Citation
Self-boiled lime-sulphur mixture as a promising fungicide

Material Information

Title:
Self-boiled lime-sulphur mixture as a promising fungicide
Series Title:
Circular / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry ;
Creator:
Scott, W. M ( William Moore ), b. 1873
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
2nd ed.
Physical Description:
18 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Fungicides ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"Second edition. Issued August 22, 1908."
General Note:
U.S.D.A. B.P.I. Circ. 1.
Statement of Responsibility:
by W.M. Scott.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029726132 ( ALEPH )
79785584 ( OCLC )

Full Text
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U. S. I('PAIN;\ET, )IM'NT AA1: 1\(;RI('I'MNTI'REI,
I)N'sl-:.\I' (l I'IANT I.NIl u"STt;Y 1- ir< lar NI ,. 1.
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SEILF-BOIiEID II1E-SI ll 1I .,,iA !1;1.:

AS A PROM).IlSIN{ 1 !N(;l(,l)l,;


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W MI. sco{} n .. "_ *11 *y
]].ATH~AIII{I;ST IN (ll.AI,;<; <>1'' ( )1!s,
I NVE1.:TI(;AT1I(\'S CFI I )ISI,:ASIKS O1F lKl'IT''S.













BUIEAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY.


1',,,.. ,. -t a lnd Phy.iolofqi't, anil ('/it f of Bi t). ( everyry T. Galloway.
i-1. I *.. (a 1,il/ Pi'FlysFtil,, 1t, findi .'FI NIta tII Chif of BIFur at, Albert 1. W oods.
LtabmatF1ry oFf P'lanlt rl'FthoIiFiF LrVin 1. Smith, P'atholoFist in C'harge.
In'(stiyaFtilons of lDiSFaFs of ruit,, Merton 1;. Waite, P'athologist illn Charge.
LuFrborwu F ( F/ l'of 't 4 l'aihF/ it, lI'i Hven Mitcalf. IPathologist in Ciharge.
1TinFFk ('iop luisFuFFs and FF! I'l/iFF I1F oi11,c UvfIT William A. Orton. l'atholoaist in chargee .
Plant Lifc iFistorii InrcI/tiations, \Walter T. Single, 1 I-' ..I1 F in C'harge.
C('otton BrI ('(dii y In riF'ti/lFaions, Archiiald I Shamel and I Daniel N. S'Ihomaker. Iliysiolo-
gists in I hI -,.
TobjiFcco In 'fNliFotionsf Archiiliild I. S.hainl. Wightnian W. (;arner, aind Ernest II.
MathiewsonF. in largerg.
C'O In Fl)iI sF ntiF /(f .s, CImrles I'. llarIW O I i '. .I. r in Charge.
AlklFi anld llronf /ht IF't *liF t Plint I IV/F FlPl! ln rF''tFi!fatioFfiF, homasn II. KoariiWy, I'liysi-
ohlFist in ('harigo.
Soil BFFtcrioiojiy FnI Watci F 'llrifiF tIioin Ii rcstIifFllioll', Karl F. Kellerman,. I iF -I'... i, -
in ('halrge.
BiontofiFF nrFf slifytIio fl of 'roFFJicIl ffi d "Il btropic'Fil P itft. Orator F'. Fook, lioF loiuist in
Charge.
I, -., anid lPoiso' nous I'liint inircstiilationi and "l'I'a Cultur Il nrcstii/ati,,n.% Rodney 11.
True. I'hysiflogist in C'hiirg'.
I'li/fFJi('. F LFiFlFratoFi!, Lyinan .1. Ilriggs. Iliysicist in ('Ciharge.
Cr1op TichFFloflFF!F Fin iF Fil' J'lFnFt I nrF tiFattiFns, Nathan A. Co('Iib, CI'rop Teihnologist in
( i, i iT +
TIa.onFoF ictF FFF Jl 1'Frim ManiaFi'Fif'tt I F'itFiFFtiFiFs, William J. Spilhnlan, Agricullnrist in ('hargn.
(irFain IlI FFsli'faliotii IMaIrk .\lfrd Carleton, C''rFalist in Chlarge.
Arl.ingtofn ,1FifFrimcntail 'Farin,. Lee C. ('Corlett, IIorticiultnrist in C'harge.
I (!j tFb1F F'T'slinFF/ G!rdnFsF. WVilliam W. 1 r sF.. .SuFelrintendlinil.
ifFlaFr-11cl't I ( Nt stiFF/nt F,. t h ICiarles ). 'Tlowns nd, IP,iI h.... ( in ', 1F ,
IIFcstrl .f FIriFiF1ttiFFl E.itcniF ion n111 'cxftiaF inis, Carl S. SFofi'lF. AgrimlturisF in W ''I, _,
Drii iF-LoFil .l/F'iFrFtiF'l l Fl IFn 'r tniFFtioF F I:. I'0 manning C'hiFoLt. t Agrli iF iIFIist ill 'Cha'ge.
PoioFifF 1FlifcFl 'oillhcliotni', (FSFIavIis I t. IBraI kF'tt, Pomologist in C'IargF'.
'FiFhl In iF'figl tioFF s ill I'FFFolFFFF, \W illiam A. Taylor and i. IlaOIld 1'o F11e I'omologists
in (Tuarn.
ElapcFFimf'FnF al (i aritn F x F inF d F (iFFo tlds. Edward F l. Byrnes. SII[FF'Filli'Idiit.
ForciF n i ccd anid I 'ltF F I riii'IIF li- Fon., Dav'id Faiirchild.,.\gFi'lllltFlF F IxF.\pol-F' in ChargF .
JF'rFmfF' ('Top InrAFF'tiF/tFiF,F iFharhi's V. I'Fl', Agrostologist iIn CharFIF
l FeFid LoFF ii.loF'Fi, I'dgar FBrown, Blotanist in 'l'Charge.
(FrFin FFtFanFlFdiFFF F tiF n Johnl ID. Shanahanl. I:xp<'t in Charge.
,".F ri ,ical F liboF i torF IIIFI G;Fl rd( 11. Mitm|, 'il. i .. 1Ernst A. I'essey. I'atlhologist in ii ,
I'l iii t I/ iI Iro liFI F i ;F rFIt n. ('1iicF C'Fl.. A .\Fg sl I M I'yoF r' IF'Xp rlI iI I Ch'liargt.
South I '<.r'Fs (nFrdFlF n, ll'oF n'F rill, T'Ic.., Edwar' d C' GF 'nI, lIolnologFF ist ill 'Chagll 0.
C('ottIo (O' ltwirF F I l'FFIo s F d FF'I'inFI rF ('FoIF 'riF itF F F I lF oitinF xtrii IIi II oF/>-, L FSeaman AF KniiF p,.
Special Agent if) Charg( .
ScF d DiFlFribF liolnF (DIirFct'ild liy ('i1 f o" ItliiF FFu lb.ish MdI'l 'istFii. \"A sist;anl iln (;iler'n il




IFililoFF'. .1 IE, Rockwoll.
'liFi(f Clh rk F, FliFIFs IAn .JonI's.
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N ().T Ix:NTS.



