|Table of Contents|
Front Cover 1
Front Cover 2
Letter of submittal
Table of Contents
Report on insects injurious to garden crops in Florida
Report on buffalo gnats
Native plums--How to fruit them--They are claimed to be practically curculio-proof
The Serrell automatic silk-reel
Back Cover 1
Back Cover 2
BULLE, t.IKO. 14.
CAL W41 OF THE DIVISION1.
THE IDMECTIO Of;'THE ENTOMOLOGIST.
WAS H T-N-GTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
OB SERV"ATIONS AN I) EX PE I1 IM EN IS
THE RACTt1ALWORKN OFTI 1-1h1 DVISIONI
TT IIN C T ON:
GOJ:lNIf P II ';FIN G OFF ICE.
Digitized by the Internet Archive
LETTfER OF~ suir IM r[aL.
11"oshin!llmi. P). G Ju 311y $S7
S11" I have the honor to slibilit 1,rI publirat ioll ll .\ No. 11 of
tile Division of Enltomology montinin, ceriiin reports of agents and,
other matter additional to that (Mnained in 1huihetin 1~3, and ecluded
frotu my minul report from lack of space.
Q. V. ILEV.
Hon. -Norzm-k T. LM ,
Com I is. io Iter o f A gric it tItie.
Introduction In................. ................................. ............ 7
Reporton Inects 4ilinurimu tO ard-n ( 'mp I [ Is in F lorida ........... .......... .
Reort on litralo Guals. ................,..... ............ ..................:
Native PIilm, I)wI to fruit i then c. Ty are claintld to lie Is,pract iclly cilrett-
lin-proof ....... ... .... .. .. .. ... . ... .. .. . .... ...... .... .....
The Serrell ato m:atic Sil crel ............ ....................... ........... .11-
INT NOD )UUTION..
ThIIis BillIet in conIItainIIsII m t te rt ferr I I ng II to th I aOI I I I .II11oI'~ G (Idi-
t it)1a I to th1!at I I rea dIy I in 16] ishied .
M~r. A.sh11 e; (Is report on1 inst~ets Alti nq gailrde mop in Ih brid a k
necessarily N ery involidiete, ,Is it rert.t only foul 11oa li h l h-
8orvat iolis andI a,- thlit sitlo~iot is onet( of nmo i iwonsll leralie ill[ n ii de.
Mr. Ashilead's work w~as sto)lpd 'September Ws on accoil th Ie re-
ductionl ill the appropriations.
Mr. Webster's report oil Imhill ( Gats is ini the inin f!"i, results of
mork in Mauch andI April, 1 -SG. It con11tai 1,11: s man mIT till-, deltAils"
ill addlitionl to t he ml(ow( important ohbservatlolls \\Inch are (111 '1 cii ill
01111 owNV article onI the subjeilct in the ailnual rt'llmt. It is.- ako' due to
Mr. Webster to saly that the inet gt101 i ace 11ile, a ad especially
those by himlself, tilt present year, have added materally to our* exact
knowledge onl tilt subject.
Ini reference to Mr. Wiem's article on thle curculio-lroof7 nature of the
niathv jplums and Is emplaatin theref* we( vish lo Ile ntidei'~tood as
iti no way indor,'ing eil her the stateiwiiets or comichisiwii; It' the papel(r.
Wr Wier is an old OWiNd and eorrspounde andt hOR writtri niuh of
late upon this (Inest ion. H e ulaimledl to have abunldain plezollal e i-
deuce of the Mild plumning proolt ainst ( mntrrwhu ls oen iip)IIr
byv virtue of the eggs Adiling to hatchi therei. 1his mw a"i bilmoant
matter, 11paringdwreetly mi. ecomionlit, etwonlology, and, ats We haive of11"t
been asked for our oinilion as to the i nhnnitMy of these wild pilums, we
erina 3h% Wier to prepna a Statelitiut 4of his evidence. I I is- two
nmin claims are (1) that these wild pilim trees. are mifruin ftil. ex.cept
where the 1IlOVr's v'eeive thme pollen fro-m other varieties; 21 thait the
female 01rclioit preofers, their 'iit for' p~urposes ill ovipos)it iol, hill thatI
tit'e egg tfails to hattch thcreinl Ill the larval perikhes after h'itc illing. T I II
thrst point belongs to economiic hotalliy, ()I rather Ioooy In I 1 1!
We Consider that it is d11i)prVed Mike 1)y hi-torvi-al andi botiiiical Ievi -
dolnce anld general ex\pericet we le4'.1 it I i 11 111 the hI'[ ilIItl ris I11 deal
with more fully. With regard to the on point W Cw 6 II'Ll h tilt,
reaing of Mr. \wues essay has krouiit no, sense of] his iivy1 il
well "u-stainled or of its geelthue's Ye~t, 6)r tlw easI onls
stated. wet ha Ive decided Ito, pli hl thIIe palper ver ImuInIch Ias; relciv\edf
Oilittil-g only slich portiolms as Illt wit ii1'clk ow n till I I ei to1114il
logical fI'a ts, as- also) aI d i-~e tI I iol .n g [.I:' ill n 111 I'll nterill outmll dis-
sent in the form of foot-note where the statements are unjustified from
the entomological side.
The description of the principles aud mechanism of the Serrell auto-
matic silk-reel has been prep ared by :Mr. Philip Walker, assistant in
charge of the reeling experiments and machinery at the Department.
It will be found useful in explaining the advantages which that deli-
cate and remarkable invention has over the ordinary reel as a labor-
saver, though no amount of description will impress the fact on the
mind so forcibly as a few moments' observation of the reel at work.
c. V. I .
REPORT ON INSECTS INJURIOUS TO GARDEN CROPS IN FLORIDA.
Lu I I It 01,~ 11 E-11 NSMX I vI*Ak .
Iliv r It I l I I I s iI III I I It T I- I I' ~ \ itI 11, Ii I .
N ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .sjt IIJ v t i I -1 Va I( lI 11 W l
YO;Irso tt: oi a iiiie i4 the ij:)r to ~ u ni cr il, irkiiiiiit t i~ I ,i i
I oris of t he ilvsi nct i I )-kI l- ifcc L,,t' ih t In our gI I I k j-p i l I i still(.
You rs, N v l.\r 't'Iw r pet fil y.
Prof. C. N,. I? I'~
The insects -epredacin crare (iops" ill lo~ida a re lvfjoii,:irtid
the time at: tiy dispw, IJ, May 15 to.Allgutst l, wasi too limited to e i
to do the ,;Ithjcrtj list I(,(.
Dailv rains, tot), fronl;t ttrr patrt of 'JuTle ;I Till 1 during .1 u1y gr eat Ik
interfered with toiy ficld-wo\ II I )nri,1I" ilg ( t limnth u of M arch a1i~
April early vegetalels aii- iaised inl gray11it ilt io, fPut ort liv'rii
amog crtaill destrulct iv jwct 11epIredtn It hw i ij Thuir i,- Thi
t tie InIIvest Ig-mti( hI II)[II I ueI i I iI ox % I'I, cm i11' v, e aI e( \ I; 41 I I h cc I Ie
accomislitd. a1nd( Il Ihe fo oxig pg..x l PIid Il 'C I It 'Io ( ) 10
,omle of thin inittriits illi'ect pest s Ii] l t~ 1in 11 I' )11- :p ?m nio I Mc[.
to llmake tilt repor-t ofI practicW lx % lo t1 ilk. I III]] tI le--I- i (
g v(.n the be'st 1,,11k111die s. Iwwn exrielu ~u'n i llY trowi till' x i, tI~
Of lProflessor-s RUle. I tch, I,11 11nt te, PaclhliI ] o e Tiwia l c
I N 1_ I"( TS A H, l','T Nol T IIlI ,I ;B :
Proba;blyv Ihr is no garei t ohi i o I ha 11t I i ed I r I 11
andII so teith TrT InedI front th 1H tack1 1 .iwc rN it i ~
bae and( It s It 1terou)is v. I Ik-tieN
To wel I-k nown Imp re Iuop a I 011 11:1 1w.TII'l ct II IN Io \k o !t~I 1. k~t-
lislited ilere. mill deopi odatig Ill IIs cropk il'~l 'k. b II adde k t 11,1 1i ll- i I!~'tit
species that attack and destroy it in different ways, and the injury and
loss is very great.
Necessarily I have given considerable time and study to unraveling
the life histories of some of the more important ones, giving them that
prominence in my report that their importance to the grower seem to
THE CABBAGE PLUSIA.
(Plusia brafssie Riley.)
This is one of the most serious and destructive of cabbage insects.
Prof. C. V. Riley first described it in his Second Missouri Report, 1870,
Distribution.-TVhile, undoubtedly, originally indigenous to theSouth
ern States, it is now very generally distributed over most of the Eastern
and Western States. In U. S. Agricultural Report for 1883, Professor
Riley states that he has received it from Mississippi, Georgia, Florida,
the Carolinas, Alabama, Texas, New Jersey, M issouri, Kansas, Nebraska,
Virginia and 3Iaryland.
Food Plants.-The food plants of the larva-, as given in same report,
are Cabbage, Kale, Turnip, Tomato, lignonette (Reseda), Dandelion
(Taraxacuim), Dock (Rumex), Crepis, Chenopodium, Clover, Seecio scan-
dens, Lettuce, and Celery. Professor Riley also says: "~' We have
also found it in Florida feeding upon the Japanl Quince (Cydoniajaplon-
ica), and it has been found in Washingtol upon same plant."
Life History.-The life history of this insect is treated in the Annual
Report of the D)epartment for 1883, Ipp. 119-122, and it is figured at
Plate I, figs. 2 and 2e, and Plate XI, figs. 2, a, b, c. The different stages
are described in Professor Riley's Second Missouri Entomological Re-
port, pp. 111-112.
XSumber of Broods.-Professor Lintner, State Eutomologist of -New
York, in treating of this species in his second report, page 92, says:
"In its more northern extension there are two annual broods,for, from
larv;e taken in August, after about two weeks of pupation, Dr. Thomas
has had the moths emerge on the 1st of September, which deposited
their eggs for a second brood in October. In the Southern States there
are probably four broods, for Mr. Grote took examples of the moths in
Alalam;ia during the last of February."
IlHere in Florida there are certainly not less than six broods, for I have
take n the moths every month but the winter months, November, De-
cenlmber, and January.
Its Injllrics.-Not a cabbage patch visited by me this spring and sum-
ner hit was more or less damaged by the attacks of this terrible cab-
bage pest, and the injury it does and the loss sustained by the trucker
is in Inense.
The very young begin by eating the tieshy portion of the leaves; as
they grow ill size a ld "At Ie tig I II1 t e g II; irIIre-gula I hoeIsII1 1 .- thIIrol)(g-I tI It
leaves, un t i I they ar cmll pdltcl 111 r idd l l h( lc ie -cmiil'( mid Ih ic abit-
a r l n is a w/ 'frrt itf '(CIln I a II IIII Iv1 Iex Ia Iia e e I A s
I nIId otI I rI c r e u poe it I'lSIIll eI (iI14 s try Ita tu NotI
rrt-I l-vI ats taa it- oil th11is swcit. at \\ a'.llingtoiN, Iq Min L. A f.Ilow-
ank ; Lw nty five hundred an Ill ci 't l slilcilll-1 ( i ll] In al- i teI~
werte actually clil ted as foan 'l ;1ui a iig a a 4ii1-Iwuii
ProllesSlar Vilry has also lbrc( itn Icicnn mni' .i Alat l ,s n'
Say, Ifroln larvx.
Ifere, ill at silei illnanie. i bredll sm, A it iryaiis wt ichtwiu mnin ay
JIUAqra ap) ;I 4-o1ainionm paaite I be 'ablha ,e P1 ltel hi, and. it il iiWli
t*01111 trteatcd furtherl onl uinth-ltm par.1sitcs (d, that iii sect.
From the eg o vr.I bred~i a re I itt h chalvid, t l (7,wearm
ina priQ~sa Ink,~ b. It waA Onrs -lPSei id 1 I Pro&"Ssr 16h-le ina (X ilV&JKa
Entomologist Voil. XI, page' l61, 'roml spll-il iila bred fruuian thev egg do
tho Cottonl Wonril .U, iloaaqltat(i ili
Bevsidves the abo ve parasites, Ih llr rvi wt er, hlwl igja unlt1 ill oh
Reservation, attackedl by th aas1cfu'i Tfy il !1ibq Xrl
"A tablcesp;wmntIllo(0 goodt fr-esh pwediffused through 2 gallons oft
w'Iter and11 sprinkled ove the plaints, woulld de-stro)y the larva'.-7
Hot Wfifer-Evc]-y woiivisible uponil [Ill. calhagcs mlay\ be kIJlld by
thk' IIe Of Wate~r at lhe tneruperat, t, Lo n I,ea hieiA oW d5 en Ii.
grade. theater, Ilay Ill boiling- hot \N len punt ini t1" li at rriingto~iin,
but it will not be too) hot \ ient it readwIets t he cabbage_ he Iaves. 'The t hick
Iles] y n ature of, thI e lea Ives enabI e dcs tI I IenII tI it .I Ista111d cmnI ie b IheI 1)(.1 a t
with very -little. in jury. Th'le sacritice, lit j fr\\ heads (.f cabg will
soon teach an1 expe rimlenlt er homv la r he ca 11 1) \N 11t Ilie IIot w\at(e-r. It
may he splrinkled over thv plAnt frini a Hln rosel N\ atingil.- canl for o
on with the sprinkler renmoved. Ifr it is Ner ho11t it N% ill clrsomei id*
the leaves. but even where the cabbiage is considierably -oried it w ill
recover anld reneow growmNth ft oil the lieat." C. %
K17rofs"11c E4.i111-Tiekeoen eal'io, as 6)rulated x liv r.II
G. Hubbard for scal(!necs will also) be' fthmill( % ahltaile for cal)iarO1
Lhmc and ('roi 'wur_'-his is lso good. Take 20) 1 'arIts ,u 1!wr
phosIdlIatte ot1 lilnit. :, part s ftl 41 ;6ir slak1ui11d ir a 11d 1 pat I ca (., I"I it-
powder; nlix, and scat tcl a smla ll[ l it y uponi echl cabbag Ilead- tIhI I'
or four t i ies att sloirt in teCrval Iabout' ilI trot, Ihv apa i.rt. 'I'll" oli
powder is =0 Ie by Naig sa" dun andt thltoougily iiuprgi atn it
with carl~lic acidl.
THE CABBAGE PLUTELLA.
(Plutella cruciferarunt Zeller.)
Second only in im ortance to the Cabbage Plusia is another cabbage
worm, the "1 Cabbage Plutella," the larva of a small moth, aiidl which
may easily be confounded with the very young larva of the Cabbage
This insect was treated at some length in Professor 4ile Us annual
Report as Entomologist to the Department for 1883, and it will therefore
be unnecessary to go into detail here. I may state, however, that while
at the North there are probably but two annual generations, there are
at least four here in Florida. The larvT, are quite plentiful on cabbage
from the last of February to July, and again in the fall. The damage
(lone is very similar to that of the Plusia and is almost as great, al-
though it seldom attacks other than the outef leaves.
I have bred a parasite, additional to those mentioned by Professor
Riley ,which agrees with the description of Cresson's Limneria obseura.
THE CABBAGE APHIS.
(Aphis brassiew Liun.)
The Cabbage Aphis (Aphis brassicce' first described by Linnats, in
his "Systema Naturxr," is quite widely spread throughout this country
and Europe. It was undoubtedly imported into this country at a very
early day, for Dr. Fitch shows, by reference to the Transactions of the
-New York State Agricultural Society for 1791, that it was already
known as a cabbage pest at that early date, and at this day it has
spread to most parts of the world where the cabbage is cultivated.
,thod Plants-It is found on the Turnip, Raddish, Field-cress (Isatis
tinto ari), Shepherd's-purse ((Capsella b ursa-pastoris), Charloch (Brassief
arreiisis), Cabbage, and other cruciferous plants.
Here I found it on Cabbage, Turniip, and Raddsh.
ITS LIFE IIISTOnl.-Thie Young.-These are oval, about .01 inch in
length, and of a greenish-yellow color, without the mealy coating of the
Iluckton, the British authority on the Aphidithe, thus describes the
jih plcrs Viriparous Fmoia .- dy lolng, oval; plentifully covered wkith a m hitish
Imiealy coat, both on the upper nnd undsi. When this is removed by a drop of
spirits of wine the body below is g iiicv-gren, ith uight black spots ranged down
eac' side of the back, which increase in :ize as they approach the tail, Anteinav
Urtc(11 with black tips, shorter thaut the b d. Eo s a( leSc blaclc. Coriicles very
-shrt atd black. Tail also small atnd black.
Iilgc, 'i(I/,rao I -,lc. ead, nckk aind tliorcic lob1es black, Anenna anld
nvet aries dark brown. l> es lack. Rest of t1t bodS yellowish-green. Abdomein
ithL a row of linC p1ctu~eS oi ech1 ~lterll ege, ith several obscure transverse
dorsal marks. Legs dky Ybro'xn, pilose. 'tail dark- green or Browi ; hairy. Cor-
ldvh-i' I w Irt :Ins I e a I[ tIs, I i t:, I I' tsp I I Iii ~- l II, hi i I I t ss I i s I st I I)-
Ow s I 'l i I--:i in, I 1 I ,! ,-~ NI s ler sle- a%% Iisss ;ip li i in t I
spr InIIg In lItI I il l~i It In ot, Iu ie I~s It I- Il- I Ihe Ia 11111e IIII 1
I Iist jI III IIt ifi a d I I I I s s bj t Io Ih IaI I 1 4 1 of t l I i It Ii r 1 .~ I Ii I II
It, I 1e s.
Tht, I a Y Ire t I n I n lulN Ion IIII t he I I I r an i 15's vU ~I f..11 1a of V Ie
Ilea C; ot h cIIIIi I I II inII tIe \ w i tI 11e ail I F ls IoI I t e I I I I" e I' I I o w ii at
i ts Ia~ I; d Ioe;I n1 41 thIIe s'f stI i K.
I IIc kto II)IIS.aIys : ) It I t -Ie upper anId it Il er SPIdrs it' I lie CoiLl -'I- Ii T Which
last Idant f f1by"Swu "byma(u a, it Iiniel IT i'\ 1s in Nil iii n ii that t li
leaves beclilli hilllci by tI UN Ii iaq m iass. I ndles Solilet i lisl weight
for weight, there is Illre aniil t han vcmeib le suiltstaniev prt-sent Theu
IlceI%-(eS the I ecI e tput I ,-o IIIIr id Ifcsv In o il r, ;atnd t qIu iteud s p I u t i inig Ito t lieo
It is selou that plant mme si) badly in fenod inl Florida as slcspril sAs
bY this author, alt hougli sotilte car, a g~o I (f iile otltl Ol i i taf~
that 11,d1 beenl left go to seed-1 ill all Ild cabbage pat Ich so) all~t-k -Ol.
