Psychology, XIII (February,
1949), 86.

Rosalind F. Dymond, "Personality and Empathy," Journal
of Consulting Psychology, XIV (October, 1950), 344.
10Murphy, op. cit., pp. 495-96.










empathy since projection involves the attribution of
one'S own wishes, attitudes and behavior to something#
or some one other than the self* If projection is in-
volved, therefore, the thoughts and feelings of the
self are attributed to the other rather than those of
the other being experienced. The individual who attempts
to understand the behavior of others using projection as
the mechanism, assumes that 'slnce this is how I would
feel I were in his situation, this Is how he must
feel.1

Sympathy appears then to be an emotional product of

empathy and insight a psychological concept which is a prod-

uct of empathy and other mechanisms. Identification, like

empathy involves taking the role of another, but to the ex-

treme where one's own self is lost in the Identification proc-

ess. Projection is seen to be more autistic and personal than

empathy in that the projector attributes his own feeling to

his associates. Empathic ability seems more objective, more

cognitive, and more truly perceptive of the psychological

structure of the other person.

The Psychological Mechanism of Empathy

Empathy takes place the same as any other psycholog-

ical operation in the mind of man. It involves many complex

stimuli to bring about a complex response which in the empath-

ic process is the overall picture a person has of his object.

If the person finds it easy to empathize or put himself into

another's shoes, and accurately predict another's behavior he

may be called a good empathizer.

1lRosalind F. Dymond, "Personality and Empathy",
Journal of Consulting Psychology, XIV (October, 1950), 345.








22

A generalized ability, such as empathy, may be po-

tential in the infant. It is believed that moat people are

empathic and Lindgren quotes this evidence:

*...the problem is more likely one of permitting one's
empathy to function rather than of learning empathy,
for we are normally empathic. As Sullivan and others
have discovered, even infants communicate empathically
with their world. L. B. Murphy found that three-year-
olds showed definite signs of being able to empathize
with their age-mates. Theodore M. Newoomb points out
that the behavior of others seems less arbitrary and
more understandable when one can empathize*

Starting with this assumption it is easy to trace

how this mechanism may be developed in the individual. As

soon as the child has developed to a point where he is able

to think or reflect he gains a concept of self and also of

other selves, other human beings who think and act as he does*

Most children are imaginative. He may call a stick a king

and a box a castle. In his mind he sees things as they are

not. He also may visualize himself as a king and his mother

as a queen. He may wish to pretend that he is his mother

This may be the beginning of empathy.

As the child develops he puts "brakes" on his imag-

inative process. He knows he is imagining he is someone

else. He pretends, Just to amuse himself with the emotions,

perhaps of Heidi returning to her home or Peter Pan flying

through the air, or Superman. As the child becomes an adult

12Lindgren, op. cit*, p. 55.








23

he tones down and channelizes his ability to take roles. He

may briefly and scientifically use them to understand why a

friend or some other person may not care to be a Marine, or

a stamp collector, or why his wife wishes to buy a television

set*
An inventor imagines how a wheel may turn although

he has never seen the wheel turn in that particular way* So

a person may imagine himself as having the problem or peculi-

arity of another and never have experienced it* If the person

assumes the obvious attributes of the object of his empathy

such as (1) what others think of his object, and (2) how his

object behaves toward others, he feels the same social forces

pushing on him that push on the object.

To be able to empathize is the same control of mind

over body as is exercised in any form of both mental and phys-

ical control. If a person can make himself stop being angry

or sad, he can probably make himself feel as sick as his

friend does when, for instance, his friend's child eats dirt*

He then empathizes with his friend. Empathy may come with a

definite control with some people, with others it may come

completely without control when a person can't help feeling

pain when he sees another's cut hand. It all depends on the

operation of the mind and body of the individual.

Many educators believe that if a child is allowed to

be imaginative, he may be more creative as an adult. gOesell










has observed thusm
Now# as always, it is necessary to achieve a working
balance between the individual and society* The danger
is that the culture itself will place too heavy repres-
sions upon this growing organism which is graduating
from mere infancy. *..**The temptation may be for the
adult carriers of the culture to press him top fast and
too heavily in the direction of civilization1

If his mind is not disciplined to the absolute truth

of a situation, he may visualize new imaginative concepts in

science or art, as he grows up. It is reasonable to assume
this may also be true in his ability to visualize himself as

another person if he is not always made to be himself in every

act of his childhood*
Most people may play many roles, even in one days de-

pending on the social circumstances in which he finds himself

or perhaps only because of his own caprice. The empathizer,

in order to predict the behavior of another must assume many

roles to put himself in another person's shoes. This ability

however, is pretty general and most people are to be consid-

ered rather constant in their personalities.

Empathy, like intelligence, is probably a product of

heredity and environment. It cannot be determined how much

of this ability comes from within and how much from without.

It can be compared to many other human abilities such as ar-

tistic or musical abilities* Empathic ability may aid in

13Arnold Gesell, and Francis L. Ilg, Infant and
Child in the Culture of Today, p. 133. New York: Harper and
Brothers, 1943.








25

these abilities. It appears to be more basic than most tal-

ents as thought of generally. It appears to be a clearly

defined part of mants overall creative ability.

Empathy as a Factor in Socialization

As has been mentioned previously in this chapter,

empathic ability appears to be a very definite aid in devel-

oping insight (that is, self knowledge). If a person sees

himself as a social being, he becomes one. He thinks of him-

self in the light of what others think of him, hence his opin-

ion of himself is derived from what he thinks others think of

him. He is, in this way able to look at himself objectively

as he looks at others objectively, in both cases using the

empathic process. Mead, describes the importance of empathy

in socialization:

Intelligence is essentially the ability to solve the
problems of present behavior in terms of its possible
future consequences as implicated on the basis of past
experience -- the ability, that is, to solve the prob-
lems of present behavior in the light of, or by refer-
to, both the past and the future; it involves both mem-
ory and foresight. And the process of exercising intel-
ligence is the process of delaying, organizing, and se-
lecting a response or reaction to the stimuli of the
given environmental situation. The process is made pos-
sible by the mechanism of the central nervous system,
which permits the individual's taking of the attitude
of the other toward himself (empathy, and thus becoming
an object to himself. This is the most effective means
of adjustment to the social environment, and indeed to
the environment in general, that the individual has at
his disposal.14

14Mead, op. cit., p. 100.








26

This perception of the individual not only leads to

reaction to the behavior of others but helps him integrate

his picture of himself. He therefore becomes a well-adjusted

person and he is, at times, able to eliminate his own biased

opinion of himself and still see why others either do or do

not understand him. His own opinion of himself is then, the

opinion of others tempered by his own mind. He then, is a

social being because of the social pressure of others on his

empathic ability which in turn causes him to make himself in-

to a self which is a mixture of his own feelings and the con-

cepts of others.

An Operational Concept of Empathy and Its Measurement

Social interaction is based on role-taking which re-

fers to one's use of the attitudes and feeling of others in

his own behavior toward them; that is, in interaction one as*

sumes the relevant attitudes and feelings of the other person,

rehearses it within one's self, and then responds to one's own

rehearsal.

The ability to use the attitudes and feelings of an-

other clearly depend upon one's perceiving in the same manner

as another. It is physically impossible that one can per-

ceive from the same point of vantage as another. Although

the perceptions of two people may be similar, they are never

the same. The nearest approximation to another's perception

can only be achieved by imagining oneself in his place.








27

Proceeding from this reasoning, empathy will be defined as

the imaginative transposing of oneself into the thinking, ,

feeling, and acting of another.
From this definition of empathy, it is obvious from

a common sense point of view that there is a good deal of in-

dividual variation in this ability. Some people appear to be
very sensitive to cues as to how others are feeling and re-

acting while others appear to be grossly unaware of the

thought and feelings of others. An empathic teacher inter-

prets the facial expressions of students accurately and de-

termines their readiness to proceed to a complex problem.

The measurement of empathic ability, therefore, is a measure

of how accurately one can predict the behavior of another -

a product of attitudes and feelings. The usual method of

studying empathy is to measure the disparity between a sub-

Ject's predictions of the responses of an associate and the

responses which an associate makes. The total deviation is

assumed to be a measure of empathic ability the smaller

the deviation, the better the empathy score.

Observations on the Occurrence and Use of Empathy

Empathy has been shown previously to be a contrib-
uting mechanism in achieving selfhood, as well as being the

basis of much of intelligent behavior. Such an ability used

effectively, would appear to be of great practical purpose

to the individual and to society. Coutu has summarized some










of the implications:
Advantages to the person:
1, Enables one to anticipate the probable behavior of
another# thus forming a primary mechanism of social ad-
Justment.
2. Provides one with a reference for an accurate
concept of ones self, Anticipating the response of an-
other to one's own act, thereby interpreting, giving
meaning to, one's concept of one's self* By this process
a person defines his own social situations.
3. Furnishes the basis for confidence in ones self.
4. Gives others confidence in a person, for it is
empirical evidence of his consideration for them, which
in practically all groups is defined as good manners, and
generally arouses immediate social approval and coopera-
tion, Our traditions which encourage parents and others
to treat children as playthings prevents our treating
them as people and putting ourselves in their place*
Those who work with "problem children" are constantly
frustrated by the difficulty of making parents and other
adults see children as people* Children do not appear
to them as "others"; they are just youngsters.
5* Widens one's own experience thus broadening and
enriching the personality and providing increased oppor-
tunities for self actualization.
6. Stizmlates others to show affection for you*
7. By it one gains knowledge of the rights of others
and it therefore places one in a position to see and
measure components in the field to which one would not
otherwise be sensitive.
8e Places one in a position of leadership in many
situations with all that this involves as a function in
human relationships.
9* Contributes to ones ability to understand the
workings of one's world and outs down the toxic flow of
adrenalin.
Advantages to society:
i. Taking the role of the other is a means by which
others gain confidence in themselves and this makes for
better social adjustment,
2* The recognition of the rights of others reduces
conflict and increases cooperation*
3,. Encourages others to assume social responsibil-
itieseA

i'Walter Coutu, Emergent Human Nature, pp. 291-92.
New York: Alford Knopf, 1949.








29

This list suggests that empathy may be a factor for

consideration in many human activities Including education

industry, social activities and family-life, as well as others.

In short, through role-taking or empathy one finds that what-

ever one does to others he does to himself at the same time

and this explains the destructive power of hate and arrogance,

and the constructive power of consideration for others in hu-

man adjustment.

The ability to take the role of the other is a means

of developing communication. As Mead says, "One may seeming-

ly have the symbol of another language, but if he has not any

common ideas with those who speak the language, he cannot

communicate with them."16 Previously, the development of self-

hood has been shown to be a product of empathy. In similar

fashion and from a common sense point of view, t Ie individual

learns the language and common ideas by taking the role of
/
others to observe how words and ideas affect himself. With-

out these common experiences no communication or interaction,

as usually understood, would be possible. One of the great

problems facing people today, on all levels, is communication.

Clearly the "cold war" between the United States and Russia

is in no small part due to communication failure; the two na-

tions cannot talk to one another, It is not the only example.

Strikes and labor-management difficulties are often the result


16Mead, op, cite p. 259.








30

of communication failure. So are many factional rows inside
a country, squabbles within organizations, deadlocks in com-

mittee meetings, personal fights and even the schizophrenia
of a single tortured mind. On every level communication

lines may be blocked and severed completely when people fail

to understand the other. Elton Mayo in Social Problems of an
Industrial Civilization emphasizes the enormous importance of

this problem;
I believe that social study should begin with careful
observation of what may be described as communication;
that is, the capacity of an individual to communicate his
feelings and ideas to another, the capacity of groups to
communicate effectively and intimately to each other.
This problem is beyond all reasonable doubt the outstand-
ing defect that civilization is facing today. ...**Our
international troubles are unquestionably due to the fact
that effective communication between different national
groups was not accomplished. ...On the contrary, an ef-
fort was often made to "find a formula", a logical state-
ment which should conceal the fact that neither side haf
any insight into the actual situation of tLe other. **o'
Empathy is a mechanism of communication, making for

the froe flow of ideas through structured channels within
groups of all sizes, and between groups, up to the great na-

tional and international units.

In the preface of his book# Social Dnams Ac, Oitt"
ler,1 a sociologist, refers to the distinction made by
Cooley twenty-five years ago between two sorts of knowledge.


17Mayo, op.2. cit., pp. 22-25.
18Joseph B. Gittler, Social Dynamics, p. vil. New
York: McGraw-Hill Book Company7, 1952










"One, the development of sense contacts into knowledge of

things," he called spatial and material knowledge. "The sec-

ond is developed from contact with the minds of other men,

through communication, which sets going a process of thought

and sentiment similar to theirs and enables us to understand

them by sharing their states of mind." This he designated as

social knowledge. Gittler has explained the importance of

this latter sort of knowledge in a learning situation:

Detailed case studies, because of their vivid and
dramatic accounts of human experiences and social re-
lationships, tend to transmit that type of knowledge
which Cooley defines as social. Case materials, ade-
quately recorded, reveal those aspects of human behav-
ior which the reader can comprehend with sympathetic
interpretation. Knowledge of human nature demands
that one assume the role of the other and experience
with emotion and empathy, the other's covert nature -
his attitudes, values feelings -- as well as his mani-
fest overt character*.9

If learning is looked upon as a sort of "experienc-
ing into" a situation, as well as sheer mastery or memoriza-

tion of fact, it appears that an ability which permits the

taking of the role of another facilitates "experiencing into"

a situation. Clayton, in his study of Mead's bio- social be-

haviorism, finds this implication for education:

Mead sees at the heart of the learning process the
mechanism whereby one takes the attitude of the other.
The factory workers' son learns about the farmer's life
by taking the attitude of the farmer toward his environ-
ment. The pupil learns about his physical environment
by taking the attitude of the scientist, engineer, car-
penter, banker, or soldier. This in Mead's opinion is

19Ibid., p. vii.








32

the pattern of all reflective learning and the task of
the agency that is designated to teach the young is to
become increasingly clear on the nature and implications
of this process.0

Such an account of intermediate steps in the learn-

ing process provides a view of learning that can be put to the

pragmatic test. When learning is described as the act of tak-

ing the attitude of the other, this explanation of learning

can be tried out and shown to make an operational difference.

Summary

Empathy aenr can be seen as an important psycholog-

ical ability. Psychologists, philosophers, and educators

have all pointed out its great importance in shaping human

reactions.



















2OAlfred S. Clayton, Emergent Mind and Education.
pp. 91-92. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University,
Contributions to Education, No. 867, 1943.














CHAPTER III


RELATED STUDIES

It is the purpose of this study to determine whether

empathy or the ability to predict the responses of another is

associated with scholastic success. In the previous chapter,
social theory and clinical evidence have shown empathy to be V

an important mechanism in developing selfhood, understanding

of others, and insight into oneself. Furthermore# it has been

hypothesized that this socialization process, achieved through

the empathic process, amy also prove a facilitating mechanism

in a learning situation. The acceptance by this study of

Dymondts operational definition of empathy# "The imaginative

transposing of oneself into the thinking, feeling, and acting-

of another and so structuring the world as he does#l provides

a description of empathy that can be subjected to measurement

and its influence determined in given situations. This writ-

er, in a survey of related literature finds no experimental

evidence to support the implication that empathy may facili-

tate learning. However, as a result of sustained efforts to
define and measure empathic ability, it would appear that the

relationship of empathy and learning or scholastic success can

1Rosalind F. Dymond, "A Scale for the Measurement of
Empathic Ability,* Journal of Consulting Psychology, XIII
(April, 1953)# 14.










be put to an experimental test.
In a review of literature about studies in empathy,

Gage suggests why personnel workers should study this process

For guidance workers it (empathy) has two kinds of
importance. First, understanding others is an important
aspect of the counselor's job. If we knew how to meas-
ure and improve perception of others, we would have an
important aid in the selection and training of guidance
counselors and, more generally, of teachers conceived
as guidance workers.
Secondly, perception of others it an important fac-
tor in the personalities of the clients' or pupils'
with whom guidance counselors are concerned* Effective-
ness in interpersonal relationships, or in social inter-
action, is an important aspect of the vocational, educa-
tional, and personal competence of all of us. When
guidance counselors are better able to appraise their
client' or pupils' understanding of others, they will
have an improved basis for counseling and guidance con-
cerning activities and occupations which depend upon ef-
fectiveness in interpersonal relationships

Techniques Used to Measure Empathy

The astonishing rapidity with which first impressions
are made can easily be demonstrated. While riding in a bus

or train one may close his eyes and turn his head toward some

passenger not previously observed. Now open the eyes for a

brief glimpse of this person for two or three seconds, and
then with eyes closed introspect upon the impressions as they
arise. Here is a person never before seen and completely un-

known. With btut the briefest visual perception, a complex
mental process is aroused, resulting within a very short time

2N. L. Gage, "Explorations in the Understanding of
Others"# Educational and Psychological Measurements, XIII
(April 1955), 14 . ... ... ..








35

in judgment of the age, sex, size, nationality, profession,

and social caste of the stranger, together with some estimate

of his temperament, his past suffering, his "hardness", his

ascendance, friendliness, neatness, and even his trustworthi-

ness and integrity, Now some people appear to make these es-

timates more accurately than others. Sir Conan Doyle attrib-

uted an uncanny perceptive ability to the success of his fie-

tional character, Sherlock Holmes.

"The ability to judge people," while important enough

to serve the psychologist Allport3 as a chapter heading, has

been studied by only a few investigators. As reported by

Allport,4 Estes asked Judges to rate certain subjects after

observing brief motion pictures of their behavior. He found

that the group of best Judges were one-third more correct than

the poorest group, while the best single Judge was two-thirds

better than the poorest Judge.

In Allport,5 Adams had eighty girls rate themselves
and each other on forty-six variables. In no trait did the

ability to rate others attain a coefficient greater than *42

but the ability to rate self was found to be differentiated

from the ability to rate others.

In an ambitious study of the qualities of a good

3G. W. Allport, Personality, pp. 499-522. New Yorks
Henry Holt and Company, 1957.
4Ibdo., pp. 507-09.

lbid., p. 609








36
Judge of personality, Vernon6 found "an extreme absence of
consistency," and concludes that "it is not possible to dis-
cuss the characteristics of a good or bad Judge of personal-

ity in general.*7 Yet on tha basis of many but rather thin
coefficients of correlation Vernon finds himself able to

state that, "good Judges of friends and associates are less
socially inclined and less intelligent, but more artistic
than good self-Judges."8
Dymond,9 on the other hand, finds a significantly

positive relation between insight into self and empathy,
-"the imaginative transposing of oneself into another," In

her study she secured four ratings from each subject; (1)
rating of himself, (2) rating oi another, (3) how he thought
the other person would rate himself, and (4) how he thought

the other person would rate him. On the basis of the find-
ings of this test, Dymond concludes, *The ability that is
concerned here, seeing things from the other person's point
of view, is one in which individuals obviously differ from

6p. E. Vernon, "Some Characteristics of the Good
Judge of Personality", Journal of Social Psychology, IV (Jan-
uary, 1933), 42-58.
7Ibid., p, 56.

8Ibid., p. 67,

9Rosalind F. Dymond, "A Preliminary Investigation of
the Relation of Insight and Empathy", Journal of Consulting
Psychology, XII (June, 1948), 127.










one another."10
Using the Weohsler-Bellevue intelligence test, the

Rorschach personality test, the Thematic Apperception Test,

and the California Ethnocentrism test, together with the sub-

ject's own self-analysis, Dymond sketches the personality
picture of the high and low empathizers

Those whose empathy is high are outgoing, optimistic,
warm, emotional people, who have a strong interest in
others. They are flexible people whose emotional rela-
tions with others, particularly their early family rela-
tions have been sufficiently satisfying so that they find
investing emotionally in others rewarding. Their own
level of security is such that they can afford an inter-
est in others. While they are emotional people, their
emotionality is well-controlled and richly enjoyed.
Those lowLin empathy are rather rigid, introverted
people who are subject to outbursts of uncontrolled emo-
tionality* They seem unable to deal with concrete mate-
rial and interpersonal relations very successfully* They
are either self-centered and demanding in their emotion-
al contacts or else lone wolves who prefer to get along
without strong ties to other people. Their own early
relationships within the family seem to have been so dis-
turbed and unsatisfying that they feel they cannot afford
to invest their love in others as they need it all for
themselves. They seem to mistrust others, to encapsulate
themselves and not to be well integrated with the world
Of reality. They seem to compensate for their lack of
emotional development by stressing the abstract intellec-
tual approach to life as the safest. Some of those in
this group seem to be aware of their patterns and of the
nature of their unsatisfactory adjustmnet to other peo-
ple; others have rationalized their behavior to the ex-
tent of developing a role of superiority which satisfies
them. The mere fact that they are so inwardly oriented
and rigid in their structure makes it impossible for
them to empathize with others successfully* It is unim-
portant to them to know what the other is thinking and
feeling; it is their own thoughts and feelings that

lOIbid., po 1325S










count.11
A similar technique to that of Dymond was developed

by Remnners12 while working on an experimental design for re-
ducing the "gap" between management and labor, which he calls

measuring reciprocal empathy. Uhing this technique a number

of students at Purdue University have completed studies con-
cerning reciprocal empathy in widely separated problems.

This technique suggested by Renmers, and used in this group
of studies consists in having an individual or group, A# an-

swer a set of relevant attitude questions. A is then asked

to give the response that he would expect from another Indi-

vidual or group, Be A is asked to respond a third time to

this same set of questions as he would expect B to predict
Ats response to these questions. B is then subjected to these
same procedures.
Van Zelst14 in an investigation of an Empathy Test
16
by Kerr and Speroff#1 used four criteria for purposes of

lDymond, "Personality and Empathy", Journal of Con-
sulting Psychology, XIV (October, 1950), 349.
12Remmers, op. cit., pp. 161-65.
1!. H. Remmers, "A Quantitative Index of Social-
Psychological Empathy", American Journal of Orthopsychiatry,
XX (January, 1950), 161-65.
1"Raymond Van Zelst, "Validation Evidence on the
Empathy Test", Educational and Psychological Measurements,
XIII (Autumn, 1953), 474-77.
15WO A. Kerr, and B. J. Speroff, The Empathy Test,
Chicago: Psychometric Affiliates, 1951.








39

validation: interpersonal desirability or sociometric status,

"How Supervise?"16 test scores Job satisfaction, and a self-

judgment score. Multiple correlations between the Empathy

Test and the first three criteria, and between the Empathy

Test with "How Supervise?" were .66 and .62 respectively.

Van Zelst concluded that these intercorrelations, as well as

those of previous researchers, suggest that the Empathy Test

is useful in the selection of leaders, sales personnel, and

counselors.

In an attempt to measure individual differences in

perceptual ability, Bender and Hastorf17 compared obtained

scores and forecast scores. A group of undergraduates filled

out three personality scales (obtained scores). The same

subjects attempted to predict the exact verbal responses of

one or two acquaintances in this group on these same three

scales (forecast scores),* The experimenters obtained the

following results: (1) low positive correlation between ob-

tained and forecast scores on each of the three scales; (2)

no apparent consistency in forecasting ability either when

forecasting for a subject on the three scales or when fore-

casting on the same for two different subjects; and (3) the

16
16How Supervise?, ed. by Quentin W. File, and He H.
Remmers, New York: The Psychological Corporation, 1954.
171I E. Bender, and A. H. Hastorf, "The Perception
of Persons: Forecasting Another Person's Response on Three
Personality Scales", Journal of Abnormal and Social Psycho-
logy, XLV (July, 1950), 556-61.










emergence of projection on one of the scales*
The results of this study emphasize the fact that

part of the successful prediction of another person's re-

sponses may be due to projection rather than empathy and

that a refined measure of empathic ability will approximate

more adequately the psychological aspects of empathy when it

is defined as the imaginative transposing of oneself into

the thinking, feeling, and acting of another and so strua -

turing the world as he does*

Refinements in the Measurement of Empathy

Proceeding from the results of their experiment,

Hastorf and Bender18 reasoned that the next step would seem

to be to obtain predictions from individuals for a number of
their associates who differ in the amount of their similarity

with the predictor. This data could then be used to deter-

mine more clearly the relationship between similarity, pro-

jection, and empathy. Furthermore, when a person has made

a number of predictions, analysis could be made of the con-

sistency of his projection and empathy scores.

In a test of this point of view, Bender and Hastorf19

18A* H. Hastorf, and I# E. Bender, "A Caution Re-
specting the Measurement of Empathic Ability", Journal of
Abnormal and Social Psychology, XLVII (April, 1O5, 6574 76.
19I, E. Bender, and A. H. Hastorf, "On Measuring
Generalized Empathic Ability", Journal of Abnormal and Social
Psychology XLVIII (October, 1953), 505-06.








41

conducted a further study to define more clearly the interre-

lationships of refined empathy with similarity, projection,

and raw empathy. The study was designed to have a forecaster

predict for four associates and thus to provide an approach

to an analysis of the consistency of each of the variables.

A scale of forty-two items was administered to fifty

subjects who then attempted to predict the responses of four

associates who also responded to the same scale* Four devia-

tion scores (the sum of the differences between a person's

response and the forecaster's prediction) were obtained from

the data for the variables of similarity, projection, raw

empathy, and refined empathy. The refined empathy score was

derived by subtracting the raw empathy score from the projec-

tion score* It was found that while the raw empathy score

was significantly correlated with similarity, the refined em-

pathy score was not correlated with similarity. Furthermore,

it was found that the refined empathy score showed a fair de-

gree of consistency, although the greatest consistency was

shown by the projection scores. The experimenters concluded,

"The data clearly indicate that there is a generalized tend-

ency for some of the subjects to project consistently and for

others to have empathic ability."0


20Ib__d* p, 506.











Sumary

The studies reviewed in this chapter have shown that

individuals do differ in their ability to predict the re-

sponses of another and that this generalized ability is akin

to the psychological mechanism of empathy. Those whose em-

pathy is high have been characterized as outgoing, optimis-

tic warm, emotional people, who have a strong interest in

others. Furthermore, Kerr and Speroff have found this abil-

ity is unrelated to intelligence and most basic aptitudes.

The technique of measuring empathy developed by

Dymond and refined by Bender and Hastorf and, purported to

measure, "the imaginative transposing of oneself into the

thinking, feeling, and acting of another and so structuring

the world as he does," appears to be a measure of empathy or

one's ability to predict the responses of another. Further-

more, it has been shown that the refinement of the empathy

score (corrected for the influence of projection) brings about

a consistency of prediction that appears to be a measure of

a generalized ability.