Ifin ImmcA i .
Sul|lh r a- a lin iiilc. a.
Tl <-lill WN Im-suhliur nixt ,.
l'r, [iaraition f,1" ibc n xn n . -. .-. .. .. ... . . . ... -
A. pp)le hil t(r-rol expicrinwitts ..............
E{x|(H-rilincinl inl ilhi trc'aiint H 1.r 1" <,it lh,<- apipl< disi-.asc.- ... .. ... 1
A\ ppl, hl,, f
.\pp hl li~lotc . .. . . .. ... . . . .. . ... 1:2

E~xteriii 'n-in in ]lir irratiin nm nf l,.H -.h
]',.lob-l, Vaf i iwa.-cs ,1
.\ A m f~n h unm iniQ aw~l m ins.c ii .... . ............ ........... ...... 12;
A 0411ib iiKdi l'niiiicide l iii< ili-rcticidr.- If;
Rang" -,f !o ,. 1H-.-ihhlc n- ci s .l.- ....... . . . . .... .
(irf l]
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I I U ST R ATI I () NS.


Paffe.
FIG;. I. ('rop Il ili,'d li -sulplhur m ixtun, .................. . . ... . .. ... .... 10
2. ('r)I fro)nm an unlrated 1'Bn )avis tre( in the ,.aue ,rchaul as lhat -h1wn
i i I ................................... I
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sEiI -l(I.II) I.IM+-SUITin I mIXT I 1,
A PROFISIT G N(;lGCII)l.


INTRODUCTION.

Th,' xell-known toxici actibin of Bordnleaix iiiixt lire nil ltarch thliage.
which renders il practiically usless for I liv ,, triol of [ m)! II dkiseasvs in
thlie .,.ro it,_ season, h41 I ltw "riter toI in estimated ot Ier ipossith le hIunIgi-
cides lthallt iniildit proved less u'atslie. Mloret.,ve. BJttorleauiX iXi\ lire.
ahlt11,,,l- remiarkably beneficial in the conI rol < of fungous dliseases. eve, l
stinniltii+.i. tli growth o"f plants in addition to its fuingicilal ell',cl, is
uttnfrtunalt el\ often i iijiurio s It the fruit idt olia ,el of lh i apipilqe- am[
sonle, other plants, The frilit russet11in1 and foliage ilijur\ causedt t)V
,o ilvanx inixtiire ii tlhe caws, f li, alIe has O wn tl -,ile s bject of
Inti co plaint in re. en1l pars,.1 thlis in reas.ing thwe dhtniil fo, a,
f ii, ide that can be sedll on gnm' inilplalts \\ itIloutl danger of injury.
The inves- isntions of'M fungi ide's in which various' ulphur rom-
polunds, as well as other substliances, were lesleM, havie extelndledl ov r
several veail's< hut ( osat isfactortv resfllts \ werel obtained until last sea-
so tl lie \0 4lt'-t1 boiled ie-slp ur wa I s ried a % t p ve t lI e
stilvieitith active wo pleveint filing" s diseass \\witlotllll injuriil); llie
Hlunts l'cated. A\lihoil li tillie results reported ill the foj]lloi\\iijl pait; s
are ex m ^'ii ll ciincoura,'< i iiti il sA ml& 1w dlistinli understoldl tliat
tllis fliin icide t s in ihe A l- h tl W > in[ ii, exp hii'iielnal Mlag' ;tiia d




ow, in
I I H M-il IV t i n i n t

-Ion AHUl % nA nil
-~~~~ 1111 I l
I*' t' ( +t + l llr tll ;H ll'l +r l l t ir i I l h l' i tll > l r i l l -1ll -l l t 1 i -




t i- r.+ .it r. l. ',l! l +- i 1 l \l >r ) i -. >< T l .. 1 ,. I > l '< A -t i n l I t 1, w, > u, I j
"'d -, \ Jw i- lt-t 1'. 'in I t k),





LIME-SULPtILUT MIXTUIrE AS A FUTNGICIDE.


has not been sutiflicieitlv tested to justify its general recomimendilation.
For thlie present, its use is advised for trial only, and the object o' this
preliminary paper is to show thlie rather striking results so far obtained
andI make them availabl)le to investigators and fruit growers as a basis
for further experiments, in order that the \value of tlie mixture may be
more speetdlily leterminedt. TheI Bureau of Plant Industry will con-
tinue tlie investigations, and it is hope(l that at tlie enld of another
season ldefilnite recommendations tian be made for tlie use of this wash
or some modifi('cation of it in tlie treatment of orchliarl diseases.
A similar self-boiled wash ias some slight reputation as a dormniant
treatment for the San Jose scale, and a few fruit growers have used
it rather extensively for this purpose, but it seems to have tiad very
litt Ile consideration as a fungicide and lhas apparently never been
recommnien(tled for use oIl plantIts in foliage. Curiously enough, how-
ever. as early as I S33, before the general use of fungicides, D)r. Wil-
liam Kenriek a recommended for mildew\ on grapes a mixture of
sulphur (I pints), quicklime (a piece the size of the fist), and b<-'ilitg
water (2 gallons). This mixture, after ( "lii,, was diluted with
cold water anmid allowed to settle. The (clear liquid was then drawn
off and diluted to make ta barrel full before using. In 1 sS5 William
Saunders"' also recommended for pear-blight a self-boiled lime and
sulphur wash consistiig, of s pounds of sulphur and one-half bushel
of lime with boiling water, thle mixture to be applied as a whitewash
with brushes andl for mnildlews he advised applications of the clear
sulphur liquid drawn off from this wash andI greatly diluted.'

SULPHUR AS A FUNGICIDE.