Every Stalk was literallyv Cs() veril, prlie oill filled one unl
another, with living", punipi ng, slimly alifi us, renleh-d,1 Siil-11 by t li exid
ing s$ip of the plan1ts. I \\ as nnlidmu to tilli ak po)It ilil 44 tt li t al l with-
out Ily fingers being ovrdwith the Slinmy, viseid m1as's.
Nattiral Eni'mics ane Piroslh \;- Fort unately, ill Fia wisla, thle sp secioes
has very many natural cnemnis and pairasites wsh ih keep it fona i limen
ing very rap~idly.
Ill Europe, too, it has (eVeral parasites. MAW tn mention, a (Wwirn,
aI MwrpIron, and a 715myr ( 7'. rapa ( 'nrt is) as hiav ing beit fired l iuin it
in Europe; also "several species of -yrphitilwe anil I Is-lit iwo: isl at,
effectually as checks uponl the ilicrease oftit. b)-a s The Iarv t*
thIIe fo rmei vr dip1)teI-r o tus fI i I s, li v in g i n I W t dIs t o t sutic I11) let y. ~Shs ()4 orge 1U -
thellselves anid become ()I groat Sizi."
Trionyx rapwrCurtis has ak~o ben W&ei trou it in this tomint ry. It mms
reveivetl at thv Ihepartnent 101mbrav 27,1S Ism romi Nsorfsl ~, i- allid
redescribed by Mr. re Sswl ill the Annullal Eeport, .S I- )epat lit Ag-.
riculture for 1g79, page 21knas it new speie". Ahmurq piAv uvs M R-fsor
RilIIey bred it at 'S.aIinIt Lo InIs, I o. as early a4 1 S71. a! ps I I ha ve bI" t I hrr
in grca t quantit ies in M1 ay, Juneic and~ J it1
It is one( o(it Ow Principal clieeks in tepihi Ii w~pst w ithini Iiunrds.
and but few of the Aphisl e-.cale its-tng
Brit there are, It her p,1r.1i I s : x us belsI'm I g-ive delscri Pt im11 ot sev-
eral others fired heewi cl r 1 pailltl le; i a" Aoeti lllesrcw'i bcd.
,rho rearing-w ;I al iarisic C 111:is ftwom t ilis SpecilSs is 10ihe linterest-
ing, i nasmc as t he v hAlsK s of ha x ) f oi I-' -,picies atre %i ntit. I -p
to t he present t ilm .1 Urt (eIw 1A.; t l'i tli and1 ;mlAI. lln i A shIn.
are the only Cymipid hroil froil A philiss ill Northl America.
TIE CAIIBArG FArS ALLOTRIA- IAlot ia brassica u. Sp.-FEMALE. -Length. 0i unch.
Black, highly polished, face and vertex of head testaceous; cheeks broad, convex.
antennie 13-jointed, long, pale yellowish-brown or yvllowish towards base, becoming
brownish or infuscated at tip; thorax smooth, parapsides distant; scutellum small,
round, convex, with a deep transverse groove at base; wings clear, pubescent and
fringed with short cilia; veins yellowish, the radial area closed; abdoluen globose,
with the second segment hut slightly longer than the third, highly polished black,
but more or less testaceous at base and at vent, and a clump of whitish hairs at base;
legs honey-yellow ; in dry specimens tawny-yellow.
MAL.E.-TheC male is of the sarne size or slightly smaller than the female, and is easily
recognized by the 1.4-jointed autenvae; the third, fourth, and fifth joints almost equal
in le ngt h, and all are excised outwarly; the testaceous spot on vertex of head is not
so apparent; the pleura are nore or less testaceous and the abdomen is ovate.
Described from several srpechiens bred from June 6th to July 15th.
TIE CABBAGE Apnis PACHYNEUnI-IUNPahyneuron aj pidirora n. sp.-FEIMAL-
Length .04 to .05 inch. Head, metallic green suffused with purple and purplish
black on vertex ; slbagreened, the sculpture coarser beneath eves; mandibles large,
trid]entate; eyes purplish-brown ; antenwt brown, pubescent, scape and pedicel
darker: thorax pulrp'lish-black with bronzy and cupreous reflection, finely reticulately
sculptured; scapuh~e, golden green ; scuielInn prominent, conve-x, rounded; meta-
thorax finely wrinkled ; aldoinen flat, oval, blue-black, metallic at base and with
bronze tingings towards apex, darker beneath; wings hyaline, iridescent, pubescent
excepting at base; veins pale yellow, the thickened marginal vein brownish, the
stiginal slightly longer than marginal ; along outer edge are seven long hairs legs
pale yellowish, coxse black, interior and middle fernora d usky near base and along
upper and lower surface, at least two-thirds their length.
Described from several specimens bred June 6th.
TnE CABBAGE APHIS ENCYRTID-E)ICYrtH aph idiphagus n. sp.-FE--F ALE-LenTtb
.06 inch. Ilne-black. Head sblagreenedi, face arid ouohth parts blue, the facial impres-
sion is very deep), eyes brown; ocelli region gre'nisli; antennae brown; thorax shag-
reened in wavy curved rugosities, hind margin metalliegreen ; abdomen bronzed, blue-
black; wings hyaline, marginal vein short ; legs honey-yellow, all feinora brown ex-
cept at tips, a large brown blotch near base of tibiwi, terminal tarsal joints dusky.
Near Encyrtas subhtus Howard but the color of the legs will at once distinguish it.
Described front several speci mens.
TInE CABBAGiE APHIS SYRPHUS FLY-A llogr-apta oblique Say.-The
larva or miggot of this fly has been taken feeding oil the "Cabbage
Apbis," and below I give description of its various preparatory stages:
Te E'gg.-Pearly white, long oval; .03 inch in length, deposited on the leaves
among the Aphids.
The May got.-t is difficult to distinguish this from many other Syrphid larva .
The full grown larva measures .25 inch in length, cylindrical, tapering anteriorly to
point; it is perfectly smooth, a translucent green, and the viscera are plainly discerni-
ble, variously shaded, dark greei, yellowish or brownish ; the jaws are black; the air
vessels, which are visible on either side through the body walls, become contiguous on
last segment, where they are connected externally with two small warty spiracles.
The luparhi .-Tbe puparium into which the maggot transformis resembles a Cone,
,with the side attached to the leaf, lattened and held in place by a viscid substance
secreted by the larva ; its anterior end broad and -well rounded, gradually Dar-
rowing posteriorly; at the end are still to be seen the two warty tubercles. Color
yellow-brown, with occasionally darker shadings.
Front tht i lt ] 1;I rilII 4i t o f lls ti* I Ii cI t Ie olo i ariit
1.r 1i I, s n L P'~ ki I ~ Iop~ a \ Ip I~ I:) '
ya rv 'i o~, : a r eiii i oI-k 0 1 I Ar~ Ii1. t ij . It! 1 ~ 1, 11 1 1 0 1 m l a i
piali I rox a; 1 11 1 a 1 W 11a 1-uia 1 a m 1 ~ 1, 1ii r0 Ion Il thh I Io I I I
'NI LI I~tn t ,, i jt I '. I II I Io i 1 1 1
I II v r i eI fia ii NIr, I I -w'- a I r I i 1i I hI f t i "ip s 1 awl m olo IF 01 .g
will (11i igt~ll It I ton It hIr't a al 111 ,t l
Beside's the abotve) laitets I here is a ,Iall Allnciii' I tht Joe p1 (At
the Gabba-e Aphiis, N i/, fo n u rififlii.
OTHEIZ INSFC]' Jt7NI) ON ('XB VI N IA htIID A.
A Centipede Jlubts mnuli'driall.s '1y, a (7riorket woda"I"'m N na
Scudder), the 'Solt hern ('ai iagtr I Wt ht' Hyv (1$(jj it -oloodir.' I oiSf the
Large C'abbage Btutterfly ( P'i, )ri's 1' s/ t he (>allbage Mainit''st a
(.1lamt'stra chemUp)(Iii A hin. ). thle zetil a It labkl _e Worin ( ( 'crmic picti
Hamrris), tile (,;tbb;ge 1Piolwei Piomfl a blonuslA 6nsnt. lioe (7an lower.'ci
Botis I k Btis ropotlil (rotem, The II aliviuinl ('abbage Bi~g 311irmiian
histrionica HahnI.), and ()t herz.
iNSE(ITS kFEFECTI NG ('M"'N.
The latewess of the weasit at which~ I began uly investigtitinbs pow-
eluded me front studying in-sects dIep)edatti~g this crop ill it, e ti icr
growth ; colltllnitly' ioth ing unan be report ml "f the cubviwris anl
bores that do so imiich iim r'y to this crop in carl spring.
THlE C ORN WORM.
(Hlioth;,S(UIf ariietw ld~jbi.)
This welIlknown in:istcct has Wen very Ilent i ftil andt hijiliuinQ in
Florida during t-e jiast sceaswl. -Not a field of corn w as hre Wrn its
attacks, alld bIna few perfect ear's could be foun rd that Were not lorc~d
into In- this pest.
From ears tken froml a1 (irlt near .1 acksoitvi li I olittainl Wi n Alu -ghlt
to a dozen wortins in each e,;- andi omt of the m halt pach hardly an car'
could I", 1ound Ithot haid less ilihai tI or three Worm inl it.
The insect is trcated in Oil in thle Miurth I ep t t)ft ilie J S. lEnit
mlological ('oni ili:. sioln, ;111(i a repoktitioni tif its lf'-itr.hbsanld
ren)edies are nit nlecess-ar he re.
Its In plrws?- l'not' ill Ius inIljuries ;r I cn4)I tI tte byv th I om I Iol
fieds of earn King almost ent irey Whet roye\ d 1by it. The eggsA are lai
oil tile leaves, and Ithi e ong lrv' which hatch I lerr i_, cini by
eating the heaves. Ina I hey, smut leave tlhesi and woe lilt() the 1(ender
ears, gnawing mid eaitin_, thiem ill :dl li rct ions so t ha t frciuewltl -
hardly a perfect ear ton be found. At I imnes it is also founntl at lit,
base of the tassel, feeding on the accumulated saccarhine juice, found
there, just before the tassel emerges from its sheath.
The worms will not only gnaw irregular burrows and feed on corn
while in the milk, but the mature larve are known at times to continue
feeding on mature hard corn.
I have taken on corn two hemiptera or bugs which probably prey on
the worm, although not detected ill the act-the Wheel Bug (Prionidus
cristatus L.) and E-uschistus servus Say. From the egg I bred Tricho-
gramma pretiosa Riley, already noticed; but no other parasite has been
bred from it by me.
THE CORN MINING FLY.
A mining fly larva is quite frequently met with, making long irregular
mines on corn leaves, and while I have not been able to rear the perfect
fly, yet I am satisfied it is the same species mentioned by Prof. Com-
stock, in U. S. Agricultural Report for 1880, page 245, as Diastata sp.
Several specimens of a parasite, agreeing tolerably well with Mr.
Howard's Entedon diastatw, reared from it at the North, were also bred
from it here.
MISCELLANEOUS CORN INSECTS.
A Hemipteron (Oebalus pugnax Fabr.) was found in considerable nunm-
bers feeding on corn pollen, along with a Capsid and several flies. A
fly (Ortalis sp.) is common on the stalk, but was not observed to do any
injury. A common beetle (Allorhina nitida Linn.) was taken, with head
immersed in the ear, feeding on corn while in the milk.
OTHER INSECTS INJURING CORN IN FLORIDA.
The following insects also injure corn here: The Corn-stalk Borer
(Diatrwa saccharalis Fabr.); the Corn Bill-bug (Sphenophorus robustus
Horn.), and the Angoumois moth (Gelechis cerealella) and several Cut
Worms. From the tassels I have taken the larve of Yola sorghiella
Riley, and in the crib the Corn Weevil (Calandra gralnaria).
INSECTS AFFECTING THIIE TOMATO.
The cultivation of the Tomato for Northern markets is a rapidly grow.
ing industry in Florida, particularly in the southern portions of our
State; and thousands of boxes are now forwarded by our growers to
Northern commission men every season.
It behooves us, therefore, to keep a watchful eye on the insect depre-
dators of this fruit, for we may naturally expect, with the extension fi
any horticultural industry, a corresponding increase of insect pests.
Fortunately, no serious damage done this plant by insects has been
reported this season, and, while I have been unable to visit West and
outli Florida, thp semtios in whictl. t he illialo is Inuore cxt vwsivcly cn[l
ivated, yet studies oti insects infkstng it i gardens mitt- Jairksonville
Vill, I feel assured, prove of, inte-rest.
THE TrWIAT() WORM.
(Sphinxr Corotina Linn.)
This is a well-~known insect, colillioll it] all tonlato, pat'Aws. ;ltlighu,
heilothiinton which it transtormIs is sloml st-ci, anid rciilli totally 1tin-
uown to the grnat nIixoiy if (mr thMiners. Whin i pint clII t htm t hit:
he wortm will changes into at largc mnodh, nline tilles ouit oIf ti1 thcv (-
ress surprise and think it it imst "iorr ii pun.e of iimnthun.
Distribution-It is uiegnrlyisrutdth rotighomtit til he Un tcd
Waes, MIexiq the NVest Wndest am!d is tiot tunc~toii iii Smith
Food Pi'nts.-It fWds onTomato, 1otato, Jmupom wcnd IO~awshu-,
ioniut), Egg- Plaint, Tohacco, anid otherl plants. I took s~ w~i ient's t ho
ast. season feeding on Poke-brry (Rlirina hr~)
ITS L1 IAFX ~ ,-A ELO.-Tlu egg ii sphrmid, jcfwll stlmpillh, ld (IVl o
0110wi-slgrevil il l er d11 I a IIt r aF IW tt ( ,7 i I H .
The Larra.-Whcn ftill grown it i la'olrc o.,er thre-(e illch( ill 11 ngr. The hc-ad,
Ad Imiy cire dark grnwn, intersper~cd w~itli trtekh-hit :l it I- rier~l
rinkleil; obplique white 4or --rcenih-whito laterlal banlit cmnd fri-il 11l,11111 10 ~P -
ices edged abowit h l bllni ,I andi short trhv-s la( k lilts. Th., pirj wlt.-. r
Ptilng Ithle fillSt and( lst, are- le lit a yelwdot t-o anld brlll ;0l eAd
itli blue, till first amni last orange. ef. w The "hhili4 ;11 and 1 teminll1 roI-I I 11t 1
3lOW Witth yellow;: the, caludal hornl i redii-bro% it towards tip, mnd the t- t are
Mitt% ed4git'l With black.
The Ptopa.-lxn-Iig one inc h and a hialf. D~trk ii.ihhr~ \s i ih c-:irs pim( -
I rC oil abdoi nal st'guilc tl ;. a eac e I l 4I t-I I ndI PIIa t hic4- K IIIIIg to I -a I, ro
iitp reaching t o till of abdollen.,
Tile mnoth is a1 mottled gray species, with orange spots almng the lmody,
nd has too often bwe Hguned amnd descri14d I" needl dvsrrijaion here.
Its Ininmris.-Whenm plentiful the inrjit uy don, is colni tlral dc a rid ge
ire shoulhi be taken to removed and destroy theml. They c;at the leaves
nd tenderer and terial shoots, Avrequently st ripping the plant bare,
hereby the plant is tillable to b)reathie or1 mnatur fruI 'Iit.
Natioral Enciic wrid Vaaie.lhave ibservwd a spewies 4f Wasp
Irrying otr the young wormis to provisioll its nvest. I t is- also prohbablv
mat the Microaster and Blacas that attack its nearest ally ( Nphin~r
mactibita) will be found par'asitizing this wvorml.
A Tachina fly, a species Ill lbtsicecr,, has beeni bired fromil it ill the
north by Prot. Riley Four'th Miss-onri Entomological Reoport, pae129i).
3 June I bred fKomitAs eggs Tricho!Irwinin pr-etioti Hiley, aI gencrall egg
iasie already noticed. anid it species of' 7clews. Of' the foriner three
Ssix specitnemis issnedl from each egg; fro the lilt [VI t WO to four11.
I submit a description of the Teleas, which is apparently new:
TIIE SI'IIxx EGG TiLEAS-Telea8 bpthingqi n. sp.-Length,.04 inch. Black, smooth,
and polished. iead large, much broader than thorax; antenna 12-jointed, dark
brown, sparsely pubescent, the scape barely reaching to the head ; pediel much
stouter and larger than first funicle joint, which is small; other joints slightly in-
crease in size to club, which enlarges and widens considerably, and comprises five
joints; the antennae in male are more flagellate. The thorax is ovate, smooth, con-
vex, and sparsely covered with microscopical pubescence.
Under a very high power the head and thorax show a microscopical reticulated
No parapsidal grooves; the scutellum is separated by a deep groove at bass and has
some wrinkled ridges; metathorax rugose. The abdomen is very flat ovate, and
somewhat carinate laterally; on first segment there are three deep transverse, puuc-
tate grooves, and the second segment occupies most of the upper surface; surround-
ing the tip are a few hairs.
Legs clavate; femora and coxw black or very dark brown; tibine brown, with tips;
tarsi and trochanters yellowish or tawny; wings hyaline, hairy, and with a distinct,
rather long, stigmal vein.
Described from numerous specimens bred in July.
Remedy.-For destroying this worm no better method need be wanted
The worms are large and conspicuous, easily seen, and no difficulty
will attend their destruction. The best time for searching for them is
in the early morning and evening; during the middle of the day the
majority oft them will be found hidden under trash and in the ground
at the foot of the vine.
THE TOIATO-STALK BORER.
(Gortbna nitela Guen.)
This insect is comparatively rare in Florida, although I have noticed
it several times the present season. It has been so often treated in the
reports and in popular articles as to need no extended notice here.
THE TOMATO APHIS.
(Megoura solani Thomas.)
In some cases brought under my observation this year, this Aphid
did considerable damage to tomato vines, particularly in the early
Distribution.-It is pretty generally distributed throughout the
United States, although it has not been reported, that I am aware of,
west of the Rocky Mountains.
