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Non-protein nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium in ruminant nutrition

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Title:
Non-protein nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium in ruminant nutrition
Creator:
Hillis, William Gordon, 1944-
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Subjects / Keywords:
Body weight ( jstor )
Calcium ( jstor )
Lambs ( jstor )
Magnesium ( jstor )
Nitrogen ( jstor )
Phosphates ( jstor )
Phosphorus ( jstor )
Rumen ( jstor )
Sheep ( jstor )
Yearlings ( jstor )

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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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29812746 ( ALEPH )
37704270 ( OCLC )

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Non-protein Nitrogen, Phosphorus and
Magnesium, in Ruminant Nutrition












by

WILLIAM GORDON HILLIS


A DISSERTATION PRfTJj,-':0 .) TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1971















A.- i.:: ;.:LEDGU1.tTS


Sincere appreciation is extended to Dr. C. B.

Ammerman, Chairman of the Supervisory Committee, for his

support and guidance throughout the academic program and

experimental investigations; and also to Drs. J. E. Moore,

J. A. Himes, R. H. Harms and C. M. Alien, Jr. for serving

as members of the supervisory committee and for giving

freely of their time and knowledge toward the completion of

this work.

The author is grateful for the assistance given him

by many of the graduate students, particularly Larry T.

Watson and Karl R. Fick. Sincere appreciation is also

expressed for the technical assistance of Mrs. Sarah Miller,

Mr. John F. Easley and other members of the staff of the

.litrition Laboratory. The assistance provided by Mr. Phil

H[licks in caring for experimental animals is acknowledged.

Special appreciation is expressed to International

Minerals and Chemical Corporation, Skokie, Illinois, and

the National Feed Ingredients Association, Des Moines, Iowa,

for providing financial assistance for this work. The

provision of experimental supplies by Charles Pfizer and

Co., Inc., Terre Haute, Indiana, American Cyanamid Company,

Princeton, New Jersey and Monsanto Chemical Co., St. Louis,

Missouri is acknowledged.









Sincere appreciation is extended to Mrs. Ella Mae

Huber for typing this manuscript.

The author is especially grateful to his wife, Wilma,

for her help and inspiration during this period of academic

endeavor. To her this work is dedicated.


iii
















TABLE OF COii'ENTS


Pige
AC.. I J OWLEDGMEiNTS . . . . . . . . . ii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . vi

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . .. xii

ABSTRACT . . . . . o. . . . . xiv

CHAPTER
I INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . .1

II LITERATURE RVIEW . . . . . . 3

Non-protein Nitrogen Utilization by
Ruminants . . . .................. 3
Inorganic Phosphate Supplements for
Ruminants . . . .................. 9
Effect of Age on Magnesium Utilization. . 14
Magnesium Requirement and Availability. . 17

IIi EFFECT OF LEVELS AND SOURCES OF SUPPLEMENTAL
NITROGEN ON VOL:j:'A-\,' FEED INTAKE, AVERAGE
DAILY GAIN AND BLOOD UREA-N IN STEERS . 28

Procedure and Results . . . . .. 29

ExperiAcnt 1---Effect of Supplemental
Nitrogen as Soybean Meal, DAP, Urea and
DAP Plus Urea on Voluntary Feed Intake
and Average Daily Gain in Steers. .. 29
Experiment 2 --.Effect of Supplemental
Nitrogen as Soybean Meal, DAP and Two
Levels of MLAP on Voluntary Feed Intake,
Average Daily Gain and Blood Urea-N in
Steers . . . . . 31
Experiment 3---Effect of Supplemental
Nitrogen as Soybean Meal, DAP and Two
Levels of MAP on Voluntary Feed Intake,
Average Daily Gain and Blood Urea-N in
Steers . . . . . . . .. .37













Experiment 4--Effect of Supplemental
Nitrogen as Soybean Meal, DAP and
Two Levels of MAP on Voluntary Feed
Intake, Average Daily Gain and Blood
Urea-N in Steers . . . . ... .40

Discussion . . . . . . . . 44

IV NITROGEN SOURCE AND RUMEN AMMONIA, pH AND
BLOOD UREA-N . . . . . . ... 46

Procedure and Results . . . . .. 46

Experiment 1--Effect of Nitrogen Source
on Rumen Ammonia, pH and Blood Urea-N 46
Experiment 2--Effect of Nitrogen Source
and Supplemental Acid or Base on Rumen
Ammonia, pH and Blood Urea-N ..... 57

Discussion . . . . . . . .. .64

V THE PHOSPHORUS AVAILABILITY IN :iON,:.t14ONfUMJ
AND MONOSODIUM PHOSPHATES FOR GRCI.UG G LAMBS 70

Procedure and Results . . . . .. 70
Discussion . . . . . . . .. .78

VI EFFECT OF AGE AND DIETARY LEVEL OF MAGNESIUM
ON MAGNESIUM UTILIZATION BY SHEEP ... . 80

Procedure and .Results . . . . .. 80
Discussion . . . ... . . . . 108

VII GENERAL SUMMARY . . . . . . .. 115

Influence of Non-protein Nitrogen Source
on Feed Intake, Animal Performance and
Blood Urea-N . .. ........ . . 115
Effect of Nitrogen Source on Certain
Blood and Ruminal Fluid Constituents, 116
Relative Availability of Phosphorus in
Two Inorganic Phosphorus Sources. .. 117
Influence of Age and Dietary Magnesium
Level on Magnesium Utilization ..... 117

APPENDIX . . . . . . . . . . . 120

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . 159

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . .. 168


Page


CHAPTER
















LIST OF TABLES


TABLE Page

1 COMPOSITION OF DIETS . . . . . .. 30

2 EFFECT OF SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON FEED
CONSUMPTION AND AVERAGE WEIGHT GAIN ..... 32

3 COMPOSITION OF DIETS . . . . . .. 34

4 EFFECT OF SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON FEED
CONSUMPTION, AVERAGE WEIGHT GAIN AND BLOOD
UREA-N (BUN) . . . . . . . . 35

5 COMPOSITION OF DIETS . . . . . .. 38

6 EFFECT OF SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON FEED
CONSUMPTION, AVERAGE WEIGHT GAIN AND BLOOD
UREA-N (BUN) . . . . . . . . 39

7 COMPOSITION OF DIETS . . . . . .. 41

8 EFFECT OF SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON FEED
CONSUMPTION, AVERAGE WEIGHT GAIN AND BLOOD
UREA-N (BUN) . . . . . . . . 43

9 COMPOSITION OF DIET... . . . . . . 48

10 EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF SOYBEAN MEAL, UREA,
DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR MONO.MMTONIUM
PHOSPHATE ON RUMEN pH . . . . ... 49

11 EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF SOYBEAN MEAL, UREA,
DI \!?Y1TI.'M PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE ON RUMEN AMMONIA-N . . . .. 52

12 EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF SOYBEAN MEAL, UREA,
DIAflMO2IUM PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE ON BLOOD UREA-N . . . .. 55

13 EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF UREA, UREA PLUS
PHOSPHORIC ACID, MOWING NOMIUM PHOSPHATE, OR
MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM CARBONATE
ON RUMEN pH . . . . . . . .. .59















14 EFFECT OF A SiMG. DOSE OF UREA, UREA PLUS
PHOSPHORIC ACID, MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE,
OR MONO-'iO-!:I JUM PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM
CARBONATE ON RUMEN A: '!ONiA-N . . ... 62

15 EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF UREA, UREA PLUS
PHOSPHORIC ACID, MONO'TIMOHTIUM PHOSPHATE,
OR MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM
CARBONATE ON BLOOD UREA-N . . . .. 65

16 COMPOSITION OF DIETS . . . . . .. 71

17 AVERAGE INITIAL AND FINAL WEIGHT, DAILY GAIN,
FEED INTAKE AND FEED EFFICIENCY OF LAMBS
FED DIl'Fl-RElT SOURCES AND LEVELS OF
PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL . 74

18 AVERAGE PHOSPHORUS, CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM
LEVELS IN PLASMA OF LAMBS FED DIFFERENT
SOURCES AND LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS DURING A
9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL . . . . . .. 76

19 AVERAGE MEASUREMENTS AND MINERAL CONCENTRA-
TIONS OF THE RIGHT FEMUR OF LAMBS FED
DIFFERENT SOURCES AND LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS
DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL . . ... 77

20 COMPOSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL DIET .. ...... 82

21 AGE SPECIFICATIONS, BODY WEIGHTS AND FEED
OFFERED . . . . . . . . .. 83

22 EFFECT OF AGE AND DIETARY MAGNESIUM ON
APPARENT ABSORPTION OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM
AND PHOSPHORUS IN SHEEP . . . . . 86

23 EFFECT OF AGE AND DIETARY MAGNESIUMM ON NET
RETENTION OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND
PHOSPHORUS IN SHEEP . . . . . .. 88

24 EFFECT OF AGE AND DIETARY MAGNESIUM ON
URINARY EXCRETION AS PERCENT OF INTAKE OF
MLA-'i'SIUM, CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS IN SHEEP. 90

25 EFFECT OF AGE AND DIETARY MAGNESIUM ON
PLASMA LEVELS OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND
PHOSPHORUS IN SHEEP . . . . . .. 91


vii


Page


TABLE














26 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF NITROGEN ON
FEED CONSUiPTION AND AVERAGE WEIGHT GAIN. 121

27 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF SOURCE OF
NITROGEN ON FEED CONSUMPTION, AVERAGE
WEIGHT GAIN AND BLOOD UREA-N (BUN) .... 122

28 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF SOURCE OF
NITROGEN ON FEED CONSUMPTION, AVERAGE
WEIGHT GAIN AND BLOOD UREA-N (BUN) .. . 123

29 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF SOURCE OF
NITROGEN ON FEED CONSUMPTION, AVERAGE
WEIGHT GAIN AND BLOOD UREA-N (BUN) ... .. .124

30 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RUMEN pH OF SHEEP DOSED
WITH SOYBEAN MEAL, UREA, DIAMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE . . 125

31 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RU.'-ME AMMONIA-N OF SHEEP
WITH SOYBEAN MEAL, UREA, DIAII-,0;IIUM
PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE . . 126

32 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON BLOOD UREA-N OF SHEEP
DOSED WITH SOYBEAN MEAL, UREA, DIAMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE . .. 127

33 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RUMEN pH OF SHEEP DOSED
WITH UREA, UREA PLUS PHOSPHORIC ACID,
MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM CARBONATE . . .. .128

34 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RUMEN AIIMONIA-N OF SHEEP
DOSED WITH UREA, UREA PLUS PHOSPHORIC
ACID, MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE AND
:1IONOAMMIONIUM PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM
CARBONATE . . . . . . . . 129

35 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON BLOOD UREA-N OF SHEEP
DOSED WITH UREA, UREA PLUS PHOSPHORIC
ACID, MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR
MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM
CARBONATE . . . . . . . .. 130

36 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON DAILY GAIN, FEED INTAKE
AND FEED EFFICIENCY OF LAMBS FED DIFFERENT
SOURCES AND LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS DURING A
9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL . . . . . .. 131


viii


Page


TABLE














37 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON PHOSPHORUS LEVEL IN
PLASMA OF LAMBS FED DIFFERENT SOURCES
AND LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-
WEEK GROWTH TRIAL . . . . . .. 132

38 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON CALCIUM LEVEL IN PLASMA
OF LAMIS FED DIFFERENT SOURCES AND LEVELS
OF PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL. 133

39 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON MAGNESIUM LEVEL IN
PLASMA OF LAMBS FED DIFFERENT SOURCES AND
LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH
TRIAL . . . . . . . . .. 134

40 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON MEASURE-IE:.:NTS AND MINERAL
CONCENTRATIONS OF THE RIGHT FEMUR OF LAMBS
FED DIFFERENT SOURCES AND LEVELS OF
PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL . 135

41 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON MEASUREMENT AND MINERAL
CO?4CZNT2RATIONS OF THE RIGHT FEMUR OF LAMBS
FED DIFFERENT SOURCES AND LEVELS OF
PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL . 136

42 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INiTAKE BY LAMBS ON PERCENT APPARENT
ABSORPTION OF :*L\:;iwSIUM, CALCIUM AND
PHOSPHiORUS . . . . . . . . 137

43 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INTAKE BY YEARLINGS ON PERCENT APPARENT
ABSORPTION OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND
PHOSPHORUS . . . . . . . .. 138

44 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INTAKE BY ADULTS ON PERCENT APPARENT
ABSORPTION OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND
PHOSPHORUS . . . . . . . .. 139

45 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INTAKE BY LAMBS ON PERCENT NET RETENTION
OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS ... 140

46 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INTAKE BY YEARLINGS ON PERCENT NET
RETENTION OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND
PHOSPHORUS . . . . . . . .. 141


Page


TABLE














47 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
IiT'l -KF BY ADULTS ON PERCENT NET
RETENTION OF MAC1'-.SIUM, CALCIUM AND
PHOSPHORUS . . . . . . . .. 142

48 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
IfYTAIRE BY LAMBS ON URINARY EXCRETION OF
7AG:ESIUM, CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS, % OF
INTAKE . . . . . . . . .. 143

49 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
I;JTA?:E BY YEARLINGS ON URINARY
EXCRETION OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND
PHOSPHORUS, % OF INTAKE . . . . .. .144

50 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
I-'TAKE BY ADULTS ON URINARY EXCRETION OF
MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS, % OF
INTAKE . . . . . . . . .. 145

51 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INTAKE BY LAMBS ON PLASr-A LEVELS OF
MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS
(MG/100 ML) . . . . . . . . 146

52 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
I;TTAKE BY YEARLINGS ON PLASMA LEVELS OF
MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS (MG/100
ML) . . . . . . . . .. 147

53 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INTAKE BY ADULTS ON PLASMA LEVELS OF
MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS
(MG/100 ML) . . . . . . .. 148

54 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF FECAL
MAGNESIUM TO MAG"JESIUM INTAKE PER 1,000
KILOCALORIES OF METABOLIZABLE ENERGY
INTAKE PER DAY . . . . . . ... 149

55 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF FECAL
.MAGrESIL'il TOp MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER
KILOGRAM0"75 BODY WEIGHT PER DAY ..... 150

56 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF FECAL
MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER
KILOGRAM BODY WEIGHT PER DAY . . ... 151


Page


TABLE












TABLE


57 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF URINARY
%.AGIESIU[* TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER
1,000 KILOCALORIES OF METABOLIZABLE
ENERGY INTAKE PER DAY . . . . .. 152

58 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF URINARY
MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER
KILOGRAM0"75 BODY WEIGHT PER DAY ..... 153

59 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF URLihARY
MAGNFSTUM TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER
KILOGRAM BODY WEIGHT PER DAY . . ... 154

60 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF MAGNESIUM
OUTPUT (FECAL PLUS URINARY) TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER 1,000 KILOCALORIES OF
METABOLIZABLE ENERGY INTAKE PER DAY . . 155

61 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF MAGNESIUM
OUTPUT (FECAL PLUS URINARY) TO MAGCIESIUM
INTAKE PER KILOGRAM0-75 BODY WEIGHT PER
DAY . . . . . . . . . .. 156

62 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF MAGNESIUM
OUTPUT (FECAL PLUS URINARY) TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER KILOGRAM BODY WEIGHT PER DAY . 157

63 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF URINARY
MAGNESIUM TO PLASMA MAGNESIUM. . ..... 158


Page















LIST OF FIGURES


FIGURE Page

1 EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON RUMEN pH . . .. 50

2 EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON RUMEN AMO .1IIA-N . 53

3 EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON BLOOD UREA-N . . 56

4 EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON RUMEN pH . . ... 60

5 EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON RUMEN A2U1O1iA-N . 63

6 EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON BLOOD UREA-N .. . 66

7 RELATION OF FECAL MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER 1,000 KILOCALORIES OF
METABOLIZABLE ENERGY INTAKE PER DAY . . 93

3 RELATION OF FECAL MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER KILOGRAM0.75 BODY WEIGHT PER
DAY . . . . . . . . . .. .95

9 RELATION OF FECAL MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER KILOGRAM BODY WEIGHT PER DAY . 96

10 RELATION OF URINARY MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER 1,000 KILOCALORIES OF
METABOLIZABLE ENERGY INTAKE PER DAY . . 97

11 RELATION OF URINARY MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER KILOGRAM0"75 BODY WEIGHT PER DAY 99

12 RELATION OF URINARY MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER KILOGRAM BODY WEIGHT PER DAY . 100

13 RELATION OF MAGNESIUM OUTPUT (FECAL PLUS
URINARY) TO MAGNESIUM TI-TAKE PER 1,000
KILOCALORIES OF METABOLIZABLE ENERGY
INTAKE PER DAY . . . . . . ... 102

14 RELATION OF MAGNESIUM OUTPUT (FECAL PLUS
URINARY) TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER
KILOGRAM0"75 BODY WEIGHT PER DAY ..... 104


xii












15 RELATION OF :iYrFSIUM OUTPUT- (FECAL PLUS
URINARY) TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER
KILOGRAM BODY WEIGHT PER DAY . . ... 106

16 RELATION OF URI:AR'l MAGIW]-SIU'I TO PLASMA
M4AGNESIUM . . . . . . . .. 107


xiii


Page


FIGURE










Abstract of Dissertation Presented to th3 Graduate Council
of the Uriversity of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy-

NON--PROTEIN NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND
MAGNESIUM IN RUMINANT NUTRITION

By

William Gordon Hillis

August, 1971


Chairman: Dr. C. B. Ammerman
Major Department: Animal Science

Studies were conducted to obtain information on

certain nutritional aspects of non-protein nitrogen, phos--

phorus and magnesium in steers and sheep.

Four Latin square designed experiments were conducted

with steers to examine the effects of urea, diammonium

phosphate (DAP) and monoammonium phosphate (MAP) on feed

consumption, average daily gain and blood urea-N. In

Experiments 1 and 3 voluntary feed intakes were significantly

(P< .05) reduced with diets containing 1.5% DAP and in Ex-

periment 2 with a diet containing 2.3% MAP. Treatment diets

containing MAP consistently resulted in the lowest average

daily gains. At the end of each experimental period steers

were fasted 12 hours followed by 2 hours ad libitum con-

sumption of their respective treatment diets. The increase

in blood urea-N fol1cwing the 2-hour feedi ig period was

greater for treatments containing isonitrogenous levels of

non-protein nitrogen (1.5% DAP and 2.3% MAP) except in Ex-

periment 2 where 0.75% MAP resulted in the greatest blood

urea-N increase.
xiv









Two Latin square designed experiments were conducted

with fistulated sheep to study the effects of non-protein

nitrogen sources upon rumen ammonia-N, pH and blood urea-N.

All nitrogen sources were administered intraruminaliy as

10 gm of nitrogen per 45.4 kg body weight and rumen fluid

and jugular blood samples were taken at periodic intervals

thereafter. In the first experiment urea resulted in the

greatest (P <.05) increase in rumen pH, the least (P< .05)

increase in rumen ammonia-N concentration and the greatest

(P <.05) increase in blood urea-N. Converse responses

resulted with MAP and DAP was intermediate in effect.

Treatments in the second experiment consisted of urea, urea

plus H3PO4, MAP and MAP plus Na2CO3. Effects of alkali and

acid additions on rumen pH were of short duration. Blood

urea-N values for the urea and urea plus H PO treatments
3~ 4
were similar throughout the sampling period and values for

the treatments MAP and 4A'P plus Na 2CO3 were similar.

A balance trial was conducted with sheep of three

ages (lambs, yearlings and adults) receiving three dietary

levels of magnesium and a computed maintenance level of

energy intake. With increasing age, the retention of

calcium aid phosphorus decreased, apparent absorption of

calcium decreased, plasma inorganic phosphorus decreased

and excretion of phosphorus in urine increased. With in-

creasing intakes of dietary magnesium, there vzaw a decreased

retention of phosphorus and calcium, increased excretion of

calcium in urine and increased apparent absorption,

xv









retention, urinary excretion and.Llasma levels of magnesium.

By use of regression analysis (fecal magnesium on magnesium

intake) the theoretical values for metabolic fecal magnesium

were calculated for lamb.3, yearlings and adults to be:

170.91, 122.25 and 118.44 mg per 1,000 kilocalories of

metabolizable energy (ME) intake per day, respectively;

16.87, 13.95 and 12.30 mg per kg075 body weight per day,

respectively; 7.26, 5.48 and 4.25 mg per kg body weight per

day, respectively. From the regression equations of fecal

plus urinary magnesium on magnesium intake for each age

group the calculated minimum dietary requirements to replace

endogenous losses for lambs, yearlings and adults were:

261.07, 235.20 and 176.46 mg per 1,000 kilocalories of ME

intake per day, respectively; 28.84, 26.40 and 20.46 mg per

kg0.75 body weight per day, respectively; 12.56, 10.50 and

6.75 mg per kg body weight per day. respectively. These

values would be specific for the Lemi-purified diet fed

with supplemental magnesium provided as the carbonate. The

regressions of urinary magnesium on plasma magnesium gave

renal threshold values for lambs, yearlings and adults of:

1.38, 1.42 and 1.21 mg per 100 ml of plasma, respectively.


xvi















CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION'


Maximum efficiency in animal production is dependent

upon providing o)timum quantities of all essential nutrients.

To obtain such efficiency, knowledge must be present of the

relative availabilities of nutrients in the various feed

ingredients and as wel1 the a:-ceptability to the aniraal of

the nutrient sources.

Although it has been adequately demonstrated that the

protein ne;ds of ruminants can be met by supplementing lheir

diets with non-prot-(in nitrogen, a p2:oblem still re.vains as

to the source of this form of nitrogen most desirable to use.

Certain forms of non-protein nitrogen have been found less

toxic tian the conrmonI y used compound, urea. How.vr, soae

of these less toxic forms, such as diammnionium phosphate,

have been repor,,d less acceptable to anirials than urea. An

advantage of using such compounds as disani-oniuri phos Lhate or

inonouinion-um phospiate is tlieir property of bcJ -.* a soun'ce

of both nci-protein nitrogen and sup'.-cep: ieta y pjho;p-usa.

A problem comIon to a"'. sources o s on-- prote

nitrogen is tLhir rapid reilca. e ol cd' : i:. i, th r:I :



contribute Lo the efficie11cy of its utili taUtion .i: the;

I









ru:men by prolonging .its availability to the rumen riccrobes

*for pro f n syn heis. Suppyi.ng Lhospate wth th<; ,orces

of 0_on-protein nit1,oge s tojht to buffer :tue p! nd

reduce a nonia atborptioi and nitrogen wast age.

Magnesium, which is only one of many minerals known

to be essential for maximum production efficiency, has been

the subject of considerable research in recent years. The

objective of a.any of the studies was to elucidate the role

of nmagnesium in hypomagnesaemtc tetany. It has been suggested

that the older animal is oore susceptible to this disease due

to a decreased abili.:y to mobilize skeletal magnesium with

age. Thus the older animal may be almost entirely dependent

on daily supplies of magnesium to maintain normal metabolism.

This research was conducted to evaluate several non-

protein nitroge-.n sources, and,as well, to investigate the

effect cf age on --agnesium utilization in ruminants. Urea,

dianmulonium phoshate and monouammonitm phosphate were

evaluated with respect to their relative acceptab- lities

by steer:- and their utilizations by steers and sheep. A

lamb growth and slaughter study was also conducted to

determine the availability of phosphorus from monoamnoniurm

phosphate. The effect of age on dietary magnesium utiliza-

tion was i'.amined in a balance study involving three age

levels of sheep.















CIHAPTER II


LITERATURE REVIEW


The literature dealing with non-protein nitrogen,

phosphorus and magnesium as they relate to animal nutri-

tion is extensive. Only those articles having a direct

relationship to the work conducted by the author and

giving a basic knowledge of the related areas will be

reviewed.


Non-protein Nitrogen Utilization by Ruminants


The protein needs of the world's expanding popula-

tion continue to receive the attention of nutritionists.

Protein supplements, which in the past have been used

routinely for supplementing ruminant rations, are now find-

ing new roles as protein sources for human nutrition. Such

uses may result in prices that will prohibit their use in

ruminant diets in the future. For this and other reasons

considerable research has been conducted on the use of non-

protein nitrogen sources as substitutes for natural protein

suppi ements./

Early work conducted by HIart et al. (1939) demonstrated

that dairy heifers could. utilize the nitrogen of urea for

growth and that adding soluble sugars to the diet improved









this utilization. Since that time much research has been

directed toward finding optimal conditions for efficient

utilization of non-protein nitrogen.

A major problems resulting in inefficient utilization

of urea is the rapid release of ammonia. Bloomfield,

Garner and Muhrer (1960) indicated that urea hydrolysis

occurred four times faster in the rumen than uptake of the

liberated ammonia by the microorganisms. The need for

adequate levels of readily-available carbohydrate for better

utilization of urea and other non-protein nitrogen com-

pounds has been well demonstrated (Arias et al., 1951;

Belasco, 1956; Bloomfield, Muhrer and Pfander, 1958;

Bloomfield, Wilson and Thompson, 1964; McLaren et al., 1965).

Rumen ammonia concentration, either singly or togeth-

er with other parameters, has often been used as a measure

of the hydrolyzability of nitrogen supplements or of the

relative mricrobial protein synthesis from such supplements.

It should be pointed out, however, that armmoni.a concentra-

tion in the rumen, just like that of any other rumen

metabolite, is dependent upon the following forces as

enumerated by Annison and Lewis (1959): rate of production,

rate of utilization by microbes, rate of absorption through

the rumen wall, dilution by saliva and water, and passage

to the omasum.

McDonald (1948), working with sheep, found much of

the excess ammonia which the microbes are not able to

utilize is absorbed from the rumen with some ammonia






5


absorption occurring in the omasum, lower part of the small

intestine and cecum.. Amrioinia absorption is governed by

both concentration gradient and pH. Lewis (1957) demonstrat-

ed that the portal blood ammonia concentration increased as

a curvilinear function of rumen ammonia content. Hogan

(1961), working with anesthetized sheep, also demonstrated

ammonia absorption to be dependent on the concentration

gradient when the rumen contents were maintained at a pH of

6.5, but ammonia loss was nil at pH 4.5. Bloomfield et al.

(1963), working with fistulated sheep, reported a reduction

in absorption of ammonia from 26 to 0 mM/L/hour when the

rumen pH1 was reduced from 7.55 to 6.21. Since ammonia is

a weak base with a pKa of 8.8 at 40WC, the increased

absorption of ammonia at a higher pH is probably the result

of an increase in the amount of the neutral and smaller

ammonia molecule, in relation to ammonium ion, which may

more readily penetrate the lipid layers of the rumen mucosa

(Coombe, Tribe and Morrison,' 1960; Hogan, 1961; Bloomfield

et al., 1963; Visek, 1968). Unfortunately, the alkaline

buffering capacity of rumen fluid is not as great as its

acid buffering capacity (Clark and Lombard, 1951; Ammerman

and Thomas, 1955; Bloomfield et al., 1966). Thus, condi-

tions in the rumen from urea feeding are conducive not only

to rapid production but also to increased absorption of

ammonia.

The use of non-protein nitrogen sources as partial

substitutes for natural protein has been limited by their










toxic effec..s in rumi .nants. Repp, Hale and _--.Ii.-'roughs (L955)

crnitically studJid rce and fu r oth r non-protei.n nitrogen

compounds for their, rel!;-tive oxicities to lambs Adminis-

tration of irea, ariuionium forrlate, ammoninim ace tate and

ammonium popionate at a level of about 40 gm urea equi-

valent per 45.4 kg of body weight resulted in fatal

toxicity. In all cases toxicity was associated with large

increases in blood ammonia nitrogen, with the critical

level being about 1 mg per 100 ml of blood.

Clark and Lomabard (1951) reported that sheep which

were adapted to a ration of lucerne hay were less suscep-

tible to urea toxicity than the ones adapted to a poor

quality grass hay diet. They observed a decrease or entire

cessation of ruminal motility as a result of the high rumen

pH caused by high ammonia concentration. Coombe et al. (1960)

observed a marked decrease in rumination time spent by sheep

when urea was added to their diets suggesting an inhibitory

effect on rumen motility. Like Clark and Lombard (1951)

they found that rumen pH had a large influence on this.

When sheep were fed hay before being drenched with 25 gm

urea, rumen pH did not exceed 6.3 and although the rurien

ammonia--N reached 91 mg per 100 ml, rumen movements were

not inhibited. HowIever, when fasted for 16 hours before

drenching, a dose of 10 gma urea resulted in a rise in runen

pH to 7.3 and complete cessation of rumen movements. W.en

17 gm ammonium h1ilori de were given instead of urea, the









rumen aruaonia-N level rose to an even higher value (132 mg

per 100 ml) buL the pH did not rise above 7.0 and rumen

movements were normal.

Russell, Hale and Huhbert, Jr. (1962), in toxicity

studies with lambs, found that a much higher level of

nitrogen from diamnonium phosphate (DAP) was necessary to

cause toxicity compared to urea. At a dose level of 15 to

20 units of compound (i.e., 15 to 20 gm urea or urea-

equivalent per 45.4 kg body weight), rumen pH of lambs rose

from 6.8 to 8.1 in one-half hour with urea and from 6.8 to

7.2 in the case of DAP. In steers dosed with 12 units of

either compound, the average blood ammonia-N levels rose

from an initial value of 0.13 mg per 100 ml to a peak in

one-half hour of 0.71 mg per 100 ml with urea as compared

to a rise from an initial level of 0.14 mg per 100 ml to

a peak in one-half hour of 0.25 mrg per 100 ml with DAP.

The above results indicate the influence of the buffering

action of phosphate on rumen pH and the absorption rate of

ammonia. This influence was demonstrated also by Perez,

Warner and Loosli (1967) when fistulated sheep were dosed

with urea, urea-phosphate and urea-plus phosphoric acid in

single doses of 20 units (20 gm urea or its equivalent in

nitrogen per 45.4 kg body weight). The amount of phosphoric

acid added to urea was calculated to provide the same

amount of phosphate as would be in 20 units of urea-

phosphate. The rumen pH rose from an initial value of 7.35

to a peak in 3 hours of 8.30 with the urea treatment. The









urea-phosphafte and urea-plus phosphoric acid treatments

had essentially identical pH trends with each dropping from

their initial values of 7.25 and 7.35 to pH 5.9 and 6.35,

respectively, at one-half hour postdosing. The urea treat-

ment, which had the highest rumen pH, resulted in the

lowest rumen ammonia-N and highest blood ammonia-N values

when compared with the two phosphate treatments.

The use of ammoniated phosphates has received in-

creased attention in recent years. Their chemical make-up

gives them a dual role as a source of both nitrogen and

phosphorus. One such compound is DAP. Russell et al. (1962)

found no significant difference in nitrogen retention be-

tween urea and DAP in balance trials -with lambs when each

source provided 31% of the total dietary nitrogen. However,

when 60% of the total dietary nitrogen of sheep rations was

supplied by urea or DAP, Oltjen et al. (1963) reported less

efficient utilization of the nitrogen from diammonium

phosphate. These workers also found rations containing DAP

to be less palatable to sheep during three growth trials.

They indicated that possibly saliva, coming in contact with

the feed, resulted in ammonia being released and the feed

being refused by the animals. Problems with palatability

were reported by Lassiter, Brown and Keyser (1962) when DAP

at levels greater than 2% was incorporated into the grain

rations of dairy cows. Similar palatability problems were

reported by Hale et al. (1962) when 1% of the ration for

steers was DAP.









Another ammoniated phosphate which has received only

limited attention is monoammonium phosphate (MAP). The

only study reported on this compound was that of Reaves,

Bush and Stout (1966). They reported that the voluntary

feed consumption by nonlactating dairy cows was not signifi-

cantly different for rations containing no non-protein

nitrogen supplement, 1.5% of a mixture of MAP and DAP plus

urea (M DAP + U), 3% M DAP + U, or 3% DAP. They also

measured the amount of ammonia released from reagent-grade

DAP, feed-grade DAP, and the M DAP + U upon contact with

bovine saliva for 1 minute with the relative amounts re-

leased being 333, 126 and 16 ug/gm, respectively. With

respect to each of the materials, there was a definite trend

toward increased ammonia release as the pH of the saliva

increased.


Inorganic Phosphate Supplements for Ruminants


Phosphorus has long been recognized as an important

mineral constituent of living organisms. It is found in

every cell of the body with about 80% of the total phosphorus

combined with calcium in bones and teeth. Its roles in bone

mineralization, buffering systems and intermediary metabo-

lism have prompted extensive research with phosphorus in

recent decades. Iluch of this research resulted in part from

its inadequacy under many feeding conditions and its cost

when it must be added as a supplement.









The re are several inorganic phosphat-s which are

i' enG ally 'icd as suppla.emental p'osphors sources AorJ

si.ants. The ava.ahiabl1ity of these various fos Is has

iaenf the basis of consider rable research. Early. wor' con-

ducted by Knox and Neale (1937) revealed no differences in

growth or reproducti, n of three groups of thirty grade

Hereford heifers each receiving either bone meal, mono-

calcium or dicalcium phosphate until they were 4-year-old

cows. Beckeor et al. (1944) reported satisfactory results

with either defluorinated superphosphate or bone meal as

a phosphorus supplement for cattle. They indicated that

the superphosphate had to be provided in a salt mixture to

insure adequate consumption.

Amri.erman et al. (1957), by working with steers and

using phosphorus balance and inorganic bloAod-phosphorus

levels as criteria, demonstrated that two commercial di-

calcium phsphates, two calcined def.1uorinated phosphates,

anId one sample each of bone meal, soft phosphate, and

Curacao Island phosphate were of equal ;value in promoting

phosphorus retention and maintaining b].ood phosphorus

levels. The same authors, using lazwbs, found that di-

calcium -hosphate and Curacao IslanM phosphate were well

utili but soft phosopate anr)d -. calcined defluorinated

phosphate were poorly u5 ilized. Similar results were

reported by Arrington etaa]. (1962) when dicalc.iumin phosphate,

Curacao Island phosphate and defluorinated phosphate were

compared in a depletion-repletion type balance study with









dairy calves. Wise, Wentworth and Smith (1961), by working

with growing calves, and using feed intake, weight gain and

bone concentration of phosphorus as test criteria, found

the phosphorus in defluorinated rock phosphate, Curacao

Island phosphate and dicalcium phosphate to be similar in

availabilities, with soft phosphate being the least

satisfactory supplement used.

Long et al. (1957) conducted two feeding trials with

steers to compare the effects of different levels of mono-

sodium phosphate, which is known to be a highly available

source of phosphorus, upon certain criteria used as measures

of phosphorus nutrition, and to evaluate the relative

phosphorus availabilities of steamed bone meal, Curacao

Island phosphate and dicalcium phosphate. By using feed

intake, weight gain and plasma phosphorus as measures of

phosphorus nutrition, these authors reported that no

statistically significant differences were found among the

different sources of phosphorus, indicating equal avail-

ability of phosphorus in the three sources. Lofgreen (1960),

by working with mature wethers and the isotope dilution

method, found the true digestibilities of phosphorus in

dicalcium phosphate, bone meal, soft phosphate and calcium

phytate to be 50, 46, 12 and 33%, respectively.

Phosphoric acid as a source of supplemental phos-

phorus has also bc-en studied. Richardson et al. (1957)

indicated that the phosphorus of phosphoric acid was as

effective as that of steamed bone meal when the criteria









were weight gaims and plasma phosphorus levels of heifers

maintained on range. Tillman and Brethour (1958a), by

working with young steers and using phosphorus balance and

digestibility data as criteria, reported the availability

of phosphorus supplied by phosphoric acid to be in the same

order of magnitude as that supplied by dicalcium phosphate.

The formation of meta- and pyrophosphates during the

production of defluorinated phosphate was a problem during

the early production of this material. Chicco et al. (1965)

compared the utilization of inorganic ortho-, meta-, and

pyrophosphates using lambs and in vitro techniques. Based

on both in vivo and in vitro studies, calcium orthophosphate,

sodium orthophosphate and sodium metaphosphate appeared to

be equally valuable as sources of phosphorus. Sodium pyro-

phosphate was somewhat lower than those mentioned in

apparent absorption value but equal in solubility and

tissue deposition of 32P. Calcium pyrophosphate and calcium

inetaphosphate were rated low and intermediate, respectively,

as sources of available phosphorus.

Tillman and Brethour (1958b) compared the avail-

ability of vitreous sodium metaphosphate, acid sodium pyro-

phosphate and monosodium phosphate for lambs using apparent

digestibilities, net retentions, fecal endogenous excretions

and true digestibilities of phosphorus as criteria. Acid '

sodium pyrophosphate was equally as available as monosodium

phosphate. The data indicate that the phosphorus of

vitreous sodium metaphosphate was absorbed, but was









inefficiently utilized and excreted in the feces. Research

conducted by _-T1r!'-,rv et al. (1957) indicated that the'

phosphorus of gamma calcium pyrophosphate was almost totally

unavailable to sheep while that supplied by vitreous calcium

metaphosphate appeared to be about 50% as available as that

of monocalcium phosphate. The data indicated that the gamma

calcium pyrophosphate was absorbed and increased the plasma

inorganic phosphorus, but it was inefficiently utilized and

subsequently excreted.

Hall, Baxter and Hobbs (1961) used washed suspensions

of rumen microorganisms in a series of studies to determine

the effects of adding various levels of phosphorus in

different chemical forms upon cellulose digestion. Mono-

sodium orthophosphate, vitreous sodium metaphosphate, acid

sodium pyrophosphate and calcium phytate were used. Marked

increases in cellulose digestion occurred when levels of 20

to 100 mg of phosphorus per ml of medium from each source

were added. Phosphorus in all of the chemical forms studied

appeared to be well utilized by rumen bacteria.

Ammerman et al. (1965) compared the utilization of

inorganic monocalcium orthophosphate, feed grade dicalcium

phosphate, defluorinated phosphate and soft phosphate using

absorption studies with calves and in vitro techniques.

Based on in vitro studies, monocalcium phosphate was the

most available, dicalcium phosphate and defluorinated

phosphate were equally available, and soft phosphate was

essentially unavailable to rumen microorganisms. In vivo









results indicated apparent absorption of phosphorus was

simi.]ar Cor (Wai1_'OiraW d ana dial-cJi 1)i(>osphate
being greater than that for soft phosphate

Diamonium phosph':te is a calcium-f-ree source of

phosphorus which also supplies non-protein nitrogen. Its

value as a possible ource of phosphorus was studied by

Oltjen et al. (1963). Extensive metabolism and growth

trials with sheep and cattle were conducted by these

workers in which diammoniumn phosphate was incorporated

into numerous types of rations to examine its value as a

source of nitrogen and phosphorus. In all studies it was

found to be a satisfactory source of phosphorus.

Kercher and Paules (1967) working with steers,

found no differences Letween dicalcium phosphate, anmnonium

polyphosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate and diammonium

phosphate as sources of supplemental phosphorus for steer

finishing rations. Similar results were reported by Hillis

(1963) when no difference was found between diammonium

phosphate and monosodium phosphate as a source of supple-

mental phosphorus for finishing steers and fattening lambs.


Effect of Age on Magnesium Utilization


The development of hypomagnesaemia in calves to the

stage at which tetanic convulsions occur has beein shown

experimentally by Blaxter, Rook and MacDonald (1954) to be

a comparatively slow process. In contrast, hypomagnesaemic

tetany can develop in the dairy cow and lact.-ting ewe with









great rapidity (Rook and Balch, 1958; L'Estrange and Axford,

1963). Wilson (196.0) suggested that the increased speed of

development of the condition in mature animals may be partly

due to its inability to mobilize reserves of magnesium from

bone as readily as the young animal.

At critically low levels of magnesium intake the

serum magnesium concentration in a mature lactating cow can

be rapidly affected by small changes in intake (Rook, 1961).

Rook and Storry (1962) stated that in an adult sheep only

about 2% of its bone magnesium is available to satisfy

physiological needs. In calves maintained on magnesium-

deficient diets, Blaxter and Rook (1954) found bone magnesium

values of 30% or more below normal but found no measurable

decrease in the magnesium concentration in soft tissues.

Further support for the concept that skeletal

magnesium in younger animals is mobilized more efficiently

than in mature animals is provided by the work of Chicco

(1966). Three age levels of sheep (lambs, yearlings and

2-3-year olds) were fed a magnesium-adequate diet which was

suddenly replaced by a diet deficient in magnesium. In-

appetance appeared more rapidly in the adult animals and

the change in feed consumption was shown to be correlated

with plasma magnesium concentration.

Smith and Field (1963) reported that after 18 days on

a magnesium-deficient diet the mean concentration of

magnesium in the femur and mandible had decreased by 9.5

and 13.4%, respectively, in adult rats and 28.2 and 33.3%









in young rats. Hartindale and Heaton (1964) found adult

rats fed a magnesium deficient diet had a net loss of

magnesium from the femur of 17%. They concluded that the

skeleton acts as a magnesium reserve but the fraction

mobilized in adult rats during magnesium deficiency is

smaller than in weanling rats.

Smith (1959b)and Thomas (1959) demonstrated that the

percent of bone magnesium in milk-fed calves decreased with

age. But it is questionable whether the total reduction of

bone magnesium concentration is due to mobilization from

the bone or to formation of new bone tissue during a period

when the plasma concentration of magnesium is low. Duckworth

and Godden (1941) considered that, where the rate of bone

growth was maintained, most of the decrease in bone magnesium

concentration was attributable to deposition of magnesium-

poor bone rather than to net reabsorption of magnesium.