Sulphur has long been known to have fungicidal properties and
has played an important part in thle treatment of several plant dis-
eases, notably the grape powdery mildew, rose mildew, and aspara-
gus rust. Previous to lISSO it was almost thlie (ily fungicide in use,
and( it is to-day one of the best remedies for various mildews. In
the form of potassium sulphid it has for years been thle chief remedy
recommended for gooseberry mildew an(l to a less extent for a few
other diseases. The boiled limie-sulphurlii wash used as a dormant

l The New Anmerican ()rehardis!t 1s3:1. p. 328.
b I por,. I '. S. Commissioner of A riculture. ISS5. pp. -13 anIld 414.
cSilice I his article was prepared Prof. A. B. 'ortllhy, of Oregon, has presentmed in
the Ritual New Yrker of March 7, 190S. p. 20(2. a; suiiiiarx1y accounit of his experi-
iments in Ie list' ot f dilute lime-sulphur sprays fr : ipplh salb. which sprays, made
from Ilhe well boiled waIsh r from similar proprielryN pr'epiarations, have also been
tt'sltedl On ohlre fruit trees ill fli '. su'h as lhe pear. pea'h, pllnum. iprunle, quince,
iand 'lcrrv. and om -rape-ines. The resultsobiaind ere thought t pon strongly
1) lie c cilusio tliat lime-sulphuilr solultionls imay becomeii' a sal isfactor'y substitute
for ,ordlea' L x llixllrt e lfor smlllmlletr .Isprayinig.
[ 'ir. I 1





I l i l- sV1' ll'! MII I Il A\S \ I Nt( u c iin I.


-jayraniks close it, l>Bodax miixturi ini the inwrtlnt 4I+ the pwach
leiallcuirl arind tI lie ('ilif r ii a h p ba lighI t ( 'r 11i/ i. 1 i i u,, /,',11 ( )/il. ).
lii i Se i os i 4i theiIme ut tlja Ite lli(a ifiIc a-. l )t (W t "I' itS
caustibc ll'ct on tIIe l'oiaiwe o4 |lillts this Nboded ush call Hto hv usend
during tthe Ir'0oUning season a l its tlnv.s ss > a fli'll ic1(h i- tAcre-
fore eIt ittel to dieae- t at <';il call be ra;ic'td in the dtlir;iinit hrid:
but tithe -ellu-I T iedl iixturl li-us l in the vxpwrtii t sl- rilorItel in thii-
papl r m o entirely ninjlrijin -iis to tle f'lhia e a dlid t l I I' o itli tihe
pi(ich andI t t alie a le.

THE SELF-BOILED LIME-SULPHUR MIXTURE.

A\t itlervals dulringl tlhe past .-. ce ril years I lie wvrit-r hlas la:dle
experimlent h sttmiltl[ r and various :.,itlphiur (*oi ii)) oyject "f tdini a 1'111 wie tiat cotudihe used duriwinig il owin^
l)terik tl frtin it trw.-,. evlj|)e ially t l iu )acli, wiitmout injury Iv h i, e
foli.i, i or friulit. 'II firs-t wo w\ as dxnlli in llolil at it lfies ues t io
Mr. MI. IK \\ailt aniil consisted of ex[)-riien(is with varioul-s -ill iii,,
all fw" ,hlitli proved, inji rius to peach foliaun ue. D)trini I llie t a-ien
of 190(7 sell- hoile liine-siil[lph r inixttres in arou proport ions um]
strcn- "tlis were tsItel ul Iitlith tlhe !i[1)le hindltlhi ie,,li.

IPIlIlVAlIAATnI)N ()F I*rIIE MIXT1 Iir F.

Thlie niixtiire that gav lithe nui-i li)romniii.ni results was -compiolsetd
of Il poumnls.of sullur (IiAlwersi or ir uinn ad I.'15 podiiil- of eli -l os nie
line to .t>) )alhm. of uI' aner," and tin tia 1e prepared a, follows&:
liaec the lina, in ita .()-grallon barrel andI i)omir a 2 or 3 irllmi tIe5,et
of b),ili,.. water overx' it. ini d alniel l Iv a tli e Ilite lillir aniil aunothlier
lul t of ht o w i ater. T l ie beat rontu llite leaking little will loil tlie
mixture violenil l. ior several iinutiies. Somie -,-I i- is- niecessarv
It bl'\-ni luri ii:. andl Iitinore waltr slie n il bi e haddedl it lit, Imin-s g>is
too t hick to st r. uin t thle rook ,ui isi i m ren ,ll'tectial l -when tliw inii iiiiun
(linantily of water is uiedl, uiniaillx Iv'romui ii to s gallons lw(ili n.,1itiredl.
A l)iee of ild ca-llpei wi itunnmrisael thr i vn over Il e I l o of tlh lhiarrel,
helps to kt eep in tle heat. T'h le ,li:, i will i co lentinuei fro l tweint 1I)
thirty initiltlie, de(ipendili,- lijpoln tlihe qualiiity ofI tlhe little. WVhein tie
toilin ceas--s, dtilute withi cold waler to maL e .'uin ) ai5 itins, slib ilnir-
,*-'irhilv and strain tliroili a p sivx, ttf abtil l 2_0 i lit s I tiihe ien-h in
od r ti lake wI io rse p ticlers d line, Wut alll tle sulphnIur should,
I", cnrlv, llv worked lliroutlih.
lIi a si- ila r liianitll. vniulhi i for .) 15 gallolins ii \ l l >e pre' airted iin ;i
t)larrel t v u aii ._ 3i | n I )otiii s o uf s ul[)lniir m xwithi about 2011 ..:illohn of htiilini xwaltel. W hen lille hoiliing cea:ce-. tle
mbarriel shoil li e tfilhled witli ,old waiter antd diluted withi 1(t() gallons
Moiire xxliii tie n siii fi' ed o ti t e spray talk.


>Srr !m i. p1tgr l",





LIME-SULI'IlUII MIXTU'RE AS A FUNGICIDE.


In soime of the experiments a wash consisting of 5 pounds of sul-
plihur and 10 pounds of lime to 50) gallons of water gave excellent
results. Tis wouhl indicate that a much more dilute mixture than
the 10)-15-5)0 formula may prove to be a satisfactory funi-_wid,. The
wash was also p)relpared wilthi cold water instead of boiliii.-, water, and
in smIIIie cases a portion of the limie was at first witllield and later
added, a small lump at a time. in order to proldog the boiling'; but
the experiments have not it(et 1eel suflicient to determine definitely
thle ()I rrect formula and the best method of preparations.
Should thie boiling, be very prolonged the mixture might become
caustic enough to burn foliage, although no such injury developed
in thlie experiments. If it should be found inII practice that the use
of hot water dissolves too, much sulphur, so thliat the foliage is injured,
cold water Ilma b)e substituted and a less intense heat thus developed,
or the sulphur can be withheld until thle liime has partly shl,1k.1.
this regulating the amount of sulp)hur dissolved.
By this boiling process thlie sulphur is put in g0ood mechanical con-
dition for spraying, and enough of it is dissolved to make the mix-
ture adhesive. As a large percentage of the sulphur is simply held
in lmechanii('al Illixtur with the lime water, it is necessary that tlhe
spraying outfit be provided with a good agitator, so that the mixture
imay be kept co lstantlv stirred, anl dt settling be thus avoided. In
the treatment of aq)pple trees, Paris green may be added for the con-
trol of the codtling moth in the samie manner as when Bordeaux mix-
ture is uied.