Its Natural History.-Prof. Cyrus Thomas described the species in the
Eighth Illinois Report as follows:
Ifinged IFenole.-Antenow 7-jointed, a little longer than the body; first and second
joints short; third and seventh longest, nearly equal ; fourth a little shorter than the
third; the lifth not quite as long as the fourth; sixth about half or less than half
the length of the lifth: tublercles prominent. Honey tubes extending beyond the
abdonen, excessively enlarged in the middle, and expanding at the tip in trumpe t
Sh: 114 Trai I ol' mnoilmR 'I tq I h ; ni I 44UI'- Ill I1 -I .t h1' '11.' I I tii 11-1 )l. II,
M~ings as "wi-0 i" MphmT h" I."ll A %"" 'I -i'' 11- ,i. 11 LtI 14 '14 N4V
Wo k au out wpwll di'lAllf Iti t rn [W\ AI)II (111111 Ii i g I4 .I. 141 r it
Ne l sN r 'hill i I l I.II th '1n'. ( I'v\,.1 I 1~~ I~ I tI I. I~ 'I 1 I- I !
il a th e ll r lw lc I~ 111w', l hN th. :ilu, 1h It, Ip Ill,[ I I In ~ i t h
nea e to ) Ith Iri I Ap x it' lii 4. rill ; [lit .1 1444I I I I i I I i l 1,'' 11 n t i
joii II Ilc i I n ti~ oiii Ili' gl i 111 a\ 114 :'4 I'~ I I I in 41 1 14.1 1t II fI
le s pI I -, d 1rk It t 1he 1 kue ;m t; I I I I I
I I I-~o g t E.iim In )o m I. 1r~ p0 14 M FMI i Ii ~I 1.1 Ar~ ii "1 Ti T, I I I I I
InidllI o1f t Il iackI\ wi Ii p a e I' Ii il I4~ Ile iieI 1-' 11 1 ib I I
I [ avAL w I It is ; I as Ir aneil: gr,, f' A 1 it I'% I .c1 1 ii~ i" IV1 t I I11 VI~ 1
t Ie 1oi ts :11 At t~l 11 4 4 h 1'il4' V ~ ~ lro.i: 'o rig'' ~ Ii 1 111V
TailI sli Ir t, v(1oIi c I, re ih
The stuninotr lbroml oft this sjwrik- are v i i)a nmis, hut w eems n
a fall ,sexual brocolt ailing 4I\iplarml,- follale2s which, do-p)sit vLg,
fronlt Nkilih hatchl the cally spring l-oolk
Its binjltviv.-This SpeCcies la inst Wootelle in thet ga~;rdet lit Oii. L
Thv Colonel drew my attention to son", Airkly tomato a inov- and,
showed mue othkrs that Imad died and ask(d ]fet w\hat Nia, lit-e m't hrv
with themn. All cxamlinationl revealed the Apisalong the steln >ltalkI
and on some of thme leaves amd i owe nnvi that titess l iwl, creatuires
were like cause of, the ti oulde. Their puncettirve ha-I a ;Istr i
blighting uffvct on the Owne andl the leaves endi 1 "M a thr.
Xatultwl Envmic. old I'l t.I-ite s.-I deo ectedl Ihe laraj l, 1 ae.w~~
(Hocrrbiox) andI cvrtai SQvMWt fading uIon them ; AlSO hn4d Aunt
thle il twNo winter 1.1a1 r 1;1 Iit( IS as follohw \vS
iU~ i I Ar Ix A .)r In A I (Intu In 0 /0 H 1 .- F.1M ~.I l44 -1 4' 41 1 4'll ".
Black, shining-. Fa e tr, tAi'e ; '1t 1n 1 ilong 13)I j lI I II t I Ii l~ I iI 1 i I 4I1,11 1 414.
yelo w i 1111S k aLt II ft'III I IN it I kI 1 4 it eigh to Iip th nl -,iot Ihiin '.e te I
hI l; o al1, con i t I1 1bd me ),1 1*' li 'ILIIt i ;I c 4 'i in ;'Vrt kilk 1 h Ilts, l eg,~ 41.1 1k1
holley-yelIlk v ; \ w i t1 i in c, ci Ii aIted ,I, 1 ,u 4 % ,i' y l I~i
Desetibed from ono speinwmn bred Maly 261th.
T II T o NI k --, vI Aru I- I \ ()I III,- v I ii"L i ,r,,~ ? I tqiil 11. 11 .-M %i T' I I 'Ix I I
L.e 1g t h ft'I Il .0?! tA L, 1 i I I I t~id I I I u 11 1 1 ,1, I IIi.t 1 I I '' Lu ge : ,I i
c 0.a71, fakct ; N I I )I I t ck hi I)1 I I I t Il 12 1 -1 1 i 1 V 1' NNl I.4 Ith ,ir 4i44i
ill fetnall, in Ilale (, iN t \ N%..4 '.14ir' i r iti- ;ah .i i ,h 1 1 g lii Iri !,t
widenls It IIw a rlI ti I l femal" II r:rI I I I r I0 i I v : 'I 1 11 1 -1 ;gh h i_ i
female, 1righter ini nale, "it h ",n in4 h~n limrs -,11 li li Ihl:Ak' I'l M 40..iii ,
stokt, with lOn, hair At O Wie.; ".4 iNo- hyal tno en ir i 144i il nirgiiil ,,:! Nt
Sbo0rt ; le-S I i t I \ ii s h xG. Io~e 10ior V: p I1 tip In I I ra k tI I II:in it on 11~ e 11 1
of libir darker.
Described froin three speci me us.
JRemeiiwbz--Thuiso rccoaminendeci for ahmeAphis will be j(1< as
effect11alI fill thIIi s ,;I( c ies .
INSECTS AFFECTING THE EGG PLANT.
The .egg lant is comparatively but little cultivated in Florida, and
no serious injury is done it by insect pests.
The "1 Tomato Worms," Sphinx carolina and Sphinx 5-naculata are
both found on it eating the leaves; also a Tortrieid (I d a Tineid.
A Membracid (Acutalis cailva Say) is found on the stalk, a Blister
Beetle (Lpicauta cinerea irst.) in blossoms, and occasionally eating the
leaves; at times a small black jumping bug (Halticus bractatus Say) is
-very plentiful on both stalk and leaves, as well as Stictocephala in-
,ermis Fabr., and on the under surface of the leaves an Aphis,
THE EGG PLANT APHIS.
(Siphonophora cucurbitm Middleton.)
Distribution.-This species was first detected on Squash vines at
Carbondale, Illinois, May, 187S, by Miss Nettie Middleton, and deseribe~d
in Eighth Report Illinois Insects, page 67, and lknow of no other ref-
erence to it. The specimens found here on Egg Plants agree perfectly
with her description, and it is probably extensively distributed over the
Easter i United States on various plants belonging to the Cucurbi-
I quote her original description:
Tinged Specinenics.-Large aud green. Antennti very long, reaching to or beyond
the tip of the tail; third joint a little longer than the fourth; fourth about thesamte
length or very slightly longer than fifth; sixth not more than one-fourth or one-third
the length of the fifth; seventh longest; wings transparent; veins slender; the first
fork makes a very acute angle with the third vein; second fork rather nearer the
third vein than the apex; fourth veia curves sharply and approaiches somewhat
closely iu its middle to the first fork; stigma elongate and narrow ; honey tubes
long, slender, and cylindrical, extending beyond the tip of the abdomzen, but not to
the tip of the tail, about one-fifth the length of the body; tail long, subeonical, more
than half the length of the honey tubes (in the wingless speciimens). The fori of the
body in both the winged and wingless specimens is elogate andl fusiforul, the latter
being slighttly broader than the former. Leugth of body .10 inc, to tip of wing .18
inch,l and ,otie appear to even exceed this size; body green; ead paler, more or less
yellowish; thorax pale brownih or fawn colored or tinged with this color; abdomen
green, with a barker green median line; first awl second joints of the atiinnii pale,
third dark, seventh light, shades of light and (lark more or less alerrnating:; honey
tubes green at base, changing to fusepus at the tip; tail greenish; eyes brown;
Witylesi Speeiiieti.-Green, with few markings: Body slightly broader thau winged
specitnens, antd eiongate ovate; the abdomen tapering posteriorly to the elonai-tcid
tail, which is elongate conical, its length iwiore thn half and almost efalw to that ,'i
the hioney tubes. The honey tubes are long, sottewhat roblms and cylindrical; they
extend beyond the tip of the abdomen, although the posterior tapering segments are
much drawn out, but not to the tip of the tail. In most of the speciniIs examined
under a strong magnifying power they appear slightly andmi uiitely wrinled trails-
versely, or what may perhaps better describe the appearaue 3 pustuiate or scaly. The
11-ligth 'If hl),k 1 1.1 11 1iua l a i I 1 1 111t [[ ''1 in i i i. i .-., i 1, '111 Iii : t I C
alltd-11114, mlid Iun 141 i t h, h i I,-a I u. I ua I ill ~I I 11 1 ,~~ LAut I u u J1 I i
It0 I1JWetr x-I I is "n k i n rly- IP~ on g t It t I. I i I I t I I Jtn -' Iti
from tht Ipid a id I u I l ~ I ~ a Ii ad I It Ill, :Illd ki iv I Ia till I A
1 r te Eitii.. thill at1 (, at 1 1;I ik fotal [Ill i r't Io i tl pi a 1] I hill--
COU'Vinlilli'LL ;1nd41 1tairbil-~ ceA-n Io 1)11,c l a; -sill-1.a i I it Ii 1 h is
species ; b I t besides t II arSt. I on'd frtl( IaI it ;1 1p; 1 -,1,t i t '.\ ii pI I I I;, 4111\
Till. EI1.( PLAi Al [11t F(t iu o I A, k. cuth 111i)PI ... lJwr i p, M A\I I I.- 11"Il I GA-
i I I(A ; d Ir L, :,~~ba ; p I : I- l ii S11.110l -uuIuu- %Nh L1 I' I 1 1 1 1 11t-ll. 1~a g 111 TT
It ly: 1 .7)j inttu (I li Ii t'. I I h r Iuuu ,ui-u--t 1 l I I Itu Iu It~ lu
at nli uri iI on v t I II Ii I u uauru ih laia -tgu l Iutuu~~ Ii Ix t I~ t I 16 1 1 11l 111.
atl base : tx -,; '( )I I 1, 1' 1,tx rn 01 t 1,VITA it I I'r I urI .,- i-111' I) lt tiah- x 1ug 1, &t .- ~
described f-oan ow, s wcinenia, bred Mayx 31).
INSECT' AFFECTLNG 'rIIE 1111A..
There art, setieral intsects ditstnoVilig tho Ai- rt int Flot ia, Intl it w as
too late in the seaon m-hen I %eani my workl ", stutdy t hout in athe
field, tile Pea croIp b ;ing abott ()vvr
Crickets, grassimpp)~er.,. beetles. mid ja-;rpi ljHarS cut ad eat the.
leaves indl pods; bht I, far diet moist destruni is a root -taiaiaag All-
thoinyid tly, which ltiys uipon it, roots.
Its existemce is etady unsuspoeltd bq t hr grower, :andu I laupw ana-
other season will elinblW me to. thornughly work it up.
,rho maggots liore into and buirromy the root s nerar the crowu and taillt
a short tirne flourikhing and luxuriant vines ;a killed.
Our people attribute Ilhe cause to the htot weaitler, and Ivould ben suir-
prised could, they sethe larva- att work.
INSECTS AuFFw-riNm Tiri BAn.
The same general enmarks made in ro-gard( to itlsect ~ ot the Prca \i.ill
apply to the Beall also), mill. I hIIIve only hec-m ailr ti) N\ IIIk op)111 la it'(,
history of one liCut-wormn,"' takent while i te oc ato ill Jilte.
THE 111AN ( -OM
f 14 bsi~a rincola Guctnn,)
Tite mnoth of this specie, 11 1as lg beeta Iknlow 1t to colle-tor.,, but thecat-
er-pillar, I belie-ve, up1 to till present time recini-s unidrautitied ;and un-
Di.,dribution-Foulld grnicrafly spreald ovrthe 1-taited SI;Itvs (va:t
of the Rocky Mountains mid lin Cmmdt;al ;mud Oilr Wc:t itis Pro-
fessor Snowv reports it cotniniot itt Kaas i Florida it is- rre.
ITs LIFE IHISTORY.--The Egy.-Unknown.
T1'e Larra.-This in shape ant size very much resembles the Cabbage Worm (Plusia
brassico,.) and, like it, when disturbed draws itself up and has the appearance of a geo-
Imetrid larva. When full grown it measures one and one-tenth of an inch in length.
Pale green, with a wavy, yellow stigma line and a supra-stigma creamy white line
and two pale dorsal lines, 8 transverse black warty dots on segments with two more
on dorsum back of these, from all of which issue pale hairs ; on either side of the
dorsal black warty tubercles is an irregular yellowish line, and an indistinct yel-
lowish oblique line extending from the outer line obliquely between the first pair of
tubercles and last pair to the dorsal lines. The six true legs are pale, glassy, and
there are prolegs on ninth, tenth, and anal segments. Head green,'With sutural edges
dark anda few hairs at sides.
The l' a.--Lcngth, .42 inch; greatest width, .15; wing cases, .21 inch; pale yel-
low brown, the fifth segment rather strongly constricted anteriorly and widest; the
edges of all the segments anteriorly dark brown.
The Moth.-Wing expanse from one inch and ten-hundredths to one inch and fifteen-
hundredths. The fore wings are grayish brown, with a few short, indistinct, wavy,
lighter grayish lines interspersed; transversely across the fore wing near the outer
margin is a light gray or slightly yellowish band.
The hind wings are uniformly gray, fringed with short cilia; beneath, silvery gray
with numerous brownish gray scales at anterior margin and on fore wing.
Its Injuries.-The worm feeds on the leaves and the bean pods, some-
times stripping the vine bare.
OTHER BEAN INSECTS.
A Katydid (Phylloptera oblongifolia Dels.), a Buttertly larva (Euda-
mus proteus Linn.), and a Tineid are also found damaging this crop.
INSECTS AFFECTING THE SQUASH.
In Florida there are many insects found feeding on this plant; the
Cucumber Flea-beetle (Crepidodera cucumeris Harris), the 12-spotted Dia-
brotica (Diabrotica 12-punctata Oliv.), ajumping bug (Ialticus bractatus
Say), the False Chinch (Triphleps insidiosus Say), a Mining Fly (Oscinis),
and an Aphis (Aphis cucurbitc Buckton) are common on the leaves and
stems, but have not been observed to do much injury. The life histories
of and observations concerning the more injurious are given below.
THE SQUASIHI BUG.
(Anasa tristis DeGeer).
When this bug exists in quantities probably there is no more inju-
rious insect known to squash and pumpkin vines. The mature bug
hibernates in the winter under debris, old vines, dry grass, boards, &e.,
and from early spring to late fall there is a continual succession of
I have taken some specimens in mid-winter, on warm days, in old
fields and on fences.
Distributioln.--It is found generally throughout the United States and
luinacla; A111.S1 1l00eri imi. zond mn llf.\irl Mvll prba lo) c"" to
be nothing but a clinlatic. Ill vaitl lit rill ofl I hil N I'l o i i Iicct t
1T, 1AFM W IM' 11vy 149 gg ~ g L.w i~ l itJ h i~ ; ,, 1.1(1 11- ....m ..r flm1, f)lm'~
that vVII-I N tillil ]Il' ti hr m Id 11 1A ,A I : 1,o 1. f1 1 z i lll l 11 tl 1 1i m I t II 1lr 1,
goldien br4III/c. ho t ho4 IL d C C I t iiim 11 1111- t 11 A 1 i ig h v I a 11 11 1t 11 1 1,
111(11l' at h i_ 1- 041%S I I I II 11r 1tu 1 i t, Ni ItI It iti 1ltt 1t1
Tht L or i, f .- W Im' v i'~ ; m ( II a i bm ,I I1 11 1m hu -' hi mm Im I I 1f Ii ltlgalt l
thI Jo int ols i 1 I 1 3t~ 1rt htL j ry ti im, 1) li I 1 11 m igm~l I IIm I'i I, Ii m
it I II. I i~ I twto wI- l lmm v 1 mtg Ii %S) ,i I I
Its I) j 1rie t and (IIood I '/, it I- t I Il i'I I t Is ; ,tI t .I\, ;lii1111 '1 1 e 1 vt
to the Squash amd Pumlflpkin, although it is flot WiiiliaINt that other
ctleurbitaveons vines:- also) Sufllr frmfn it.
The bitg, punctures, the beaves and tilt stelu o t Ihe Ville, v'ansjIng hent
to wrinkle and wit her ; also) t he fruit.
The eggs are MI. in pmAcs, twenty mr thiry l ogtherown the~ ripper
or lower surface of tilt leaves. fastened to tilt le~af \\ ithi a Stic u' N ,I _Aley
substance. at night or just betbre dark, for 1111 ing tie day thv, ( di NguI II -
iug bugs seek Whetr in t le ground( or unfder trash at, the basec of the
It is curious to watch then comev Willh Kim their hlilinig Idas aq the
sun siks and darkness begins to fall. Brood aftrr h)10oid iiiah up1 kj the
vinel led by an older one, like the dlitlcrent corps )t' all warily Inla' cl to
the plarade ground. at roill toln. The~ vinne froun vN cr w here-Ot thle
ground under grass, trash, and boards. Iildeedl it i.s n-tollishinig tose
how soon Villei ;will he crowded with these bugsII w ie lbut a few hours
before not one could be found.
_Y01)11 J.rl nise (Ind Pirrtlsih s.-Birds anif ow Is, ou account of their
peculiar odior, will not Ied oil thein, and blcet hr a', anid spitlvrs,
which attack Caterpilla rs au!1d oilcr ineshunt it its ;a fof thing.
Fortunately, however, there aire para'sittes th~it prvyolli the gg ilIits
greatly dirninish it, although no iruthor thait I aw~ a ii ()I' at im is
this 13Mt It was therelI a sur prise i nml a gratla hcit ion tajr Me hell I.
bred three distinct parasite's fromil lit, eggs tilt pist, sIliner -a, Euipeh-
Inid, .1u Enlcyrtid, andl a Tvelenmiil.