The apparently greater degree of exchange exhibited

by the young animal has been related by Robinson and Watson

(1955) to the smaller size of the mineral crystals, while

Forbes (1959) attributed it to the greater water content of

the young bone, which might make magnesium more accessible

to circulating body fluids.

The effect of age on magnesium utilization was ex-

amined recently by Garces and Evans (1971) with steers

ranging in age from 10 to 88 months. They reported

magnesium absorption and retention were significantly

correlated with magnesium intake and magnesium utilization

was similar for all ages.









h ,e. nc r eas sn sceptibi .ity t o grass te ta -nv with

aye has of-L. .. .. ait-ibut-ed o an appirW.ri- reduction in

t r e a d ily a i.1a b] e ....... ., ...... r VG-s of na9ne i u Field (1967),

by working n.ih tvwo age groups of ;hp whi ch were 2-and 7-

years old, respectively, reported a significantly iower dry

matter intake by the older group. These results suggest

that a reduction with age of the intake of magnesium by

grazing animals may be an additional factor contributing

to the higher frequency of grass tetany in aged animals.


Magne sium Requirement and Availability


Present estimates indicate about 70% of the total

magnesium of the body is present in the skeleton and the

normal calcium:magnesium ratio in bones is about 55:1. The

magnesium content of bone, muscle and nervous tissue is

estimated to be 2 g, 190 mg and 100 mg magnesium/kg fresh

weight, respectively (Agricultural Research Council, 1965).

The normal level of magnesium in the blood plasma is given

as 1.8 mg/100 ml and above,with an upper limit of 3.8 mrg/100

ml (Rook and Storry, 1962).

The assessment of dietary requirements of magnesium

for maintenance is complicated by the difficulty of esti-

mating the endogenous losses of magnesium from the body.

Many -esearchers have endeavored to estimate these losses

by measuring magnesium balance on varying intakes. Walser

(1967) states that the basic premises of such a.n approach

are first, that the organism will have the wisdom to reject









any magnesium beyond its needs, and second, that negative

balance indicates that intake is less than the requirement.

However, there is a distinct possibility that no homeostatic

mechanism exists in the organism with the primary responsi-

bility of regulating magnesium metabolism. An excessive

intake might therefore result in continued positive balance

until toxic manifestations ensue. Furthermore, the intake

of magnesium is so small in relation to the amount in the

body that, if excretion were always proportional to the

body content, the establishment of a new steady state

following a change in intake would require many months. He

further states that negative balance persisting for many

weeks following a reduction in intake cannot be accepted as

evidence that intake is too low; the preceding intake may

have been too high.

Magnesium is lost from the body by three main routes--

in the milk, feces and urine. A mean value of 126 mg

magnesium/kg has been given'as representative for milk

(Agricultural Research Council, 1965). Rook and Storry

(1962) report a range of published values from 70 to 180

mg/kg, and indicate that no significant fall in the magnesium

content of milk occurs when intake of feed or of magnesium is

reduced.

Fecal magnesium consists of the unabsorbed portion of

the intake and the endogenous magnesium which enters the

alimentary tract in the-saliva and other digestive secretions.

Simesen et al. (1962) measured the endogenous excretion of









miagnesium- in :milk-fed cil
cervals usi inraenos i e:;.o o; ._:c. ."Can vaU s

of 3.5 mg ad 1.5 -'jb/kg "ody weight p- da' were found or

calves and coA:s, repcti.ely. A Lracecr study conducted

by MacDonald and Care (1959) utilizing a 20-month-old

wether resulted in au, estimate of 5 mg/kg body weight per

day for endogenous fecal magnesium. Field (1959) reported

a value of 205 mrag per animal per day in sheep by using

tracer techniques.

Estimates of endogenous fecal magnesium have also

resulted from numerous balance studies. Working with calves

Smith (1959a) reported a value of 0.5 mg and 1.2 mg/kg body

weight per day for calves 2--to 5-weeks old and 3-months old,

respectively. Other values reported are 2 to 4 img/kg body

weight per (day in calves (Blaxter and Rook, 1954) and 3 to

5 mg/kg body weight per day in cows (Blaxter and McGill,

1956). Working with 6-month-old lambs Chicco (1966) cal-

culated a value of 2.33 mg/kg body weight per day by

extrapolation from the regression of fecal magnesium ex-

cretion on imagnesium intake.

Urinary excretion of magnesium may be reduced to

minimal levels following a decrease in the plasma magnesium

concentration. Wilson (1960) suggested that magnesium

behaves as a threshold sub'-tance appearing in th] urine only

when the magnesium load filtered by the glomeruli exceeds

that reabsorbed by the tubules, Numerous threshold values

for blood plasma have been estimated. Storr"; and Rook (1963)










reported threshold values in two cows of 1.5 and 1.8 mg/100

ml of plasma, respectively. Similar values of 1.37 and 1.90

mg/100 ml of plasma were obtained in two lactating ewes by

L'Estrange and Axford (1964) by progressively decreasing

their magnesium intake 40 mg per day. More recently Chicco

(1966), by conducting balance studies with lambs receiving

varying levels of dietary magnesium, calculated renal

threshold values of between 1.5 mg and 1.6 mg/100 ml of

plasma.

Much of the variation in the reported values in the

literature of endogenous fecal and urinary magnesium is due

partly to the inadequate analytical methods in the past for

the quantitative determination of magnesium in biological

materials. However, with the recent advent of such analytical

methods as atomic absorption spectrophotometry and flame

emission spectrophotometry large analytical errors should

now be rare.

Although the magnesium requirement of ruminants under

various production conditions are still uncertain, there are

estimates reported in the literature. Blaxter and McGill

(1956) calculated the requirement of an adult cow for

maintenance to be about 1.8 gm of magnesium per day, and for

production 0.5 to 0.6 gm per 10 lb milk secreted. Assuming

an average availability of-dietary magnesium of 33%, this

indicated a minimum daily requirement of 9 to 11 gm for cows

producing 20-30 lb milk daily.









Duncan, Huffman and Robinson (1S35) estimated 30 to

40 -/kg b.dy It. I-)p r 727 =C c" `-5a r co Ji tc in '-3 n,:) l

pl.a{ma raaginsium conaicentlration of milk-fed calves Then given

various lvels of magnesium salts. A similar valun- of 40

ri../kg body weight was reported for growing calves receiving

magnesium salts (Blaxter and Rook, 1954). When the source of

dietary magnesium was natural feedingstuffs, however, an

intake of 1-2 to 15 mg/kg body weight was sufficient (Huffman

et al., 1941). Thomas (1959) revie-wed the available

literature and reported a range of from 13 to 46 mg maCgnesium

per kg body weight as being the daily magnesium requirement

of calves for maintenance of normal serum or bone magnesium

concentrations. Chicco (1966), by feeding various levels of

inmagnesium in the oxide form to 6-month-old lambs, calculated

a minimum daily requirement of 4 mg/kg body weight to replace

the estimated endogenous magnesium losses from the body. A

dietary level of 8 to 10 ir.g/kg body weight was required,

however, to prevent inappetance in yearling sheep (Chicco,

1966).

In estimating the dietary magnesium requirement of an

animal consideration must be given to the availability of

the dietary magnesium to the animal. It has been shown that

availability varies considerably and may be very low in some

types of feeds. Field, 4cCollum and Butler (1958) found the

efficiency with which two sheep could utilize the magnesium

present in an herbage was 13 and 26%, respectively. Using

tracer techniques, McDonald and Care (1959) a-ad Field (1959)









found the availability of magnesium in hay for sheep was

26.3 and 25.8%, respectively. The Agricultural Research

Council (1965) reported estimates of availability of

dietary magnesiurL for cattle of different ages to be 70% up

to 5 weeks, 40% from 5 weeks to 5 months and 20% over 5

months of age.

The absorptive efficiency of magnesium has also been

shown to be affected by the magnesium status of the animal.

McAleese, Bell and Forbes (1961) found control lambs had

apparent absorption values of 28Mg as the chloride of 40 to

50% whereas magnesium deficient lambs had values of 70 to 75%.

Magnesium deficient lambs were considered those with serum

magnesium values of about 1 mg/100 ml of serum whereas the

controls had serum magnesium concentrations of 2 to 2.5 mg/100

ml.

The nutritional relationship between calcium, phosphorus

and magnesium in animals has been the object of numerous

scientific studies with the'exact role each of these ions

plays in the metabolism of the other two ions still remaining

uncertain. Most of the research on their interactions has

been conducted with laboratory animals. However, there is

no reason to suppose that the absorption of minerals from

the ruminant's intestine should differ basically from that

of the non-ruminants. Smith (1969) states that special

factors peculiar to ruminants are most likely to be found in

the nature of their diet and the modifying effects of the

alimentary tract before the abomasum on that diet.









Recent work (Clark and Belanger, 1967) with adult

rats receiving adequate dietary levels of calcium and

phosphorus and increasing levels of magnesium resulted in

increasing absorption, balance and retention of calcium,

phosphorus and magnesium with the increasing magnesium in-

take. Urinary and skeletal content of calcium and magnesium

also increased whereas their content of phosphorus decreased.

A similar study (Clark, 1968) with adult rats resulted in an

increased absorption of calcium with increasing levels of

dietary magnesium only when the diet was adequate in calcium

content. Urinary calcium was increased, however, irrespective

of the dietary level of calcium. The increasing levels of

dietary magnesium resulted in increased absorption of phos-

phorus only when the dietary phosphorus was adequate and the

calcium to phosphorus ratio low. Urinary phosphorus was

decreased with increasing magnesium intake. Forbes (1963) and

Toothill (1963) both reported decreased absorption and serum

concentration of magnesium in rats fed high levels of calcium

in the diet. An excessive intake of phosphorus has been

shown to depress serum magnesium in the guinea pig and rat

(O'Dell, Morris and Regan, 1960) and the dog (Bunce,

Chiemchaisri and Phillips, 1962).

The interrelationship of calcium, phosphorus and

magnesium in rumii..ants has been examined to a limited extent.

A series of such studies was conducted by Chicco (1966) with

wether lambs. Increasing levels of dietary calcium resulted

in decreased utilization of dietary magnesium when the










criteria considered were fecal excretion, bone and serum

manesi. Converse] there .c round to be decreased

ca lcium util i z .-Lion ;i th i cairt a.ng diLJ'L.y levels of

magnesium when the criteria considered vere fecal excretion

and plasma calcium. Bone calcium was not affected by dietary

level cf magnesium. An increase in calcium intake augmented

the urinary loss of magnesium when the lowest level of

dietary magnesium was fed, whereas supplemental magnesium

lowered the urinary excretion of calcium regardless of the

dietary calcium level. Dietary phosphorus appeared to have

little effect on magnesium utilization. The '"ecal excretion

of magnesium was slightly increased by supplemental phosphorus,

while bone and serum magnesium were not altered. Hjerpe (1968)

conducted a balance study with adult wethers receiving a

semi-purified diet (by placing in the rumen via a ruminal

fistula) supplemented with 0, 0.98 and 9.82 gm of magnesium

per animal daily. Wethers receiving supplemental magnesium

excreted significantly more urinary calcium and significantly

less urinary phosphorus than the non-supplemented controls.

The apparent absorption of calcium was slightly decreased by

supplemental magnesium whereas apparent absorption of phos-

phorus was significantly reduced. Wethers receiving either

0.15 or 0.26% dietary magnesium (Dutton and Fontenot, 1967)

wera found to not differ in calcium balance or serum

magnesium concentration. Serum phosphorus levels were found

to be less in the wethers fed the low level of magnesium.









J isae, Ordcoveza and BarrickI (1963) reported a

significant redct.n in sr-um ',,sium of calves by in-

creasing the dietary phosphorus in the presence of low

dietary calcium. The lowest magnesium level occurred at a

-alcium to -!.osphorus ratio of 0.4:1 and the highest with

the 14.3:1 ratio. Extensive statistical analyses were

conducted by Lomba et al. (1.968) on data collected from

balance studies conduIted with 55 different rations fed to

162 dry and lactating cows. 1Magnesium absorption was found

to be enhanced by increasing magnesium and calcium intakes.

Ilea] effluent samples from milk-fed, stall-r-ed and

grazing calves had ranges of 34 to 74% of the magnesium and

63 to 93% of the calcium existing in a bound form as

measured by it being non-ultrafilterable (Smith and McAllan,

1966). The binding was due to at least two processes; one

appeared due to the presence of binding material which

appeared to be characteristic of ruminating calves ir-

respective of diet consumed. This led the authors to conclude

that it may have been of microbial origin. The other binding

process was believed to be phosphate-dependent. it was later

shown by the same authors (Smith and McAllan, 1967), by

working with simple inorganic solutions and in vitro tech-

niques, that precipitation of magnesium with phosphate can

occur with high concentrations of phosphate in the presence

of minimal concentrations of both calcium and ammonia. This

precipitation was specifically pH--dependent occurring only at

pH of 6.5 and above, which h is a characteristic pH11 of the

distal ileium.









The effect-s of numerous other dietary factors on the

availability of magnesium have been studied. The sudden

increase in potassium intake which occurs when ruminants

first graze spring grass has been considered as a possible

contributing factor to the development of hypomagnesaemic

tetany. Suttle and Field (1967) found that apparent avail-

ability of magnesium to wethers was markedly reduced when

the potassium of a hay and concentrate diet was raised to a

level found in pastures where tetany had occurred. A

similar study was conducted by the same authors (Suttle and

Field, 1969) in which ewes fed a diet containing 0.05%

magnesium and 4.44% potassium exhibited hypomagnesaemic

tetany. This level of potassium had a depressing effect on

the concentration of serum magnesium by reducing its

apparent absorption and as well by possibly exerting a

direct depressing effect on the circulating level of

magnesium. High potassium intake in association with high

intake levels of trans-aconitic acid, which has been found

high in certain spring forages, resulted in experimentally

induced grass tetany in cattle and the tetany did not occur

if either potassium or the acid were received separately

(Bohman et al., 1969). Lomba et al. (1968) reported no

significant correlation, however, between the potassium in-

take, digestibility or utilization, and the fate of dietary

magnesium in numerous balance studies conducted with dry and

lactating cows. These authors did report a highly significant

correlation between fecal magnesium and nitrogen intake with






27


constant magnesium intake. Spring pastures are routinely

high in nitrogen content which has long been considered

as a contributing factor to the high incidence of hypo-

magnesaemic tetany in grazing animals during the spring.

The binding of magnesium in the ileal effluent samples

studied by Smith and McAllan (1966) was increased with

increasing concentrations of ammonia when the samples had

pH values of 6.5 and above.
















CHAPTER IiI


EFFECT OF LEVELS AND SOURCES OF SUPPLEI-'Y, i'.\'L NITROGEN
ON VOt'.'I. ".L' FEED :'.TAKE, AVERAGE DAILY GAIN
AND BLOOD UREA-N IN STEERS


The use of non-protein nitrogen in ruminant t-ations

increases eve-y year with urea continuing to be the major

source. 7> cn though feed formulations have now been dIevised

with which urea may .1- used safely in relatively high pro-

portions, researchers continue to look for other scur:ces of

non-protein nitrogen which may be less toxic and more

economical than urea.

One such source of non -protein nitrogen which may be

economically competitive with urea is diammonium phosphate

(DAP). Interest in DAP was stimulated by its property of

being a source of both non-protein nitrogen ana supplementary

p1osphorus. However, problems of voluntary consumption have

been repor-ted when DAP is used (Hale et al., 1962; Oltjen

et al., 1963; Schaedt et a 1., 1966; Hillis, 1968). Another

dual purpose compound which has recently received attention

is monoammonium phosphate (MAP). MAP contains approximately

12' N and 24% P whereas ;AP co:-ains approximately 18% N and

21% P. The possibility of .NMAP being xorue alatable than DAP

has been suggested.









The follow ing four experii;.->n' we.re conducted to

c.pare t'e e of ure1a, cAP and o lo'/els or A en

fcd co. s.,i n and blood Area- in s eers


Procedure nd Results


Rxeerimc t _1---iEffect of Suppliemental Nitrogen as Soybean
S -1 iT 1 t -* 1i -, -. ii



Eiglit steers, four llerefords and four Angus--Hereford

crossbreds, were randomly assigned according to breed to

four pens of two steers each. Average initial weights of

the four outcome groups in kg were 461, 455, 470 and 440.

The experimental design was a 4 x 4 Latin square balanced

for carry-over effects.

The diets used in this study are chon i.n Table 1.

All diets were calculated to contain the same level of

supplemental calcium (0.37%) and no attempt was made to

equalize supplemental phosphorus. The diets contained

11.8% crude protein. All steers received the basal diet

(diet A) for 8 days at the beginning of each of the four

periods to prevent a carry-over effect of treatment.

Diets i;.i.re fed once daily in amounts to give about a 10%

weigh back. Experimental diets were fed for 8 days at the

end of eachIL period with individual steer weights taken at

the beginning and end of the 8-day e-perimental feeding

period.
The data were analyzed statistically by analysis of

variance and significant differences between means were















TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF DIETS


__ _--Diet sI __
DAP
Soybean +
Meal DAP Urea Urea
Ingredient (A) (B) (C) (D)
Snapped corn, ground 69.9 72.75 78.13 77.68

Cottonseed hulls 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0

Alfalfa meal (17%
protein) 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0

Sugarcane molasses 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0

Soybean meal (50%
protein) 10.0 -6.19 0.27 0.36

Salt, trace-mineralized2 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

Calcium phosphate;
17.5% Ca, 23% P 1.0 1.0 -

Diammonium phosphate 1.5 1.5

Urea 281 1.5 0.9

Ground limestone 0.5 0.96 0.5 0.96

Vitamins A & D3 + + + +

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Diet A provided all supplemental protein as soybean meal;
diet B provided 0.269% non-protein nitrogen (NPN) as DAP;
diet C provided 0.674% NPN as urea; diet D provided 0.269%
NPN as DAP and 0.405% NPN as urea (0.674% total NPN).
2
Listed mini'Tnum analysis in percent: Fe, 0.30; Mn, 0.20;
Cu, 0.08; Co, 0.01; Zn, 1.00; I, 0.01; and NaCi, 95.0.

3Vitamins added per kg of diet: 2,200 IU vitamin A
palmitate and 440 IU vitamin D2.









determined using Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (Steel

and Torrie, 1960).

The average daily feed conSui.i:.tion and average daily

gain of steers on the four treatments are shown according

to treatment in Table 2. The individual data are presented

in Appendix Table 26. Diet C (1.5% urea) was similar to

diet A (soybean meal) in acceptability as measured by

average daily feed intake (13.97 and 14.38 kg, respectively).

The consumption of both diets, however, was significantly

greater (P <.05) than the average daily feed intakes of

12.02 and 12.52 kg for diets B (1.5% DAP) and D (1.5% DAP

plus 0.9% urea), respectively. There were no significant

differences in average daily gain among treatments. The

large variability that was observed within treatments in

average daily gain makes the usefulness of this measurement

questionable in such short-term feeding periods.


Experiment 2--Effect of Supplemental Nitrogen as Soybean
Meal, DAP and Two Levels of NAP on Voluntary Feed Intake,
Average Daily Gain and Blood Urea-N in Steers


Eight steers of British breeding were randomly

assigned to four pens of two steers each. The c.-:primental

design was a 4 x 4 Latin square balanced for carry-over

effects. Two steers were removed from the experCiment during

the preliminary period due to digestive coriplications which

resulted in two pens having only one steer each. The

average initial weight of the six steers used was 312 kg.
















TABLE 2. EFFECT OF SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON FEED
CC:,SULMiPTION AND AVERAGE WEIGHT GAIN


Treatment
DAP


Soybean
Meal


DAP


Urea


+
Urea


Item ____(A) (B) (C) (D)

Daily feed intake, kg 14.38 a 12.02b 13.97a 12.52b

Daily gain, kg 0.96 0.96 0.16 0.34

ab Means in the same line bearing different superscript are
significantly (P < .05) different.









The diets used in this study are shown in Table 3.

All diets were calculated to contain 0.56% supplemental

calcium and phosphorus. The diets contained 11.8% crude

protein. All steers received the basal diet (diet A) for

8 days at the beginning of each of the four periods to

prevent a carry-over effect of treatment. The experimental

diets were fed for 8 days at the end of each period. The

diets were fed once daily in amounts to give about a 10%

weigh back with individual steer weights taken at the

beginning and end of the 8-day experimental feeding periods.

At the conclusion of each period the steers were fasted for

12 hours and then allowed to consume ad libitum their re-

spective treatment diets for a period of 2 hours. Blood

samples were taken by jugular puncture before feeding and

again at the end of the 2-hour period for determination of

blood urea-N. The amount of feed consumed by each steer

during this 2-hour period was also recorded.

Blood urea-N was determined by the method of Ormsby

(1942) with refinements suggested by Richter and Lapoinie

(1962). The data were analyzed statistically by analysis

of variance and significant differences between means were

determined using Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (Steel

and Torrie, 1960).

The average daily feed consumption and average daily

gain of steers on the four treatments as well as the blood

urea-N data are summarized in Table 4. The individual data

are presented in Appendix Table 27.















TABLE 3. COMPOSITION OF DIETS


Ingredient
Snapped corn, ground

Cottonseed hulls

Alfalfa meal (17%
protein)

Sugarcane molasses

Soybean meal (50%
protein)
2
Salt, trace-mineralized

Monosodium phosphate

Monoammonium phosphate

Diarmonium phosphate

Ground limestone

Vitamins A & D


Soybean
Meal
(A)
67.34

10.00


3.00

5.00


10.39

0.60

2.21





1.46

+

100.00


Diets1
1.50% 0.75%
DAP MAP
(B) (C)
71.04 68.59

10.00 10.00


3.00

5.00


6.45

0.60

0.95



1.50

1.46

+

100.00


3.00

5.00


9.10

0.60

1.50

0.75



1.46

+

100.00


'Diet A provided all supplemental protein as soybean meal;
diet B provided 0.269% non-protein nitrogen (NPN) as
dianmonium phosphate (DAP); diet C provided 0.088% NPN as
monoamfonium phosphate (MAP); diet D provided 0.269% NPN
as MAP.

2Listed minimum analysis in percent: Mn, 0.23; I, 0.007;
Fe, 0.425; Cu, 0.03; Co, 0.01; S, 0.05; Zn, 0.008; and
NaCl, 97.5.

3Vitamins added per kg o.f diet: 2,200 IU vitamin A
palmitate and 440 IU vitamin D2.


2.30%
MAP
(D)
71.21

10.00


3.00

5.00


6.43

0.60



2.30



1.46



100.00















TABLE 4. E0F1CT 0' SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON F' 0'
CC' :,- P`ION, AVERAGE WEIGCHT (.i AND
BLOOL UiAEA-N (B([1")


Treatment
Soybean 1.50% 0.75% 2.30%
Meal DAP MAP I-AP
Item (A) (B) (C) (D)


Daily feed intake, kg

Daily gain, kg


14. 49a

1.79a


Feed intake, 2 hours (kg) 4.02

Initial BUNd 17.00

BUN change, 2 hours 0.36


13.99a 13.55b 12.441('


2.98)

3.65

14.93


1.69a ].33a


4.06


3.96


-5.46 15.96


0.77ab 2.32c 1.17b


BUN change/kg feed
consumed


0.12a


0.20a


0.58b 0.29a


a'bCMeans on the same lines bearing different superscript
are significantly (P< .05) different.
dBUN concentration expressed as mg per 100 ml of whole
blood.









Diet 13 1.5'% DAP) was similar to di3t A (soybean meal)

.n = a r.;r 1red bay ...- d- feeId :itake

(13.99 and 11.49 k, res,..ctively). The aver-age daily feed

intake of 13.55 kg for diet C (0.75% MAP) was significantly

less (P < .05) than diet A. Diet D, which contained 2.3%

It, resulted in an average daily feed intake of 12.44 kg

which was significantly less (P< .05) than all other treat-

ment diets. Average daily gain during the 8-day experimental

periods was significantly greater (P <.05) for treatment

B (1.50% DAP). Here again the large variability that was

observed within treatments makes the usefulness of average

daily gain questionable in such short-term feeding periods.

The 12-hour fast at the end of each period followed

by ad libitum consumption for 2 hours of their respective

treatment diets resulted in similar feed intakes. The blood

urea-N concentrations just prior to the 2-hour feeding

period were likewise similar. The resulting changes in

blood urea-N concentrations following the 2-hour period

were similar for diets A (soybean meal) and B (1.5% DAP).

The change resulting with diet D (2.3% MAP), however, was

significantly greater (P< .05) than diet A and the change

with diet C (0.75% MAP) was significantly greater (P< .05)

than with all other treatment diets. When the change in

blood urea-N concentration was expressed per kg of reed

consumed during the 2-hour period treatment C was signifi-

cantly greater (P < .05) than all other treatments.









x,,.) e r itrnt 11:ipY-iCCe-. '-'- Nitroqen as Soybean
? : ' ; ^ . 7 .. .:*. .... . .. . V o ..... . . . .. ..'
.' ........ -a, G., n 3l (].Ocd T'ci'. -i' a in Si ;(.er-s

or te present e er- a 4 x 4 Latin sure
a 4~ x 4- Lat~ Si
design was ag-ain utilizeu. Foui-r H[ereford steers, having an

initial average weight of 336 kg, were fed the dints shown

in Table 5. The diets used in this experiment were to be

replicates of those used in Experiment 2. However, it was

not possible to obtain ground snapped corn at the time of

this experiment and corn meal alonq with an increased level

of cottonseed hulls were substituted in its place. All

other ingredients were the same. This experiment was con-

ducted and analyzed the same as described for Experiment 2.

The average daily feed consumption and average daily

gain of steers on the four treatments as well as the blood

urea-N data are summarized in Table 6. The individual data

are presented in Appendix Table 28. Treatment A (soybean

meal), C (0.75% MAP) and D (2.3% ".i?) did not differ in

acceptability as measured by average daily feed intake.

Treatment B, which contained 1.5% diammonium phosphate, was

consumed significantly less (P <.05) than any other treat-

ment. There were no significant differences in average

daily gain among treatments. The 12-hour fast of the steers

at the end of each period folo,,owed by ad libitum consumption

for 2 hours of their respective t-reatment diets resulted in

no differences in feed intake between treatments A, C and D.

Treatment B]3, which contained 1.5` diamir.onium phosphate, was

consumed significantly less (P < .05) than treatments C and D















TABLE 5. COMPOSITION OF DIETS


Diets1_____
Soybean 1.50% 0.75% 2.30%
Meal DAP MAP MAP
Ingredient (A) (B) (C) (D)
Corn meal 51.81 55.57 53.09 55.76

Cottonseed hulls 25.00 25.00 25.00 25.00

Alfalfa meal (17%
protein) 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00

Sugarcane molasses 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00

Soybean meal (50%
protein) 10.92 6.92 9.60 6.88

Salt, trace-mineralized2 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60

ionosodiumr phosphate 2.21 0.95 1.50 -

Monoammonium phosphate 0.75 2.30

Diainmnonium phosphate 1.50 -

Calcium carbonate 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46

Vitamins A & D3 + + + +

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00


1Diet A provided all supplemental


protein as soybean meal;


diet B provided 0.269% non-protein nitrogen (NPN) as
diammonium phosphate (DAP); diet C provided 0.088% NPN as
monoaiamonium phosphate (MAP); diet D provided 0.269% NPN
as MAP.

2Listed minimum analysis in percent: Mn, 0.23; I, 0.007;
Fe, 0.425; Cu, 0.03; Co, 0.01; S, 0.05; Zn, 0.008; and
NaCl, 97.5

3Vitamins added per kg of diet: 2,200 IU vitamin A
palmitate and 440 IU vitamin D2.















TABLE 6. EFFECT OF SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON FEED
CCQISii'PTION, AV:.,0.GF WEIGHT GAIN AND
BLOOD UREA-N (BUN)


Item
Daily feed intake, kg

Daily gain, kg

Feed intake, 2 hours

Initial BUNc

BUN change, 2 hours

BUN change/kg feed
consumedc


Soybean
Meal
(A)
8.43a

1.36

2.96ab

13.31

0.09ab


Treatment
1.50% 0.75%
DAP MAP
(B) (C)
7.01b 8.71a

0.57 0.37

2.20b 3.58a

11.56 12.81

1.25a 0.06b


0.61b 0.00a


abMeans on the same lines bearing different superscript are
significantly (P <.05) different.
CBUN concentration expressed as mg per 100 ml of whole
blood.


2.30%
MAP
(D)
8.39a

0.37

3.47a

12.21

1.25a


0.35ab









during this 2-hour. period. The blood li.ea-N concent-ation
D:riCor to :he 2- -"our feeding period .as --:i]ar Ior. all

treat-n-s a.nd 4' he resulting chanuFce in blood urea--N con-

centration ,,ast1 found :-o be similar for treatments A, B and

D. Treatment C, which contained 0.75% IMAP, actually showed

an average decrease in BUN concentration, and this was

significantly less (P <.05) than treatments B and D. When

the change in BUN concentration was expressed per kg of

feed consumed during the 2-hour period treatments A, C and

D were similar. Treatment B, which contained 1..5% DAP,

resulted in a significantly greater change (P < .05) than

treatments A and C, which contained supplemental soybean

meal and the lowest level of MAP, respectively.


Experiment 4--Effect of Supplerremental Nitroqen as Soybean

A \ : r ._? > n '-i l.; i ..- .: i U '.-,- '. .,:-.",-:i i-n -c, ", .-s


The four Hereford steers used in Experiment 3 were

again utilized in the present experiment. Following the

previous experiment the steers were fed a corn-soybean meal

based diet for a period of 9 weeks and had an average weight

of 436 kg at the beginning of this experiment. The experi-

mental design was again a 4 x 4 Latin square with the steers

receiving the diets shown in Table 7. Diets used in this

experiment were mixed weekly whereas diets for the previous

experiments were mixed at the beginning of each experiment

in adequate quantities for the entire experimental period.

The frequent mixing more closely approximates actual feedlot















TABLE 7. COMPOSITION OF DIETS


-__ -Diets1_____
Soybean 1.50% 0.75% 2.30%
Meal DAP MAP MAP
Ingredient (A) (B) (C) (D)
Corn meal 54.36 58.12 55.63 58.29

Cottonseed hulls 25.00 25.00 25.00 25.00

Alfalfa meal (17%
protein) 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00

Corn oil 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00

Soybean meal (50%
protein) 11.37 7.37 10.06 7.35

Salt, trace-mineralized2 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60

Monosodium phosphate 2.21 0.95 1.50 -

Monoammonium phosphate 0.75 2.30

Diammonium phosphate 1.50 -

Calcium carbonate 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46

Vitamins A & D3 + + + +

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

IDiet A provided all supplemental protein as soybean meal;
diet B provided 0.269% non-protein nitrogen (NPN) as
diammonium phosphate (DAP); diet C provided 0.088% NPN as
monoammonium phosphate (MAP); diet D provided 0.269% NPN
as MAP.
2.
Listed minimum analysis in percent: Mn, 0.23; I, 0.007;
Fe, 0.425; Cu, 0.03; Co, 0.01; S, 0.05; Zn, 0.008; and
NaCI, 97.5.
Vitamins added per kg of diet: 2,200 IU vitamin A
palmitate and 440 IU vitamin D2.









conditions where fresh feed is often mixed daily. Corn oil

at a level of 2% of the diets was substituted for the 5%

molasses previously used due to the convenience of corn oil

under the mixing conditions available. All other ingredients

were the same. This experiment was conducted and analyzed

the same as described for Experiment 2.

The average daily feed consumption and average daily

gain of steers on the four treatments as well as the blood

urea-N data are summarized in Table 8. The individual data

are presented in Appendix Table 29. There were no signifi-

cant differences in average daily feed intake among treat-

ments. Treatments C and D (0.75 and 2.3% MAP, respectively)

resulted in significantly less (P <.Q5) average daily gain

than treatment A (soybean meal). The 12-hour fast at the

end of each period followed by ad libitum consumption for

2 hours of their respective treatment diets resulted in

similar feed intakes for all diets. The blood urea-N

concentrations prior to the .2-hour feeding period were

similar for all treatments and the resulting changes follow-

ing this 2-hour period were found to be similar for treat-

ments A and C. The change with treatment diet D was

significantly greater (P <.05) than with diets A and C and

treatment B resulted in a change significantly greater

(P <.05) than treatment A. When the change in blood urea-N

concentrations were expressed per kg of feed consumed during

the 2-hour period treatments A and C were significantly

less (P <.05) than treatments B and D.















TABLE 8. EFFECT OF SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON FEED
CONSUMPTION, AVERAGE ';I:TGHT GAIN AND
BLOOD I..i:FA-N (BUN)


____ Treatment
Soybean 1.50% 0.75% 2.30%
Meal DAP MAP MAP
Item (A) (B) (C) (D)
Daily feed intake, kg 8.66 8.93 9.23 8.46

Daily gain, kg 1.60a 0.77ab 0.33b -0.06b

Feed intake, 2 hours 2.44 1.76 2.56 2.56

Initial BUNc 14.28 13.51 15.63 13.54

BUN change, 2 hours 0.31a 1.05bc 0.46ab 1.34c

'UNl change/kg feed
consumed 0.15a 0.60 0.11a 0.58

abMeans on the same lines bearing different superscript are
significantly (P <.05) different.
CBUN concentration expressed as mg per 100 ml of whole
blood.









Discussion


Diammonium phosphate supplementation has been re-

ported to decrease diet acceptability (Hale et al., 1962;

Oltjen et al., 1963; Schaadt et al., 1966; Hillis, 1968).

In Experiments 1 and 3 of this series of studies, diets

containing 1.5% diammonium phosphate (DAP) were consumed

significantly less (P <.05) than diets supplemented with

soybean meal, urea, or monoammonium phosphate (MAP). This

level of DAP, however, did not significantly reduce feed

consumption in Experiments 2 and 4.

Levels of 0.75 and 2.3% MAP in Experiments 2, 3 and

4 did not affect feed consumption except in Experiment 2

when the diet containing 2.3% MAP was consumed signifi-

cantly less (P < .05) than the soybean meal and DAP

supplemented diets. Reaves et al. (1966) found no

appreciable differences in voluntary feed consumption by

nonlactating dairy cows when fed rations supplemented with

a combination of MAP, DAP and urea or DAP alone.

Although average daily gain was highly variable

within treatments and the value of gains recorded on such

short-term periods is questionable, it was found that the

inclusion of MAP into the experimental diets consistently

resulted in a decreased average daily gain.

The amount of feed consumed in a 2-hour period

following a 12-hour fast was consistently greater for diets

containing MAP compared to those containing 1.5% DAP. The

resulting change in blood urea-N was consistently greater









for the treatments containing isonitrogenous levels of non-

protein nitrogen (1.5% DAP and 2.3% MAP) except in Experi-

ment 2 where the 0.75% MAAP treatment resulted in the

greatest change in BUN. The same trends existed when the

blood urea-N changes were expressed per kg of feed

consumed.

A possible contributing factor to the variable

results between experiments is the time of year in which

each experiment was conducted. Experiments 1, 2, 3 and 4

were conducted during the winter, spring, summer and fall,

respectively. Mean rainfall (mm) and mean temperature (C)

for the area during the experimental periods were: (1) 82,

14; (2) 67, 25; (3) 156, 28; (4) 35,.15 (Climatological

Data National Summary, 1969-1971). It is possible that the

large variations in rainfall and temperatures between

experimental periods may have affected the animal perform-

ances and the relative outcomes of the separate experiments.















CHAPTER IV


NITROCE'!J SOURCE AND RiUlIW1 AMMONIA,
pH AND BLOOD UREA-N


A major problem resulting in inefficient utilization

of non-protein nitrogen sources by ruminants is the rapid

release of ammonia. It has been well established that a

limiting factor in the utilization of urea is its rapid

hydrolysis in the rumen. A reduction in the rate of

absorption of the released ammonia would contribute to

the efficiency of its utilization by the rumen microbes.

Phosphate is thought to buffer rumen pH during urea

hydrolysis and therefore minimize ammonia absorption

and ammonia wastage.

The following two experiments were conducted to

compare the relative rates of release and absorption of

ammonia of natural and non-protein nitrogen sources in

fistulated wethers.


Procedure and Results


Experiment 1--Effect of Nitrogen Source on Rumen Ammonia,
pH and Blood Urea-N


Four fistulated mature wethers ranging in weight

from 51.2 to 57.6 kg were utilized in a 4 x 4 Latin square

designed experiment balanced for carry-over effects. The









sheep were housed in metal metabolism cages and fed the hay-

corn based diet shown in Table 9. One kg of this diet was

fed once daily and water was supplied ad libitum.

The treatments used in this study consisted of each

animal receiving intraruminally 10 gm of nitrogen per 45.4

kg body weight from either soybean meal, urea, diammonium

phosphate (DAP) or monoammonium phosphate (MAP). An interval

of 6 days between each of the four treatment periods was

allowed for the sheep to readjust. On treatment mornings,

the nitrogen sources were given in dry form via the fistula

approximately 2 hours following consumption of their corn-
f
hay diet. Rumen fluid and jugular blood samples were taken

immediately before dosing and at periodic intervals there-

after for dletermination of rumen pH, rumen ammonia and

blood urea. The pH of rumen fluid was determined using a

Sargent Model DR pH meter within 1 minute after sampling.

Rumen ammonia-N was determined by the phenol nitroprusside-

alkaline hypochlorite method of Kaplan et al. (1965).

Blood urea-N was determined by the method of Ormsby (1942)

with refinements suggested by Richter and Lapoinie (1962).

The data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance

and significant differences between means were determined

using Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (Steel and Torrie,

1960).

The effect of the four treatments on rumen pH is

presented in Table 10 and is presented graphically in

Figure 1. The individual data are presented in Appendix






48







TABLE 9. COMPOSITION 0'? DIET



Ingredient %

Bermudagrass hay, ground 70.4

Corn meal 25.0

Corn oil1 3.0

Defluorinated phosphate 1.0

Salt, trace-maineralized2 0.6

Vitamins A and D +

100.0

1Stabilized with ethoxyquin.
2
Listed minimum analysis in percent: Zn, 1.00; Fe, 0.30;
Mn, 0.20; S, 0.10; Cu, 0.08; Co, 0.01; and NaCI, 95.00.

32,200 IU vitamin A palmitate and 440 IU vitamin D2 added
per kg of diet.















TABLE 10. EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF SOYBEAN NIFAT,,
UREA, DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR MONO.-'ION I UM
PHOSPHATE ON RUMEN pHa


Hours
After Dosing
0

0.5

1

2

3

4

6

9

12

24


Soybean
Meal
6.82

6.68b

6.66b

6.56bd

6.52b

6.50b

6.42b

6.39bc

6.48bc

6.85b


Urea
6.73

7.20c

7.48c

7.34c

7.22c

7.13c

6.98c

6.71c

6.54c

6.74 b


DAP
6.70

6.94d

6.90d

6.79d

6.64b
6.62b3


6 6 2hb
6.51 b

6.34bc

6.18bd

6.40c


All values are means of four


periods per treatment.


b' cde' Means on the same line bearing different superscripts
are significantly (P <.05) different.


MAP
6.77

6.43e

6.45e

6.42b

6.41b

6.36b

6.12b

6.19b

6.13d

6.34c














7 .50


7 25-[1 g -
S5 ...-. Soybean meal

7.00- --_" DAP
i,. ~MAP



6.50- 1 *".... ."-
--- -- *"^ ^ ......-
.5- -.. ..........

6.0-
a)
6 25-j'

.0 jj I _ _ _ _I


0.5 1 2 3 4 6 9 12 24
Hours after dosing

FIGURE 1. EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON RUMEN pH









Table 30. No significant differences between treatments

in predosing ruminal pH were observed. The rumen pH for

the urea treatment rose sharply during the first hour to a

value of 7.48 and then gradually declined until the twelfth

hour to a value slightly lower than the predosing value.

The DAP treatment resulted in an initial increase in pH with

a maximum value of 6.94 observed at one-half hour postdosing

followed by a gradual decline to 6.18 at hour twelve. The

MAP treatment resulted in a sharp decrease in pH during the

initial 30 minutes followed by a gradual decline to a low

of 6.12 at 6 hours postdosing. The DAP treatment remained

intermediate to the other two non-protein nitrogen treat-

ments throughout the 24-hour experimental period. The pH

in the rumen of sheep receiving soybean meal fell slightly

as the day progressed.

Statistical analysis of the rumen pH values at the

individual hours revealed a significant (P <.05) difference

between all treatments at one-half and one hour postdosing.

This difference continued between the non-protein nitrogen

treatments through hour two. The urea treatment had

significantly (P <.05) higher values of rumen pH than the

DAP and MAP treatments for all hours observed except the

twelfth.

The effect of treatment on rumen amn.on.a-N is pre-

sented in Table 11 and Figure 2. The individual data are

presented in Appendix Table 31. No significant differences

existed between treatments in predosing rumen ammonia-N















TABLE 11. EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF SOYBEAN MEAL,
UREA, DIAMMONTUM PHOSPHATE OR MONC.1'D.rIONIUM
PHOSPHATE ON RUMEN AMMONIA-N


Mg/100 M1
Hours Soybean
After Dosing Meal Urea DAP MAP
0 15.5 12.8 15.0 16.0

0.5 18.6b 77.5bc 95.9bc 148.4c

1 24.2b 87.3bc 88.5bc 118.0c

2 26.8b 80.2c 93.7c 107.7c

3 29.7b 74.2c 88.5c 93.5c

4 34.0b 68.2c 85.0c 93.3c

6 29.9b 71.9c 89.9c 78.1C

9 23.7b 55.4c 64.7c 64.8c

12 22.7b 35.7c 55.1d 56.8d

24 20.4b 16.6b 39.8c 42.4c

All values are means of four periods per treatment.

bi'CdMeans on the same line bearing different superscripts
are significantly (P <.05) different.


