APPLE BITTER-ROT EXPERIMENTS.

TIlhie work ohn apples was done at BeIntonlville, Ark., and the prin-
cipal dIlisease involved was bitt-ot tr-o (;1/,u,, ,'t11(1 r1tfoulmc'clqt' (Berk.)
S. and v. S). This disease en t ap)aI i to ta Ilie orchard f (oapt.
(Getor,'e T. Lil( tolli on July S. 197. ant! on July 12 the writer, assisted
)v Mr. Jame's B. l(ore''r, splra'ved a block of 2-1 trees with this lime-
sulplmlir hl mixture, addlinig < ounte's of Paris green to each 50 ) allons;
a s"ctotld block of 21 trees xx with Ilie same mixture, sulbs)sitltinutig 2
po)tunlds of arseuiale of' 1,'ad for the Paris arl'eti, anl] a third block of
abol)llt )100) trees witli Bordleaux mixtilre (5) pounds of bluesilone and
5 poindts tof lime to 51) gallois ofd water) and arsenal of l'ad. A
block fof 21 t I''es was let", untreated a :s a (check. About halif of Ilie
ltre(s ili e'aclh block wret' Beln D):vis ant tlie other half (ivenIs.
lTht'sc treatments wee ,epea te tn Jdlv :1t( and again ot August 27,
1 !O7. \VWiln tlhe first) appltliation was made (Jiulv 12) some bitter-rot
xxwas showing l )I bot)h varieties, as 111:1!iv as lifleen or tweltv affected
tfrits being fo'itId o0 a lumber tof' individual trees.Although the
season, w as ollpalrativelv dry. the showers tliat came at rather l.,'g
| 'ir. I I










intervals pernittel of infections sufficient tol destroy a hlar!(, portion
of the crop o)n t l unt related tret's.
The cro[) of Ben D)ivis apples xxwas picked o1n Sptiemndr 17 nol Its,
and the (i'verts oni ()ctohnr 10. 'The al;phle, i 'l' xdixi in W alf'ls,
ironi several aVerage trees of e(chi plt |l iere s w'4te xithi reference
to bitto-rt iit) diseamsed4 and sound fruit. The resIults a're Sihown
in Tall 1 ii fd II.


T AUI.. I Ipi t t -r l ( i t l nit,/ ijr)'l, a ') t l liI I mit) r l ts fr ,' t


Na.

1 I


T Imo A. Ily 12 awl N awl A4',lt 27, UNIT7.


T i '- I
i r. N > . . . .. ... .
N or 4- .. ... . .

l 1or luX [ 7 i.\ ll .

(1re, N -K. .. . .
Tr h, tEk prai l
('h-i k ... .. .... .. ..
('h ec k I>:l . . . . .. .. .. .. .. . .. ... .. ... .. . .
C h ev k IE .... . . . . . . .. .. . .. .. ..


'215
1. ,,>1 I trl



I>I II



1 1-> ,>


1. r'



lti s,'(


Alll'iiih bittier-rot was severe evid'oU]h oi1 ilie Ben ID)avis trees to
destroy froni So) to 90 per cent of lle crop on hlie tilulpra)yLed trees,
the liiie-sulphuir mixture held it (downi to less than 10) per cenlt of
the crop), as sliowi in Table I. See also figures 1 andil 2. In tlhiis
experinielit thle sulpihur wash compared favorabl v within I ordeaiUx
niixture, thle latter giving only sligihtly better results. 11The' disease
had ai considerable start onl the Ben Davis trees before tlie irst aUp-
plication was made, and HiIs iaccoulils for at hlast a part of the
diseased fruit on thlie sprayed trees. Slighitly Ibetter results with
both the sulphur and (thle copiler treatienits c mld prially have
been secured liado the first application been imiade a W(44k earlier.

TAll. 11. A l blr-r n ( n Ir. (Ap 'bii t nfI (ilol (u r A p'a m rW.uit Ji'm. i tii a lt t i h
filni-sil!linr mit.rhir, iind a ri lirh,. rmitur, mo f3

In ms -. r .AI ly 12 and A! ain Ai I tIgI I 7. 1007


A!" l- h!iilr ii rd iurv:


"I . . . . ..t. .
Irn r No I .... .
T'r.. N . .. .. .. .. .. . . .

i C N .
1ih .. N 1 .. .. .. . . .
4 1 .- x' ,. . . . . . . .
(tw fia 4t^ ri -l
CiiKtk I


NN11 i r 1, t ra at
d l t f di-- fI IL
+"" "' ..f l- .IP. of
ql'ldc:"' ql|'>llr^ fruilH


2. 11.1t


t5 ,-, 17',

721
1 .25 m 517
7-l7 423


'lI 102
r, 7 5'
*l.O; ri

'I,t '.,
i', I l

I,7
i*l iii
-!*7 79


1IME-S1'7.1I' fII M|XI'VU1t AS A lI'NWICIDE.


_1,4 121!-Cir. lI 1s






LIME-SUIPHIUR MIXTURE AS A FUNGICIDE.


Bitter-rot wNas not so ) 1aid mi tihe Givens as on the Ben Davis trees,
bu oi smewhat more than half f thie crop on thle unsprayed trees was
d(lest ro ved(I byv it, while tlie fruit sprayed with the lime-sulphur mix-
ture, as well as that sprayed with Bordeaux mixture, was only
-lihIitly aIl'ected.
It would appear front these tables that the two iugiidles are
equally effective against b)itter-rot and that when desired the lime-
sullplThur mixture may be sub)stitutited for Bor(leaux mixtutire in the
treatmliient of this disease. These results show that lihe self-boiled
lime-sulp1hur mixture is an excellent fingicide under the conditions
attending this experiment. The only question that remains is





















FIG. 1.-Crop of apples from a Ben Davis tree sprayed three times with self-boiled lime-sulphur
mixture. The sound fruit (92 per cent) is in the pile on the ground and the fruit affected with
bitter-rot is in the basket.

whether it will maintain this high standard under more unfavorable
conditions, such as extremely wet weather.
So far as the writer could observe, absolutely no injury to the fruit
or foliage developed from the use of this wash, and it adhered almost,
if not quite, as well as Bordeaux mixture. At picking time the
foliage was still whiite with the mixture and the fruit hlad a good
coat of it. Again, however, it must be remembered thtat the sea-
son was comparatively dry, the rainfall for July being only 0.81 inch
and fIr AUgUst 3.76 inches. Although the mixture seems to be quite
adhesive, heavy beating rains might take it otf the fruit and foliage,
so that a large part of its fungieidal value would be lost.
ICir. 11






E1.1 .I i I LPI 'i1 MIX' 1'i : AS A r .\-' I 'V 11 IiL .