The summary of literature, and conclusions reached

by Gage, clearly emphasize that when counselors are better

able to appraise their clients' or students# understanding

of others, they will have an improved basis for counseling

concerning activities and occupations which depend upon ef-

fectiveness in interpersonal relationships.
















CHAPTER IV


THE SIGNIFICANCE OP EMPATHY TO

STUDENT PERSONNEL WORK

To understand the role of empathy in personnel works

the interpretation of the basic philosophy of such work must

be shown. The personnel philosophy or point of view points

out that the total individual should be educated. In order

to carry out this ideal in anything but a highly superficial

manner the interaction of individuals must be considered.

The mechanism of empathy can then be seen to be a factor of

great importance in social interaction and, therefore, highly

important in personnel work,


Aims and Objectives of Higher Education

The purpose or purposes of student personnel work

must be examined from the broader view of the objectives of

higher education. Student personnel work is not an end in

itself but is a means of helping students achieve their goals

in institutions of higher education#

A little more than a decade ago, Lloyd-Jones and

Smith, as a result of a survey of literature and practices

concluded, that there are two major cleavage lines in the

43








44

philosophies of those who work in the field of higher educa-

tion. The first of these lines tends to divide: (1) those

who interpret "preparation for life" predominantly in a vo-
cational, professional, utilitarian sense from, (2) those who

interpret "preparation for life" from a broader standpoint

as Including properly one's ability to function successfully

in non-vocational activities and relationships; those who be-

lieve there is an "art of living" which is as important as

the "business of earning a living."1

The present age is an era of materialism, insofar

that people are gauged in terms of wealth or their ability

to earn money* These aspects of wealth have a value in the

society. However, they are not the sole measure of the indi-

vidual's value to himself or to others, A popular list of

the most valuable members of society conceivably would not

include those with top incomes in this country. Few of the

greatest men of history seem to have been animated primarily

by economic reward. The majority of women probably would not

concede that their life consisted most importantly of money-

making activities. A happy marriage or family life is not a

consequence of economic success.

Each student in higher education, in addition to
learning more or less directly how to do something for

Esther Lloyd-Jones, and Margaret R. Smith, A Stu-
dent Personnel Program for Higher Education, p. 7. New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1938.










society that will have economic rewards for the doer,
must also learn to be someone who can contribute to soci-
ety other values than purely economic ones.

Lloyd-Jones and Smith report the second cleavage be-

tween philosophies of higher education separates: (1) those

who tend to think of education primarily in terms of a body

of culture to be transmitted, from (2) those who think of edu-

cation as a process that goes on in those who are to be modio

ifled by, and who are (incidentally) to transmit, that cul*
e3
ture.5

The educator who tends to think of education prima-

rily as a body of culture to be transmitted are usually schol-

ars, intent on increasing the body of scholarship itself

They view education as intellectual development per so. On

the other hand, an increasing number of educators, well-ground-

ed in the social and biological sciences, are as cognizant of

the importance of the emotional, social and physical aspects

of the student as they are of the purely intellectual.

In our opinion, the student personnel program must
take it# stand with those who conceive of the student
not only as an intellect, but also as a total organism
whose learning, *..*are importantly conditioned by the
way he acts and feels, as well as by the words he reads
and hears and by his logical thought.

In the past century educators have argued and put

into practice one or another of these philosophies.

21bid., p. 8.

3Ibid., p. 9.

4Ibid., p. 11.








46

Contemporaries, such as Hutchino, maintain that: "The univer-

sity is intellectual. It is wholly and completely so."5 "In

general education we may wisely leave experience to life and

set about our job of intellectual training."6 "The three

worst words in education are *character, t personality#, and
'factst'"7

From quite a different point of view, men like

Wriston of Brown University proclaim, "College is an experi-

ence both individual and social; it is intellectual, physical,

emotional, spiritual. It is a time for the maturation of per-

sonality,"8

This latter philosophy is becoming more respectable

as a result of social research. This trend is apparent in a

historical review presented by Duffus:

The old pattern of college education broke down as
new subjects forced their way into the curriculum; the
result of this breakdown was a period of educational
anarchy in which it became almost impossible for edu-
cators to agree on the content or objectives of a col-
lege course, and in which educational standards were
threatened because no one could define them; the next
step was an attempt to reduce education to mathematical
units; this attempt failed because it was found that
units, hours, and credits did not and could not measure

5Robert M. Hutchins, The Higher Learning in America,
p. 118* New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Unilversity Press, 1956.
6lbid., p. 70.
7Hutchins, No Friendly Voice, p* 29. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, .IV-U-

8Henry M. Wriston, "The Integrity of the College", School
and Society, XLIII (February, 1936), 192.








47
the student's achievement or present worth; and the our-
rent tendency is toward the evaluation of the individual
student and the use of that evaluation as a basis for
his further education. *..*In almost every college worthy
of the name pome effort is being made to break down mass
education, to furnish individual guidance, to take advan-
tage of the individual students tastes, enthusiasm, and
abilities, to put less emphasis on enforced classroom
exercises and more upon self-propelled activities, and#
in short, to set the student free to educate himself and
test him by his success in doing so*

In practice, these forementloned cleavages in the

philosophy of higher education are generally a matter of de-

gree with the student as well as with the institution. Real-

istically, If student personnel work is to serve the needs of

students, it must find itts role with respect to these opposed

points of view. The needs of the student and the requirements

of the college will in considerable degree determine how the

personnel worker can best serve the student.
Greater knowledge about people through knowledge

gained from the social and biological sciences increases the

effectiveness of personnel work. Colleges and universities

are assuming increased responsibility for the education of

the total individual and personnel workers must be prepared

to do their part in a philosophy which recognises the impor-

tance of the fullest possible development of the student.

The scope of this responsibility has been outlined in the re-

port of the President's Commission on Higher Educations


9R. L# Duffus, Democracy Enters College# pp. 2354-35.
New York: Charles Scribner'Ts Sons, 1936.








48
American colleges and universities must envision a
much larger role for higher education in the national
life, They can no longer consider themselves merely
the instruments for producing an intellectual elite;
they must become the means by which every citizen, youth,
and adult is enabled and encouraged to carry his educa-
tion, formal 18d informal, as far as his native capac-
ities permit,#

The crucial task of higher education today, there-
fore, is to provide a unified general education for
American youth, Colleges must find the right relation-
ship between specialized training on the one hand, aim-
ing at a thousand different careers, and the transmis-
sion of a common cultural heritage toward a common citio
zenship on the other, **oThis purpose calls for a unity
in the program of studies that a uniform system of
courses cannot supply; The unity must come, instead,
from a consistency of aim that will infu e and harmonize
all teaching and all campus activities.1


The Philosophy of Personnel Work

The student personnel movement developed during the

early twentieth century* Stimulated by the scientific find-

ings about individual differences, greater attention was fo-

cused on individualizing mass education. The study of stu-

dents as individuals gave ample evidence that failure in any

aspect of adjustment frequently affected the learner adverse-

ly and, furthermore, that scholastic success in college did

not guarantee success after college* The student personnel

movement constitutes one of the most important efforts of

American educators to individualize education in an era of

10The Report of The President's Commission on High-
Education, Higher Education for American Democracy, Vol. I,
p. 101. New York: Happer and Brothern, 19,
lIbld.o Vol. I, p. 49.








49

mass education. This movement expresses an awareness of the

significance of group life as well as being concerned with

students individually. The optimum development of the indi-

vidual is sought in terms of his well-rounded development -

physically, socially, emotionally, and spiritually, as well

as intellectually*

The Student Personnel Committee of the American
Council on Education have attempted to define the scope and

objectives of student personnel work in the light of research
and clinical findings of modern psychology, sociology, cul-

tural anthropology, and education in the task of aiding stu-

dents to develop fully in the college environment. The fol-

lowing quotation makes clear the all inclusive responsibility

for education envisioned as a goal of higher education:

...Through his college experiences he (the student)
should acquire an appreciation of cultural values, the
ability to adapt to changing social conditions, moti-
vation to seek and to create desirable social changes,
emotional control to direct his activities, moral and
ethical values for himself and for his community, stand-
ards and habits of personal physical well-being, and the
ability to choose a vocation which makes maximum use of
his talents and enables him to make appropriate contri-
butions to his society ***..Such broad gauge development
of the individual should in no sense be considered as a
sufficient and complete goal in itself* It is axiomatic
today that no man lives in a social vacuum. Rather in-
dividual development is conditioned by the kind of soci-
ety in which a person lives, and by the quality of in-
ter-personal and group relationships which operate around
him. He is constantly affecting society; and society is
constantly shaping him. These relationships constitute
the cultural patterns with which higher education must
be concerned in its efforts to stimulate and guide the
development of each of its student. ...Both classroom
and out-of-class activities of the college should be










related to these ends, and students* organizations
should be incorporate in the institutions total
educational program.

Implementation of the Personnel Philosophy

Almost every writer in the field of student person-

nel work has emphasized the acceleration of interest in this

field since 1920. Activity has increased by leaps and bounds#

The number of published articles and books, the reports of

research, and the increase in the number of personnel officers

in colleges and universities are ample evidence of this facts

Clearly, there is a growing active interest in personnel work#

and further evidence of this interest is the need for a wide-

spread knowledge of the elements of a good student personnel

programs

Generally speaking, it may have become too common to

think of all out-of-class activities as a responsibility of

the personnel deans. It would be a mistake to dichotomize

the education of students between that which is learned in the

classroom and that called "extra-curricula." From the point

of view of the personnel philosophy the whole individual is

implicated in every situation and success or failure in one

area of living has an effect on the student which may be car-

ried into other situations.

12"The Student Personnel Point of View," American
Council on Education Studies, (Washington, D.C. T A"er-
ican Council on Education, September, 1949), Vol. XIII, No.
13, pp, 3, 4.










The implementation of the personnel philosophy is
largely determined by the ability of the college staff to

find its Job, to undertake only as much of a program as it
can carry out honestly, to select students who can profit

by its resources, to leave to other agencies everything else.

The parameters within which the personnel program should de-
velop are suggested by Lloyd-Joness

Fundamentally the development of a student person-
nel program in any institution will be determined by;
(1) the objectives and educational program of the in-
stitution; (2) the present and future needs of the
students; (3) the knowledge, skills, judgments, and
vision of the faculty and administrative staff; (4) the
financial resources for personnel services; and (S4 the
physical facilities available in the institution."'

More specifically, it might be asked what are the

present and future needs of the students? Although the ma-

jor responsibility for a student's growth in personal and
social wisdom rests with the student himself, the college

personnel program can condition such growth* The Student

Personnel Committee of the American Council on Education

has listed the conditions which affect the student's growth

in personal and social wisdom

The student achieves orientation to his college en-
vironment. **.The student succeeds in his studies* #..
He finds satisfactory living facilities. **.The stu-
dent achieves a sense of belonging to the college. *...*
The student learns balanced use of his physical capac-
ities* *#*The student progressively understands him-
self* *.**The student understands and uses his emotions

15Lloyd-Jones and Smith, op, cit., p. 36.








52

...The student develops lively and significant interests.
***..The student achieves understanding and control of his
financial resources. ***Th student progresses toward
appropriate vocational goals.* *.*The student develops
individuality and responsibility. **The student discov-
ers ethical and spiritual meaning in life. **.The stu-
dent learns to live with others. ...The student pro-
gresses toward satisfying and socially acceptable sexual
adjustments. **..The student prepares for satisfying,
constructive postcollege activity*

The implementation of the personnel point of view

rests upon these forementioned conditions. Colleges and uni-

versities must decide on the staff and program needed in the

light of the needs of the students and the resources of the

institution.

Empathy and Personnel Work

The personnel program would assume that every stu-

dent takes part in the campus social community.

Campus culture, like the parent cultures from which
it springs, develops and grows, incorporating new pat-
terns and repeating and altering the old. **.Education
in a social context implies a realistic appraisal of the
college as one among many methods of cultural induction
and training. It also implies a systematic use of the
social structure and the group dynamics inherent in the16
college culture for the optimum development of students.10

Most important, however, the personnel worker must

consider the dynamics of the social process which takes place

on the campus. The student is arbitrarily assigned a role by

14"Student Personnel Point of View," op. cit., pp.
6-11.
15Robert L. Sutherland and others, Students and Staff
in a Social Context, pp* 1, 2. American Council on Education
Studies, Washington, D. C.: The American Council on Education,
Vol. XVII, No. 18, 1953.










the other students which is either satisfactory or unsatis-

factory to him. If it is unsatisfactory it may limit his

academic proficiency* If satisfactory, it may spur him on

to greater effectiveness in all phases of his life.

The roles of an individual in his social group are
important to his development as a person because they
represent the valuation of him by others. In a sense,
a society is like the director of a play who assesses
the applicants for roles and then metes out assignments.
...These roles constitute the group's appraisal of the
individual as he functions in the campus society.
Whether these are right or wrong evaluations of him as
a person, whether they meet with his approval or dis-
approval is irrelevant at the moment; the fact is that
in terms of its standards and values the campus society
grants status, a place in the hierarchy, to each mem-
ber of the groups.6

The role which each student has, is in part, the

result of the empathic process. The student is what the

others see him as. However, this role may be the result of

false values and false evaluations. The personnel philosophy

suggests that ideals and values, with wider application than

the campus culture, should be instilled in students.

The campus society should provide democratic, adult
roles. As we have seen, the roles that an individual
plays in campus life have tremendous importance in his
self-evaluation and hence in his development toward
emotional maturity and standards of adult behavior. Con-
sequently, to the extent that they are able, students
should be given roles to play in a campus life which are
consonant with the roles they will be expected to play
as citizens 17

16
Paul J. Brouwer, Student Personnel Services in
General Education, pp. 302, 505. Washington, D.C.: American
Council on Education, 1949.
17Ibid., pp. 507, 308.








54

The personnel program then, should be concerned with

the potentiality of the empathic process for no citizen can

be worthy of the name unless he can understand and evaluate

his fellow-men. No matter in what ivory tower of academic

isolation a learned scientist or artist may sit, no man ex-

ists in a social vacuum. On the other hand, most college

students will eventually become community members and work

where they must deal with people, their ability to understand
and be understood by these people is absolutely necessary.

The failure of the universities to develop social skill is

criticized by Mayo:

The social skills students develop at universities,
in athletics or clubs or other activities, are not
closely related to their studies. The two are more of-
ten considered as in opposition; the one to be achieved
at the expense of the other. Consequently, the develop-
ment of a students social skills may be restricted to
association with fellow students in activities at least
by Implication frowned upon by many university author-
ities. This social restriction may prevent the develop-
ment of whole-hearted participation with others in the
general educational aims of the institution. Associa-
tion of student and student without full participation
in the broad purposes of the university develops a low*
er order of social skill than that which the apprentice
learns at his trade. ...This artificial and narrow ex-
perience has limited use in later life, for maturity
demands a highly deeloped, and continuously develop-
ing, social skill.a

The empathic mechanism is basic to these social

skills* If the person understands others he is empathic and

may see ways to make himself better liked and appreciated

18Mayo, op. cit., pp. 21, 22.










by them. If he sees their strength, he can encourage it*

He knows where to help his fellow students and hence his role

becomes favorable from the point of view of his colleagues.

If a student is to be successful in all the various

phases of his campus life and assume a satisfactory role in

society, he must also be successful in his academic work#

For the student this involves understanding of the subject

matter as well as understanding of the teachers The teacher

is the interpreter of the subject matter learned in the class-

room and indirectly most of that learned outside the class-

room, the two can scarcely be separated. The subject must

then understand his teacher# Frequently, students fail to

understand the personality of the teacher, and as a conse-

quence, fail to understand what phases of the subject matter
are important to the teacher and hence lose the important

points in the course, This mechanism works both ways* The

teacher who fails to understand the way the minds of his stu-

dents perceive, is probably a very poor teacher, This is es-

pecially true in the case of mediocre students who need spe-

cial help but who may, with an empathic teacher, learn the

material as well as the brighter students.

Empathy, then, it would appear is a mechanism which

helps the main aims and purposes of a personnel program in

bringing about the optimum development of the individual.

The ability to empathize is a valuable aid in the








66

hand of .clinician or teacher as well as student or citizen.
If it is the aim of personnel work to produce a happy# sue"

cessful student, the whole interaction process of student

and student, teacher and student, and the student, staff,

teacher, and outsider interaction can be made more success,

ful by furthering the study of the empathic process. Ina.-

much as this social interaction is the prime interest of per-

sonnel workers, empathy, as the basic mechanism in this inter-

action should be a field for greater interest and study by

personnel workers,

A helpful analogy may be made between the search for

the cause of disease in thefield of medicine and the search

for the cause of social unhappiness, a goal of personnel work-

ers. Medicine has been concerned with overall, generalized,

unfocused prevention more fresh air, more sunshine# more

oranges, or with the. treatment of the individual case# such

as direct aches or pains. This is also true in personnel

work. Personnel programs provide guided experience in group

living, social and physical recreation, and opportunity for

individual development,-- overall prevention of social unhap-

piness. Clinical services help in the solution of individual

problems. This work is often excellent and does a great deal

of good. However# just as the research biologists end bacte-

riologists look for the basic causes of disease so the re-

searcher in personnel work must find cause in the basic mech-

anisms of social interaction. Empathy, as one of these basic








57

mechanisms, may be related to the learning and development

of the college student.

Summary

Studies then, which consider factors in the success

of the individual student are those which contribute most to

personnel work. The individual is a social as well as an in-

tellectual being, social skills should be developed in the

student. Empathy is perhaps more basic than a social skill.

Its intellectual use as well as its social use are not yet

determined. Nonetheless it appears that few people either

learn or do their daily work without trying in some way,
large or small, to understand their fellow-man, who is el-

ther the object or interpreter of something. Empathy appears

to be the ability which aids this understanding. Therefore,

empathic ability as a factor to aid the understanding which

brings about personal success is of interest to personnel

workers*
















CHAPTER V


EMPATHY AND SCHOLASTIC SUCCESS

According to social philosophy, empathy is describ-

ed as a basic mechanism in social adjustment. Furthermore#

it has been hypothesized that learning itself is facilitated
j
by the empathic process. The successful adjustment of col-

lege students, in addition to other factors, involves satis-

factory academic achievement. Therefore, the study proposes

to determine whether empathy is a factor in scholastic sue-

cess.


The Rationale of the Study

Using the definition of empathy proposed by Dymond,

"the imaginative transposing of oneself into the thinking,

feeling, and acting of another and so structuring the world

as he does," the study will measure the ability of a student

to predict the feelings and attitudes of another. A numeri-

cal index of this ability will be compared with the subject's

grade point standing, as a measure of scholastic success. In

view of the highly significant relationship between intelli-

gence and grade point standing, found by other Investigators,

1Super, op, cit., p. 118.








59

the independence of empathy as a factor in scholastic success

will be determined by holding intelligence constant.

If a significant relationship is found between em-

pathy and scholastic success, when intelligence is maintained

constant, it may be concluded that the null hypothesis is

disproved and can be rejected.


The Test of Empathy2

The test consists of forty-two statements dealing

with a persons attitudes and feelings towards various com-

mon situations. The following are a few examples of state-

ments from the tests

a. I am wary about the trustworthiness of persons

whom I do not know well.

b. I feel embarrassed even when I make trivial

errors*

c. When I do something selfish, I worry about it

afterwards.

The respondents are offered four alternatives to

express their attitudes and feelings 1, almost always; 2,

often; 3, seldom; and 4, almost never* The test requires

at least two associates, each person responds to the test

items and then each predicts the responses of his associate.

This instrument selected to measure empathic ability

2See Appendix A and B*








60

uses a technique suggested by Dymond, that of measuring the
disparity between a subject's predictions of the responses
of an associate and the responses which an associate actually
makes.5 The total deviation is assumed to be a measure of
empathic ability the smaller the deviation, the better

the empathy score. A refined empathy score will be obtained
by using this test by Bender and Hastorf4 and their method of
correcting for the effects of projection. In essence, a re-

fined empathy score is derived by comparing the raw empathy
score (the sum of the deviations of a subject's predictions

from the responses of his associate) with the projection
score (the sum of the deviations of the subject's predictions
from his own responses), For example if a raw empathy devi-

ation score was thirty-nine, and the projection deviation

score was thirty-six, the subjects predictions then deviated

less from his own responses than from the responses of his
associate. By subtracting the raw empathy score from the pro-

jection score, the subject would have a refined empathy score
of minus three. If, on the other hand, the raw empathy devi-

ation was less than the projection deviation, the subject

would have a positive refined empathy score*

3Rosalind P. Dymond, "A Scale for the Measurement of
Empathic Ability," Journal of Consulting Psychology, XIII
(April, 1949), 1274-3,
4I. E. Bender, and A. H. Hastorf, "On Measuring Gen-
erlized Empathic Ability," Journal of Abnormal and Social
Psychology, XLVIII (October, 1953),v 63-06.










In an experiment to determine the consistency of

scores derived from the use of this teat, Bender and Hastorf5

concluded the refined empathy measure is consistent enough

to be used as an operational measure of empathic ability.

Scoring of the Test

The tests were hand-scored by the experimenter# An

analysis sheet was used to tally and compute the empathy

score of each subject. The number of each question was writ*-

ten in sequence from top to bottom on the left side of the

sheet. Four vertical columns across the top of the sheet

were headed response, prediction# raw empathy deviation score,

and projection deviation score. In scoring, the coded response

1, 2, 3, or 4 which had been circled by the subject was placed
opposite the appropriate question number in the column marked,

response. The coded prediction 1, 2, 3, or 4 which had been

circled by the subject was placed opposite the appropriate

question in the column marked, prediction. The raw empathy
deviation score for each question was computed by comparing

the subject's prediction, with his associates response. For
example, if the response circled by the associate was three

and the prediction by the subject was two, the raw empathy

deviation would be one. This deviation score was then enter-

ed in the column headed raw empathy deviation. The fourth

5Ibid., p. 505.








62
column entry, projection deviation score was determined by

comparing the subjects response with his own prediction.

Thus, if his response to the question was two and his pre-

diction of his associates response was four, the projection

deviation score would be two. A refined empathy score was

derived by subtracting the sum of the raw empathy deviation

scores from the sum of the projection deviation scores.

Thus, if the raw empathy score is larger than the projection

score, the subject has predicted closer to his own responses

than those of his associate and the refined empathy score

will have a negative value, On the other hand, if the pro-

jection score is larger than the raw empathy score, this means

the subject's predictions are closer to the response of his
associate than his own and the refined empathy score will have

a positive value.


The Selection of Subjects

and Administration

of the Test

The subjects selected for the study were fifty-five
male college freshmen who had entered the University of Flor-

ida in September, 1953. All of the subjects were tested dur-

ing the month of March, 1954 and had completed one semester

of the freshman year.

The experimenter visited the residence hall counselor

and obtained a letter of introduction to the student










counselors in charge of sections of the freshmen residence
halls. Prom thirteen sections, six were selected at random

to take part in the experiment. The student counselors

in these sections were contacted individually and arrange-

ments made to give the test of empathy at the next hall meet-

ing of the residents.
At this meeting, the student counselor introduced

the experimenter to his students. The cooperation of the
group was stimulated by explaining the pioneering aspects of

this social research which would provide greater knowledge
about the mechanism of understanding other people.

The test# which required approximately twenty minutes
for administrations was then given to the students. The sub-
jects were instructed to imagine themselves as another person

in the group and to answer the questions as this person would
answer them. The following instructions were givens

Is Write your name on the first line.

2. Write the name of your associate on the second

line -. the person whose response you will predict.

3. Please read through these instructions with me
-- we are asking that you respond to this test in a special

way* You are to predict how your associate would answer

these statements. It is imperative that you do not answer

these statements with your opinion of the person# but rather

as think he would answer them himself. Please use the









64

following scale. OCircle the number you think he would circle:
(1) Almost always (2) often (3) seldom (4) almost never.

When the subjects had finished this section of the

test, an identical test was given them with the instruction#

"Please answer these same questions by circling the number

that indicates your feeling or opinion about each of these

situations."

Sources of the Data
Approximately two-hundred students took the test of

empathy and returned one-hundred and eighty satisfactorily

completed tests. Thirty-seven of this number were upper class-

men or freshmen beginning their first semester. The academic

records of the remaining one-hundred and forty-three subjects

were inspected at the office of the university registrar. In

an attempt to select a learning situation most nearly uniform,

the general education courses of the University College were

selected because of their use of standard study materials ani

examinations* Fifty-five students who had had a common core

of three general education courses were selected as subjects

for the study*

The following description of these courses is quot-

ed from the University of Florida Catalog:

C-I, American Institutions Designed to develop
and stimulate the ability to interpret the interrelated
problems confronting American institutions, The une-
qual rates of change in technology, in economic life,
in government, in family life, in education, and in










religion are analyzed and interpreted to show the need
for a more effective coordination of the factors of our
evolving social organization of today# Careful sozrutiny
is made of the changing functions of our institutions
as joint interdependent activities so that a conolous-
ness of the significant relationships between the indi-
vidual and social institutions may be developed, from
which conclousness a greater degree of social adjustment
may be achieved.
C-3, Reading, Speaking, and Writing Freshman
English A comprehensive English course designed to
enlarge the student#* store of ideas and meanings and
to increase his efficiency in the communication arts -
reading, writing, speaking, and listening. The course
provides regular practice in oral and silent reading,
n thought analysis, in improving the form and style
of written and oral expression, in extending the vocab-
ulary, and in making effective use of the body and voice
in speaking. Students are encouraged to read widely as
a means of broadening their interests and increasing
their ability to communicate effectively.

C-41, Practical Logic -- The principal aims are (1)
to develop ability to think with greater accuracy and
thoroughness and (2) to develop ability to evaluate the
thinking of others, The material used applies to actual
living and working conditions. The case method is used 6
to insure practice, and numerous exercises are assigned.

The A.C.E. (I) scores of the fifty-five subjects

were obtained from the office of Student Personnel Records.

All of the subjects had taken the 1955 Revision of the AmeriO

can Council on Education Psychological Examination in Septem-

ber, 1953.




6The University Record of the University of Florida,
19585 54, pp. 275, 276. University of Florida Bulletin,
Vol. XLVIII, No. 4. Galnesville, Florida: University of
Florida, April, 1953.