175-,-


-150-1


0






o I


50- ..

N

25 ).


0


MAP

DAP

Urea

Soybean meal


-4..-

.-. a * 2


i'^.,. .J ., ,'L L'T; L .:.. J ., ,;'*7 [ L .f ." .. ... .... .'L, ,- . ,t '..."
0.51 2 3 4 6 9 12
Hours after dosing

FIGURE 2. EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON RUMEN AMMONIA-N


......s .1-.'r....









concentrations. The highest concentration of ammonia-N

(148.4 mg/100 ml) was observed with the MAP treatment at

one-half hour postdosing. The DAP treatment had a peak

concentration of 95.9 mg/ml also at one-half hour post-

dosing but changed very little in concentration through

hour six. The urea treatment had a peak concentration

of 87.3 mg/ml at one hour and exhibited a gradual decline

for the remainder of the experimental period. As

could be expected, the least change in rumen ammonia-N

concentration occurred with the soybean meal treatment.

Statistical analysis of the ammonia-N values at the

individual hours revealed no differences between the MAP

and DAP treatments and they differed significantly (P <.05)

from the urea treatment only at hours twelve and twenty-

four.

The effect of treatment on blood urea-N is presented

in Table 12 and Figure 3. The individual data are presented

in Appendix Table 32. No significant difference existed

between treatments in predosing blood urea-N concentrations.

The urea treatment resulted in the greatest increase in

blood urea-N with all non-protein nitrogen treatments

reaching a peak concentration at nine hours postdosing.

The DAP treatment had a consistently greater concentration

of blood urea-N than the MAP treatment from the third hour

through the remainder of the sampling period. However,

these treatments were not found to be significantly

different. The urea treai-tment had a significantly (P <.05)















TABLE 12. EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF SOYBEAN MEAL,
UREA, DI .'-kUIO)NIUM PHOSPHATE OR MONOC-JU11,OIUM
PHOSPHATE ON BLOOD UREA-Na


Mg/100 Ml
Hours Soybean
After Dosing Meal Urea DAP MAP
0 16.5 15.0 14.4 15.0

1 17.6b 20.5c 17.3b 17.5b

2 18.0b 22.3c 19.8b 20.4bc

3 19.5b 24.8d 22.5cd 21.9bc

4 20.0b 26.8d 23.7c 23.3c

6 22.0b 31.5d 27.3c 25.0c

9 23.0b 34.8d 30.3c 27.0c

12 23.1 33.0c 27.4b 26.3b

24 27.3 26.8 25.9 26.0
aAll values are means of four periods per treatment.

b'C/dMeans on the same line'bearing different superscripts
are significantly (P <.05) different.























-i /,.. *. -.-

........... DA..P..
-0-
b Urea
-,DAP
MAP
S.-..-. Soybean meal

U1i1 11 1 I I .. ___J
1 2 3 4 6 9 1.2 24
Hours after dosing
FIGURE 3. EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON BLOOD UREA-N









greater concentration of blood ure..-N than either MAP or

DAP ?or hous four through twelve. N:o ne of the tr-eatnmenhs

differed significantly at hour L;enty-four of the s ampli ng

period.


Experiment 2--Effect of Nitrogen Source and Supplemental
Acid or Base on Rurien .'-' .onia, pH and Blood Urea-N


The four fistulated wethers used in Experiment 1

were utilized again in the present Latin square experiment.

A period of six months was allowed between experiments.

The conditions and basal diet for this experiment were the

same as those described for Experiment 1. The treatments

were urea, urea plus phosphoric acid, monoammonium phosphate

(MAP), and MAP plus sodium carbonate. The amount of

nitrogen supplied by each treatment was again 10 gm per 45.4

kg body weight.

A preliminary study was conducted with two extra

fistulated wethers to determine the amount of phosphoric

acid that, when administered simultaneously with 10 gmi of

nitrogen as urea, would effect a change in rumen pH similar

to that which occurs following 10 gm of nitrogen as MAP.

This amount of MAP supplies 20.4 gm of phosphorus. However,

supplying 20.4 gm of phosphorus as reagent grade phosphoric

acid resulted in a reduction in rumen pH to unphysiological

levels. It was found that supplying 10 gm of phosphorus

as phosphoric acid per 45.4 kg body weight would reduce the

tumen pH similar to the reduction with MAP. Similarly, a

preliminary study indicated that 21 gm of reagent grade









sodium carbonate when administered simultaneously with 10

gm of nitrogen in the form of NAP would affect the rumen

pH similar to that which occurs following 10 gm of nitrogen

as urea. The designated amounts of phosphoric acid and

sodium carbonate were diluted with water to 400 ml for

dosing. The treatments receiving only urea or MAP also

received 400 ml of water per 45.4 kg body weight. The

sampling procedures, chemical and statistical analyses

were the same as those described for Experiment 1.

The effect of the four treatments on rumen pH is

presented in Table 13 and is presented graphically in

Figure 4. The individual data are presented in Appendix

Table 33. No significant differences between treatments

in predosing ruminal pH were observed. The urea and MAP

plus sodium carbonate treatments had pronounced initial

increases in rumen pH. The urea treatment reached a peak

of 7.52 at one hour postdosing and then gradually declined

until the twelfth hour to a value slightly lower than the

predosing value. The MAP plus sodium carbonate treatment

reached a peak of 7.19 at one-half hour postdosing followed

by a fall in pH to 6.78 after only one hour.

The MAP and urea plus phosphoric acid treatments

resulted in initial decreases in pH. The urea plus acid

treatment reached a value of 5.20 at one-half hour followed

by a precipitous rise to a value above the predosing value

by the fourth hour. The YAP treatment exhibited a sharp

decrease during the initial 30 minutes followed by a















TABLE 13. EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF UREA, UREA PLUS
PHOSPHORIC ACID, '21OrOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE, OR
MONOAMIMONIUM PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM CARBONATE
ON FU-1IEN pHa


Urea MAP
+ +
Hours Phosphoric Sodium
After Dosing Urea Acid MAP Carbonate
0 6.57 6.54 6.43 6.40

0.5 7.06b 5.20c 6.03c 7.19b

1 7.52b 5.83c 5.99c 6.78b

2 7.40 6.25 6.02 6.67

3 7.07b 6.43bc 5.90c 6.69b

4 6.77b 6.62b 5.87c 6.62b

6 6.66b 6.53b 5.87c 6.54b

9 6.56b 6.41b 5.86c 6.38b

12 6.55b 6.11cd 5.76d 6.27bc

24 6.80 6.13c 6.04c 6.31bc
aAll values are means for four periods per treatment.

bcdMeans on the same line bearing different superscripts
are significantly (P <.05) different.

















8 C-
Urea
;." .- ... U r ea
7.5- i -^_............. P Base
SA Bas

S \ ... Urea + Acid
7 :,. \
7 : \ MAP

)46.5
!; \t --- ---- A-",^-AP
-- ^ ; a ^.p. -- '. .-

S/ ......................................................
!, /

C) *
6 0


1 *
5.0"}-
?1

.-. J 1-,- -- -.. - .-- .""-'.-..-. -
0.5 1 2 3 4 6 9 12 24
Hours after dosing

FIGURE 4. EFFECT OF TR-EAT,-.lS ON RUMEN p11









gradual decline to a low of 5.76 at twelve hours postdosing.

The MAP plus base and urea plus acid treatments showed

similar changes in rumen pH from hour four through the

remainder of the sampling period.

Statistical analysis of the rumen pH values at the

individual hours revealed the urea and MAP plus sodium

carbonate treatments to have significantly (P <.05) greater

pH values than the MAP and urea plus phosphoric acid treat-

ments at one-half and one hour postdosing. The MAP plus

base treatment continued significantly (P< .05) different

from the MAP treatment for hours three through twelve.

The urea treatment resulted in a significantly (P < .05)

higher rumen pH than the MAP treatment for all hours post-

dosing except the second. This is similar to the results

reported in Experiment 1 for the urea and MAP treatments.

The effect of treatment on rumen ammonia-N is

presented in Table 14 and Figure 5. The individual data are

presented in Appendix Table '34. No significant differences

existed between treatments in predosing rumen ammonia-N

concentrations. The MAP and MAP plus sodium carbonate

treatments exhibited an almost identical pattern in con-

centration throughout the sampling period. The urea

treatment attained its peak concentration earlier than the

urea plus phosphoiic acid treatment with the latter treat-

ment sustaining a higher concentration throughout the

remainder of the sampling period.















TABLE 14. EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF UREA, UREA PLUS
PHOSPHORIC ACTD, MONOA'-L'IO..' IU PHOSPHATE, OR
MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM CARBONATE
ON RUPIN AMMONIA-Na


Mg -l


Hours
After Dosing
0

0.5

1

2

3

4

6

9

12

24


Urea
9.7

70.7 b

99.2b

112.7b

87.7b

73.7 b

59.0

30.5b

19.2b

11.0b


Urea
+
Phosphoric
Acid
10.7

34.0 b

57. 5d

90.5b

103.2bc

106.7bc

95.7

75,2c

57.7c

26. 0bc


MAP
11.0

277.5c

200.7c

166.5c

138.2c

121.2c

96.7

82.7c

63.2c

40.2c


MAP
+
Sodium
Carbonate
14.7

246.5c

193.5c

158.5c

139.7c

119.7c

95.0

70.7bc

62.0c

40.0c


aAll values are means for four periods per treatment.

b''CdMeans on the same line bearing different superscripts
are significantly (P <.05) different.


















MAP

M................ AP + Base

.-.... -Urea + Acid

.....Urea


) .................
f.~ I J' I I'-- I I ______,-,=:?',,--? -


0.5 1 2 3 4 6 9 12 24
Hours after dosing


FIGURE 5. EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON RUMEN AMMONIA-N


- 30
rC

0
0
25



S20
1



ci
1d

S10









Statistical analysis of the ammonia-N values at the

individual hours revealed no differences (P <.05) between

the MAP and MAP plus sodium carbonate treatments. Signifi-

cant (P <.05) differences existed between the urea and urea

plus phosphoric acid treatments at hours one, nine and

twelve postdosing. The urea and MAP treatments differed

significantly (P <.05) at all hours postdosing except hour

six. Again, this is similar to the results reported in

Experiment 1 for the urea and MAP treatments.

The effect of treatment on blood urea-N is presented

in Table 15 and Figure 6. The individual data are presented

in Appendix Table 35. No significant differences existed

between treatments in predosing blood urea-N concentrations.

The MAP plus phosphoric acid treatment had a consistently

greater concentration of blood urea-N than the urea treat-

ment throughout the sampling period. However, these

treatments were not found to differ significantly. The MAP

and MAP plus sodium carbonate treatments exhibited similar

changes in blood urea-N concentrations. The urea plus

phosphoric acid treatment had significantly (P <.05) greater

concentrations of blood urea-N than the MAP and MAP plus

sodium carbonate treatments at hours one, two, four and six

postdosing.


Discussion


The results of Experiment 1 suggest that pH of the

rumen contents is a controlling factor in the rate of















TABLE 15. EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF UREA, UREA PLUS
PHOSPHORIC ACID, MONOAi[ !(!IU:-1 PHOSPHATE, OR
MWj'O'AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM CARBONATE
ON BLOOD UREA-Na


Mg/100 Ml
Urea MAP
+ +
Hours Phosphoric Sodium
After Dosing Urea Acid MAP Carbonate
0 11.2 12.5 11.0 11.0

1 15.2bc 17.8b 13.8c 12.8c

2 16.7bc 19.6b 14.6c 14.3

3 18.8 20.7 17.1 15.6
4 0bc b c c
4 20.2c 21.9 17.1 16.6

6 21.83bc 23.6c 18.5b 18.5b

9 22.5 24.6 19.5 20.1

12 21.7 23.9 20.0 20.3

24 18.9 21.3 18.8 20.6

All values are means for four periods per treatment.

',cMeans on the same line bearing different superscripts
are significantly (P <.05) different.
























*. ,.... ... . : I .. ......... .-o . . . -
- -~m


I.. ... ... .


Urea + Acid
Urea
MAP + Base
MAP


iL .j- -'j-=L==_ = = J ....... 1 ... -= --= ^ .= = ^ i
1 2 3 4 6 9 12 2'
Hours after dosing

FIGURE 6. EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON BLOOD UREA-N


30-


25-?
II
2o~i
S20-


z 15-


t

0
0u


0 _
ro 5-









ammonia absorption. Of the non-protein nitrogen treatments,

urea resulted in the greatest increase in rumen pH, the least

increase in rumen ammonia-N concentration, and the greatest

increase in blood urea-N. Converse responses resulted with

the monoammonium phosphate (MAP) treatment whereas the

diammonium phosphate (DAP) treatment was intermediate to the

urea and MAP treatments. Urea is hydrolyzed in the rumen

to ammonia and carbon dioxide. However, adding 10 gm of

nitrogen per 45.5 kg body weight in the form of MAP is also

providing the rumen with 20.4 gm of phosphorus, and an

isonitrogenous dose of DAP adds 11.5 gm of phosphorus.

It is possible to explain theoretically the signifi-

cance of rumen pH changes in the absorption of ammonia from

the rumen. It is well recognized that the speed of entry

of any compound into a cell depends largely upon its

molecular volume and its lipoid solubility. It is pre-

sumably for these reasons that ammonia (NH3) enters cells

readily and the ammonium ion' (NH4+) slowly. The proportion

of NH3 to NH4+ present in the rumen contents may be pre-

dicted from the Henderson-Hasselbach equation, with the

appropriate substitution of the pKa value of NH at a
3
temperature of 40C:
NH3
pH = 8.8 + log NH3
-4

From this equation it can be calculated that the propor-

tion of NH3 in the rumen will increase rapidly with a rise

in pH, and that the proportion of NH3 to NH4 + will increase









tenfold for a rise of one unit in the pH level. It is

therefore to be expected that as the pH rises the rate of

absorption of ammonia-N will also rise. Studies supporting

this theory have been reported (Coombe et al., 1960; Hogan,

1961; Bloomfield et al., 1963). All studies showed an

increased rate of absorption from the rumen of ammonia-N

following an increase in rumen pH.

Experiment 2 was designed to examine further the

effect of pH on amnuonia-N absorption from the rumen. The

MAP plus sodium carbonate treatment resulted in rumen pH

values significantly (P< .05) greater than the MAP treat-

ment for all samples taken postdosing except for those at

hours two and twenty-four. The changes in rumen ammonia-N

and blood urea-N concentrations due to these two treatments,

however, were essentially identical throughout the sampling

period.

The urea plus phosphoric acid treatment resulted in

rumen pH values significantly (P< .05) less than the urea

treatment only for hours one-half, one, twelve and twenty-

four postdosing. The difference in pH which occurred early

in the period apparently had some effect on rate of ammonia-

N absorption from the rumen. The urea plus phosphoric acid

treatment had a significantly (P< .05) lower rumen ammonia-N

concentration at one hour postdosing, and throughout the

sampling period exhibited a consistently greater blood urea-N

concentration than the urea treatment. This is the reverse

of the response that would be expected if the rate of









anmionria-N absorption from the rumen were due to rumen pH

per se.

These results are contrary to those reported by

Perez et al. (1]967) when fistulated sheep which had been

fasted 24 hours were dosed per 45.4 kg body weightC with

either 9.3 gm of nitrogen as urea plus 10.7 g-t of phosphorus

as phosphoric acid, or with only 9.3 gm of nitrogen as urea.

They reported that the urea plus phosphoric acid treatment

resulted in a significantly (P <.01) lower rumen pH, a

significantly (P < .05) greater rumen ammonia-N concentra-

tion, and a similar trend in blood urea-N concentration.

Although the results of the treatments involving

phosphoric acid and sodium bicarbonate do not support the

theory that pH is a controlling factor in the rate of

ammonia absorption, support is found by comparing the

results of the urea and MAP treatments. The urea treat-

ment resulted in a significantly (P < .05) higher rumen pH,

a significantly (P< .05) lower rumen ammonia-N concentra-

tion, and a consistently higher blood urea-N concentration

than the MAP treatment.
















C '. -":. I: V


THE PHOSPFI.R!US AVAILA'\BITITY iN .>C' A& *i. :7j AND
_ONOSODYUH PHiOSPItATES FOR G.( T:':G LA:iBS


As previously mentioned in the introduction to Chapter

III, considerable interest has been generated in amfioniated

phosphates due to their property of being both a source of

non-protein nitrogen and phosphorus. The present experiment

was conducted to compare the relative biological avail-

abilities of phosphorus in mono(1atmonium and monosodium

phosphates in growing lambs.


Procedure and Results


Twenty ewe lambs were used in the present experiment.

All lambs were wormed three weeks prior to receiving a

phosphorus depletion type diet containing 0.09% phosphorus

and 1.64% calcium. This diet differed from the basal diet

(Table 16) only by the replacement of 1% corn starch with

calcium carbonate. Venous blood samples were taken at the

beginning and end of a 2-week period on this low-phosphorus,

high-calcium diet. Average initial concentration of plasma

phosphorus was 6.5 mg/100 ml and had dropped to an average

of 3.5 mg/100 ml at the end of this 2-week phosphorus-

depletion period.








TABLE 16. COMPOSITION O DIETS


T treatment
Monoamronium


Ingredient
Dried citrus pulp
Corn starch
Bermuda grass hay, ground
Gelatin
Corn oill1
Dehydrated alfalfa (17%
protein)
Urea (281% protein
equivalent)
Monoammonium phosphate2
Monosodium phosphate2
Salt, trace-mineralized3
Vitamins A and D4


Basal
0.11% P
60.00
13.40
13.00
4.00
4.00

3.00

2.00


0.60
+
100.00


Phosphate
0.15% ~P 0.19% P
60.00 60.00
13.23 13.06
13.00 13.00
4.00 4.00
4.00 4.00


3.00

2.00
0.17

0.60
+
100.00


3.00

2.00
0.34

0.60

100.00


Mono soa Lun
Phosphate
0.15% P 0.17 P
60.00 6 .
13.24 13.08
13.00 13.0
4.00 4.00
4.00 4.00


3.00

2.00

0.16
0.60
+
100.00


3.00
3J 0 iJ

2.00

0.32
0 .0

100.00
O Uk)^
7iY. ( o


FPercent of Diet-


Chemical analysis5
Phosphorus
Ca ci urmn


Magne sium
Crude protein


0.11
1.27
0.11
14.24


0.15
1.28
0.11
14.94


0.19
1.26
0.11
14.50


0.15
1.25
0.11
14.72


1Stabilized with ethoxyquin.

2Upon analysis, monoammonium phosphate and monosodium phosphate contained
25.29% phosphorus, respectively.


0.1.
1.29
G 11.



24.47 an62
24.47 ana


3 Listed minimum analysis in percent: Zn, 1.00; Fe, 0.30; Mn, 0.20; S, 0.10; Cu, C.3:
Co, 0.01; and NaCi, 95.00.
4
2,200 IU vitamin A palmitate and 440 IU vitamin D2 added per kg of concentrate.

All values expressed on as-fed basis.









'The 1as wrCe r,:.:. :-,ily allotted according to weight

~Kand .< a '.i'"'. : 'oosohor),,s con c :ftp-c" -r o the :'i,,

teatme det.- shown in Table 16. The 1anbs e -re housed

individritall.y in elevated p.:n3. A seedless variety of citrus

was used as the source of dried citrus pulp and gelatin was

used as a source of preformed protein low in phosphorus.

Based on the work of Beeson et al. (1944) and Preston and

Pfander (1964), it was felt that a phosphorus level in the

supplemented diets of 0.13% would be below the phosphorus

requirement for these lambs and a level of 0.17% would be

marginal to their requirement. Based upon the analysis of the

depletion diet (0.09% P) adequate supplemental phosphorus

was added at the expense of corn starch to provide these

levels. However, after the experimental diets were mixed

the basal diet contained 0.11% total phosphorus and the

supplemented diets contained 0.15 and 0.19% phosphorus.

Phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and crude protein values for

the diets that were obtained by chemical analyses are also

shown. in Table 16. The high calcium content of these diets

resulted from the addition of calcium containing compounds

during the proc :ssing of the citrus pulp.

The d[, Lti were fed once daily in amounts to give

about a 10? weigh back. The lambs were weighed every 2

weeks and venous blood samples were obtained weekly. At

the end of 9 weeks on the experimirental diets all lambs

were slaughtered and the right ferur removed for analysis.

Following drying aid ether extraction the volume of each









bone was determined by measuring the amount of water dis-

placed by the total bone.

Phosphorus content of feed, plasma and bone was

determined by the colorimetric method outlined by Fiske and

Subbarow (1925) and determinations for calcium and magnesium

were made by atomic absorption spectrophotometry according

to the methods recommended by the manufacturer (Anonymous,

1964). The data were analyzed statistically by analysis of

variance and significant differences between means were

determined using Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (Steel

and Torrie, 1960).

The total weight gains, daily feed intake and feed

efficiency of lambs on the five treatments are presented in

Table 17. Individual data are presented in Appendix Table

36. Two lambs on the 0.19% monosodium phosphate treatment

lost 2.5 and 4.5 kg, respectively, during the 9-week experi-

mental period and were excluded from the data analyses.

The total weight gain's on the 0.19% phosphorus-

monoammonium phosphate diet were significantly (P <.05)

greater than those on the 0.15% phosphorus-monosodium phos-

phate diet and the basal diet. There was an apparent trend

of increasing weight gain and feed consumption with increas-

ing levels of total dietary phosphorus and the greatest

increases occurred with the monoammonium phosphate supplemented

diets.

The level of inorganic phosphorus in plasma is widely

used as an index of the state of phosphorus nutrition of an










TABLE 17. AVERAGE INITIAL AND FINAL WEIGHT, DAILY GAIN, FEED
INTAKE AND FEED EFFICIENCY OF LAMBS FED DIFFERENT SOURCES
AND LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL


Treatment
Monoammonium Monosodium
Basal Phosphate Phosphate
Item 0.11% P 0.15% P 0.19% P 0.15% P 0.19% P

Number of animals 4 4 4 4 2

Initial weight, kg 25.96 26.30 26.87 26.64 26.08

Final weight, kg 28.17 30.21 32.99 29.02 31.18

aab b a ab
Weight gain, kg 2.21 3.91 6.12 2.38 5.10

Daily feed intake, kg 0.62 0.73 0.80 0.66 0.74

Feed/unit gain, kg 16.58c 12.45 8.47 23.08c 9.38

abMeans on the same line bearing different superscripts are significantly (P <.05)
different.
CNo analysis of variance of feed efficiency values was conducted because one animal
in each of these treatment groups only maintained its weight.









animal. Table 18 summarizes the plasma phosphorus, calcium

and magnesium levels at regular times during the course of

the experiment. Individual data for inorganic plasma phos-

phorus, calcium and magnesium are presented in Appendix

Tables 37-39. Lambs receiving Lhe basal diet had lower

plasma phosphorus levels throughout the experiment than

lambs receiving supplemental phosphorus. There were no

significant differences in plasma phosphorus levels between

supplemental phosphorus sources or levels. There was a

tendency for plasma calcium levels of lambs receiving supple-

mental phosphorus to decrease following the third week of

the experiment. Plasma levels of all minerals analyzed

tended to decrease during the final 2 weeks. However, none

of these changes were significant.

Table 19 summarizes the data collected from the femurs

of lambs on the five treatments. Individual data are pre-

sented in Appendix Tables 40-41. There were no significant

differences between treatments in weight of dry, fat-free

bone nor in bone ash content. These values were numerically

greater, however, in the bones of lambs having received the

highest supplemental levels of phosphorus. The percent

phosphorus of bone ash was highest for lambs having received

supplemental phosphorus with the difference between the basal

treatment and the treatment containing the highest level of

monoammonium phosphate being significant (P< .05). The

percent calcium and magnesium of bone ash was likewise

numerically higher for lambs having received supplemental












TABLE 18. AVERAGE PHOSPHORUS, CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM LEVELS
IN PIA.S A OF LAMBS FED DIFFERE iT SOURCES AND LEVELS
OF PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL


Phosphorus Weeks on Trialab
Source Percent 0 3 6 9 Rc
Phosphorus (mg/100 ml plasma)
Basal 0.11 3.60 4.09 4.99 4.54 4.54
Monoammonium 0.15 3.20 4.90 5.92 4.88 5.23
Monoammonium 0.19 3.56 4.90 6.37 5.19 5.49
Monosodium 0.15 3.37 5.50 5.94 5.47 5.64
Monosodium 0.19 4.05 5.79 6.86 4.80 5.82

Average 3.56 5.04 6.02 4.98


Calcium (mg/100 ml plasma)
Basal 0.11 9.53 10.99 11.27 9.92 10.73
Monoanmmonium 0.15 10.30 10.85 10.70 9.56 10.37
Monoammnonium 0.19 10.38 10.12 10.17 9.39 9.89
Monosodium 0.15 11.04 10.55 9.75 9.50 9.93
Monosodium 0.19 11.01 11.54 10.65 9.59 10.59

Average 10.45 10.81 10.51 9.59


Magnesium (mg/100 ml plasma)
Basal 0.11 1.95 2.13 2.41 2.27 2.27
Monoammonium 0.15 1.67 2.07 2.22 2.11 2.13
Monoanmonium 0.19 1.79 2.05 2.26 2.12 2.14
Monosodium 0.15 1.79 2.08 2.14 2.02 2.08
Monosodium 0.19 2.07 2.47 2.48 2.24 2.40

Average 1.85 2.16 2.30 2.15

aEach value under weeks 3, 6 and 9 is the average of three
weekly sampling periods.
bStatistical analyses were conducted on the changes in
plasma mineral concentrations between the initial con-
centrations and the averages of every 3 consecutive weeks.
COverall mean of the nine weekly sampling periods.
Overall mean of the nine weekly sampling periods.










TABLE 19. AVERAGE MEASUREMENTS AND MINERAL CONCENTRATIONS OF
THE RIGHT FEMUR OF LAMBS FED DIFFERENT SOURCES AND LEVELS
OF PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL


Treatment
Monoammonium Monosodium
Basal Phosphate Phosphate
item 0.11.% P 0.15% P 0.19% P 0.15% P 0.19% P
Number of animals 4 4 4 4 2
Weight of dry, fat-free
bone, gm 45.27 44.38 47.31 44.61 45.93
Ash, % of dry, fat-free
bone 64.23 63.79 66.06 65.88 66.28
Phosphorus, % of ash 15.86a 16.39ab 16.56b 16.49ab 16.30ab
Calcium, % of ash 35.42 35.74 35.78 34.79 35.53
Magnesium, % of ash 0.108a 0.733a 0.723a 0.750a 0.859b
Volume of dry, fat-free
bone, ccc 59.96 57.86 61.20 59.09 56.43
Dry, fa--free weight
mg/cc0 755 767 773 755 814
Ash weight, mg/cce 469 490 506 498 540


a,' Means on the same line
different.


bearing different superscripts are significantly (P< .05)


cThe volume of water displaced by the total, dry-fat-free bone.

Ratio of the total dry-fat-free weight in mg to the volume of water displaced by
the total dry-fat-free bone.
Ratio of the total ash weight in mg to the volume of water displaced by the total
dry-fat-free bone









phosphorus. The 0.19% rmonosodium phosphate treatment group,
Which consitC.d of to. lambs, resuI. .d in signiFica.nty

(P <.05) greater bone ash concentrations of -magnesiumi than

the other treatment groups. Expressing the dry, fat-free

weights and the ash weights of the bones as mg per cc

resulted in the general trend of increasing vLlues with

increasing levels of phosphorus.


Discussion


The relative availabilities of the phosphorus in

many inorganic phosphorus sources have been evaluated for

ruminants using animal growth studies (Long et al., 1957;

Wise et al., 1961; Perez et al., 1967). Parameters often

measured in such studies are rate of gain, feed6 intake,

inorganic blood phosphorus, and various bone measurements.

The present study was designed to include three

levels of phosphorus; two were to be inadequate for normal

growth and performance and the third level was to be

marginal. All treatment diets used, however, analyzed 0.02%

higher in total phosphorus than anticipated. The lowest

supplemental phosphorus treatment, which contained 0.15%

total phosphorus, was probably marginal with respect to

the level of phosphorus needed for normal lamb growth.

Beeson et al. (1944) foun;id diets containing 0.15% total

phosphorus to be adequate for supporting good rate of gain,

efficient feed utilization and normal blood phosphorus

levels in fattening lambs.









In the present r ..'iment, treatment groups receiving

sui'ppe:r. .!a], p osphorus as monoi Gfow' pI.u'A }hosphate had

numerically gre(.er average daily fe-ed intakes and gains

than groups receiving diets supp.eented with monosodium

phosphate. The plasma and bone analyses, however, did not

show consistent trends for either sources of organicnc

phosphorus.

Both the 0.15 and 0.19% total phosphorus levels in

the supplemented diets were apparently adequate to support

normal bone metabolism and a normal serum phosphorus level

in the growing lambs. Long et al. (1957) reported linear

increases in feed intake, weight gains and serum inorganic

phosphorus levels with steers receiving 0.07, 0.11 and

0.15% total dietary phosphorus, whereas a phosphorus level

of 0.19% gave results similar to the 0.15% phosphorus

treatment.

In spite of the limitation of the present experiment

of higher than desired experimental levels of phosphorus in

the diets, it can be concluded that the phosphorus in

mono aimionium phosphate was as well utilized by the growing

lambs as that from monosodium phosphate. This result is

consistent with studies in which diammonium phosphate

(Oltjen et al,, 1963; Hillis, 1968), urea-phosphate (Perez

et al., 1967), and phosplhoric acid (Richardson et al., 1957;

Tillman and Brethour, 19580) have been found to be readily

available sources of phospho-.us to ruminants.
















CHAPTER VI


EFFECT OF AGE AND DIETARY LEVEL OF MAGNESIUM
ON MAGNESIUM UTILIZATION BY SHEEP


The availabilities of magnesium stores in the body

for mobilization during periods of stress or magnesium

deficiency are believed to decrease with age. Wilson (1960)

suggested that the greater frequency of hypomagnesaemic

tetany in mature animals may be partly due to their de-

creased ability to mobilize reserves of magnesium from

bone as readily as the young animal.

In the present experiment the effect of age on

magnesium utilization by sheep was determined using

balance techniques and estimates were made of the dietary

magnesium requirements for maintenance of the different

age groups.


Procedure and Results


Thirty-six Florida native wethers (12 lambs, 12

yearlings and 12 adult sheep) were randomly assigned, within

age groups, to three dietary levels of magnesium. The

levels were calculated to be 330, 660 and 990 ppm magnesium

but the diets fed were found to contain 400, 650 and 950 ppm

magnesium, respectively. The supplemental magnesium was

supplied as the carbonate by addition of the desired levels

80









to a seai -pur.1ied diet (Table 20) at the expense of corn

starch. Te dit cotaied 0.20! phosphors, 0.22- cral cium

and 11.6% crude p-otein nup. analysis.

All anima.s had received a coin-hay based diet for

the previous 66 days and had been treated twice for in-

testinal parasites. The animals were housed individuallyy

in raised metabolism crates and fed once daily their

respective treatment diet at a computed maintenance level,

Thiis level was calculated by first determining the amount

of metabolizable energy (ME) each sheep would need for

maintenance by the formula:

1.33 x 70 (kg0.75) kilocalories

where 70 kg 07is an estimate of the energy needed for

basal metabolism and the factor 1.33 is an estimate of the

unavoidable daily activity of an animal. Values of ME for

all ingredients were not available and estimates were made

for these. The estimated ME content of the diet was 2.125

kilocalories per kilogram of dry matter and the intake of

this diet needed for maintenance was calculated to be 50 gm
0.75
daily per kg of metabolic body weight (kg ) as illustrated

in Table 21. This computed maintenance level proved

approximately accurate, based upon an average initial weight

(41.4 kg) and average final weight (41.8 kg) at the end of

31 days in the metabolism crates. Tap water was provided

ad libhitum.

A 21-day preliminary feeding period was followed by

a 7-day collection period. During the collection period











TABLE 20. COMPOSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL DIET


Ingredient
Corn cobs and shucks, ground
Pure soy protein1
Urea
Cerelose
Corn starch
Corn oil2
Trace mineral mixture
Salt
Calcium carbonate (40% calcium)
Monosodium phosphate (25% phosphorus)
Vitamins4
Variables


35.50
7.50
1.50
18.00
31.62
3.00
0.24
0.60
0.57
0.47
+
1.00
100.00


iPure soy protein C-l--Skidmore Enterprises, Cincinnati,

Ohio.

2Stabilized with ethoxyquin.


Ingredients
Sulfur (Na2 SO4)
Iron (FeSO4)
Zinc (ZnCO3)
Manganese (MnCO3)

Copper (CuSO4)
Iodine (KI)
Cobalt (CoCO3)


% of Mixture
81.37
11.13
3.93
2.14


Mineral added to diet, ppm
450
100


1.00
0.27
0.16
1i00.00


42,200 IU vitamin A palmitate, 440 IU vitamin D2 and 11 mg
DL alpha tocopherol added per kg of diet.

Variable levels of MgCO3; corn starch was added or removed
to adjust to 100%.













TABLE 21. AGE SPECIFICATIONS, BODY WEIGHTS AND FEED OFFERED


No. Age


Age
Specifications

Lambs (6-12 mos.)

Yearlings (1-2 yrs.)

Adult sheep (2-3 yrs.)


Average Weight, kg 0.75
Initial Final W

28.8 29.0 12.4

44.0 44.7 17.2

50.5 50.9 18.9


Feed
Daily Feed Offered
(gm) (gm/WO-75)

620 50

860 50

945- 50


Group

I

II

III


No.
Animals

11

13

12









t;l f *-cc-'.] Anid urinary co]llict 'i* s .:0-e made at '24-ho.ur

>2 S (9 (.9(fl

a rcxi,)7-]'a& l I ,. 00 ml of a 2 -. ,A I .ti.lo'i and 1- 0 li of

toluene. had b,'-n added. [rine volumes c-ee recordJ daily

and a 10% aliquot was saved forx chemical analysis. (eces

were collected daily using fecal collection b-,gs. Blood

samples were obtained by jugular puncture for 3 consecutive

days at the end of the collection period, and the plasma; was

obtained for each sample for the det.rination of ;anesium,

calcium and phosphorus.

The 7-day fecal collections 7ere pooled, thoroughly

mixed, and dried to a constant weight in a forced air oven

at approximately 60C. The dried excreta were allowed to

gain moisture from the atmosphere for 72 hours, after which

they were weighed, ground finely, iand an aliquot saved for

gross energy, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus determinations.

A sample of the urine as collected was saved for gross

energy determinations. The remainder was filtered i:hrough

Whatman No. 42 filter paper and approximately 100 ml kept

for magnesium, calcium and phosphorus determinations.

Energy content of diets, feces and urine was deter-

mined by combustion in a Parr oxygen bomb adiabatic calori-

meter. Urine samples were prep cd by --atur:ating a tared

cellulose pellet in a coT.bustion capsule with 5 i1; of urine

and dying in a vacuum des'.ccator. Tata .Iare corrected for

energy value. cif the %cel]i]o oe used .i!-h rv.eh samela portiion.

Acid and sulfur corrections (aarr i-anual No. 130, -1.960) were




Full Text
137
TABLE 42. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM INTAKE
BY LAMBS ON PERCENT APPARENT ABSORPTION OF MAGNESIUM,
CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS
Magnesium
Intake, mg
Sheep
No.
Magnesium
Calcium
Phosphorus
20.00
019
-8.04
37.73
34.39
20.00
031
-7.69
17.19
53.34
18.94
107
-6.81
16.55
41.01
32.50
020
35.38
23.02
16.40
32.50
029
27.78
-2.93
-2.27
32.50
079
28.77
19.30
42.98
32.50
090
28.61
10.20
48.40
47.50
20
45.33
4.50
-3.94
45.47
038
40.82
. 12.02
54.45
47.50
065
41.40
-23.13
-9.11
47.50
105
47.59
-1.47
8.18
aMagnesium
intake per
, 0.75 .
kg body
weight per
day.


TABLE 28
INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON FEED CONSUMPTION,
AVERAGE WEIGHT GAIN AND BLOOD UREA-N (BUN)a
Treatment
Period
Daily Feed
Intake, kg
Daily
Gain, kg
Feed Intake
kg
2 Hours
Initial
BUN
BUN
Change
2 Hours
BUN change
Per kg Feed
Consumed
1
9.33
0.91
4.21
17.00
-1.50
-0.36
Soybean
2
6.08
1.08
1.99
9.00
1.00
0.50
meal
3
8.73
1.93
2.29
11.25
1.25
0.55
(A)
4
9.23
1.54
3.34
16.00
-0.40
-0.12
1
_L
5.89
0.80
2.69
12.25
0.50
0.19
1.50%
2
7.51
0.57
2.09
12.25
1.50
0.72
DAP
3
7.95
1.36
2.39
11.75
1.50
0.63
4
6.69
-0.45
1.64
10.00
1.50
0.92
1
9.84
0.29
3.89
14.00
0.00
0.00
0.75%
2
10.14
1.20
3.59
12.50
0.00
0.00
MAP
3
8.46
0.00
4.44
13.00
-0.50
-0.11
(C)
4
6.39
0.00
2.39
11.75
0.25
0.10
1
8.33
1.14
3.69
13.50
0.00
0.00
2.30%
2
9.43
0.74
3.19
12.50
1.00
0.31
MAP
3
5.85
-0.29
3.71
8.25
3.50
0.94
(D)
4
9.97
-0.11
3.29
14.60
0.50
0.15
aBUN concentration
expressed as
mg per 100
ml of whole
blood.
123


47
sheep were housed in metal metabolism cages and fed the hay-
corn based diet shown in Table 9. One kg of this diet was
fed once daily and water was supplied ad libitum.
The treatments used in this study consisted of each
animal receiving intraruminally 10 gm of nitrogen per 45.4
kg body weight from either soybean meal, urea, diammonium
phosphate (DA.P) or monoammonium phosphate (MAP) An interval
of 6 days between each of the four treatment periods was
allowed for the sheep to readjust. On treatment mornings,
the nitrogen sources were given in dry form via the fistula
approximately 2 hours following consumption of their corn-
t
hay diet. Rumen fluid and jugular blood samples were taken
immediately before dosing and at periodic intervals there
after for determination of rumen pH, rumen ammonia and
blood urea. The pH of rumen fluid was determined using a
Sargent Model DR pH meter within 1 minute after sampling.
Rumen ammonia-N was determined by the phenol n.itroprusside-
alkaline hypochlorite method' of Kaplan et al. (1965) .
Blood urea-N was determined by the method of Ormsby (1942)
with refinements suggested by Richter and Lapoinie (196 2) .
The data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance
and significant differences between means were determined
using Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (Steel and Torrie,
1960) .
The effect of the four treatments on rumen pH is
presented in Table 10 and is presented graphically in
Figure 1. The individual data are presented in Appendix


166
Smith, R. H. and A. B. McAllan. 1966. Binding of magnesium
and calcium in the contents of the small intestine
of the calf. Brit. J. Nutr. 20:703.
Smith, R. H. and A. B. McAllan. 1967. Precipitation of
magnesium in association with phosphate under the
conditions obtaining in the calf ileum. Prcc.
Nutr. Soc. 26:xxxii.
Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. 1960. Principles and
procedures of statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
Inc. Mew York.
Storry, J. E. and J. A. F. Rook. 1963. Magnesium metabolism
in the dairy cow. V. Experimental observations with
a purified diet low in magnesium. J. Agr. Sci. 61:
167.
Suttle, N. F. and A. C. Field. 1967. Studies on magnesium
in ruminant nutrition. 3. Effect of increased
intakes of potassium and water on the metabolism of
magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and calcium
in sheep. Brit. J. Nutr. 21:819.
Suttle, N. F. and A. C. Field. 1969. Studies on magnesium
in ruminant nutrition. 9. Effect of potassium and
magnesium intakes on development of hypomagnesaemia
in sheep. Brit. J. Nutr. 23:81.
Thomas, J. W. 1959. Magnesium nutrition of the calf.
Symposium of magnesium and agriculture. West Virginia
University, p. 131.
Tillman, A. D. and J. R. Brethour. 1958a. Dicalcium
phosphate and phosphoric acid as phosphorus sources
for beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 17:100.
Tillman, A. D. and J. R. Brethour. 1958b. Ruminant utiliza
tion of sodium meta-, ortho- and pyrophosphates. J.
Anim. Sci. 17:792.
Toothill, J. 1963. The effect of certain dietary factors
on the apparent absorption of magnesium by the rat.
Brit. J. Nutr. 17:125.
Visek, W. J. 1968. Some aspects of ammonia toxicity in
animal cells. J. Dairy Sci. 51:236.
Walser, M. 1967. Magnesium metabolism. Rev. of Physiol.,
Biochem. and Exp. Pharm. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Wilson, A. A. 1960. Magnesium homeostasis and hypomagnesaemia
.in ruminants. Vet. Rev. 6:39.