TUn KIPt AMIl-rM 1X w, T LEN-4 --I Vi -mu, aam",, In, AT k\ if. I- I 1 0 l 1
11h l \, V I') mi 1 1 t11 wi tfm il I lf IiA'u tI':\ 1,111'' a I .C 1 il Ii '' 11 f jimt-
afltet1i1 Ii f' i!o I a N t' l 1 2 ttit d hii I II Ih :m'L lr III1 i 1ii~m, 1.,lt
l~ro~~ru lt'g~ Imb' ltlox ii'o\ I'I ll himm\%i mmI l m iik llttlii i m i~l
~tth-onvmx ahi ehiglI3 mll%.- 'i'al,:im ~l ~,i d 1, i mii" ilhd'
S0111(1\11at hlilortl. ] u '.lx~im,1 l gl ~' ~ il~,jio rIT I mfi, 11-
g I al I N v ry s 14 1 t r 111:i i ll: I 1 ug 4 t 1 1t 1 1 it 1 t ~ I I I mm r t m .i t 1 'm i
4l1on sIg tI a Ie~ nirgia I I a'h I ~
Ne ribk f'ro ) 1 11 r m N I IkFII PCCtil-uli br'm I Ii ii'l L I
About [th1i rt y We cent of t I i egsclt s r mi~ it i'ly t ~ is
T i c S S U.lm tAm Lsk sU i tl-Lm t'it mu ii tj V Ni i- i z-~ ig i
i n eht; rol u st : ; l ia 11)4 i I bI i-la I k I m tI I i itm I If Im It 4i 1 1 u 1 mvmui
t IIe v ery Ia rge 1 1t Ir.u I :I t I '~'k I rt t''mhml dim uitflii ,iii lm'z' Iam RmI i t i
scape at base and tarsi yellowish. Therfemora have a large bluish-black blotch in the
Described from two specimens.
The Reduvius Egg Eupelmid-Eupelmus redurii Howard.-Seven
specimens of what I have identified as this species were bred from Anasa
eggs in July.
For a description of the species see Canadian Entomologist, Vol. XIIT,
TIIE SQUASH BORER.
(Eudioptis nitidalis Cramer.)
The worm so commonly found with us boring into squashes, at the
North goes under the name of Pickle Worm." There it is found eat-
ing the leaves and boring into the fleshy portions of the Cucumber.
Distribution.-It is found in the West Indies, throughout the United
States, and in Canada.
Food Plants.-As a borer it is found in Squash, Cucumbers, and Mel-
ons, but it will also feed on the leaves of all of .these vines. The moth
is very common and it must have other food plants; Guenbe mentions
a species of Potato as its food plant.
Its Injuries -The worms bore cylindrical holes into the Squash, and
feed on the fleshy pulp, causing it to rot and decay.
P'arasites.--From one of the pupe I bred a Chalcid fly, Chalcis ovata,
S.iy, but no other parasites are known to infest it.
Reinedy.-Professor Riley, Second Missouri Entomological Report, p.
70, suggests overhauling the vines early in the summer, and destroying
the first worms that appear, either by feeding the infested fruit to hogs or
cattle, or by killing the worms on the spot."
THE SQUASH VINE BORER.
(Mlelittia ceto Westw.).
This well known insect, unlike Eudioptis nitidalis, does not bore into
the Squash or fruit, but into the stem of the vine, often killing it.
I have taken two or three borers at a time from a single stem, and in
confinement they proved to be cannibalistic-feeding upon one an-
other-as was exemplified with some 1 attempted to rear this summer.
No borers were observed in the vine until July.
D)istribution.-Found generally throughout the United States.
Food Plants.-Its attacks are almost strictly confined to the Squash,
although it has been reported to bore at times into Pumpkin vines.
ITS L IFE IIsTonY.-The egg.-The egg is oval and of a dull red.
The Larra.-Full grown larve measure from one inch to one inch and a fourth.
Somewhat depressed, fleshy, soft, tapering at each extremity; segments ten in num-
ber, very distinct, the incisions being deep; the eleventh or last segment minute, and
hardly distinct from the tenth. Iead retractile, small, brown, paler on the front, and
with the usual V-like mark on it. First segment or collar with two oblique brown
marks on the top, converging behind. A d(lark line, occasioned by the dorsal vessel
Iu t II ~I I -, s i I ~ I II I IIr I I I i'i Ia I I i r Ii' ii~ a ,,,. --, I r ti I I I I I i I
by 1 1a,h r I n s I ~I I~ 11 11 lwi o I t i t llo, ,\ill r, 1i 1, 1 r I i i. i' IIItII
0 1 4 tv ,fI- 'it Iva I' Iiia j Iu- Iia Iia i ir'I I 1 1 1 t I I iiI I il~ I~i
\r wn 1 in1 ai4 6,i'.iir't NV SIl hi, 11ig 1111 -- Ii ii. I i tlt'
griuThc boh. N ~~i n, P v pawo, i~ wti a w!i v yia tilhl Nji~op iK A
hrtw Il II l ur i i 4S I I A V n t Ia "'i I r A I n lr- I II : h l1 t lil A hI Ii, iIi i:k i I I i I I
fig r e, bak patpi p; itu \Ni I tt. i o o iith-1 I i'g k1 tim igtzIi r i ; I '1,1\ a
Sid,' With black, ;tltnd aI h,- otatif i ti hNlW a 1g'ialridh1ii~ 'a i~i
with Whit" hiairs. 1hrriis.)
Its Injuries.-The feinale Tioth l ml v_-egg on thet Jim. near the
root.-; the W01-11 Whlih 111 tclies. I hxI'I 'uril) 1"" in" I) a in h'wils' on the
soft Succulent interior of, the shem, 11.11til'lily xt its uig oi -1 inear thle
groulid, and at tile h.1so of t ho lea vces ; fre 1ue1it11 1 lw1,i snil the
worm borv.- even into the Llrgerlea'ii. It nii ail.. be dIctectri
at work by the withering of the leaves and stein.
Parasites.-t know of nol pmra,;ites bredl I'-ofn this borer'; alt hiolIgh I
have, a large, beallti I'l] golden green lPteiial in capt ured oix the
vines, that may poissily prove to Qe its parasite ; others w er- seev oil
the vine or its vicinity.
Remnedics.-The following suggestions and remedies will be find ue-
ful in I (est roy-i ng- the1 pest :
Cutting out the larrw'.-This inethod has been long in "Y, 1W garden.
er, and with a Ilit tlIe practice one soon becomes (It doe expe rtII I detecting;,
and removing the larva-.
Bilphide (!f Garbon in thie (Grolmd.-Prof. C. V. l~iley first suggested
the use of this insecticide in destroy ing grapew llb loxci anid I'rut. A.
J. Cook has since used it successfullly ill destroying; this borer, ]I(-
says: "a small hole is mnaie in the earthi near the natin rio of the
plant by the use of a walking-sick 4w other rod, and about a tea'sioonhfill
of the liQnid pomred in, when the hole is quickly fillc(l withl calrthi andi
pressed. down Qy the foot.- In every inotanuce On! insecs were killed
without injury to tilt plant.
Gats-limc.-Fresh gai,--ii, liberally dlistributedl, Ater the removal of
the crop, will kill the krc within tilt cocoonls. It is well alsol t4 o l.
low Professor Lintner, who -a~ ~ An infted c;iop ,hxoilld not le
followed by anotherr tupomi tile samle grouild.-
Trcatnwnt irith aItpet-- Four tbeontl i ssolvedl ill a pail
of water, and about a quart applied to each 11 11l%%hero anl attawk was
noticed and the leaves \Nerc wilting, at till tilme \\e li-the vinecs wore
just beginning to rn icily, W ecualyV arr0,tedl thw attack andl a fino
crop followed." (coun try (; r0lemm?.)
INSECTS AFFPECTING THE MfELON.
a borer and an Aphis-both damllaging the crop annuallyg to the extent~
of thousands of dollars.
THE MELON BORER.R)
(Budioptis hyalinata Linn.)
In July the melon crop> (Cantaloupes and Iunsk-melons) is almst
totally destroyed by the injuries committed by this worm. By the end
,of the moth hardly a melon canl be fonud that has not been bored into
by this destructive pe~st.
Il~stribution.-It is a common and extensively distributed species over
North Aerica, the WTest Inies, and South Amarerica. Giene lso
recors havingr receivedc it from French Guiarna.
Its total annihilation is devotly ished for by growrers andl lovers of
good melons, andl a preentive from its attacks grreatly desired.l
ood Planzts.-In sevreral instances I hae taken the larvfe inl Sq~uash,,
but it is almost exclusively coiifinedi to the Mlelon. Fromt twvo to six:
wrms have beenPPI takenP1 frm a single nutmegIIIPC melon. Guenrle states it
is found in PumplIkis, NSatermelons, and~l other encurbitaeous plants.
NOow, I have neer yet found a borer in W;atermelons, andi the staeut eu
that this worm! is found in this fruit must; Be taken cum11 graiio salis.
Tltr ra)-a.-LeD~-ntlleiibrit-tenfths ofaii ine. Color trausla\I( ent green or pale grreeir-
ish-yello, ith the licadl and cervical shield yellowish ; tie jaws- and snrroundiiuP
of mouth parts blackr; frocm both sidesu of had issue somae line hairs; the st irrniata are
yellowrish ; the waxrty tbercles on the differentffsegients are arranged as iii the l aiva
of Eit~diophs lidali8, its Derest ally. only they are nteitber so prominent nor black, ;
btlt green, andi the hairs iSSninllb4 therefrom are very fine and almost invisile to the
nakedl eye; thle legs are the same in both species.
Thle Papla.-Thisli is Iong andlt slender, seven-twelfths of an inch in len-th, yellow--
brownt, darkere, andt tampering to a pointt at tail ; the wing cases are Iong and rather~
nrrowr, and the anttennal case is vcery Iong, projecting beyeond the ba,,-e of thre th
ventral Secjirlteu. All the segroents are well separatel, mricoscpally rii-ose and
ri~kled. The pupat is generally iuclosedl il a, loosely-wo~en web or coc()oiiiijade byS
41rawin- a leaf togreter. Blt this is Ilot alwaysy the cas. IEL t\Vo hitances T fo'lud
tlte plipa, loose in the so~t pulp' of the ielou, in tile juiciest portion, awl i c ws 41 nite
lively, twristing its abdomen from sidle to side ;lnd wriggling about like a thing Of
I'Bhi, xoth.-Wingo expanse from one inch and one-sixtht to a little over. The aihgps
ae trantsloent, perly white, iridescent, a with a t ylossy brown-black bo r~rler; theh
abdomlren is also perly white, ex eepti ng the last two segaents aboveeiwhicharc blarck-
iah, atlld en(IS iD a trift of hairs or expande d brushl, of a, buff color, tippedw ith white
aInd black; tile beada~nd tile i~horaxa!boe are browrn-blaci, glossy; the le(-s are wiit('
exce~ting the fore-tbiglis anllI tibi, which are dicooredi above writhl bufft'oored
scles; iiiilllle tibi~e arrtued with two spnes, oneo longer than the, other; po-,terior
tibi.L Qimilarly ared, but with anl additional pair in the middle, beneath..
I Is 1i It )rit's. TI1, l .a. x ~ g Iy -a I g 1 he ..a I etIIt, A\ :1111 till Idiet t-W
tilt first bi'ludl of N% mo is In list v~iitali~ \I -Ill u I\ c~ ey (f I~ I l l al
gmns food. It "'s ol l the 1111tlow. (eg ill A Ill hi I- I hIAt I hie \k1 11iis
boliillf, tW"ii ; OrW ro~in l A~t I1 I', Al, Q 1 gili ieoI %% tiev in iIH I IWled..
Of tiUltt mgc 11ill~lS c'\Ad lillv hel ii illl 11 to) i\ N\ or Ill IN tie 1,
froll va h affil1 ill vvcl cAI- \N h11re th [Ii ha11 1114,1(t le l l hall je lcht
its full groth4\\ andl \\A-, 1iudrgc (gleil~n~O 1' Iil11.
T Iitis \v( m do- iIi es nt d ay )Ir i i Ie N% ;u o se Ii mno IofI I t I\fl 1h mi 4J 0 1l-e 1 fill,
SOMetinWS Vetiimilig it,'Wlt to theO(T o 11e 1 (W kii rbtl Ill-,rglr a t~ r
just benleath it, witvil it Att Acl's (11 Ill. in et or l ,hy if~' ll Ii 1114"1r~
(lest 1ti ivc, ext-av'Iting long galklics t*illed \Ni ji it, Idt ereheill ~
M-hiClk OWe W01111 \Nallow-S Mill cl-j\\ I", lelo\a d14 alli[ti ll-N\ ard. An l tilt
fruit thenl s011 SIMIrS alld dec.AS
Pemisiles,-Twoii para- ites \\l erc reorted o it tlie \\41o11 ill tilt- ivll
tural Report kjir 1S79J. All 11Ilci nild tl~ 'iml ,nq ( ~o atilt
a Tachina Ily are represcit led ill Plate I 1I, Nig to, )f~i epr.
parasites were bred fr-om it by me, I hie niamori ry (d the pilla il ill y Ii Ie-ci
ing boxes having been dimtroyed In a sinall rad ant.
Remncdy.-Sve qtasli Borer.
THlE MELON PLANT-L(11U-41
(Aphis ( itroffli Ash~nwedA.
My first acqluainltanlv with tiis plaiit-lmi se was mob- while oi an
elltomo)(logica I tour to cxtrel. -Smith I"loridla ill Api-lI, lI'ollMr
comlbiv Key, where it hall completely devastalt-1 the( mloInI platch (it'
Mr. S., who wvas a native of the lhamlls sterile th li Udsecam
curled Leaf," andi wvas iwlt aware it A K11KT1 Ini-e ll WWi i~. 1151i I
ItyOnvivild himi off that fAct hv shiowinig him tilt fiiscct, ti lio-gh Illy
D.isribdimlw.-Aft times the( specieS i, v(,I illim-r41ons to) filonl vintS ill
Flo-idla. Georgjia, ;miid 11111e" Illi ho. rf.S A. 1.,41 his lvqAl eats
this s Into insect und11er the( Iame1 tit' .tit, %ednwai Afie t f i 1-
ruLmfeAf It. Sm. ill the Twelhth Ocyprr III the State bitilogWA IT
llino(is, paIge S3. I t \I 1 Iirt-, hi- It -1 de1y I bedl ll T Ili- \X ie I l 11,1 1111 e
Florida IOisilatch, ewSerlies. Vol. ]. .it ag 11, J iii \ T. 1 -v2. iloeI hAn
a yvar previous to the "I l lripti"ll (b, P[ ''Ic m I t11 W,
Food Whn&I t attrl-s arc inoiiIifinlt I generallly 1to i lt, N 11 a 1t,wie
vitlves alt~iig-1 veai~al C'mIAi toll 1IA 1 x11l ndu lilt-(lt1 l~ tee
I11 thei W~est its halit & eA toll ili h o Ia.i r. 4 r us TllInl!i A, ill
Synioniym, Apif v il~N II n--tiip XI .~
t Mr. _kshim,;iII dl;I. A; i, tl I I'\\ ltno n io il ii" K wl 2k Al ui MH- it Y I H, A ~i
ing upon the prkurary "t' W, A, ,iitfi .,, it niin- :itA l~ t I di r;j 1,; b ~a
Simply ini hOl Fiovodla f~l)jo 1 auno 'M.d Ib~~e-~- toll ~-k~x iA
cucumcrix Forbcs-(C, V. I"
the Farmers' Review for September 2, 1880, says: There has been
great complaint among our gardeners this season in reference to a
plant-louse that is doing much injury to the nutmeg and muskmelon
vines, and also to the cucumber vines. In some instances they have
almost entirely destroyed"the entire fields of vines."
ITS NATURAL HISTORY.-VOY Young.-Length, .02 inch; greenish yellow; eyes,
brown ; tips of honey tubes brown; legs pale.
tingless Female.-Length, .04 inch; yellow; eyes dark brown; honey tubes
slightly conical, black; cauda distinct, dark green : legs pale; extreme tips of tibim
and tarsi black.
Winged Eemales.-Length, .05 inch, ovate; head and thorax shining black, some-
times with the prothoracic segment green or yellowish ; the auteunaue are dark and do
not reach the honey tubes; abdomen dark-greenish yellow, spotted along sides;
honey tubes black, thickest at base, gradually tapering to tip; cauda distinct, green-
ish yellow or dark green ; wings hyaline, with stigma and veins pale yellowish ; legs
pale, with tarsi and extreme tips of tibite and femora black.
Its Ijluries.-The viviparous female breeds very rapidly and is soon
surrounded by young in various stages of growth. In a brief time these
reach maturity, wander off to new leaves and shoots,and begin colonies
of their own. When these lice become too numerous they exhaust the
vitality of the vine, distort the leaves and cause them to curl up and
wither. The growing terminal shoots are also crowded with them, and
then the vine can make no headway ; it is fruitless and dies.
It is one of the most destructive plant-lice. To illustrate its destruc-
tiveness I cannot do better than quote from an article I wrote in Florida
Dispatch, July 27, 1882, after investigating its injuries in Georgia:
Some figures here in regard to the damage done by the Watermelon Aphis" will
not be amiss, and will show our planters tbe necessity for prompt and united efforts
in its destruction.
In Georgia the estimated yield of the watermelon crop this year (1882) for ship-
ment was 900 car-loads, or 900,000 melons. Many at the beginning of the season
bring $40 and $50 per hundred. However, to keep within a fair valuation and rather
below the true amount, we will say they bring $25 per hundred, which equals, in
round numbers, for the crop $225,000. Now, what has been the yield? The ship-
ments are nearly over, and they have not yet reached 600 car-loads, a falling off of
33- per cent., or a total loss of $75,000, due mainly to the ravages of an insect!
The above statistics of loss are founded upon data of the estimate yield for but
three counties, principally Thomas, Brooks, and Lowndes, in Georgia. In Florida
the crop has from the same cause met with a loss still greater, and we are considera-
bly below the estimate when we say the total loss to the planters of the two States
is not less than $150,000.
Natural Enemies and Parasites.-These have not been specially
studied, but the enemies and parasites will be found to be similar to
those of the I Cabbage Aphis "--flies belonging to the family Syrphi-
die, the Lace-wings (Chrysopidwt), Chalcid flies (Chalcidide,) and Lady-
Remedies.-An important help in their destruction, and to which the
planters' especial attention is requested, and which is equally applicable
to other crops, is the following, which, if universally carried out, would
materials IN, s Is a t IIi te d A, St 1,11,t Il I 4l no tI\t4) s ;II II1 destr t 1.1 i t 'w
Neve lant w ;t t t 11 -,)1 s I c ce('t"5 -mi, \I vears it) thle s;I1114 ficld.