Analysis and Interpretation of the Data

The data used in the study are presented in Table I*

Opposite the numbered subjects on the left side of the table
and in the column marked I are the scores from the A.C.E. (L

or verbal section) test. In the next column, II, are the

scores earned by the subjects on the Empathy Test. The final

column, III# are the grade point averages achieved by the sub-

jects, in three common courses, during the first semester.

Inasmuch as the study attempts to relate empathy to

.scholastic success, Table 2 is presented with scores on the

Empathy Test in descending rank order. Inspection of this

table reveals that those subjects with scores in the upper

half of the range of empathy scores have, in general, higher

grade point averages than those in the lower half of the

range. In Table 5, the subjects have been placed in rank

order by grade point averages, Once again may be noted, the

preponderance of high or positive Empathy Test scores asso-

ciated with high grade averages.

In Table 4* the A.C.Eo (L) scores have been placed

in descending order* Preliminary inspection of this table

does not appear to reveal a noticeable relationship between

the Empathy Test scores and AoC.E. (L) scores. Tentatively#

it may be concluded that the high empathy scores are related

to high grade point average or scholastic success. On the

other hand, from an inspection of Table 4, it would appear










TABLE 1

A.C.E. (L) SCORES, EMPATHY TEST SCORES, AND GRADE
POINT AVERAGES OF FIFTY-FIVE COLLEGE FRESHMEN

Subject Ia II 1110 Subject Ia II III0


65
60
74
69
82
42
76
81
71
68
66
80
70
95
39
58
67
54
41
72
113
52
69
82
48
46
68


-5
-8
8
-10
4
6
4
-16
-15
1*5
5
-32
-6
5
6
-15



8
23
-6
-5
1
-5
-17
6
'-3
-2
-3


1*73
1.73
1,75
3.27
1.00
3.64
2.36
2.00
2.00
2.00
1.09
2*64
1.64
2.00
3.*64
0.36
1.36
2.27
1.73
1.00
1,64
5.00
0v36
1.00
4.00
0.73
2.00
2.91


51
69
61
48
45
57
59
56
60
63
59
65
73
82
45
100
51
68
65
45
46
41
70
46
82
44
49
66


-12
12
10
-2
-15
0
-24
6
-6
-16
-18
-3
-4
-6
1
8
2
3
10
5
-5
-2
-2
5
15
-15
-25
-7


1.00
2.27
1.91
1.64
0.91
0.55
1.73
1.*36
1.00
1.27
1.36
1.00
0.73
2.00
0.64
4.00
0.27
2.75
2.64
2.55
0.73
2.00
2.64
2.00
2.55
2.00
2.00
2.00


aRaw score (L or verbal section)
Psychological Examination

b'Empathy Teat Score


American Council


eGrade Point Average










TABLE 2

SUBJECT IN RANK ORDER BY EMPATHY SCORE


Subject I& lib IIIc Subject Ia I1b III0


54
82
69
61
65
74
100
86
82
67
39
42
66
76
82
95
45
46
68
51
43
113
57
46
48
70
41


1,73
2.55
2,27
1.91
2,64
3.27
4.00
1.36
4,00
2.27
0,36
2.36
2.64
2.00
3.64
3.64
2.55
2.00
2.73
0.27
0.64
3.00
0.55
2.00
1.64
2.64
2.00


-3
-3
-3
-3
-4
-5
-5
-5
-8
-6
-6
-6
-6
-7
-8
-10
-12
-13
-13
-15
-15
-16
-16
-17
-18
-24
-25
-32


0*73
2.91
1.00
0,73
0.473
1.75
1.,73
1.64
0.356
2.00
1.00
1.00
2,00
2.00
1.73
1,00
1.00
0.91
1.36
2.00
2.00
1.27
2.00
1.00
1.36
1.73
2.00
1.64


aRaw score (L or verbal section)
on Education Psychological Examination

bEmpathy Test Score


American Council


CGrade Point Average










TABLE 3

SUBJECTS IN RANK ORDER BY GRADE POINT AVERAGE


Subject 10 IIIb 11 Subjeoct I& IIb III0


82
100
95
82
74
113
68
68
70
66
65
82
45
42
69
67
82
76
71
70
66
51
49
46
46
44
41


6
8
3
4
8


3
-2
5
10
15
3
6
18
12
6
08

4
*15
-6
,,7
-16
-25
3
-2
-15
-2


4.00
4.00
3.64
3.64
3.27
3.00
2.91
2.73
2.64
2.64
2.64
2.56
2*55
2.55
2.36
2.27
2.27
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2,00
2.00


10
.5
-8
-24
23
-5
-2
-32
-18
-13
18
6
-16
-8
-10
-17
-3
-6
-12
-6
-*12
-.13
-4
-3

1
0
-5
6
8


1.91
1.73
1.73

1.73
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.36
1.36
1.36
1.27
1.09
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.91
0.73
0.73
0.73
0.64
0 *55
0.56
0.36

0.27


aRaw score (L or verbal section) American Council
on Education Psoychological Examination

bEmpathy Test Score


Grade Point Average










TABLE 4

SUBJECTS IN RANK ORDER BY A. C. E6 (L) SCORE


Subjects I iIb IIIc0 Subjects I1 Ib III0


113
100
95
82
82
82
e2
80
76
74
73
72
71
70
70
69
69
69
68
68
68
67
66
66
65
65
63


1
8
3
15
6
4
-8
-32
4
8
-4
-6
0.15
-6
-2
is
12
-10
-17
-5
-3
3
6
-7
5
10
-5
-3


3.00
4.00
3,64
2055
4.00
3.64
2.00
1.64
2.00
3,27
0,73
1.64
2.00
2.00
2.64
2.27
1.00
1,00
1,09
2,*91
2.73
2,27
2,00
2.64
2.64
1,73
1.00


-16
10
-6
-8
-24
-18
tol
-*13
0
6
23
-5
-16
-.12
2
-26
-3
*2
3
M2
*a

-15
-13
1
6
-2
-6
6


1.27
1.91
1.00
1.73
1,73

1.36
0.65
1.36
1.73
0.36
2.00
1.00
0.27
2.00
0.73
1.64
2.00
2.00
0,73
2.55
2.00
0.91
0464
2.36
2,00
1,00
0936


aRaw score (L or


verbal section) American Council


on Education Psychological Examination
bEmpathy Test Score


CGrade Point Average








71
that the A.C.E. (L) scores and empathy scores may not corre-

late significantly*

It would appear a logical step to make a statistical
test of the relationship between the variables. Accordingly,

the data were analyzed to determine their linear correlation.

Initially, the relationship between empathy and in-

telligence was tested. In Table 5, Calculation of the Coef-

ficient of Correlation between Empathy Test Scores and A*Co.E

(L) Scores, the data yielded a linear correlation of 16.

Using the tables in Garrett,7 "Correlation Coefficients at

the 5 per cent and 1 per cent Levels of Significance," the

significance of the correlation coefficients at the 5 per

cent and 1 per cent levels are, by linear interpolation#

respectively .266 and ,5456 It is clear that the obtained

i of 016, since it is smaller than .266 is not significant

at the 5 per cent level and therefore, that empathy and in-

telligence are not statistically related.

In Table 8, Calculation of the Coefficient of Cor-
relation between Empathy Test Scores and Grade Point Averages,

a linear correlation of .37 was obtained. In Garrett,8 the
significance of the correlation coefficients at the 6 per

cent and 1 per cent levels were respectively, ,266 and .345.

Henry E. Garrett, Statistics in Psychology and
Education, p. 299. New York: Longmans, Oreen and Company,
19498


8IbId., p, 299.










TABLE 8

CALCULATION OF THM COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION BETWEEN
EMPATHY TEST SCORES AND A.C.E. (L) SCORES

Empathy Toeat Scores ACOE. (L) Soorea

Class-Intervals Frequenoy Class-Intervalm Frequency
20 to 23 1 109 to 113 1
16to19 0 104 to 108 0
12 to 15 2 99 to 103 1
8 to 11 4 94 to 98 1
4 to 7 8 89 to 93 0
0 to 3 8 84 to 88 0
.4 to -7' 9 79 to 83 6
-8 to -5 10 74 to 78 2
-12 to *9 a 69 to 73 8
-16 to -*13 68 64 to 68 8
-20 to -17 2 69 to 63 7
-24 to -21 1 54 to 58 4
-28 to -25 1 49 to 63 5
-52 to -29 1 44 to 48 7
39 to 43 6
M _-y%'- = S,


Obtained values


3Y = -o*71

Cx -,16
y&


-IX 0 Cx
x ____r


y = 3.10

x = 2.55


?XIYI = 73


73" (- )(-.


= .16


3.10 x 2.56


&y ex










TABLE 8

CALCULATION OF TIHE COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION BETWEEN
EMPATHY TEST SCORES AND GRADE POINT AVERAGES


Empathy Test Soores Grade Point Averages

Class-Intervala Frequency Class-Intervals Frequency

20 to 23 1 53.76 to 4.00 2
16 to 19 0 3551 to S375 2
12 to 15 2 3.26 to 3.50 1
8 to 11 4 3.01 to 3.25 0
4 to 7 8 2,76 to 3.00 2
0 to 3 8 2.51 to 2,75 6
-4 to -1 9 2.26 to 2.50 3
-8 to -5 10 2.01 to 2.25 0
-12 to -9 2 1,76 to 2.00 12
-16 to -13 6 1.51 to 1.78 7
.20 to -17 2 1.26 to 1.50 4
-24 to -21 1 1.01 to 1,25 I
-28 to -25 1 0.76 to 1.00 7
-32 to -29 1 0.51 to 0.78 5
0.26 to 0.50 3
=:Bx 3,,.


Obtained values t

Cy
Cy = "+'aS


Cx -1358

rX'Y' =


X'Y, c- C x
ExYo C
Iy


dyz


2.54

3.65


198


198 -


2.54 x 3.65


(-.15) (-1.36)


- .37


c Oax










It may be stated then that the obtained r of .*37, since it

in larger than .345, is significant at the 1 per cent level

of significance. Therefore, it may be concluded that a

significant and positive relationship does exist between

empathy and scholastic success.

The relationship between intelligence and grade

point average, Table 7, gave the expected highly signifi-

cant and positive correlation of .62. Although empathy and

intelligence have been shown to be related to scholastic suc-

cess, a question now arises concerning the influence of em-

pathy as an independent factor, from intelligence, in scholas-

tic success*
In order to test the relationship of empathy to scho-

lastic success, when intelligence is maintained constant, the

method of multiple and partial correlation was selected. Ini-

tially, the Mean (M) and Standard Deviation (S.D.) of the

three variables, were computed. See Table 8, Calculation of

the Mean and S.D. of Empathy Scores; Table 9, Calculation of

the Mean and SD. of Grade Point Averages; and Table 10, Cal-

culation of the Mean and S.D. of A*C*E. (L) Scores*

In Table 11 A, having found the intercorrelations of

the three variables, the net correlation may then be calcu-

lated between (1) grade point average and (2) intelligence

with the influence of (3) empathy partialled out or held con-

stant. This net or partial coefficient of correlation, is

*61. This means that if all of the students had the same










TABLE 7

CALCULATION OF THE COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION BETWEEN
A, C. B. (L) SCORES AND GRADE POINT AVERAGES


ACEB, (L) Scores


Grade Point Averages


Class-Intervals Frequency


109
104
99
94
89
84
79
74
69
64
59
54
49
44
39


to 113
to 108
to 103
to 98
to 93
to 88
to 83
to 78
to 73
to 68
to 63
to 58
to 53
to 48
to 45


1
0
1

0
0
5
2
8
8
7
4
5
7
6


Clams-Intervals


3,76 to
3,51 to
3.26 to
3.01 to
2.76 to
2.51 to
2.26 to
2.01 to
1.76 to
1.51 to
1.26 to
1.01 to
0.76 to
0.51 to
0.26 to


4.00
3.75
3.50
3.25
5.00
2.75
2.50
2.25
2.00
1,75
1.50
1.25
1,00
0.75
0.50


Frequency


2
2
1
0
2
6
5
0
12
7
4
1
7
5


Obtained values:


C .38

C = *71


ay = 3.64

-y 3*.10
xA


IX'Y0 = 387


387
g"r


iXoY' -C C
r T y x
Oy Y'x


- .38 x .71


-- 35.64 x 3.10


= .62









TABLE 8
CALCULATION OP THE MEAN AID S.D. OF EMPATHY SCORES

Class-Intervals
Scores Mid-Point f X' fX fX2

20 to 23 21.5 1 6 6 36
16 to 19 17.5 0 5 0 0
12 to 15 13.5 2 4 8 32
8 to 11 9.5 4 3 12 36
4 to 7 5.5 8 2 16
0 to 3 1.5 8 1 8 8
*4 to -1 -2.5 9 0 0
-8 to -5 -6.5 10 -1 -10 10
-12 to -9 -10.5 2 -2 -4 8
-16 to -13 -14.5 6 -3 -18 54
-20 to -17 -18.5 2 -4 -8 32
-24 to -21 -21.5 1 -5 -5 25
-28 to -25 -26.5 1 -6 -6 56
-32 to -29 -50,5 1 -7 -7 49
Nz'5T moo~ "558


AM -2.50
ci .58
M -.508


OrJ = X"c2 x i =


f -8 *145
0 = 5--'"


1 i4

ci = 4 x -*.145 -.58

58 (-.145)2 x 4 = 10.2










TABLE 9


CALCULATION OF THE
OF GRADE POINT


MFAN AND S.D,
AVERAGES


Class-Intervals
Scores Mid-Point f X ftX fDX

$3.76 to 4.00 5.885 2 8 16 128
3.51 to 5.75 5.635 2 7 14 98
3.26 to 3.50 3.385 1 6 6 8
3.01 to 3.25 3.155 0 8 0 0
2.76 to 3.00 2.885 2 4 8 32
2.51 to 2.76 2.655 6 3 18 54
2,26 to 2.50 2.505 35 2 6 12
2.01 to 2.25 2.135 0 1 -8 0
1.76 to 2.00 1.885 12 0 0 0
1.51 to 1.*75 1.635 7 .01 #7 7
1.26 to 1.50 1.3505 4 -2 -8 16
1.01 to 1.25 1.15 1 -5 -3 9
0,76 to 1.00 0.805 7 .4 -28 112
0.51 to 0.75 0.635 5 45 -25 125
0.26 to 0.51 03,585 5 -6 -18 108
N ,.I "W"1 7'7


AM = 1.885
cl -0.095
M = 1. 7m


C ofX0

i = .250


- -21 -.381
177T


ci = .250 x -.381 =.-,095


x i,/.5 (-.381) x .250 = 0.91


: 2 j..- 2










TABLE 10

CALCULATION OF THE MEAN AND S.D.
OF A.C*E. (L) SCORES


Class-Interval 2
Scores Mid-Point f X X fX2

109 to 113 111 1 9 9 81
104 to 108 106 0 8 0 0
99 to 105 101 1 7 7 49
94 to 98 96 1 6 6 36
89 to 93 91 0 5 0 0
84 to 88 86 0 4 0 0
79 to 83 81 5 8 18 46
74 to 78 76 2 2 4 8
69 to 73 71 8 1 8 8
64 to 69 66 8 0 0
59 to 635 61 7 -1 -7 7
54 to 58 56 4 -2 -8 16
49 to 55 51 6 -3 -15 45
44 to 48 46 7 -4 -28 112
39 to 45 41 6 -5 -30 150
Nl 85 i 37


- --


Al = 66.00
ci = -3.55
M = 6S245


- -39 -709
- g


i = 5


ci =5 x .,,709 = -3.55

-'fX2 .02 X = 557- (-,709)2 x 5 15.50
N 119










TABLE 11
CALCULATION OP PARTIAL COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION


1 (L) S(3)ore Empathy Tet Soore
Grade Point Average A.c.E. (L Scores Empathy Test Scores


M = 1.79
='1 0.91

r12 = 62


M2 = 62.45
(2 =15.50


r13


= .37


M a -3.,08

C = 10.O20


r23


.16


A
Partial Correlation, Grade Point Average and A.C.E. (L)
Scores, Empathy Test Scores Maintained Constant


r12 r3r23
Y18 r'13 4 '23


#62 *37 x .16


. 61


/1 (.37) I/ (.16)2


B
Partial Correlation, Grade Point Average and Empathy
Test Scores, A*C.F. (L) Scores Maintained Constant


r13 5 r 12*23


r12


.37 .62 x .16


1I1 (.62)1 |h. (.16)2


C
Partial Correlation, A.C.E. (L) Scores and Empathy Test
Scores, Grade Point Average Maintained Constant


.16 .62 # .37
S=4-.10
1 (.62)2 (37)2


= .35


r23 r,2rl3


03-T~


r1- 2


r23 3










amount of empathy, the coefficient of correlation between

grade point average and intelligence would have been .61 in-
stead of .62. In other words, if all the students have the
same empathic ability# intelligence and grades still have
about the same correlation. This would indicate that empathy

does not complement intelligence.

From Garrett,9 "Coefficients of Correlation Signifi-
cant at the S per cent Level and at the 1 per cent Level for

Varying Degrees of Freedom," it is found by Interpolation
that entering the table with N m degrees of freedom, in

which m equals the number of variables, the levels of signi-
ficance at the 5 per cent and 1 per cent levels are respec-

tively, .269 and .548. It may therefore be concluded that

the partial coefficient *61 between intelligence and grades,
is significant at the 1 per cent level.

The partial coefficient of correlation between (1)
grade point average and (5) empathy with (2) intelligence
partialled out, or its influence held constant, Table 11 B,

gave a partial coefficient of correlation of *35 as against

an obtained coefficient (r13) of *37. This means if all the

students had the same intelligence, the correlation of em-
pathic ability and grades would still show a significant cor-

relation. This would indicate substantially that empathic
ability is related to scholastic success and the ability

9Ibld_. pp. 426-28.










measured is different than intelligence.

The last partial coefficient of correlation, Table
11 C, gave a net correlation between (2) intelligence and

(5) empathy when the influence of (1) grade point average is

held constant, of -*10. This correlation is not significant.

Theoretically, if the students all received the same grades,

the correlation of intelligence and empathy would be lower

than the obtained correlation, (.16). This would indicate

clearly that intelligence and empathy, as measured in the

study, are different abilities.

In Table 12, a multiple coefficient of correlation

has been calculated from beta coefficients. This coefficient

of multiple determination (R2) means that 45.57 per cent of

the variance in freshman grades is accounted for by whatever

is measured by the A.C.E. (L) test and Empathy Test taken

together, eliminating from double consideration things that
they have in common*

Since the coefficients of multiple determination,

or R2, is composed of two components .5542000 and ,101470, and

since each component pertains only to one of the independent

variables, it is possible to show the influence of each varlo

able to the total predicted variance of grades. This being

the case, the first term, 1354200, indicates the contribution

to scholastic success of intelligence, and the second term,

*101470, indicates the contribution of empathy. Rounded in
terms of percentages, these are 35o4 and 10.I respectively*










It may now be stated that, ability in the A.C.,E (L) test

with what it has in common with empathy held constant, contri-
butes about 35 pep cent to scholastic success and that em-
pathy, apart from that portion related to A.C.E. (L) test

ability, contributes about 10 per cent.

TABLE 12

CALCULATION OF MULTIPLE COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION
OF A.C.E. (L) SCORE AND EMPATHY
TEST SCORE, WITH GRADE
POINT AVERAGE


r12 13r23 *62 *37 x 916
IZ.3 = ---------------. = ..75
1 =Zg I (,16)2


2IS 123 037 .82 x .167
_.=---------...... --------- .278
I -91 (.16)2
22

1. 23 r2.3 + +_-B/3.,rl,

S(.575) (.616) + (.*278) (.365)

R2 = 354200 + .101470

R2 = 4557

H = .68

It may now be stated that, ability in the A.CE. (L)
test with what it has in common with empathy held constant,
contributes about 35 per cent to scholastic success and that








85

empathy, apart from that portion related to A.C.E. (IL) teat

ability, contributes about 10 per cent.

In conclusion, it might then be stated, that empathy

appears to be an ability unrelated to intelligence, which aids

in achieving scholastic success. The students who have this

ability may, to some extent, use it as a substitute for in-

telligence or to facilitate the operation of Intelligence.

It appears definitely, in most oases, to affect the grade

point standing.

Summary

The data of the study have shown that empathy, as

well as intelligence is significantly related to scholastic

success. Furthermore, when intelligence is partialled out

or held constant, empathy is clearly shown to be a different

ability. Therefore, it may be concluded, that the null hy-

pothesis, of the study, may be rejected (at the 1 per cent

level of confidence)* A more precise statement of the hy-

pothesis would be that empathy and intelligence, as meas-

ured in this study, are different abilities and each contrib-

utes significantly to scholastic success.
















CHAPTER VI


SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS


Summary

Philosophical summary -- In this study, empathy has
*
been shown to be a basic mechanism in social interaction.

Empathy, one might say, is the ability to understand the minds

and feelings of other people. The study suggests that empathy

is a social-focused ability of the personality and its use-

fulness has been recognized as far back as the beginning of

human history* As civilization becomes more complex, the

areas of communication being of world wide expansion, the

necessity to understand people in far flung corners of the

globe is more necessary than ever before,/ The cultivation
/
of this ability to empathize enables the diplomat, business-

man# or newswriter to see the world more clearly from the oth-

er persons point of view., Empathy, then, is vital in the ed-

ucative as well as the socialization process.

Empathy may be described as a psychological mechanism,

of the imaginative type# that is closely allied with such

psychological concepts as sympathy, insight, identification,

and projection. It appears as a socialization factor which

84








85
brings about the reaction of the personality to other beings.

S The advantages of being a "good" empathiser or of

using this ability are potentially beneficial to the individ-

ual and society. Not only is it a mechanism of social adjust-

ment but it enables one to gain self-confidence* assume lead-

ership and allay psychological anxieties and tensions.* Under-

standing of others can reduce conflict and improve cooperation

in a social group. The results of the satisfactory inter-

action of people is one of the most beneficial phases of.human

relationships. To understand and be mutually consented in

opinion can bring about benefits to the individual and his

society#

Empathy may also be seen as operative in the educa-

tive process. The data of this experiment have shown that

empathy contributes to scholastic success and for this reason,

its workability should be cultivated and aided by teachers,

personnel workers, and all others whose aim is the education

of college students. In addition, it should be emphasized

in all phases of education for its broader social potential-

ities to individuals and society, as well as its importance

to academic achievement.

From this study, it might also be concluded that

empathy is a democratic ability. Empathy, similar to other

abilities, may be developed as a distinct attribute of the

individual. It is not the same ability as intelligence and








86

therefore in many cases it may be the means by which a rela-

tively intellectually dull but creative and understanding

student, can achieve satisfactory academic success in col-

lege.

If it is the aim of this country to educate masses

of students who are heterogenous and who possess widely dif-

ferent abilities, the development of the workability of em-

pathy may increase the number who will be successful in col*

legse* Drop-outs might be decreased. A program wlich brings

to consciousness the practice of empathic ability might bring

about greater mutual understanding between teacher and stu-

dent and hence, more effective communication and learning.

Intellectual snobbishness would be discouraged and a much

more healthy atmosphere found in many classrooms*

Historical summary -- The experimental study of em-

pathy as a psychological mechanism has only taken place in

the past three decades. Studies which sought to describe the
"good" judge of personality appear to have been pioneering

pathways to experimental studies of empathy. Earlier pay-

chologists such as Lipps, Mead, Allport and Dewey clearly

illustrated the empathic mechanism philosophically and empha-

sized its importance in human reaction. Contemporary psy-

chologists, conducting experimental and clinical studies,

such as Dymond, at the University of Chicago, Bender and

Hastorf, at Dartmouth College, and Remmers, at Purdue










University, have contributed important data for isolating

the psychological mechanism of empathy* In addition, studies
are now in progress at Cornell University, the University of

Illinois, and Yale University, among otherse1

It was the purpose of this writer to use Bender and
Hastorffs instrument for measuring empathy to determine ex-

perimentally the relationship of empathic ability to scholas-

tic success and to present philosophically the case for its

further study and understanding by personnel workers.

Empathy and scholastic success An experiment was

conducted to determine the relationship of empathy to scho-

lastic success when intelligence is held constant. The ex-

periment involved the prediction of the reaction of associ-
ates to proposed questions as given on a test. Each subject

gave his own reaction to a proposed situation and predicted

his associate's reactions to the same situation. The test
score was assumed to be a numerical index of empathic ability*

The academic achievement of all the subjects were

compared in three courses common to the experimental group

and a measure of intelligence was obtained from scores on

the (L or verbal section) of the American Council on Educa-

tion Psychological Examination.

oLetter from Henry Chaunoey, President, Fducational
Testing Service, Princetong Hew Jersey, March 4, 1954.








L38

The results were grouped in rank order for each var.

able; empathy, intelligence# and grade point average. In-

spection of this data revealed that the high empathy scores

were related to high grade point average or scholastic suc-

cesso
A statistical test was then made to determine the

relationship between the variables. The following correla-

tions were obtained:

I1 Correlation of empathy and intelligence was

.16 (not significant).

2. Correlation of intelligence and grade point

average was .62 (significant at the 1 per cent level of

confidence).

3* Correlation of empathy and grade point average

was .57 (significant at the 1 per cent level of confidence)*

It was concluded that empathy and intelligence arz

related to scholastic success

The independent relationship of these variables was

next ascertained using the method of partial correlation and

the net correlations calculated:

I. The net correlation between grade point average

and intelligence with the influence of empathy partialled out

or held constant, was .61 (significant at the 1 per cent lev-

el of confidence)*
2. The net correlation between grade point average








89

and empathy with intelligence partlalled out, or its influ-

ence held constant, was *35 (significant at the 1 per cent
level of confidence)#

5. The net correlation between intelligence and
empathy when the influence of grade point average is held

constant, was -.*10 (not significant).

It was concluded, that empathy and Intelligence, as

measured, are different abilities and both are related to

scholastic-succoss. It might be interesting to note here#

that no student, of those tested, with high grade average

had a low empathy score.