142
TABLE 47. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM INTAKE
BY ADULTS ON PERCENT NET RETENTION OF MAGNESIUM,
CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS
Magnesium
Intake, mg
Sheep
No.
Magnesium
Calcium
Phosphorus
20.00
085
-0.64
5.63
3.39
20.00
106
-2.99
-16.04
-4.01
17.43
174
-4.18
-25.10
-13.68
20.00
194
4.34
-7.63
-5.96
32.50
97
1.88
-24.55
-11.85
32.50
99
13.37
-5.95
-1.13
32.50
138
6.76
-16.76
-6.70
32.50
197
0.89
-15.44
-25.46
44.11
18
6.95
-20.71
-7.63
47.50
082
5.04
-15.46
-6.32
47.50
88
7.66
-6.68
-2.48
47.50
198
10.2 4
-12.18
-14.36
Magnesium
intake per
, 0.75, ,
kg body
weight per day.


16
in young rats. Martindale and Heaton (1964) found adult
rats fed a magnesium deficient diet had a net loss of
magnesium from the femur of 17%. They concluded that the
skeleton acts as a magnesium reserve but the fraction
mobilized in adult rats during magnesium deficiency is
smaller than in weanling rats.
Smith (1959b) and Thomas (1959) demonstrated that the
percent of bone magnesium in milk-fed calves decreased with
age. But it is questionable whether the total reduction of
bone magnesium concentration is due to mobilization from
the bone or to formation of new bone tissue during a period
when the plasma concentration of magnesium is low. Duckworth
and Godden (1941) considered that, where the rate of bone
growth was maintained, most of the decrease in bone magnesium
concentration was attributable to deposition of magnesium-
poor bone rather than to net reabsorption of magnesium.
The apparently greater degree of exchange exhibited
by the young animal has been related by Robinson and Watson
(1955) to the smaller size of the mineral crystals, while
Forbes (1959) attributed it to the greater water content of
the young bone, which might make magnesium more accessible
to circulating body fluids.
The effect of age on magnesium utilization was ex
amined recently by Garces and Evans (1971) with steers
ranging in age from 10 to 88 months. They reported
magnesium absorption and retention were significantly
correlated with magnesium intake and magnesium utilization
was similar for all ages.


TABLE 19. AVERAGE MEASUREMENTS AND MINERAL CONCENTRATIONS OF
THE RIGHT FEMUR OF LAMBS FED DIFFERENT SOURCES AND LEVELS
OF PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL
Treatment
Monoammonium Monosodium
Basal Phosphate Phosphate
Item
0.11% P
0.15% P
0.19% P
0.15% P
0.19% P
Number of animals
4
4
4
4
2
Weight of dry, fat-free
bone, gm
45.27
44.38
47.31
44.61
45.93
Ash, % of dry, fat-free
bone
64.23
63.79
66.06
65.88
66.28
Phosphorus, % of ash
15.8 6a
16.39 ab
16.56b
16.49ab
16.30ab
Calcium, % of ash
35.42
35.74
35.78
34.79
35.53
Magnesium, % of ash
0.708a
0.733a
0.723a
0.750a
0.855b
Volume of dry, fat-free
bone, ccc
59.96
57.86
61.20
59.09
56.43
Dry, fat-free weight
mg/ccc!
755
767
773
755
814
Ash weight, mg/cce
469
490
506
498
540
_ '
' Means on the same line bearing different superscripts are significantly (P< .05)
different.
Q
The volume of water displaced by the total, dry-fat-free bone.
Ratio of the total dry-fat-free weight in mg to the volume of water displaced by
the total dry-fat-free bone.
0
Ratio of the total ash weight in mg to the volume of water displaced by the total
dry-fat-free bone


CHAPTER
Page
Experiment 4-~Effect of Supplemental
Nitrogen as Soybean Meal, DAP and
Two Levels of MAP on Voluntary Feed
Intake, Average Daily Gain and 3lood
Urea-N in Steers 40
Discussion 44
IVNITROGEN SOURCE AND RUMEN AMMONIA, pH AND
BLOOD UREA-N. . 4 6
Procedure and Results 46
Experiment 1--Effect of Nitrogen Source
on Rumen Ammonia, pH and Blood Urea-N 46^
Experiment 2--Effect of Nitrogen Source
and Supplemental Acid or Base on Rumen
Ammonia, pH and Blood Urea-N 57
Discussion 64
VTHE PHOSPHORUS AVAILABILITY IN MONOAMMONIUM
AND MONOSODIUM PHOSPHATES FOR GROWING LAMBS 70
Procedure and Results 70
Discussion 73
VIEFFECT OF AGE AND DIETARY LEVEL OF MAGNESIUM
ON MAGNESIUM UTILIZATION BY SHEEP 80
Procedure and Results 80
Discussion 108
VII GENERAL SUMMARY 115
Influence of Non-protein Nitrogen Source
on Feed Intake, Animal Performance and
Blood Urea-N 115
Effect of Nitrogen Source on Certain
Blood and Ruminal Fluid Constituents. 116
Relative Availability of Phosphorus in
Two Inorganic Phosphorus Sources. . 117
Influence of Age and Dietary Magnesium
Level or. Magnesium Utilization. .... 117
APPENDIX 120
BIBLIOGRAPHY 159
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 168
V


132
TABLE 37. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON PHOSPHORUS LEVEL IN PLASMA OF
LAMBS FED DIFFERENT SOURCES AND LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS
DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIALa
Phosphorus,
Source and
Lamb
Weeks
on trial*3
Percent
No.
0
3
6
9
Basal
78
4.75
4.23
5.50
6.71
0.11%
86
3.05
3.86
5.52
4.21
72
3.90
4.57
4.85
3.25
79
2.70
3.71
4.12
4.01
Monoammonium
74
1.45
3.35
4.00
3.94
Phosphate
82
4.05
4.59
6.22
4.31
0.15% P
76
3.40
6.02
7.54
5.71
75
3.90
5.66
5.95
5.59
Monoammonium
87
2.85
5.11
7.26
4.96.
Phosphate
90
3.95
4.46
6.00
5.69
0.19% P
73
4.15
4.01
6.30
5.11
38
3.30
6.05
5.92
5.00
Monosodium
6
2.75
5.26
7.55
5.68
Phosphate
89
3.10
5.59
5.26
6.05
0.15% P
85
3.45
6.15
5.33
5.68
77
4.20
5.03
5.63
4.47
Monosodium
83
3.35
4.35
6.82
4.40
Phosphate
0.19% P
93
4.75
7.23
6.90
5.20
aPhosphorus concentration expressed as mg/100 ml of plasma.
j-
Each value under weeks 3, 6, and 9 is the average of three
weekly sampling periods.


retention, urinary excretion and .plasma levels of magnesium.
By use of regression analysis (fecal magnesium on magnesium
intake) the theoretical values for metabolic fecal magnesium
were calculated for lambs, yearlings and adults to he:
170.91, 122.25 and 118.44 mg per 1,000 kilocalories of
metabolizable energy (ME) intake per day, respectively;
0 75
16.87, 13.95 and 12.30 mg per kg body weight per day,
respectively; 7.26, 5.48 and 4.25 mg per kg body weight per
day, respectively. From the regression equations of fecal
plus urinary magnesium on magnesium intake for each age
group the calculated minimum dietary requirements to replace
endogenous losses for lambs, yearlings and adults were:
261.07, 235.20 and 176.46 mg per 1,000 kilocalories of ME
intake per day, respectively; 28.84, 26.40 and 20.46 mg per
0 75
kg body weight per day, respectively; 12.56, 10.50 and
6.75 mg per kg body weight per day, respectively. These
values would be specific for the semi-purified diet fed
with supplemental magnesium provided as the carbonate. The
regressions of urinary magnesium on plasma magnesium gave
renal threshold values for lambs, yearlings and adults of:
1.38, 1.42 and 1.21 mg per 100 ml of plasma, respectively.
xvi


Two Latin square designed experiments were conducted
with fistulated sheep to study the effects of non-protein
nitrogen sources upon rumen ammonia-N, pH and blood urea-N.
All nitrogen sources were idmi listered intraruminaliy as
10 gm of nitrogen per 45.4 kg body weight and rumen fluid
and jugular blood samples viere taken at periodic intervals
thereafter. In the first experiment urea resulted in the
greatest (P <.05) increase in rumen pH, the least (P< .05)
increase in rumen ammonia-N concentration and the greatest
(P <.05) increase in blood urea-N. Converse responses
resulted with MAP and DAP was intermediate in effect.
Treatments in the second experiment consisted of urea, urea
plus H^PO^, MAP and MAP plus ^200^. Effects of alkali and
acid additions on rumen pH were of short duration. Blood
urea-N values for the urea and urea plus H^PO^ treatments
were similar throughout the sampling period and values for
the treatments MAP and MAP plus Na^CO^ were similar.
A balance trial was conducted with sheep of three
ages (lambs, yearlings and adults) receiving three dietary
levels of magnesium and a computed maintenance level of
energy intake. With increasing age, the retention of
calcium aid phosphorus decreased, apparent absorption of
calcium decreased, plasma inorganic phosphorus decreased
and excretion of phosphorus in urine increased. With in
creasing intakes of dietary magnesium, there was a decreased
retention of phosphorus and calcium, increased excretion of
calcium in urine and increased apparent absorption,
xv


Magnesium output (Y)
mg/kg body weight
106
Magnesium intake (X),
mg/kg body weight
FIGURE 15. RELATION OF MAGNESIUM OUTPUT (FECAL PLUS
URINARY) TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PERKELOGRAM
BODY WEIGHT PER DAY


CHAPTER VI
EFFECT OF AGE AND DIETARY LEVEL OF MAGNESIUM
ON MAGNESIUM UTILIZATION BY SHEEP
The availabilities of magnesium stores in the body
for mobilization during periods of stress or magnesium
deficiency are believed to decrease with age. Wilson (1960)
suggested that the greater frequency of hypomagnesaemic
tetany in mature animals may be partly due to their de
creased ability to mobilize reserves of magnesium from
bone as readily as the young animal.
In the present experiment the effect of age on
magnesium utilization by sheep was determined using
balance techniques and estimates were made of the dietary
magnesium requirements for maintenance of the different
age groups.
Procedure and Results
Thirty-six Florida native wethers (12 lambs, 12
yearlings and 12 adult sheep) were randomly assigned, within
age groups, to three dietary levels of magnesium. The
levels were calculated to be 330, 660 and S90 ppm magnesium
but the diets fed were found to contain 400, 650 and 950 ppm
magnesium, respectively. The supplemental magnesium was
supplied as the carbonate by addition of the desired levels
80


110
specified protein-tc-calorie ratios in diets for optimum
performance has long been recognized and there is increas
ing interest in considering caloric intake as the fundamental
basis for the requirement of most of the known essential
nutrients. In the present study the metabolizable energy
of the experimental diet, which was fed at a calculated
maintenance level, was determined. By expressing the
magnesium intake and excretion per 1,000 kilocalories of
metabolizable energy intake it was possible to calculate
the maintenance requirement of magnesium for the lambs,
yearlings and adult sheep and express them on a magnesium-
to-calorie basis. The values were found to be 261.07,
235.20 and 176.46 mg of magnesium per 1,000 kilocalories of
metabolizable energy intake, respectively. The ratio of
magnesium to energy intake would be expected to decrease
with maturity due to magnesium being a nutrient which is
stored during body growth.
Values reported in the literature for magnesium
requirements are expressed as mg needed per day or mg
needed per kg body weight. If the requirement is to be
expressed on a body weight basis a more desirable expression
0 75
would be mg per kg body weight. For purpose of illustra
tion, the calculated maintenance requirements from this study
0 75
for lambs on both the kg and kg body weight basis will be
compared. These values were 12.56 and 23.84 mg of magnesium
. 0 75
intake per day per kg body weight and kg body weight,
respectively. By calculating on each basis the total


3
urea-phosphate and urea-plus phosphoric acid treatments
had essentially identical pH trends with each dropping 'from
their initial values of 7.25 and 7.35 to pH 5.9 and 6.35,
respectively, at one-half hour postdosing. The urea treat
ment, which had the highest rumen pH, resulted in the
lowest rumen ammonia-N and highest blood ammonia-N values
when compared with the two phosphate treatments.
The use of ammoniated phosphates has received in
creased attention in recent years. Their chemical make-up
gives them a dual role as a source of both nitrogen and
phosphorus. One such compound is DAP. Russell et al. (1962)
found no significant difference in nitrogen retention be
tween urea and DAP in balance trials -with lambs when each
source provided 31% of the total dietary nitrogen. However,
when 60% of the total dietary nitrogen of sheep rations was
supplied by urea or DAP, Oltjen et al. (1963) reported less
efficient utilization of the nitrogen from diammonium
phosphate. These workers also found rations containing DAP
to be less palatable to sheep during three growth trials.
They indicated that possibly saliva, coming in contact with
the feed, resulted in ammonia being released and the feed
being refused by the animals. Problems with palatability
were reported by Lassiter, Brown and Keyser (1962) when DAP
at levels greater than 2% was incorporated into the grain
rations of dairy cows. Similar palatability problems were
reported by Hale et al. (1962) when 1% of the ration for
steers was DAP.


114
These requirements of magnesium for maintenance are
specific for the conditions of this experiment which ihclude
the animals being fed a diet at a calculated maintenance
level of energy intake and the magnesium intake being
supplied by both the semi-purified diet and supplemental
magnesium provided as the carbonate. A requirement of
magnesium for maintenance was determined by Chicco (1966)
when he fed varying levels of magnesium oxide in a purified
diet to young lambs. He reported a value of 4.03 mg per
kg body weight as compared to the value in this study of
12.56 mg per kg body weight for lambs. This difference may
be due to 4 months difference in the ages of the lambs and
the relative availability of magnesium from the different
sources.
The calculated magnesium threshold values in this
study were 1.38, 1.42 and 1.21 mg of magnesium per 100 ml
of plasma for lambs, yearlings and adult sheep, respectively.
These values are lower than most reported values. L'Estrange
and Axford (1964) reported values of 1.37 and 1.90 mg per
100 ml of plasma in two lactating ewes by progressively
decreasing their magnesium intake by increments of 40 mg
daily. In a balance study with lambs Chicco (1966) reported
renal threshold values of between 1.5 and 1.6 mg per 100 ml
of plasma.


Rumen pii
FIGURE 1.
effect of treatments
ON RUMEN pH
<-n
o


7 2
The lambs were randomly allotted according to weight
and final plasma phosphorus concentration to the five
treatment diets shown in Table 16. The lambs were housed
individually in elevated pens. A seedless variety of citrus
was used as the source of dried citrus pulp and gelatin was
used as a source of preformed protein low in phosphorus.
Based on the work of Beeson et al. (1944) and Preston and
Pfander (1964), it was felt that a phosphorus level in the
supplemented diets of 0.13% would be below the phosphorus
requirement for these lambs and a level of 0.17% would be
marginal to their requirement. Based upon the analysis of the
depletion diet (0.09% P) adequate supplemental phosphorus
was added at the expense of corn starch to provide these
levels. However, after the experimental diets were mixed
the basal diet contained 0.11% total phosphorus and the
supplemented diets contained 0.15 and 0.19% phosphorus.
Phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and crude protein values for
the diets that were obtained by chemical analyses are also
shown in Table 16. The high calcium content of these diets
resulted from the addition of calcium containing compounds
during the processing of the citrus pulp.
The diets were fed once daily in amounts to give
about a 10% weigh back. The lambs were weighed every 2
weeks and venous blood samples were obtained weekly. At
the end of 9 weeks on the experimental diets all lambs
were slaughtered and the right femur removed for analysis.
Following drying and ether extraction the volume of each


TABLE
Page
57 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF URINARY
MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER
1,000 KILOCALORIES OF METABOLIZABLE
ENERGY INTAKE PER DAY 152
58 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF URINARY
MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER
KILOGRAM075 BODY WEIGHT PER DAY 153
59 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF URINARY
MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER
KILOGRAM BODY WEIGHT PER DAY 154
60 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF MAGNESIUM
OUTPUT (FECAL PLUS URINARY) TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER 1,000 KILOCALORIES OF
METABOLIZABLE ENERGY INTAKE PER DAY .... 155
61 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF MAGNESIUM
OUTPUT (FECAL PLUS URINARY) TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER KILOGRAM0-75 BODY WEIGHT PER
DAY 155
62 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF MAGNESIUM
OUTPUT (FECAL PLUS URINARY) TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER KILOGRAM BODY WEIGHT PER DAY . 157
63 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF URINARY
MAGNESIUM TO PLASMA MAGNESIUM 158
xi


Urinary magnesium (Y)
mg/hr
107
FIGURE 16. RELATION OF URINARY MAGNESIUM TO PLASMA
MAGNESIUM


141
TABLE 46. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM INTAKE
BY YEARLINGS ON PERCENT NET RETENTION OF MAGNESIUM,
CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS
Magnesium
Intake, mg
Sheep
No.
Magnesium
Calcium
Phosphorus
19.01
90
-2.20
-6.90
10.00
20.00
092
-11.94
19.13
2.68
20.00
165
-1.19
-9.09
-0.63
32.50
084
2.47
-21.69
-8.86
32.50
100
4.29
-23.20
-17.33
32.50
127
8.15
-4.33
6.19
32.50
200
1.35
-36.58
-14.87
47.50
64
0.12
-25.33
-21.73
47.50
122
2.78
-10.80
-7.57
47.50
195
0.54
-12.96
-9.94
47.50
196
3.25
-11.03
-16.80
a
Magnesium intake per kg
0.75
body weight per day


145
TABLE 50. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM INTAKE
BY ADULTS ON URINARY EXCRETION OF MAGNESIUM,
CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS, % OF INTAKE
Magnesium
Intake, mg
Sheep
No.
Magnesium
Calcium
Phosphorus
20.00
085
5.14
12.80
0.72
20.00
106
10.24
7.17
66.01
17.43
174
3.21
4.05
15.01
20.00
194
3.89
1.58
46.91
32.50
S7
22.45
13.97
44.53
32.50
99
26.35
9.89
37.35
32.50
138
29.34
13.44
53.76
32.50
197
32.77
16.52
32.98
44.11
18
41.87
' 12.37
50.05
47.50
082
28.17
11.03
27.07
47.50
88
43.71
15.92
23.23
47.50
198
30.45
14.80
42.55
aMagnesiuin intake per kg^*^ body weight per day.


26
The effects of numerous other dietary factors on the
availability of magnesium have been studied. The sudden
increase in potassium intake which occurs when ruminants
first graze spring grass has been considered as a possible
contributing factor to the development of hypomagnesaemic
tetany. Suttle and Field (1967) found that apparent avail
ability of magnesium to wethers was markedly reduced when
the potassium of a hay and concentrate diet was raised to a
level found in pastures where tetany had occurred. A
similar study was conducted by the same authors (Suttle and
Field, 1969) in which ewes fed a diet containing 0.05%
magnesium and 4.44% potassium exhibited hypomagnesaemic
tetany. This level of potassium had a depressing effect on
the concentration of serum magnesium by reducing its
apparent absorption and as well by possibly exerting a
direct depressing effect on the circulating level of
magnesium. High potassium intake in association with high
intake levels of trans-aconitic acid, which has been found
high in certain spring forages, resulted in experimentally
induced grass tetany in cattle and the tetany did not occur
if either potassium or the acid were received separately
(Bohrrtan et al 1969). Lomba et al. (1968) reported no
significant correlation, however, between the potassium in
take, digestibility or utilization, and the fate of dietary
magnesium in numerous balance studies conducted with dry and
lactating cows. These authors did report a highly significant
correlation between fecal magnesium and nitrogen intake v?ith


15
10
5
0
Urea + Acid
Urea
MAP + Base
MAP
mJa-rl-irrg-J mnrrrr. .. j ;j^zz:-?.zr.z.:-.s.:!:--
1 2 3 4 6
~ r.-ffyraame:
9 12
Hours after dosing
EGURE 6. EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON BLOOD UREA-N


90
TABLE 24. EFFECT OF AGE AND DIETARY MAGNESIUM ON URINARY
EXCRETION AS PERCENT OF INTAKE OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND
PHOSPHORUS IN SHEEP
Treatment
Age
Magnesium
Intake, mg'
Main effects*3
Lambs
Yearlings
-
Adult sheep
--

20.0

32.5

47.5
Interaction e:
ffects
Lambs
20.0C
Lambs
32.5
Lambs
47.5
Yearlings
20.0C
Yearlings
32.5
Yearlings
47.5
Adult sheep
20.0
Adult sheep
32.5
Adult sheep
47.5
Urinary
Excretion,
% of Intake
Mg
Ca
P
24.02d
9.45
17.07d
28,93*1
2 3.13
13.84
17.74
11.13,
36.68e
7.4 7 X
5.8 9
24.69
26.90Y
13.81e
25.07
33.5 4Z
13.76e
22.94
8.70d
6.06d
11.08ee
10.33de
25.95
24.18^
35.3 6":
14.65
12.82
8.70%
28.81e£
5.03
16.91e
13.47
18.41
4422d
17.38e
20.27
5.62d
6*40de
13.46ee
13.53de
32.16
27.73e
36.05r
42.16
35.73
Magnesium intake per kg body weight. Five
animals had incomplete consumptions of their diets;
the amount of magnesium refused was less than 3 mg
per kg0*75 body weight.
^Values for main effects due to age are based on 11
lambs, 11 yearlings and 12 adult sheep; values for
main effects due to magnesium intake are based on 10,
12 and 12 animals for the 20.0, 32.5 and 47.5 mg
magnesium intake levels, respectively.
c
Each value based on 3 animals per treatment; all
other values for interaction effects are based on
4 animals per treatment.
d,e,f,g
Means in same column and within the
interaction effects with different
significantly (P<.05) different.
same main or
superscripts are
X V z
' Means in same column and within the same main or
interaction effects with different superscripts are
significantly (P <.0L) different.


85
made for all samples combusted. Sulfur was determined by
the method outlined by the A.O.A.C. (1960).
Metabolizable energy values were determined as gross
energy kilocalories in the diet, minus gross energy kilo
calories excreted in the combined urine and feces, minus
the estimated gross energy lost in the methane. The gross
energy lost in the methane was estimated according to the
formula of Blaxter (1962) .
Determinations of dry matter and ash in feed and
feces and nitrogen in feed were made on duplicate samples
according to the methods outlined by the A.O.A.C. (1960).
Determinations for magnesium and calcium in feed, feces,
urine and plasma were made by atomic absorption spectro
photometry according to the methods recommended by the
manufacturer (Anonymous, 1964). Phosphorus content of
feed, feces, urine and plasma was determined by the colori
metric method outlined by Fiske and Subbarow (1925). The
data were analyzed statistically by regression analysis
and analysis of variance with significant differences between
means determined by using Duncan's New Multiple Range Test
(Steel and Torrie, 1960).
One lamb and one yearling on the lowest dietary
magnesium level were removed from the experiment due to in
adequate feed consumption. The calculated values for
apparent absorption of magnesium, calcium and phosphorus are
summarized in Table 22 and values for individual animals are
presented in Appendix Tables 42-44. By examining the main


49
TABLE 10. EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF SOYBEAN MEAL,
UREA, DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE ON RUMEN pHa
Hours
After Dosing
Soybean
Meal
Urea
DAP
MAP
0
6.82
6.73
6.70
6.77
0.5
6.68b
7.20C
6.94d
6.43e
1
6.66b
7.48C
6.90d
6.45e
2
6.56bd
7.34C
6.79d
6.42b
3
6.52b
7.22C
6.64b
6.41b
4
6.50b
7.13C
6.62b
6.36b
6
6.42b
6.98C
6.5 lb
6.12b
9
6.39bc
6.71c
6.34ho
6.19b
12

&
00
V£>
6.54C
6.18bd
6.13d
24
6.85b
6.74b
6.40C
6.34C
cl
All values are means of four periods per treatment.
bade
' ' Means on the same line bearing different superscripts
are significantly (P <.05) different.


TABLE 34. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RUMEN AMMONIA-N OF SHEEP DOSED WITH UREA, UREA
PLUS PHOSPHORIC ACID, MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE AND MONOAMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM CARBONATE
Period
Sheep
No.
Treat
ment
Hours
postdosing
0
0.5
1
2
3
4
6
9
12
24
04
MAP + Ba
28
392
226
178
156
126
93
62
48
35
1
05
MAP
13
464
300
230
197
170
141
109
91
62
06
Urea + Aa
13
65
122
160
144
103
86
57
39
11
08
Urea
7
61
121
149
107
79
72
4 7
31
11
04
Urea + A
12
21
29
47
64
91
116
114
92
4 8
2
05
MAP + B
4
204
192
150
119
93
95
73
68
38
06
Urea
14
110
119
136
106
85
61
32
17
16
08
MAP
13
272
156
198
150
128
104
111
63
34
04
MAP
8
174
162
94
87
8 3
66
50
45
28
3
05
Urea
O
45
71
76
56
55
29
8
6
9
06
MAP + B
15
230
184
156
129
119
101
81
74
45
08
Urea + A
8
16
20
51
72
99
88
63
50
24
04
Urea
15
67
86
90
82
76
74
35
23
8
4
05
Urea + A
10
34
59
104
133
134
93
67
50
21
06
MAP
10
200
185
144
119
104
76
61
54
37
08
MAP + 3
12
160
172
150
155
141
91
67
58
42
cl i
MAP + B and Urea + A stand for MAP plus sodium carbonate and urea plus phosphoric acid,
respectively.
129


43
TABLE 9, COMPOSITION OF DIET
Ingredient
%
Bermudagrass hay, ground
70.4
Corn meal
25.0
Corn oil'*'
3.0
Defluorinated phosphate
1.0
2
Salt, trace-mineralized
0.6
3
Vitamins A and D
+
100.0
'Stabilized with ethoxyquin.
2
Listed minimum analysis in percent: Zn, 1.00; Fe,
Mn, 0.20; S, 0.10; Cu, 0.08; Co, 0.01; and NaCl, 95
2,200 IU vitamin A palmitate and 440 IU vitamin
per kg of diet.
0.30;
.00.
added


9
Another ammoniated phosphate which has received only
limited attention is monoammonium phosphate (MAP). The
only study reported on this compound was that of Reaves,
Bush and Stout (1966). They reported that the voluntary
feed consumption by nonlactating dairy cows was not signifi
cantly different for rations containing no non-protein
nitrogen supplement, 1.5% of a mixture of MAP and DAP plus
urea (M DAP + U), 3% M DAP + U, or 3% DAP. They also
measured the amount of ammonia released from reagent-grade
DAP, feed-grade DAP, and the M DAP + U upon contact with
bovine saliva for 1 minute with the relative amounts re
leased being 333, 126 and 16 ug/gm, respectively. With
respect to each of the materials, there was a definite trend
toward increased ammonia release as the pH of the saliva
increased.
Inorganic Phosphate Supplements for Ruminants
Phosphorus has long been recognized as an important
mineral constituent of living organisms. It is found in
every cell of the body with about 80% of the total phosphorus
combined with calcium in bones and teeth. Its roles in bone
mineralization, buffering systems and intermediary metabo
lism have prompted extensive research with phosphorus in
recent decades. Much of this research resulted in part from
its inadequacy under many feeding conditions and its cost
when it must be added as a supplement.


65
TABLE 15. EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF UREA, UREA PLUS
PHOSPHORIC ACID, MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE, OR
MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM CARBONATE
ON BLOOD UREA--Na
Hours
After Dosing
Mg/100
Ml
Urea
Urea
+
Phosphoric
Acid
MAP
MAP
+
Sodium
Carbonate
0
11.2
12.5
11.0
11.0
1
15.2bc
17.8b
13.8C
12.8C
2
16.7bc
19.6b
14.6C
14.3C
3
18.8
20.7
17.1
15.6
4
20.2bc
21.9b
17.1C
16.6C
6
21.3bc
23.6C
18.5b
13.5b
9
22.5
24.6
19.5
20.1
12
21.7
23.9
20.0
20.3
24
18.9
21.3
<
18.8
20.6
aAll values
are means
for four periods
per treatment.
I'D
' Means on the same line bearing different superscripts
are significantly (P <.05) different.


54
concentrations. The highest concentration of ammonia-N
(148.4 rag/100 ml) was observed with the MAP treatment at
one-half hour postdosing. The DAP treatment had a peak
concentration of 95.9 mg/ml also at one-half hour post
dosing but changed very little in concentration through
hour six. The urea treatment had a peak concentration
of 87.3 mg/ml at one hour and exhibited a gradual decline
for the remainder of the experimental period. As
could be expected, the least change in rumen ammonia-N
concentration occurred with the soybean meal treatment.
Statistical analysis of the ammonia-N values at the
individual hours revealed no differences between the MAP
and DAP treatments and they differed significantly (P <.05)
from the urea treatment only at hours twelve and twenty-
four .
i
The effect of treatment on blood urea-N is presented
in Table 12 and Figure 3. The individual data are presented
in Appendix Table 32. No significant difference existed
between treatments in predosing blood urea-N concentrations.
The urea treatment resulted in the greatest increase in
blood urea-N with all non-protein nitrogen treatments
reaching a peak concentration at nine hours postdosing.
The DAP treatment had a consistently greater concentration
of blood urea-N than the MAP treatment from the third hour
through the remainder of the sampling period. However,
these treatments were not found to be significantly
different. The urea treatment had a significantly (P <.05)


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Maximum efficiency in animal production is dependent
upon providing optimum quantities of all essential nutrients
To obtain such efficiency, knowledge must be present of the
relative availabilities of nutrients in the various feed
ingredients and as well the acceptability to the animal of
the nutrient sources.
Although it has been adequately demonstrated that the
protein needs of ruminants can be met by supplementing their
diets with non-protein nitrogen, a problem still remains as
to the source of this form of nitrogen most desirable to use
Certain forms of non-protein nitrogen have been found less
toxic than the commonly used compound,urea. However, some
of these less toxic forms, such as diammonium phosphate,
have been reported less acceptable to animals than urea. An
advantage of using such compounds as diamrmonium phosphate or
monoammonium phosphate is their property of being a source
of both non-protein nitrogen and supplementary phosphorus.
A problem common to all sources of non-protein
nitrogen is their rapid release of ammonia in the rumen. A
reduction in the rate of absorption of such ammonia would
contribute to the efficiency of its utilisation in the


20
reported threshold values in two cows of 1.5 and 1.3 mg/100
ml of plasma, respectively. Similar values of 1.37 and 1.90
mg/10C ml of plasma were obtained in two lactat.ing ewes by
L'Estrange and Axford (1964) by progressively decreasing
their magnesium intake 40 mg per day. More recently Chicco
(1966), by conducting balance studies with lambs receiving
varying levels of dietary magnesium, calculated renal
threshold values of between 1.5 mg and 1.6 mg/100 ml of
plasma.
Much of the variation in the reported values in the
literature of endogenous fecal and urinary magnesium is due
partly to the inadequate analytical methods in the past for
the quantitative determination of magnesium in biological
materials. However, with the recent advent of such analytical
methods as atomic absorption spectrophotometry and flame
emission spectrophotometry large analytical errors should
now be rare.
Although the magnesium requirement of ruminants under
various production conditions are still uncertain, there are
estimates reported in the literature. Blaxter and McGill
(1956) calculated the requirement of an adult cow for
maintenance to be about 1.8 gm of magnesium per day, and for
production 0.5 to 0.6 gm per 10 lb milk secreted. Assuming
an average availability of dietary magnesium of 33%, this
indicated a minimum daily requirement of 9 to 11 gm for cows
producing 20-30 lb milk daily.


TABLE 21. AGE SPECIFICATIONS, BODY WEIGHTS AND FEED OFFERED
Group
No.
Animals
Age
Specifications
Average Weight, kg
T70.75
W
Feed
Daily Feed Offered
(gm) (gm/w0*75)
Initial
Final
I
11
Lambs (6-12 mos.)
28.8
29.0
12.4
620
50
II
1]
Yearlings (1-2 yrs.)
44.0
44.7
17.2
860
50
III
12
Adult sheep (2-3 yrs.)
50.5
50.9
18.9
94 5-
50


TABLE 40. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON MEASUREMENTS AND MINERAL
CONCENTRATIONS OF THE RIGHT FEMUR OF LAMBS FED
DIFFERENT SOURCES AND LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS
DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL
Phosphorus,
Source and
Percent
Lamb
No.
Weight of
Dry, Fat-Free
Bone, gm
Ash, % of-
Dry, Fat-Free
Bone
Phosphorus
% of Ash
Calcium
% of Ash
Basal
73
43.68
66.12
16.25
35.53
0.11% P
86
49.19
65.57
15.28
35.42
72
40.57
59.64
16.20
36.94
79
49.67
65.61
15.73
33.80
Monoammonium
74
38.43
58.89
16.43
36.48
Phosphate
82
4 4 .' 4 3
64.36
16.34
35.30
0.15% P
76
47.31
66.56
16.42
36.18
75
47.37
65.35
16.38
35.02
Monoammonium
87
51.76
63.40
16.10
35.-71
Phosphate
90
39.26
65.92
16.98
36.01
0.19% P
73
51.45
65.53
16.46
36.37
88
46.77
66.87
16.70
35.04
Monosodium
6
41.20
63.58
16.69
35.94
Phosphate
89
40.04
66.61
15.77
33.38
0.15% P
85
45.74
67.00
16.79
35.21
77
51.48
66.34
16.70
34.63
Monosodium
83
44.01
65.71
16.10
35.98
Phosphate
93
47.85
66.85
16.49
35.08
0.19% P


7
rumen ammonia-N level rose to an even higher value (132 mg
per 100 ml) but the pH did not rise above 7.0 and rumen
movements were normal.
Russell, Hale and Hubbert, Jr. (1962), in toxicity
studies with lambs, found that a much higher level of
nitrogen from diammonium phosphate (DAP) was necessary to
cause toxicity compared to urea. At a dose level of 15 to
20 units of compound (i.e., 15 to 20 gm urea or urea-
equivalent per 45.4 kg body weight), rumen pH of lambs rose
from 6.8 to 8.1 in one-half hour with urea and from 6.8 to
7.2 in the case of DAP. In steers dosed with 12 units of
either compound, the average blood ammonia-N levels rose
from an initial value of 0.13 mg per 100 ml to a peak in
one-half hour of 0.71 mg per 100 ml with urea as compared
to a rise from an initial level of 0.14 mg per 100 ml to
a peak in one-half hour of 0.25 mg per 100 ml with DAP.
The above results indicate the influence of the buffering
action of phosphate on rumen pH and the absorption rate of
ammonia. This influence was demonstrated also by Perez,
Warner and Loosli (1967) when fistulated sheep were dosed
with urea, urea-phosphate and urea-plus phosphoric acid in
single doses of 20 units (20 gm urea or its equivalent in
nitrogen per 45.4 kg body weight). The amount of phosphoric
acid added to urea was calculated to provide the same
amount of phosphate as would be in 20 units of urea-
phosphate. The rumen pH rose from an initial value of 7.35
to a peak in 3 hours of 8.30 with the urea treatment. The


98
linear regression equations for the three ages were: lambs,
Y = 0.60X 97.81 (P < .01, r = 0.97) ; yearlings, Y = 0.69X -
108.25 (P <.01, r = 0.98); adult sheep, Y = 0.61X 94.91
(P< .01, r = 0.95). No significant differences were found
between the slopes of the three regression lines.
The relation between urinary magnesium and magnesium
0 75
intake, both expressed as mg per kg body weight per day,
is presented in Figure 11 and individual values are pre
sented in Appendix Table 58. The linear regression equations
for the three ages were: lambs, Y = 0.56X 9.65 (P< .01,
r = 0.97); yearlings, Y = 0.70X 12.63 (P< .01, r = 0.98);
adult sheep, Y = 0.57X 9.63 (P< .01, r = 0.95). The slope
of the regression line for yearlings was significantly (P <
.05) greater than the slope of the regression line for lambs
indicating that per unit of dietary magnesium intake year
lings excrete a greater percentage in the urine than do
lambs when intake and excretion values are expressed per
0 75
kg body weight per day. '
The relation between urinary magnesium and magnesium
intake, both expressed as mg per kg body weight per day, is
presented in Figure 12 and individual values are presented
in Appendix Table 59. The linear regression, equations for
the three ages were: lambs, Y 0.77X 6.45 (P .01, r =
0.80); yearlings, Y = 0.70X -4.84 (P<.01, r = 0.97); adult
sheep, Y 0.55X 3.43 (P<.01, r = 0.95). The slope of
the regression line for yearlings was significantly (P< .05)
greater than the slope of the regression line for adult sheep.


32
TABLE 2. EFFECT OF SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON FEED
CONSUMPTION AND AVERAGE WEIGHT GAIN
Treatment
Item
Soybean
Meal
(A)
DAP
(B)
Urea
(C)
DAP
+
Urea
(D)
Daily feed intake, kg
14.38a
12.02b
13.97a
12.52b
Daily gain, kg
0.96
0.96
0.16
0.34
3. b
' Means in the same
line bearing
different
superscript are
significantly (P < .05) different.


64
Statistical analysis of the ammonia-N values at the
individual hours revealed no differences (P <.05) between
the MAP and MAP plus sodium carbonate treatments. Signifi
cant (P <.05) differences existed between the urea and urea
plus phosphoric acid treatments at hours one, nine and
twelve postdosing. The urea and MAP treatments differed
significantly (P <.05) at all hours postdosing except hour
six. Again, this is similar to the results reported in
Experiment 1 for the urea and MAP treatments.
The effect of treatment on blood urea-N is presented
in Table 15 and Figure 6. The individual data are presented
in Appendix Table 35. No significant differences existed
between treatments in predosing blood urea-N concentrations.
The MAP plus phosphoric acid treatment had a consistently
greater concentration of blood urea-N than the urea treat
ment throughout the sampling period. However, these
treatments were not found to differ significantly. The MAP
and MAP plus sodium carbonate treatments exhibited similar
changes in blood urea-N concentrations. The urea plus
phosphoric acid treatment had significantly (P <.05) greater
concentrations of blood urea--N than the MAP and MAP plus
sodium carbonate treatments at hours one, two, four and six
postdosing.
Discussion
The results of Experiment 1 suggest that pH of the
rumen contents is a controlling factor in the rate of


73
bone was determined by measuring the amount of water dis
placed by the total bone.
Phosphorus content of feed, plasma and bone was
determined by the colorimetric method outlined by Fiske and
Subbarow (1925) and determinations for calcium and magnesium
were made by atomic absorption spectrophotometry according
to the methods recommended by the manufacturer (Anonymous,
1964) The data were analyzed statistically by analysis of
variance and significant differences between means were
determined using Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (Steel
and Torrie, 1960).
The total weight gains, daily feed intake and feed
efficiency of lambs on the five treatments are presented in
Table 17. Individual data are presented in Appendix Table
36. Two lambs on the 0.19% monosodium phosphate treatment
lost 2.5 and 4.5 kg, respectively, during the 9-week experi
mental period and were excluded from the data analyses.
The total weight gain's on the 0.19% phosphorus-
monoammonium phosphate diet were significantly (P <.05)
greater than those on the 0.15% phosphorus-monosodium phos
phate diet and the basal diet. There was an apparent trend
of increasing weight gain and feed consumption with increas
ing levels of total dietary phosphorus and the greatest
increases occurred with the monoammonium phosphate supplemented
diets.
The level of inorganic phosphorus in plasma is widely
used as an index of the state of phosphorus nutrition of an


Sincere appreciation is extended to Mrs. Ella Mae
Huber for typing this manuscript.
The author is especially grateful to his wife, Wilma,
for her help and inspiration during this period of academic
endeavor. To her this work is dedicated.
iii


33
The diets used in this study are shown in Table 3.
All diets were calculated to contain 0.56% supplemental
calcium and phosphorus. The diets contained 11.8% crude
protein. All steers received the basal diet (diet A) for
8 days at the beginning of each of the four periods to
prevent a carry-over effect of treatment. The experimental
diets were fed for 8 days at the end of each period. The
diets were fed once daily in amounts to give about a 10%
weigh back with individual steer weights taken at the
beginning and end of the 8-day experimental feeding periods.
At the conclusion of each period the steers were fasted for
12 hours and then allowed to consume ad libitum their re
spective treatment diets for a period of 2 hours. Blood
samples were taken by jugular puncture before feeding and
again at the end of the 2-hour period for determination of
blood urea-N. The amount of feed consumed by each steer
during this 2-hour period was also recorded.
Blood urea-N was determined by the method of Ormsby
(1942) with refinements suggested by Richter and Lapoinie
(1962). The data were analyzed statistically by analysis
of variance and significant differences between means were
determined using Duncan's New ^Multiple Range Test (Steel
and Torrie, 1960).
The average daily feed consumption and average daily
gain of steers on the four treatments as well as the blood
urea-N data are summarized in Table 4. The individual data
are presented in Appendix Table 27.


119
significantly from those for yearlings and adult sheep
regardless of the basis for expressing the estimated
dietary requirements to replace endogenous losses. The
regressions of urinary magnesium on plasma magnesium gave
renal threshold values for lambs, yearlings and adults to
be: 1.38, 1.42 and 1.21 mg per 100 ml of plasma,
respectively.
The estimates for metabolic fecal magnesium and
dietary magnesium requirements for the different ages suggest
that a more labile magnesium reserve exists in the lamb and
that its metabolic activity is greater per unit of body
weight.