Plant alwaYs ill all vetirtily new\ ficl ;[fil a1s Cir on' its iio1-bI) tro
grlollndi ill wic Hiti \% er row'm1 ilt, he p im Rl., \vN
My reasell 1,0r reVCotti1111 ttill-g tlis ,;I.,t iiotis onI of*tit ~ t he pecul-
iarity ill the dmlometad I Ir j It it ofI t, lt A ph lid id~h. T I
spring a1n4 sutifier bromis Ii I I t~ le 11I, ti it ( fiti' I(, 8 W a
rotis, while the fiall brood ()I hielnalls ate v m ro The Iak~t. ti'tor' i,
lily the g %s which lie domiait Ill tlh' groud ll ;d \\ 11et'l aIj n :Iatrh \% t i
the first wvarm1 breaml th spitig- ; nowv, It e, it' t111 i lichl I ih 1-,wi 4- p11
and other. crops plaill-'ll, the yomung aphids hail\e tIll~ [Jill ho k'wi oil
and So perish.
My observations oil (his species, too), h1as beenl t hat it is wtilyv tro itble-
S011 ill field"; planted Ill Ittelolls tWol m. 11hre YcAl'SIl i,1 (C'* I'[ il~l ; niew
mlelonl fields are nlot affected bY it, or to surh at nmll extet :1s 1t) hle Jil-
Spray-ingI wit h a dilt I I ti '1 lion of kerose ne x\i I oIt(I i I i prove ani
effectlial remledy vais wvith thrplailt lice. Thw ecit iki "hould I~e
spr3a Nyed fr1oml 0h0 gr-ounditt il s as' to reach t he Hne iliso it-' leatvcs,
Professor Rileiy hms figuredI mill descr.1ied dlevilcs for tlhis 11ethodi 4l
sprayingf ill his report as- entomiolog-ist to) tilt D)artiuclL for ISS.;7 pp.
1.3K_1 138, and Plates IV and(1 V.
REPORT ON BUFFALO.GNATS.
By F. M. i vits1:i, s~p tel lit.
LETTrER VI OF rlN II rA I,
LA VI ) l t I T1 [Nm, p 01t
SmR: I herewith trmnuit aI report of my itn v, rm ioll ot, th Ilatt ol tilt >mnthi'rni
Ini accorlalle" with vouir ilitriwt iouts I left nmY iin~ i, ii 1 'I Iiti,lmi Ina, on
Febuay ~,reaching Vick-ilntr_~ Nuit-1-ppi. oil the 't. -21ll rucun !1111' thalt tl'",
gnat appear eveys'3,011 ill greao~teror Ik, nmter ill Tt' \1, lilty of5o[ u'''
Lai ng ,it Ten11Sas' 1'II Pa i ItI I i ii, i I iI, iniI(-i riIi t i i a v % i tI i NIr T l it ) i r I, it C uik I g
olic Of the leastirs of 111T'~t ~i tiT iol. I l'tt tlr T11, e u1 o:I Ill, '22d, rI'aei-
iMg oilr destination oil till killv day.
11t10n I te '2 ld, Wh weatI the b n I er I I'aV II V t IIt, Te Ia Wa T I t InI r!ln I II Lo 1t
among till teamu, at itwoil, on tilt pdlintat Imn ill tlit hopt., of, ob-I \~ M_, 0111 Of' thiii
Duiring tilt anternomi \-arm, ot' a jlpecies1ojf Nli lllt,1 (j-. er ill'r ;1. i11[ 1 1ai, 1
I was informed,4 that Ithese wer'e ithe insects tha. t killed1 it tie 11111ui"~ Ti~ lti
ill- day vvasi both coli mill riny .and14, ill fa.ct, d1ar1in L Tte two \Nvtks 1,1o ,Ninijg Ithwl
Ivere buit two daysi Of, --Isusine.
Duiring, tis inc(. lement woatherT (11 .lakes 31nd 1baiou, ablouit soniwr ,et wvire, iiefi-1T
exa-Initeld, n1o trace of' till trI'ite gnat h4'in 11 '0A10. Ill tH10 meWantill" Ia i Of .11
I h o i a w vre foit i d inI coide vrabl I 1u 0 ance a 1ut dCae log Vn kam, I on 1 le
Caved leaves in the wt),),I, aii 1, a, ih lt it to wi it iap e for itfto:-in oit aln .
most unanimously agreed that these adult Authootyia were the depredators, it really
seemed that the term Bntlo-gnat here ight, like the Tent-worm and the Weevil in
other localities, include a variety of insects.
Wishing to make the best possible use of time, I utilized the bad weather also by
visiting our correspondent, Mr. Robert E. Craig, at Luna Landing, Chicot County,
Arkansas, spending a few days there, and at Greenville, Miss. returning to Somer-
set March H.
tThe th and 10th being pleasaut, the Athonmyia again appeared, but, although
very demonstrative, none were observed to alight upou the tens at work. This fact
led to the impression that my information had been incorrect, and that I wason the
wrong track. This proved true, for during my entire stay I never saw one of these
Antlhionyia alight on stock.
On the 11th word cate that mules were being harassed by gnats on a plantation
six miles to the northwest, and, on the following day, I rode out to that locality and
found the true gnat in considerable numbers.
Four days were now spent in a fruitless search for the adolescent stages in the
bayous and ditches adjacent to the locality where thile adults had now appeared, and
as many minore were lost on account of had weather.
During this time, and up to noon of the 20th, no adult gnats had appeared on the
Somerset plantation. A strong northwest wind bad, however, set in during the mornt-
ing, and by evening the gnats were quite abundant. The next day (Sunday) the
wind blew still stronger from the same quarter, and Monday morning, the 22(1, found
them abundant enough to cause some considerable uneasiness among the teams at
Fully satisfied now that these gnats did not breed in the vicinity of Somerset, I
started out on horseback, and after riding for about eight miles toward the northwest
reached a small stream known as Mill Bayou. Following this down stream, through
the woods, the current soon became quite rapid, the banks being more or less grown
up with brush and bushes, to below the water's edge. The gnats, too, whose num-
hers had been continually increasing, now became numerous enough to worry miy
Finding that little could be accomplished in the way of inspecting the stream with-
out a boat, and it being too late in the day to procure one, I returned to Somerset.
On the next day, the 23d, procuring a dugout, a thorough examination was made,
not only of Mill Bayou, but of two others, tributaries to it, one of which had no per_
ceptible current, the result being that where there was no current no larv of gnats
could be foufid. As the current became sluggish a few were observed, the number in-
creasing in proportion to its rapidity, reaching the maximum in numbers in the
swiftest current of Mill Bayou; always provided, howeve r, there was sufficient mate-
rial to which to attach themselves. Thus, the larwe would occur abundantly on one
side of the stream, where a bend caused it to run very swiftly, while on the opposite
side, in comparatively still water, few could be found.
Upon inquiry and personal investigation, this bayou was found to be receiving
water from the Mississippi River through Lake Palmyra and Bayou Vidal, and also
that its water rose and fell with that of the river itself, until the height of the latter
fell below 25 feet onil the gauge at Vicksburg.
It now seemed quite important to learn to what extent, if any, the other inland
bayous were influenced in this manner, and, as the country is of difficult acceSs, I
thought best to visit our correspondent, Judge A. A. Gnuby, of M31sroo, Louisiana,
whose circuit I knew comlprised the e:ltire in fasted territory of the northwestern por-
tion of the State, and whom, I learned, was then at home on a short vacation.
Leaving Somerset on the 25th, and returning again on the 31st, I was, by this
journey, enabled not only to obtain much valuable information from Judge Gunby,
but also to examine the Washita River, and also, but very superficially, on account
of recent heavy rains, the country between it and the Mississippi River.
Fi n is I IIg it h o 1 .4 at Sonicr'vt on l II 7t 11 11 Apil 11 h,1 I ii A :1-11t-l t 1iei thc
coll(try) andi turLO-1e1 1A d
To 0 aJ N T Ild r 1f 11 1 1i I n Ir I. I. fIe I If I I II II L~k i dI
0 -NAII am Iu o ye n n I 1 1 11 o. 1 1i (1r 1 1 to Ia~ I r I I Iri L ie pIt r et
Illan's ht[11 111 I I k- 1 ua tr 1 r I Ir f I" ~ ii )I Iu Ii I.i Iio Ir j ilIii IA fiO ii i
a 1 Ille ii to I I ork I or i k I o It~ ,k i '. t
TIO Ju g t I t Ii FI rer If .Jiyi VAr~r Iio I 1) .1 1o~r 1ri 01 he gn 1t o
V c ~ug, t (e rI r "re'o i h 3 I .rr I. ri 1 ;Ig I. nv arIf
Mos.-I r u-4 n w r t'u at I oh I ee I Iin Ii Tde IhI tmi o oh pro
Co)(rte~ jl,4j II1 1 1i 1i 1n 111 11 v gIt IoI I I
Alid I Atly 1 1 1 % Ii [ I oIL rt I k 1 13 i I I. ii I roi ti ie .II Iu Iioi
your persimuiI kiiom edtge ofl thc cimli r :Inkd '1f Te w III t
Dr. C .RLY
Therm is no( antIh'ntI W record O It the rtoirnt-114 Of Owe So~t het Rn 004~lo
gnlat ill Louisiana prior to the year I\1(l t5,' hnhere seelux 14) havi
been sOlle coinplait of theirl ljaras ,ilj.g jholjjIj( anm ak ut uO f'j
tality is known to have resulted. A vagu'le 1i'11i)oW Cex ~ to H I-t e cht
that they had prevIousl appe)(ared in Is 1G ; hut this LWks coni i mmitlii.
The earliest record I havjNe b)(el ahle to) ohtaill W, storck hiing killed hy
guats, Was relatedt toI iln bV .M1. Jac'Ob Alexalnder, pre'~eu 0ay- 111
G~reenvilleq Miss. who states thatt Ihe obherved calth, bl-ing- killed, by
gnats at Clarendon, Ark., in the spring Of lS59.
-A colored nian, forinerlyal am o-ver, states that nlleh-- weIre killed hy
gnats llear 1"efiuge, Miss., inll~ andI :11 S2. (iemlleral llrgerlsfln, wh o4
caie to Grevnville, Miss., ii I S62, w\ith ;I battery' of( 'oljfederlaf( arlt ijl'v
states that gnats wVIre Lex(eedingly t rou hh.,.ollle to horwse- auid llljlevs
during the spring Of that year. They were also observedl in C onuordia
Parish Lo aisian iia, du 11ring thIIe spI)rinIIg o If I St 2.
In 18G3 and 1861, On, gnats \ere \wry whbtulapt abit.t Shreveporf,
Lot and also Chikot Coiunty. Arkansas. No trouble is relnortiai Muinng
1865, but in IMAIt thle altivil vouniitry bet wen the Arkansas and lIe1
Rivers lying east of the W'ashiti was literally overrun with the pests.
Mr. T. S. Coons, ain intelligent planter living- at the time near New C'ar.
thage, Tensas Parish, Woisiana, lireserved a written in enorand 1im Inmade
at t he t iin ie t he gn at s fi rst it1)pea red .
From this record we learn that np to the afternoon of A1ri1 11 no)
gnats had been observed, lint towards evening they n~imle in hordes,
setting upon and biting the mules and horses andI throwi tg thein into
the greatest agn ~. 01' G~ inniv awl 2 hiir ,e,- helon~gin-l to Mr. ()unws,
all of wiMiS Were as well as- usulal On t he tuornin", ol the I11)t1, t he 11o-n-
ing of the 12th fond only one inn~v alive. lin te ieantimie, a neigh.-
boring jilanter had host 341 mutles, and Mr. I)omigl-as, On Somecrset pilan-
tation, a few miles beohad lot 7-- iules.
The mortality throughout the pari-shes Of Madlison. Tvn: as. and Con-
cordia, within a few days, amone touwards of4,0
horses, principal lly the former.
Although frequently causing moeo trouble and los
did not again appear, generally, and in sch countless in,
1882, although they caused serious injury inTensas Parish
1874, and doubtless in other localities also.
But in 1882 they were more destructive to stock than E
The deer were driven from the woods, and frequently tok -
their tormenters in the smokes, built by planters for the 1)
their cattle ; when in their ago 'ny they would allow people
gnats from their bodies, and would even lay down in theta
bers, or hot ashes, in their frantic endeavors to seek relief.
In 1884 the gnats again appeared in great numbers, and v
destructive as in 1882. Throughout Franklin Parish, LouiSia
week from their first appearance, they bad caused the de
bead of stock. And for the first time in the history of th,
attacked horses and mules on the streets, and in the stables,
of Vicksburg, Miss.
-No general outbreak took place in 1885, yet they appeare
and Franklin Parishes insufficient numbers to kill quite a
During the present season, although the gnats appeared
erally throughout the country between the month of the Ar
that of the Red River, and westward to the Washita, aui
Yazoo River in Mississippi ', no fatality to stock had been
to April 10, and there had been little or no suspension
plantations on account of gnats.
Generally speaking, the Southern Buffalo-gnat may be s,-
the low, flat, wooded country adjacent to the Mississippi Ri
tributaries, from the mouth of the Red River in Louisiana
at least as Southern M issouri.
I have found nothing to indicate that these gnats origino
streams, or even in small ones in hilly localities, although
way have both a swift current and a rocky bed. The fi
gnats occurring in such localities, even in destructive numbe
itself sufficient proof of their having originated there, as t
carried long distances, and in immense numbers, by a sl
Furthermore, I have'found no indication of their origin in
perennial streams, although many intermittent bayous and
were closely examined with this point in view.
From the Toregoing, we are forced to the conclusion that I
follow the tendency of others of the genus, and breed ex,
the running water of small streams. But besides this, ther,
equally essential element, viz, something to which the inc
tach itself during the adolescent stages. As no rocks are foL
bayous and small streams, we find the larvw utilizing. wholly
8111)IC1ergli st im p, Iwwd mlbi'i- in' % "AT' m~lei' wtrKIl or ik na ~t ire,
etI stviring ii p i o r In ilt 1 11g it I i I % i, Ii I~ \N I I d l~ it xI I w l ~I t N I a;
1 oop i IIg gat, Ir w t I ihi I I 1i n1 1il lII14 I 'a 114-1 1~ e 1'r \%i l li Ii' hr n % ,t
w it 1h 1it at I1 I II Ir t IIIe ,I lari f ito' 1 lit \ Ix at cv I I ,t I I IIIIf l .i hl 1 ilii
being t tac e ty a Ii itgle 1 t o L Neil \ hi I It i, I na 1vJ elt It liei' w~ay
up and. dom t t hit'se sni IIluwi ,iul otikels m itli 1wr' tee ",'i n thley do
llot velture abov till, %\.t t e.and NN141 i'i Ioi t) 1,111010t 'h-t it Sli a-
tionl well (o()\\Il towaill 1 h11, I (""ut "r Iliev nnim, In deep wate IT IH
were lilund 1o ) fehlo Cce (Ille~ lt', aiift I i a in~v hei ighter uip.
lint ill shallow N~ attr IIt 'e v ia 1 be1 I bc I' ilil ill :ht, pi tage, cl ui't ered,
one above the other' ,-;[s abit elici hol toni ill tilti nlea n, thir inst inct
having evidently talight I horl to plkl\I idi' fI, a ,nI1dtlkII I all Ill ie wafvr '
Notwithstanding t FIN, i it xt he us ter'fa WIi ig at the rate (o I ibiW per
day, I round inaly pllpo~l hiad, been left hl gli antd dry.x
These pupa' are at liro't of a Light Mrom i? o, a'leri Ans vhllig
to a pinkish cast. and, just pirevoms to the emeuirging~ of' the awltl, it
black. During Hiti' Jirst of[ tiwete coloral epochis thiey are .11lached' to
these vegetable 1u~tnc ) thle t hionsci Hla~inil o y t li"I in at in ,
the body, and at the annl IIll ei ty, soile wihat aler t le ma"i iin ifSoloe
ILepilopitcrolis chr'ysal i(Is ; but ditii g t~le last two~ th ll,;(.i ~' u hg by
the( short anall at tarlilt-lit alone, ind lit]in Ihis wiay swi ii g abou tit freely ill
the current' the '111t11t isUing fron. 1~ol ueeth Ie waler afIt er I& limIianneri
of others of the genuls.
The Wie and exact pware of'ov a poi naswv ;"eI the e(Aet hen l of'
tinic required Ifm- the insect to Isins thriqi$~gI ehh ter th llw ial "r thte
ppI)IJ)1 stage I was 11nale to tie I O lii ne. l int M ien 1 1eft M ill I a,
on Marchl 21, the i \\'ea'ie linearly all of a iuiiibrn size aula loirdy
livarly fall grown, 'a few% otu] living mi1e fourth; to ime-hiaA Lirge.. oh)
returingl, oil April 1, nearly al11 Li n ra I"A~s Iho 11 ppi ;tgairld
the adults had emerged : Al or LI, i Aot vx P a'lo)" wniiiaiW4 bi"'ng A,
large as the miijuity werev omx dAie 21k '1111q Whh',te 411WiaKitin tAll
the breeding seanl wa itean llI t'ildetl, also lcax l scli grMIuti 1ids thle
inference that se'veral brood s MAY b IMo ViI Ill, di11 1iLg Carly S~Iiilg
i i1 rapidlscesil ; someo stren tIl hrin i- dAi to thlin t heor) vx 1 We
fact t hAi, as I now leridfroml 114t Iersilil niear i't iis bayl oi, t he
cattle hall bee dri vent t'rot I& m xin"s lit the v ici iity of thle strIealit
about the 2th (iof' Fehl iay Theseo aire plotint whxic iit n leess-'arilyV
linlitedI period during.L \ Iicic I had thle adldenciit -t ages un lder ('ntidi er-
ationl, and the suxddenx, and( to ti ll i ixewpecTed, l exuiinat ion oft the
breeding seiaon pre\ entcd iny settling.
The adult gnatrs alle usually b'ee iii the viiity of pQwce where
they breed. during thle first \;ri day1 S of' spr ilig and diel I e nlin iiiotil
tell days to three, or four \ weeks, nteciling to lprelor a it ollertclv cool 11,nt-
perature;-c and lieiico nnwt inc, are( Mxore In unIoils ill the
earl morning antd t ad evenling', f'requwltl beiig as troule~~some)(
during bright iwoon I it nigity as Wn rig the day time. They are said,
to spend the night among grass and like herbage. They are exceedingly
active, and no sooner have they gained a foothold on an animal than
they are busy at their bloody work, selecting the breast, flanks, ears,
nose, or wherever the skin is the most easily punctured.