Empathy and student personnel work "- It has been

a fundamental principle of this study that personnel work in

the college has had as its philosophy that education is not

only the absorption of factual knowledge but the integration

of all life which contacts the personality. However, it must

not be forgotten that certain criteria are set up to be fl-

filled by each student and personnel work has aimed at aiding

the student in the long, hard climb to his desired goals. It

is the writer's hypothesis that the cultivation of the work-

ability of empathy should be used as an aid and could be an-

other phase of assistance to students through the student

personnel program.










Implications for Personnel Workers

Guiding principles The following general princi-

ples have been derived from the study:

1o It is an objective of the personnel program

that students will learn to react to the feelings and thoughts

of others and further their knowledge and adjustment in the

college and world community, The student personnel program

in most colleges is planned to offer a program of varied ac-

tivities for students some of which involve social interaction

and some, such as art exhibits, which do not. These activi-

ties are aimed at not only enriching the lives of the students

in bringing about varied experiences but also are supposed to

bring about social growth. The American culture perpetuates

the belief that an educated person not only understands things

but also people*

2. The enpathic ability of a teacher should be rec-

ognised and valued, for it is through such a person that the

student has a more sympathetic, understanding interpreter of

knowledge. Prom the data of the study it would appear that

it is in the much overlooked teacher-student relationship

that the development of empathy is potentially greatest and

most beneficial to the students If the teacher understands

the mind and motive of the student .- can put himself in the
student's place he can thereby better interpret the sub-

ject matter in the light of the student. It is the opinion




Full Text
56
hand of clinician or teacher as well as student or citizen.
If it is the aim of personnel work to produce a happy, suc
cessful student, the whole interaction process of student
and student, teaoher and student, and the student, staff,
teacher, and outsider interaction can be made more success
ful by furthering the study of the empathic process. Inas
much as this social interaction is the prime interest of per
sonnel workers, empathy, as the basic mechanism in this inter
action should be a field for greater Interest and study by
personnel workers.
A helpful analogy may be made between the search for
the cause of disease in the field of medicine and the search
for the cause of social unhappiness, a goal of personnel work
ers. Medicine has been concerned with overall, generalized,
unfocused prevention more fresh air, more sunshine, more
oranges, or with the treatment of the individual case, such
as direct aches or pains. This is also true in personnel
work. Personnel programs provide guided experience In group
living, social and physical recreation, and opportunity for
individual development overall prevention of social unhap
piness. Clinical services help in the solution of individual
problems. This work is often excellent and does a great deal
of good. However, just as the research biologists and bacte
riologists look for the basic causes of disease so the re
searcher in personnel work must find cause in the basic mech
anisms of social interaction. Empathy, as one of these basic


12
Stuart Chase, in a recent book, describes this responsibility
of the social scientist:
It is important that social scientists realize their
vital new role, and devote themselves with great single-
mindedness to the task of accumulating more verified
knowledge and ever sharper engineering tools. The future
of civilization, if not of mankind, may depend upon what
they can accomplish in the next few decades. 3
One of the sharper engineering tools badly needed is
an index of the ability of individuals and members of groups
to put themselves in anothers shoes". In psychological
terms, it is the ability to predict, or introject oneself
into, the responses of others, whether individuals or groups,
particularly responses of a social-emotional, attitudinal sort.
This concept is obviously that of empathy.
The empathic processes appear to be a basic mechanism
in the social experiences of man. Through this process, the
individual achieves self-understanding as well as understand
ing of others. It is necessary to understand others in order
to communicate with them effectively. There must be an aware
ness about others feelings, which is frequently at odds with
what the person actually says. At the same time, the indivi
dual must be aware of his own feelings, which have their ef
fect on others through the medium of mutual exchange of feel
ing-tone.
23Stuart Chase, The Proper Study of Mankind,
New York: Harper and Brothers, 1948.
p 305


80
amount of empathy, the coefficient of correlation between
grade point average and intelligence would have been .61 in
stead of .62. In other words, if all the students have the
same empathic ability, intelligence and grades still have
about the same correlation. This would Indicate that empathy
does not complement Intelligence.
Prom Garrett,9 "Coefficients of Correlation Signifi
cant at the 5 per cent Level and at the 1 per cent Level for
Varying Degrees of Freedom," It is found by Interpolation
that entering the table with N m degrees of freedom, in
which m equals the number of variables, the levels of signi
ficance at the 5 per cent and 1 per cent levels are respec
tively, .269 and .348. It may therefore be concluded that
the partial coefficient .61 between intelligence and grades,
is significant at the 1 per cent level.
The partial coefficient of correlation between (1)
grade point average and {3) empathy with (2) intelligence
partialled out, or its influence held constant, Table 11 B,
gave a partial coefficient of correlation of .35 as against
an obtained coefficient (r-^) of .37. This means if all the
students had the same intelligence, the correlation of em
pathic ability and grades would still show a significant cor
relation. This would indicate substantially that empathic
ability is related to scholastic success and the ability
9Ibid., pp. 426-28.


7/.Ak
qjj:4Aa-
The relationship of empathy to educ
371 26C444r
3 12b2 D3453


TABLE OP CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 11
LIST OF TABLES v
Chapter
I. INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 1
The Problem 6
Limitations of the Study 7
Need for the Study. 9
Purpose of the Study 13
Presentation of the Study 15
II. THE NATURE OF Eli PA THY 16
Empathy and Related Concepts. ....... 16
The Psychological Mechanism of Empathy. . 21
Empathy as a Factor in Socialization. ... 25
An Operational Concept of Empathy and Its
Measurement 26
Observations on the Occurrence and Use
of Empathy *.. 27
Summary 32
III. RELATED STUDIES 33
Techniques Used to Measure Empathy 34
Refinements In the Measurement of
Empathy 40
Summary 42
IV. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF EMPATHY TO STUDENT
PERSONNEL WORK 43
Alms and Objectives of Higher Education . 43
The Philosophy of Student Personnel Work. 48
Implementation of the Student Personnel
Philosophy 50
Empathy and Personnel Work 52
Summary 57
V. EMPATHY AND SCHOLASTIC SUCCESS 58
The Rationale of the Study 58
The Test of Empathy 59
Scoring of the Test 61
The Selection of Subjects and
Administration of the Test 62
Sources of the Data 64
iii


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IF U


22
A general!zed ability, such as empathy, may be po
tential in the infant. It is believed that most people are
empathic and Lindgren quotes this evidence:
...the problem is more likely one of permitting one*s
empathy to function rather than of learning empathy,
for we are normally empathic. As Sullivan and others
have discovered, even infants communicate empathlcally
with their world. L. B. Murphy found that three-year-
olds showed definite signs of being able to empathize
with their age-mates. Theodore M. Newcomb points out
that the behavior of others seems less arbitrary and
more understandable when one can empathize. 2
Starting with this assumption it is easy to trace
how this mechanism may be developed in the individual. As
soon as the child has developed to a point where he is able
to think or reflect he gains a concept of self and also of
other selves, other human beings who think and act as he does.
Most children are imaginative. He may call a stick a king
and a box a castle. In his mind he sees things as they are
not. He also may visualize himself as a king and his mother
as a queen. He may wish to pretend that he is his mother.
This may be the beginning of empathy.
As the child develops he puts "brakes" on his imag
inative process. He knows he is imagining he is someone
else. He pretends, just to arnse himself with the emotions,
perhaps of Heidi returning to her home or Peter Pan flying
through the air, or Superman. As the child becomes an adult
12Lindgren, op. clt., p. 55.
A


27
Proceeding from this reasoning, empathy will be defined as
the imaginative transposing of oneself into the thinking, S
feeling, and acting of another.
Prom this definition of empathy, it is obvious from
a common sense point of view that there is a good deal of in
dividual variation in this ability. Some people appear to be
very sensitive to cues as to how others are feeling and re
acting while others appear to be grossly unaware of the
thoughts and feelings of others. An empathic teacher inter
prets the facial expressions of students accurately and de
termines their readiness to proceed to a complex problem.
The measurement of empathic ability, therefore, is a measure
of how accurately one can predict the behavior of another
a product of attitudes and feelings. The usual method of
studying empathy is to measure the disparity between a sub
ject's predictions of the responses of an associate and the
responses which an associate makes. The total deviation is
assumed to be a measure of empathic ability the smaller
the deviation, the better the empathy score.
Observations on the Occurrence and Use of Empathy
Empathy has been shown previously to be a contrib
uting mechanism in achieving selfhood, as well as being the
basis of much of intelligent behavior. Such an ability used
effectively, would appear to be of great practical purpose
to the individual and to society. Coutu has summarized some


4
the most effective means of adjustment to the social en
vironment, and indeed to the environment in general,
that the individual has at his disposal*'
There appears to he little doubt that empathy and
role-taking are synonymous. The relationship of empathy and
role-taking as similar mental processes is found in this
statement by Rogers; "The ability to empathize may be another
way of saying that one person is capable of taking the role
of the other ..."8
The continuing interest in social sensitivity or
empathic ability leads to the problem of determining how gen
eralized the ability may be* Dymond was led to effect an op
erational definition of empathy in an attempt to measure em
pathic ability: "The imaginative transposing of oneself into
the thinking, feeling, and acting of another and so structur-
rt
ing the world as he does is termed empathy*"
Dymond proceeded to develop a scale of empathic
ability by measuring the disparity between a subjects pre
dictions of the responses of an associate and the responses
which an associate actually makes.8 The total deviation is
5George H. Mead, Mind, Self and Society, P* 99
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, ISM.
8Carl R. Rogers, Client-Centered Counseling, p. 348.
New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1951.
^Rosalind P. Dymond, "A Scale for the Measurement of
Empathic Ability", Journal of Consulting Psychology, XIII
(April, 1949), 127.
8Ibid., p. 128.


51
The implementation of the personnel philosophy is
largely determined by the ability of the college staff to
find its job, to undertake only as much of a program as it
can carry out honestly, to select students who can profit
by its resources, to leave to other agencies everything else.
The parameters within which the personnel program should de
velop are suggested by Lloyd-Jones:
Fundamentally the development of a student person
nel program in any institution will be determined by;
(1) the objectives and educational program of the in
stitution; (2) the present and future needs of the
students; (3) the knowledge, skills, judgments, and
vision of the faculty and administrative staff; (4) the
financial resources for personnel services; and (5) the
physical facilities available in the institution.13
More specifically, it might be asked what are the
present and future needs of the students? Although the ma
jor responsibility for a student's growth in personal and
social xvisdom rests with the student himself, the college
personnel program cm condition such growth. The Student
Personnel Committee of the American Council on Education
has listed the conditions which affect the student's growth
in personal and social wisdom:
The student achieves orientation to his college en
vironment. ...The student succeeds in his studies. ...
He finds satisfactory living facilities. ...The stu
dent achieves a sense of belonging to the college. ...
The student learns balanced use of his physical capac
ities. ...The student progressively understands him
self. ...The student understands and uses his emotions
1*5
Lloyd-Jones and Smith, op, cit., p. 36.


62
column entry, projection deviation score was determined by
comparing the subjects response with his own prediction*
Thus, if his response to the question was two and his pre
diction of his associates response was four, the projection
deviation score would be two. A refined empathy score was
derived by subtracting the sum of the raw empathy deviation
scores from the sum of the projection deviation scores.
Thus, if the raw empathy score is larger than the projection
score, the subject has predicted closer to his own responses
than those of his associate and the refined empathy score
will have a negative value. On the other hand, if the pro
jection score is larger than the raw empathy score, this means
the subjects predictions are closer to the response of his
associate than his own and the refined empathy score will have
a positive value.
The Selection of Subjects
and Administration
of the Test
The subjects selected for the study were fifty-five
male college freshmen who had entered the University of Flor
ida in September, 1953. All of the subjects were tested dur
ing the month of March, 1954 and had completed one semester
of the freshman year.
The experimenter visited the residence hall counselor
and obtained a letter of introduction to the student


34
be put to an experimental test.
In a review of literature about studies in empathy.
Gage suggests why personnel workers should study this process:
Por guidance workers It (empathy) has two kinds of
importance. First, understanding others is an important
aspect of the counselors job. If we knew how to meas
ure and improve perception of others, we would have an
Important aid in the selection and training of guidance
counselors and, more generally, of teachers conceived
as guidance workers.
Secondly, perception of others is an important fac
tor in the personalities of the clients' or pupils'
with whom guidance counselors are concerned. Effective
ness in interpersonal relationships, or in social Inter
action, Is an important aspect of the vocational, educa
tional, and personal competence of all of us. When
guidance counselors are better able to appraise their
client* or pupils' understanding of others, they will
have an improved basis for counseling and guidance con
cerning activities and occupations which depend upon ef
fectiveness in interpersonal relationships.2
Techniques Used to Measure Empathy
The astonishing rapidity with which first impressions
are made can easily be demonstrated. While riding In a bus
or train one may close his eyes and turn his head toward some
passenger not previously observed. Now open the eyes for a
brief glimpse of this person for two or three seconds, and
then with eyes closed introspect upon the impressions as they
arise. Here is a person never before seen and completely un
known. With but the briefest visual perception, a complex
mental process is aroused, resulting within a very short time
2N. L. Gage, "Explorations in the Understanding of
Others", Educational and Psychological Measurements, XIII
(April, lSsSy, 14.


96
tinderstanding of the minds of others? One may well be thank
ful for a few general education courses where students may
be required to use empathic ability*
The exercising of empathic ability by Americans
however, has brought about many beneficial philosophies and
programs* When one puts himself in the place of the cancer
victim, the returning convict, or the mentally oppressed
people of Europe great aids are then offered these desolate
souls* The idealism provoked through understanding others
is illustrated by the United States Point Pour Program*
Research into the basic mechanisms of human person
ality is a promising field of research and, as yet, largely
unknown* Further studies are without limit in either pure
science or in the application of empathy to various human
problems. However, it should be concluded at present, that
if knowledge of empathy, as a useful mechanism, can be brought
to the conciousness of people it would lead to greater human
unders tanding*
The present study has sought to bring to the atten
tion of personnel workers and others Interested in the edu
cation of youth, a quality in students whose development
holds promise as an effective means for individual satisfac
tion as well as improved social group interaction*


29
This list suggests that empathy may be a factor for
consideration in many human activities including education,
industry, social activities and family-life, as well as others.
In short, through role-taking or empathy one finds that what
ever one does to others he does to himself at the same time,
and this explains the destructive power of hate and arrogance,
and the constructive power of consideration for others in hu
man adjustment.
The ability to take the role of the other is a means
of developing communication. As Mead says, nOne may seeming
ly have the symbol of another language, but if he has not any
common ideas with those who 3pealc the language, he cannot
communicate with them.^6 Previously, the development of self
hood has been shown to be a product of empathy. In similar
fashion and from a common sense point of view, tie individual
learns the language and common ideas by taking the role of
others to observe how words and ideas affect himself. With
out these common experiences no communication or Interaction,
as usually understood, would be possible. One of the great
problems facing people today, on all levels, is communication.
Clearly the "cold war" between the United States and Russia
is in no small part due to communication failure; the two na
tions cannot talk to one another. It is not the only example.
Strikes and labor-management difficulties are often the result
16
Mead, op, clt., p. 259.


25
these abilities. It appears to be more basic than most tal
ents as thought of generally. It appears to be a clearly
defined part of mans overall creative ability.
Empathy as a Factor in Socialization
As has been mentioned previously in this chapter,
empathic ability appears to be a very definite aid in devel
oping insight (that is, self knowledge). If a person sees
himself as a social being, he becomes one. He thinks of him
self in the light of what others think of him, hence his opin
ion of himself is derived from what he thinks others think of
him. He is, in this way able to look at himself objectively
as he looks at others objectively, In both cases using the
empathic process. Mead, describes the importance of empathy
in socialization:
Intelligence is essentially the ability to solve the
problems of present behavior In terms of its possible
future consequences as Implicated on the basis of past
experience the ability, that is, to solve the prob
lems of present behavior In the light of, or by refer-
to, both the past and the futurej it Involves both mem
ory and foresight. And the process of exercising intel
ligence is the process of delaying, organizing, and se
lecting a response or reaction to the stimuli of the
given environmental situation. The process Is made pos
sible by the mechanism of the central nervous system,
which permits the individuals taking of the attitude
of the other toward himself (empathj), and thus becoming
an object to himself. This Is the most effective means
of adjustment to the social environment, and Indeed to
the environment in general, that the individual has at
his disposal.I4
^4Mead, op. cit., p. 100.




iv
TABLE OP CONTENTS (Continued)
Page
Analysis and Interpretation of the Data 66
Summary 83
VI. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 84
Summary 84
Philosophical Summary 84
Historical Summary 86
Empathy and Scholastic Success 87
Empathy and Student Personnel Work ... 89
Implications for Personnel Workers 90
Guiding Principles 90
Administrative Principles 91
Needed Studies 92
General Implications and Conclusions. ... 94
BIBLIOGRAPHY 97
APPENDICES 102
A. The Empathy Test, Part I 103
B. The Empathy Test, Part II 106
C. Letter from Henry Chauncey, President,
Educational Testing Service, Princeton, N.J.. 109
BIOGRAPHICAL DATA 110


CHAPTER II
THE NATURE OP EMPATHY
In order to know what empathy Is, It is necessary
to clarify its place among related concepts and to under
stand It as a psychological mechanism* Then it is possible
to see its use in socialization, how it operates, how It can
be measured and most important of all to show its practical
occurrence and use, in every phase of human life*
Empathy and Related Concepts
The term "empathy Itself, presents some problems
since it has been used in literature with a variety of mean
ings. Also other terms have been used with the same or very
similar meaning to that which will be used In this study,
namely, the imaginative transposing of oneself into the think
ing, feeling, and acting of another and so structuring the
world as he does. In attempting to explain empathy the term
must be distinguished from such overlapping terms as: sympathy,
insight, identification, and projection*
Mead describes sympathy as arising from the empathic
process:
The attitude that we characterize as that of sympa
thy in the adult springs from this same capacity to take
16


61
In an experiment to determine the consistency of
scores derived from the use of this test, Bender and Hastorf^
concluded the refined empathy measure Is consistent enough
to be used as an operational measure of empathic ability.
Scoring of the Test
The tests were hand-scored by the experimenter. An
analysis sheet was used to tally and compute the empathy
score of each subject. The number of each question was writ
ten In sequence from top to bottom on the left side of the
sheet. Pour vertical columns across the top of the sheet
v/ere headed response, prediction, raw empathy deviation score,
and projection deviation score. In scoring, the coded respoiBe
1, 2, 3, or 4 which had been circled by the subject was placed
opposite the appropriate question number in the column marked,
response. The coded prediction 1, 2, 3, or 4 which had been
circled by the subject was placed opposite the appropriate
question In the column marked, prediction. The raw empathy
deviation score for each question was computed by comparing
the subjects prediction, with his associates response. For
example, if the response circled by the associate was three
and the prediction by the subject was two, the raw empathy
deviation would be one. This deviation score was then enter
ed In the column headed raw empathy deviation. The fourth
5Ibid., p. 505




72
TABLE 5
CALCULATION OP THE COEFFICIENT OP CORRELATION BETWEEN
EMPATHY TEST SCORES AND A.C.E. (L) SCORES
Empathy Test Scores
A.C.E. (L) Scores
Class-Intervals
Frequency
Class-Intervals
Frequency
20
to
23
1
109
to
113
1
16
to
19
0
104
to
108
0
12
to
15
2
99
to
103
1
8
to
11
4
94
to
98
1
4
to
7
8
89
to
93
0
0
to
3
8
84
to
88
0
-4
to
-7
9
79
to
83
5
-8
to
-5
10
74
to
78
2
-12
to
-9
2
69
to
73
8
16
to
-13
6
64
to
68
8
-20
to
-17
2
59
to
63
7
-24
to
-21
1
54
to
58
4
-28
to
-25
1
49
to
53
5
-32
to
-29
1
44
to
48
7
39
to
43
6
N 5)' N = S3
Obtained values:
= -.71 dy -- 3.10
0, : -.15 = 2.55
A A
XX*Y = 73
mu cy cx
73
55
71)(-.15)
.10 x 2.55
.16



Page 2
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
U 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2,
1.
3.
3.
3,
3*
3.
3.
3.
3
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
almost always 2. often 3, seldom 4. almost never
4. (22) I rationalize my failures to my friends.
4, (23) I readily adopt my friends opinion of another person, even before
meeting him.
4. (24) I enjoy introducing myself to strangers at a social gathering.
4. (25) If I could get into a movie without paying and be sure I was not seen, I
would probably do it.
4, (26) I like to argue with people.
4. (27) I feel embarrassed, even when I make trivial errors.
4. (28) When a stranger is seated next to me on a train, I keep my attention on
something else in order to avoid conversation with him,
4. (29) I like to give people advice,
4. (30) In a party I like to be the center of attraction.
4. (31) When I am beating a friend in tennis by a large margin, I tend to let up
on my play.
4. (32) At a reception or tea I feel reluctant to meet the important person
present.
4. (33) I dislike public displays of affection.
4. (34) When I am dancing with my date at a party I resent a fellow cutting in
on me.
4. (35) I tend to avoid discussions on topics with which I am unfamiliar.
4. (36) I worry about whether or not people appreciate me.
4. (37) I shrink from emotional scenes.
4. (38) I feel sympathetic with people who are in trouble.
4. (39) I feel like giving up quickly when things go wrong.
4. (40) I keep my ideals to myself.
4, (41) When I do something selfish I worry about it afterwards.
4. (42) If the group I am with wants to do something I dont approve of, I go
along with them without protesting.
108


19
Increasingly, clinicians are coming to accept this
position, particularly those of the Rogers school of client-
centered theraphy. In a quotation from Raskin, Rogers states,
"As time has gone by we have come to put increasing stress on
the client-centersdness' of the relationship because it is
more effective the more completely the counselor concentrates
upon trying to understand the client as the client sees him
self."6
In contrast to the enrpathlc process which enables one
to structure the social situation, insight, gained through
empathy as well as other mechanisms, is the product of a deep
er probing of psychological structures.
Identification is the psychological mechanism of mak
ing ones self another person to the extent of losing ones
own identity. Healy, Bronner, and Bowers, define identifica
tion as;
...the unconcious molding of ones own Ego after the
fashion of one who has been taken as a model. Primary
identification is the earliest expression of an emo
tional tie with a person.'
Empathy does not imply that one would unconsciously
like to be the other person or to be implicated emotionally.
Rogers makes this distinction very clearly:
6Rogers, op. cit., p. 30.
?W. Healy, Augusta Bronner, and Anna Mae Bowers,
The Structure and Meaning of Psychoanalysis, p. 230. New
YSrlc: Alfred'KnopfT33B7


23
he tones down and channelizes his ability to take roles* He
may briefly and scientifically use them to understand why a
friend or some other person may not care to be a Marine, or
a stamp collector, or why his wife wishes to buy a television
set*
An inventor imagines how a wheel may turn although
he has never seen the wheel turn in that particular way. So
a person may imagine himself as having the problem or peculi
arity of another and never have experienced it. If the person
assumes the obvious attributes of the object of his empathy
such as (1) what others think of his object, and (2) how his
object behaves toward others, he feels the same social forces
pushing on him that push on the object.
To be able to empathize is the same control of mind
over body as is exercised in any form of both mental and phys
ical control. If a person can make himself stop being angry
or sad, he can probably make himself feel as sick as his
friend does when, for Instance, his friends child eats dirt.
He then empathizes with his friend. Empathy may come with a
definite control with some people, with others it may come
completely without control when a person cant help feeling
pain when he sees another's cut hand. It all depends on the
operation of the mind and body of the individual.
Many educators believe that if a child Is allowed to
be imaginative, he may be more creative as an adult. Gesell


11
The happiness and effectiveness of individuals and groups, and
the survival of present civilization will depend upon the co
operation of people. Mayo20 believes, that such understanding
and eventual cooperation cannot take place without communica
tion between groups and Individuals. Before one can communi
cate one must have the ability to understand the communication.
A major effort is being put forth in the social sci
ences to understand the dynamics of social interaction between
groups as well as individuals. Probably the most intensive,
as well as best known, have been the studies of Mayo. x In
educational institutions, Moreno has introduced sociometric
22
analysis as an aid in understanding human behavior. The
psychologist, Kurt Lewin; anthropologist, Margaret Mead; and,
sociologist, Kimball Young; and, others are representative
leaders in the academic disciplines who have accepted an inter
actional approach to the study of man in his personal relation
ships.
The improvement of these dynamic relationships awaits
the development of instruments or techniques by which the
quality and/or degree of human interactions may be understood.
20Elton Mayo, The Social Problems of an Industrial
Civilization, p. 22. Andover, Massachusetts: The Andover
Press, 1945.
21Ibid., chap, iv,
22
J. L. Moreno, Who Shall Survive? A New Approach to
the Problem of Human Interrelations, Washington, fo. D. :
Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Company, 1934.


76
TABLE 8
CALCULATION OP TEE MEAN AND S.D. OP EMPATHY SCORES
Class-Intervals
Scores
Mid-Point
f
X*
X
fX2
20
to
23
21.5
1
6
6
36
16
to
19
17.5
0
5
0
0
12
to
15
13.5
2
4
8
32
8
to
11
9.5
4
3
12
36
4
to
7
5.5
8
2
16
32
0
to
3
1.5
8
1
8
8
-4
to
-1
-2.5
9
0
50
0
-8
to
-5
-6.5
10
-1
-10
10
12
to
-9
10.5
2
-2
-4
8
16
to
-13
-14.5
6
-3
-18
54
20
to
-17
-18.5
2
-4
8
32
24
to
-21
-21.5
1
-5
-5
25
28
to
-25
-26.5
1
-6
-6
36
32
to
-29
-30.5
1
-7
-7
49
N- 55
-8
358
AM = -2.50
ci = .58
M = -3.08
c ZfX -8 -.145
K 55
1=4
cl = 4 x -.145 = -.58
i
358 (-.145)2 x 4 = 10.2
55


81
measured Is different than intelligence.
The last partial coefficient of correlation, Table
11 C, gave a net correlation between (2) intelligence and
(3) empathy when the Influence of (1) grade point average is
held constant, of -.10. This correlation is not significant.
Theoretically, if the students all received the same grades,
the correlation of intelligence and empathy would be lower
than the obtained correlation, (.16) This would indicate
clearly that intelligence and empathy, as measured in the
study, are different abilities.
In Table 12, a multiple coefficient of correlation
has beon calculated from beta coefficients. This coefficient
of multiple determination (R2) means that 45.57 per cent of
the variance in freshman grades is accounted for by whatever
is measured by the A.C.E. (L) test and Empathy Test taken
together, eliminating from double consideration things that
they have in common.
Since the coefficients of multiple determination,
or R2, is composed of two components .3542000 and .101470, and
since each component pertains only to one of the independent
variables, it is possible to show the influence of each vari
able to the total predicted variance of grades. This being
the case, the first term, 1354200, indicates the contribution
to scholastic success of intelligence, and the second term,
.101470, indicates the contribution of empathy. Rounded in
term? of percentages, these are 35.4 and 10.1 respectively.