EXPERIMENTS IN THE TREATMENT OF OTHER APPLE DISEASES
Al'Plq l HI I I *!T( II .

Another experiment WnS crondutedi ,it Ben Pai,i\')c lfe in) the
orchard olf M r. .helflrsimi. TV ", l n|'ilK);Il dlisi eiix, invl'v,,l' w, \\.;i ld [,|)h
bl)l (cll ( I 'll/tillt' l !t nr!i Q\. ;nlll 1'0. ). Ii l i1t ile l inc-sillf ni f andi
Bl r'('I x m unixl1rs m c use hi! ., as in i 'li I min('(i rcti.ird. ( )WiI
to li .il i, n hiavokaal(e ilayi li. !"iIst f|)|>lc i l wa ';>s nol iu, lv it -lr ,l I =',1i1
1M(IT, whe Wonlt i dis(>;mS( linil inlrcinl\ gaIIK< ino a~o l'l W IW Il. A ec ld
iipplit th m i was \v is l ond Jul vInl S tei( W'iii o n ii I ri e tn s .-.praycd \wit li
tIhv liiii-suliplmr Nvasl,-;~ \vcH ael s t hat .spraymli' with l[Bordeaux minixl rin


.,"- ...- .
Am ," --, ,- .-.- -. .. -0 00 .' : --' -'. .
' ? -- ; "-- .___ *' ___, ^.. .. .' --^ y .. .', ^ )

1"Ii, 2 Crr*p fr)n i ll uilr ''lI lu' l;vis tr(rr in i ii- n St i c n lnii irIS i h lt sh w in i ul' I. TI'
fruit lt .t'd wit lht;,L -roi m5t 1-i r (*tM is in Ih W ih" on t 'in ground ( l thu tV--- I .] lil is Ie

hlol1 up wkitiliu furtlNO r infection, while the checks continued tlo ._'.
down until prao.icully the entire crop wns destroyedd lby I his disease.
Trhis is hardly suflicent evideICe ito justify, 111V (onclusion that the
applh ilotclh dlisciasev will read'tily vield to I lie lime,-sulphlir t real llent,
hut these results strongly indicate as miu(i'.
No alparni'l injury whaltever r111ulte(l froinm tlie use f tlie ANl-
l))iled aslih in lhis orchard. I H)owever, it wadih oensisi ing of ; lIondl-
of sulphur i1n .) potulds of lira(e of .K)() gallon of woaler, loihel .15
1inutle, w\lhn ae)[l)lie'Id to a feGw alelh tree- Iuirnel lhie ai, ves coshn-id
erablY and austel soim df4oliation, slo diii ( I!hat tlie boiled ixturte
is unSife for use o)nI apple foliage.
I Ii. I 1





LIME-SULPHUR MIXTURE AS A FUNGICIDE.


APPLE LEAF-SPOT.

In both the Lincoln and thle Jefferson orchards the fliiur.., on the
trees sprayed with i tlie limie-sulphittr wvash did not become affected
witli tlie leaf-spot disease (Spltcropsi.' ntaloruim Pk.), except from
some early v infections that took place before the treatment was made.
Tlie leaves o(i t lies trees remained fresh and green until frost. On
thie (other hand, tlie unisprayed trees left as checks were partly defo-
liated a month or more before the normal period of leaf fall. It
appears, therefore, that the leaf-spot disease may be readily pre-
vented by tlie use of this limne-sulplhur wash.

APPLE SCAB.

Very little scale) (Vidthuria iicqtuiilis (('ke.) Adh.) occurred in either
orchard, and no definite data on thlie control of this disease were
obt ainal)ble. The results with bitter-rot, however, were so excellent
as to inlicuate that similar success within this wash might be expected
in thlie treatment of appl)l)le scabl), and perhaps pear scab as well. Bor-
(deautix mixture has l)een so efficient in the control of scab that it would
seem u desirable to replace it wvitli another fungicide except to avoid
the russeting of tlihe fruit and thlie foliage injury often following its use.
EXPERIMENTS IN THE TREATMENT OF PEACH DISEASES.a

The work (on thlie l)pea('hli was done in the orchard of Ilitt Brothers,
at Koshlikonong, Mo., in cooperation with the Missouri Fruit Experi-
ment Station, Messrs. F. W. Faurot and T. WV. Ayres .-.i-tiiL,. A
block of (i-vear-old Elberta trees was divided into 30 plots of 5 trees
each and several different mixtures in addition to thlie self-boiled
lime-sulplhur washli were tried. Bordleaux mixture used in several
different strengths was so injurious to thlie foliage thliat it was mostly
droppl)l)ed from the experiment after the second treatment; sulphuric
acid, 1 part to 1,000 parts of water, not only defoliated the trees but
cautised tlie entire crop of fruit to drop; and a lime-sulplhur washli con-
sisting of 1I pounds of sull)phur and 3 poundss of lime to 50 gallons of
water, boiled forty-five minutes, burned the leaves and partly defo-
lihated thlie trees.
PEACH BRO(VN-nIOT AND SCAR.

The self-boiled lime-sulphur mixture heretofore described did not
injure tlie peachli foliage or fruit and proved to be a strong fungicide
in its effect on )oth brown-rot and peach s(al), as well as on some

In a Ipaper before the Amwerican Poimologic'al Stciety, read on September 25, 1907,
the writer gave a sunmminary (f these (experiments and outlined the principal results
obtainled.
[('ir. II





LI MI F- 'I lI'll N I' M IXTI IL A\S A 1I" (N ; ('11 DI1'. ]

lhiaf dii-,al ,c, 1'nlioi le .ll hur with imi l. 1'litI oiI l joi ir i llpll "ur
suspended in1 water weore l-,, i-,oI with tro iin ii^ rI-mmll..
The Itet mii XentX ,t' 4 it' 1 vi"- T lti X l' Q 4 II l iii i' -l ii he e-il-

("Il Wrow n-l'ti Nrt/A O.Qf 111 x1trli,, I'. Svhliw'l. and ,'we l>. ",r !lac1.
S ll t1 lt 7 lJn.'llt'on 1l iii ,iI f ,;I .t "' l t i lt ll. ,i re" ,l,,ll'It e l ill t i fol-

lowinj I WltO ":