Very inconspicuous in their flight, makinglittle noise, seldom arising
more than a few feet from the ground, they often bite mules working in
the fields, sufficiently to cause death before their presence in considera-
ble numbers has been discovered. This will, perhaps, account for the
prevailing notion that the bite of these gnats first appearing is the
most poisonous, for inclement weather and adverse winds may cause
them to appear, for the first, at any time during the breeding season,
in localities where they do not actually originate, and, as willbe shown
farther on, the same wind that holds them back from one locality may
convey them to another. It would appear as rather more probable,
however, that the poison introduced into the animals' system by the
bites of the first gnats, unless sufficient to prove fttal, may to some ex-
tent serve as an antidote for that introduced by those appearing later;
and should this poison remain in the system with considerable stability,
the fact would alsoaccount for acclimated stock being less susceptible to
poison from the bites of these gnats than those unacclimated. Except
in the case of great numbers, death does not necessarily follow the bite
of these gnats, and even then it is not suddenly fatal. Mules that at
night do not appear to be seriously injured will often be found dead
Stock, and mules especially, that have been fatally bitten by gnats
are affected in much the same manner as with colic, and, in fact, many
think the bites bring on that disease. But Dr. Warren King, of
Vicksburg, who has made a large number of post meort(m examina-
tions, states that he has never been able to obtain any acts which would
justify such a conclusion.
Dr. King opines that the effects of these bites from gnats are on
animals much the same as that of the rattlesnake on the human sys-
tem; and this seems to be the generally accepted opinion among the
more intelligent planters.
In regard to artificial methods of counteracting the poison of gnats,
there is of course no end, apropos to which, one planter remarks that if
the gnats failed to kill the mule the remedies used certainly would.
Be this as it may, I could learn of no measures that had been generally
tested and proved effective, and no opportunity was offered me to make
any experiments in that direction.
Dr. King recommends rubbing the affected animal thoroughly with
water of ammonia, and administering internally a mixture of 40 to 50
grains of carbonate of ammonia to one pint of whisky, repeating the
dose evo y three or four hours until relieved. The doctor claims to
have never lost an animal under this treatment, although they were
sometimes apparently beyond recovery. This measure I do not think
is gVI~qylIy ko i, !"pIt it no-rl iij; 11on1;a in rj i t.Ivit jin-i; it Io ip ia
a1 thor-ough1 a itil iarl l ii.1. VII im I,~ er 1;i t Ital llN 'fit h1a
Iv t r )~i I I 1 I~t' l' I~i' t I IT hii~ I I ~ I In Ite hIel",I
Nvti re ) I ~ k ~ ,e It I I~ 1it'i gma '. fi )n Ii t I11 e' I Ii I I
(lla~t Oil k' 11(m lil'it, jit'ioii, l 0", iiN iloa to iviovv 10 ib'ai
-titd is conjidert- itiiiii ion Ito I hP mlv&l'. I dW h. Ayrnl ail s" a rldx tum ii
of(i'oet' 0~Ia Hd .\\IC gr('alt an- Ilh 1-111 efImI niiione' "iiIae. v ton h
lisv(I to advaini Ia lonsoc ) vlfin i: at Lii-'r.
sillokes Inade allowt I he fielhk serv as a patiiI protect ion, k"ot I p
tvaims at wolk andsokil lie.Siouh' n III 111 d' of toi I 141 ed o
arV also mnade ill till cams ;IIII h l -i o mse '. aliiu hcu's ar e lliiig lf iu: the
tvamls at willk.
Whle thfese protctIiv c 'i'e aro' of coniileru .erA i. h W lient-lo
aeCOmlparat it, nat, 11"0 are or hit t I,\ tiit iii'uif, 5ofge
abuinda jivo, For thenl stold, cil oIll,\ li i1wtdVjhaii heu i
(lark st;Ihbv, thw gnas avingL ;I '_ret a\I-li'mi oe~e ~gua 'pau.
I aitl told that top look t'ov relief 1wil 'iiiply killing tw wi i~t~'xould lle
Nvorse thtal Co~ee'. r, through riilhioii1, \t ii oi Wing. I. I hc v. "uiIld
not he iisd
~Juui gl fr ill the icsvllt of sottt ellciint laui itlih i.''llil'
bN- Ilyselt, lpoll hi'a 0 the gi 1ts it 11,Ill e vail nit w i Ii
)OSSi h fo to r I II ce I I w Ieru' 1111 1,,iibi hx illmiag t hill ill t lie' I k"mu'
T I tese c p ri I I t'IIt S 4 W I I iidue 1,I I)II Ii bl-i I Iliel- 1-1 d ill g11-t ub les
and submiittIillg t livie to at (ii- en ofl d 114 lie 4) ln 10t 1 in I Hit i io n ni
Larvav-' realied ill a1 de'octioin NOW 'ii berm jes, foit alnf faii r \% i ti-
out apparent ell -ect, -an11 tht, sinw I~mrva imintilliatply w itlistm a Wlet
of salt water comiosed of a hltiiig hwilufil of salt to sevir en ujal s of
water, For twenty mlinuites, iln~ -,till rni aill inalaivye. Li iiie-w ateri a nd
Sulphur and~ waiter had no etlcct. 'St roi ta-wtr N the but
diluted it provedli; I'rmless. k erosenre cimi .oni, po il mated to c'onta in5
per cellt. korosene, wa affect ive, NO it mmId iv hibeiii"ossile to got n
s tre It of I e)rcv vI I I Iyr cke It I II te st r c fin Al IfoI t ',l ifi ce 1t 0, isl
phide of arbon wals pitacd ill seve\ (1 qua rts of' N\ atcr, but half rn ;1houlpr ill
this failed to arl't-tt 11te l;1rv ;' AlIM thIiree ounces Ax as l1acuto I" aM~le
amuounlt of' water, :1nd1 ti i proved tatal withIi in t1 ilifi mul t e.
Front this it will he seen thIiat w"hile t le anrx,u arNusNept bde to '01.
nary insectici;I-s. it \%ill bw inet to itiuposnil u to Iulve its mohmint
amount in at stre,"m top alffec the i. kt tho tie, cmo, nbc lieummniil i
nmasures are the n"o"I nenedd Iivse oiea ins ale sw~oll, allid are ofte1n
troill tell to t wen ty k yard wide ad fill f Is C d1.4eep. I iill, hi it, I I Ienr and
beasts are delwltdent up ):Ihes st r t.,11, 11'r t hir water sulldx andi
Cutting this ofl hx ilt rodlicitgison WI oII(l c~l use almol(sl I- nIuclit ronu-
1)10 as the gnlats.
tootwVitHistandn all atrtii lt s I" c ICit uth ji m1 havv so i)fr heeom
discouraging, there is yet some hope of relief, and that, too, from quar-
ters little expected, by myself at least, when these investigations began.
But, in order to fuiilly understand the matter, it will be necessary to
bring together, not only chronological data relating to the insect in
question, but to the height of water in the large streams during the past
thirty-five or forty years. Also, we must understand something of the
nature of the country which these gnats inhabit, as well as the elements
necessary to their production. And not only must these facts be
weighed independently, but very carefully with relation to each other,
for it is more than probable that it is through a combination of circum-
st;iuces that the pest holds its sway.
A very noticeable feature connected with the occurrence of the Buf-
falo-gnat is, that below the Arkansas River there is no record of any
fatality to stock, attributable to gnats, previous to the outbreak of the
war, even in seasons of high water. But since that time the two have
occurred in connection with such regularity that the fact has been
noted by even the most unobserving; that is, in season of low water
during the first three or four months of the 3ear, there have been few
gnats, but with high water during these months they were abundant,
reaching the maximum during an overflow.
The banks of the rivers of this alluvial district are peculiar, in that
the country slopes from instead of toward the streams. Hence water,
escaping through the banks first runs inland, and then more or less
parallel with the parent stream, until it can empty its waters into a
larger tributary. Of this characteristic of the Iississippi, Red, and
Yazoo Rivers, whether considered individually or collectively, I do
not think it would be too much to say that it is one of the primary
causes of the production of the gnats in such destructive numbers;
My own observations were almost wholly confined to the country
lying between the Arkansas and Red Rivers on the one hand and be-
tween the MIississippi and Washita on the other. This section is of
difficult access, and I have relied ifor my information principally upon
civil engineers and other people familiar with topography of the coun.
try, as my own time was largely occupied in studying the gnats them-
selves in Tensas Parish.
WAith the exception of a low, wide ridge of country lying between
Detnt River and Bayou Mason, and extending from Franklin Parish to
Southern Arkansas, and known as the Dayou 'Mason Hills, this whole
region is very flat; and the streams, with only rain and sewage water
to carry off, would naturally have a sluggish current. A glance over
the map of this section will show that it is traversed by .Bayous Bar-
tholomcw and Mason, and Rivers B eunf and Tensas, the last two
really not materially differing from bayous.
Three of these will be observed to originate in extreme Southeastern
Arkansasand running south-southwest, finally unite together, and form
Black River, which is a tributary of the Washita.
flt Ie I t s i I ~ In I Ier I Ic ia )I I II III I II II II I l s I t I et ,I i t II I t
oTe se i a\ 1)1, 1 IIJtI FI-1 an III Itiir Io Iaz If n I, ;II Q l nH l I ho~i~
apt to be more tI)I less II(, em_ ~~I i p 'X vk iti I tI'li. l t1,1 b slite t l 114 lquxk,
wvatter Inarlk, 1ilic, it \ III 1)a cotn ti it % i tt cc i" Now Pui t the
but bring's it IIII)Iv anid i I 11r 4n c t I o-l \\ [ t illo ,I.(I i I a'(1:i cii, \ t/,
material to \ ,It ,, t Ic l l I i I.I e it t I .1(l I I I I Iiie 111 '1 kU I I e Ia I e I I I
smne. Shao "F AHiN, an Ii A1 i It IM o.
In Lollisili l hra is hilt one hw.Ili[\ where Nv ater r Ill litsi'-
aippi gets- thiotugh tilh aili ino" WhSW imAlit Nuats, mt that is by~
wayof Bayou til and )till Bay ou, aiIlotmqh in % em x high w ater it
runs into Kuonawa a" a Nt Il.l\ u I Bill -11 Vbxcl i ala at DOj~
InoQd Bond. The netxt Itiinll is at M1aster" Bon i d, a shot d ittIatn.
north ot, tilt Arkantslas lille, andtie i water e vol iling ini thrulgh it ii I'll
bo0th Bayou Masoni andl bui as ILi vct% The nex't Inv al; is jint ive
1.lin't Landing, andh is liomx li as W i iskY Zsllorr allt hier P 'a litht or 1-
vst, is Just belw llailes Lanlding. O f thle cffht'(L of lhvs, last t V (
openlings extuaws 50111 a letter rMCMV 0011 .el 11n 1 '. R0 111014 E.IJ \NhO
resides on Point Chicot, in th iia iedli-I e viciniiity'~, will fu ly exlAIIi
KIf you "Al exalliine o iia p you will lintd Lake Ma son lies at right
angle~ across head of TellsIs Bail~ The reeatmi se inl Ilit' rive 'Was
high Cnoug to runl into LakeI~ Aasonl, thli somat ern hank I ot* wili ic is
high. There itre two or t lirve baywous I Irng lJ IhIi, bankl hichi let the
water into all bayous east of Ba10 liohlte, .i I Ini t 1140 o1 Ii h % ala' to
ov"Hiow the lower bainks of any line IIC I hinmin. LaNo (VIic 'tA I" I lin
at the same Mie ini the river, an. is Ortladul\ bimig ent ipi letI ( lirolmgl)
the Mixon and BovuC. )!1 ('imrig also) allo : AVhlcn y" mi ancr n lw-
ons mweri all receiving 21ii oi i lvci x\atr hirongli Lidoe )Lat,n and
Lake Chikot. It "~as dluh'ng the retwinr iise to whIiichi 1Mr. (I .ai g re-
fers that I w\a; Ihi-s gin-t at I'Ioin t (Chicot And on March 2dl, thle day
after nly arrival, the water mneas-ured 27.- rI 1Mi the gai i ~eat lemnitbis,
and 3S.2 Icet at Vikbras the Nignal oAlicr at t he latter My i in-
It Will he propel~r Y) sthtp here that up to the, bwaim omit ofr li war,
owingi to tilt perfecct levee s, tiwtrwslr'cicl101 s a p r
into these ILI, oIis. 1) uri n I t he war tIh me Ivees 0 Pxr Ietuuc ix tho
Ca ving of Ilt, ri ver t i th1roi ghj oIthIer v tI' ,Ci t o IniIt' I Iil t Ix ae I %%a-
ter now escapes. ftroll the Mi ssssippi lEiver allot runs, inlandl lip h reks
that have nleverl beeii rebuilt.
A', the season of high wa- ter uisua'lly ocnrs dill ng I'i e xxin icr' and
early spring. the lfec of this AMli I of waler is no(t oiuiy to) ('1 IthIe"' in-.
land bayous but to keep thleml fill[ (Iu Ilgte brict Ihslii of the
gnatm Illc the eta'cs, Wi ai" u znikr NhO Al ho notayu ONl iii the
number of gnats and the amount of damage done by them in the
vicinity of the streams thus influenced.
They appear in the vicinity of Mill Bayou every year in greater or
less numbers, and I have twice observed them being carried from them
to Somerset plantation by a heavy northwest wind, and as often ob-
served them gradually disappear under winds blowing equally strong
from the north, northeast, and south.
Strong winds, blowing from a northwesterly quarter, bring gnats sud-
denly and in great numbers to the neighborhood of Lake Saint Joseph,
six to eight miles below Somerset. Judge Gunby states that they appear
at Monroe with an east wind; Mr. Craig observes them at Point Chicot
with a west or southwest wind, and at the time they appeared in the
city of Vicksburg they came with a westerly wind.
Probably the worst afflicted parish in Louisiana is that of Franklin,
which is situated between and at the junction of Btenf River and Bayou
Mason. Judge Gunby and others well acquainted with the country
through which these two streams flow state that gnats appear with
more regularity and in greater numbers in that vicinity than elsewhere.
Mr. Craig states that they occur to some extent every year along these
streams in Arkansas, being observed the most numerous the present
season near Bayou Mason. This is in accordance with all reliable in-
formation which I have been able to obtain, and, aside from the country
about Mill Bayou, coincides with my own observations.
In connection with this evidence we can also observe that these-
gnats are yearly being produced in numbers close up to the danger
line, only an overflow being required to furnish the conditions suitable
for carrying them far beyond. Soon after these investigations began I
learned that the Buffalo Gnat did not occur below the mouth of the
Red River. Wishing definite information on this point, I addressed a
letter to Judge F. H. Farrer, of Bayou Sara, La., whose reply is given
herewith, and I will only say that the acts embodied therein have since
been corroborated by planters whom I have met from that region :
BAYOU SARA, LA., Mar'ch 9, 1886.
DEAR Sm11: Yours of the 4th instant was received day before yesterday, Sunday.
Court being in session, a great many farmers were in town, and I had plenty of old,
experienced men to apply to for information in regard to the Buffalo-gnat.
Many had been familiar with the mischief it did farther north, but all agreed that,
except to young turkeys and other poultry, it worked little or no harl in this region,
either in low or high lands. A few indeed asserted that the one here was a dilfflrent
insect, known by the name of "turkey guat," but the large majority maintained that
it was the same humpbacked individual so destructive in North and Northwest Lou-
isiana. I presumie that it never appears in such numbers here as there.
My own experience, as far as it goes, agrees with that of the majority with whom I
spoke on the subject, viz, that the genuine Buffalo-guat is to be seen here every
spring for a few weeks, but is by no means the dangerous pest to cattle, horses, &c.,
that it is in Northern Louisiana.
Respectfully, yours, &c.,
F. H. FA-RRAR.
F. M1. WE'RSTEn, Esq., Vicksburg, Miss.
III sumi nillg 11p the 11a:0ter \\ I il that No ltong a1s lb '1, Influiix oif I% 'l
wi tur Nv ais pI~~it In IVk tIa I I Ik II[I-II Io c c ul I ) N cxv I ut, g Iias I evII e nt iI I
the olistrict I IoI I\ t Ie I v r. I \ j) ,, I I I A- ,I ,aIInd1 \ t I 't I~ j d ha IItI t I II )IIII,1 1t er Iar s
ot, till salite State, N% e licw t ni III iI II 't II i \tll I I'lld, 111l tn ic Is '
Ilt-lcc it stisl- I)It Ievnoo ler'I t hat, it* thiis pIdrc ~e Io I~ I I L II r ( or Il
tile trouble wvold~, N\ ithil L to\ \c ,,I Ias t, most, lu 1"Illud to it I(iI iit'I 1 ;I 11%
& c., which \l ollil o i ll cwl tvi rt \% it 111 I i Cii I I I i Ii I I I Ii I I (IIl Ilir",
IIi I uI I str~ i I hre IIIISI t I IIIs I Ie I iis I t I' I Ih I~ Ias r I I 1 d11 I
1111.1aSHT i1 'h1t also he ;Ipplied l. ba, 1 u1 s alctedvi jl h;ih wate I cvfd tilie
Redl YawoO, and mother siiillcr1. rI Iers.
From the fact that the gnlat breeds diii inig tilleso when thle va ter
is cool, and ceases ats it gets wa iiner, it ccnlis ilot imiposs~ible that tile
infusioll of ti curren.1olt (fl tl Iiv1 Uver 1lomv ng froit till, iiorth in ito
thIIoso breedi Ig plI tces mIgh I sIrve to prolong tit I) hreot-dIiti seao Tile
truth of' this point calit onily be Il olitailil-e by~ t'tti l( 4 14 ,r vtnl.
It is also ps ible at a1 more exttlende stuidy ot, tilt BilffIalo- -I;tt mid
the entire counitry it inlfests Inight, to) 6l)[11 extent, 111iodity till clmiclui.
sions arrived at ill this report h ut with the evidenlce nlow before file
they appear correct.
~THE NATIVE PLUMS-HOW TO FRUIT THEM-THEY ARE PRACTI-
CALLY CURCULIO PROOF.
During tile past fortiy yearsz, ill till vast regrilon of orhAeIval.
it)g wes, north, ;[fill south ()I Lake )I rlli igau, aII n il tew \ t Ii ic (d' tile
6tate of Indkianli, it has been i lipo') ilIlt to silcc'cl Ill frui 11 i1ig, t lw 1i iw,
large, dlelicioits~i rde Phmmiiis Prilh lbw h', o, utIII) \\f -,c"ci II IIII Iqlm, hfo
th I e s n Itoat te re Iw k4S ere c it 1ail 1 i 11n11t Ii Is Iii Ic I~"t i l I Ii
Tilt fruit was destro-e\- b 1 t Ilie 1,l11;1I ('(Iricilio t l t-ti /,/ P P Oeploir",
andt of 1late Nfams, it' Hitt so ls ilttd"pit iOLi)513 i i
fore Illati itv.