TABLE 61. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF MAGNESIUM OUTPUT (FECAL PLUS URINARY)
TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER KILOGRAM0'75 BODY WEIGHT PER DAY
Lambs
Yearlings
Adults
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Intake
mg Mg
Output
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Intake
mg Mg
Output
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Intake
mg Mg
Output
019
20.00
22.58
90
19.01
19.43
085
20.00
2 0.
.14
031
20,00
23.11
092
20.00
22.41
106
20.00
20 ,
.61
107
18.94
22.79
165
20.00 ,
20.26
174
17.43
18.
.16
194
20.00
19.
.14
020
32.50
28.96
084
32.50
31.56
97
32.50
31.
.76
029
32.50
30.28
100
32.50
30.98
99
32.50
28.
. 05
079
32.50
31.99
127
32.50
29.73
138
32.50
30.
.18
090
32.50
30.53
200
32.50
31.93
197
32.50
32.
.07
20
47.50
44.62
64
47.50
47.29
18
44.11
41.
,05
033
45.47
39.67
122
47.50
46.03
082
47.50
44.
,96
065
47.50
46.61
195
47.50
47.61
88
47.50
43.
.72
105
47.50
40.91
196
47.50
45.81
198
47.50
42.
,50
156


TABLE 32. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON BLOOD UREA-N OF SHEEP DOSED WITH SOYBEAN MEAL,
UREA, DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE
Period
Sheep
No.
Treat
ment
Hours postdosing
0
1
2
3
4
6
9
12
24
04
SBM
18.5
20.0
20.0
21.5
22.5
24.5
24.0
23.0
25.5
J,
05
DAP
13.5
15.0
18.5
21.0
22.0
25.5
26.5
25.5
23.5
06
MAP
13.0
15.0
19.0
20.0
21.0
22.0
22.0
22.0
24.5
08
Urea
13.5
17.0
18.5
22.0
24.5
28.0
30.5
31.5
24.0
04
Urea
16.5
20.0
23.0
25.0
29.0
36.0
39.8
37.5
29.0
2
05
SBM
13.0
15.0
15.0
16.5
17.0
20.0
19.2
19.5
24.5
06
DAP
13.0
16.5
19.5
22.0
23.0
2 6.5
29.0
27.0
24.0
08
MAP
13.0
16.0
19.5
21.5
24.0
25.5
27.5
26.5
23.0
04
DAP
17.5
20.6
22.5
26.8
28.8
32.9
35.6
28.4
28.5
3
05
MAP
15.4
17.5
20.0
21.3
22.8
23.9
25.5
24.6
25.4
06
Urea
15.4
20.5
23.5
26.6
27.6
33.1
38.9
33.2
26.6
08
SBM
16.5
16.4
18.1
19.8
21.2
25.2
27.3
28.1
29.4
04
MAP
18.4
21.4
23.0
24.8
25.4
28.9
33.0
32.0
31.2
4
05
Urea
14.7
24.4
24.3
25.4
25.9
29.0
30.0
29.7
27.6
06
SBM
18.0
19.0
19.0
20.0
19.5
13.1
21.3
21.8
29.6
08
DAP
13.7
17.0
18.5
20.0
20.8
24.2
29.9
28.7
27.7
fo


75
animal. Table 18 summarizes the plasma phosphorus, calcium
and magnesium levels at regular times during the course of
the experiment. Individual data for inorganic plasma phos
phorus, calcium and magnesium are presented in Appendix
Tables 37-39. Lambs receiving the basal diet had lower
plasma phosphorus levels throughout the experiment than
lambs receiving supplemental phosphorus. There were no
significant differences in plasma phosphorus levels between
supplemental phosphorus sources or levels. There was a
tendency for plasma calcium levels of lambs receiving supple
mental phosphorus to decrease following the third week of
the experiment. Plasma levels of all minerals analyzed
tended to decrease during the final 2 weeks. However, none
of these changes were significant.
Table 19 summarizes the data collected from the femurs
of lambs on the five treatments. Individual data are pre
sented in Appendix Tables 40-41. There were no significant
differences between treatments in weight of dry, fat-free
bone nor in bone ash content. These values were numerically
greater, however, in the bones of lambs having received the
highest supplemental levels of phosphorus. The percent
phosphorus of bone ash was highest for lambs having received
supplemental phosphorus with the difference between the basal
treatment and the treatment containing the highest level of
monoammonium phosphate being significant (P< .05). The
percent calcium and magnesium of bone ash v/as likewise
numerically higher for lambs having received supplemental


160
Besson, W. M., R. F. Johnson, D. W. Bolin and C. W. Hickman.
1944. The phosphorus requirement for fattening
lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 3:63.'
Bel asco, I. J. 1956. The role of carbohydrates in urea
utilization, cellulose digestion and fatty acid
formation. J. Anim. Sci. 15:496.
Blaxter, K. L. 1962. The energy metabolism of ruminants.
Hutchinson, London.
Blaxter, K. L. and R. F. McGill. 1956. Magnesium metabolism
in cattle. Vet. Rev. 2:35.
Blaxter, K. L. and J. A. F. Rook. 1954. Experimental
magnesium deficiency in calves. 2. The metabolism
of calcium, magnesium, and nitrogen, and magnesium
requirements. J. Comp. Path. 64:176.
Blaxter, K. L., J. A. F. Rook and A. M. J. MacDonald. 1954.
Experimental magnesium deficiency in calves. I.
Clinical and pathological observations. J. Comp.
Path. 64:157.
Bloomfield, R. A., G. B. Garner and M. E. Muhrer. 1960.
Kinetics of urea metabolism in sheep. J. Anim. Sci.
19:1248. Abstr.
Bloomfield, R. A., E. O. Kearley, D. 0. Creach and M. E.
Muhrer. 1963. Ruminal pH and absorption of ammonia
and VEA. J. Anim. Sci. 22:833. Abstr.
Bloomfield, R. A., E. G. Komer, R. P. Wilson and M. E.
Muhrer. 1966. Alkaline buffering capacity of rumen
fluid. J. A.nim. Sci. 25:1276.
Bloomfield, R. A., M. E. Muhrer and W. H. Pfander. 1953.
Relation of composition of energy source to urea
utilization by rumen microorganisms. J. Anim. Sci.
17:1189. Abstr.
Bloomfield, R. A., R. P. Wilson and G. B. Thompson. 1964.
Influence of energy levels on urea utilization.
J. Anim. Sci. 23:868.
Bohman, V. R., O. L. Lesperance, G. D. Harding and D. L.
Grues. 1969. Induction of experimental tetany in
cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 29:99.
Eunce, G. E., Y. Chiemchaisri and P. H. Phillips. 1962.
The mineral requirements of the dog. IV. Effect of
certain dietary and physiologic factors upon the
magnesium deficiency syndrome. J. Nutr. 76:23.


162
Field, A. C., J. W. McCollum and E. H. Butler. 1958.
Studies on magnesium in ruminant nutrition.
Balance experiments on sheep with herbage from
fields associated with lactation tetany and from
control pastures. Brit. J. Nutr. 12:433.
Fiske, C. A. and I. Subbarow. 1925. The colorimetric
determination of phosphorus. J. Biol. Chem. 66:375.
22
Forbes, G. B. 1959. Bone sodium and Na exchange:
relation to water content. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol.
Med. 102:248.
Forbes, G. B. 1963. Mineral utilization in the rat. I.
Effect of varying dietary ratios of calcium,
magnesium and phosphorus. J. Nutr. 80:321.
Garces, M. A. and J. L. Evans. 1971. Calcium and magnesium
absorption in growing cattle as influenced by age of
animal and source of dietary nitrogen. J. Anim. Sci.
32:789.
Hale, W. H., F. Hubbert, Jr., E. L. Russell, W. C. Carey, Jr.
and B. Taylor. 1962. Diammonium phosphate, urea and
cottonseed meal as nitrogen sources for fattening
beef cattle. Cattle Feeders Day, University of
Arizona.
Hall, O. G., H. D. Baxter and C. 3. Hobbs. 1961. Effect of
phosphorus in different chemical forms on in vitro
cellulose digestion by rumen microorganisms. J. Anim.
Sci. 20 : 817.
Hansard, S. L., C. L. Comar and M. P. Plumlee. 1954. The
effect of age upon calcium utilization and maintenance
requirements in the bovine. J. Anim. Sci. 13:25.
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behavior of calcium in the rat. J. Nutr. 62:325.
Hart, E. B., G. Bohstedt, H. J. Deobald and M. I. Wegner.
1939. The utilization of simple nitrogenous compounds
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Hillis, W. G. 1968. Nitrogen and phosphorus supplements for
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J. Vet. Res. 29:143.


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
NON-PROTEIN NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND
MAGNESIUM IN RUMINANT NUTRITION
By
William Gordon Hillis
August, 1971
Chairman: Dr. C. B. Ammerman
Major Department: Animal Science
Studies were conducted to obtain information on
certain nutritional aspects of non-protein nitrogen, phos
phorus and magnesium in steers and sheep.
Four Latin square designed experiments were conducted
with steers to examine the effects of urea, diammonium
phosphate (DZiP) and monoammonium phosphate (MAP) on feed
consumption, average daily gain and blood urea-N. In
Experiments 1 and 3 voluntary feed intakes were significantly
(?< .05) reduced with diets containing 1.5% DAP and in Ex
periment 2 with a diet containing 2.3% MAP. Treatment diets
containing MAP consistently resulted in the lowest average
daily gains. At the end of each experimental period steers
were fasted 12 hours followed by 2 hours ad libitum con
sumption of their respective treatment diets. The increase
in blood urea-N following the 2-hour feeding period was
greater for treatments containing isonitrogenous levels of
non-protein nitrogen (1.5% DAP and 2.3% MAP) except in Ex
periment 2 where 0.75% MAP resulted in the greatest blood
urea-N increase.
xiv


18
any magnesium beyond its needs, and second, that negative
balance indicates that intake is less than the requirement.
However, there is a distinct possibility that no homeostatic
mechanism exists in the organism with the primary responsi
bility of regulating magnesium metabolism. An excessive
intake might therefore result in continued positive balance
until toxic manifestations ensue. Furthermore, the intake
of magnesium is so small in relation to the amount in the
body that, if excretion were alv/ays proportional to the
body content, the establishment of a new steady state
following a change in intake would require many months. He
further states that negative balance persisting for many
weeks following a reduction in intake cannot be accepted as
evidence that intake is too low; the preceding intake may
have been too high.
Magnesium is lost from the body by three main routes
in the milk, feces and urine. A mean value of 126 mg
magnesium/kg has been given 'as representative for milk
(Agricultural Research Council, 1965). Rook and Storry
(1962) report a range of published values from 70 to 180
mg/kg, and indicate that no significant fall in the magnesium
content of milk occurs when intake of feed or of magnesium is
reduced.
Fecal magnesium consists of the unabsorbed portion of
the intake and the endogenous magnesium which enters the
alimentary tract in the-saliva and other digestive secretions.
Simesen et al. (1962) measured the endogenous excretion of


Ill
magnesium intake required per day for lambs of varying
weights the difference between the two methods of expressing
the requirement can be illustrated. For example, a 20 kg
lamb (weight kg0'^5 = 9.46) would require 251.2 mg of
magnesium per day on the kg body weight basis and 272.8 mg
0 75
per day on the kg body weight basis. A 40 kg lamb
0 75
(weight kg = 15.91) would require 502.4 mg of magnesium
per day on the kg body weight basis and 458.8 mg per day on
0 7 5
the kg body weight basis. It can be observed from
these values that the lighter weight lamb requires a greater
amount of magnesium per day when expressed per kg^'^ body
weight as compared to expressing its magnesium requirement
per day on the kg body weight basis.- The reverse is true
for the heavier lamb with the magnesium requirement per day
now being greater on the kg body weight basis. If heavier
body weights are applied to these same values the require
ment per day on the kg body weight basis remains the
largest with the difference 'between the two quantities
becoming progressively greater. Therefore, determining the
0 75
requirement on a kg body weight basis results m a
value which corrects for the fact that as an animal becomes
larger its metabolic size becomes proportionally less. This
same explanation is true for both the yearlings and adult
sheep.
As previously mentioned, values reported in the
literature for magnesium requirements are expressed as mg
needed per day or as mg needed per kg body weight. For


57
greater concentration of blood urea-N than either MAP or
DAP for hours four-.through twelve. None of the treatments
differed significantly at hour twenty-four of the sampling
period.
Experiment 2Effect of Nitrogen Source and Supplemental
Acid or Base on Rumen Ammonia,'pH and Blood Urea-N
The four fistulated wethers used in Experiment 1
were utilized again in the present Latin square experiment.
A period of six months was allowed between experiments.
The conditions and basal diet for this experiment were the
same as those described for Experiment 1. The treatments
were urea, urea plus phosphoric acid, monoammonium phosphate
(MAP), and MAP plus sodium carbonate. The amount of
nitrogen supplied by each treatment was again 10 gm per 45.4
kg body weight.
A preliminary study was conducted with two extra
fistulated wethers to determine the amount of phosphoric
acid that, when administered simultaneously with 10 gm of
nitrogen as urea, would effect a change in rumen pH similar
to that which occurs following 10 gm of nitrogen as MAP.
This amount of MAP supplies 20.4 gm of phosphorus. However,
supplying 20.4 gm of phosphorus as reagent grade phosphoric
acid resulted in a reduction in rumen pH to unphysiological
levels. It was found that supplying 10 gm of phosphorus
as phosphoric acid per 45.4 kg body weight would reduce the
rumen pH similar to the reduction with MAP. Similarly, a
preliminary study indicated that 21 gm of reagent grade


11
dairy calves. Wise, Wentworth and Smith (1961), by working
with growing calves.and using feed intake, weight gain and
bone concentration of phosphorus as test criteria, found
the phosphorus in defluorinated rock phosphate, Curacao
Island phosphate and dicalcium phosphate to be similar in
availabilities, with soft phosphate being the least
satisfactory supplement used.
Long et al. (1957) conducted two feeding trials with
steers to compare the effects of different levels of mono
sodium phosphate, which is known to be a highly available
source of phosphorus, upon certain criteria used is measures
of phosphorus nutrition, and to evaluate the relative .
phosphorus availabilities of steamed bone meal, Curacao
Island phosphate and dicalcium phosphate. By using feed
intake, weight gain and plasma phosphorus as measures of
phosphorus nutrition, these authors reported that no
statistically significant differences were found among the
different sources of phosphorus, indicating equal avail
ability of phosphorus in the three sources. Lofgreen (1960),
by working with mature wethers and the isotope dilution
method, found the true digestibilities of phosphorus in
dicalcium phosphate, bone meal, soft phosphate and calcium
phytate to be 50, 46, 12 and 33%, respectively.
Phosphoric acid as a source of supplemental phos
phorus has also been studied. Richardson et al. (1957)
indicated that the phosphorus of phosphoric acid was as
effective as that of steamed bone meal when the criteria


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
This dissertation was submitted to the Dean of the College
of Agriculture and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted
as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
August, 1971
r U-s
Dean, College of Agri-culture
Dean, Graduate School


CHAPTER V
THE PHOSPHORUS AVAILABILITY IN MONOAMMONIUM AND
MONOSODIUM PHOSPHATES FOR GROWING LAMBS
As previously mentioned in the introduction to Chapter
III, considerable interest has been generated in ammoniated
phosphates due to their property of being both a source of
non-protein nitrogen and phosphorus. The present experiment
v/as conducted to compare the relative biological avail
abilities of phosphorus in monoammonium and monosodium
phosphates in growing lambs.
Procedure and Results
Twenty ewe lambs were used in the present experiment.
All lambs were wormed three weeks prior to receiving a
phosphorus depletion type diet containing 0.09% phosphorus
and 1.64% calcium. This diet differed from the basal diet
(Table 16) only by the replacement of 1% corn starch with
calcium carbonate. Venous blood samples were taken at the
beginning and end of a 2-week period on this low-phosphorus,
high-calcium diet. Average initial concentration of plasma
phosphorus was 6.5 mg/100 ml and had dropped to an average
of 3.5 mg/100 ml at the end of this 2-week phosphorus-
depletion period.
70


63
tenfold for a rise of one unit in the pH level. It is
therefore to be expected that as the pH rises the rate of
absorption of ammonia-N will also rise. Studies supporting
this theory have been reported (Coombe et al,, 1960; Hogan,
1961; Bloomfield et al., 1963). All studies showed an
increased rate of absorption from the rumen of ammonia-N
following an increase in rumen pH.
Experiment 2 was designed to examine further the
effect of pH on ammonia-N absorption from the rumen. The
MAP plus sodium carbonate treatment resulted in rumen pH .
values significantly (P< .05) greater than the MAP treat
ment for all samples taken postdosing except for those at
hours two and twenty-four. The changes in rumen ammonia-N
and blood urea-N concentrations due to these two treatments,
however, were essentially identical throughout the sampling
period.
The urea plus phosphoric acid treatment resulted in
rumen pH values significantly (P < .05) less than the urea
treatment only for hours one-half, one, twelve and twenty-
four postdosing. The difference in pH which occurred early
in the period apparently had some effect on rate of ammonia-
N absorption from the rumen. The urea plus phosphoric acid
treatment had a significantly (P < .05) lower rumen ammonia-N
concentration at one hour postdosing, and throughout the
sampling period exhibited a consistently greater blood urea-N
concentration than the urea treatment. This is the reverse
of the response that would be expected if the rate of


absorption occurring in the omasum, lower part of the small
intestine and cecum.. Ammonia absorption is governed by
both concentration gradient and pH. Lewis (1957) demonstrat
ed that the portal blood ammonia concentration increased as
a curvilinear function of rumen ammonia content. Hogan
(1961), working with anesthetized sheep, also demonstrated
ammonia absorption to be dependent on the concentration
gradient when the rumen contents were maintained at a pH of
6.5, but ammonia loss was nil at pH 4.5. Bloomfield et al.
(1963) working with fistulated sheep, reported a reduction
in absorption of ammonia from 26 to 0 mM/L/hour when the
rumen pH was reduced from 7.55 to 6.21. Since ammonia is
a weak base with a pKa of 8.8 at 40C, the increased
absorption of ammonia at a higher pH is probably the result
of an increase in the amount of the neutral and smaller
ammonia molecule, in relation to ammonium ion, which may
more readily penetrate the lipid layers of the rumen mucosa
(Coombe, Tribe and Morrison,1 1960; Hogan, 1961; Bloomfield
et al. 1963; Visek, 1968). Unfortunately, the alkaline
buffering capacity of rumen fluid is not as great as its
acid buffering capacity (Clark and Lombard, 1951; Ammerman
and Thomas, 1955; Bloomfield et al., 1966). Thus, condi
tions in the rumen from urea feeding are conducive not only
to rapid production but also to increased absorption of
ammonia.
The use of non-protein nitrogen sources as partial
substitutes for natural protein has been limited by their


TABLE 16.
COMPOSITION OF DIETS
Ingredient
Treatment
Basal
Monoammonium
Phosphate
Monosodium
Phosphate
0.11% P
0.15%
P 0.19% P
0.15% P
0.19% P
Dried citrus pulp
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
Corn starch
13.40
13.23
13.06
13.24
13.08
Bermuda grass hay, ground
13.00
13.00
13.00
13.00
13.00
Gelatin
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
Corn oil-1-
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
Dehydrated alfalfa (17%
protein)
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
Urea (281% protein
equivalent)
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
Monoammonium phosphate2
-
0.17
0.34
-
-
Monosodium phosphate2
-
-
-
0.16
0.32
Salt, trace-mineralized^
0.60
0.60
0.60
0.60
0.60
Vitamins A and D4
+
+
+
+
J-
100.00
100.00
100.00
10C.00
100.00
Percent of Diet
Chemical analysis^
Phosphorus
0.11
0.15
0.19
0.15
0.19
Calcium
1.27
1.28
1.26
1.25
1.29
Magne sium
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11
Crude protein
14.24
14.94
14.50
14.72
14.62
^Stabilized with ethoxvquin.
2
'Upon analysis, monoammonium phosphate and monosodium phosphate contained 24.47 and
25.29% phosphorus, respectively.
3
Listed minimum analysis in percent: Zn, 1.00; Fe, 0.30; Mn, 0.20; S, 0.10; Cu, 0.03;
Co, 0.01; and NaCl, 95.00.
4
2,200 IU vitamin A palmitate and 440 IU vitamin added per kg of concentrate.
^All values expressed on as-fed basis.


92
Age did not significantly affect plasma levels of magnesium
and calcium but with increasing age- there was a linear
decrease in plasma phosphorus (P < .01). Increased dietary
magnesium resulted in a linear increase in plasma magnesium
(P <.01) but magnesium intake did not significantly affect
plasma levels of calcium and phosphorus.
The average value for metabolizable energy of the
experimental diet fed was 2,630 kilocalories per kilogram
of dry matter with no apparent effects due to age or
magnesium level. Fecal magnesium per 1,000 kilocalories of
metabolizable energy intake plotted against magnesium in
take per 1,000 kilocalories of metabolizable energy for the
three age groups of sheep are shown in Figure 7. Individual
values are presented in Appendix Table 54. The linear re
gression equations for the three ages were: lambs, Y =
0.13X + 170.91 (r = 0.60); yearlings, Y = 0.25X + 122.25
(P < 01, r = 0.86); adult sheep, Y = 0.26X + 113.44 (P< .01,
r = 0.74). No significant differences were found between
the slopes of the three regression lines.
The point at which the regression lines intersect
the ordinate can be considered as the theoretical values
for the metabolic fecal magnesium for the three ages. These
values were 170.91, 122.25 and 118.44 mg of magnesium per
1,000 kilocalories of metabolizable energy intake per day
for lainbs, yearlings and adult sheep, respectively.
The relation between fecal magnesium and magnesium
intake, both expressed as mg per kg body weight per day,


101
Figure 13 presents total magnesium output (fecal plus
urinary magnesium) plotted against magnesium intake, both
expressed in mg per 1,000 kilocalories of metabolizable
energy per day, for the three age groups. Individual values
are presented in Appendix Table 60. The linear regression
equations for the three ages were: lambs, Y = 0.73X + 70.49
(P <.01, r = 0.96); yearlings, Y = 0.95X + 11.76 (P<.01,
r = 0.99); adult sheep, Y = 0.87X + 22.94 (P<.01, r = 0.99).
The slope of the regression line for lambs was found to be
significantly (P <.01) less than the slopes of the regression
lines for both yearlings and adult sheep.
The intercept of total magnesium output on the ordinate
corresponding to zero intake of magnesium is much lower than
the same intercept, as was illustrated in Figure 7, for fecal
magnesium (lambs, 70.49 vs. 170.91 mg; yearlings, 11.76 vs.
122.25 mg; adult sheep, 22.94 vs. 118.44 mg, respectively).
The lower intercept values on the ordinate are due to the
effect of urinary excretion (Figure 10) on this combined
relationship. Urinary excretion of magnesium is minimal or
zero at low magnesium intake levels, and excretion in the
urine will not be appreciable until magnesium intake reaches
approximately 150 mg per 1,000 kilocalories of metabolizable
energy intake per day.
The minimum dietary requirement of magnesium for
maintenance can be estimated by establishing the theoretical
value of intake (X) at which the intake and output (Y) are
equal. Knowing the slope and the intercept of the regression


CHAPTER III
EFFECT OF LEVELS AND SOURCES OF SUPPLEMENTAL NITROGEN
ON VOLUNTARY FEED INTAKE, AVERAGE DAILY GAIN
AND BLOOD UREA-N IN STEERS
The use of non-protein nitrogen in ruminant rations
increases every year with urea continuing to be the major
source. Even though feed formulations have now been devised
with which urea may be used safely in relatively high pro
portions, researchers continue to look for other sources of
non-protein nitrogen which may be less toxic and more
economical than urea.
One such source of non-protein nitrogen which may be
economically competitive with urea is diammonium phosphate
(DAP). Interest in DAP was stimulated by its property of
being a source of both non-protein nitrogen and supplementary
phosphorus. However, problems of voluntary consumption have
been reported when DAP is used (Hale et al., 1962; Oltjen
et al., 1963; Schaadt et al., 1966; Hillis, 1968). Another
dual purpose compound which has recently received attention
is monoammonium phosphate (MAP). MAP contains approximately
12% N and 24% P whereas DAP contains approximately 18% N and
21% P. The possibility of MAP being more palatable than DAP
has been suggested.
28


113
magnesium values for the younger animals. This is supported
by the work of Smith and Field (1963) when they reported
that after 18 days on a magnesium-deficient diet the
concentration of magnesium in the femur and mandible had
decreased 9.5 and 13.4%, respectively, in adult rats and
28.2 and 33.3% in young rats. Similar results were also
reported by Martindale and Heaton (1964) for adult and
weanling rats fed a magnesium-deficient diet.
The variation in fecal loss of magnesium among
individual animals (Figure 9) and urinary loss (Figure 12)
is in sharp contrast with the uniformity of the data for
total magnesium output (fecal plus urinary) for individual
animals when plotted against intake (Figure 15). This
greater uniformity when the fecal and urinary losses were
computed together resulted, in general, from a lower fecal
loss being compensated by a greater urinary excretion, and
vice versa, for the individual animals. This may indicate
individuality even within ag'e groups with reference to
their ability to utilize the magnesium.
The calculated requirements of magnesium for mainte
nance were 12.56, 10.50 and 6.75 mg of magnesium per kg body
weight per day for lambs, yearlings and adult sheep, re
spectively. This greater requirement for young lambs as
compared to the older sheep reflects the fact that the
metabolic activity per unit body weight is greater in young
as compared to older animals and that a greater quantity per
unit of body weight is needed in the young animal to maintain
normal metabolism.


.133
TABLE 38. INDIVIDUAL
LAMBS FED DIFFERENT
DURING A
DATA ON CALCIUM LEVEL IN PLASMA OF
SOURCES AND LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS
9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL3
Phosphorus,
Source and
Percent
Lamb
No.
Weeks on
trial*3
0
3
6
9
Basal
78
8.90
10.29
11.13
9.21
0.11%
86
9.63
10.93
11.16
9.97
72
9.55
10.94
10.88
10.27
79
10.05
11.82
11.90
10.24
Mo n o ammo nium
74
11.27
13.01
10.75
9.79
Phosphate
82
10.30
9.95
10.91
9.72
0.15% P
76
9.72
10.39
10.98
9.44
75
9.90
10.07
10.15
9.28
Monoammonium
87
10.67
9.95
10,42
9.74
Phosphate
90
10.88
9.23
10.40
9.30
0.19% P
73
9.6 3
10.13
10.11
9.24
88
10.35
11.17
9.75
9.30
Monosodium
6
11.12
10.60
10.64
9.92
Phosphate
89
10.37
9.42
9.69
9.19
0.15% P
85
10.82
11.79
10.82
9.56
77
11.85
10.41
7.86
9.32
Monosodium
83
11.57
11.73
10.71
9.63
Phosphate
93
10.45
11.35
10.60
9.55
0.19% P
aCalcium concentration expressed as mg/100 ml of plasma.
Each value under weeks 3, 6, and 9 is the average of
three weekly sampling periods.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii
LIST OF TABLES vi
LIST OF FIGURES xii
ABSTRACT xiv
CHAPTER
IINTRODUCTION 1
IILITERATURE REVIEW 3
Non-protein Nitrogen Utilization by
Ruminants 3
Inorganic Phosphate Supplements for
Ruminants 9
Effect of Age on Magnesium Utilization. . 14
Magnesium Requirement and Availability. . 17
IIIEFFECT OF LEVELS AND SOURCES OF SUPPLEMENTAL
NITROGEN ON VOLUNTARY FEED INTAKE, AVERAGE
DAILY GAIN AND BLOOD UREA-N IN STEERS ... 28
Procedure and Results 29
Experiment 1--Effect of Supplemental
Nitrogen as Soybean Meal, DAP, Urea and
DAP Plus Urea on Voluntary Feed Intake
and Average Daily Gain in Steers. ... 29
Experiment 2Effect of Supplemental
Nitrogen as Soybean Meal, DAP and Two
Levels of MAP on Voluntary Feed Intake,
Average Daily Gain and Blood Urea-N in
Steers 31
Experiment 3--Effect of Supplemental
Nitrogen as Soybean Meal, DAP and Two
Levels of MAP on Voluntary Feed Intake,
Average Daily Gain and Blood Urea-N in
Steers 37
iv


CHAPTER IV
NITROGEN SOURCE AND RUMEN AMMONIA,
pH AND BLOOD UREA-N
A major problem resulting in inefficient utilization
of non-protein nitrogen sources by ruminants is the rapid
release of ammonia. It has been well established that a
limiting factor in the utilization of urea is its rapid
hydrolysis in the rumen. A reduction in the rate of
absorption of the released ammonia would contribute to
the efficiency of its utilization by the rumen microbes.
Phosphate is thought to buffer rumen pH during urea
hydrolysis and therefore minimize ammonia absorption
and ammonia wastage.
The following two experiments were conducted to
compare the relative rates of release and absorption of
ammonia of natural and non-protein nitrogen sources in
fistulated wethers.
Procedure and Results
Experiment 1--Effect of Nitrogen Source on Rumen Ammonia,
pH and Blood Urea-
Four fistulated mature wethers ranging in weight
from 51.2 to 57.6 kg were utilized in a 4 x 4 Latin square
designed experiment balanced for carry-over effects. The
46


44
Discussion
Diammonium phosphate supplementation has been re
ported to decrease diet acceptability (Hale et al., 1962;
Oltjen et al., 1963; Schaadt et al., 1966; Hillis, 1968).
In Experiments 1 and 3 of this series of studies, diets
containing 1.5% diammonium phosphate (DAP) were consumed
significantly less (Pc.05) than diets supplemented with
soybean meal, urea, or monoammonium phosphate (MAP). This
level of DAP, however, did not significantly reduce feed
consumption in Experiments 2 and 4.
Levels of 0.75 and 2.3% MAP in Experiments 2, 3 and
4 did not affect feed consumption except in Experiment 2
when the diet containing 2.3% MAP was consumed signifi
cantly less (P < .05) than the soybean meal and DAP
supplemented diets. Reaves et al. (1966) found no
appreciable differences in voluntary feed consumption by
nonlactating dairy cows when fed rations supplemented with
a combination of MAP, DAP and urea or DAP alone.
Although average daily gain was highly variable
within treatments and the value of gains recorded on such
short-term periods is questionable, it was found that the
inclusion of MAP into the experimental diets consistently
resulted in a decreased average daily gain.
The amount of feed consumed in a 2-hour period
following a 12-hour fast was consistently greater for diets
containing MAP compared to those containing 1.5% DAP. The
resulting change in blood urea-N was consistently greater


TABLE
Page
37 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON PHOSPHORUS LEVEL IN
PLASMA OF LAMBS FED DIFFERENT SOURCES
AND LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-
WEEK GROWTH TRIAL 132
38 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON CALCIUM LEVEL IN PLASMA
OF LAMBS FED DIFFERENT SOURCES AND LEVELS
OF PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL. 133
39 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON MAGNESIUM LEVEL IN
PLASMA OF LAMBS FED DIFFERENT SOURCES AND
LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH
TRIAL 134
40 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON MEASUREMENTS AND MINERAL
CONCENTRATIONS OF THE RIGHT FEMUR OF LAMBS
FED DIFFERENT SOURCES AND LEVELS OF
PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL . 135
41 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON MEASUREMENT AND MINERAL
CONCENTRATIONS OF THE RIGHT FEMUR OF LAMBS
FED DIFFERENT SOURCES AND LEVELS OF
PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL . 136
42 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INTAKE BY LAMBS ON PERCENT APPARENT
ABSORPTION OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND
PHOSPHORUS 137
43 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INTAKE BY YEARLINGS ON PERCENT APPARENT
ABSORPTION OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND
PHOSPHORUS 138
44 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INTAKE BY ADULTS ON PERCENT APPARENT
ABSORPTION OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND
PHOSPHORUS 139
45 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INTAKE BY LAMBS ON PERCENT NET RETENTION
OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS. . 140
46 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INTAKE BY YEARLINGS ON PERCENT NET
RETENTION OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND
PHOSPHORUS 141
ix


36
Diat 3 (1.5% DAP) was similar to diet A (soybean meal)
in acceptability as measured by average daily feed intake
(13.99 and 14.49 kg, respectively). The average daily feed
intake of 13.55 kg for diet C (0.75% MAP) was significantly
less (P <.05) than diet A. Diet D, which contained 2.3%
MAP, resulted in an average daily feed intake of 12.44 kg
which was significantly less (P< .05) than all other treat
ment diets. Average daily gain during the 3-day experimental
periods was significantly greater (P < .05) for treatment
B (1.50% DAP). Here again the large variability that was
observed within treatments makes the usefulness of average
daily gain questionable in such short-term feeding periods.
The 12-hour fast at the end of each period followed
by ad libitum consumption for 2 hours of their respective
treatment diets resulted in similar feed intakes. The blood
urea-N concentrations just prior to the 2-hour feeding
period were likewise similar. The resulting changes in
blood urea-N concentrations following the 2-hour period
were similar for diets A (soybean meal) and B (1.5% DAP).
The change resulting with diet D (2.3% MAP), however, was
significantly greater (P< .05) than diet A and the change
with diet C (0.75% MAP) was significantly greater (P< .05)
than with all other treatment diets. When the change in
blood urea-N concentration was expressed per kg of feed
consumed during the 2-hour period treatment C was signifi
cantly greater (P < .05) than all other treatments.


10
There are several inorganic phosphates which are
generally used as supplemental phosphorus sources for .
ruminants. The availability of these various foi'ms has
been the basis of considerable research. Early work' con
ducted by Knox and Neale(1937) revealed no differences in
growth or reproduction of three groups of thirty grade
Hereford heifers each receiving either bone mea]., mono
calcium or dicalcium phosphate until they were 4-year-old
cows. Becker et al. (1944) reported satisfactory results
with either defluorinated superphosphate or bone meal as
a phosphorus supplement for cattle. They indicated that
the superphosphate had to be provided in a salt mixture to
insure adequate consumption.
Ammerman et al. (1957) by working with steers and
using phosphorus balance and inorganic blood-phosphorus
levels as criteria, demonstrated that two commercial di
calcium phosphates, two calcined defluorinated phosphates,
and one sample each of bone meal, soft phosphate, and
Curacao Island phosphate were of equal value in promoting
phosphorus retention and maintaining blood phosphorus
levels. The same authors, using lambs, found that di
calcium phosphate ar.d Curacao Island phosphate were well
utilized, but soft phosphate and a calcined defluorinated
phosphate were poorly ul.ildzed, Similar results were
reported by Arrington at al. (1962) when dicalcium phosphate,
Curacao Island phosphate and def luorinated phosphate v/ere
compared in a depletion-repletion type balance study with


27
constant magnesium intake. Spring pastures are routinely
high in nitrogen content which has long been considered
as a contributing factor to the high incidence of hypo-
magnesaemic tetany in grazing animals during the spring.
The binding of magnesium in the ileal effluent samples
studied by Smith and McAllan (1966) was increased with
increasing concentrations of ammonia when the samples had
pH values of 6.5 and above.


2
rumen by prolonging its availability to the rumen microbes
for protein synthesis. Supplying phosphate with the sources
of non-protein nitrogen is thought to buffer rumen pH and
reduce ammonia absorption and nitrogen wastage.
Magnesium, which is only one of many minerals known
to be essential for maximum production efficiency, has been
the subject of considerable research in recent years. The
objective of many of the studies was to elucidate the role
of magnesium in hypomagnesaeraic tetany. It has been suggested
that the older animal is more susceptible to this disease due
to a decreased ability to mobilize skeletal magnesium with
age. Thus the older animal may be almost entirely dependent
on daily supplies of magnesium to maintain normal metabolism.
This research was conducted to evaluate several non-
protein nitrogen sources and,as well, to investigate the
effect cf age on magnesium utilization in ruminants. Urea,
diammonium phosphate and monoammonium phosphate were
evaluated with respect to their relative acceptabilities
by steers and their utilizations by steers and sheep. A
lamb growth and slaughter study was also conducted to
determine the availability of phosphorus from monoammonium
phosphate. The effect of age on dietary magnesium utiliza
tion was examined in a balance study involving three age
levels of sheep.


121
TABLE 26. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF NITROGEN ON FEED
CONSUMPTION AND AVERAGE WEIGHT G^IN
Treatment
Perioda
Daily Feed
Intake, kg
Daily Gain, kg
1
14.9
1.48
Soybean
2
15.9
0.80
meal
3
14.4
0.74
(A)
4
12.4
0.85
1
15.0
1.82
DAP
2
13.5
2.84
(B)
3
8.9
-0.77
4
10.8
-0.06
1
14.3
-0.06
Urea
2
13.4
0.68
(C)
3
13.1
-0.34
4
15.2
0.34
DAP
1
11.6
0.63
+
2
15.0
0.45
Urea
3
10.0
-0.85
(D)
4
13.5
1.14
aEach value the average of 2 animals per pen.