32
the pattern of all reflective learning and the task of
the agency that Is designated to teach the young is to
become increasingly clear on the nature and implications
of this process."0
Such an account of intermediate steps in the learn
ing process provides a view of learning that can be put to the
pragmatic test. When learning is described as the act of tak
ing the attitude of the other, this explanation of learning
can be tried out and shown to make an operational difference.
Summary
Empathy then, can be seen as an important psycholog
ical ability. Psychologists, philosophers, and educators
have all pointed out its great importance in shaping human
reactions.
20Alfred S. Clayton, Emergent Mind and Education,
pp. 91-92. New York: Teachers College, Columbia' University,
Contributions to Education, No. 867, 1943.


40
emergence of projection on one of the scales*
The results of this study emphasize the fact that
part of the successful prediction of another persons re
sponses may be due to projection rather than empathy and
that a refined measure of empathic ability will approximate
more adequately the psychological aspects of empathy when it
is defined as the imaginative transposing of oneself into
the thinking, feeling, and acting of another and so struc
turing the world as he does*
Refinements in the Measurement of Empathy
Proceeding from the results of their experiment,
"IQ
Hastorf and Bender reasoned that the next step would seem
to be to obtain predictions from individuals for a number of
their associates who differ in the amount of their similarity
with the predictor* This data could then be used to deter
mine more clearly the relationship between similarity, pro
jection, and empathy. Furthermore, when a person has made
a number of predictions, analysis could be made of the con
sistency of his projection and empathy scores*
In a test of this point of view, Bender and Hastorf^9
H. Hastorf, and I* E. Bender, "A Caution Re
specting the Measurement of Empathic Ability", Journal of
Abnormal and Social Psychology, XLVII (April, 1^>2), 574-76*
19I* E* Bender, and A. H. Hastorf, "On Measuring
Generalized Empathic Ability", Journal of Abnormal and Social
Psychology, XLVIII (October, 19S3), 503-06.


59
the independence of empathy as a factor in scholastic success
will be determined by holding intelligence constant.
If a significant relationship is found between em
pathy and scholastic success, when intelligence is maintained
constant, it may be concluded that the null hypothesis is
disproved and can be rejected.
The Test of Empathy**
The test consists of forty-two statements dealing
with a person*s attitudos and feelings towards various com
mon situations. The following are a few examples of state
ments from the test:
a. I am wary about the trustworthiness of persons
whom I do not know well.
b. I feel embarrassed even when I make trivial
errors
c. When I do something selfish, I worry about it
afterwards.
The respondents are offered four alternatives to
express their attitudes and feelings: 1, almost always; 2,
often; 3, seldom; and 4, almost never. The test requires
at least two associates, each person responds to the test
items and then each predicts the responses of his associate.
This instrument selected to measure empathic ability
2
See Appendix A and B.


CHAPTER VI
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
Summary
Philosophical summary In this study, empathy has
P
heen shown to be a basic mechanism in social interaction.
Empathy, one might say, is the ability to understand the minds
and feelings of other people. The study suggests that empathy
is a social-focused ability of the personality and its use
fulness has been recognised as far back as the beginning of
human history. As civilization becomes more complex, the
areas of communication being of world wide expansion, the
necessity to understand people in far flung corners of the
globe is more necessary than ever before. The cultivation
of this ability to empathize enables the diplomat, business
man, or newswriter to see the world more clearly from the oth
er person*s point of view. Empathy, then, is vital in the ed
ucative as well as the socialization process.
J
Empathy may be described as a psychological mechanism,
of the Imaginative type, that is closely allied with such
psychological concepts as sympathy, Insight, identification,
and projection. It appears as a socialization factor which
84


33
11
count*
A similar technique to that of Dymond was developed
by Remmers12 while working on an experimental design for re
ducing the "gap" between management and labor, which he calls
measuring reciprocal empathy* Ur,lng this technique a n aber
of students at Purdue University have completed studies con
cerning reciprocal empathy in widely separated problems.
This technique suggested by Remmers, and used In this group
of studies consists In having an Individual or group, A, an
swer a set of relevant attitude questions* A Is then asked
to give the response that he would expect from another Indi
vidual or group, B* A is asked to respond a third time to
this same set of questions as he would expect B to predict
A*s response to these questions* B is then subjected to these
same procedures.
Van Zelst14 in an investigation of an Empathy Test
15
by Kerr and Speroff, used four criteria for purposes of
^^Dymond, "Personality and Empathy", Journal of Con
sulting Psychology, XIV (October, 1950), 349*
12Remmers, op* cit*, pp* 161-65*
13H, H. Remmers, "A Quantitative Index of Social-
Psychological Empathy", American Journal of Orthopsychiatry,
XX (January, 1950), 161-^
^Raymond Van Zelst, "Validation Evidence on the
Empathy Test", Educational and Psychological Measurements,
XIII (Autumn, 1§>3), 474-V7*
15V/* A. Kerr, and B* J. Speroff, The Empathy Test,
Chicago: Psychometric Affiliates, 1951*




1. almost always
2. often
3, seldom
4. almost never
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
3. 4. (1) I am wary about the trustworthiness of persons whom I do not know well.
3. 4. (2) I feel embarrassed when I am dressed differently than the people I am
with.
3. 4. (3) I make conversation with a barber while I am getting my haircut,
3. 4. (4) I feel that many persons I meet in my own age group are not interested
in me.
3. 4. (5) I avoid asking the assistance of others because I think that I am only
bothering them.
3. 4. (6) When something is really bothering me I am able to appear outwardly
calm and collected.
3. 4. (7) I like to go to parties where I can meet new people.
3. 4, (8) I can readily detect when another person is irritated.
3. 4. (9) I like to carry out planned activities.
3. 4, (10) I avoid mentioning subjects that will irritate another person.
3. 4. (11) I like to be the one to liven up a dull party.
3. 4. (12) I would rather read an historical novel than a work of romantic fiction.
3. 4. (13) I am embarrassed when my companions attract attention in public.
3. 4. (14) People can change my mind even after I have made a decision.
3. 4. (15) When I go to the movies I imagine myself in the role of the hero.
3. 4. (16) I have the feeling of being alone, even when with a group of people.
3. 4. (17) I go straight after what I want, being unconcerned about the feelings of
others.
3. 4. (18) When I am dining out with a date, I pay the bill without checking it.
3. 4. (19) While attending a movie I make remarks (witty, encouraging, disparaging,
or otherwise) which are audible to those around me.
3. 4. (20) I cover up my shortcomings by my personality.
3. 4. (21) After a very tiring day I decide to keep my seat in a streetcar, even
though ladies have to stand. I overhear one of the ladies remark about
chivalry being dead. I remain in my seat.
107


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The writer is indebted to all the students and
residence hall counselors who gave their time and minds
to the experiment Also, he is indebted to Dr. Leon N
Henderson, chairman of the committee, and to each of the
committee members Dr. Richard J Anderson, Dr. Charles R.
Poster, Dr. Elmer D. Hinckley, Dr. J. B. White, and Dr.
W Max Wise for thoir valuable aid and encouragement.
Sincere thanks is due Dr. Vynce A. Hines for his counsel
concerning the hypothesis of the study and Dr. Herbert
A. Meyer for his advice about the statistical procedure.
Acknowledgment should also be made to all my
graduate student associates for their kindly criticism
and advice concerning the dissertation.
ii


T>
H


94
leaders may make possible the prediction of those who may be
successful leaders. The use of empathic ability, on the part
of the leader, for good or bad influence on others is another
realm of study. However, in qualifying people for work in
all manner of positions dealing with people, testing enrpathic
ability might prove most clearly the qualifications of the
person for the position. It would appear that the selection
of a person, as a student counselor or where dealings with
others are involved, should be an empathic person.
Studies of the empathic mechanism and use of em
pathy tests as well as the development of the workability
of empathy can well serve the purposes of personnel workers.
If the field of personnel work is to carry out its all encom
passing philosophy, as stated by its leaders, then the study
and use of empathy would greatly benefit the progress of
this program.
General Implications and Conclusions
As has previously been stated the use of empathic
ability brings about better understanding between people.
Bender and Hastorf have found that a large majority of those
given empathy tests in their experiments tended to "project"
or feel that if they felt a certain way, others must also
feel similarly. This could be a great barrier to empathy.
It contributes to the world*s greatest social problem
iiSL.'s inhumanity to man. A difficult problem in a small


100
The Holy Bible, (St. James Version) New York: Thomas Nelson
an[ ons#
The Report of the President's Commission on Higher Education.
Higher Education for American Democracy. New York:
Harper and Brothers, 947.
"The Student Personnel Point of View," American Council on
Education Studies. Washington, D.C.: ihe American
Council on Education, Vol. XIII, September, 1949.
The University Record of the University of Florida, 1953-54,
University of Florida Bulletin, Vol. XLVIII, No. 4.
Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, April,
1953.
Williamson, E. G. (ed.). Trends in Student Personnel Work.
Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press, 1949.
Wrenn, C. Gilbert. Student Personnel Work in College. New
York: The Ronald Press 'Company, 1^51.
Articles
Bender, I. E., and Hastorf, A. H. "The Perception of Persons:
Forecasting Another Persons Response on Three Person
ality Scales." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychol
ogy* XLV (1950), '586-SSI.
Bender, I. E., and Hastorf, A, H. "On Measuring Generalized
Empathic Ability," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psy
chology, XLVIII, (1953), 53-506.
Cantril, H. "Toward a Scientific Morality." Journal of
Psychology, XXVII, (1949), 363-376.
Cottrell, L. S., and Dymond, Rosalind F. "The Empathic
Responses: A Neglected Field for Research," Psychiatry,
XII, (1949), 180-187.
Dymond, Rosalind F. "A Preliminary Investigation of the Rela
tion of Insight and Empathy, Journal of Consulting
Psychology. XII, (1948), 228-233";
Dymond, Rosalind F. "Personality and Empathy," Journal of
Consulting Psychology, XIV, (1950), 343-350.


13
Purpose of the Study
The specific purpose of this study is to investigate
empathy as a factor in the scholastic success of students#
The grade point standing, as a measure of scholastic success,
is a social symbol in American culture# Scholastic honors
are given to students with outstanding grades. The satisfac
tory "C" is satirically called the "gentleman^" grade. The
college graduates with superior grades are frequently recom
mended to employment representatives who visit the campus#
Scholastic failure is frequently a stigma in American culture.
A description of the place of empathy in social con
cepts will help in understanding the implications about the
influence of empathy on social symbols. More specifically,
it should be purposeful in the study to describe how the em
patille process relates to education#
The results of the experimental testing of the hy
pothesis of this study may have implications concerning the
development of empathy as a factor in scholastic success.
Furthermore, the study may indicate that academic learning
involves mastery of facts rather than sensitivity to the ef
fect of these facts upon individuals or groups.
The philosophy of personnel work states that its
aim is to educate the total individual. This philosophy
assumes that many abilities in the individual make up the
total person. Recent research has Isolated a so-called


83
empathy, apart from that portion related to A.C.E. (L) test
ability, contributes about 10 per cent.
In conclusion, it might then be stated, that empathy
appears to be an ability unrelated to intelligence, which aids
in achieving scholastic success. The students who have this
ability may, to some extent, uso it as a substitute for in
telligence or to facilitate the operation of intelligence.
It appears definitely, In most cases, to affect the grade
point standing.
Summary
The data of the study have shown that empathy, as
well as Intelligence is significantly related to scholastic
success. Furthermore, when Intelligence Is partialled out
or held constant, empathy is clearly shown to be a different
ability. Therefore, it may be concluded, that the null hy
pothesis, of the study, may be rejected (at the 1 per cent
level of confidence). A more precise statement of the hy
pothesis would be that empathy and Intelligence, as meas
ured in this study, are different abilities and each contrib
utes significantly to scholastic success.


2
Understanding other people is the most complex prob
lem in the realm of perception. In every day situations, one
depends necessarily on his capacity to perceive and predict
the behavior, thoughts, and feelings of the other person:
Presumably, one abstracts some vague generaliza
tions of the personality from the variety of observed
situations and actions, or expressed thoughts and feel
ings of another. On the basis of such an abstraction,
the observer makes nredictlons, accurately or Inac
curately, about the person he perceives. Our social
ization is reared on this foundation of perception of
persons in terms of prediction. The credit manager
forecasts the ability and willingness of the customer
to pay his bills. The diplomat forecasts the readi
ness of his vis a vis to accept or reject propositions.
The therapist makes not only a diagnosis but a prog
nosis of his client. All the subtle interchanges of
love and friendship rest, howsoever insecurely, on this
tenuous skill in perception and prediction.^
Individual perceptions are in many Instances inade
quate and because of their importance in every day social re
lationships there is need to know a great deal more about the
nature and degree of such abilities. Social psychologists
have observed these phenomena and have termed this ability
to perceive the attitudes and feelings of another, empathy
or role-taking.
The Book of the Prophet Ezekiel provides evidence
concerning the recognition of these concepts in Biblical
times. Ezekiel, at the command of the Lord, entered into
Israel to remonstrate with the Israelites and explain to
o
I. E. Bender, and A. H. Hastorf, "The Perception
of Persons: Forecasting Another Person's Response on Three
Personality Scales," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psy
chology, XLV (July, 1950), 556.


54
The personnel program then, should be concerned with
the potentiality of the empathic process for no citizen can
be worthy of the name unless he can understand and evaluate
hi3 fellow-men. No matter in what ivory tower of academic
isolation a learned scientist or artist may sit, no man ex
ists in a social vacuum. On the other hand, most college
students will eventually become community members and work
where they must deal with people, their ability to understand
and be understood by these people is absolutely necessary.
The failure of the universities to develop social skill is
criticized by Mayo:
The social skills students develop at universities,
in athletics or clubs or other activities, are not
closely related to their studies. The two are more of
ten considered as in opposition; the one to be achieved
at the expense of the other. Consequently, the develop
ment of a student's social skills may be restricted to
association with fellow students in activities at least
by implication frowned upon by many university author
ities. This social restriction may prevent the develop
ment of whole-hearted participation with others in the
general educational aims of the institution. Associa
tion of student and student without full participation
in the broad purposes of the university develops a low
er order of social skill than that which the apprentice
learns at his trade. ...This artificial and narrow ex
perience has limited use in later life, for maturity
demands a highly developed, and continuously develop
ing, social skill.10
The empathic mechanism is basic to these social
skills. If the person understands others he is empathic and
may see ways to make himself better liked and appreciated
^^ayo, op. cit., pp. 21, 22.


48
American colleges and universities must envision a
much larger role for higher education in the national
life* They can no longer consider themselves merely
the instruments for producing an intellectual elite;
they must become the means by which every citizen, youth,
and adult is enabled and encouraged to carry his educa
tion, formal and informal, as far as his native capac
ities permit*10
The crucial task of higher education today, there
fore, is to provide a unified general education for
American youth* Colleges must find the right relation
ship between specialized training on the one hand, aim
ing at a thousand different careers, and the transmis
sion of a common cultural heritage toward a common citi
zenship on the other, **.This purpose calls for a unity
in the program of studies that a uniform system of
courses cannot supply. The unity must come, instead,
from a consistency of aim that will infuse and harmonize
all teaching and all campus activities.11
The Philosophy of Personnel Work
The student personnel movement developed during the
early twentieth century. Stimulated by the scientific find
ings about individual differences, greater attention was fo
cused on individualizing mass education. The study of stu
dents as individuals gave ample evidence that failure in any
aspect of adjustment frequently affected the learner adverse
ly and, furthermore, that scholastic success in college did
not guarantee success after college. The student personnel
movement constitutes on of the most important efforts of
American educators to individualize education in an era of
The Report of q>he Presidents Commission on High-
Education, Higher Education for American Democracy, Vol. I,
p. 101. New York: Happer and Brothers, 194'/.
11
Ibid., Vol. I, p. 49


71
that the A.C.E. (L) scores and empathy scores may not corre
late significantly.
It would appear a logical step to make a statistical
test of the relationship between the variables. Accordingly,
the data were analyzed to determine their linear correlation.
Initially, the relationship between empathy and in
telligence was tested. In Table 5, Calculation of the Coef
ficient of Correlation between Empathy Test Scores and A.C.E.
(L) Scores, the data yielded a linear correlation of .16.
Using the tables in Garrett,7 "Correlation Coefficients at
the 5 per cent and 1 per cent Levels of Significance," the
significance of the correlation coefficients at the 5 per
cent and 1 per cent levels are, by linear interpolation,
respectively .266 and .345. It is clear that the obtained
r of .16, since It is smaller than .266 is not significant
at the 5 per cent level and therefore, that empathy and in
telligence are not statistically related.
In Table 6, Calculation of the Coefficient of Cor
relation between Empathy Test Scores and Grade Point Averages,
a linear correlation of .37 was obtained. In Garrett,8 the
significance of the correlation coefficients at the 5 per
cent and 1 per cent levels were respectively, .266 and .345.
7Henry E. Garrett, Statistics In Psychology and
Education, p. 299. New Yorks Longmans, dreen arid company,
1943.
8
Ibid., p, 299.


5
assumed to be a measure of empathic ability the smaller
the deviation, the better the empathy score* Dymond measur
ed this trait in different people and found she could predict
differences among individuals.9 However, evidence suggests
that Dymond's measure of empathy is subject to the influence
of projection by the subject making the rating.10
Bender and Hastorf termed Dymond's measure "raw em
pathy", and proceeded to make refinements of the empathic
measurements. As a result of their study, they have conclud
ed that the evidence is convincing for using a refined empathy
score (with correction applied for the effect of projection)
as an operational measure of empathic ability. Furthermore,
their refined empathy score is consistent enough that it
appears to be a measure of generalized empathic ability or
social sensitivity.11
The observations of social scientists and clinicians
find evidence that it is through the empathic process that the
individual achieves selfhood, understanding of others, and
^Dymond, "Personality and Empathy", Journal of Con
sulting Psychology, XIV (October, 1950), 349.
10A. H. Hastorf, and I. E. Bender, "A Caution Re
specting the Measurement of Empathic Ability", Journal of
Abnormal and Social Psychology, XLVII (April, 1952) pp. 574-
76.
11
I. E. Bender, and A. H. Hastorf, "On Measuring
Generalized Empathic Ability", Journal of Abnormal and Social
Psychology, XLVIII (October, 1953), 505.


75
TABLE 7
CALCULATION OP THE COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION BETWEEN
A. C. E* (L) SCORES AND GRADE POINT AVERAGES
A.C.E. (L) Scores Grade Point Averages
Class-Intervals Frequency Class-Intervals Frequency
109
to
113
1
104
to
108
0
99
to
103
1
94
to
98
1
89
to
93
0
84
to
88
0
79
to
83
5
74
to
78
2
69
to
73
8
64
to
68
8
59
to
63
7
54
to
58
4
49
to
53
5
44
to
48
7
39
to
43
6
n = 5S~
3.76
to
4.00
2
3.51
to
3.75
2
3.26
to
3.50
1
3.01
to
3.25
0
2.76
to
3.00
2
2.51
to
2.75
6
2.26
to
2.50
3
2.01
to
2.25
0
1.76
to
2.00
12
1.51
to
1.75
7
1.26
to
1.50
4
1.01
to
1.25
1
0.76
to
1.00
7
0.51
to
0.75
5
0.26
to
0.50
3
n = inr
Obtained values:
cy s -38
c = .71
IXY
IXY C C
r ~ y x s
"y
O' 3.64
= 3.io
387
387 .38 x .71
~35~ .62
5"."g4""x'T.T6


1 The selection and admission of students should
be based on an evaluation of empathic ability, as well as
other factors*
2. Orientation programs should emphasize the im
portance of understanding others*,
3* Social programs should offer opportunity for
varied social experience and interaction with fellow stu
dents and teachers*
4* Educational, vocational, and personal counselors
should assess the student and help him understand the impor
tance of empathy to his scholastic goals, as well as other
goals of life*
5. Every guided group experience, which is part
of the personnel program (housing, athletic pro^ams, and
other extra-class activities) should attempt to provide ex
periences in social interaction which widen and increase the
student*s understanding of others*
6* Teachers should bo encouraged to understand the
student his background, his aspirations, his needs, and
any evaluative information or tests which provide data about
the student. In this manner, the teacher as a personnel
worker can aid the student to develop and use empathy in his
relations with others*
Needed studies Studios of empathic ability in
the student-student relationship are needed in order to


70
TABLE 4
SUBJECTS
IN RANK
ORDER
BY A. C. E
. (L)
SCORE
Subjects
Ia
ii*
IIIC
Subjects
Ia
IIb
IIIC
21
113
1
3,00
37
63
-16
1.27
43
100
8
4*00
30
61
10
1.91
14
95
3
3,64
36
60
-6
1.00
52
82
15
2.55
2
60
-8
1.73
24
82
6
4.00
34
59
-24
1.73
5
82
4
3.64
38
59
-18
1.36
41
82
6
2.00
16
58
-13
1.36
12
80
-32
1.64
33
57
0
0.55
7
76
4
2.00
35
56
6
1.36
3
74
8
3.27
18
54
23
1.73
40
73
-4
0,73
22
52
-5
0,36
20
72
-5
1.64
8
51
-16
2,00
9
71
-15
2,00
28
51
-12
1.00
13
70
-6
2,00
44
51
2
0.27
50
70
-2
2.64
54
49
-25
2.00
29
69
12
2.27
25
48
-3
0.73
4
69
-10
1.00
31
48
2
1.64
23
69
-17
1.00
51
46
3
2.00
10
68
-5
1.09
26
46
-2
2.00
27
68
-3
2.91
48
46
-8
0.73
45
68
3
2.73
47
45
%
U
2,55
17
67
6
2.27
53
44
-15
2.00
55
66
7
2,00
32
43
-13
0.91
11
66
5
2.64
42
43
1
0,64
46
65
10
2,64
6
42
6
2.36
1
65
5
1.73
49
41
-2
2,00
39
63
-3
1.00
19
41
6
1.00
15
39
6
0,36
^aw score (L or verbal section) American Council
on Education Psychological Examination
^Empathy Test Score
cGrade Point Average


Ill
I
The writer married Ruth Adelle Slater, a classmate
at St. Lawrence University, in 1942 and they have three
children.


3
them their transgressions. Ezekiel was instructed to live
among the Israelites in order to understand their viewpoint.
He described the experience of putting himself in the place
of the Israelites:
Then I came to them of the captivity at Tel-abib,
that dwelt by the river of Chebar, and 1 sat whore
they sat, and remained there astonished among""them
seven days
Theodore Lipps (1851 1914) a German psychologist
was especially interested in the nature of human responses
in activities related to the arts. Rugg has summarized
Lipps theory thus:
He insisted that act and object, all the elements
of the whole situation, constitute a unity. The human
being not only makes himself one with the entire situ
ation, he feels himself into the object he has con
templated.4
Lipps called his theory "elnfuhling", generally
translated "empathy"
The philosopher Mead described a similar phenomenon
as role-taking, an essential mechanism in exercising Intelli
gence :
...the process of exercising intelligence Is the process
of delaying, organizing, and selecting a response or
reaction to the stimuli of the given environmental situ
ation. The process is made possible by the mechanism
of the central nervous system, which permits the Indi
viduals taking of the attitude of the other tOY/ard him
self, and thus becoming an object to himself. This is
^Ezekiel 3:15.
4
Harold Rugg, Foundations for American Education,
p. 211. New York: World Book Company, 1947.