Loll- will pr I 'll' trails ()I th ilk species' Wt I143131 illI lie W es-t, b Ilie
Ilost -cai 1.1 aI id( vxpe 1t( cuilt I\a ;111 hlA v ~ oven ihait il fo :*. tolonge
attempt to cultivate t 1 til d \\cI l i ~i ~ iltis o III tiw-k' pll iin
1 0r ill tilt mwiorther1 part' vI' thi re 01_'11 i4l1e 1- thr ie ro 11, thic Iq i I[it
will wvits~tmad the vcrity Nf (11te winer, n ot1 ii' \\ proltect t li
fruit from i n 1,111 irulio it seloiii ecapesIl total a11ii1i li i.i' ion .. it.
before arriving' at malit ill ltv, andl, ;is 61rul 111or 1 ii erIs Al l itI'll ligeml t
cult Ivat ors have given til its riiltivatitmi, and ha-ve hren axii 'm l soe k
ill" for it sulbstitulte, andl ha.ve repeaitedly1 sie~et(d 1,0r tllis purpose thli
filler varieties of ouri two lot4I eo:11Ii T04,11; vId
The Chickasaw Plum (Prunus chickisa) found indigenous from North-
ern Illinois to the Gulf of Mexico, and the wild yellow or red plum
(Prulus americana) found indigenous over nearly the whole continent.
These are two quite distinct races (for they cannot he regarded as dis-
tinct species) of the subgenus P'runus of the Almonld family (Almygdalea),
order Rosacee. And at typical tree of either so-called species is very
distinct in fruit, foliage, and general appearance from a typical tree of
the other. But so far as we are concerned in this study of them they are
practically the same, except that the fruitof the P. americana, or North-
ern type, has much the thicker, tougher, and more acerb skin, and that
some of the Chickasaw, or Southerntype, do not provehardy far North,
i. e., some of the named varieties, while others do, and the saie wouhl
undoubtedly prove true of P. aiericana. But as this last is found grow-
ing wild, and with good varieties, at least as far north as the northern
limit of Dakota, these native plums are a fruit in some of their varieties
perfectly adapted to every part of the United States and 2 erritories and
pre-einently the fruit of the great Northwest.
Yet, as a rule, those v'who have taken these wild plums from their na-
tive thickets and planted and carefully cultivated them, in hope of find-
nlug at least a poor substitute for the Garden Plum, have met with a com-
plete, decisive failure. They got no fruit. We, the older settlers of
the West (Illinois), knew the wild plums as the most plentiful and use-
ful of the wild fruits when the country was first settled and when our
" tame" plums failed (for it is a fact that in this part of Illinois as early
as 1845 we fruited many varieties of the Garden Plum, Nectarines,
Peaches, and Apricots in abundance, with no injury from the Plum Cur-
culio, or rot"). We began to hunt out and plant the finer varietiesof
the wild ones, some of which were most beautiful, large and fine, and
of very good quality. But after years of patient waiting we found that
these gave no fruit in their new homes, except very rarely. We found
that the young fruit developed to the size of a little pea, or a little larger,
and indeed often to more than half its full size, and then all fell off.
This fallen fruit, if examined, showed very generally the ovipositing
marks of the Plum Curculio, made when laying her eggs.
It is not necessary, here to give the complete natural history of this
insect, because all the more important facts and their practical bear-
ings have been recorded by competent writers, and especially by Walsh
in his first report as State entomologist of Illinois, and by Riley in his
third report on the insects of Missouri; but it will be sufntficient to say that;
it is a small insect of the Curculio (Curculioidw) or snout-beetle family
that deposits its eggs under the skin of the young fruit of all the smooth-
skinned species of the Almnond family, or nearly all of them, and some
other fruits as well. The eggs are deposited in little holes eaten through
and1 under t he ,~kill IIof e ti ll ruvi t hut 111(t her l'Il cs, ark [II o suI i as
Slit.te I-lic t :1'11 ;1it i ]11 r 11d 1'.1 r t it I I' r I Ia re't'e (* or Iiv I
fi 111 S1h L I II.II1 1ar 1*1 11re fr t i ~~t a tti d 1o 1 l1 d 11 1 ii' 1 111gg
XV I li) lmt( 1 cc 4 I ,~ I I a t t I If nI ~ ni~rt .i ieG~tl
Nt I rItI )I rII In i tela' I pIco ~ It I 1e rv 1\ 1 t I i'- Ig Io Ir I It II
of t lit fri t IIr ( I~ )y 1 na i~ 1111 IIt I I i t *,t I tI I I Iv Iua Vt th t r
Thatg theltP n~ifir "efr I i Ior a n ia an na ha Ino ti ear Aw itli, pst
tell :Iiars, antd t~rue 1sa li ltri ii a t rho, 1. ar- s ii i.t
delice of aill careful iohwe \ cr'. 'Fits isdl~~ h-
brought ahout h, t he i-o t jrat iI II H 1 11 1i ra'. 11r a i tr111 14i-' Iu d t' 11.t litra
elenmies, ill the 1l61n1 it o ohle i'an's i. anid it' (ds an-o div nl'o
and. increase keeps o rIll e 111: v ill the ti-r h inl'o ht, so rI-itav('4 Ii t iris
lost as to lie able to havi' fiir crop-; ofi lie- si nne fvlt l~ it % oltl t i ig
So intivi about the Phuint ( 'ire'tiO iq iH4" Ktsrv for I Wi gernerrl readp-r
ill un der'standllin g thi i paper, ;till it is w(.i I to nc Iitlna11 l 1 a ill inin d,
that, until a v'er3 ri-ct idite, the native lahnnuis weren co"O&Wl-n-l as onra
of the fr.uitA totally des t roy, ed by ) t f11 1'lrr i i C II I-I Iin bI y (111, it 11i'ss i t
Avas Curc lio proof" or I rfotcvt I ro Illt liiio pa rer I ( h I t II B ut thIiis be-
lief was not m ill ii tit truie, for wve sll fin i avr pelrnocoen-l Ir' all. of-
nearly all, of the native pllll.- ;tIs .1n pralctil.ally ci ei nproof. A, n II
what is Of very rilluch tiore value," we will filnd t lta t illtcanl 4 loreedi if g
and ltipl _iD, thre Plutil ( '1ra-clino t hey' seanl v breedl th~ 1(11A all,
and that if thiem, Idiumis aiv. Ilanted in MrOlcin 1pnuit iy M hy will
greatly reduce its inunbirs anid protect W111.1r fr-Iit frontn its aags
Then, of cour-se, wvheii we foltid nearlly every ,fvallen frulit litar ked w\it i
the peculiar marks t11Itad a, bv the ( '1mn-lihio when l II itg ]let' eggs, we a I
or uis, lprofessors I' -1t 11 11off 0nor1o1g -0 )ss rs of hur )It Icu to IIIre, frit gu ;lI I-v I--,,
a111d ." clolhoppers at mice JHurpeOI to the vil 1usioll tha tret 11,. Litt lo
Turk (so called fronti hier ovipositinirrg mark being rvoset t ~ij wd ) \\.is,
thre call~w of the III-; II pnrns W"' all ba-liavtd tl ii to hae t rili we
looked for ito) other explaIntationr weo 1:Ad ti) daital )n whtichi to ha
et-1h for any otherl explxlrli t. oo \ I, 111',Ital our waosai e
treated ft oill the ficild vall( jiishced.
in the numai time witat W- iniattited, 1)phim thickets were left. tihe few\
that had escaal4 the farmier's hobin ie, oonrtilillt'a to, give il inlly
bountiful crop,; oft fruit, the( Clin'lhio 14o the colit nar1y it tlsadi g
andi, whether ung: or not by thatir M041, niturn anid Hniperl tlrci
It is true thlat the( treev:' ill these =il phItri pAtcOeS we lnot aq Aig-
orous and healthy as they were when we gray-headed chaps were boys,
fbr their surroundings had been changed, greatly changed. Their old
companion plants were nearly all gone; new plants, usurpers, had taken
their places and their environment was changed.
These new plants were many of them very injuTious and detrimental
to the vigor of the trees, and with the advent of man had come his herds;
they tramped the ground down hard over their roots; they laid bare
the surface of the soil to the direct rays of the sun by eating the herb-
age. Things injurious to the foliage and fruit of the trees, in the shape
of new insects and" new diseases, were introduced, but with all of this
a few wild plum thickets survived and matured plums. Why these did
mature fruit under these adverse circumstances, and why the selections
we made of a few fine plums from perhaps some of the most fruitful of
these same thickets could not be made to mature a plum with all the
care and petting we could give them, when planted in our garden or or-
chard, to explain this, to give the reasons why, and to show how easily
all can have this valuable and delicious fruit in abundance, is the mo-
tive of preparing this paper for publication.
And now I will begin my task. I was born here (Marshall County,
Illinois) in 1834, and can therefore well remember the country as it was,
and the wild plums as they were before the Plum Curculio made its
first destructive showing here in 1845. Then we had these plums
everywhere; the woods were full of them." The valleys of the smaller
streams were almost one continuous and unbroken plum thicket from
source to mouth. The edges of the prairies were skirted with them.
They were the most plentiful and useful of all our wild fruits.
As a boy I was passionately fond of fruit of all kinds, and the lo-
cation of all good wild fruits that I could find was stored up in my
memory for future use.
Many of the wild plums, as I remember them, growiugin our woods
were very poor in quality-many good, a few very good, and a still
smaller proportion of them very good and very handsome.
About the year 184 t I found growing in the edge of a plum thicket a
beautiful young tree, with a few large bright golden plums on it, kissed
by the sun until their cheeks blushed crimson, and, when ripe, of deli-
cious, honeyed perfumed flavor, large, oblong, and most beautiful. The
next fall it was fairly loaded with its glorious fruit. I determined to
secure this prize and have it all my own. I took it up very carefully,
transplanted it into the garden, and tended it with the greatest care;
it grew finely in its new home, but never matured a fruit; it bloomed
and set fruit freely, but it soon all fell off, but they were not stung by
the 'lum Carculio It was before the advent in great numbers of
that now numerous pest.
I next tried the European or Garden Plum ; they bloomed, fruited,
but every plum was destroyed by the-Plum Curculio before maturing.
At~ las adrat Umlin, 6 llim edi I). a vere Nvintvr eemi these, ("it
routs lind all.
I inext hicard ofl a \ 1 ai-t y id, tll, N atl 1, 1 111.'~cl el i M iller h a
a great mas ot te-st iouii ( a t its eig I hli'l,)1141l1 hal -iI c ii rely
ci ,cI eu v ito 'I d I In -t I''' ,~i I' 1* ,i 4 1 1 I I'' -~la Io I'i %t1 1
1 procured 00II tiees of, t 11 is Ia I It In l a IIte I l In 1i 1n or I tu Ii I eI
sprinigot 1862, and,* with ltee e iou Ci~il [i ither oH!, I lIi' I rc~ hia\ I
IUO U) this dlay Ilaturedl" oii e l- pec t'l fruit 'hI] ;I 11-et i- ah'oIt halt1'
way betwecin or a 11 ri u CIIN l l l \ I cr lie (,\ rcfteiii ( lw- (1 t he t\%o) sl i4c-
first mentioned. I tIlk \I t" 1ear (1, 1 f i ut a .Ii .!q 1i iii a1 ti ed Idi 111 oft[t ,) 4 t]III)r
Ch ickasaw typIn k nowiH as I hie \V I hl ( ;, l,',i' III IInI iii IS67, I procureil
a few sciolli of' it, andl top-gi.1,1" fll tber ill tilt, tho M' l i l n r mr-
chard. Fiveof tliteso grafCts grow, and tlt- i11e\t W pia~Ihegal5oomedl
freely and sot a laig-e allont (it fruIit, learly every oec lIt vl jiei Ina-
tured fllyv. The gre-at, hrighlt r'ell olil-tIl" 1*111it huniig oil I10w' lieS Ih, It
grants, andi I was so excited ove r I Wni"i I hAt I IieYi tl went III In VrOZ"
They ripe-ned tilt, fir,,t halt' ()1 .Julv and tlle\ \%eI0 "niappledl II) in our
Witl town at 25 yev ws per quArt. In my drea HIs I haw gpikhmi vishmn ;
.1 fortlnt, froll pikInls stared, till in tilt fare. Thm in riall. ", a ri glit w ithl
tHAS o, SWM sonAs I CMulid obhtainl trees 1.I)IO planWe It' 010te1 ill
orchard. They grew all't 1lI~ItiI'il grlallilly, blooiiiei, ad 11theiy set
fruit profusely, but it all tell tdf \vhvn qite niinil o II 15ththu" Miner
and WVilil Goose orchiard were planvi Ae a si diil ia, m) MIT i' I res
of the almond family being among or near t hm, llmmi&i as hereafrr
I have sail the gprfs set in 31iner bore lproiscly, Po did the tree iii
Which they were gra lel, i. c if Mum 1r l iNus, as, AHIi On heM s next ad-
Joinling, andi 111.1t ured t heir finit perf't l. These ph ilii orelliarlk Nk ere
both a Coli ntiuat io of a laIr,--orlit 1t'"I ofhrch 14!el. The row\s oRC
bot vrieie ofthsepli anis ext I\, t?/ !/-0.ie ill'/er p','mutr 'I
Mmr o), less plumis, some "ra'Oiis qu11ite" a i.I. Ip. \\-lit I 1le'- e p iii' lii
Wth er treevs i t hevsek or ha rInIs Ia \ o vvor hr) 1gl me I I I- t o Ia Ir I
Theso two orchards were 'onll dikttleo away and s r o l~'v'
very closely. In tarry i ng o a general Nm-,rse ~I I h .'e e'i~m~v
rietic's of -Native I lmandl pl)pa.lt( lii !1:1 T itt td 6' ii~ e~fr "lle.
T21rees of the leadling v.1rtet ies )n thei r )w"rot v 'rnpli tedI i SA I-'t elt
from )(hil l i 'so as to oba n 'eer. o \arlet ic- II planted
wero WVild Goose, M iller, U111-ct ~ ldol, I )e-i to, Wca~ yr n og ot
t o he tI IeI t o I IaI11 k- I I I ,I IIII, II III Ii n I nI In,] Itiy 'o t,, Ill m~ e ol
m-hich have as 1 et iiiArnail a 1,him1 ('Xcollt the N' nti.Aho:t till
samie time, or sixteen ti; ighteen; y~ ars ago, I pae till \ at ietic".
namedl above, togetheri with Merlotliet', th~t-MY in" ro% th e r"o%%
four feet apart, with the seve-ral V-1141ie e ll I-rul Iligleil or''ll ii \edup
but at sm n ails int Ile rows ;ill olC one vairietv w ith no )t her qulite
near, and Olwsr trcev have ]lilt faill o .a In ol n14 ni 1rill'- a futll crop
eachl year during the last twelVOY0.11-rs. A'_t iii sooli after this I pllitctd
in nursery rows for buddiug 2,003 one-year-obl seedlings of the Aleri-
cana type, from seed grown in Visconsin. These were planted in two
blocks and were budded over once with the varieties last named, and
so e others. The rows were four feet apartand the seedlings one foot
(or less) apart in the rows. But a small percentage of the buds grew
tie best of the resulting budded trees were sold, but moreor less trees
of all the varieties so budtdled were left among the seedlings and all grew
up together and are yet, to-day, to be seen in the same condition.
Of the trees planted not near other trees of the Almond family,
number ing some hundreds, not one of them ever matured a fruit during
the sixteen years they have been old enough to produce, until last
season, when'a few of the varieties ripened a very high crop of fruit,
the Miner being second only to the Newman in point of productiveness.
The Newman as an exception to the other varieties has given a fair
crop each season during the sixteen years, except one, when it failed
entirely. Ten years ago I was ready to retire beaten, and give up the
whole plum and plum-tree business in disgust, in fact the whole Al-
mnond family, for the Plum Curoulio seemed determined to destroy all the
cherries also. I had followed every hint and theory that I had ever
heard of. I carefully examined the flowersof all the varieties, and found
them, sofar as I could see, perfect in all their parts. The first grafts of
the Wild Goose in the Miner trees continued to bear each year, as did
the trees in which they were grafted. The isolated trees, scattered
over the plantation), were vigorous, healthy, and each year bloomed pro-
fusely and set fruit freely, but it all fell off when quite small, except a
very small proportion of that on the Wild Goose; some of the fruit of
this variety wuld attain half, two-thirds, or even full size, ripen pre-
maturely and then fall off. But in all such instances there were other
trees of the Almond family planted not far away, and I can safely say
that during the twenty years or more that I have had this variety old
enough to bear, the hundreds of trees of it in my orcharls have not
matured one fruit if completely isolated from other trees of the Almond
One day, when examining the fruit of this variety for Cureulio young,
I was surprised not to find a live grub in them at all, and at that time
could not find a fruit in which the larvwe had ever fed. And I was
still more surprised upon cutting through the shell to filnd that the seed
had not developed and was imperfect. This fact led me to believe that
the flowers of this variety were not perfect, that the pollen was not
Some years ago I received from its disseminator, O. M. Lord, of Min-
nesota City, Minn., scions (grafts) of a fine new hardy plum found in
his neighborhood, uamed tlhe "a olling Stone." Five of these I grafted
into :a tree of Vil dGoose of bearing :age by splice grafting on the ter-
minal twigs of the main branlches. All five of these grafts grew ; one
of them gave three clutterr of bloom the sne sprl'ing it was grafted,
and TI t rd he t pI( I mIItI I I as Ic gria ( il1 Suirpi i'- I h i mllen seai
five p ut-cl Y Ila ture1dI \\ 114It I )o I,~ llIII il I I l \ l~ 1t.c "- 1 thc "i )Ii i i1;4
Stole gfraft .1nd4 nlotie !I dl Is I"' Iwo. 1f l lit i. a 111d t liv WX i 111 d wit
ripen premiatuirely or fill il 114efoll I ll lel e.tloped. Thli. t hi -4 pitllis
matured by thc graIft ipenI w al ioIkn t ]I1 '1o111 Littr.
,rhree of theit Wizii- St 1n gi kl -r I Ii wA, t he fi rst Y~inimplr ;Ifter
grafting, and tilt- net,\ sping_ hlooilicd pl~dilttc I.N. ThrI, li n Il NIdli
they were graftedl grew\ 11 [lt, sol h 1-1d 4f 11a; lo\N olfil \ r~ it I~ vnt
Wlld Goose) about :;)1)11 ods lng Ti kerotpil ;'t~i It Ir I I t.I
Nvere illsertl'd tit 1e tr ill \0 h jei ; hl, \ \\ r' t1 1.11gma IAi i 1 1 ul ol o
of fruit ; the oner ne(,t northi I 1,cct tiomt ii I \;t: full ofliii 1't1 oil ttS slt h
Side; thetfruit Nwa usrsattcrig,. Trh, mm Impe 10) ftlt it it oiftliir xat
matured three pidumis ; wit onle oi li'lt t1r ill hrt rov~ out ot vrI Imp, a
hutndred matured aI plum thintt sr,Wo.