1 ~~~ 1. >tI M i" \ : iir '- ,t7 d 11, t ,', i ?'1.I
ItiX ll iti-.il)lii ;i Ir lilt'- l
T ii y! III AIp ( v>, / t I





.;( Iil .ll1'.-nl 1 ]i i In]: "I : :il .:~
\ ,% I I 'l I'll % I l -<
2 \ lP I s l %o 1 ,
2" \0 & -\


^' !o ili I ,"^ 1 2 1 l 7I'' ">

C k 1 0 -Iitit >;i l i A r r .1,C I.II! 7 ;. "i.i.' '
Ii 1 12, ".,o It" .: 22



l t 1 as sh, is
w 1 it 1 a .sl t' iX il2 lI'ts|[li ix iii Xi[is il II_ | i 22t

illn i sam* iii. iiiil,'r as tl pui 2I'2 I t X i' spl





oil May '2'2 'hIm'K <, .Iii 20. JInly 7K) aiil .I1l 1S, lklii. ht'n lasitidalt
t t l'rihitill IX tw i X I'tks l5Il' tc I iiii ia i c't. li 1IsF 7 XX as
Ill lilt' -.t'a -'1 Ill 111 I I It >-{.llt t5 I2- t ,, l "I-! li





la k d r i *It l v t '!1) I:, t o-:phl A int i "Is :t 7. and (tl+kli e liv .7 .lI rcc \, icldrd I ;;

l 'lh 1 1, t s sh,)l iwt i l linth f w IX 'l' gl i l was l li>i ilIt f iv XlIis
,i sh i sl'-ti ,i I'l linip i- \liuiti t r r c'i i t o liit lrol lil ls Ai
lli il ir s 11 al-jac.t o' o tdit 15retov r oitlimlt 1i 50 ( \\ pe'Prtl'tt
in the ,top sI l wed anne : arest l 1 ("lI s nlge 7. TheId tos \VC') o. -'ere ery




I Mallt 22, I ,otiiiii t. ie 6, le 24'l Mllt 5 n \ l e uly :I\ 19t i 7 Iheo lasit ao te
Ionlit il- l'> t! I, i Jts i l it't lle wieek ile t'ri i ot oi ir\ m t l'rlh a i\ ,t i d\,u I-
picked ftle ,en.' o. am! thlie \ llL rier ma e l ive lflr ,i,,It *'i. _il
frA lils, I .7 I e L lii =' w hi l "*ve n4 \it aInd vi N iit 1i h I, \i-i'ed,. T1iAS
S leq IliS lsllir adiier -ilso wevl 7ia. t r lper le iet 4 ii ny i ',an lim 10i'
Ahek ll on ml di ll rie.vs notd .l= ,Ivvi% mi1 1 A t. r f w




: 11 'lo 'J',>s l,~ ~ 1 la l l i *a ne 1 ren ine a l |)|ot li1 1 ex iep l lia ,l* ',\li l nnilv
(4 tlhe a~ t va-' reduced n mal,, (,I* Sea)d),o'.^ l and ( 1' 1 \k IliV (I oFN
S111011l. ainp ist /n liml A-valh .-lte q .,s. Mlr..\, m, W ) \ % ai, i-. I Inl :, owui Ii
lime l o l ')ll al wlon, th wat the rl.v es l tm,' 1e, e illj oiit r tl N 1 1Wiint l a11in-
itlie lilt'L I 'l h o, am 1 \N i je l l Ie o l"lite r !ll ella e : ; ( iali e et I n llll lI i \l l- IlI
\Ui'-o 27 16..' p 'r i .- ",- w-sdill q T' e anl'o .ilqu iar 1i n n |injui'e l I a liec
llllxilllre h l tid AI ') IVA A n the W 1 almlt Ila l wiv
\whili-}l lol thlat dal,]i!*
11l,0 11 ]"Id Ili,-.llo i l'lllin l i l~plll b. .tx ll l t l l "f, nllda



O wi! S o"- j~l t>, lo:; ].,r cvIIll 4 l Iliav <'lyl 6 1,0il a" J At \,, i n.I",,nl-
Iw ami ,1 1 u;!I: poul oitlt \,\itih Svat. Thie fdia-17'e \\a1, lIn linjlll'ld andl~ }He
141r. i





LIME-SULPIHIUR MIXTURE AS A FUNGICIDE.


mixture adhlered well throughout the summer. This would indi-
cate that a weaker mixture than that used in plot 1 may prove to
be satisfact ory, thus licheapening the treatment.
Plot 3 was sprayed oni the same dates as plots 1 aid 2 with an
unb()oiled sullphur and lime-milk mixture composed of 10 pounds of
sulphur and 10 pounds of lime to 50 gallons of water. The lime was
slaked ini thle ordinary way atind tlie sulphur worked into it, f',iinin1 a
p)aste Then the mixture was diluted to make 50 gallons. Tifs
mixture was Imore difficultt to apply, required more agitati'm. and
did not adhere so well. I lowevxer, it lield the rot down to 14 per cent
of the crop and the scat) 1to 6.!) per cent, indicating that it lhas con-
siderable fungicidal value.
Plot 4 was spIrayed on tlhe same dates as the thliree plots previously
mllentioned witli 10 pounds of sulphur Suspended in 50 gallons of
water. The sulphur was worked into a paste and then diluted.
Tile rot on this plot was 30 per cent of the crop, and the treatment
for this disease was therefore practically a failure. IHlowever, only
3.4 per cent of the fruit was affected with scal). Tile sulphur with-
out the liiiime seems to have been entirely sufficient to control this
disease. Sulphur settles readily in water and is rather difficult
to keep) in suspension.
Plot 20 ,was sprayed withli the same self-boiled mixture as plot, 1, and
the applications were ma(le on thle same dates, except that in this case
the first application ( \;iy 22) was omitted. The percentage of rot,
1 S.7 per cent, was rather high, owingi apparently to the omission of the
May treat ient. However, onlv S.S per cent of the crop was affected
witli seal). A few scab infections had taken place beforee the treat-
ment was begun, and on unsprayed trees this disease developed quite
rapidly after the miiddle of June.
Plot 23 was sprayed on July 2 and 13 with the same self-boiled
mixture used on l)ots 1 and 20, orly two applications being made.
Of the crop, 19.S per cent rotted and 29.4 per cent was affected with
setal). The fruit was already badllv "scal)bbed" before hlie treatitiment
was begun, anid the cracking due to this disease opened the way
for brown-rot.
Plot 24 was sprayed on July 2 withl the same mixture as plots 1, 20,
atnd 23. (O)nly one application) was made, andl it was quite insufficient
for both browN\n-rot anld soal), 37.4 per ('enit of thlie ('rolp being affected
w ithi thlie former diseasee and :;', (6 peIr ceint with thlie latter.
Plot 27 \was sprayed with Bordeauix mixture consisting of 1 pound
of copper sulplhate, 5 pounds of lime, and 50 gallons of water. The
applicatiot05s were made on Julh 2 and 13, with the result that 21.2 per
('ient of tlie crop was affected wit l brown-iirot and 40.5 per cent with
scab). The treat lment was entirely too late for scab, but had some
[oir. 1]