58
sodium carbonate when administered simultaneously with 10
gm of nitrogen in the form of MAP would affect the rumen
pH similar to that which occurs following 10 gm of nitrogen
as urea. The designated amounts of phosphoric acid and
sodium carbonate were diluted with water to 400 ml for
dosing. The treatments receiving only urea or MAP also
received 400 ml of water per 45.4 kg body weight. The
sampling procedures, chemical and statistical analyses
were the same as those described for Experiment 1.
The effect of the four treatments on rumen pH is
presented in Table 13 and is presented graphically in
Figure 4. The individual data are presented in Appendix
Table 33. No significant differences between treatments
in predosing ruminal pH were observed. The urea and MAP
plus sodium carbonate treatments had pronounced initial
increases in rumen pH. The urea treatment reached a peak
of 7.52 at one hour postdosing and then gradually declined
until the twelfth hour to a value slightly lower than the
predosing value. The MAP plus sodium carbonate treatment
reached a peak of 7.19 at one-half hour postdosing followed
by a fail in pH to 6.78 after only one hour.
The MAP and urea plus phosphoric acid treatments
resulted in initial decreases in pH. The urea plus acid
treatment reached a value of 5.20 at one-half hour followed
by a precipitous rise to a value above the predosing value
by the fourth hour. The MAP treatment exhibited a sharp
decrease during the initial 30 minutes followed by a


Non-protein Nitrogen, Phosphorus and
Magnesium in Ruminant Nutrition
by
WILLIAM GORDON HILLIS
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED 'TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL GF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1971


82
TABLE 20. COMPOSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL DIET
Ingredient
%
Corn cobs and shucks, ground
35.50
Pure soy protein-*-
7.50
Urea
1.50
Cerelose
18.00
Corn starch
31.62
Corn oil2
3.00
Trace mineral mixture"3
0.24
Salt
0.60
Calcium carbonate (40% calcium)
0.57
Monosodium phosphate (25% phosphorus)
0.47
Vitamins^,.
+
Variables'3
1.00
100.00
^"Pure soy protein C-l--Sk.idmore Enterprises, Cincinnati,
Ohio.
2
Stabilized with ethoxyquin.
3
Ingredients % of Mixture
Sulfur (Na SO^)
81.37
Iron (FeSO^)
11.13
Zinc (ZnCOO
3.93
Manganese (MnCO^)
2.14
Copper (CuSO^)
1.00
Iodine (KI)
0.27
Cobalt (CoCC>3)
0.16
100.00"
4
2,200 IU vitamin A palmitate,
DL alpha tocopherol added per
5
Variable levels of MgCO.,; coi
to adjust to 100%.
Mineral added to diet, ppm
450
100
50
25
12
5
2
IU vitamin D and 11 mg
kg of diet.
. starch was added or removed


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 07332 069 8


13
inefficiently utilized and excreted in the feces. Research
conducted by Ammerman et al. (1957) indicated that the'
phosphorus of gamma calcium pyrophosphate was almost totally
unavailable to sheep while that supplied by vitreous calcium
metaphosphate appeared to be about 50% as available as that
of monocalcium phosphate. The data indicated that the gamma
calcium pyrophosphate was absorbed and increased the plasma
inorganic phosphorus, but it was inefficiently utilized and
subsequently excreted.
Hall, Baxter and Hobbs (1961) used washed suspensions
of rumen microorganisms in a series of studies to determine
the effects of adding various levels of phosphorus in
different chemical forms upon cellulose digestion. Mono
sodium orthophosphate, vitreous sodium metaphosphate, acid
sodium pyrophosphate and calcium phytate were used. Marked
increases in cellulose digestion occurred when levels of 20
to 100 mg of phosphorus per ml of medium from each source
were added. Phosphorus in all of the chemical forms studied
appeared to be well utilized by rumen bacteria.
Ammerman et al, (1965) compared the utilization of
inorganic monocalcium orthophosphate, feed grade dicalcium
phosphate, defluorinated phosphate and soft phosphate using
absorption studies with calves and in vitro techniques.
Based on in vitro studies, monocalcium phosphate was the
most available, dicalcium phosphate and defluorinated
phosphate were equally available, and soft phosphate was
essentially unavailable to rumen microorganisms. In vivo


108
The points at which the regression lines intercept
the abscissa is defined as the theoretical magnesium
threshold. From the above equations, substituting Y = 0,
gives the theoretical concentrations of magnesium in plasma
at which magnesium ceases to be excreted in the urine, The
calculated threshold values were 1.38, 1.42 and 1.21 mg of
magnesium per 100 ml of plasma for lambs, yearlings and
adult sheep, respectively.
Discussion
Magnesium utilization in this scudy, as measured by
apparent absorption, net retention, urinary excretion as
percent of intake and plasma concentration, was found
similar for all ages of sheep. Similar results were reported
with steers ranging in age from 10 to 88 months (Garces and
Evans, 1971) .
The decreased apparent absorption and net retention
of calcium with increased age observed in this study are in
agreement with evidence presented by Hansard, Comar and
Plumlee (1954) and Hansard and Crowder (1957). They de
monstrated that as an animal grows older there is less
efficient utilization of ingested calcium due to both de
creased retention by the tissues and a decrease in membrane
permeability for calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal
tract. Decreased apparent absorption of calcium with in
creasing age was recently demonstrated in steers (Garces and
Evans, 1971). With increasing age, the retention of


Fecal magnesium (Y),
mg/1,000 kcal metabolizable energy
93
Magnesium intake (X),
mg/1,000 kcal metabolizable energy
FIGURE 7.
RELATION OF FECAL MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER 1,000 KILOCALORIES OF
METABOLIZABLE ENERGY INTAKE PER DAY


12
were weight gains and plasma phosphorus levels of heifers
maintained on range. Tillman and Brethour (1958a), by
working with young steers and using phosphorus balance and
digestibility data as criteria, reported the availability
of phosphorus supplied by phosphoric acid to be in the same
order of magnitude as that supplied by dicalcium phosphate.
The formation of meta- and pyrophosphates during the
production of defluorinated phosphate was a problem during
the early production of this material. Chicco et al. (1965)
compared the utilization of inorganic ortho-, meta-, and
pyrophosphates using lambs and in vitro techniques. Based
on both in vivo and in vitro studies, calcium orthophosphate,
sodium orthophosphate and sodium metaphosphate appeared to
be equally valuable as sources of phosphorus. Sodium pyro
phosphate was somewhat lower than those mentioned in
apparent absorption value but equal in solubility and
. 32
tissue deposition of P. Calcium pyrophosphate and calcium
metaphosphate were rated low and intermediate, respectively,
as sources of available phosphorus.
Tillman and Brethour (1958b) compared the avail
ability of vitreous sodium metaphosphate, acid sodium pyro
phosphate and monosodium phosphate for lambs using apparent
digestibilities, net retentions, fecal endogenous excretions
and true digestibilities of phosphorus as criteria. Acid
sodium pyrophosphate was equally as available as monosodium
phosphate. The data indicate that the phosphorus of
vitreous sodium metaphosphate was absorbed, but was


LIST OF TABLES
TABLE Page
1 COMPOSITION OF DIETS 30
2 EFFECT OF SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON FEED
CONSUMPTION AND AVERAGE WEIGHT GAIN 32
3 COMPOSITION OF DIETS 34
4 EFFECT OF SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON FEED
CONSUMPTION, AVERAGE WEIGHT GAIN AND BLOOD
UREA-N (BUN) 35
5 COMPOSITION OF DIETS 38
6 EFFECT OF SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON FEED
CONSUMPTION, AVERAGE WEIGHT GAIN AND BLOOD
UREA-N (BUN) 39
7 COMPOSITION OF DIETS 41
8 EFFECT OF SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON FEED
CONSUMPTION, AVERAGE WEIGHT GAIN AND BLOOD
UREA-N (BUN) 43
9 COMPOSITION OF DIET. 48
10 EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF SOYBEAN MEAL, UREA,
DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE ON RUMEN pH 49
11 EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF SOYBEAN MEAL, UREA,
DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE ON RUMEN AMMONIA-N 52
12 EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF SOYBEAN MEAL, UREA,
DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE ON BLOOD UREA-N 55
13 EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF UREA, UREA PLUS
PHOSPHORIC ACID, MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE, OR
MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM CARBONATE
ON RUMEN pH 59
vi


TABLE 62. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF MAGNESIUM OUTPUT (FECAL PLUS URINARY)
TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE
PER KILOGRAM
BODY WEIGHT
PER DAY
Lambs
Yearlings
Adults
Sheep
mg Mg
mg Mg
Sheep
mg Mg
mg Mg
Sheep
mg Mg
mg Mg
No.
Intake
Output
No.
Intake
Output
No.
Intake
Output
019
8.75
9.87
90
7.43
7.59
085
7.35
7.40
031
8.85
10.22
092
7.90
8.85
106
7.37
7.59
107
8.08
9.73
165
7.34
7.62
174
6.36
6.63
194
7.50
7.17
020
13.82
12.36
084
13.04
12.71
97
12.73
12.4 8
029'
14.11
13.20
100
12.64
12.11
99
11.93
10.34
079
13.43
13.27
127
12.64
11.62
138
.11.89
11.09
090
13.96
13.16
200
12.78
12.62
197
12.23
12.11
20
20.71
19.50
64
18.40
18.38
18
17.23
16.04
038
20.11
17.55
122
18.50
17.98
082
18.71
17.77
065
20.22
19.89
195
17.98
18.05
88
17.46
16.11
105
20.03
17.29
196
17.46
16.88
198
17.37
15.98
157


TABLE 17. AVERAGE INITIAL AND FINAL WEIGHT, DAILY GAIN, FEED
INTAKE AND FEED EFFICIENCY OF LAMBS FED DIFFERENT SOURCES
AND LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL
Treatment
Monoammonium Moncsodium
Basal Phosphate Phosphate
Item
0.11% P
0.15% P
0.19% P
0.15% P
0.19% P
Number of animals
4
4
4
4
2
Initial weight, kg
25.96
26.30
26.87
26.64
26.08
Final weight, kg
28.17
30.21
32.99
29.02
31.18
Weight gain, kg
2.21a
3.91ab
6.12b
2.38a
5.10ab
Daily feed intake, kg
0.62
0.73
0.80
0.66
0.74
Feed/unit gain, kg
16.58
12.45
8.47
to
u>
o
CO
o
9.38
Si b
' Means on the same line bearing different superscripts are significantly (P <.05)
different.
Q
No analysis of variance of feed efficiency values was conducted because one animal
in each of these treatment groups only maintained its weight.


40
during this 2-hour period. The blood urea-N concentration
prior to the 2-hour feeding period was similar for all
treatments and the resulting change in blood urea-N con
centration was found to be similar for treatments A, B and
D. Treatment C, which contained 0.75% MAP, actually showed
an average decrease in BUN concentration, and this was
significantly less (P <.05) than treatments B and D. When
the change in BUN concentration was expressed per kg of
feed consumed during the 2-hour period treatments A, C and
D were similar. Treatment B, which contained 1.5% DAP,
resulted in a significantly greater change (P <.05) than
treatments A and C, which contained supplemental soybean
meal and the lowest level of MAP, respectively.
Experiment 4--Effect of Supplemental Nitrogen as Soybean
Meal, DAPand Two Levels of MAP on Voluntary Feed Intake,
Average Daily Gain and Biood Urea-N in Steers
The four Hereford steers used in Experiment 3 were
again utilized in the present experiment. Following the
previous experiment the steers were fed a corn-soybean meal
based diet for a period of 9 weeks and had an average weight
of 435 kg at the beginning of this experiment. The experi
mental design was again a 4 x 4 Latin square with the steers
receiving the diets shown in Table 7. Diets used in this
experiment were mixed weekly whereas diets for the previous
experiments were mixed at the beginning of each experiment
in adequate quantities for the entire experimental period.
The frequent mixing more closely approximates actual feedlot


52
TABLE 11. EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF SOYBEAN MEAL,
UREA, DIAMMON.TUM PHOSPHATE OR MONO AMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE ON RUMEN AMMONIA-Na
Mg/100 Ml
Hours
After Dosing
Soybean
Meal
Urea DAP
MAP
0
15.5
12.8
15.0
16.0
0.5
18.6b
77.5bc
95.9bc
148.4C
1
24,2b
87.3bc
88.5bc
113.0C
2
26.8b
80.2C
93.7C
107.7
3
29.7b
74.2C
88.5C
93.5
4
34.0b
68.2C
85.0
93.3
6
2 9.9b
71.9C
89.9C
78.1
9
23.7b
55.4C
64.7C
64.8
12
22.7b
35.7C
55.ld
56.8d
24
20.4b
16.6b
39.8C
42.4
cl *
All values are means of four periods per treatment.
b,c,dMeans on the same line bearing different superscripts
are significantly (P <.05) different.


88
TABLE 23. EFFECT OF AGE AND DIETARY MAGNESIUM ON NET
RETENTION OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS IN SHEEP
Treatment
Age
Magnesium
Intake, mg'
Main effects0
Lambs
Yearlings
-
Adult sheep
-

20.0

32.5

47.5
Interaction effects
Lambs
20.0
Lambs
32.5
Lambs
47.5
Yearlings
20.0G
Yearlings
32.5
Yearlings
47.5
Adult sheep
20.0
Adult sheep
32.5
Adult sheep
47.5
Net Retention, %
Mg Ca P
0.
,81
0.
,81d
8.
,75
0.
,69
-12.
, 98e
-7.
,17
4.
.11
-13.
41e
-8.
, 02
-6.
,74d
1.
,33d
4.
,28
5 ,
,24e
-11.
,94e
2.
,76
5.
, 85e
-13.
, 74e
-7.
.37
16 ,
ll9ef
17,
>78d-
16,
.99
5,
. 94ef
1,
11,
.73
8.
. 42e
-12.
-0.
.40
-5.
.nL
1,
.05de
4,
.02
4,
.07 £
-21,
45w
-8,
,72
1,
67fa9
-15.
>03ef
-14,
. 02
-0,
> 87pf
-10,
.79^
-5.
.07
5.
,73ei
-15.
>68If
-11,
.29
7,
. 47e
-13,
. 76ef
-7,
.70
d
d
e
d
de
e
d
de
def
def
f
f
ef
f
ef
aMagnesium intake per kg body weight. Five
animals had incomplete consumptions of their diets;
the amgui^ of magnesium refused was less than 3 mg
per kg body weight.
^Values for main effects due to age are based on 11
lambs, 11 yearlings and 12 adult sheep; values for
main effects due to magnesium intake are based on 10,
12 and 12 animals for the 20.0, 32.5 and 47.5 mg
magnesium intake levels, respectively.
Each value based on 3 animals per treatment; all
other values for interaction effects are based on
4 animals per treatment.
'e' 'GMeans in same column and within the same main or
interaction effects with different superscripts are
significantly (P < .05) different.
X V z
/Jr Means in same column and within the same main or
interaction effects with different superscripts are
significantly (P < .01) different.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Sincere appreciation is extended to Dr. C. B.
Ammerman, Chairman of the Supervisory Committee, for his
support and guidance throughout the academic program and
experimental investigations; and also to Drs. J. E. Moore,
J. A. Himes, R. H. Harms and C. M. Allen, Jr. for serving
as members of the supervisory committee and for giving
freely of their time and knowledge toward the completion of
this work.
The author is grateful for the assistance given him
by many of the graduate students, particularly Larry T.
Watson and Karl R. Fick. Sincere appreciation is also
expressed for the technical assistance of Mrs. Sarah Miller,
Mr. John F. Easley and other members of the staff of the
Nutrition Laboratory. The assistance provided by Mr. Phil
Hicks in caring for experimental animals is acknowledged.
Special appreciation is expressed to International
Minerals and Chemical Corporation, Skokie, Illinois, and
the National Feed Ingredients Association, Des Moines, Iowa,
for providing financial assistance for this work. The
provision of experimental supplies by Charles Pfizer and
Co., Inc., Terre Haute, Indiana, American Cyanamid Company,
Princeton, New Jersey and Monsanto Chemical Co., St. Louis,
Missouri is acknowledged.
n


117
sodium carbonate. Effects of alkali and acid on rumen pH
were of short duration. Blood urea-N values for the urea
and urea plus phosphoric acid treatments were similar
throughout the sampling period and values for the treatments
monoammonium phosphate and monoammonium phosphate plus
sodium carbonate were similar.
Relative Availability of Phosphorus in Two
Inorganic Phosphorus Sources
In a 9-week growth and slaughter trial with ewe lambs,
the phosphorus in monoammonium phosphate was as well utilized
as that from monosodium phosphate. The criteria were weight
gain, feed intake and feed efficiency, plasma inorganic
phosphorus and various bone measurements. The basal diet
contained 0.11% phosphorus and the supplemented diets, 0.15
and 0.19% phosphorus.
Influence of Age and Dietary Magnesium Level
on Magnesium Utilization
A balance trial was conducted with sheep of three
ages (lambs, yearlings and adults) receiving three dietary
levels of magnesium and a computed maintenance level of
energy intake. With increasing age, the retention of calcium
and phosphorus decreased, apparent absorption of calcium
decreased, plasma inorganic phosphorus decreased and ex
cretion of calcium in urine increased. These results
indicated a decreased need with age for nutrients such as
calcium and phosphorus. There w^s no effect of age on


Hogan, J. P. 1961. The absorption of ammonia through the
rumen of the sheep. Australian J. Biol. Sci. 14:
443 .
Huffman, C. F., C. L. Conley, C. C. Lighfoot and C. W.
Duncan. 1941. Magnesium studies in calves. II.
The effect of magnesium salts and various natural
feed upon the magnesium content of the blood plasma.
J. Nutr. 22:609.
Kaplan, A., A. L. Chaney, R. L. Lynch and S. Meites. 1965.
Urea nitrogen and urinary ammonia. Std. Methods of
Clin. Chem. 5:245.
Kercher, C. J. and L. Paules. 1967. Phosphorus sources for
ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 26:922. Abstr.
Knox, J. H. and P. E. Neale. 1937. Mineral supplements for
cattle on phosphorus-deficient range. New Mexico
State Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 249.
Lassiter, C. A., L. D. Brown and D. Keyser. 1962. An
evaluation of diammonium phosphate as a nitrogen
source for ruminants. Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta. Quart.
Bui. 44 (4) :76 3 .
L'Estrange, J. L. and R. F. E. Axford. 1963. The effect of
low magnesium intake on lactating ewes. Proc. Nutr.
Soc. 22:i.
L'Estrange, J. L. and R. F. E. Axford. 1964. A study of
magnesium and calcium metabolism in lactating ewes
fed a semi-purified diet low in magnesium. J. Agr.
Sci. 62:353.
Lewis, D. 1957. Blood-urea concentration in relation to
protein utilization in the ruminant. J. Agr. Sci.
48:438.
Lofgreen, G. P. 1960. The availability of the phosphorus
in dicalcium phosphate, bonemeal, soft phosphate and
calcium phytate for mature wethers. J. Nutr. 70:58.
Lomba, F., R. Paquay, V. Bienfet and A. Lousse. 1968.
Statistical research on the fate of dietary mineral
elements in dry and lactating cows. II. Magnesium.
J. Agr. Sci. 71:18.1.
Long, T. A., A. D. Tillman, A. B. Nelson, W. D. Gallup and
B. Davis. 1957. Availability of phosphorus in
mineral supplements for beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci.
16:444.


146
TABLE 51. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM INTAKE
BY LAMBS ON PLASMA LEVELS OF MAGNESIUM,
CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS (MG/100 ML)

Magnesium
Intake, mga
Sheep
No.
Magnesium
Calcium
Phosphorus
20.00
019
1.35
8.61
6.33
20.00
031
1.60
8.18
9.05
18.94
107
1.46
9.06
6.17
32.50
020
1.86
8.19
7.35
32.50
029
2.10
8.70
6.82
32.50
079
1.96
9.40
4.87
32.50
090
1.83
7.71
8.57
47.50
20
2.20
9.21
5.73
45.47
038
2.18
9.47
7.67
47.50
065
2.20
9.14
6.83
47.50
105
2.05
9.09
6.42


34
TABLE 3. COMPOSITION OF DIETS
Diets1
Ingredient
Soybean
Meal
(A)
1.50%
DAP
(B)
0.75%
MAP
(C)
2.30%
MAP
(D)
Snapped corn, ground
67.34
71.04
68.59
71.21
Cottonseed hulls
10.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
Alfalfa meal (17%
protein)
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
Sugarcane molasses
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
Soybean meal (50%
protein)
10.39
6.45
9.10
6.43
2
Salt, trace-mineralized .
0.60
0.60
0.60
0.60
Monosodium phosphate
2.21
0.95
1.50
-
Monoammonium phosphate
-
-
0.75
2.30
Diammonium phosphate
-
1.50
-
-
Ground limestone
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
3
Vitamins A & D
+
+
+
4-
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
'Diet A provided all supplemental protein as soybean meal;
diet B provided 0.269% non-protein nitrogen (NPN) as
diammonium phosphate (DAP); diet C provided 0.088% NPN as
monoammoniuru phosphate (MAP); diet D provided 0.269% NPN
as MAP.
2 . .
Listed minimum analysis in percent: Mn, 0.23; I, 0.007;
Fe, 0.425; Cu, 0.03; Co, 0.01; S, 0.05; Zn, 0.008; and
NaCl, 97.5.
3 .
Vitamins added per kg o.f diet:
palmitate and 440 IU vitamin D^.
2,200 IU vitamin A


25
Wise, Ordoveza and Barrick (1963) reported a
significant reduction in serum magnesium of calves by in
creasing the dietary phosphorus in the presence of low
dietary calcium. The lowest magnesium Level occurred at a
calcium to phosphorus ratio of 0.4:1 and the highest with
the 14.3:1 ratio. Extensive statistical analyses were
conducted by Lomba et al. (1968) on data collected from
balance studies conducted with 55 different rations fed to
162 dry and lactating cows. Magnesium absorption was found
to be enhanced by increasing magnesium and calcium intakes.
Ilea] effluent samples from milk-fed, stall-fed and
grazing calves had ranges of 34 to 74% of the magnesium and
63 to 93% of the calcium existing in a bound form as
measured by it being non-ultrafilterable (Smith and McAllan,
1966). The binding was due to at least two processes; one
appeared due to the presence of binding material which
appeared to be characteristic of ruminating calves ir
respective of diet consumed. This led the authors to conclude
that it may have been of microbial origin. The other binding
process was believed to be phosphate-dependent. It was later
shown by the same authors (Smith and McAllan, 1967) by
working with simple inorganic solutions and in vitro tech
niques, that precipitation of magnesium with phosphate can
occur with high concentrations of phosphate in the presence
of minimal concentrations of both calcium and ammonia. This
precipitation was specifically pH-dependent occurring only at
pH of 6.5 and above, which is a characteristic pH of the
distal ileum.


found the availability of magnesium in hay for sheep was
26.3 and 25.8%, respectively. The Agricultural Research
Council (1965) reported estimates of availability of
dietary magnesium for cattle of different ages to be 70% up
to 5 weeks, 40% from 5 weeks to 5 months and 20% over 5
months of age.
The absorptive efficiency of magnesium has also been
shown to be affected by the magnesium status of the animal.
McAleese, Eell and Forbes (1961) found control lambs had
28
apparent absorption values of Mg as the chloride of 40 to
50% whereas magnesium deficient lambs had values of 70 to 75%.
Magnesium deficient lambs were considered those with serum
magnesium values of about 1 mg/100 ml of serum whereas the
controls had serum magnesium concentrations of 2 to 2.5 mg/100
ml.
The nutritional relationship between calcium, phosphorus
and magnesium in animals has been the object of numerous
scientific studies with the 'exact role each of these ions
plays in the metabolism of the other two ions still remaining
uncertain. Most of the research on their interactions has
been conducted with laboratory animals. However, there is
no reason to suppose that the absorption of minerals from
the ruminant's intestine should differ basically from that
of the non-ruminants. Smith (1969) states that special
factors peculiar to ruminants are most likely to be found in
the nature of their diet and the modifying effects of the
alimentary tract before the abomasum on that diet.


134
TABLE 39. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON MAGNESIUM LEVEL IN PLASMA OF
LAMBS FED DIFFERENT SOURCES AND LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS
DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL3,
Phosphorus,
Source and
Lamb
Weeks
4- it*
on trial
Percent
No.
0
3
6
9
Basal
78
1.84
1.97
2.15
2.04
0.11%
86
2.08
2.20
2.41
2.23
72
2.04
2.33
2.60
2.56
79
1.86
2.05
2.48
2.26
Mono ammo nium
74
1.69
2.18
2.33
2.14
Phosphate
82
1.56
2.00
2.12
2.05
0.15% P
76
1.85
2.18
2.41
2.20
75
1.61
1.95
2.03
2.07
Monoammonium
87
1.73
2.13
2.36
2.23
Phosphate
90
2.17
1.75
2.33
2.07
0.19% P
73
1.57
2.16
2.33
2.10
88
1.69
2.17
2.04
2.11
Monosodium
6
1.66
2.01
2.17
1.99
Phosphate
39
1.37
1.82
1.82
1.97
0.15% P
85
2.15
2.60
2.44
2.15
77
1.99
1.89
2.15
1.98
Monosodium
83
2.43
2.60
2.71
2.40
Phosphate
93
1.72
2.35
2.26
2.09
0.19% P
Magnesium concentration expressed as mg/100 ml of plasma.
Each value under weeks 3, 6 and 9 is the average of three
weekly sampling periods.


43
TABLE 8. EFFECT OF SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON FEED
CONSUMPTION/ AVERAGE WEIGHT GAIN AND
BLOOD UREA-N (BUN)
Item
Treatment
Soybean
Meal
(A)
1.50%
DAP
(B)
0.75%
MAP
(C)
2.30%
MAP
(D)
Daily feed intake, kg
8.66
8.93
9.23
8.46
Daily gain, kg
1.60a
0.77ab
0.33b
-0.06b
Feed intake, 2 hours
2.44
1.76
2.56
2.56
Initial BUNC
14.28
13.51
15.63
13.54
C
BUN change, 2 hours
0.31a
1.05bc
0.46ab
1.34
BUN change/kg feed
consumed0
0.15a
0.60
0.11a
0.58
ci b
' Means on the same
lines bearing
different
superscript are
significantly (P <
.05) different
'
c
BUN concentration
expressed as mg per 100
ml of
whole
blood.


39
TABLE 6. EFFECT OF SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON FEED
CONSUMPTION, AVERAGE WEIGHT GAIN AND
BLOOD UREA-N (BUN)
Treatment
Item
Soybean
Meal
(A)
1.50%
DAP
(B)
0.75%
MAP
(C)
2.30%
MAP
(D>
Daily feed intake, kg
8.43a
7.01b
8.7 Ia
8.39a
Daily gain, kg
1.36
0.57
0.37
0.37
Feed intake, 2 hours
2.96ab
2.20b
3.58a
3.47a
Initial BUNC
13.31
11.56
12.81
12.21
BUN change, 2 hours
0.09ab
1.25a
-0.06b
1.25a
BUN change/kg feed
consumedG
0.14a
0.61b
o.ooa
0.35ab
a'bMeans on the same
significantly (P <
lines bearing different
.05) different.
superscript are
Q
BUN concentration
expressed as mg
per 100
ml of
whole
blood.


148
TABLE 53. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM INTAKE
BY ADULTS ON PLASMA LEVELS OF MAGNESIUM,
CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS (MG/100 ML)
Magnesium
Intake, mg
Sheep
No.
Magnesium
Calcium
Phosphorus
20.00
085
1.40
8.79
4.13
20.00
106
1.74
7.95
4.81
17.43
174
1.15
8.66
4.32
20.00
194
1.16
8.04
4.66
32.50
97
2.02
8.73
4.88
32.50
99
1.90
8.03
4.93
32.50
138
2.11
8.29
7.54
32.50
197
1.79
8.46
4.39
44.11
18
2.28
8.66
5.87
47.50
082
2.32
8.33
6.87
47.50
83
2.20
8.66
5.57
47.50
198
2.09
8.54
5.93
a,, . ,0.75
Magnesium intake per kg
body weight per day


TABLE 13. EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF UREA, UREA PLUS
PHOSPHORIC ACID, MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE, OR
MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM CARBONATE
ON RUMEN pHa
Hours
After Dosing
Urea
Urea
+
Phosphoric
Acid
MAP
MAP
+
Sodium
Carbonate
0
6.57
6.54
6.43
6.40
0.5
7.0ob
5.20C
6.03C
7.19b
1
7.52b
5.83C
5.99
6.78b
2
7.40
6.25
6.02
6.67
3
7.07b
6.43bc *
5.90
6.6 9b
4
6.77b
6.62b
5.87C
6.62b
6
6.6 6b
6.53b
5.87
6.54b
9
6.56b
6.41b
5.86C
6.38b
12
6.55b
6.11cd
5.76d
6.27bo
24
6.8 0b
6.13C
6.04C
6.31bo
aAll values
are means
for four periods per
treatment.
bed
' Means on the same line bearing different superscripts
are significantly (P <.05) different.


161
Chicco, C. F. 1966. Some nutritional aspects of dietary
magnesium in ruminants and poultry. Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Chicco, C. F., C. B. Ammerman, J. E. Moore, P. A. van
Walleghem, L. R. Arrington and R. L. Shirley. 1965.
Utilization of inorganic ortho-, meta- and pyro
phosphates by lambs and by cellulolytic rumen
microorganisms in vitro. J. Anim. Sci. 24:355.
Clark, Irwin. 1968. Effects of magnesium ions on calcium
and phosphorus metabolism. Amer. J. Physiol.
214:348.
Clark, Irwin and Leonard Belanger. 1967. The effects of
alterations in dietary magnesium on calcium,
phosphate and skeletal metabolism. Calc. Tiss. Res.
1:204.
Clark, R. and W. A. Lombard. 1951. Studies on the alimentary
tract of the Merino sheep in South Africa. XXII. The
effect of the pH of the ruminal contents on ruminal
motility. Onderscepoort J. of Vet. Res. 25:79.
Climatological Data National Summary.' 1969-1971. U. S.
Depart, of Comm. Environmental Data Service.
Coombe, J. B., D, E. Tribe and J. W. C. Morrison. 1960.
Some experimental observations on the toxicity of
urea to sheep. Australian J. Agr. Res. 11:247.
Duckworth, John and William Godden. 1941. The lability of
skeletal magnesium reserves. The influence of rates
of bone growth. Biochem. J. 35:816.
Duncan, C. W., C. F. Huffman and C. S. Robinson. 1935.
Magnesium studies in calves. I. Tetany produced by
a ration of milk or milk with various supplements.
J. Biol. Chem. 108:35.
Dutton, J. E. and J. P. Fontenot. 1967. Effect of dietary
organic phosphorus on magnesium metabolism in sheep.
J. Anim. Sci. 26:1409.
Field, A. C. 1959. Balance trials with magnesium-28 in
sheep. Nature 183:983.
Field, A. C. 1967. Studies on magnesium in ruminant
nutrition. 7. Excretion of magnesium, calcium,
potassium and faecal dry matter by grazing sheep.
Brit. J. Nutr. 21:631.


78
phosphorus. The 0.19% monosodium phosphate treatment group,
which consisted of two lambs, resulted in significantly
(P <.05) greater bone ash concentrations of magnesium than
the other treatment groups. Expressing the dry, fat-free
weights and the ash weights of the bones as mg per cc
resulted in the general trend of increasing values with
increasing levels of phosphorus.
Discussion
The relative availabilities of the phosphorus in
many inorganic phosphorus sources have been evaluated for
ruminants using animal growth studies (Long et al, 1957;
Wise et al., 1961; Perez et al., 1967). Parameters often
measured in such studies are rate of gain, feed intake,
inorganic blood phosphorus, and various bone measurements.
The present study was designed to include three
levels of phosphorus; two were to be inadequate for normal
growth and performance and the third level was to be
marginal. All treatment diets used, however, analyzed 0.02%
higher in total phosphorus than anticipated. The lowest
supplemental phosphorus treatment, which contained 0.15%
total phosphorus, was probably marginal with respect to
the level of phosphorus needed for normal lamb growth.
Beeson et al. (1944) found diets containing 0.15% total
phosphorus to be adequate for supporting good rate of gain,
efficient feed utilization and normal blood phosphorus
levels .in fattening lambs.


105
of the linear regression equations, v/as 2 8.84 26.40 and
0 75
20.46 xng of magnesium per kg body weight per day for
lambs, yearlings and adult sheep, respectively.
This same relationship between total magnesium output
and magnesium intake, but expressed as mg per kg body weight
per day, is shown in Figure 15 and individual data are pre
sented in Appendix Table 62. The resulting linear regression
equations for the three ages were: lambs, Y = 0.75X + 3.14
(P< .01, r = 0.98); yearlings, Y = 0.94X + 0.63 (P < .01, r =
0.99); adult sheep, Y = 0.88X + 0.81 (P <.01, r = 0.99). The
slope of the regression line for lambs was significantly
less than the slope for yearlings (P < .01) and adult sheep
(P<.05). The slopes of the regression lines for yearlings
and adult sheep were not significantly different.
The minimum dietary requirement for maintenance for
each age group, calculated by substituting Y for X in each
of the linear regression equations, was 12.56, 10.50 and
6.75 mg of magnesium per kg body weight per day for lambs,
yearlings and adult sheep, respectively.
Figure 16 presents urinary excretion of magnesium per
hour plotted against plasma magnesium in mg per 100 ml of
plasma for the three age groups of sheep. Individual values
are presented in Appendix Table 63. The linear regression
equations for the three ages were: lambs, Y = 9.62X 13.31
(P<.01, r = 0.86); yearlings, Y = 16.93X 23.97 (F<.01,
r = 0.77); adult sheep, Y = 10.82X 13.13 (P < .01, r = 0.83)
There were no significant differences between the slopes of
the three regression lines.


TABLE 54. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF FECAL MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE
PER
1,000 KILOCALORIES OF
METABOLIZABLE
: ENERGY
INTAKE PER
DAY
Lambs
Yearlings
Adults
Sheep
mg Mg
mg Mg
Sheep
mg Mg
mg Mg
Sheep
mg Mg
mg Mg
No.
Intake
i Feces
No.
Intake
Feces
No.
Intake
Feces
019
191.78
207.21
90
174.54
170.56
085
181.50
173'. 37
031
202.51
218.07
092
172.13
177.12
106
180.17
167.13
107
170.45
182.11
165
173.86
158.28
174
194
181.39
162.51
183.20
148.95
020
281.30
181.73
084
277.09
189.94
97
289.23
218.62
029
235.06
205.81
100
290.63
211.55
99
276.24
166.52
079
293.58
208.97
127
268.92
160.53
138
259.24
165.65
090
289.74
206.77
- 200
288.26
194.54
197
279.46
185.17
20
395.49
216.08
64
459.70
263.15
, 18
385.09
197.08
033
397.73
235.42
122
387.98
223.62
082
408.89
273.11
065
425.71
249.34
195
421.36
206.46
88
412.98
200.71
105
380.61
199.35
196
413.01
220.97
198
362.81
220.54
149


TABLE 57. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF URINARY MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE
PER 1,000 KILOCALORIES OF METABOLIZABLE ENERGY INTAKE PER DAY
Lambs
Yearlings
Adults
Sheep
mg Mg
mg Mg
Sheep
mg Mg
mg Mg
Sheep
mg Mg
mg Mg
No.
Intake
; Urine
No.
Intake
Urine
No.
Intake
Urine
019
191.78
9.25
90
174.54
7.79
085
181.50
9.35
031
202.51
15.79
092
172.13
15.79
106
180.17
18.46
107
170.45
23.06
16 5
173.86
22.31
174
181.39
5.84
194
162.51
6.36
020
231.30
69.90
084
277.09
79.99
97
289.28
64.94
029
285.06
60.80
100
290.63
66.78
99
276.24
72.82
079
293.58
80.95
127
268.92
85.57
136
259.24
76.12
090
289.74
69.99
- 200
288.26
90.04
197
279.46
91.47
20
395.49
156.31
64
459.70
195.93
18
385.09
161.28
033
397.73
111.59
122
387.98
153.53
082
408.89
115.20
065
425.71
169.35
195
421.36
216.71
88
412.98
130.51
105
330.61
129.22
196
413.01
178.46
198
362.81
113.19
152


TABLE 63. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF URINARY MAGNESIUM TO PLASMA MAGNESIUM3,
Lambs
Yearlinqs
Adults
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Plasma
mg Mg
Urine
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Plasma
mg Mg
Urine
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Plasma
mg Mg
Urine
019
1.35
0.47
90
1.57
0.59-
085
1.40
0.87
031
1.60
0.75
092
1.47
1.24
106
1.74
1.70
107
1.46
1.37
165
1.53
1.96
174
194
1.15
1.16
0.49
0.62
' 020
1.86
4.29
084
1.92
5.96
97
2.02
5.00
029
2.10
3.51
100
2.18
5.20
99
1.90
7.08
079
1.96
5.25
127
1.72
7.29
138
2.11
8.00
090
1.83
3.87
200
2.00
6.82
197
1.79
8.17
20
2.20
9.21
64
2.30
14.38
18
2.28
12.93
038
2.18
6.11
122
2.09
13.12
082
2.32
9.00
065
2.20
10.06
195
2.06
18.49
88
2.20
17.17
105
2.05
8.78
196
2.18
16.97
198
2.09
11.29
a
Pic
raa magnesium concentration per 100 ml;
urinary magnesium excretion per hour.
158


Blood urea-N (mg/100 ml)
12 3 4
9 12
Hours after dosing
24
FIGURE 3. EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON BLOOD UREA-N
tr.


21
Duncan, Huffman and Robinson (1935) estimated 30 to
40 mg/kg body weight per day was necessary to maintainnormal
plasma magnesium concentration of milk-fed calves when given
various levels of magnesium salts. A similar value of 40
mg/kg body weight was reported for growing calves receiving
magnesium salts (Blaster and Rook, 1954). When the source of
dietary magnesium was natural feedingstuffs, however, an
intake of 12 to 15 mg/kg body weight was sufficient (Huffman
et al., 1941). Thomas (1959) reviewed the available
literature and reported a range of from 13 to 46 mg magnesium
per kg body weight as being the daily magnesium requirement
of calves for maintenance of normal serum or bone magnesium
concentrations. Chicco (1966), by feeding various levels of
magnesium in the oxide form to 6-month-o]d lambs, calculated
a minimum daily requirement of 4 mg/kg body weight to replace
the estimated endogenous magnesium losses from the body. A
dietary level of 8 to 10 mg/kg body weight was required,
however, to prevent inappetance in yearling sheep (Chicco,
1966) .
In estimating the dietary magnesium requirement of an
animal consideration must be given to the availability of
the dietary magnesium to the animal. It has been shown that
availability varies considerably and may be very low in some
types of feeds. Field, McCollum and Butler (1958) found the
efficiency with which two sheep could utilize the magnesium
present in an herbage was 13 and 26%, respectively. Using
tracer techniques, McDonald and Care (1959) and Field (1959)


67
ammonia absorption. Of the non-protein nitrogen treatments,
urea resulted in the greatest increase in rumen pH, the least
increase in rumen ammonia-N concentration, and the greatest
increase in blood urea-N. Converse responses resulted with
the monoammonium phosphate (MAP) treatment whereas the
diammonium phosphate (DAP) treatment was intermediate to the
urea and MAP treatments. Urea is hydrolyzed in the rumen
to ammonia and carbon dioxide. However, adding 10 gm of
nitrogen per 45.5 kg body weight in the form of MAP is also
providing the rumen with 20.4 gm of phosphorus, and an
isonitrogenous dose of DAP adds 11.5 gm of phosphorus.
It is possible to explain theoretically the signifi
cance of rumen pH changes in the absorption of ammonia from
the rumen. It is well recognized that the speed of entry
of any compound into a cell depends largely upon its
molecular volume and its lipoid solubility. It is pre
sumably for these reasons that ammonia (NH^) enters cells
readily and the ammonium ion (NH^+) slowly. The proportion
of NH^ to NH^+ present in the rumen contents may be pre
dicted from the Henderson-Hasselbach equation, with the
appropriate substitution of the pKa value of NH^ at a
temperature of 40C:
NH
PH = 3.8 t log ¡¡gij.
From this equation it can be calculated that the propor
tion of NH^ in the rumen will increase rapidly with a rise
in pH, and that the proportion of NH^ to NH4 + will increase


TABLE 35
INDIVIDUAL DATA ON BLOOD UREA-N OF SHEEP DOSED WITH UREA, UREA PLUS
PHOSPHORIC ACID, MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM CARBONATE
Period
Sheep
No. '
Treat
ment
Hours
; postdosing
0
1
2
3
4
6
9
12
24
04
MAP + Ba
13.8
15.8
17.5
19.3
19.3
19.3
19.3
20.2
22.8
1
05
MAP
6.5
10.4
11.3
12.4
13.3
14.7
17.2
17.7
15.4
06
Urea + Aa
13.8
16.4
19.7
20.7
22.3
23.6
24.5
24.3
20.2
08
Urea
7.2
12.2
13.8
15.2
17.5
19.8
21.8
23.8
20.4
04
Urea + A
12.5
17.7
18.8
19.6
20.2
21.8
22.3
20.2
23.4
2
05
MAP + B
7.3
10.8
12.6
13.9
15.8
19.7
22.7
21.6
19.0
06
Urea
15.2
17.8
20.3
23.8
23.4
25.4
25.5
22.7
20.2
08
MAP
11,2
13.0
13.3
14.3
16.8
18.4
20.7
21.3
19.0
04
MAP
14.4
16.9
16.3
17.2
17.5
18.3
17.5
17.8
18.7
3
05
Urea
7.6
14.3
14.3
16.2
16.9
17.2
15.2
13.2
16.3
06
MAP + B
12.8
13.3
13.7
14.8
15.4
17.6
18.3
17.8
19.1
08
Urea + A
12.4
19.8
21.2 .
22.6
23.3
23.3
22.6
23.0
19.4
04
Urea
14.8
16.6
18.5
20.2
23.0
25.0
27.5
27.3
18.8
4
05
Urea + A
11.3
17.6
18.7
20.2
21.8
26.0
29.3
28.2
22.4
06
MAP
12.0
15.2
17.6
19.4
21.0
22.8
22.8
23.4
22.4
08
MAP + B
10.4
11.4
13.5
14.7
16.2
17.6
20.2
21.8
21.7
aMAP + B
and Urea + A stand
for MAP plus
sodium
carbonate and
urea
plus phosphoric
acid,
respectively.


mg/kg body weight
96
5 10 15 20 25
Magnesium intake (X),
mg/kg body weight
FIGURE 9. RELATION OF FECAL MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER KILOGRAM BODY WEIGHT PER DAY


55
TABLE 12. EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF SOYBEAN MEAL,
UREA, DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE ON BLOOD UREA~Na
Mg/100 Ml
Hours
After Dosing
Soybean
Meal
Urea
DAP
MAP
0
16.5
15.0
14.4
15.0
1
17.6b
20.5C
17.3b
17.5b
2
18.0b
22.3
19.8b
2 0.4bc
3
19.5b
24.8d
D
21 9bc
4
20.0b
26.8d
23.7C
23.3C
6
22.0b
31.5d
27.3C
25.0C
9
23.0b
34.8d
30.3C
27.0C
12
23. lb
33.0C
27.4b
I)
26.3
24
27.3
26.8
25.9
26.0
aAll values are means of four periods per treatment.
b,G,dMeans on the same line bearing different superscripts
are significantly (P <.05) different.


164
MacDonald, D. E. and A. D. Care. 1959. Excretion of
labelled magnesium by the sheep. Nature 134:736.
Martindale, L. and F. W. Heaton. 1964. Magnesium deficiency
in the adult rat. Biochem. J. 92:119.
McAleese, D. M., M. C. Bell and R. M. Forbes. 1961.
Magnesium-28 studies in lambs. J. Nutr. 74:505.
McDonald, F. W. 1948. The absorption of ammonia from the
rumen of the sheep. Biochem. J. 42:584.
McLaren, G. A., G. C. Anderson, L. I. Tsai and K. M. Barth.
1965. Level of readily fermentable carbohydrates and
adaptation of lambs to all-urea supplemented rations.
J. Nutr. 87:331.
O'Dell, B. L., E. R. Morris and Vi. 0. Regan. 1960.
Magnesium requirement of guinea pigs and rats. Effect
of calcium and phosphorus and symptoms of magnesium
deficiency. J. Nutr. 70:103.
Oltjen, R. R., G. R. Waller, A. B. Nelson and A. D. Tillman.
1963. Ruminant studies with diammonium phosphate
and urea. J. Anim. Sci. 22:36.
Ormsby, A. A. 1942. A direct colorimetric method for the
determination of urea in blood and urine. J. Biol.
Chem. 146:595.
Parr Manual No. 130. 1960. Oxygen bomb calorimetry and
combustion methods. Parr Instrument Co., Moline,
Ill.
Perez, C. B., R. G. Warner and J. K. Loosli. 1967. Evalua
tion of urea-phosphate as a source of nitrogen and
phosphorus for ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 26:810.
Preston, R. L. and V. H. Pfander. 1964 Phosphorus
metabolism in lambs fed varying phosphorus intakes.
J. Nutr. 83:369.
Reaves, J. L., L. J. Bush and J. D. Stout. 1966. Effect of
different non-protein nitrogen sources on accepti-
bility of rations by dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci.
49:1142.
Repp, W. W. W. H. Hale and Vi. Burroughs. 1955. The value
of several non-protein-nitrogen compounds as protein
substitutes in lamb fattening rations. J. Anim. Sci.
14:901.