66
Analysis and Interpretation of the Data
The data used In the study are presented In Table 1*
Opposite the numbered subjects on the left side of the table
and in the column marked I are the scores from the A.C.E. (L
or verbal section) test. In the next column, II, are the
scores earned by the subjects on the Empathy Test. The final
column, III, are the grade point averages achieved by the sub
jects, In three common courses, during the first semester.
Inasmuch as the study attempts to relate empathy to
scholastic success, Table 2 Is presented with scores on the
Empathy Test in descending rank order. Inspection of this
table reveals that those subjects with scores in the upper
half of the range of empathy scores have, in general, higher
grade point averages than those in the lower half of the
range. In Table 3, the subjects have been placed in rank
order by grade point averages. Once again may be noted, the
preponderance of high or positive Empathy Test scores asso
ciated with high grade averages#
In Table 4, the A.C.E. (L) scores have been placed
in descending order. Preliminary inspection of this table
does not appear to reveal a noticeable relationship between
the Empathy Test scores and A.C.E. (L) scores. Tentatively,
it may be concluded that the high empathy scores are related
to high grade point average or scholastic success. On the
other hand, from an inspection of Table 4, it would appear


90
Implications for Personnel Workers
Guiding principles The following general princi
ples have been drived from the study:
1. It is an objective of the personnel program
that students will learn to react to the feelings and thoughts
of others and further their knowledge and adjustment in the
college and world community* The student personnel program
in most colleges is planned to offer a program of varied ac
tivities for students some of which Involve social interaction
and some, such as art exhibits, which do not* These activi
ties are aimed at not only enriching the lives of the students
in bringing about varied experiences but also are supposed to
bring about social growth* The American culture perpetuates
the belief that an educated person not only understands things,
but also people.
2. The empathic ability of a teacher should be rec
ognised and valued, for it is through such a person that the
student has a more sympathetic, understanding Interpreter of
knowledge* Prom the data of the study it would appear that
it is in the much overlooked teacher-student relationship
that the development of empathy is potentially greatest and
most beneficial to the student. If the teacher understands
the mind and motive of the student can put himself in the
students place he can thereby better interpret the sub
ject matter in the light of the student. It is the opinion


of the writer that too many teachers, especially in colleges,
are chosen because of their ability in research, writing, or
other qualities thay may have rather than their ability to
teach. It Is unfortunate for the student because he is the
loser. The whole situation may become a vicious circle. The
college must hire those with prestige In order to give itself
more prestige and thereby attract the student. It Is prob-
able that many students leave college because they are dis
couraged by poor teachers. Nothing can do more to disillu
sion a potential teacher than a poor teacher in a so-called
"good university.
3. The opportunity for the development of the in
dividuals potentialities are, in considerable measure, de
termined by his social environment. Through the use of
empathy, the individual may control and develop many of his
capabilities. Understanding others can widen his own expe
rience through contact with the minds of others as well as
enabling him to assess the component forces in complex
social interactions. In brief, this ability In the individ
ual may be used constructively in the ultimate development
and use of his individual capabilities.
Administrative principles The study suggests
that empathy or empathic ability is important in many phases
of the student personnel program. The following Implications
are suggested for personnel workers:




53
the other students which is either satisfactory or unsatis
factory to him If it is unsatisfactory it may limit his
academic proficiency* If satisfactory, it may spur him on
to greater effectiveness in all phases of his life.
The roles of an individual in his social group are
Important to his development as a person because they
represent the valuation of him by others. In a sense,
a society is like the director of a play who assesses
the applicants for roles and then metes out assignments.
...These roles constitute the group's appraisal of the
individual as he functions in the campus society.
Whether these are right or wrong evaluations of him as
a person, whether they meet with his approval or dis
approval is irrelevant at the moment; the fact is that
in terms of its standards and values the campus society
grants status, a place in the hierarchy, to each mem
ber of the group.16
The role which each student has, is in part, the
result of the empathlc process. The student is what the
others see him as. However, this role may be the result of
false values and false evaluations. The personnel philosophy
suggests that ideals and values, with wider application than
the campus culture, should be instilled in students.
The campus society should provide democratic, adult
roles. As we have seen, the roles that an individual
plays in campus life have tremendous importance in his
self-evaluation and hence in his development toward
emotional maturity and standards of adult behavior. Con
sequently, to the extent that they are able, students
should be given roles to play in a campus life which are
consonant with the roles they will be expected to play
as citizens.17
16
Paul J. Brouwer, Student Personnel Services in
General Education, pp. 302, >03. Washington, h.C.: American
Council" "on Education, 1949.
17
Ibid., pp. 307, 308


73
TABLE 6
CALCULATION OP THE COEFFICIENT OP CORRELATION BETWEEN
EMPATHY TEST SCORES AND GRADE POINT AVERAGES
Empathy Test Scores
Grade Point Averages
Class-Intervals
Frequency
20
to
23
1
16
to
19
0
12
to
15
2
8
to
11
4
4
to
7
8
0
to
3
8
-4
to
-1
9
-8
to
5
10
-12
to
-9
2
-16
to
-13
6
-20
to
-17
2
-24
to
-21
1
-28
to
-25
1
-32
to
-29
1
N =755
Class-Intervals Frequency
3.76
to
4.00
2
3.51
to
3.75
2
3.26
to
3.50
1
3.01
to
3.25
0
2.76
to
3.00
2
2.51
to
2.75
6
2.26
to
2.50
3
2.01
to
2.25
0
1.76
to
2.00
12
1.51
to
1.75
7
1.26
to
1.50
4
1.01
to
1.25
1
0.76
to
1.00
7
0.51
to
0.75
5
0.26
to
0.50
3
N 55
Obtained values*
C = -.15
/
Cx = -1.36
rxY* =
£XY' C,T C_
"U 7 x
Oy 2.54
Cfx = 3*65
198
198 (-.15)(-1.36)
r
2.54 x 3.65
_ .37


18
Empathy is viewed, then, as a more objective and neu
tral process. It may lead to positive feelings and closer
social relations, as when it results in sympathy, but this is
not necessarily the case.
Insight may also be thought of as a product of the
empathic process. It is apparent that empathy contributes
to insight; however, insight requires more profound evalua
tion of ones own psychological structure. Murphy discrim
inates thus:
In judging oneself, the first problem is insight, an
objective integral view. ...The rubrics which guide an
individual in learning to judge others are not neces
sarily useful in judging himself. He struggles autistl-
cally against the use of many of the available cues.
The answer is usually the one which John Levy once gave;
insight can seldom be increased directly by a hammer-
and-tongs method; rather, as a person works with his
deeper problems, with the network of his motives, and
discovers what he really wants, he finds that he has
achieved insight. Insight comes as a late cognitive
expression of the readjustment of the motive pattern.4
Dymond, also, concludes that insight Is a product of
the empathic process:
Insight into oneself seems to require the ability
to stand off and look at oneself from the point of view
of others. In order to see ourselves as others see us,
we need to structure the situation from their perspec
tive or transpose ourselves into their thinking and
feeling. Insight Into others also appears to be depend
ent upon the ability to take the role of others.5
4Ibid.. pp. 659-60.
^Rosalind P. Dymond, Personal!ty and Empathy,"
Journal of Consulting Psychology. XIV (October, 1950), 344.


APPENDIX A
PART I
YOUR NAME
YOUR ASSOCIATES NAME
' l
We are asking that you respond to this part of the test in
a special way* You are to predict how your associate would
answer these statements. It is imperative that you do not
answer these statements with your opinions of the person,
but rather as you think he would answer them himself. Please
use the following scale. Circle your prediction.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Almost always
Often
Seldom
Almost never
103


21
empathy since projection involves the attribution of
ones own wishes, attitudes and behavior to something,
or some one other than the self. If projection is in
volved, therefore, the thoughts and feelings of the
self are attributed to the other rather than those of
the other being experienced. The individual who attempts
to understand the behavior of others using projection as
the mechanism, assumes that since this is how I would
feel if I were in his situation, this is how he must
feel* 1
Sympathy appears then to be an emotional product of
empathy and insight a psychological concept which is a prod
uct of empathy and other mechanisms. Identification, like
empathy Involves taking the role of another, but to the ex
treme where ones own self is lost in the identification proc
ess. Projection is seen to be more autistic and personal than
empathy in that the projector attributes his own feeling to
his associates. Empathic ability seems more objective, more
cognitive, and more truly perceptive of the psychological
structure of the other person.
The Psychological Mechanism of Empathy
Empathy takes place the same as any other psycholog
ical operation In the mind of man. It Involves many complex
stimuli to bring about a complex response which in the empath-
ic process is the overall picture a person has of his object.
If the person finds it easy to empathize or put himself into
anothers shoes, and accurately predict anothers behavior he
may be called a good empathizer.
^Rosalind P. Dymond, Personality and Empathy",
Journal of Consulting Psychology, XIV (October, 1950), 345.


86
therefore in many cases it may be the means by which a rela
tively intellectually dull but creative and understanding
student, can achieve satisfactory academic success in col
lege*
If it is the aim of this country to educate masses
of students who are heterogenous and who possess widely dif
ferent abilities, the development of the workability of em
pathy may increase the number who v/ill be successful in col
lege* Drop-outs might bo decreased* A program which brings
to consciousness the practice of empathic ability might bring
about greater mutual understanding between teacher and stu
dent and hence, more effective communication and learning*
Intellectual snobbishness v/ould be discouraged and a much
more healthy atmosphere found in many classrooms*
Historical summary The experimental study of em
pathy as a psychological mechanism has only taken place in
the past three decades. Studies which sought to describe the
good" judge of personality appear to have been pioneering
pathways to experimental studies of empathy. Earlier psy
chologists such as Lipps, Mead, Allport and Dewoy clearly
illustrated the empathic mechanism philosophically and empha
sized its importance in human reaction. Contemporary psy
chologists, conducting experimental and clinics1 studies,
such as Dymond, at the University of Chicago, Bender and
Hastorf, at Dartmouth College, and Remmers, at Purdue


41
conducted a further study to define more clearly the interre
lationships of refined empathy with similarity, projection,
and raw empathy* The study was designed to have a forecaster
predict for four associates and thus to provide an approach
to an analysis of the consistency of each of the variables*
A scale of forty-two items was administered to fifty
subjects who then attempted to predict the responses of four
associates who also responded to the same scale* Pour devia
tion scores (the sum of the differences between a person's
response and the forecaster's prediction) were obtained from
the data for the variables of similarity, projection, raw
empathy, and refined empathy* The refined empathy score was
derived by subtracting the raw empathy score from the projec
tion score. It was found that while the raw empathy score
was significantly correlated with similarity, the refined em
pathy score was not correlated with similarity* Furthermore,
it was found that the refined empathy score showed a fair de
gree of consistency, although the greatest consistency was
shown by the projection scores. The experimenters concluded,
"The data clearly indicate that there Is a generalized tend
ency for some of the subjects to project consistently and for
pA
others to have empathic ability,"
20
Ibid, p 506




60
uses a technique suggested by Dymond, that of measuring the
disparity between a subject's predictions of the responses
of an associate and the responses which an associate actually
makes*3 The total deviation is assumed to be a measure of
empathic ability the smaller the deviation, the better
the empathy score* A refined empathy score will be obtained
by using this test by Bender and Hastorf4 and their method of
correcting for the effects of projection* In essence, a re
fined empathy score is derived by comparing the raw empathy
score (the sum of the deviations of a subject's predictions
from the responses of his associate) with the projection
score (the sum of the deviations of the subject's predictions
from his own responses)* For example, if a raw empathy devi
ation score was thirty-nine, and the projection deviation
score was thirty-six, the subject's predictions then deviated
less from his own responses than from the responses of his
associate* By subtracting the raw empathy score from the pro
jection score, the subject would have a refined empathy score
of minus three. If, on the other hand, the raw empathy devi
ation was less than the projection deviation, the subject
would have a positive refined empathy score*
Rosalind F* Dymond, "A Scale for the Measurement of
Empathic Ability," Journal of Consulting Psychology, XIII
(April, 1949), 127-315T
4I* E* Bender, and A. H. Hastorf, "On Measuring Gen-
erlized Empathic Ability," Journal of Abnormal and Social
Psychology, XLVIII (October, 1953), 53-06.


74
It may be stated then that the obtained r of 37, since it
is larger than .345, Is significant at the 1 per cent level
of significance. Therefore, it may be concluded that a
significant and positive relationship does exist between
empathy and scholastic success.
The relationship between intelligence and. grade
point average, Table 7, gave the expected highly signifi
cant and positive correlation of .62. Although empathy and
intelligence have been shown to be related to scholastic suc
cess, a question now arises concerning the Influence of em
pathy as an independent factor, from intelligence, in scholas
tic success.
In order to test the relationship of empathy to scho
lastic success, when intelligence Is maintained constant, the
method of multiple and partial correlation was selected. Ini
tially, the Mean (M) and Standard Deviation (S.D.) of the
three variables, were computed. See Table 8, Calculation of
the Mean and S.D. of Etapa thy Scores; Table 9, Calculation of
the Mean and S.D. of Grade Point Averages; and Table 10, Cal
culation of the Mean and S.D. of A.C.E. (L) Scores.
In Table 11 A, having found the Intercorrelations of
the three variables, the net correlation may then be calcu
lated between (1) grade point average and (2) intelligence
with the influence of (3) empathy partialled out or held con
stant. This net or partial coefficient of correlation, is
61. This means that if all of the students had the same


79
TABLE 11
CALCULATION OP PARTIAL COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION
(1) (2) (3)
Grade Point Average A.C.E. (L) Scores Empathy Test Scores
Mr-
1.79
m2
= 62.45
M3
- -3.08
0.91
=15.50
= 10.20
r.n
* .62
= .37
r
tO
#H

II
12
13
23
Partial Correlation# Grade Point Average and A.C.E. (L)
Scores# Empathy Test Scores Maintained Constant
12.3 =
rl2 r13r23
.62 .37 x .16
^ .61
i/TT
13
l/l ( 37) ^ |/l (.16)2
B
Partial Correlation, Grade Point Average and Empathy
Test Scores, A.C.E. (L) Scores Maintained Constant
, r13 rl2r23
r13.2 = ...
l/l 111 ~ r23
.37 .62 x .16
|/l f.62)2 )l (.16)^
.35
C
Partial Correlation, A.C.E. (L) Scores and Empathy Test
Scores, Grade Point Average Maintained Constant
r23 r12r13
r23.1 = --
l/l *12 l/l rf3
.16 .62 x .37
-*.10
|/l (.62) ^ Jl (.37)2


14
ability known as empathy. Empathic ability is thought to be
a factor Influencing the social and educative process. In
order to help the individual make use of this ability in his
personal success it would appear that it should be related
to the present accepted measure of personal success that
is the scholastic grades. If it appears that this ability
is related to the grade point standing, it would prove the
operation of this ability and the necessity for personnel
workers to make further study of empathy so as to bring about
its improvement or greater workability in the individual.
This ability appears to be a social-focused ability and there
fore the responsibility for its development would lie in the
hands of personnel workers and all those who deal with stu
dents.
It is not reasonable to assume that any student is suc
cessful in college without a certain amount of scholastic
success; therefore, the relationship of empathy to scholas
tic grades would show the importance of this social-focused
ability in the success of the student. As in all social the
ory, such an ability is only useful in its relationship to
established goals.
If, on the other hand, this measurement were found not
to be related to academic goals it may imply that a social
ability, such as empathy, is not necessary in obtaining a col
lege degree and, programs which develop these abilities may
only be side issues to this objective of the college graduate


57
mechanisms, may be related to the learning and development
of the college student.
Summary
Studies then, which consider factors in the success
of the individual student are those which contribute most to
personnel work. The individual is a social as well as an in
tellectual being, social skills should be developed in the
student. Empathy is perhaps more basic than a social skill.
Its intellectual use as well as its social use are not yet
determined. Nonetheless it appears that few people either
learn or do their daily work without trying in some way,
large or small, to understand their fellow-man, who is ei
ther the object or interpreter of something. Empathy appears
to be the ability which aids this understanding. Therefore,
empathic ability as a factor to aid the understanding which
brings about personal success is of interest to personnel
workers


30
of communication failure. So are many factional rows inside
a country, squabbles within organizations, deadlocks in com
mittee meetings, personal fights and oven the schizophrenia
of a single tortured mind. On every level communication
lines may be blocked and severed completely when people fail
to landerstand the other. Elton Kayo in Social Problems of an
Industrial Civilization emphasizes the enormous importance of
this problem:
I believe that social study should begin with careful
observation of what may be described as communication;
that is, the capacity of an Individual to communicate his
feelings and ideas to another, the capacity of groups to
communicate effectively and intimately to each other.
This problem Is beyond all reasonable doubt the outstand
ing defect that civilization is facing today. ...Our
International troubles are unquestionably due to the fact
that effective communication between different national
groups was not accomplished. ...On the contrary, an ef
fort was often made to "find a formula", a logical state
ment which should conceal the fact that neither side had
any insight into the actual situation of the other.
Empathy Is a mechanism of communication, making for
the free flow of ideas through structured channels within
groups of all sizes, and between groups, up to the great na
tional and international units.
In the preface of his book, Social Dynamics, Gltt-
IS
ler, a sociologist, refers to the distinction made by
Cooley twenty-five years ago between two sorts of knowledge.
1 *7
Mayo, op. cit., pp. 22-23.
^Joseph B. GIttler, Social Dynamics, p. vil. New
York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1952.


95
neighborhood, as well as on an entire globe, Is the under
standing of the working of the minds of those brought up in
other cultures or with different values One hears dally
about the lack of logic in the Oriental mind* It is the
opinion of the writer, that understanding of opposite cul
tures can only be gained through knowledge brought about by
the empatille process, John Poster Dulles, Secretary of
State, in a recent radio speech stated: "If we could make
the people In the East understand our philosophies, we could
wP
make greater strides toward world peace."
The failure to use empathy, or the lack of Interest
in the attitudes of others can also bring about vital prob
lems influencing the lives of countless millions. A timely
example of this Is found in the suspension for security rea
sons of Dr. Robert Oppenheimer, world renowned atomic physi
cist* Dr. Oppenheimer, of his own volition, admitted that
he had for years lived in complete isolation from wordly af
fairs, outside his own specialized field, and had no idea of
the social problems besetting his country and culture. It
now appears this lack of Interest or ability to understand
the minds of his associates have led to disastrous implica
tions. It is necessary to ask, how many more such special
ists could perhaps be duped because of their lack of
o
Radio address by John Foster Dulles, March 24, 1954.
^Time Magazine, April 26, 1954, pp. 19-21.


64
following scale* Circle the number you think he would circle:
(1) Almost always (2) often (3) seldom (4) almost never.
When the subjects had finished this section of the
test, an identical test was given them with the insti*uction,
"Please answer these same questions by circling the number
that indicates your feeling or opinion about each of these
situations ,l
Sources of the Data
Approximately two-hundred students took the test of
empathy and returned one-hundred and eighty satisfactorily
completed tests* Thirty-seven of this number were upper class-
men or freshmen beginning their first semester. The academic
records of the remaining one-hundred and forty-three subjects
were inspected at the office of the university registrar. In
an attempt to select a learning situation most nearly uniform,
the general education courses ofthe University College were
selected because of their use of standard study materials arri
examinations. Fifty-five students who had had a common core
of three general education courses were selected as subjects
for the study.
The following description of these courses is quot
ed from the University of Florida Catalog:
C1, American Institutions Designed to develop
and stimulate the ability to interpret the Interrelated
problems confronting American institutions, The une
qual rates of change in technology, in economic life,
in government, in family life, in education, and in


APPENDIX C
EDUCATIONAL TESTING SERVICE
20 Nassau Street, Princeton, New Jersey
OFFICE OF TEE PRESIDENT
March 4, 1954
Professor Leon N. Henderson
College of Education
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
Dear Professor Henderson:
I have inquired from members of our staff about
studies presently being made on empathy. The principal
workers are listed below and also the institutions with
which they are associated.
N. L. Gage University of Illinois
F. L. Strodtbeck Yale University
U. Bronfenbrenner and P. F. Dempsey Cornell
Fred E. Fiedler College of Education, University
of Illinois
Lee J. Cronbach University of Illinois
I enjoyed very much meeting you at the Tallahassee
conference. I hope when you are visiting New York on some
occasion you will drop in and pay us a visit in Princeton.
Sincerely yours,
Henry Chauncey
HCsSS
109


35
in judgment of the age, sex, size, nationality, profession,
and social caste of the stranger, together with some estimate
of his temperament, his past suffering, his "hardness", his
ascendance, friendliness, neatness, and even his trustworthi
ness and integrity* Now some people appear to make these es
timates more accurately than others. Sir Conan Doyle attrib
uted an uncanny perceptive ability to the success of his fic
tional character, Sherlock Holmes.
"The ability to judge people," while Important enough
to serve the psychologist Allport3 as a chapter heading, has
been studied by only a few investigators. As reported by
Allport,4 Estes asked judges to rate certain subjects after
observing brief motion pictures of their behavior. He found
that the group of best judges were one-third more correct than
the poorest group, while the best single judge was two-thirds
better than the poorest judge.
In Allport,3 Adams had eighty girls rate themselves
and each other on forty-six variables. In no trait did the
ability to rate others attain a coefficient greater than .42
but the ability to rate self was found to be differentiated
from the ability to rate others.
In an ambitious study of the qualities of a good
3G. W. Allport, Personality, pp. 499-522. New Yorks
Henry Holt and Company, 1937.
4Ibld., pp. 507-09.
5Ibld., p. 509




7
7
> *
APPENDICES
?


6
insight about oneself.12 It would appear that the social ad
justment which is facilitated by this process may also prove
a facilitating mechanism in a learning situation. At this
point, one might suggest that an experiment be made to ascer
tain the relationship between such an ability as empathy with
some measure of learning.
The Problem
The supposition of this study is stated as a null
hypothesis: that students with high empathic ability achieve
no better scholastic success, as measured by grade point
standing, than those with low empathic ability.
More specifically it is the intent of the study to:
1. Determine whether a significant relationship ex
ists between empathic ability and scholastic success when in
telligence, as measured by the American Council on Education
Psychological Examination ("L" or verbal score), is maintain
ed constant.
2. Describe the implications of these findings for
student personnel workers.
The instrument to measure empathy will bo that de-
13
vised by Bender and Hastorf in which a refined index of
12
'Gardner Murphy, Personality: A Blosoclal Approach
to Origins and Structure, pp. 545,'546. flew York: harper and
Brothera, 1947.
13
I. E. Bender, and A. H. Hastorf, "On Measuring
Generalized Empathic Ability", Journal of Abnormal and Social
Psychology, XLVIII (October, 1953), 503-06.


G3
counselors In charge of sections of the freshmen residence
halls* Prom thirteen sections, six were selected at random
to take part in the experiment* The student counselors
in these sections were contacted individually and arrange
ments made to give the test of empathy at the next hall meet
ing of the residents*
At this meeting, the student counselor introduced
the experimenter to his students* The cooperation of the
group was stimulated by explaining the pioneering aspects of
this social research which would provide greater knowledge
about the mechanism of understanding other people*
The test, which required approximately twenty minutes
for administration, wa3 then given to the students. The sub
jects were instructed to imagine themselves as another person
in the group and to answer the questions as this person would
answer them* The following instructions were given:
1* Write your name on the first line*
2. Write the name of your associate on the second
line the person whose response you will predict.
3. Please read through these instructions with me
we are asking that you respond to this test in a special
way* You are to predict how your associate would answer
these statements* It is imperative that you do not answer
these statements with your opinion of the person, but rather
as you think he would answer them himself. Please use the


]
BIBLIOGRAPHY


8
ability and grade point standing does not necessarily prove
that erapathlc ability affects scholastic success; it simply
means that high and low empathizers do actually differ in
scholastic success. But the acceptance of a positive hypoth
esis -- it should be noted is usually the end result of a
series of experiments. Furthermore, it is a logical as v/ell
as a statistical conclusion.
3. The American Council on Education Psychological
Examination (L or verbal score) used to measure intelligence
has been shown to have a relatively high correlation with in
dividual and group tests purported to measure abstract intelli-
r
gence. In Superb, Anderson and others reported correlations
of .49 and .51 between two different forms of the A.C.E. (L)
test and the Wechsler-Bellevue Individual test of intelligence.
4. Scholastic success, as measured by grade point
standing, has many shortcomings as a measure of success; how
ever, it is an arbitrary dimension against which most colleges
and students expect evaluation. Until better measures of suc
cess are developed and accepted it remains an expedient and
prevalent criterion against which prediction and methods of
improving student performance may be evaluated.
15Donald E. Super, Appraising Vocational Fitness,
p. 118. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1945.
1GIbid., p. 118.




BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books
Allport, G. W. Personality. New York: Henry Holt and Com
pany, 1937r¡
Brouwor, Paul J. Student Personnel Services in General Edu
cation Washington, D.C.: American Council on Educa
tion, 1949.
Chase, Stuart. The Proper Study of Mankind. New York: Harper
and Brothers, 1948.
Clayton, Alfred S. Emergent Mind and Education. New York:
Teachers College, Columbia Uni ver'si ty,' Contributions
to Education, No. 867, 1943.
Cooley, C. H. Human Nature and the Social Order. New York:
Charles Scribners Sons, 1902.
Coutu, Walter. Emergent Human Nature. New York: Alfred
Knopf, 194&.
Dewey, John. Democracy and Education. New York: The Mac
millan Company/ 196.
Duffus, R. L. Democracy Enters College. New York: Charles
Seribners Sons, 1936*
Garrett, Henry E. Statistics in Psychology and Education.
New York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1948.
Gesell, Arnold, and Ilg, Francis L. Infant and Child in the
Culture of Today. New York: Harper and Brothers, 143.
Gittler, Joseph B. Social Dynamics. New York: McGraw-Hill
Book Company, fric., 1952.
Guilford, J. P. Fundamental Statistics in Psychology and
Education. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company,
Inc., 1§50
Healy, W., Bronner, Augusta and Bowers, Anna Mae. The Struc-
ture and Meaning of Psychoanalysis. New York: Alfred
iKopmw;
Hutchins, Robert M. No Friendly Voice. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 1936.
98


47
the student's achievement or present worth; and the cur
rent tendency is toward the evaluation of the individual
student and the use of that evaluation as a basis for
his further education. ...In almost every college worthy
of the name $ome effort is being made to break down mass
education, to furnish individual guidance, to take advan
tage of the individual student's tastes, enthusiasm, and
abilities, to put less emphasis on enforced classroom
exercises and more upon self-propelled activities, and,
in short, to set the student free to educate himself and
test him by his success in doing so.
In practice, these forementioned cleavages in the
philosophy of higher education are generally a matter of de
gree with the student as well as with the institution. Real
istically, if student personnel work is to serve the needs of
students, it must find it's role with respect to these opposed
points of view. The needs of the student and the requirements
of the college will in considerable degree determine how the
personnel worker can best serve the student.
Greater knowledge about people through knowledge
gained from the social and biological sciences increases the
effectiveness of personnel work. Colleges and universities
are assuming increased responsibility for the education of
the total individual and personnel workers must be prepared
to do their part in a philosophy which recognises the impor
tance of the fullest possible development of the student*
The scope of this responsibility has been outlined in the re
port of the President's Commission on Higher Education:
%. Lo Duffus, Democracy Enters College, pp. 234-35.
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1936.