OW'Nct on brown-lro. These rctull ,were a ult t the same las tmnl 1 n -,.' -
c ll uired on plot 2 '_:, hic w sp lway d p o (1 sao the i l it'e. witlle tI el' Ill-
)ild lim -nutlphitr mnixtilu e. The lt Iots i w ichii slapyling+ itA IBP' r-
deaux lmixtureI \was; commlIell( e1I('d on 11av w2e% t\i eW milp 'ur i'enat-
lient as e(' tn, were abl ano td on Ocou ntil ol r sevier, i ti i i \ i, i,, .
This es F l)o. not having, I) eiit cnrried tlirotgiih the sul). are ("inil lod
Own tihe( table.
On tilt( clc'k plot, l consisti inh of l10 int reat'ed Ime(s hloi tl'l in rowis
adljaei nt to t he slpiray. l royws, 7Oh. per ient of Ithe cropwl)i" s i (l' teild
wlitl In)li wn-rot aii l 24.l 1p r ('(1nt wit' s'bii.
.t lihiiv at Tall e III s.ihows- that sulphuir, wherever fse,.(dt in this;
xperiinunt, whether svlt'-boiled or unboilhd, alifiedl onloe ir of'te er,
had illore or less VItV( ("I thle hrown-rol disease. Where tlhe self-
loihedf wash 4 motl full strength and half strvngith was usot nearlttv
90 I 'er =1e of lthe op X caie thr)ougi friee fror Olle disease Owintii,
Iprthaps, lo the late slring orsts, sone of tlh( peach piits cracked atnd
there, was considerable) plrolifTIatin around' theil. whii('h resultel in a
cit' liny of th(e skin, thus exposing tlhe frOit even on sprayel tres t()
brown-rot infection. This, together willt insect pictures, partly
acOnlts for th li W I(Jpr (ie nt ol' hoss on plots I and-'2. coni]parisonl
of these two pilots indicates t. 5liat .o p)-ouid o' sullh.ir in tlhe mixtr,
is just ast,. good as 10 pounds, the larger (quantity apparently beingi"1
llluecesSsary.
It nnust b)e understood tlhat thie writer does not consider this single
series of experiments a-ltilivihnt to j-ustifyv lital c(noluusiona s npo. n whiM.lh
to base or'chaurl lractioc'. Not until tlihes rs ilts have been vWriciel
under fileriit conditions (a'n the treatment be recommended witlh
full confidence.
It is not at all surprising, that this sulphur mnixture should be a
good fungicide; the gratir, in *... surprise is tlIt', it does not injure peach
foliage. Under different wvather condithins or whlen boiled with a
more acth', gr.' le of lime it ,iiii.'lit prove injurious, and for thi reason'
caution shoudol e exerised until further knowledge of' its action is
obtained.
Although o(casiotml rains occurred at Kosliko-,,n._-. 'to., while ilh explrimnent was, in ],r,,_'r,--. thle season would be considered rather
dry. ihe rainMal there as recorded by thle voluntav ob(srver. Mr.
John W. llit,. was as follows: For thle month of' Ma 'y, 10.S") inlchesy;
Jun(e, -.9) inches,: and July, 1.67 inches. Enoiuilh rain NI to plr(od ce
considerable injury to peach f ,li.,. iolhowing applications of Bor-
deaux Imixttro, and to caise a severe outireak of' brown-rot. 0611ig
a very wet seasoni, however, the tret'metintollt inot beso sosUcessfiul;
in fact. t, is disease is influned 1)v so ,n nv facitorrs Hlla it see. ms
doubtful whether aln enltirely satisfactory treatment for it will ever be
I (In 1 ]


IAME ,S iTlIIRil MIXTI KI : A'; \ A rI'1N ('1l)





LIME-SULPIHUR MIXTURE AS A FUNCICIDE.


found. Thle plum urculio) p)unc(tures the skin of a (certain ,p.rc, tage
of the fruit anl thus admits the fungus in spite of all spraying that can
)be d(one also), some of tile leaf-footed plant l),u-' feed on the rotting
andl thie sound fruit indiscriminately, thus undoubtedly distributing
tlhie fungus and perhaps even with their b)eaks inserting lthe spores be-
neath thlie skin (iof then fruit. It seems quite impossible to protect
against such infections:.
In thle case of peach seal) thle results were very (deci(led. In every
plot where sulphuir was used beforee infection took place, this dis-
ease was a hno)st (o)lpletely controlled. Even sulphur suspended in
water without tlie addition of lime seems to be sufficient to control
this disease. As a rule, tlie seab infections on t(lie sprayed fruit were
manifested, in small specks instead (of thlie large spots and cracks that
were so co01mmon ()on thie tunsl)rayed fruit.

I'EA('II-LEAF DISEASES.

The frosty mildew (( 'rcos trolle(d l)v thlie self-boile(I lime-sulphur mixture (10-15-50). This was
demonstrate(I especially ()on Picquet's Late, which variety was sprayed
on July 26 andl again (on August S. The writer examined thle trees on
August 27 and found tlie foliage in a vigorni-, healthy condition,
practically free from leaf diseases, while thlie leaves of the unsprayed
trees were b)a(llv affected with the frosty mildew, liadi turned yellow,
and were falling (considerabl)ly. Some of these leaves were also af-
fected with a sIl)t-lhole disease (Ilue apparently to Bacterium pruni
Smith, b)ut none of this could be found (on tihe sprayed trees.

A COMBINED FUNGICIDE AND INSECTICIDE.