6
toxic effects in ruminants. Repp, Hale and Burroughs (1955)
critically studied-.urea and four other non-protein nitrogen
compounds for their relative toxicities to lambs. Adminis
tration of urea, ammonium formate, ammonium acetate and
ammonium propionate at a level of about 40 gm urea equi
valent per 45.4 kg of body weight resulted in fatal
toxicity. In all cases toxicity was associated with large
increases in blood ammonia nitrogen, with the critical
level being about 1 mg per 100 ml of blood.
Clark and Lombard (1951) reported that sheep which
were adapted to a ration of lucerne hay were less suscep
tible to urea toxicity than the ones adapted to a poor
quality grass hay diet. They observed a decrease or entire
cessation of ruminal motility as a result of the high rumen
pH caused by high ammonia concentration. Coombe et al. (1960)
observed a marked decrease in rumination time spent by sheep
when urea was added to their diets suggesting an inhibitory
effect on rumen motility. Like Clark and Lombard (1951)
they found that rumen pH had a large influence on this.
When sheep were fed hay before being drenched with 25 gm
urea, rumen pH did not exceed 6.3 and although the rumen
ammonia-N reached 91 mg per 100 ml, rumen movements were
not inhibited. However, when fasted for 16 hours before
drenching, a dose of 10 gm urea resulted in a rise in rumen
pH to 7.3 and complete cessation of rumen movements. When
17 gm ammonium chloride were given instead of urea, the


CHAPTER VII
GENERAL SUMMARY
Experiments were conducted with steers and sheep to
gain information on certain nutritional aspects of non
protein nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium. The aspects
studied involved the influence of source of non-protein
nitrogen on feed intake, animal performance and certain
ruminal and blood compositional changes, the evaluation of
phosphorus in two inorganic phosphate sources, and the
influence of age and dietary magnesium level on magnesium
utilization. A summary of the results of these studies
is presented in the following statements.
Influence of Non-protein Nitrogen Source on Feed
Intake, Animal Performance and Blood Urea-N
Diets containing 1.5% diammonium phosphate reduced
(P <.05) voluntary feed consumption in two of four
voluntary feed-intake experiments conducted with steers.
A diet containing 2.3% monoammonium phosphate was consumed
significantly less (P< .05) in one of the experiments.
Diets containing the two levels of monoammonium phosphate
used (0.75 and 2.3%) resulted in lower average daily gains
than diets containing 1.5% diammonium phosphate or supple
mental nitrogen as soybean meal. However, the large
115


TABLE 59. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF URINARY MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER KILOGRAM BODY WEIGHT PER DAY
Lambs
Yearlings
Adults
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Intake
mg Mg
Urine
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Intake
mg Mg
Urine
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Intake
mg Mg
Urine
019
3.75
0.42
30
7.43
0.33
085
7.35
0.38
031
8.85
0.69
092
7.90
0.72
106
7.37
0.76
107
8.08
1.09
165
7.34
0.94
174
6.36
0.21
194
7.50
0.29
020
13.82
3.43
084
13.03
3.76
97
12.73
2.86
029
14.11
3.01
100
12.64
2.90
99
11.92
3.15
079
13.43
3.70
127
12.64
4.07
138
11.89
3.49
090
13.96
3.20
200
12.78
3.99
197
12.23
4.00
20
20.71
8.19
64
18.40
7.84
18
17.24
7.22
038
20.11
5.64
122
18.50
7.32
082
18.71
5.27
065
20.22
8.05
195
17.98
9.25
88
17.46
7.63
105
20.03
16.80
196
17.46
7.54
198
17.37
5.42
154


84
total fecal and urinary collections were made at 24-hour
intervals. Urine was collected in plastic buckets to which
approximately 100 ml of a 25% HC1 solution and 10 ml of
toluene had been added. Urine volumes were recorded daily
and a 10% aliquot was saved for chemical analysis. Feces
were collected daily using fecal collection b-.gs. Blood
samples were obtained by jugular puncture for 3 consecutive
days at the end of the collection period, and the plasma was
obtained for each sample for the determination of magnesium,
calcium and phosphorus.
The 7-day fecal collections were pooled, thoroughly
mixed, and dried to a constant weight in a forced air oven
at approximately 60C. The dried excreta were allowed to
gain moisture from the atmosphere for 72 hours, after which
they were weighed, ground finely, and an aliquot saved for
gross energy, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus determinations.
A sample of the urine as collected was saved for gross
energy determinations. The remainder was filtered through
Whatman No. 42 filter paper and approximately 100 ml kept
for magnesium, calcium and phosphorus determinations.
Energy content of diets, feces and urine was deter
mined by combustion in a Parr oxygen bomb adiabatic calori
meter. Urine samples were prepared by saturating a fared
cellulose pellet in a combustion capsule with 5 ml of urine
and drying in a vacuum desiccator. nata we re corrected for
energy value of the cellulose used with each sample portion.
Acid and sulfur corrections (Parr Manual No. 130, .1960) were


45
for the treatments containing isonitrogenous levels of non
protein nitrogen (1.5% DAP and 2.3% MAP) except in Experi
ment 2 where the 0.75% MAP treatment resulted in the
greatest change in BUN. The same trends existed when the
blood urea-N changes were expressed per kg of feed
consumed.
A possible contributing factor to the variable
results between experiments is the time of year in which
each experiment was conducted. Experiments 1, 2, 3 and 4
were conducted during the winter, spring, summer and fall,
respectively. Mean rainfall (mm) and mean temperature (C)
for the area during the experimental periods were: (1) 82,
14; (2) 67, 25; (3) 156, 28; (4) 35,-15 (Climatological
Data National Summary, 1969-1971). It is possible that the
large variations in rainfall and temperatures between
experimental periods may have affected the animal perform
ances and the relative outcomes of the separate experiments.


TABLE 60. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF MAGNESIUM OUTPUT (FECAL PLUS URINARY)
TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER 1,000 KILOCALORIES OF
METABOLIZABLE ENERGY INTAKE PER DAY
Lambs
Yearlings
Adults
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Intake
mg Mg
Output
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Intake
mg Mg
Output
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Intake
mg Mg
Output
019
191.78
216.43
90
174.54
178.35
085
181.50
182.71
031
202.51
233.84
092
172.13
192.90
106
180.17
185.59
107
170.45
205.15
165
173.86
180.53
174
181.39
189.02
194
162.51
155.35
020
281.30
251.59
084
277.09
269.09
97
289.28
283.58
029
285.06
266.64
100
290.63
278.30
99
276.24
239.35
079
293.58
289.94
127
268.92
247.10
138
259.24
241.75
090
289.74
273.15
200
288.26
284.55
197
279.46
276.65
20
395.49
372.42
64
459.70
459.09
18
385.09
358.31
038
397.73
347.03
122
387.98
377.16
082
408.89
388.32
065
425.71
413.67
195
421.36
423.16
88
412.98
381.20
105
380.61
328.58
196
413.01
399.44
198
362.31
333.72
Ln


TABLE 30
INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RUMEN pH OF SHEEP DOSED WITH SOYBEAN MEAL,
UREA, DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE
Period
Sheep
No.
Treat
ment
Hours postdosing
0
0.5
1
2
3
4
6
9
12
24
04
SBM
6.85
6.69
6.65
6.50
6.43
6.46
6.30
6.37
6.46
6.85
1
05
DAP
6.64
6.97
6.87
6.59
6.25
6.39
6.30
6.25
6.23
6'. 51
06
MAP
6.71
6.27
6.27
6.19
6.18
6.16
5.95
5.91
5.94
6.27
OC
Urea
6.55
7.12
7.58
7.48
7.32
7.22
6.72
6.57
6.64
. 6.11
04
Urea
6.80
7.22
7.46
7.23
7.13
6.93
6.85
6.64
6.23
6.82
2
05
SBM
6.75
6.61
6.61
6.64
6.56
6.56
6.55
6.37
6.39
6.93
06
DAP
6.61
6.71
6.73
6.73
6.70
6.68
6.52
6.31
6.06
6.33
08
MAP
6.83
6.32
6.49
6.46
6.42
6.42
6.27
6.10
5.91
5.90
04
DAP
6.92
7.20
7.13
7.03
6.95
6.75
6.61
6.39
6.10
6.38
3
05
MAP
6.61
6.41
6.41
6.34
6.35
6.17
6.14
6.17
6.08
6.51
06
Urea
6.83
7.12
7.38
7.29
7.21
7.16
6.97
6.65
6.48
6.86
08
SBM
7.04
6.83
6.81
6.70
6.77
6.75
6.77
6.78
6.68
6.69
04
MAP
6.94
6.72
6.63
6.70
6.70
6.70
6.14
6.60
6.62
6.70
4
05
Urea
6.77
7.36
7.53
7.36
7.23
7.23
7.40
7.00
6.83
7.20
06
SBM
6.65
6.60
6.60
6.42
6.35
6.23
6.07
6.05
6.40
6.95
08
DAP
6.64
6.91
6.87
6.82
6.69
6.67
6.61
6.41
6.35
6.39
125


116
variations in average daily gains v/ithin treatments
limit the meaningfulness of gain data from short feeding
periods. At the end of each experimental period, steers
were fasted 12 hours followed by 2 hours ad libitum con
sumption of their respective treatment diets. The increase
in blood urea-N, following the 2-hour feeding period, was
greater for treatments containing isonitrogenous levels of
non-protein nitrogen (1.5% diammonium phosphate and 2.3%
monoammonium phosphate) except in one experiment where 0.75%
monoammonium phosphate resulted in the greatest blood
urea-N increase.
Effect of Nitrogen Source on Certain Blood
and Ruminal Fluid Constituents
Two experiments were conducted with fistulated sheep
to examine the effects of natural protein and non-protein
nitrogen sources upon rumen ammonia-N, pH and blood urea-N.
All nitrogen sources were administered intraruminally as
10 gra of nitrogen per 45.4 kg body weight. Results of the
first experiment suggested that pH of the rumen contents was
a controlling factor in the rate of ammonia absorption. The
urea treatment resulted in the greatest increase in rumen pH,
the least increase in rumen ammonia-N concentration and the
greatest increase in blood urea-N. Converse responses
resulted with monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate
was intermediate in effect. Treatments in the second ex
periment consisted of urea, urea plus phosphoric acid,
monoamraonium phosphate and monoammonium phosphate plus


TABLE 58. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OB URINARY MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER KILOGRAM0-75 BODY WEIGHT PER DAY
Lambs
Yearlings
Adults
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Intake
mg Mg
Urine
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Intake
mg Mg
Urine
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Intake
mg Mg
Urine
019
20.00
0.97
90
19.01
0.85
085
20.00
1 .
, 03
031
20.00
1.56
092
20.00
1.83
106
20.00
2.
.05
107
18.94
2.56
165
20.00
2.50
174
17.43
0.
.56
194
20.00
0.
.78
020
32.50
8.05
084
32.50
9.36
97
32.50
7,
.27
029'
32.50
6.91
100
32.50
7.43
99
32.50
8.
.53
079
32.50
8.93
127
32.50
10.42
138
32.50
9.
.50
090
32.50
7.42
- 200
32.50
10.10
197
32.50
10 .
.61
20
47.50
18.73
64
47.50
20.18
18
44.11
18.
.47
038
45.47
12.76
122
47.50
18.74
082
47.50
13.
.34
0S5
47.50
18.86
195
47.50
24.38
88
47.50
20.
,70
105
47.50
16.09
196
47.50
20.47
198
47.50
14.
.42
153


118
magnesium utilization as measured by any of the above-
mentioned criteria. With increasing intakes of dietary
magnesium there was a decreased retention of calcium and
phosphorus, increased excretion of phosphorus in urine,
and increased apparent absorption, retention, urinary
excretion and plasma levels of magnesium.
By use of regression analysis (fecal magnesium on
magnesium intake) the theoretical values for metabolic
fecal magnesium were calculated for lambs, yearlings and
adults to be: 170.91, 122.25 and 118.44 mg per 1,000 kilo
calories of metabolizable energy (ME) intake per day,
0 75
respectively; 16.87, 13.95 and 12.30 mg per kg body
weight per day, respectively; and 7.26, 5.48 and 4.25 mg
per kg body weight per day, respectively. The slopes of
the regression lines did not differ between age groups
regardless of the basis for expressing the estimated
metabolic fecal magnesium. From the regression equations
of fecal plus urinary magnesium on magnesium intake for
each age group the calculated minimum dietary requirements
to replace endogenous losses for lambs, yearlings and adults
were: 261.07, 235.20 and 176.46 mg per 1,000 kilocalories
of ME intake per day, respectively; 23.84, 2G.40 and 20.46
mg per kg'*' body weight per day, respectively; and 12.56,
10.50 and 6.75 mg per kg body weight per day, respectively.
These values would be specific for the semi-purifiecl diet
fed with supplemental magnesium provided as the carbonate.
The slope of the regression line for lambs differed


Rumen artmionia-N (mg/10 0 ml)
FIGURE 5
EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON RUMEN AMMONIA-N


TABLE 29. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON FEED CONSUMPTION,
AVERAGE WEIGHT GAIN AND BLOOD UREA-N (BUN)a
Treatment
Periods
Daily Feed
Intake, kg
Daily
Gain, kg
Feed Intake
kg
2 Hours
Initial
BUN
BUN
Change
2 Hours
BUN Change
Per kg Feed
Consumed
1
10.11
2.95
1.59
13.50
0.60
0.38
Soybean
2
9.03
2.16
2.95
14.70
0.15
0.05
meal
3
7.50
0.40
2.50
12.35
0.00
0.00
(A)
4
8.07
0.91
2.73
13.40
0.50
0.18
1
9.91
1.54
1.36
15.00
1.20
0.88
1.50%
2
9.20
0.91
1.82
15.50
1.25
0.68
DAP
3
8.49
0.00
2.27
11.95
1.35
0.59
(B)
4
8.18
0.63
1.59
14.80
0.40
0.25
1
8.98
-0.23
0.91
19.30
-0.20
-0.22
0.75%
2
9.32
0.63
2.95
14.50
0.20
0.07
MAP
3
9.91
0.34
3.64
13.10
0.85
0.23
(C)
4
8.80
0.57
2.73
15.80
1.00
0.37
1
10.45
-0.45
2.95
14.30
0.70
0.24
2.30%
2
7.47
-0.11
2.73
10.90
0.40
0.14
MAP
3
7.73
-0.11
2.73
13.70
2.15
0.79
(D)
4
8.26
0.45
1.82
15.00
2.10
1.15
aBUN concentration
expressed as
mg per 100
ml of whole
blood.
124


79
In the present experiment., treatment groups receiving
supplemental phosphorus as monoammonium phosphate had
numerically greater average daily feed intakes and gains
than groups receiving diets supplemented with monosodium
phosphate. The plasma and bone analyses, however, did not
show consistent trends for either sources of .norganic
phosphorus.
Both the 0.15 and 0.19% total phosphorus levels in
the supplemented diets were apparently adequate to support
normal bone metabolism and a normal serum phosphorus level
in the growing lambs. Long et al, (1957) reported linear
increases in feed intake, weight gains and serum inorganic
phosphorus levels with steers receiving 0.07, 0.11 and
0.15% total dietary phosphorus, whereas a phosphorus level
of 0.19% gave results similar to the 0.15% phosphorus
treatment.
In spite of the limitation of the present experiment
of higher than desired experimental levels of phosphorus in
the diets, it can be concluded that the phosphorus in
monoammonium phosphate was as well utilized by the growing
lambs as that from monosodium phosphate. This result is
consistent with studies in which diammonium phosphate
(Oltjen et al., 1963; Hillis, 1968), urea-phosphate (Perez
et al., 1967), and phosphoric acid (Richardson et al., 1957
Tillman and Brethour, 1958e) have been found to be readily
available sources of phosphorus to ruminants.


Magnesium output (Y),
mg/1,000 kcal metabolizable energy
102
6OO-1
1
FIGURE 13. RELATION OF MAGNESIUM OUTPUT (FECAL PLUS
URINARY) TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER 1,000
KILOCALORIES OF METABOLIZABLE ENERGY
INTAKE PER DAY


61
gradual decline to a low of 5.76 at twelve hours postdosing.
The MAP plus base and urea plus acid treatments showed
similar changes in rumen pH from hour four through the
remainder of the sampling period.
Statistical analysis of the rumen pH values at the
individual hours revealed the urea and MAP plus sodium
carbonate treatments to have significantly (P <.05) greater
pH values than the MAP and urea plus phosphoric acid treat
ments at one-half and one hour postdosing. The MAP plus
base treatment continued significantly (P< .05) different
from the MAP treatment for hours three through twelve.
The urea treatment resulted in a significantly (P < .05)
higher rumen pH than the MAP treatment for all hours post
dosing except the second. This is similar to the results
reported in Experiment 1 for the urea and MAP treatments.
The effect of treatment on rumen ammonia-N is
presented in Table 14 and Figure 5. The individual data are
presented in Appendix Table 34. No significant differences
existed between treatments in predosing rumen ammonia-N
concentrations. The MAP and MAP plus sodium carbonate
treatments exhibited an almost identical pattern in con
centration throughout the sampling period. The urea
treatment attained its peak concentration earlier than the
urea plus phosphoiic acid treatment with the latter treat
ment sustaining a higher concentration throughout the
remainder of the sampling period.


23
Recent work (Clark and Belanger, 1967) with adult
rats receiving adequate dietary levels of calcium and
phosphorus and increasing levels of magnesium resulted in
increasing absorption, balance and x'etention of calcium,
phosphorus and magnesium with the increasing magnesium in
take. Urinary and skeletal content of calcium and magnesium
also increased whereas their content of phosphorus decreased.
A similar study (Clark, 1968) with adult rats resulted in an
increased absorption of calcium with increasing levels of
dietary magnesium only when the diet was adequate in calcium
content. Urinary calcium was increased, however, irrespective
of the dietary level of calcium. The increasing levels of
dietary magnesium resulted in increased absorption of phos
phorus only when the dietary phosphorus was adequate and the
calcium to phosphorus ratio low. Urinary phosphorus was
decreased with increasing magnesium intake. Forbes (1963) and
Toothill (1963) both reported decreased absorption and serum
concentration of magnesium in rats fed high levels of calcium
in the diet. An excessive intake of phosphorus has been
shown to depress serum magnesium in the guinea pig and rat
(O'Dell, Morris and Regan, 1960) and the dog (Bunce,
Chiemchaisri and Phillips, 1962).
The interrelationship of calcium, phosphorus and
magnesium in ruminants has been examined to a limited extent.
A series of such studies was conducted by Chicco (1966) with
wether lambs. Increasing levels of dietary calcium resulted
in decreased utilization of dietary magnesium when the


33
TABLE 5. COMPOSITION OF DIETS
Diets*'-
Ingredient
Soybean
Meal
(A)
1.50%
DAP
(B)
0.75%
MAP
(C)
2.30%
MAP
(D)
Corn meal
51.81
55.57
53.09
55.76
Cottonseed hulls
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
Alfalfa meal (17%
protein)
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
Sugarcane molasses
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
Soybean meal (50%
protein)
10.92
6.92
9.60
6.88
2
Salt, trace-mineralized
0.60
0.60
0.60
0.60
Monosodium phosphate
2.21
0.95
1.50
-
Monoammonium phosphate
-
-
0.75
2.30
Diammonium phosphate
-
1.50
-
-
Calcium carbonate
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
3
Vitamins A & D
+
+
+
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
Diet A provided all supplemental protein as soybean meal;
diet B provided 0.269% non-protein nitrogen (NPN) as
diammonium phosphate (DAP); diet C provided 0.088% NPN as
monoammonium phosphate (MAP); diet D provided 0.269% NPN
as MAP.
2 .
Listed minimum analysis in percent: Mn, 0.23; I, 0.007;
Fe, 0.425; Cu, 0.03; Co, 0.01; S, 0.05; Zn, 0.008; and
NaCl, 97.5
3 .
Vitamins added per kg of diet: 2,200 IU vitamin A
palmitate and 440 IU vitamin D^.


TABLE
Page
26INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF NITROGEN ON
FEED CONSUMPTION AND AVERAGE WEIGHT GAIN. 121
27 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF SOURCE OF
NITROGEN ON FEED CONSUMPTION, AVERAGE
WEIGHT GAIN AND BLOOD UREA-N (BUN) 122
28 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF SOURCE OF
NITROGEN ON FEED CONSUMPTION, AVERAGE
WEIGHT GAIN AND BLOOD UREA-N (BUN) ..... 123
29 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF SOURCE OF
NITROGEN ON FEED CONSUMPTION, AVERAGE
WEIGHT GAIN AND BLOOD UREA-N (BUN) 124
30 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RUMEN pH OF SHEEP DOSED
WITH SOYBEAN MEAL, UREA, DIAMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE .... 125
31 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RUMEN AMMONIA-N OF SHEEP
WITH SOYBEAN MEAL, UREA, DIAMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE .... 126
32 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON BLOOD UREA-N OF SHEEP
DOSED WITH SOYBEAN MEAL, UREA, DIAMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE .... 127
33 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RUMEN pH OF SHEEP DOSED
WITH UREA, UREA PLUS PHOSPHORIC ACID,
MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM CARBONATE 128
34 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RUMEN AMMONIA-N OF SHEEP
DOSED WITH UREA, UREA PLUS PHOSPHORIC
ACID, MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE AND
MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM
CARBONATE 129
35 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON BLOOD UREA-N OF SHEEP
DOSED WITH UREA, UREA PLUS PHOSPHORIC
ACID, MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR
MCNOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM
CARBONATE 130
36 INDIVIDUAL DATA ON DAILY GAIN, FEED INTAKE
AND FEED EFFICIENCY OF LAMBS FED DIFFERENT
SOURCES AND LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS DURING A
9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL 131
V3.ll


165
Richardson, D., E. F. Smith, B. A. Koch and R. F. Cox. 1957
Sources of phosphorus for beef cattle. Kansas Agr.
Exp. Sta. Circ. 349.
Richter, H. and Y. Lapoinie. 1962. New reagent for use in
determination of blood urea nitrogen, with special
reference to manual analysis. Clin. Chem. 3:335.
Robinson, R. A. and M. L. Watson. 1955. Crystal-collagen
relationships in bone as observed in the electron
microscope. III. Crystal and collagen morphology
as function of age. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 60:596.
Rook, J. A. F. 1961. Rapid development of hypomagnesaemia
in lactating cows given artificial rations low in
magnesium. Nature 191:1019.
Rook, J. A. F. and C. C. Balch. 1958. Magnesium metabolism
in the dairy cow. II. Metabolism during the spring
grazing season. J. Agr. Sci. 51:199.
Rook, J. A. F. and J. E. Storry. 1962. Magnesium in the
nutrition of farm animals. Nutr. Abstr. and Rev.
32:1055.
Russell, E. L., W. H. Hale and F. Hubbert, Jr. 1962.
Evaluation of diammonium phosphate as a source of
nitrogen for ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 21:523.
Schaadt, H., Jr., R. R. Johnson and K. E. McClure. 1966.
Adaptation to and palatability of urea, biuret and
diamrnonium phosphate as NPN sources for ruminants.
J. Anim. Sci. 25:73.
Simesen, M. G., T. Lunaas, T. A. Rogers and J. R. Luick.
1962. The endogenous excretion of magnesium in
cattle. Acta. Vet. Scand. 3:175.
Smith, B. S. W. and A. C. Field. 1963. Effect of age on
magnesium deficiency in rats. Brit. J. Nutr. 17:591
Smith, R. H. 1959a. Calcium and magnesium metabolism in
calves. 3. Endogenous fecal excretion and absorp
tion of magnesium. Biochem. J. 71:306.
Smith, R. H. 1959b. Calcium and magnesium metabolism in
calves. 4. Bone composition in magnesium deficiency
and the control of plasma magnesium. Biochem. J.
71:609.
Smith, R. H. 1969. Absorption of major minerals in the
small and large intestines of the ruminant. Proc.
Nutr. Soc. 28:151.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Agricultural Research Council. 1965. The nutrient require
ments of farm livestock; No. 2 ruminants. Agricultural
Research Council, London.
Ammerrnan, C. B. R. M. Forbes, U. S. Garrigus, A. L. Neumann,
H. W. Norton and E. E. Hatfield. 1957. Ruminant
utilization of inorganic phosphates. J. Anim. Sci.
16:796.
Ammerrnan, C. B., R. Hendrickson, G. M. Hall, J. F. Easley
and P. E. Loggins. 1965. The nutritive value of
various fractions of citrus pulp and the effect of
drying temperature on the nutritive value of citrus
pulp.. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 78:307.
Ammerrnan, C, B. and W. E. Thomas. 1955. Relative pH values
and buffering capacities of the ruminal ingesta of
lambs as affected by various forages. Cornell Vet.
45:443.
Annison, E. F. and D. Lewis. 1959. Metabolism in the rumen.
John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Anonymous. 1964. Analytical methods for atomic absorption
spectrophotometry. The Perkin-Elmer Corp., Norwalk,
Connecticut.
Arias, C., W. Burroughs, P. Gerlaugh and R. M. Bethke. 1951.
The influence of different amounts and sources of
energy upon in vitro urea utilization by rumen
microorganisms. J. Anim. Sci. 10:683.
Arrington, L. R., C. B. Ammerrnan, D. Yap, R. L. Shirley and
G. K. Davis. 1962. Measurements of phosphorus
availability for calves. J. Anim. Sci. 21:987.
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. 1960.
Official methods of analysis. 9th Ed., Washington,
D. C.
Becker, R. B., G. K. Davis, W. G. Kirk, R. S, Glasscock, P.
T. Dix Arnold and J. E. Pace. 1944. Defluorinated
superphosphate for livestock. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bui. 401.


99
FIGURE 11. RELATION OF URINARY MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER KILOGRAM0*75 BODY WEIGHT PER DAY


112
this reason the remainder of this discussion will be
restricted to the results of this study expressed on a kg
body weight basis. The values for metabolic fecal magnesium
of 7.26, 5.48 and 4.25 mg of magnesium per kg body weight
per day for lambs, yearlings and adult sheep obtained in
this study by extrapolation are higher than most reported
values. Estimates of 3.5 and 1.5 mg per kg body weight
per day were found for calves and cows, respectively
(Simesen et al., 1962). A value of 5 mg per kg body weight
per day was obtained for a yearling wether using tracer
techniques (MacDonald and Care, 1959), and this value is
similar to the value obtained for yearlings (5.48 mg) in
this study. Other values reported are 2 to 4 mg per kg
body weight per day for young calves (Blaxter and Rook,
1954) and 2.33 mg per kg body weight per day for young
lambs (Chicco, 1966).
The decreasing values with increasing age for the
estimates of metabolic fecal magnesium in this study may
reflect a less labile reserve of magnesium in the older
animals as compared to the lambs. All animals received the
0 75
same amount of dietary energy per kg body weight regard
less of age or dietary magnesium level. However, by
examining the effect of decreasing magnesium intake within
each age level (Figure 9) the lambs were apparently able
to mobilize magnesium from reserves more readily than the
yearlings or adult sheepwhen dietary magnesium intake
became suboptimal resulting in higher endogenous fecal


51
Table 30 No significant differences between treatments
in predosing ruminal pH were observed. The rumen pH for
the urea treatment rose sharply during the first hour to a
value of 7.48 and then gradually declined until the twelfth
hour to a value slightly lower than the predosing value.
The DAP treatment resulted in an initial increase in pH with
a maximum value of 6.94 observed at one-half hour postdosing
followed by a gradual decline to 6.18 at hour twelve. The
MAP treatment resulted in a sharp decrease in pH during the
initial 30 minutes followed by a gradual decline to a low
of 6.12 at 6 hours postdosing. The DAP treatment remained
intermediate to the other two non-protein nitrogen treat
ments throughout the 24-hour experimental period. The pH
in the rumen of sheep receiving soybean meal fell slightly
as the day progressed.
Statistical analysis of the rumen pH values at the
individual hours revealed a significant (P < .05) difference
between all treatments at one-half and one hour postdosing.
This difference continued between the non-protein nitrogen
treatments through hour two. The urea treatment had
significantly (P <.05) higher values of rumen pH than the
DAP and MAP treatments for all hours observed except the
twelfth.
The effect of treatment on rumen arruv.onia-N is pre
sented in Table 11 and Figure 2. The individual data are
presented in Appendix Table 31. No significant differences
existed between treatments in predosing rumen ammonia-N


147
TABLE 52. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM INTAKE
BY YEARLINGS ON PLASMA LEVELS OF MAGNESIUM,
CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS (MG/100 ML)
Magnesium
Intake, mg
Sheep
No.
Magnesium
Calcium
Phosphorus
19.01
90
1.57
8.94
5.66
20.00
092
1.47
8.87
6.78
20.00
165
1.53
8.82
4.73
32.50
0S4
1.92
9.01
5.43
32.50
100
2.18
9.06
5.38
32.50
127
1.72
7.61
7.88
32.50
200
2.01
9.23
4.95
47.50
64
2.30
8.73
5.34
47.50
122
2.09
8.97
4.78
47.50
195
2.06
9.07
5.63 .
47.50
196
2.18
8.87
6.08
a
Magnesium
intake per
, 0.75 ,
kg body
weight per day.


131
TABLE 36. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON DAILY GAIN, FEED INTAKE AND
FEED EFFICIENCY OF LAMBS FED DIFFERENT SOURCES AND
LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL
Phosphorus, Feed
Source and Lamb Weight Daily Feed Per Unit
Level No .Gain, kg Intake, kg Gain, kg
Basal
73
0.00
0.61
-
0.11% P
86
1.36
0.52
24.27
72
2.27
0.60
16.65
79
5.23
0.73
8.83
Monoammonium
74
2.73
0.54
12.44
Phosphate
82
4.32
0.83
12.17
0.15%
76
5.91
0.85
9.14
75
2.73
0.69
16.05
Mono ammonium
87
7.05
0.84
7.54
Phosphate
90
4.32
0.74
10.86
0.19% P
73
7.50
0.92
7.74
88
5.68
0.70
7.75
Monosodium
6
0.63
0.51
47.16
Phosphate
89
0.00
0.59
-
0.15% P
85
3.86
0.77
12.62
77
5.00
0.75
9.47
Monosodium
83
4.32
0.73
10.69
Phosphate
0.19% P
93
5.91
0.76
3.06


95
Magnesium intake (X),
mg/kg' ^ body weight
FIGURE 8. RELATION OF FECAL MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER KILOGRAM0-75 BODY WEIGHT PER DAY


TABLE 56. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF FECAL MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE
PER KILOGRAM BODY WEIGHT PER DAY
Lambs
Yearlings
Adults
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Intake
mg Mg
Feces
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Intake
mg Mg
Feces
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Intake
mg Mg
Feces
019
8.75
9.45
90
7.43
7.26
085
7.35
7.02
031
8.85
9.53
092
7.90
8.13
106
7.37
6.84
107
8.08
8.63
155
7.34
6.68
174
6.36
6.42
194
7.50
6.88
020
13.82
8.93
084
13.04
8.94
97
12.72
9.62
029
14.11
10.19
100
12.64
9.20
99
11.93
7.19
G7S
13.43
9.56
127
12.64
7.55
138
11.89
7.60
090
13.96
9.96
- 200
12.78
8.63
197
12.23
8.11
20
20.71
11.32
64
18.40
10.54
18
17.24
8.82
038
20.11
11.91
122
18.50
10.66
082
18.71
12.50
065
20.22
11.84
195
17.98
8.81
88
17.46
8.48
105
20.02
10.49
196
17.46 .
9.34
198
17.37
10.56
151


10 9
phosphorus decreased, plasma inorganic phosphorus decreased
and excretion of phosphorus in the urine increased. These
findings agree with what might be expected when comparing
growing animals with animals having mature skeletal
development.
The increase in apparent absorption, net retention,
excretion in the urine and plasma concentration of magnesium
as magnesium intake increased is similar to results re
ported by Chicco (1966) with lambs and Clark and Belanger
(1967) with rats. Increased dietary magnesium intake
resulted in an increase in calcium excietion in the urine
and decreased net retention of calcium and phosphorus. A
study with adult rats (Clark and Belanger, 1967) receiving
adequate calcium and phosphorus and increasing levels of
magnesium resulted in increased excretion of calcium in the
urine and increased net retention of calcium and phosphorus.
Hjerpe (1968) reported increased urinary excretion of
calcium and a decrease in urinary phosphorus in mature
wethers as their magnesium intakes increased. Chicco (1966)
found increased intake of dietary magnesium decreased the
urinary excretion of calcium in lambs. The discrepancies
that exist between these studies may be due partially to the
variation between experiments in treatment levels of
magnesium.
For optimal feed efficiency most of the nutrients
quantitatively considered in diet formulation should remain
in balance with each other. The need for maintaining


89
and adult sheep having received the same magnesium level.
However, values of percent net retention of magnesium for
lambs were numerically greater than values for yearlings
and adult sheep at each of the two higher magnesium intake
levels.
The values for urinary excretion as percent of intake
of magnesium, calcium and phosphorus are summarized in Table
24 and values for individual animals are presented in
Appendix Tables 48--50. There was found to be a significant
(P< .05) quadratic effect of age on urinary excretion of
magnesium when expressed as percent of magnesium intake.
Yearlings excreted a significantly (P < .05) greater per
centage than either lambs or adult sheep. Examination of
the interaction effects suggests this difference was due to
yearlings which received the highest level of magnesium.
They excreted a significantly (P < .05) greater percentage in
the urine than did lambs or adult sheep receiving the same
magnesium level. Age had no significant effect on calcium
excretion in the urine but with increased age there was a
linear increase in urinary excretion of phosphorus when
expressed as percent of intake (P< .05). Increased dietary
magnesium resulted in linear increases in urinary excretion
as percent of intake for magnesium (P< .01) and calcium
(P < .01) with no significant effect on phosphorus.
The values for plasma levels of magnesium, calcium
and phosphorus are summarized in Table 25 and values for
individual animals are presented in Appendix Tables 51-53.


4
this utilization. Since that time much research has been
directed toward finding optimal conditions for efficient
utilization of non-protein nitrogen.
A major problem resulting in inefficient utilization
of urea is the rapid release of ammonia. Bloomfield,
Garner and Muhrer (1960) indicated that urea hydrolysis
occurred four times faster in the rumen than uptake of the
liberated ammonia by the microorganisms. The need for
adequate levels of readily-available carbohydrate for better
utilization of urea and other non-protein nitrogen com
pounds has been well demonstrated (Arias et al., 1951;
Belasco, 1956; Bloomfield, Muhrer and Pfander, 1958;
Bloomfield, Wilson and Thompson, 1964; McLaren et al., 1965)
Rumen ammonia concentration, either singly or togeth
er with other parameters, has often been used as a measure
of the hydrolyzability of nitrogen supplements or of the
relative microbial protein synthesis from such supplements.
It should be pointed out, however, that ammonia concentra
tion in the rumen, just like that of any other rumen
metabolite, is dependent upon the following forces as
enumerated by Annison and Lew'is (1959) : rate of production,
rate of utilization by microbes, rate of absorption through
the rumen wall, dilution by saliva and water, and passage
to the omasum.
McDonald (1948), working with sheep, found much of
the excess ammonia which the microbes are not able to
utilize is absorbed from the rumen with some ammonia


BLE
47
43
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
Page
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INTAKE BY ADULTS ON PERCENT NET
RETENTION OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND
PHOSPHORUS
INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INTAKE BY LAMBS ON URINARY EXCRETION OF
MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS, % OF
INTAKE
INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INTAKE BY YEARLINGS ON URINARY
EXCRETION OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND
PHOSPHORUS, % OF INTAKE
INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INTAKE BY ADULTS ON URINARY EXCRETION OF
MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS, % OF
INTAKE
INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INTAKE BY LAMBS ON PLASMA LEVELS OF
MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS
(MG/100 ML) ... .
INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INTAKE BY YEARLINGS ON PLASMA LEVELS OF
MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AMD PHOSPHORUS (MG/100
ML)
INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM
INTAKE BY ADULTS ON PLASMA LEVELS OF
MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS
(MG/100 ML)
INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF FECAL
MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER 1,000
KILOCALORIES OF METABOLIZABLE ENERGY
INTAKE PER DAY
INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF FECAL
MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER
KILOGRAM0*75 BODY WEIGHT PER DAY
INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF FECAL
MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER
KILOGRAM BODY WEIGHT PER DAY
x


TABLE 41. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON MEASUREMENT AND MINERAL CONCENTRATIONS
OF THE RIGHT FEMUR OF LAMBS FED DIFFERENT SOURCES AND LEVELS OF
PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL
Phosphorus,
Volume of
Dry, Fat-Free
Ash Weight
Source and
Lamb
Magnesium
Dry, Fat-Free
Weight of ^
of Bone
Percent
No.
% of Ash
Bone, cc
Bone, mg/cc
mg/ cc
Basal
73
0.73
56.75
770
509
0,11% P
86
0.70
59.75
790
453
72
0.72
55.50
731
436
79
0.68
68.25
728
477
Monoammonium
74
0.67
50.50
761
443
Phosphate
82
0.70
61.25
725
467
0.15% P
76
0.75
53.50
884
588
75
0.31
68.00
697
455
Mono ammon i um
87
0.70
69.00
750
476
Phosphate
90
0.73
49.25
797
525
0.19% P
73
0.68
63.25
813
533
88
0.78
64.00
731
489
Monosodium
6
0.79
59.00
698
444
Phosphate
89
0.69
53.00
755
503
0.15% P
85
0.79
59.50
769
515
77
0.73
64.50
798
529
Monosodium
83
0.91
57.50
765
503
Phosphate
93
0.81
55.50
862
576
0.19% P
The volume of
water di
splaced by the total
dry, fat-free bone.
Ratio of the
total dry
, fat-free weight in
mg to the volume of
water displaced by the
total dry, fat-free bone.
cRatio of the
total ash
weight in mg to the
volume of water displaced by the
total dry,
fat-free bone.
136


mg/kg body weight
100
FIGURE 12.
RELATION OF URINARY MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER KILOGRAM BODY WEIGHT PER DAY


29
The following four experiments were conducted to
compare the effect of urea, DAP and two levels of MAP on
feed consumption and blood urea-N in steers.
Procedure ^nd Results
Experiment 1--Effect of Supplemental Nitrogen as Soybean
Meal, DAP, Urea and DAP Plus Urea on Voluntary Feed
Intake and Average Daily Gain in Steers
Eight steers, four Herefords and four Angus-Hereford
crossbreds, were randomly assigned according to breed to
four pens of two steers each. Average initial weights of
the four outcome groups in kg were 461, 455, 470 and 440.
The experimental design was a 4 x 4 Latin square balanced
for carry-over effects.
The diets used in this study are shown in Table 1.
All diets were calculated to contain the same level of
supplemental calcium (0.37%) and no attempt was made to
equalize supplemental phosphorus. The diets contained
11.8% crude protein. All steers received the basal diet
(diet A) for 8 days at the beginning of each of the four
periods to prevent a carry-over effect of treatment.
Diets were fed once daily in amounts to give about a 10%
weigh back. Experimental diets were fed for 8 days at the
end of each period with individual steer weights taken at
the beginning and end of the 8-day experimental feeding
period.
The data were analyzed statistically by analysis of
variance and significant differences between means were


TABLE
Page
14 EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF UREA, UREA PLUS
PHOSPHORIC ACID, MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE,
OR MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM
CARBONATE ON RUMEN AMMONIA-N 62
15 EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF UREA, UREA PLUS
PHOSPHORIC ACID, MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE,
OR MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE PLUS SODIUM
CARBONATE ON BLOOD UREA-N 65
16 COMPOSITION OF DIETS 71
17 AVERAGE INITIAL AND FINAL WEIGHT, DAILY GAIN,
FEED INTAKE AND FEED EFFICIENCY OF LAMBS
FED DIFFERENT SOURCES AND LEVELS OF
PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL . 74
18 AVERAGE PHOSPHORUS, CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM
LEVELS IN PLASMA OF LAMBS FED DIFFERENT
SOURCES AND LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS DURING A
9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL 76
19 AVERAGE MEASUREMENTS AND MINERAL CONCENTRA
TIONS OF THE RIGHT FEMUR OF LAMBS FED
DIFFERENT SOURCES AND LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS
DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL 77
20 COMPOSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL DIET 82
21 AGE SPECIFICATIONS, BODY WEIGHTS AND FEED
OFFERED 83
22 EFFECT OF AGE AND DIETARY MAGNESIUM ON
APPARENT ABSORPTION OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM
AND PHOSPHORUS IN SHEEP 86
23 EFFECT OF AGE AND DIETARY MAGNESIUM ON NET
RETENTION OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND
PHOSPHORUS IN SHEEP 8 8
24 EFFECT OF AGE AND DIETARY MAGNESIUM ON
URINARY EXCRETION AS PERCENT OF INTAKE OF
MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS IN SHEEP. 90
25 EFFECT OF AGE AND DIETARY MAGNESIUM ON
PLASMA LEVELS OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND
PHOSPHORUS IN SHEEP
vii
91


144
TABLE 49. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM INTAKE
BY YEARLINGS ON URINARY EXCRETION OF MAGNESIUM,
CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS, % OF INTAKE
Magnesium
Intake, mg
Sheep
No.
Magnesium
Calcium
Phosphorus
19.01
90
4.47
6.07
3.26
20.00
092
9.14
2.93
14.12
20.00
155
12.49
6.09
23.02
32.50
084
28.91
18.68
27.31
32.50
100
22.95
21.50
15.27
32.50
127
32.19
6.34
21.56
32.50
200
31.20
21.11
9.50
47.50
64
42.61
15.92
53.73
47.50
122
39.57
. 26.57
0.72
47.50
195
51.48
15.13
25.49
47.50
196
43.23
11.88
1.14
aMagnesium intake per kg^^ body weight per day.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
I cer'tify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
u
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Fhilosophy.
L Hi
-w


19
magnesium in milk-fed calves and in cows fed hay and
28
cereals using intravenous injection of Mg. Mean values
of 3.5 mg and 1.5 mg/kg body weight per day were found for
calves and cows, respectively. A tracer study conducted
by MacDonald and Care (1959) utilizing a 20-month-old
wether resulted in an estimate of 5 mg/kg body weight per
day for endogenous fecal magnesium. Field (1959) reported
a value of 205 mg per animal per day in sheep by using
tracer techniques.
Estimates of endogenous fecal magnesium have also
resulted from numerous balance studies. Working with calves
Smith (1959a) reported a value of 0.5 mg and 1.2 mg/kg body
weight per day for calves 2-to 5-weeks old and 3-months old,
respectively. Other values reported are 2 to 4 mg/kg body
weight per day in calves (Blaxter and Rook, 1954) and 3 to
5 mg/kg body weight per day in cows (Blaxter and McGill,
1956). Working with 6-month-old lambs Chicco (1966) cal
culated a value of 2.33 mg/kg body weight per day by
extrapolation from the regression of fecal magnesium ex
cretion on magnesium intake.
Urinary excretion of magnesium may be reduced to
minimal levels following a decrease in the plasma magnesium
concentration. Wilson (1960) suggested that magnesium
behaves as a threshold substance appearing in the urine only
when the magnesium load filtered by the glomeruli exceeds
that reabsorbed by the tubules. Numerous threshold values
for blood plasma have been estimated. Storrv and Rook (1963)


42
conditions where fresh feed is often mixed daily. Corn oil
at a level of 2% of the diets was substituted for the 5%
molasses previously used due to the convenience of corn oil
under the mixing conditions available. All other ingredients
were the same. This experiment was conducted and analyzed
the same as described for Experiment 2.
The average daily feed consumption and average daily
gain of steers on the four treatments as well as the blood
urea-N data are summarized in Table 8. The individual data
are presented in Appendix Table 29. There were no signifi
cant differences in average daily feed intake among treat
ments. Treatments C and D (0.75 and 2.3% MAP, respectively)
resulted in significantly less (P <.G5) average daily gain
than treatment A (soybean meal). The 12-hour fast at the
end of each period followed by ad libitum consumption for
2 hours of their respective treatment diets resulted in
similar feed intakes for all diets. The blood urea-N
concentrations prior to the '2-hour feeding period were
similar for all treatments and the resulting changes follow
ing thi.s 2-hour period were found to be similar for treat
ments A and C. The change with treatment diet D was
significantly greater (P <.05) than with diets A and C and
treatment B resulted in a change significantly greater
(P <.05) than treatment A. When the change in blood urea-N
concentrations were expressed per kg of feed consumed during
the 2-hour period treatments A and C were significantly
less (P < 05) than treatments B and D.