78
TABLE 10
CALCULATION OP THE MEAN AND S.D.
OP A.C.E. (L) SCORES
Class-Intervals
Scores
Mid-Point
f
X*
fX
fX2
109
to
113
111
1
9
9
81
104
to
108
106
0
8
0
0
99
to
103
101
1
7
7
49
94
to
98
96
1
6
6
36
89
to
93
91
0
5
0
0
84
to
88
86
0
4
0
0
79
to
83
81
5
3
15
45
74
to
78
76
2
2
4
8
69
to
73
71
8
1
8
8
64
to
69
66
8
0
5$ 0
59
to
63
61
7
-1
-7
7
54
to
58
56
4
-2
-8
16
49
to
53
51
5
-3
-15
45
44
to
48
46
7
-4
-28
112
39
to
43
41
N
6 -5
-30
"=33
150
T57
AM 66,00
c EfX -39
_ -.709
ci = -3,55
-
m e,45
1=5
ci = 5 x -.709 =
-3.55
-2 *
i = I557 -
(-.709)2 x 5 =
15.50
\/53


69
TABLE 3
SUBJECTS
IN RANK
ORDER
BY GRADE
POINT
AVERAGE
Subject
Ia
nb
hi0
Subject
Ia
IIb
IIIo
24
82
6
4.00
30
61
10
1.91
43
100
8
4.00
1
65
-5
1.73
14
95
3
3*64
2
60
-8
1.73
5
82
4
3.64
34
59
-24
1.73
3
74
8
3.27
18
54
23
1.73
21
113
1
3.00
20
72
-5
1.64
27
68
-3
2.91
31
48
-2
1.64
45
68
3
2.73
12
80
-32
1.64
50
70
-2
2.64
38
59
-10
1.36
11
66
5
2.64
16
58
-13
1.36
46
65
10
2.64
35
56
6
1.36
52
82
15
2.55
37
63
-16
1.27
47
45
3
2.55
10
68
-5
1.09
6
42
6
2.36
4
69
-10
1.00
29
69
12
2.27
23
69
-17
1.00
17
67
6
2.27
39
63
-3
1.00
41
82
-6
2.00
36
60
-6
1.00
7
76
4
2.00
28
51
-12
1.00
9
71
-15
2.00
19
41
-6
1.00
13
70
-6
2.00
32
43
-13
0.91
55
66
-7
2.00
40
73
-4
0.73
8
51
-16
2.00
25
48
-3
0.73
54
49
-25
2.00
48
46
3
0.73
51
46
3
2.00
42
43
i
0.64
26
46
2
2.00
33
57
0
0.55
53
44
15
2,00
22
52
-5
0.36
49
41
-2
2.00
15
39
6
0.36
44
51
2
0.27
aRaw score (L or verbal section) American Council
on Education Psychological Examination
^Empathy Test Score
cGrade Point Average


50
related to these ends, and students* organizations
should be incorporated in the institutions total
educational program#12
Implementation of the Personnel Philosophy
Almost every writer in the field of student person
nel work has emphasized the acceleration of interest in this
field since 1920# Activity has increased by leaps and bounds.
The number of published articles and books, the reports of
research, and the increase in the number of personnel officers
in colleges and universities are ample evidence of this fact.
Clearly, there is a growing active Interest in personnel work,
and further evidence of this interest is the need for a wide
spread knowledge of the elements of a good student personnel
program.
Generally speaking, it may have become too common to
think of all out-of-class activities as a responsibility of
the personnel deans. It would bo a mistake to dichotomize
the education of students between that which is learned in the
classroom and that called extra-curricula. Prom the point
of view of the personnel philosophy the whole individual is
implicated in every situation and success or failure in one
area of living has an effect on the student which may be car
ried into other situations.
12The Student Personnel Point of View," American
Council on Education Studies, (Washington, D.C. : The Amer
ican Council on Education, September, 1949), Vol. XIII, No.
13, pp. 3, 4.


BIOGRAPHICAL DATA
Prank May Chambers was born In Yonkers, New York on
December 21, 1919. He graduated from Belleville High School,
Belleville, New Jersey in 1937,
The writer received his Bachelor of Science Degree
in Chemistry from St, Lawrence University, Canton, New York
in 1941 and his Master of Science in Education from Cornell
University in 1948, The doctoral program at the University
of Florida was begun in 1949,
Upon completion of undergraduate studies the writer
taught chemistry and other sciences at Harpursville High
School In New York State, Subsequently he was called to
service and received a commission In the United States Navy
where he served three-and-a-half years, most of the time as
Photo Intelligence Officer aboard the U.S,S. Bunker Hill,
He now holds the rank of Lieutenant Commander,
Following the war and for three years, he was as
sistant to the Dean of Students at Sampson College, a part
of the New York State University system.
His studies for the doctorate at the University of
Florida were interrupted by two years of Navy service where
he served as an Instructor at the Naval Intelligence School,
Washington, D,C,
He Is a member of Phi Delta Kappa, Kappa Delta Pi
and the American Personnel and Guidance Association,
110


87
University, have contributed important data for isolating
the psychological mechanism of empathy In addition, studies
are now In progress at Cornell University, the University of
Illinois, and Yale University, among others*^
It was the purpose of this v/riter to use Bender and
Hastorfd Instrument for measuring empathy to determine ex
perimentally the relationship of empathic ability to scholas
tic success and to present philosophically the case for its
further study and understanding by personnel workers*
Empathy and scholastic success An experiment was
conducted to determine the relationship of empathy to scho
lastic success when intelligence is held constant* The ex
periment Involved the prediction of the reaction of associ
ates to proposed questions as given on a test* Each subject
gave his own reaction to a proposed situation and predicted
his associated reactions to the same situation* The test
score was assumed to be a numerical Index of empathic ability.
The academic achievement of all the subjects were
compared In three courses common to the experimental group
and a measure of Intelligence was obtained from scores on
the (L or verbal section) of the American Council on Educa
tion Psychological Examination*
^Letter from Henry Chauncey, President, Educational
Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey, March 4, 1954*


26
This perception of the individual not only leads to
reaction to the behavior of others but helps him integrate
his picture of himself. He therefore becomes a well-adjusted
person and he is, at times, able to eliminate his own biased
opinion of himself and still see why others either do or do
not understand him. His own opinion of himself is then, the
opinion of others tempered by his own mind. He then, is a
social being because of the social pressure of others on his
empathic ability which in turn causes him to make himself in
to a self which is a mixture of his own feelings and the con
cepts of others.
An Operational Concept of Empathy and Its Measurement
Social Interaction Is based on role-taking which re
fers to ones use of the attitudes and feeling of others in
his own behavior toward them; that is, in interaction one as
sumes the relevant attitudes and feelings of the other person,
rehearses it within ones self, and then responds to ones own
rehearsal.
The ability to use the attitudes and feelings of an
other clearly depend upon ones perceiving In the same manner
as another. It is physically impossible that one can per
ceive from the same point of vantage as another. Although
the perceptions of two people may be similar, they are never
the same. The nearest approximation to anothers perception
can only be achieved by imagining oneself in his place.


CHAPTER III
RELATED STUDIES
It is the purpose of this study to determine whether
empathy or the ability to predict the responses of another is
associated with scholastic success* In the previous chapter,
social theory and clinical evidence have shown empathy to be
an important mechanism in developing selfhood, understanding
of others, and insight into oneself. Furthermore, it has been
hypothesized that this socialization process, achieved through
the empathie process, amy also prove a facilitating mechanism
in a learning situation. The acceptance by this study of
Dymond's operational definition of empathy, "The imaginative
transposing of oneself into the thinking, feeling, and actin[
m1
of another and so structuring the world as he does, provides
a description of empathy that can be subjected to measurement
and its Influence determined In given situations. This writ
er, In a survey of related literature finds no experimental
evidence to support the Implication that empathy may facili
tate learning. However, as a result of sustained efforts to
define and measure empathie ability, it would appear that the
relationship of empathy and learning or scholastic success can
-^Rosalind F. Dymond, "A Scale for the Measurement of
Empathie Ability," Journal of Consulting Psychology, XIII
(April, 1953), 14.
33


31
"One, the development of sense contacts into knowledge of
things, he called spatial and material knowledge. "The sec-
ond is developed from contact with the minds of other men,
through communication, which sets going a process of thought
and sentiment similar to theirs and enables us to understand
them by sharing their states of mind. This he designated as
social knowledge. Gittler has explained the importance of
this latter sort of knowledge in a learning situation:
Detailed case studies, because of their vivid and
dramatic accounts of human experiences and social re
lationships, tend to transmit that type of knowledge
which Cooley defines as social. Case materials, ade
quately recorded, reveal those aspects of human behav
ior which the reader can comprehend with sympathetic
interpretation. Knowledge of human nature demands
that one assume the role of the other and experience
with emotion and empathy, the other*s covert nature
his attitudes, values, feelings -- as well as his mani
fest overt character.
If learning is looked upon as a sort of "experienc
ing into a situation, as well as sheer mastery or memoriza
tion of fact, it appears that an ability which permits the
taking of the role of another facilitates "experiencing Into"
a situation. Clayton, In his study of Meads bio- social be
haviorism, finds this Implication for education:
Mead sees at the heart of the learning process the
mechanism whereby one takes the attitude of the other.
The factory workers son learns about the farmer's life
by taking the attitude of the farmer toward his environ
ment. The pupil learns about his physical environment
by taking the attitude of the scientist, engineer, car
penter, banker, or soldier. This In Mead's opinion is
19Ibid., p. vil.


CHAPTER IV
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF EMPATHY TO
STUDENT PERSONNEL WORK
To understand the role of empathy in personnel work,
the interpretation of the basic philosophy of such work must
be shown. The personnel philosophy or point of view points
out that the total individual should be educated. In order
to carry out this ideal in anything but a highly superficial
manner the interaction of individuals must be considered.
The mechanism of empathy can then be seen to be a factor of
great importance in social interaction and, therefore, highly
important in personnel work.
Aims and Objectives of Higher Education
The purpose or purposes of student personnel work
must be examined from the broader view of the objectives of
higher education. Student personnel work Is not an end in
Itself but is a means of helping students achieve their goals
in Institutions of higher education.
A little more than a decade ago, Lloyd-Jones and
Smith, as a result of a survey of literature and practices,
concluded, that there are two major cleavage lines in the
43


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OP PROBLEM
In the daily interaction of people some individuals
appear to have certain qualities not found in others, at least
not to the same extent. Some of these qualities appear to
contribute to successful social Interaction. The qualities
in which this study is interested are those of sensitivity
or awareness to the needs and desires of others. They are,
among others, qualities of warmth and affection. These qual
ities in a leader, will aid him in seeing the attitudes and
feelings of his students or constituents. Furthermore, the
individual who has these qualities, perceives more clearly
what Is expected of him by a leader, a teacher, or his com
rades. Individuals with this ability are thought of as being
more human. They not only understand themselves but also
the reasons for the actions and beliefs of their associates.
They seem to be able to put themselves In another*s place.
This ability," states Reramers, "holds every promise of being
the giftie of Robert Burns: To see oursllves as ithers see
us."1
lH. H. Remmers, "A Quantitative Index of Social-
Psychological Empathy," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry,
XX (January, 1950), 164.
1


This dissertation was prepared under the direction
of the Chairman of the candidates supervisory committee and
has been approved by all members of the committee. It was
submitted to the Dean of the College of Education and to the
Graduate Council and was approved as partial fulfilment of
the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education.
June 7, 1954
SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE:


65
religion are analyzed and interpreted to show the need
for a more effective coordination of the factors of our
evolving social organization of today. Careful scrutiny
is made of the changing functions of our institutions
as joint interdependent activities so that a conclous-
ness of the significant relationships between the indi
vidual and social institutions may be developed, from
which conciousness a greater degree of social adjustment
may be achieved,
C-3, Reading, Speaking, and Writing Freshman
English A comprehensive English course designed to
enlarge the students store of ideas and meanings and
to increase his efficiency in the communication arts ~
reading, writing, speaking, and listening. The course
provides regular practice in oral and silent reading,
In thought analysis, In improving the form and style
of written and oral expression, in extending the vocab
ulary, and in making effective use of the body and voice
in speaking. Students are encouraged to read widely as
a means of broadening their Interests and Increasing
their ability to communicate effectively.
C-41, Practical Logic The principal aims are (1)
to develop ability to think with greater accuracy and
thoroughness and (2) to develop ability to evaluate the
thinking of others. The material used applies to actual
living and working conditions. The case method is used
to insure practice, and numerous exercises are assigned.
The A.C.E. (L) scores of the fifty-five subjects
were obtained from the office of Student Personnel Records.
All of the subjects had taken the 1953 Revision of the Ameri
can Council on Education Psychological Examination in Septem
ber, 1953,
The University Record of the University of Florida,
1953 54, pp. 275, 276. University of' Florida Bulletin,
Vol. XLVIII, No. 4. Gainesville, Florida: University of
Florida, April, 1953.


68
TABLE 2
SUBJECT IN RANK ORDER BY EMPATHY SCORE
Subject
Ia
11^
IIIC
Subject
Ia
IIb
IIIo
18
54
23
1.73
25
48
-3
0.73
52
82
15
2.55
27
68
-3
2.91
29
69
12
2.27
39
63
-3
1.00
30
61
10
1.91
48
46
-3
0.73
46
65
10
2.64
40
73
-4
0.73
3
74
8
3.27
1
65
5
1.73
43
100
8
4.00
10
68
-5
1.73
35
56
6
1.36
20
72
5
1.64
24
82
6
4.00
22
52
-5
0.36
17
67
6
2.27
13
70
-6
2.00
15
39
6
0.36
19
41
-6
1.00
6
42
6
2.36
36
60
6
1.00
11
66
5
2.64
41
82
-6
2.00
7
76
4
2.00
55
66
-7
2.00
5
82
4
3.64
2
60
-8
1.73
14
95
3
3.64
4
69
-10
1.00
47
45
3
2.55
28
51
-12
1.00
51
46
3
2.00
32
41
-13
0.91
45
68
3
2.73
16
58
-13
1.36
44
51
2
0.27
9
71
-15
2.00
42
43
1
0.64
53
44
-15
2.00
21
113
1
3.00
37
63
-16
1.27
33
57
0
0.55
8
51
-16
2.00
26
46
-2
2.00
23
69
-17
1.00
31
48
2
1.64
38
59
18
1.36
50
70
-2
2.64
34
59
-24
1.73
49
41
-2
2.00
54
49
-25
2.00
12
80
-32
1.64
aRaw acoro (L or verbal section) American Council
on Education Psychological Examination
^Empathy Test Score
cGrade Point Average


55
by them* If he sees their strength, he can encourage it*
He knows where to help his fellow students and hence his role
becomes favorable from the point of view of his colleagues*
If a student is to be successful in all the various
phases of his campus life and assume a satisfactory role in
society, he must also be successful in his academic work*
Por the student this involves understanding of the subject
matter as well as understanding of the teacher. The teacher
is the interpreter of the subject matter learned in the class
room and indirectly most of that learned outside the class
room, the two can scarcely be separated. The subject must
then understand his teacher. Frequently, students fail to
understand the personality of the teacher, and as a conse
quence, fail to understand what phases of the subject matter
are important to the teacher and hence lose the Important
points In the course. This mechanism works both ways. The
teacher who fails to understand the way the minds of his stu
dents perceive, is probably a very poor teacher. This is es
pecially true in the case of mediocre students who need spe
cial help but who may, with an empathic teacher, learn the
material as well as the brighter students.
Empathy, then, it would appear Is a mechanism which
helps the main aims and purposes of a personnel program in
bringing about the optimum development of the Individual.
The ability to empathize is a valuable aid in the


20
The experiencing with the client, the living of his
attitudes, is not in terms of an emotional involvement
or emotional Identification on the counselors part, but
rather an empathic identification where the counselor is
perceiving the hopes and fears of the client through im
mersion in an empathic process...
Dymond states, "Identification appears to be a very
special kind of role-taking; one that Is more lasting, less
frequent, and more emotional than Is Implied in the term em-
9
pa thy.
Projection is almost the reverse process of the em
pathic process. It involves endowing another with ones own
attitudes and feelings. Projection appears to be a normal
mechanism of the infant and to operate in varying degrees in
different individuals into adult life. Murphy says:
Prom this indeterminateness of the boundaries of the
self, especially in Infancy but to some degree through
out life, follows the process of projection by virtue of
which experiences arising from ones own sensory proc
ess of projection are felt to belong to others, the
motives of others are judged by analogy with one's own,
and the world..is peopled with individuals essentially
like ones eIf. u
Dymond also, views empathy and projection as contra
ry:
Projection seems to be an antithetical process to
Carl R. Rogers, "The Attitude and Orientation of the
Counselor," Journal of Consulting Psychology* XIII (February,
1949), 86.
^Rosalind P. Dymond, "Personality and Empathy," Journal
of Consulting Psychology, XIV (October, 1950), 344.
^Murphy, op. cit., pp. 495-96.


88
The results were grouped in rank order for each var
iable; empathy, intelligence, and grado point average. In
spection of this data revealed that the high empathy scores
were related to high grade point average or scholastic suc
cess.
A statistical test was then made to determino tho
relationship between the variables. The following correla
tions were obtained:
1. Correlation of empathy and intelligence was
16 (not significant)
2. Correlation of intelligence and grade point
average was .62 (significant at the 1 per cent level of
confidence)
3. Correlation of empathy and grade point average
was .37 (significant at the 1 per cent level of confidence).
It was concluded that empathy and Intelligence are
related to scholastic success.
The independent relationship of these variables was
next ascertained using the method of partial correlation and
the net correlations calculated:
1. The net correlation between grade point average
and intelligence with the Influence of empathy partialled out
or held constant, was .61 (significant at the 1 per cent lev
el of confidence)
2. The net correlation between grade point average


39
validation: interpersonal desirability or sociometric status,
"How Supervise?" test score, job satisfaction, and a self
judgment score. Multiple correlations between the Empathy
Test and the first three criteria, and between the Empathy
Test with "How Supervise?" were .66 and .62 respectively.
Van Zelst concluded that these intercorrelations, as well as
those of previous researchers, suggest that the Empathy Test
is useful in the selection of leaders, sales personnel, and
counselors.
In an attempt to measure individual differences in
perceptual ability, Bender and Hastorf17 compared obtained
scores and forecast scores. A group of undergraduates filled
out three personality scales (obtained scores). The same
subjects attempted to predict the exact verbal responses of
one or two acquaintances in this group on these same three
scales (forecast scores). The experimenters obtained the
following results: (1) low positive correlation between ob
tained and forecast scores on each of the three scales; (2)
no apparent consistency in forecasting ability either when
forecasting for a subject on the three scales or when fore
casting on the same for two different subjects; and (3) the
^How Supervise?, ed. by Quentin W. Pile, and H. H.
Remmers, New York: The Psychological Corporation, 1954.
^7I. E. Bender, and A. H. Hastorf, "The Perception
of Persons: Forecasting Another Person's Response on Three
Personality Scales", Journal of Abnormal and Social Psycho
logy, XLV (July, 1950TT'$56-01.


Page 2
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
almost always 2. often 3. seldom
4. (22) I rationalize my failures to my friends.
4. almost never
1. 2. 3.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
1. 2.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
3.
4. (23) I readily adopt my friends opinion of another person, even before
meeting him.
4. (24) I enjoy introducing myself to strangers at a social gathering.
4. (25) If I could get into a movie without paying and be sure I was not seen, I
would probably do it.
4. (26) I like to argue with people.
4. (27) I feel embarrassed, even when I make trivial errors.
4. (28) When a stranger is seated next to me on a train, I keep my attention on
something else in order to avoid conversation with him.
4. (29) I like to give people advice.
4. (30) In a party I like to be the center of attraction.
4. (31) When I am beating a friend in tennis by a large margin, I tend to let up
on my play.
4. (32) At a reception or tea I feel reluctant to meet the important person
present.
4. (33) I dislike public displays of affection.
4. (34) When I am dancing with my date at a party I resent a fellow cutting in
on me.
4. (35) I tend to avoid discussions on topics with which I am unfamiliar.
4. (36) I worry about whether or not people appreciate me.
4. (37) I shrink from emotional scenes.
4. (38) I feel sympathetic with people who are in trouble,
4. (39) I feel like giving up quickly when things go wrong.
4. (40) I keep my ideals to myself.
4, (41) When I do something selfish I worry about it afterwards.
4. (42) If the group I am with wants to do something I don't approve of, I go
along with them without protesting.
105


42
Summary
The studies reviewed in this chapter have shown that
individuals do differ in their ability to predict the re
sponses of another and that this generalized ability is akin
to the psychological mechanism of empathy. Those whose em
pathy is high have been characterized as outgoing, optimis
tic warm, emotional people, who have a strong interest in
others. Furthermore, Kerr and Speroff have found this abil
ity is unrelated to intelligence and most basic aptitudes.
The technique of measuring empathy developed by
Pymond and refined by Bender and Hastorf and, purported to
measure, "the imaginative transposing of oneself into the
thinking, feeling, and acting of another and so structuring
the world as he does," appears to be a measure of empathy or
ones ability to predict the responses of another. Further
more, it has been shown that the refinement of the empathy
score (corrected for the influence of projection) brings about
a consistency of prediction that appears to be a measure of
a generalized ability.
The summary of literature, and conclusions reached
by Gage, clearly emphasize that when counselors are better
able to appraise their clients or students understanding
of others, they will have an improved basis for counseling
concerning activities and occupations which depend upon ef
fectiveness in interpersonal relationships.


7
empathy has been shown to be a consistent measure of a gener
alized ability. The test will be given to a group of under
graduate college students. The students grade point stand
ing and his score on the American Council on Education Psy
chological Examination (A.C.E.), will be obtained from offi
cial records of the University.
The independent relationship of the t res variables;
empathy, intelligence, and grade point average will be com
pared using the method of partial correlation. The findings
of this experiment will be usod as a basis for accepting or
rejecting the (null) hypothesis of the study. The implica
tions of these findings will be discussed from the viewpoint
of the philosophy and practices of student personnel work.
Limitations of the Study
1. This study does not suggest new procedures in
student personnel work. It does attempt to show whether
there may be implications for personnel workers in improv
ing the workability of empathy among students.
2. It is important to realize that the rejection of
a null hypothesis does not force the acceptance of a contrary
14
view. A significant statistical correlation between empathic
J. J, B. Morgan, "Credence Given to One Hypothesis
Because of the Overthrow of Its Rivals," American Journal of
Psycholory, LVIII (January, 1945), 62.


82
It may now be stated that, ability in the A.C.E. (L) test
with what it has in common with empathy held constant, contri
butes about 35 per cent to scholastic success and that em
pathy, apart from that portion related to A.C.E. (L) test
ability, contributes about 10 per cent.
TABLE 12
CALCULATION OP MULTIPLE COEFFICIENT OP CORRELATION
OP A.C.E. (L) SCORE AND EMPATHY
TEST SCORE, WITH GRADE
POINT AVERAGE
J3 ,
rl2 r13r23
.62 .37 x
.16
= .575
^ >2.3
to
03 01
u
1
H
1 (.16)
2
J3 -.
r13 ri2r23
.37 .62 x
.16
= .278
^ is. z
i _2
1 r23
1 (.16)
2
R2
x*23 =
A 2.3 r12 +
^/3.r13
-
(.575) (.616)
+ (.278) (.365)
R2
.354200 + .
101470
R2 -
.4557
R =
.68
It may now be stated that, ability in the A.C.E. (L)
test with what it has in common with empathy held constant,
contributes about 35 per cent to scholastic success and that


37
one another*n-^
Using the Wechsler-Bellevue intelligence test, the
Rorschach personality test, the Thematic Apperception Test,
and the California Ethnocentrism test, together with the sub
jects own self-analysis, Dymond sketches the personality
picture of the high and low empathizer:
Those whose empathy is high are outgoing, optimistic,
warm, emotional people, who have a strong interest in
others* They are flexible people whose emotional rela
tions with others, particularly their early family rela
tions have been sufficiently satisfying so that they find
investing emotionally in others rewarding* Their own
level of security is such that they can afford an inter
est in others. While they are emotional people, their
emotionality is woll-controlled and richly enjoyed*
Those low in empathy are rather rigid, introverted
people who are subject to outbursts of uncontrolled emo
tionality* They seem unable to deal with concrete mate
rial and interpersonal relations very successfully. They
are either self-centered and demanding in their emotion
al contacts or else lone wolves who prefer to get along
without strong ties to other people* Their own early
relationships within the family seem to have been so dis
turbed and unsatisfying that they feel they cannot afford
to invest their love in others as they need it all for
themselves* They seem to mistrust others, to encapsulate
themselves and not to be well integrated with the world
of reality. They seem to compensate for their lack of
emotional development by stressing the abstract intellec
tual approach to life as the safest. Some of those in
this group seem to be aware of their patterns and of the
nature of their unsatisfactory adjustmnet to other peo
ple; others have rationalized their behavior to the ex
tent of developing a role of superiority which satisfies
them* The mere fact that they are so inwardly oriented
and rigid in their structure makes it impossible for
them to empathize with others successfully* It is unim
portant to them to know what the other is thinking and
feeling; it i3 their own thoughts and feelings that
10
Ibid*, p. 132


46
Contemporaries, such as Hutchins, maintain that: "The univer
sity is intellectual. It is wholly and completely so."6 "In
general education we may wisely leave experience to lifo and
set about our job of intellectual training."6 "The three
worst v/ords in education are Character*, personality*, and
facts."7
Prom quite a different point of view, men like
Wrlston of Brown University proclaim, "College is an experi
ence both individual and social; it is Intellectual, physical,
emotional, spiritual. It Is a time for the maturation of per
sonality."8
This latter philosophy is becoming more respectable
as a result of social research. This trend is apparent in a
historical reviev/ presented by Duffus:
The old pattern of college education broke down as
new subjects forced their way Into the curriculum; the
result of this breakdown was a period of educational
anarchy in which it became almost Impossible for edu
cators to agree on the content or objectives of a col
lege course, and In which educational standards were
threatened because no one could define them; the next
step was an attempt to reduce education to mathematical
units; this attempt failed because It was found that
units, hours, and credits did not and could not measure
^Robert M. Hutchins, The Higher Learning in America,
p. 118. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University 'Press, 1936.
6Ibld., p. 70.
7Hutchins, No Friendly Voice, p. 29. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, "1936
8Henry M. Wriston, "The Integrity of the College", School
and Society, XLIII (February, 1936), 192.


101
Dymond, Rosalind F. "A Scale for the Measurement of Empathic
Ability, Journal of Consulting Psychology, XIII,
(1949), 127-153.
Gage, N. L. "Accuracy of Social Perception and Effectiveness
in Interpersonal Relationships," Journal of Personality,
XXII, (1953), 128-141.
Gage, N. L. "Explorations in the Understanding of Others,"
Educational and Psychological Measurements, XIII,
119531714^6;
Hastorf, A. H., and Bender, I. E* "A Caution Respecting the
Measurement of Empathic Ability," Journal of Abnormal
and Social Psychology, XLVII, (1952')TS7i-g7g":
Morgan, J. J. B. "Credence Given to One Hypotheis Because of
the Overthrow of It*s Rivals," American Journal of Psy
chology, LVIII, (1945), 54-64.
Remmers, H. H. "A Quantitative Index of Social-Psychological
Empathy," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, XX,
(1950), letter.
Remmers, Lois J., and Remmers, H* H. "Labor Leaders* Atti
tudes Toward Industrial Supervision and Their Estimates
of Managements* Attitude," Personnel Psychology, II,
(1949), 427-436.
Rogers, Carl R. "The Attitudes and Orientation of the Coun
selor," Journal of Consulting Psychology, XIII, (1949),
82-94.
Time Magazine. "J. Robert Oppenheimer His Life and Times,"
LXIII, T1954), 19-21.
Van Zelst, Raymond. "Validation Evidence on the Empathy
Test," Educational and Psychological Measurements,
xiii, (Tossr; "4Y4-4W.
Vernon, R. E. "Some Characteristics of the Good Judge of
Personality," Journal of Social Psychology, IV, (1933),
42-58.
Wriston, Henry M. "The Integrity of the College," School
and Society, XLIII, (1936), 183-193.