Self-boihled limne-sulphur washhes used in the dormant spraying of
fruit Irees are known t( have some effect against the Sanl Jose scale,
antl in ordler to avoid (l the expense of a. cooii..:) plant a few growers
have e( mlhkoyed this method of preparing tlie wash. Eintomologists
have wisely d iskc'ouragel I the use ,o self-l)oiled washles l)eause (f their
inl'rioritv to tle boiled prl)eplarations, lbut wlien used as a fungicide
in Itlie growing season a self-boiledl lime-sulphur wasli nighlit be ex-
p)e(&te(l ail c(onsidlerab)ly in he control)l of thie( San Jose scale annd
(other sc(-ile insects l)v tlie destruction o(f tlie crawling lice, and wo(tul
thus perhaps prevent tile infestatikn o)f the fruit, a condition espe-
('ially likely to occur ithl apples andl pears. This would give it a
(hdeciked advantage over Bordeaux mixture andl make it esl)e(cially
useful as a coml)ine(l fungicide anl inseciciide in the freatlmIent of
l. I'. apple trees on which lihe scale .is so difehult to control. Summer
lapp))lications for lith' l)revention of fnhi"u',, diseases would thus sup-
l('ir. I






L1M I UtHl.|+'ll '!! M IXT' IM I.1 .A \ Ik V N(; 11>1". 1 7

plhrnent the do ant tlt atlinle of the San \lose .-,' lew ut extrn
co{ st.
Sulphur i sell-N1)<>lle j-I wash wou lodp oalf be o| cVnside,.rableh Val ill Wte
(ontrol (d ti' red spider
RANGE OF POqSIBLE USEFULNESS.

The fun1icidelv deswritled it these pages is onliv 1t1 t expriienital
stage, ailtd it is itolsosile t,1 Iprelict t&he exltetVA t> iof A, hiillc"-:' lull
if it will Nonltrol aliplp lbitt<-l-o(, aIs the result s s,, fatr <,lotntwiiin+l it ?li-
tlhon-li no pIsitive rpesll,> wetre MOltWined "Aittt thli, qiwne-ce, Wlie
inclinations \\'f-re t a til it iiig lt easily- be conttrollhi \\ithl til< liiiic-
stl|hlrn wash nipl the lU'Pnt niid '-- ti iiin l -,,l ir njor\' ( ,il to tlt'
Use Of Il1 rhd aux tiixtu e this av'oil>el. I+xcept tlihe itiitlur ol l\ -
iAl: its nlls Al a wet csaaso Bor eaux tiixture liillisies ail at lientrely
slitis'iftctiior*v fungicide for lbotlh apple seawl) and bitler-rot. peThaps
better than caili ln e ex|)ecled of tit.' lihnne-sudpihl| r \\ a li : tItl tlie lilte
hits the i^nltl'n a e of ieiin. ;i conltiuned inseelicite aldi tl'i;'icide
niul dloes not injiire t(ie Slllit ow ollia e, (or at lWaot it '.,ivldh appear
frmon tliese prelininary explerients.
This self'-lioih,1 imixtue otih leasoalyh lie exlpected to readyil
.onti-r tie piowdeh, iihlhes (of fruit, snoeof A' M liiei have lony_ beel
known to ]iw prevetaleh by thle uppheal ion ol ulphor in s e for.ll.
OwinI; to its gtretller ad elisivte 'ss, it should perhaps laii' s.l3 stti|)lant
drtY sulphur ndil liver ()f ,ullphur in hlie ttrent inail of vaiour s iilew's.
It" the results (4 last year's expeilelts are Wone w by- further
tests, the most i pilortia t function of tHiis fl'ilin ieide will Mdolus
lie the control of peacdi s leases. I leretofooe. palonu olly 1l11 lm n Vn
fiL'.' ipe could 1we ts'ed oi peach foligve witimut ilijuini~oi- re-ilis.
atld for lhis reston ,hnlitss have been unable tI, colmai -(lole of
tlie miore ipilotat peach diseases and to Prewril 1tle animal ls
of several millions olf dollars' worth ol' fl0tit Ia"sed bv tlbilnl I&"-
deaix liixture, tlie sta dr d l'L fuin eidIe, vin oitit we sed on peach
trI es during tle l i'ro inl seasoll \without dan:,er (of se1rio s injury
to the foliage. \\H illea wok ,'onl. ,eaux Iixture IllaV ix' !-o in a
drv season \ithhliout injurious results. thle ae a liH t n ue applied in
a wet season, w'hel lmost needed,01 will utsnall v detdiate tile 1I1e".
The other hirorns of copper, soch as aininioniaeal qoppe coarlbolate
nip!d a ate of oppiviter, are even moe topxic than Borideal x mlixturI .
It is appioreli. then, NliaO an etilhient c leap t'u ichici tlhat cain he
Used ol thle fruit nnd foliage of tihe p )eac llout iHnpiri imn results
will be of inestiim ble value. Tlie sel-lM ihile liini-sulptir mixture
give- prolilise olf i,, Pictl- Iliese l'eplil'e enuqts, alnd it is hope! that
QInr. 1 )






LIME-SULPHUR MIXTURE AS A FUNGICIDE.


tlie results already secured will be substantiated by further investi-
gations. Under some unfavorable weather conditions injury to the
foli..-.. or fruit ilgliit possibly develop, and heavy b'.itiii; rains
might wash the sulphur away, so that its fungicidal effect would
be partly lost. It seemnis likely, however, that a lime-sulphur mix-
ture, either self-boiled or unboiled, will prove to be a safe and val-
uable fungicide for use on fruit trees and other plants during the
growing season.

Ap)proved:
J IAMES NWILsO(N,
tS'tcrc tfry (\" Agric Ilture.

WASH(INGTON, I). C., 11rch. 14, 1,f'S8.


NOTE TO TIHE SECOND EDITION.-Since .thle first edition of this
circular was issued, additional results of the season's work of lins
have become ava il;il,1,. particularly the results of experiments in
spraying the peach at Marshallville, Ga. It has been found that too
much sulphur was brought into solution when hot water was used in
slaking the lime, especially when material sufficient for 200 or :100
gallons was made up at one time. Under the warm, rainy, humid
conlitions that occurred at one period in Georgia some injury resulted
to the peach foliage, there being enough soluble sulphids in the solu-
tion to burn the leaves. When cold water was used in slaking the
lime, onily a small quantity of sulphur is actually bir'lght into solu-
tion and nm harm, or a very insignificant amount, occurred. For
use onl the peach and Japanese phlum, therefore, cold water instead
of hot water is advisable for slak'ng the lime.
Furthermore, it was foun(l that 5 pounds of sulphur to 5 pounds
of lime is entirely sufficient for spraying peach trees, so that this for-
muita is now recommended. Where the precaution of mixing with
cold water was taken no injmry to peach foliage resulted. On the
apple thlie str,'11i,.T' mixture made with hot water c(an be used. It is
(1)ubtful, however, whether more than S or 10 l)poun(ds of sulphur and
tlie saIne (quanlitity o)f lime need be appljed on the apple for thie best
results.
[('11% 1.]







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3II~'kI I 6 I 2iii [I I II I8 3
3 1262 09217 8937



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