167
Wise, M. B., A. L. Ordoveza and E. R. Barrick. 1963.
Influence of variations in dietary calcium-phos
phorus ratio on performance and blood constituents
of calves. J. Nutr. 79:79.
Wise, M. B., R. A. Wentworth and S. E. Smith. 1961.
Availability of the phosphorus in various sources
for calves. J. Anim. Sci. 20:329.


30
TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF DIETS

Dietsl

Ingredient
Soybean
Meal
(A)
DAP
(B)
Urea
(C)
DAP
+
Urea
(D)
Snapped corn, ground
69.9
72.75
78.13
77.68
Cottonseed hulls
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
Alfalfa meal (17%
protein)
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
Sugarcane molasses
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
Soybean meal (50%
protein)
10.0
6.19
0.27
0.36
2
Salt, trace-mineralized
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
Calcium phosphate;
17.5% Ca, 23% P
1.0
-
1.0
-
Diammonium phosphate
-
1.5
-
1.5
Urea 281
-
-
1.5
0.9
Ground limestone
0.5
0.96
0.5
0.96
3
Vitamins A & D
+
+
+
+
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
^'Diet A provided all supplemental protein as soybean meal;
diet B provided 0.269% non-protein nitrogen (NPN) as DAP;
diet C provided 0.674% NPN as urea; diet D provided 0.269%
NPN as DAP and 0.405% NPN as urea (0.674% total NPN).
2
Listed minimum analysis in percent: Fe, 0.30; Mn, 0.20;
Cu, 0.08; Co, 0.01; Zn, 1.00; I, 0.01; and NaCl, 95.0.
3
Vitamins added per kg of diet: 2,200 IU vitamin A
palmitate and 440 IU vitamin D£.


CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
The literature dealing with non-protein nitrogen,
phosphorus and magnesium as they relate to animal nutri
tion is extensive. Only those articles having a direct
relationship to the work conducted by the author and
giving a basic knowledge of the related areas will be
reviewed.
Non-protein Nitrogen Utilization by Ruminants
The protein needs of the worlds expanding popula
tion continue to receive the attention of nutritionists.
Protein supplements, which in the past have been used
routinely for supplementing ruminant rations, are now find
ing new roles as protein sources for human nutrition. Such
uses may result in prices that will prohibit their use in
ruminant diets in the future. For this and other reasons
considerable research has been conducted on the use of non
protein nitrogen sources as substitutes for natural protein
supplements.
Early work conducted by Hart et al. (1939) demonstrated
that dairy heifers could- utilize the nitrogen of urea for
growth and that adding soluble sugars to the diet improved
3


Rumen aitunonia-N (mg/10 0 mi)
Hours after dosing
FIGURE 2. EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON RUMEN AMMONIA-N
U1
OJ


139
TABLE 44. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM INTAKE
BY ADULTS ON PERCENT APPARENT ABSORPTION OF MAGNESIUM,
CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS
Magnesium
Intake, mg
Sheep
No.
Magnesium
Calcium
Phosphorus
20.00
085
4.50
18.44
4.11
20.00
106
7.25
-8.87
61.99
17.43
174
-0.97
-21.04
1.33
20.00
194
8.25
-6.12
40.94
32.50
97
24.35
-10.57
32.68
32.50
99
39.73
3.94
36.22
32.50
138
36.12
-3.40
47.05
32.50
197
33.68
1.08
7.52
44.11
18
48.84
-8.34
42.42
4 7.50
082
33.23
-4.42
20.74
47.50
88
51.39
9.16
20.74
47.50
198
40.70
2.62
28.19
a
Magnesium intake per kg
0.75
body weight per day


81
to a semi-purified diet (Table 20) at the expense of corn
starch. The diet contained 0.20% phosphorus, 0.26% calcium
and 11.6% crude protein upon analysis.
All animals had received a corn-hay based diet for
the previous 66 days and had been treated twice for in
testinal parasites. The animals were housed individually
in raised metabolism crates and fed once daily their
respective treatment diet at a computed maintenance level.
This level was calculated by first determining the amount
of metabolizable energy (ME) each sheep would need for
maintenance by the formula:
1.33 x 70 (kg^*^) kilocalories
0 75
where 70 kg -/ is an estimate of the energy needed for
basal metabolism and the factor 1.33 is an estimate of the
unavoidable daily activity of an animal. Values of ME for
all ingredients were not available and estimates were made
for these. The estimated ME content of the diet was 2.125
kilocalories per kilogram of dry matter and the intake of
this diet needed for maintenance was calculated to be 50 gm
daily per kg of metabolic body weight (kg ) as illustrated
in Table 21. This computed maintenance level proved
approximately accurate, based upon an average initial weight
(41.4 kg) and average final weight (41.8 kg) at the end of
31 days in the metabolism crates. Tap water was provided
ad libitum.
A 21-day preliminary feeding period was followed by
a 7-day collection period. During the collection period


TABLE 55. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RELATION OF FECAL MAGNESIUM TO
^ £
MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER KILOGRAM BODY WEIGHT PER DAY
Lambs
Yearlings
Adults
Sheep
No.
mg Mg'
Intake
mg Mg
Feces
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Intake
mg Mg
Feces
Sheep
No.
mg Mg
Intake
mg Mg
Feces
019
20.00
21.62
90
19.01
18.58
085
20.00
19.
,11
031
20.00
21.55
092
20.00
20.57
106
20.00
18.
. 5 5
107
18.94
20.23
165
20.00
17.75
174
17.43
i n
,60
194
20.00
18.
, 36
020
32.50
20.92
084
32.50
22.21
97
32.50
24.
.49
029
32.50
23.38
10C
32.50
23.55
99
32.50
19.
, 51
079
32.50
23.06
127
32.50
19.31
138
32.50
20,
.68
090
32.50
23.11
. 200
32.50
21.83
197
32.50
21.
.47
20
47.50
25.89
64
47.50
27.11
, 18
44.11
22,
. 57
038
45.47
26.91
122
47.50
27.29
082
47.50
31.
.62
065
47.50
27.75
195
47 50
23.23
88
47.50
23,
. 02
105
47.50
24.82
196
47.50
25.34
198
47.50
28,
.08
150


LIST 0? FIGURES
IGURE Page
1 EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON RUMEN pH 50
2 EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON RUMEN AMMONIA-N ... 53
3 EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON BLOOD UREA-N 56
4 EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON RUMEN pH 60
5 EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON RUMEN AMMONIA-N ... 63
6 EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON BLOOD UREA-N 66
7 RELATION OF FECAL MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER 1,000 KILOCALORIES OF
METABOLIZABLE ENERGY INTAKE PER DAY .... 93
3 RELATION OF FECAL MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER KILOGRAM0*75 BODY WEIGHT PER
DAY 95
9RELATION OF FECAL MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER KILOGRAM BODY WEIGHT PER DAY . 96
10 RELATION OF URINARY MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER 1,000 KILOCALORIES OF
METABOLIZABLE ENERGY INTAKE PER DAY .... 97
11 RELATION OF URINARY MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER KILOGRAM0*75 BODY WEIGHT PER DAY 99
12 RELATION OF URINARY MAGNESIUM TO MAGNESIUM
INTAKE PER KILOGRAM BODY WEIGHT PER DAY . 100
13 RELATION OF MAGNESIUM OUTPUT (FECAL PLUS
URINARY) TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER 1,000
KILOCALORIES OF METABOLIZABLE ENERGY
INTAKE PER DAY 102
14 RELATION OF MAGNESIUM OUTPUT (FECAL PLUS
URINARY) TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER
KILOGRAM0*75 BODY WEIGHT PER DAY 104
Xll


86
TABLE 22. EFFECT OF AGE AND DIETARY MAGNESIUM ON APPARENT
ABSORPTION OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS IN SHEEP
Treatment
"
Age
Magnesium
Intake, mgr
Apparent
Mg
Absorption, %
Ca P
Main effects
Lambs
24.56d
10.27d
0.85
25.80
Yearlings
-
29.54G
27.26ds
10.54
Adult sheep
-
-2.30e
28.66

20.0
0*43
7.21
28.96

32.5
32.17y
1.87
22.31

47.5
44.32Z
0.02
15.54
Interaction effects
Lambs
20.0G
-7.51
23.827
12.40de
42.91
Lambs
32.5
30.14G
26.38
Lambs
47.5
43.79
-2.02*?
6.08de
12.40
Yearlings
20.0G
3.59g
17.48
Yearlings
32.5
32.897
-4.54
9.70
Yearlings
47.5
45.64
2.33S
p
6 19
Adult sheep
20.0
4.76g
-4.40
27.09
Adult sheep
32.5
33.47G
-2.24e
30.87
Adult sheep
47.5
43.54E
-0.25e
28.02
aMagnesium intake per kg body weight. Five
animals had incomplete consumptions of their diets;
the amount of magnesium refused was less than 3 mg
per kg0*^5 body weight.
^Values for main effects due to age are based on 11
lambs, 11 yearlings and 12 adult sheep; values for
main effects due to magnesium intake are based on 10,
12 and 12 animals for the 20.0, 32.5 and 47.5 mg
magnesium intake levels, respectively.
Each value based on 3 animals per treatment; all
other values for interaction effects are based on
4 animals per treatment.
d,e,f,g
Means in same column and within the same main or
interaction effects with different superscripts
significantly (P <.05) different.
are
x,y,z
Means in same column and within the same main or
interaction effects with different superscripts are
significantly (P < .01) different.


62
TABLE 14. EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF UREA, UREA PLUS
PHOSPHORIC ACID, MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE, OR
MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE PI,US SODIUM CARBONATE
ON RUMEN AMMONIA-Na
Hours
After Dosing
Mg/100
Ml
Urea
Urea
+
Phosphoric
Acid
MAP
MAP
+
Sodium
Carbonate
0
9.7
10.7
11.0
14.7
0.5
70.7b
34.0b
277.5C
246.5C
1
99.2b
57.5d
200.1
193.5C
2
112.7b
90.5b
166.5C
158.5C
3
87.7b
be
103.2 C
138.2
139.1
4
73.7b
106.7
121.2
110.1
6
59.0
95.7
96.7
95.0
9
30.5b
75,2C
82.7C
70.7bc
12
19.2b
57.7C
63.2
6 2.0G
24
11.0b
26.Qbc
40.2
40.0C
aA.ll values are means for four periods per treatment,
b c* ci
' Means on the same line bearing different superscripts
are significantly (Pc. 05) different.


91
TABLE 25. EFFECT OF AGE AND DIETARY MAGNESIUM ON PLASMA
LEVELS OF MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS IN SHEEP
Treatment
Age
Main effectsu
Lambs
Yearlings
Adult sheep
Magnesium
Intake, mg
20.0
32.5
47.5
Plasma
Mg
1.89
1.91
1.85
1.44x
1.95y
2.18z
Levels, mg/100 ml
Ca P
8.80
6.89
8.84
5.69
8.47
5.33
8.59
5.66
8.54
6.08
8.94
6.06
Interaction effects
Lambs
20.0
Lambs
32.5
Lambs
47.5
Yearlings
20.0
Yearlings
32.5
Yearlings .
47.5
Adult sheep
20.0
Adult sheep
32.5
Adult sheep
47.5
1.47
1.94'
16-
52:
96
16
d
f
1.36
1.
2,
96
22
8.62
8.50'
9.23
8.88
8.74
8.91
8.36'
8.39
8.67
de
de
de
de
de
7.18
6.90
6.66
5.72
5.91
5.46
4.48
5.44
6.06
d
d
d
de
de
de
e
de
de
aMagnesium intake per kg J body weight. Five
animals had incomplete consumptions of their diets;
the amount of magnesium refused was less than 3 mg
per kgO'75 body weight.
^Values for main effects due to age are based on 11
lambs, 11 yearlings and 12 adult sheep; values for
main effects due to magnesium intake are based on 10,
12 and 12 animals for the 20.0, 32.5 and 47.5 mg
magnesium intake levels, respectively.
c
Each value based on 3 animals per treatment; all other
values for interaction effects are based on 4 animals
per treatment.
d, e, f, g
Means in same column and within the same main or
interaction effects with different superscripts
significantly (P <.05) different.
are
X V
1 1 Means in same column and within the same main or
interaction effects with different superscripts are
significantly (P <.01) different.


143
TABLE 48. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM INTAKE
BY LAMBS ON URINARY EXCRETION OF MAGNESIUM,
CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS, % OF INTAKE
Magnesium
Intake, mg
Sheep
No.
Magnesium
Calcium
Phosphorus
20.00
019
4.79
7.02
6.38
20.00
031
7.79
2.69
46.85
18.94
107
13.51
8.48
24.63
32.50
020
24.86
2.85
8.97
32.50
. 029
21.34
5.95
7.12
32.50
079
27.58
30.34
0.51
32.50
090
22.92
5.17
42.00
47.50
20
39.55
14.51
2.80
45.47
038
28.06
9.22
26.39
47.50
065
39.83
9.16
5.49
47.50
105
33.98
8.61
16.58
aMagnesium
intake per
. 0.75 ,
kg body
weight per
day.


15
great rapidity (Rook and Balch, 1953; L'Estrange and Axford,
1963) Wilson (196.0) suggested that the increased speed of
development of the condition in mature animals may be partly
due to its inability to mobilize reserves of magnesium from
bone as readily as the young animal.
At critically low levels of magnesium intake the
serum magnesium concentration in a mature lactating cow can
be rapidly affected by small changes in intake (Rook, 1961).
Rook and Storry (1962) stated that in an adult sheep only
about 2% of its bone magnesium is available to satisfy
physiological needs. In calves maintained on magnesium-
deficient diets, Blaxter and Rook (1954) found bone magnesium
values of 30% or more below normal but found no measurable
decrease in the magnesium concentration in soft tissues.
Further support for the concept that skeletal
magnesium in younger animals is mobilized more efficiently
than in mature animals is provided by the work of Chicco
(1966). Three age levels of sheep (lambs, yearlings and
2-3-year olds) were fed a magnesium-adequate diet which was
suddenly replaced by a diet deficient in magnesium. In-
appetance appeared more rapidly in the adult animals and
the change in feed consumption was shown to be correlated
with plasma magnesium concentration.
Smith and Field (1963) reported that after 18 days on
a magnesium-deficient diet the mean concentration of
magnesium in the femur and mandible had decreased by 9.5
and 13.4%, respectively, in adult rats and 28.2 and 33.3%



PAGE 1

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35
TABLE
4. EFFECT OF SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON FEED
CONSUMPTION, AVERAGE WEIGHT GAIN AND
BLOOt UREA-N (BUN)
Treatment
Item
Soybean
Meal
(A)
1.50%
DAP
(B)
0.75%
MAP
(C)
2.30%
MAP
(D)
Daily feed intake, kg
14.49a
13.99ab
13.55b
12.44c
Daily gain, kg
1.79a
2.98b
1.69a
1.33a
Feed intake, 2 hours
(kg) 4.02
3.65
4.06
3.96
Initial BUNd
17.00
14.93
15.46
15.96
BUN change, 2 hours0
0.36a
0.7 7 ab
2.32c
1.17b
BUN change/kg feed
consumed0*
0.12a
0.20a
0.58b
0.29a
ci Jr* o
' Means on the same lines bearing different superscript
are significantly (P< .05) different.
BUN concentration expressed as mg per 100 ml of whole
blood.


31
determined using Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (Steel
and Torrie, 1960).
The average daily feed consumption and average daily
gain of steers on the four treatments are shown according
to treatment in Table 2. The individual data are presented
in Appendix Table 26. Diet C (1.5% urea) was similar to
diet A (soybean meal) in acceptability as measured by
average daily feed intake (13.97 and 14.38 kg, respectively).
The consumption of both diets, however, was significantly
greater (P <.05) than the average daily feed intakes of
12.02 and 12.52 kg for diets B (1.5% DAP) and D (1.5% DAP
plus 0.9% urea), respectively. There were no significant
differences in average daily gain among treatments. The
large variability that was observed within treatments in
average daily gain makes the usefulness of this measurement
questionable in such short-term feeding periods.
Experiment 2--Effect of Supplemental Nitrogen as Soybean
Meal, DAP and Two Levels of MAP on Voluntary Feed Intake,
Average Daily Gain and Blood Urea-N in Steers
Eight steers of British breeding were randomly
assigned to four pens of two steers each. The experimental
design was a 4 x 4 Latin square balanced for carry-over
effects. Two steers were removed from the experiment during
the preliminary period due to digestive complications which
resulted in two pens having only one steer each. The
average initial weight of the six steers used was 312 kg.


138
TABLE 43. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM INTAKE
BY YEARLINGS ON PERCENT APPARENT ABSORPTION OF MAGNESIUM,
CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS
Magnesium
In take, mg
Sheep
No.
Magnesium
Calcium
Phosphorus
19.01
90
2.27
-0.83
13.26
20.00
092
-2.79
22.06
16.80
20.00
165
11.30
-3.00
22.38
32.50
084
31.39
-3.01
18.45
32.50
10 0
27.25
-1.70
-2.16
32.50
127
40.35
2.01
27.86
32.50
200
32.57
-15.46
-5.37
47.50
64
42.75
-9.40
31.84
4 7.50
122
42.37
15.69
-6.95
4 7.50
195
50.94
2.17
15.54
47.50
196
46.49
0.85
-15.66
a
Magnesium
intake per kg
0.75
body weight per day


FIGURE
Page
15 RELATION OF MAGNESIUM OUTPUT- (FECAL PLUS
URINARY) TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER
KILOGRAM BODY WEIGHT PER DAY 106
16 RELATION OF URINARY MAGNESIUM TO PLASMA
MAGNESIUM 107
Xlil


24
criteria considered were fecal excretion, bone and serum
magnesium. Conversely, there was found to be decreased
calcium utilization with increasing dietary levels of
magnesium when the criteria considered were fecal excretion
and plasma calcium. Bone calcium was not affected by dietary
level of magnesium. An increase in calcium intake augmented
the urinary loss of magnesium when the lowest level of
dietary magnesium was fed, whereas supplemental magnesium
lowered the urinary excretion of calcium regardless of the
dietary calcium level. Dietary phosphorus appeared to have
little effect on magnesium utilization. The fecal excretion
of magnesium was slightly increased by supplemental phosphorus,
while bone and serum magnesium were not altered. Hjerpe (1968)
conducted a balance study with adult wethers receiving a
semi-purified diet (by placing in the rumen via a ruminal
fistula) supplemented with 0, 0.98 and 9.82 grn of magnesium
per animal daily. Wethers' receiving supplemental magnesium
excreted significantly more urinary calcium and significantly
less urinary phosphorus than the non-supplemented controls.
The apparent absorption of calcium was slightly decreased by
supplemental magnesium whereas apparent absorption of phos
phorus was significantly reduced. Wethers receiving either
0.15 or 0.26% dietary magnesium (Dutton and Fontenot, 1967)
were found to not differ in calcium balance or serum
magnesium concentration. Serum phosphorus levels were found
to be less in the wethers fed the low level of magnesium.


17
The increased susceptibility to grass tetany with
age has often been attributed to an apparent reduction in
the readily available reserves of magnesium. Field (1967),
by working with two age groups of sheep which were 2-and 7-
years old, respectively, reported a significantly lower dry
matter intake by the older group. These results suggest
that a reduction with age of the intake of magnesium by
grazing animals may be an additional factor contributing
to the higher frequency of grass tetany in aged animals.
Magnesium Requirement and Availability
Present estimates indicate about 70% of the total
magnesium of the body is present in the skeleton and the
normal calcium:magnesium ratio in bones is about 55:1. The
magnesium content of bone, muscle and nervous tissue is
estimated to be 2 g, 190 mg and 100 mg magnesium/kg fresh
weight, respectively (Agricultural Research Council, 1965).
The normal level of magnesium in the blood plasma is given
as 1.8 mg/100 ml and above; with an upper limit of 3.8 rng/100
ml (Rook and Storry, 196 2) .
The assessment of dietary requirements of magnesium
for maintenance is complicated by the difficulty of esti
mating the endogenous losses of magnesium from the body.
Many researchers have endeavored to estimate these losses
by measuring magnesium balance on varying intakes. Walser
(1967) states that the basic premises of such an approach
are first, that the organism will have the wisdom to reject


14
results indicated apparent absorption of phosphorus was
similar for defluorinated and dicalcium phosphate and both
being greater than that for soft phosphate.
Diammonium phosphate is a calcium-free source of
phosphorus which also supplies non-protein nitrogen. Its
value as a possible source of phosphorus was studied by
Oltjen et al. (1963). Extensive metabolism and growth
trials with sheep and cattle were conducted by these
workers in which diammonium phosphate was incorporated
into numerous types of rations to examine its value as a
source of nitrogen and phosphorus. In all studies it was
found to be a satisfactory source of phosphorus.
Kercher and Paules (1967), working with steers,
found no differences between dicalcium phosphate, ammonium
polyphosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate and diammonium
phosphate as sources of supplemental phosphorus for steer
finishing rations. Similar results were reported by Hillis
(1963) when no difference v/as found between diammonium
phosphate and monosodium phosphate as a source of supple
mental phosphorus for finishing steers and fattening lambs.
Effect of Age on Magnesium Utilization
The development of hypomagnesaemia in calves to the
stage at which tetanic convulsions occur has been shown
experimentally by Blaxter, Rook and MacDonald (1954) to be
a comparatively slow process. In contrast, hypomagnesaemic
tetany can develop in the dairy cow and lactating ewe with


Rumen pH
FIGURE 4. EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON RUMEN pH


Magnesium output (Y),
0 75
mg/kg body weight
104
Lambs (Y=0.75X+7.21; r=0.93)
Yearlings (Y=0.95X+1.32 ; r=0.99) *
FIGURE 14. RELATION OF MAGNESIUM OUTPUT (FECAL PLUS _
URINARY) TO MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER KILOGRAMU
BODY WEIGHT PER DAY
.75


94
is presented in Figure 8 and individual data are presented
in Appendix Table 55. The linear regression equations for
the three ages were: lambs, Y = 0.20X +16.37 (P< .01,
r = 0.89); yearlings, Y = 0.25X + 13.95 (P < .01, r = 0.88);
adult sheep, Y = 0.30X + 12.30 (P < .01, r = 0.82). No
significant differences existed between the slopes of the
regression lines. The theoretical values for metabolic
fecal magnesium obtained by extrapolation to the Y axis
0 75
were 16.87, 13.95 and 12.30 mg of magnesium per kg body
weight per day for lambs, yearlings and adult sheep,
respectively.
This same relationship between fecal magnesium and
magnesium intake, but expressed as mg per kg body weight per
day, is shown in Figure 9 and individual data are presented
in Appendix Table 56. The resulting linear regression
equations for the three ages were: lambs, Y = 0.20X + 7.26
(P < .01, r = 0.87); yearlings, Y = 0.24X + 5.48 (P < .01,
r = 0.85); adult sheep, Y = 0.33X + 4.25 (P < .01, r = 0.83).
Again no significant differences existed between slopes of
the regression lines. The theoretical values for metabolic
fecal magnesium were 7.26, 5.48 and 4.25 mg of magnesium per
kg body weight per day for lambs, yearlings and adult sheep,
respectively.
Figure 10 presents urinary magnesium plotted against
magnesium intake, both expressed as mg per 1,000 kilocalories
of metabolizable energy per day, for the three age groups.
Individual values are presented in Appendix Table 57. The


37
Experiment 3~~Effect of Supplemental Nitrogen as Soybean
Meal, DAP and Two Levels of MAP on Voluntary Feed Intake,
Average Daily Gain and Blood Urea-N in Steers
For the present experiment a 4 x 4 Latin square
design was again utilized. Four Hereford steers, having an
initial average weight of 336 kg, were fed the diets shown
in Table 5. The diets used in this experiment were to be
replicates of those used in Experiment 2. However, it was
not possible to obtain ground snapped corn at the time of
this experiment and corn meal along with an increased level
of cottonseed hulls were substituted in its place. All
other ingredients were the same. This experiment was con
ducted and analyzed the same as described for Experiment 2.
The average daily feed consumption and average daily
gain of steers on the four treatments as well as the blood
urea-N data are summarized in Table 6, The individual data
are presented in Appendix Table 20. Treatment A (soybean
meal), C (0.75% MAP) and D (2.3% MAP) did not differ in
acceptability as measured by average daily feed intake.
Treatment B, which contained 1.5% diammonium phosphate, was
consumed significantly less (P <.05) than any other treat
ment. There were no significant differences in average
daily gain among treatments. The 12-hour fast of the steers
at the end of each period followed by ad libitum consumption
for 2 hours of their respective treatment diets resulted in
no differences in feed intake between treatments A, C and D.
Treatment b, which contained 1.5% diammonium phosphate, was
consumed significantly less (P < .05) than treatments C and D


TABLE 33. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RUMEN pH OF SHEEP DOSED WITH
UREA, UREA PLUS PHOSPHORIC ACID, MONOAMMONIUM
PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE
PLUS SODIUM CARBONATE
Period
Sheep
No.
Treat
ment
Hours postdosing
0
0.5
' 1 ~
2
3
4
6
9
12
24
04
MAP + Ba
6.51
6.64
6.90
6.62
6.60
6.55
6.52
6.29
6.02
6.18
1
05
MAP
6.29
5.86
5.35
5.91
5.85
5.78
5.78
5.80
5.58
5.77
0 6
Urea + Aa
6.77
6.08
6.62
6.67
6.81
6.77
6.61
6.38
6.18
6.28
03
Urea
6.60
7.21
8.05
8.38
7.71
7.26
7.12
7. C 9
7.02
6.40
04
Urea + A
6.15
4.47
4.91
5.33
5.61
6.23
6.07
6.27
5.77
6.00
2
05
MAP + B
6.77
6.96
6.35
6.85
6.87
6.80
6.70
6.63
6.59
6.40
06
Urea
6.63
-6.97
7.56
7.46
7.33
6.95
6.65
6.41
6.33
6.70
03
MAP
6.52
6.04
6.01
6.10
5.92
6.10
5.98
6.10
5.91
5.95
04
MAP
6.27
5.97
5.84
5.88
5.71
5.49
5.63
5.63
5.59
6.31
3
05
Urea
6.36
6.74
6.73
6.29
6.10
5.91
5.95
6.06
6.33
7.27
06
MAP + B
6.04
6.71
6.51
6 .,42
6.38
6.26
6.20
5.92
5.85
6.08
08
Urea + A
6.48
4.53
5.51
6.51
6.63
6.76
6.87
6.61
6.25
5.96
04
Urea
6.70
7.32
7.70
7.48
7.16
6.99
6.95
6.68
6.52
6.83
4
05
Urea + A
6.78
5.75
6.30
6.49
6.69
6.72
6.60
6.41
6.26
6.30
06
MAP
6.65
6.26
6.27
6.20
6.12
6.12
6.09
5.91
5.98
6.16
08
MAP + B
6.28
8.45
6.90
6.82
6.94
6.88
6.75
6.68
6.64
6.59
aMAP + B and Urea + A stand for MAP plus sodium carbonate and urea plus phosphoric acid,
respectively.
123


TABLE 31. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON RUMEN AMMONIA-N OF SHEEP WITH SOYBEAN
MEAL, UREA, DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE
Period
Sheep
No.
Treat
ment
Hours postdosing
0
0.5
1
2
3
4
6
9
12
24
04
SBM
19.C
20.5
24.1
28.3
35.0
38.7
30.7
21.7
25.7
30.4
1
05
DA?
20.4
153.3
126.8
113.2
100.9
96.2
75.7
53.8
45.7
38.6
06
MAP
12.5
113.2
81.7
85.4
86.3
83.3
65.5
51.2
46.5
44.1
08
Urea
11.7
73.1
98.0
89.9
81.3
73.5
59.1
6 2.2
32.7
' 13.5
04
Urea
15.9
71.8
76.3
62.2
50.5
64.5
80.2
54.9
36.3
26.4
2
05
SBM
17.0
21.2
23.0
24.9
28.4
29.0
27.2
19.9
17.0
22.7
06
DAP
14.6
65.7
106.8
131.1
130.1
122.0
104.1
66.0
59.2
50.3
08
MAP
15.9
.276.5
161.1
132.2
108.5
111.8
88.7
70.2
58.8
42.4
04
DAP
11.9
138.6
90.6
93.6
84.6
66.8
69.7
51.1
40.5
25.6
3
05
MAP
17.6
113.2
101.0
96.0
84.9
82.4
65.1
56.3
49.8
39.3
06
Urea
13.3
127.3
119.8
111.1
108.9
77.7
67.4
40.8
24.9
9.2
08
SBM
12.7
16.8
24.9
31.0
32.0
38.9
33.6
25.8
22.5
16.5
04
MAP
18.1
90.8
128.3
117.2
94.1-
95.8
93.1
81.5
72.2
43.8
4
05
Urea
10.1
37.6
55.1
57.7
55.9
57.1
80.7
63.3
4 8.8
17.4
06
SBM
13.3
15.7
24.6
22.5
23.7
29.3
28.0
27.3
25.6
12.1
08
DAP
13.1
25.8
29.8
36.7
38.3
54.9
110.1
87.7
74.9
44.5
126


TABLE 27. INDIVIDUAL DATA ON EFFECT OF SOURCE OF NITROGEN ON FEED CONSUMPTION,
AVERAGE WEIGHT GAIN AND BLOOD UREA-N (BUN)a
Treatment
Periods
Daily Feed
Intake, kg
Daily
Gain, kg
Feed Intake
kg
2 Hours
Initial
BUN
BUN
Change
2 Hours
BUN Change
Per kg Feed
Consumed
1
16.63
1.99
4.83
18.68
0.95
0.22
Soybean
2
14.48
2.96
2.4 9
16.80
0.50
0.25
meal
- 3
13.34
1.20
4.54
18.50
-1.25
-0.27
(A)
4
13.50
1.02
4.21
14.00
1.25
0.29
1
14.69
1.85
4.16
14.60
1.83
0.43
1.50%
o
13.42
5.40
1.77
12.50
0.25
C. 14
DAP
3
14.93
1.77
4.27
19.10
0.50
0.12
(B)
4
12.91
2.95
4.41
13.50
0.50
0.11
1
12.54
1.25
4.09
13.40
1.60
0.39
0.75%
2
15.41
3.75
4.43
17.05
2.58
0.59
MAP
3
12.77
0.80
3.59
15.40
2.10
0.58
(C)
4
13.47
1.48
4.11
16.00
3.00
0.76
1
12.32
0.00
4.14
13.80
1.05
0.25
2.30%
2
12.26
3.86
1.96
16.75
0.50
0.25
MAP
3
12.40
0.63
4.36
16.75
1.53
0.35
(D)
4
12.80
0.82
5.36
16.55
1.53
0.31
aBUN concentration
expressed as
mg per 100
ml of whole
blood.
122


76
TABLE 13. AVERAGE PHOSPHORUS, CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM LEVELS
IN PLASMA OF LAMBS FED DIFFERENT SOURCES AND LEVELS
OF PHOSPHORUS DURING A 9-WEEK GROWTH TRIAL
Phosphorus
Weeks on Triala^
Source
Percent
0
3
6
9
Phosphorus
(mg/'100 ml plasma)
Basal
0.11
3.60
4.09
4.99
4.54
4.54
Monoammonium
0.15
3.20
4.90
5.92
4.88
5.23
Monoammonium
0.19
3.56
4.90
6.37
5.19
5.49
Monosodium
0.15
3.37
5.50
5.94
5.47
5.64
Monosodium
0.19
4.05
5.79
6.86
4.80
5.82
Average
3.56
5.04
6.02
4.98
Basal
Calcium
0.11
(mg/100
9.53
ml pla
10.99
sma)
11.27
9.92
10.73
Mono ammonium
0.15
10.30
10.85
10.70
9.56
10.37
Monoammonium
0.19
10.38
10.12
10.17
9.39
9.89
Monosodium
0.15
11.04
10.55
9.75
9.50
9.93
Monosodiun
0.19
11.01
11.54
10.65
9.59
10.59
Average
10.45
10.81
10.51
9.59
Basal
Magnesium
0.11
(mg/100
1.95
ml plasma)
2.13 2.41
2.27
2.27
Monoammonium
0.15
1.67
2.07
2.22
2.11
2.13
Monoammonium
0.19
1.79
2.05
2.26
2.12
2.14
Monosodium
0.15
1.79
2.08
2.14
2.02
2.08
Monosodium
0.19
2.07
2.47
2.48
2.24
2.40
Average
1.85
2.16
2.30
2.15
cl
Each value under weeks 3, 6 and 9 is the average of three
weekly sampling periods.
Statistical analyses were conducted on the changes in
plasma mineral concentrations between the initial con
centrations and the averages of every 3 consecutive weeks.
c
Overall mean of the
nine weekly
sampling periods.


87
effect due to age there was found to be a greater (P < .05)
apparent absorption of magnesium by-yearlings than by lambs
with adult sheep being intermediate. With increased age
there was a linear decrease in apparent absorption of
calcium (P < .01) and no significant effect on apparent
absorption of phosphorus. Increased dietary magnesium
resulted in a linear increase in apparent absorption of
magnesium (P < .01). Although the differences were not
significant the data did suggest a progressive decrease in
apparent absorption of calcium and phosphorus with increased
dietary magnesium. No significant age x magnesium intake
interactions existed for apparent absorptions of these
minerals.
The calculated values for net retention of magnesium,
calcium and phosphorus are summarized in Table 23 and values
for individual animals are presented in Appendix Tables 45-47.
As age of the sheep increased there was no significant effect
on net retention of magnesium but there were significant
linear decreases in retentions of calcium (P< .01) and phos
phorus (P <.01). As magnesium intake increased there were
significant linear decreases in net retention of calcium
(P< .01) and phosphorus (P <.01). An age x magnesium intake
interaction (P < .01) effect was obtained on percent net re
tention of magnesium. 3y examining the individual interaction
effects it is found that percent net retention of magnesium
for lambs at the lowest level of dietary magnesium was
significantly (P <.05) less than the values for yearlings


41
TABLE 7. COMPOSITION OF DIETS
Diets-1-

Ingredient
Soybean
Meal
(A)
1.50%
DAP
(B)
0.75%
MAP
(C)
2.30%
MAP
(D)
Corn meal
54.36
58.12
55.63
58.29
Cottonseed hulls
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
Alfalfa meal (17%
protein)
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
Corn oil
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
Soybean meal (50%
protein)
11.37
7.37
10.06
7.35
Salt, trace-mineralized^
0.60
0.60
0.60
0.60
Monosodium phosphate
2.21
0.95
1.50
-
Monoammonium phosphate
-
-
0.75
2.30
Diammonium phosphate
-
1.50
-
-
Calcium carbonate
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
3
Vitamins A & D
+
+
+
+
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
Diet A provided all supplemental protein as soybean meal;
diet B provided 0.269% non-protein nitrogen (NPN) as
diammonium phosphate (DAP); diet C provided 0.088% NPN as
monoammcnium phosphate (MAP); diet D provided 0.269% NPN
as MAP.
2 .
Listed minimum analysis in percent; Mn, 0.23; I, 0.007;
Fe, 0.425; Cu, 0.03; Co, 0.01; S, 0.05; Zn, 0.008; and
NaCl, 97.5.
3 .
Vitamins added per kg of diet: 2,200 IU vitamin A
paImitate and 440 IU vitamin .


103
lines on the ordinate, the theoretical minimum requirement
of magnesium, i.e. the value ac which Y and X are equal, is
obtained by substituting Y for X in the linear regression
equation (Y = bX + a) as follows:
Y = bY + a or Y = ac
1 b
where b is the slope and a is the ordinate intercept.
Solving the equation for each age group of sheep gives a
value for the minimum dietary requirement to replace
endogenous losses. These values were 261.07, 235.20 and
176.46 mg of magnesium per 1,000 kilocalories of metabolizable
energy per day for lambs, yearlings and adult sheep, re
spectively.
The relation between total magnesium output and
0 75 .
magnesium intake, both expressed as mg per kg body weight
per day, is presented in Figure 14 and individual values are
presented in Appendix Table 61. The linear regression equa
tions for the three ages were: lambs, Y = 0.75X + 7.21 (P<
.01, r = 0.98); yearlings, Y = 0.95X + 1.32 (P < .01, r = 0.99)
adult sheep, Y = 0.87X + 2.66 (P < .01, r = 0.99). The slope
of the regression line for lambs was found to be significantly
less than the slope for yearlings (P < .01) and adult sheep
(P <.05). Also the slope of the regression line for adult
sheep was significantly (P <.05) less than the slope of the
line for yearlings.
The minimum dietary requirement for maintenance for
each age group, calculated by substituting Y for X in each


140
TABLE 45. INDIVIDUAL DATA
BY LAMBS ON PERCENT NET
CALCIUM AND
ON EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM INTAKE
RETENTION OF MAGNESIUM,
PHOSPHORUS
Magnesium
Intake, mg
Sheep
No.
Magnesium
Calcium
Phosphorus
20.00
019
-12.84
30.70
28.11
20.00
031
-15.49
14.57
6.48
18.94
107
-20.32
8.06
16.38
32.50
020
10.50
20.17
7.43
32.50
029
6.42
-8.88
-9.39
32.50
079
1.17
-11.04
42.47
32.50
090
5.68
5.02
6.39
47.50
20
5.76
-10.09
-6.74
45.47
038
12.75
2.76
28.06
47.50
065
1.56
-32.29
-14.61
47.50
105
13.60
-10.09
-8.29
a
Magnesium
intake
per kg
0.75
body weight per day


69
ammonia-N absorption from the rumen were due to rumen pH
per se.
These results are contrary to those reported by
Perez et al. (1967) when fistulated sheep which had been
fasted 24 hours were dosed per 45.4 kg body weight with
either 9.3 gin. of nitrogen, as urea plus 10.7 gm of phosphorus
as phosphoric acid, or with only 9.3 gm of nitrogen as urea.
They reported that the urea plus phosphoric acid treatment
resulted in a significantly (P < .01) lower rumen pH, a
significantly (P < .05) greater rumen anunonia-N concentra
tion, and a similar trend in blood urea-N concentration.
Although the results of the treatments involving
phosphoric acid and sodium bicarbonate do not support the
theory that pH is a controlling factor in the rate of
ammonia absorption, support is found by comparing the
results of the urea and MAP treatments. The urea treat
ment resulted in a significantly (P < .05) higher rumen pH,
a significantly (P< .05) lower rumen ammonia-N concentra
tion, and a consistently higher blood urea-N concentration
than the MAP treatment.


APPENDIX


Urinary magnesium (Y) ,
mg/1,000 kcal metabolizable energy
97
300*:
Lambs (Y=0.60X-97.81; r=0.97)
Yearlings (Y=0.69X-108.25; r=0.98)
Magnesium intake (X),
mg/1,000 kcal metabolizable energy
FIGURE 10. RELATION OF URINARY MA.GNESIUM TO
MAGNESIUM INTAKE PER 1,000 KILOCALORIES
OF METABOLIZABLE ENERGY INTAKE PER DAY