28
of the implications:
Advantages to the person:
1.Enables one to anticipate the probable behavior of
another, thus forming a primary mechanism of social ad
justment.
2* Provides one with a reference for an accurate
concept of ones self. Anticipating the response of an
other to ones own act, thereby interpreting, giving
meaning to, ones concept of ones self. By this process
a person defines his own social situations.
3. Furnishes the basis for confidence in ones self.
4. Gives others confidence in a person, for it is
empirical evidence of his consideration for them, which
in practically all groups is defined as good manners, and
generally arouses immediate social approval and coopera
tion. Our traditions which encourage parents and others
to treat children as playthings prevents our treating
them as people and putting ourselves in their place.
Those who work with problem children" are constantly
frustrated by the difficulty of making parents and other
adults see children as people. Children do not appear
to them as "others"; they are just youngsters.
5. Widens ones own experience thus broadening and
enriching the personality and providing increased oppor
tunities for self actualization.
6. Stimulates others to show affection for you.
7. By it one gains knowledge of the rights of others
and it therefore places one in a position to soe and
measure components in the field to which one would not
otherwise be sensitive.
8. Places one in a position of leadership in many
situations with all that this involves as a function in
human relationships.
9* Contributes to ones ability to understand the
workings of ones world and cuts down the toxic flow of
adrenalin.
Advantages to society:
1. Taking the role of the other is a means by which
others gain confidence in themselves and this makes for
better social adjustment.
2. The recognition of the rights of others reduces
conflict and increases cooperation.
3. Encourages others to assume social responsibil
ities.15
^Walter Coutu, Emergent Human Nature, pp. 291-92.
New York: Alford Knopf, 1949.


36
judge of personality, Vernon6 found "an extreme absence of
consistency," and concludes that "it is not possible to dis
cuss the characteristics of a good or bad judge of personal
ity in general,"7 Yet on the basis of many but rather thin
coefficients of correlation Vernon finds himself able to
state that, "good judges of friends and associates are less
socially inclined and less intelligent, but more artistic
than good self-judges,"G
Dymond,8 on the other hand, finds a significantly
positive relation between insight into self and empathy,
"the imaginative transposing of oneself into another." In
her study she secured four ratings from each subject; (1)
rating of himself, (2) rating off another, (3) how he thought
the other person would rate himself, and (4) how he thought
the other person would rate him. On the basis of the find
ings of this test, Pymond concludes, "The ability that is
concerned here, seeing things from the other persons point
of view, is one in which individuals obviously differ from
6P. E. Vernon, "Some Characteristics of the Good
Judge of Personality", Journal of Social Psychology, IV (Jan
uary, 1933), 42-58,
7Ibid., p. 56.
8Ibid., p. 57.
^Rosalind P. Dymond, "A Preliminary Investigation of
the Relation of Insight and Empathy", Journal of Consulting
Psychology, XII (June, 1948), 127.


67
TABLE 1
A.C.E. (L) SCORES, EMPATHY TEST SCORES, AND GRADE
POINT AVERAGES OP FIFTY-FIVE COLLEGE FRESHMEN
Subject
Ia
ub
IIIC
Subject
I
nb
IIIC
1
65
-5
1.73
28
51
12
1.00
2
60
-8
1.73
29
69
12
2.27
3
74
8
3.27
30
61
10
1.91
4
69
-10
1.00
31
48
-2
1.64
5
82
4
3.64
32
43
-13
0.91
6
42
6
2.36
33
57
0
0.55
7
76
4
2.00
34
59
-24
1.73
8
51
-16
2.00
35
56
6
1.36
9
71
-15
2.00
36
60
-6
1.00
10
68
-5
1.09
37
63
-16
1.27
11
66
5
2.64
38
59
-18
1.36
12
80
-32
1.64
39
63
-3
1.00
13
70
-6
2.00
40
73
-4
0.73
14
95
3
3.64
41
82
-6
2.00
15
39
6
0.36
42
43
1
0.64
16
58
-13
1.36
43
100
8
4.00
17
67
6
2.27
44
51
2
0.27
18
54
23
1.73
45
68
3
2.73
19
41
-6
1.00
46
65
10
2.64
20
72
-5
1.64
47
45
3
2.55
21
113
1
3.00
48
46
-3
0.73
22
52
-5
0.36
49
41
-2
2.00
23
69
-17
1.00
50
70
-2
2.64
24
82
6
4.00
51
46
3
2.00
25
48
4-3
0.73
52
82
15
2.55
26
46
2
2.00
53
44
-15
2.00
27
68
-3
2.91
54
49
-25
2.00
55
66
-7
2.00
aRaw score (L or verbal section) American Council
Psychological Examination
^Empathy Test Score
cGrade Point Average


1
almost always
2. often
3. seldom
4. almost never
2. 3.
2. 3.
2. 3.
2. 3.
2. 3.
2. 3.
2. 3.
2. 3.
2. 3.
2. 3.
2. 3.
2. 3.
2. 3.
2. 3.
2. 3.
2. 3.
3.
2, 3.
2. 3.
2. 3.
2. 3.
4. (1) I am wary about the trustworthiness of persons whom I do not know well.
4. (2) I feel embarrassed when I am dressed differently than the people I am
with.
4. (3) I make conversation with a barber while I am getting my haircut,
4. (4) I feel that many persons I meet in my own age group are not interested
in me.
4. (5) I avoid asking the assistance of others because I think that I am only
bothering them.
4. (6) When something is really bothering me I am able to appear outwardly
calm and collected.
4. (7) I like to go to parties where I can meet new people.
4. (8) I can readily detect when another person is irritated.
4. (9) I like to carry out planned activities.
4. (10) I avoid mentioning subjects that will irritate another person.
4. (11) I like to be the one to liven up a dull party.
4. (12) I would rather read an historical novel than a work of romantic fiction.
4. (13) I am embarrassed when my companions attract attention in public.
4. (14) People can change my mind even after I have made a decision.
4. (15) When I go to the movies I imagine myself in the role of the hero.
4. (16) I have the feeling of being alone, even when with a group of people.
4. (17) I go straight after what I want, being unconcerned about the feelings of
others.
4. (18) When I am dining out with a date, I pay the bill without checking it.
4, (19) While attending a movie I make remarks (witty, encouraging, disparaging,
or otherwise) which are audible to those around me.
4. (20) I cover up my shortcomings by my personality.
4. (21) After a very tiring day I decide to keep my seat in a streetcar, even
though ladies have to stand. I overhear one of the ladies remark about
chivalry being dead. I remain in my seat,
104


52
The student develops lively and significant interests.
...The student achieves understanding and control of his
financial resources. ...The student progresses toward
appropriate vocational goals. ...The student develops
individuality and responsibility. ...The student discov
ers ethical and spiritual meaning in life. ...The stu
dent learns to live with others. ...The student pro
gresses toward satisfying and socially acceptable sexual
adjustments. ...The student prepares for satisfying,
constructive postcollege activity.14
The implementation of the personnel point of view
rests upon these forementioned conditions. Colleges and uni
versities must decide on the staff and program needed in the
light of the needs of the students and the resources of the
institution.
Empathy and Personnel Work
The personnel program would assume that every stu
dent takes part in the campus social community.
Campus culture, like the parent cultures from which
it springs, develops and grows, incorporating now pat
terns and repeating and altering the old. ...Education
in a social context implies a realistic appraisal of the
college as one among many methods of cultural induction
and training* It also Implies a systematic use of the
social structure and the group dynamics inherent in the
college culture for the optimum development of students.0
Most important, however, the personnel worker must
consider the dynamics of the social process which takes place
on the campus. The student is arbitrarily assigned a role by
14,,Student Personnel Point of View, op. clt.. pp.
6-11.
^^Robert L. Sutherland and others, Students and Staff
in a Social Context, pp. 1, 2. American Council on ducatio
Studies, Washington, D. C.: The American Council on Education,
Vol. XVII, No. 18, 1953.


LIST OP TABLES
Table Page
1. A. C. E. (L) Scores, Empathy Test Scores,
and Grade Point Averages of Fifty-five
College Freshmen 67
2. Subjects in Rank Order by Empathy Score 68
3. Subjects in Rank Order by Grade Point
Average 69
4. Subjects In Rank Order by A. C. E. (L)
Score 70
5* Calculation of the Coefficient of Corre
lation Between Empathy Test Scores and
A. C. E. (L) Scores 72
6. Calculation of the Coefficient of Corre
lation Between Empathy Test Scores and
Grade Point Averages 73
7* Calculation of the Coefficient of Corre
lation Between A. C. E. (L) Scores and
Grade Point Averages 75
8. Calculation of the Mean and S. D. of Em
pathy Scores 76
9. Calculation of the Mean and S. D. of
Grade Point Averages 77
10. Calculation of the Mean and S. D* of A. C.
E. (L) Scores 78
11. Calculation of Partial Coefficients of
Correlation 79
12,Calculation of Multiple Coefficient of Corre
lation of A. C. E. (L) Score and Empathy
Test Score, With Grade Point Average . 82
v


10
understand the individual or group* On the contrary, there
is increasing emphasis upon studying behavior in action and
more especially social interaction:
During the decade of 1930 to 1940. ...Social psy
chology was characterized by a marked acceleration of
a shift in theory and method from atomistic static
analysis of attributes of persons and groups to an ori
entation and approach which could be called interac
tional. This trend required theorists and research
workers to explain any given behavior as a functional
part of a specified dynamic system of interacting ele
ments. According to the emerging conceptions, the be
havior of persons and groups could not be explained as
the outcropping of the attributes or "nature" possessed
by them but as parts of an interactive process in a ^
"field" or situation of which they were component parts.
These personal Interrelationships are obviously im
portant to the happiness and effectiveness of man. It is
through understanding others that we learn about ourselves.
As Lindgren says:
Understanding is basic, because knowledge of the
causes of behavior of oneself and others constitutes
the entering wedge of insight and acceptance. Hatred
and intolerance, as well as the other attitudes that
keep people apart and prevent cooperation and agreement,
diminish under the impact of insight and understanding
into ones own feelings and attitudes and the motivation
of others. Understanding everything may not constitute
forgiving everything, but it Is the first step on the
road leading to acceptance, tolerance, and respect.19
The improvement of human relationships is a concern
between individuals, social groups, racial groups and nations.
^Leonard S. Cottrell, quoted in Walter Coutu,
Emergent Human Nature, (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1949), p. vii.
IQ
Henry C. Lindgren, Psychology of Personal and
Social Adjustment, p. 458. New York: American Book Company,


15
Presentation of the Study
In the following chapters this study will explore
in more precise detail the mechanism of empathy and its im
portance to student personnel workers. Chapter II will de
scribe in detail the operation and psychological nature of
empathy. Chapter III is a review of experimental investi
gations, In Chapter IV, the significance of the basic mech
anism of empathy will be related to the philosophy and prac
tices of, student personnel work. The experimental data and
findings of an investigation to determine the relation of
empathy to scholastic success, is presented in Chapter V,
The final chapter will summarize the study as well as state
the conclusions and implications about the importance of
empathy to scholastic success and its significance to per
sonnel workers, the individual, and society.


35
brings about the reaction of the personality to other beings*
The advantages of being a 'good" empathizer or of
using this ability are potentially beneficial to the individ
ual and society* Not only is it a mechanism of social adjust
ment but it enables one to gain self-confidence, assume lead
ership and allay psychological anxieties and tensions. Under
standing of others can reduce conflict and improve cooperation
in a social group. The results of the satisfactory inter
action of people is one of the most beneficial phases of human
relationships* To understand and be mutually consented in
opinion can bring about benefits to the individual and his
society*
Empathy may also be seen as operative in the educa
tive process. The data of this experiment have shown that
empathy contributes to scholastic success and for this reason,
its workability should be cultivated and aided by teachers,
personnel workers, and all others whose aim is the education
of college students* In addition, it should be emphasized
in all phases of education for its broader social potential
ities to individuals and society, as well as its importance
to academic achievement*
Prom this study, it might also be concluded that
empathy is a democratic ability* Empathy, similar to other
abilities, may be developed as a distinct attribute of the
individual. It is not the same ability as intelligence and


77
TABLE 9
CALCULATION OP THE MEAN AND S.D.
OP GRADE POINT AVERAGES
Clas s-Intervals
Scores
Mid-Point
f
X
X
fX2
3.76
to
4.00
3.885
2
8
16
128
3.51
to
3.75
3.635
2
7
14
98
3.26
to
3.50
3.305
1
6
6
36
3,01
to
3.25
3.135
0
5
0
0
2.76
to
3.00
2.805
2
4
8
32
2.51
to
2.75
2.635
6
3
18
54
2.26
to
2.50
2.305
3
2
6
12
2.01
to
2.25
2.135
0
1
55
0
1.76
to
2.00
1.805
12
0
0
0
1.51
to
1.75
1.635
7
-1
-7
7
1.26
to
1.50
1.305
4
-2
-8
16
1.01
to
1.25
1.135
1
-3
-3
9
0.76
to
1.00
0.805
7
4
28
112
0.51
to
0.75
0.635
5
-5
-25
125
0.26
to
0.51
0.385
3
6
-18
108
N* 55"
=21
T37
AM
ci
M
- 1*885
- -0*095
= ~r:m
c - -21 = -.381
"U "T5
1 = .250
ci = .250 x -.381 =-.095
(-.381)2
- 2
X
x .250 = 0.91


89
and empathy with intelligence partiallod out, or its influ
ence held constant, was .35 (significant at the 1 per cent
level of confidence)
3. The net correlation between intelligence and
empathy when the influence of grade point average is held
constant, was -.10 (not significant).
It was concluded, that empathy and intelligence, as
measured, are different abilities and both are related to
scholastic success. It might be interesting to note here,
that no student, of those tested, with high grade average
had a low empathy score.
Empathy and student personnel work It has been
a fundamental principle of this study that personnel work in
the college has had as Its philosophy that education is not
only the absorption of factual knowledge but the integration
of all life which contacts the personality. However, it must
not be forgotten that certain criteria are 3et up to be ful
filled by each student and personnel work has aimed at aiding
the student In the long, hard climb to his desired goals. It
is the writers hypothesis that the cultivation of the work
ability of empathy should be used as an aid and could be an
other phase of assistance to students through the student
personnel program.


$7!.2fc
3+44r


49
mass education. This movement expresses an awareness of the
significance of group life as well as being concerned with
students individually. The optimum development of the indi
vidual is sought in terms of his well-rounded development
physically, socially, emotionally, and spiritually, as well
as intellectually.
The Student Personnel Committee of the American
Council on Education have attempted to define the scope and
objectives of student personnel work in the light of research
and clinical findings of modern psychology, sociology, cul
tural anthropology, and education in the task of aiding stu
dents to develop fully in the college environment. The fol
lowing quotation makes clear the all Inclusive responsibility
for education envisioned as a goal of higher educations
...Through his college experiences he (the student)
should acquire an appreciation of cultural values, the
ability to adapt to changing social conditions, moti
vation to seek and to create desirable social changes,
emotional control to direct his activities, moral and
ethical values for himself and for his community, stand
ards and habits of personal physical well-being, and the
ability to choose a vocation which makes maximum use of
his talents and enables him to make appropriate contri
butions to his society. ...Such broad gauge development
of the individual should in no sense be considered as a
sufficient and complete goal in itself. It is axiomatic
today that no man lives In a social vacuum. Rather in
dividual development is conditioned by the kind of soci
ety in which a person lives, and by the quality of in
ter-personal and group relationships which operate around
him. He is constantly affecting society; and society Is
constantly shaping him. These relationships constitute
the cultural patterns with which higher education must
be concerned in its efforts to stimulate and guide the
development of each of its student. ...Both classroom
and out-of-class activities of the college should be


99
Hutchins, Robert M. The Higher Learning in America New
Haven, Conn,: Yale University Press, 196.
Jennings, Helen H, Leadership and Isolation, New York:
Longmans, Green and Company, 15,
Koestler, A. Insight and Outlook, New York: The Macmillan
Company, 1949,
LaPiere, R, T, and Farnsworth, P, R, Social Psychology,
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, tnc,,"19S6.
Lindgren, Henry C, Psychology of Personal and Social Adjust
ment, New York: American Book Company, 1953,
Lloyd-Jones, Esther, and Smith, Margaret R, A Student Per-
sonnel Program for Higher Education, New York: McOraw-
'N i 1 "So oiTSomp'ahy","'" TricTJ'
Mayo, Elton. The Social Problems of an Industrial Society,
Andover, Massachusetts:' The Andover Press, 194,
Mead, George Herbert, Mind, Self and Society, Chicago: The
University of Chicago Press, 19$4,
Moreno, J, L, Who Shall Survive? A New Approach to the Prob
lem of Human ntorrelations. Washington, ft. C.: Nervous
and Mental ftiseaso Pub'l'ishTng Company, 1934,
Murphy, Gardner, Personality: A Biosoclal Approach to Origins
and Structures New Work':" Narper and Brothers, 954,
Remmers, H, H. Introduction to Opinion and Attitude Measure
ment, New York: Harper and Brothers,
Rogers, Carl R, Client-Centered Counseling. New York: Hough
ton Mifflin"Company, 1951.
Rugg, Harold. Foundations for American Education. New York:
World Book Company, 194V, '
Snygg, D., and Combs, A, W, Individual Behavior. New York:
Harper and Brothers, 1949.
Super, Donald E. Appraising Voca,fciona3- Fitness. New York:
Harper and Brothers, 949* '
Sutherland, Robert L,, and Others. Students and Staff in a
Social Context. American Council on Education Studies,
Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, Vol.
XVII, March, 1953.


APPENDIX B
PART II
YOUR NAME
DATE ENTERED UNIVERSITY OP FLORIDA (month)
(year)
YOUR GLASSIFICATION (check one)
1st semester Freshman
2nd semester Freshman
1st semester Sophmore
2nd semester Sophmore
Junlor
Senior
In the interest of a research project, w are asking that
you respond to the attached test. Answer these questions
by circling the number that Indicates your feeling or
opinion about each of these situations. Please use the
following scale.
Circle your
response.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Almost always
Often
Seldom
Almost never
106


44
philosophies of those who work In the field of higher educa
tion. The first of these lines tends to divide: (1) those
who interpret "preparation for life" predominantly in a vo
cational, professional, utilitarian sense from, (2) those who
interpret "preparation for life" from a broader standpoint
as including properly ones ability to function successfully
in non-vocational activities and relationships; those who be
lieve there is an "art of living" which is as important as
the "business of earning a living.
The present age is an era of materialism, insofar
that people are gauged in terms of wealth or their ability
to earn money. These aspects of wealth have a value in the
society. However, they are not the sole measure of the indi
viduals value to himself or to others. A popular list of
the most valuable members of society conceivably would not
include those with top incomes in this country. Pew of the
greatest men of history seem to have been animated primarily
by economic reward. The majority of women probably would not
concede that their life consisted most importantly of money
making activities. A happy marriage or family life is not a
consequence of economic success.
Each student in higher education, in addition to
learning more or less directly how to do something for
^Esther Lloyd-Jones, and Margaret R. Smith, A Stu
dent Personnel Program for Higher Education, p. 7. New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, IncT, 19^8.


24
has observed thus:
Now, as always, it is necessary to achieve a working
balance between the individual and society. The danger
is that the culture itself will place too heavy repres
sions upon this growing organism which is graduating
from mere infancy. ...The temptation may be for the
adult carriers of the culture to press him too fast and
too heavily in the direction of civilization.13
If his mind is not disciplined to the absolute truth
of a situation, he may visualize new Imaginative concepts in
science or art, as he grows up. It Is reasonable to assume
this may also be true in his ability to visualize himself as
another person if he Is not always made to be himself In every
act of his childhood.
Most people may play many roles, even in one day, de
pending on the social circumstances in which he finds himself
or perhaps only because of his own caprice. The empathizer,
in order to predict the behavior of another must assume many
roles to put himself In another persons shoes. This ability
however, is pretty general and most people are to be consid
ered rather constant in their personalities.
Empathy, like intelligence, is probably a product of
heredity and environment. It cannot be determined how much
of this ability comes from within and how much from without.
It can be compared to many other human abilities such as ar
tistic or musical abilities. Empathic ability may aid in
1 rt
^Arnold Gesell, and Francis L. Ilg, Infant and
Child in the Culture of Today, p. 133. New York: iarper and
Brothers, 1943. *


45
society that will have economic rewards for the doer,
must also learn to be someone vho can contribute to soci
ety other values than purely economic ones ^
Lloyd-Jones and Smith report the second cleavage be
tween philosophies of higher education separates: (1) those
who tend to think of education primarily in terms of a body
of culture to be transmitted, from (2) those who think of edu
cation as a process that goes on in those who are to be modi
fied by, and who are (Incidentally) to transmit, that cul
ture*3
The educator who tends to think of education prima
rily as a body of culture to be transmitted are usually schol
ars, intent on increasing the. body of scholarship itself*
They view education as intellectual development per se* On
the other hand, an increasing number of educators, well-ground
ed in the social and biological sciences, are as cognizant of
the importance of the emotional, social and physical aspects
of the student as they are of the purely intellectual*
In our opinion, the student personnel program must
take its stand with those who conceive of the student
not only as an Intellect, but also as a total organism
whose learnings, ...are importantly conditioned by the
way he acts and feels, as well as by the words he reads
and hears and by his logical thought*
In the past century educators have argued and put
into practice one or another of these philosophies.
2Ibid., p. 8.
5Ibid., p. 9.
4
Ibid*, p* 11*


THE RELATIONSHIP OF EMPATHY
TO SCHOLASTIC SUCCESS
WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR
STUDENT PERSONNEL WORKERS <
By
FRANK MAY CHAMBERS
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
June, 1954


93
determine the kinds of group relations calculated to remove
barriers to practicing and developing empathy. In like man
ner, improved experiences in group living may be achieved
when more is known about this mechanism for understanding
people. Fraternity and sorority life; married student com
munity living; and every other interaction of students on
the campus provide opportunity for students to develop this
social skill.
Most college students, directly or Indirectly, are
looking for possible wives or husbands during their college
years. There has been a general tendency since World War II
for students to marry while at college. In counseling mar
ried students, empathy tests devised for husbands and wives
might give both counselor and married couple the opportunity
to see where ono partner does not understand the other. The
writer has made some such tests with Bender and Hastorfs
instrument and found the results interesting. It stands to
reason that If trouble occurs between husband and wife, It
usually results from some sort of misunderstanding of each
others personalities and this could be brought out or point
ed out, quite clearly, in an empathy test. The same sugges
tion would also be true in the case of those contemplating
marriage.
The use of empathy in leadership Is another area
for study. Studies concerning the empathic ability of


17
role of the other person with whom one is socially im
plicated. It is not included in the direct response of
help, support, and protection. This is a direct impulse,
or in lower forms, a direct instinct, which is not at
all incompatible with the exercise, on occasion, of the
opposite Instincts. The parent, that on occasion acts
in the most ordinary parental fashion may, with seeming
heartlessness, destroy and consume their offspring.
Sympathy always Implies that one stimulates himself to
his assistance and consideration of others by taking in
some degree the attitude of the person whom one is as
sisting. The common term for this is "putting yourself
in his place."1
Koestler too, has reasoned similarly and he states,
"Empathy becomes sympathy when to this mental resonance Is
p
added the desire to collaborate or help."
It is then, possible, to distinguish between empathy
and sympathy as when one perceives the agony of a lost child
(empathy) and the feeling or desire one has to comfort the
wanderer (sympathy). On the other hand, there appears to be
considerable overlapping of these mental processes. As Mur
phy says:
The earliest forms of sympathy, for example, which,
as we saw earlier depend on analogies between oneself
and another, grow rapidly as one experiences more and
more situations through which he sees others pass, be
ing thereby permitted to share their experiences by
virtue of an analogy with his own. .There Is no
sharp line of cleavage between "sympathy" and "empathy";
the latter term is usually applied to putting oneself
in the place of either a living or a non-living thing.'5
^Mead, op. cit, p. 3G6.
2A. Koestler, Insight and Outlook, p. 360. New York:
The Macmillan Company, 1940.
rt
Murphy, op. cit., pp. 493-94.




CHAPTER V
EMPATHY AND SCHOLASTIC SUCCESS
According to social philosophy, empathy is describ
ed as a basic mechanism in social adjustment* Furthermore,
it has been hypothesized that learning itself is facilitated
by the empathic process* The successful adjustment of col
lege students, in addition to othor factors, involves satis
factory academic achievement. Therefore, the study proposes
to determine whether empathy is a factor in scholastic suc
cess*
The Rationale of the Study
Using the definition of empathy proposed by Dymond,
"the imaginative transposing of oneself into the thinking,
feeling, and acting of another and so structuring the world
as he does, the study will measure the ability of a student
to predict the feelings and attitudes of another. A numeri
cal index of this ability will be compared with the subjects
grade point standing, as a measure of scholastic success* In
view of the highly significant relationship between intelli
gence and grade point standing, found by other investigators,
^Super, op, cit*, p. 118*
58


9
Need for the Study
Interest in human nature is probably as old as human
history. There have been many clever individuals possessed
of Insight and skill in manipulating human behavior. The
statesmen, writers, and strategists of every age have been
skilled in analyzing human motives and in playing upon human
sentiments, prides, and interests. Only recently has the
knowledge about human nature been systematized and subjected
to scientific analysis.
LaPiere and Farnsworth have defined this new science
of social psychology as: The study of the processes by which
the human animal acquires from social experience those behav
ior characteristics which make him a socialized human being."17
It is evident that this definition is based upon the concept
that the origin of most human behavior lies in social experi
ence. In other words, what the individual is, depends in parti
upon other individuals.
In general, the aim of social research Is to under
stand social life and thereby gain a greater measure of con
trol over social behavior. Such research should promote the
happiness and effectiveness of individuals in a society.
Social scientists are only recently aware that behav
ior cannot be analyzed into component parts in order to
l7R. T. LaPiere, and P. R. Farnsworth, Social Psy
chology, p. 3. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.,
1936.