The extreme (-o)ld of tI 10e fio~ d k t I" t witr &-mt Io~ii th lWeXd ul ;
below the 'Jafts. anld the Adl"" 111 ugSPrIJg t heyx did Rot I111011" T". PI ut
feet east of this mo" (of WHO W-,wo~estmi a IOWIC" 01 i W~hiei l i tgS.
The following summer1101 (or I$) ii isi row ofredIiug idoototmd and
fruited enormously, and the ro"~ 4t XW&li Cim, k IN& ii r v i n hrv i onl
the east Side of the trms, with scarmey a puluitl onl the Z Ist i uf he
And to close the record or tiliese two row's, i wvil aild t hat during t he
spring of ISS6 I mnade a record Af the tim of l'imnnintg of Al t he
pluml trees oil tilt place, andil oft, lic force andti direct ion of I he \itidl
du1r11,1 theV titlIO 1,1 honllilg, ;a n1d Iim Illy rqiig to that rejord,
that ;L gentle east N\ VIA prIVIAM foi r t hire dayts dudii tg IN he Ii'Wit
the row of native plumls wrl ill Ilie licig lit or Wonm awnl th lie rowt'
~Wild Goose Ilat uried an citoitttot cro of T cry hl Im l ibt w\ithI x ry
mu1c11 mlore fruit ol (lt, 1ast1,1n 1 til hr wck sitl (1iiw row of' sccdhulgs
furn'lishing- the polle1 \\ hicli a\Is wa fl rd toI I litIl I)\ Ih eatwii
The first yearl I ]lit Ih Il ollii g St one gra 1,0 bloomeid .;I lilt I lir Iml
hliddeni secret of the fli lure ill prodlic! i\ 1-1ciss ofd, ti lmivel' i t
Nvhiich has poroved itef to be 11hit a glini inmty, or nearly Al
of them, are nlot fertile withi their o\\w ildlrouch Ill-, ill otlie'r \N4ods,
troum sonic not as >mt flly pxldji i lice or cause, lie p"Olle Af say,
the Wild Gomose, or Miner will iot polliui/, the uail o their. mvi
flowers. Whly it will not does not) becolle mal;terial ; the ftt tnn,
After a pretty thorouigh1 inivestiga'tionI myl comic] usionl as to lit-e lc;1-11
A5 that the polleni ilturcs aid is Itov. i a1 a\\l. :asted beftore tilt-
stigmtas are mawtre vinough to reeve it -, or, it tity 14. true 1 liM the
pollen of some %-arieties is impotent to their imwit (ti )a,orp.il
even poisonous to then. That this latter condition of 1~',ts uia;I eN cvt
hlas beenl filly anlil siltislac t ori ly proven IbIy the mlost caeflly11. conduIlctedl
esperimentsA,- the great DArwin, and the restis givei in Weail in his
'" Plants and Animals under Domestication," and the same theory has
to some extent been handled in works by other eminent scientists. I
found that theRolling Stone variety would pollenize the Wild Goose and
render it fruitful. I found that other varities would do the same when
twenty feet away, if the wind blew from the right direction when they
were in bloom. I found that in every instance where I had trees of the
liner and Wild Goose near each other, both varieties were very pro-
ductive, and also that when the Newman and Wild Goose were near
together neither was fully productive, and that where Miner and New-
man were contiguous both were enormously and regularly productive.
I also found that where I had Newman growing isolated from other
varieties, that it was yearly productive of moderate crops of good fruit,
but scarcely a seed from such trees would grow ; but where the Newman
and Mliner were planted near together the -Newman was not only enor-
mously productive, but the fruit was larger, later, darker colored, and
thicker skinned, and the seed all good, and the resulting seedlings
strong and vigorous, the Miner being also very productive in this case.
Further, I found that where I had nearly all the named varieties of
both types of these plums growing together in the two blocks of seed-
lings, that all of then (including the seedlings) were, with thile excep.
tion of the \Vild ("oose, very productive each year since old enough to
bear. Trees of the WVild Goose were growing in both blocks of these
seedlings, but nolne of them have ever fruited so heavily as those grow.
ing- near Miner, showing, I think, that the Miner is its best consort. The
trees in these two blocks of seedlings are about one foot apart in the
row, andl the rows four feet apart. (Growing illn this way much in the
same manner as the natural plaui thickets of the earlier days of this
country, they have all of then matured a full crop of plums each year
for the past seven years, and the trees have remained more vigorous
and healthy than isolated trees of the same varieties. The number of
varieties in these two blocks may be safely estimated at 5,000, running
through all grades of the northern wild plum, from the poorest to the
very best. During the whole period in which these plums have been
fruiting, nothing whatever has been done to protect the fruit from or
to destroy the Plum Curculio, and this insect has been present in large
numbers during the whole time. No hogs or other stock have been
allowed to run among the trees, and, until the last three seasous, all the
a wormy fruit has rotted on the ground, undisturbed.
The history of these plum trees tells nmy readers exactly how to fruit
the native plums everywhere in abundance. Heretofore when writing
on this subject I have qualified the above by saying how they will
fruit here abundantly. ut during the past two years I have cor-
responded with the owners of or visited a great number of plum or-
chards throughout nearly the whole country and find the same results
everywhere, namely, wherever these plums have been planted with
several rarities near together (or near trees of several other species of
the alniond fi1 ) thpeyt hiave beeni constantly produclivi- low hu wheni
plant-d Ii th t Ihe % ariet ies islat;1 It'l Ihy hiavle pro-1 brren, c'pt i I
t he 'South1.
WIhIi I t IIe \\'Ii I ( os wilI o1 ni. 1 it I~ Ism% 11 iWq' I, woo fi of I it hr (A H
Ri ver, an t ill not port It, 1mayO s i I IItI I 1 '~it I l 1 I u it thii, f'pa i k
easily explained. It ,I ",'Il Ilrl. 1 (lit ttIn', 11-. W *u;.~ vat~lil itto iu
and in threy or "Imr th.\ s I& l e x cuilotg~ till tillIt' 11,1AI r lI.I ma P II re .
performed'l t heir 1fi1t ti0I ao s atill los~ft It' l, I I\ ][.] I h. t v o t hl- teIe
is oftenl ilk cont iniplil- lilowl I', r I ui Iwts 1,. t I, i d t t foM Iw no1 111 ,
a Ip Id I tl.re'lre.( th r I It II t I Irtt I I I, l I tj tiil th, d 11 W 1, 1 r
matih) Stig"aWS to WOOiv ViH I hlI t th r WV ihi ; phillurn Ito],t Ilce,
opens its flowers one14 day, Ii ~'i aln ul lt' k I lot tif t lt t t hune-
nloon of' tilt lit\ fl~l t 1w pollen1 ()I' (the pitorn. \k Iich I, 1 ti1t114 1t.il retieil
of their svxualitv. monsi~N lot vvry in ii ue ro utndi 'heg III,,- rell s, very
light and print"cel ini gna~t allurpntitte in, am!ta nh Ie at Petl Iq tht uhwl
for Ililes uIttlerl tI\m Ilte (it 11 Il'Ities' a in 1 Miru hmt'te tItt tabl "-
impaird) and mot until tihp;Ie M aftrott H' da Ii, v tio l ip-' Wfgtirta tlke
oil the st-mial 1 l't aliid lit'tmIt na.IlX itt t .'t t it, ThVttSV atidithe of her
fuill\ established fa t th to Vian iril m~an tt~aill )t* 11111f itt tItir
ownI pollenl is neither acceltabl nor fz lilet. t 111ct. t t 11-iwt-I t
Inas-and to thet ttl. coniittitli Ifact thalt in :at jttIt, a ti~ is-
not fertile with pollenl (it' that d~ i ht~i ft ll! % f'tI Iv it, lit l 111 ron
another; 1wity \N e have failed tl get 1111 nIt illu it \ ittt oN-
tive llinis wN011 not -rimwing :tI. r (oher lAn 10 tr1,(tt ot per In. (i~ t,
tilt Almond familyy. and why thleme 'Antie var iet il, a t Nvtr ptrtodurtii
whenl planttedl near othcr., : Itit, 1,()s~I, th iis NV"1114 to We that Pab-
ire abhors ..ill and illredig or, itt other wwrk. "Olet ha.s t-Irctfttlly
guardedl nearly all forll- 1)f I ifl fr'oltr unnaturral nnittus or' a too cl1).oe
consalininity of' otfspriltg.
Bill in our Almnondi tainilyi the dilik-kiiit spetrit s secn freely to lWtrtil
ize each other Sexually ill 111:a1 iltstatices andh the, r 'snltillgl hbrids
are, so farI as obsev e d. fulIIlIy fcrt i 10With 11aI F01% ON 06"Vor iti itnate I
have absolI to a V1 ( i I I o ItI St able prooft IthIa t thI Ito w Irs olIIt h WilId( ;oose
and Miller phuinks ar'e ferilized. to a li5nitet extetIt ,bN th( pollenI of' our'
cherrie, which belong to a ditlecrent gen'lus ()I the Same oler. Also,
the pofis absoIllute that (lt, pollenl of thle peach freecly f'ert ilizes the
flowers of' the Chickasaw plm.at WOOs Somew (It Ilhe. Till, new\ carly-
Peaulhes, suh as liale's Eairl, Aipolclt's 'Julte, Ale~xalpder, &c.. are
suh hybrids nearest the leatT &i their g eneralities ; andu till, Blaicl
InanI ( Iole 1 1k eau IIty, ; n IothIy; e II(,Ir soi allt'tl N u s r4e sitI It II It I INII1 Iot'
ne~rlyv resetullig th h Iltill]t
Trhe plumsi- or Euirol) fieely fertilize olir na.tive pl 1111. nt ric' r, rs~f.
So far there is no, proof thtat the sub qeiuti, Jt I, t w hticli ourt'ilt
cherries belong", is so\11all v fertile with other tueonlbers oft he Niub (order,
but it is very proballde thaIt it is nt,~
NVP have nkow, ir we have readi "nderstandingly, learned how we in"-
FRUIT THE NATIVE PLUS
everywhere in abundance. How ? Simply by planting several va-
rieties near together or commingled, or by grafting or budding barren
trees with one or more different varieties as above explained. Plant-
ing the different varieties near together is most practical, and easily
done by selecting such two (or more) varieties as will pollenize each
other, and planting them alternately in rows 4 to 6 feet apart, the rows
running in the direction of the prevailing winds at the blooming time
of the plum. If we do not know what varieties will pollenize each other,
we will be safe if we plant several varieties in close proximity, so as to
have the so-called species alternate in the rows. The rows may be 15
to 30 feet apart.
We now take up the
PLUM CURCULIO (Conotrachelus nenuphar)
understandingly. But why need I add one more word about it for the
proof is absolute here, and I have the same complete proof from nearly
every State and Territory, that it has no effect on the fruiting of the
great majority of our native plums whatever. If their flowers are
pollenized they give regular crops of valuable fruit as any fruit in any
climate, with no material damage to the fruit, except rarely to a few
varieties, by this pest. In fact, I will here put it on record: I believe
that after carefully investigating the subject throughout three seasons,
that what effect this curculio has on these fruits tends to benefit the
tree and fruit rather than injure, for, where these plums are fully pollen.
ized their tendency is to overbear-to set more fruit than they can or
should bring to maturity. The most materialinjury to this fruit by the
curculio is that the cuts through the skin of the young fruit, made by
her when laying her eggs, sometimes forms a nidus (breeding place) for
"fruit-rot." The varieties will be affected by this very differently in
different locations and climates, but this rot does not, as is the case
with some other fruits, so far as is known prevent our securing full
crops of some varieties everywhere. (Curiously the evidence is that P.
chickasa is more subject to rot South than P. americana, and vice versa.
But my observations here prove that this "fruit rot" in the native
plums more often finds a nidus. or origin in the minute punctures of leaf
lice (Aphididre) and plant bug (Hemiptera). The most injurious of the
bugs to the fruit of our native plums, and perhaps the most injurious in-
sect of _North America, is the now notorious tarnished plant bug (alsus
oblineatus, Say.). This pernicious bug is abundant nearly everywhere,
is ,n omnivorous feeder, and not only depletes trees and plants of their
juices, but the puncture of its beak is very poisonous to them, causing
many young fruits to drop soon after being punctured, on others leav-
ing wounds for the entrance of the spores of the sporadic diseases or
"rots." Therefore it will not do to give the plum curculio credit as the
destroyer, ot* all fruit thliat t*.ll- 1 1*,Irv maturIlity ;Ill 1l, 1,ur1ther, it ki a 1"act
that the injuryn to tho young- frui by t hi 4.1 1".11io %%e 11la t Iing her eggrS
(lot's not cmise Such hri Ill f4 all 1whA. sInial, blit Ih con, raryIm is true.
Therefore, wheni wo find- ;ill ourl ,youngl p1 il Ii-; onl lilt grom idly ill
JuneTI, 110t iV it* eer VonIV011 oC thli sho \\ tl. ov i14 ) tllrtg mlark, of, the
Little Turk. She orI her \\ rk wa.s Ili) Ithe c.11'rc ofl t hir ll. ]',it citt
them openl'111 an you will inlvarIab Ily findi Iho se-ed eiitrvda,. 01, tile
lice or buigs beforel ineilotl ha.d vausewd t heir di. t hi.
Thent it remains to give a 11hirt 'mi rttltaryof, thte fa cts -at herell, show-
lug tilt- trill staitus- ot tilt Phi lu (uCul t o In rfgrd t lit growi il
,"Onerally and( tho Native PI 'in s espwcilly
The first and lllo-t iIII mrtanlt Is that all evillenlc1 'whi) ws thaIt thiis ill-
sect Seekls the Native Phltits Ill prefe renlce. ti ;ill owher rIi [1 i, ill which to
deposit her gs.Tlwt i a liueer .a I' a lgefat itll gy whic-1 nat-
tiralist's will hbo im-('11.e~ to di1spute, nattie1ly, t hat ant ilitf,(t Sholit i sek
anld uise, seelmingly by puef'i'l-ttce, a fruit ill whichl t la1v IwI. eg
whercilu but very v Cw lit tite;J \\ill hat1ch antd il hiwt il t fow of sulch.
larvw as do hatch c inl bw lpiari'lied on its sub'It tt to) t1.ua tivy.
The reas;on why the Plum C'urct-iho do(-s v(,! tho Naltive I ,l him" to
ovivosit ill soonis, to be baueof, their er c.I.1 nv a d veyfraga
bloom. This beetle, mnlike smc otrs~l-, is a ralvcltin freedr N% h ill ill
the imago or beetle sktte, atid( flies, towardl the 11ceat est itt ill it 41od.
With what result, lnow become 1o the iiportatilt filleltion. I a lo~i
that the depositing of the rggs of' Ilte Caurcnlio ill th lieylitg 11rlilt domes
10t cauIse it to fall before, reachilig mlatlrityv ; thIat it d1 e 1110 I;teriaI:ly
inijure the fruit, for I have malrketed ii Muter pim in th r eig.1-
eell of the ovipositing Itarks of this beetle. n1d( .\ et it was a l;5~ll
plum For use beatingg orI cati-n ],it the facts are best (gi vi'- ill figur11es
DtiriMg the paSt twVoseSOIts111- Ilhave on over the g'reat mass oIrntiveI
plumis ini bearing here, twice durin11g eac4.1 mes. h)[ tntlt itl. svh
Itiatically, anld veryN carefully, with prawctically the samelo resuIlts te lih
time, and I wvill hetre give tit\,s lli igrs
I found thalt for every g that hatched" andI tilt larv'l 1 Iad 6,11 1ot ic1-
a blv, that there were fromt I.,)O to 1.01 ,lIov psti k~mrlks of* the ( 'ill -
ctilio, atidl that oidv onet living~l eculi!o 111,1ggot \ was fild Ill :,Ii, I)to)
3),500 p1tllms vxmtninedl mndi NNhich ltic egg hadi bwet i ld. ThIIese,
percentages are froti thte 'Jie Ibevain of tlm)~ two eas attd
coincide( With l)YVVhII5 ObStrVa1tilmts. ItI tilt' TWO obserIvatiosit
during the( latter lpArt of' Julv will first of Auutthe perceitagles er
niot materially chmngedl or 11*1 11'r'011. Ano0ther' Studyl% WAS 111111 to) fid
Out how mnany Ltrvae that ha14Ilhachedl h1.ad fed to wll1 adivan1ced i11 n
rity as hirvax To get ;it th Is I seIe c ted (I lt, friti of theit W IlM (Gose iindI
Newmlan, inl which I hadu found more living larvei tian Ii ;111y other
variety here (as yet I have not foitdi any living laveof cons iderablle
size in the Mine1r. but strangely 1 1,01und mor01, lving,, wecll fell, hlealthy
2234( --No. 14- 1
looking larvae in P. americana in the woods, to the number of plums
stung than I have in any other plum, a not very careful survey of this
tree showed that about one in twenty-five of the eggs laid in the fruit
has produced well-grown, healthy looking larve). I selected first 100
plums of the Wild Goose variety, in which eggs had seemingly been
laid. (I am well aware that in many species of insect life the females
will continue to form proper nidi for the reception of her eggs long
after her supply of eggs has become completely exhausted; in fact,
as a rule the grim messenger" finds her busily at work, with feeble
effort, trying to lay eggs and reproduce her kind, and it is quite proba-
ble that our "Little Turk" possesses this instinct, which continues to
its fatal termination. Therefore my percentages are not so correct as
if I had been able in each instance to locate an egg, in eitu within the
ovipositing mark.) At least the ovipositing mark was apparent on
each fruit. These were placed in a vessel, and taken out one at a
time and cut under the ovipositing mark to ascertain if the larve
had fed. If it had not fed noticeably, it was thrown aside and another
taken up, and so on until I had obtained a hundred plums in which
the egg had hatched and the larve had fed. Two trials of Wild Goose
plums, in this way, gave respectively 22 and 23 living, sickly look-
ing, attenuated larne. Two trials of the same number of N ewman gave
respectively 24 and 26 of the same kind of grubs. Whether any one
of these sickly looking larne would have matured into beetles I do
not know, but I have the best of reasons for believing that none of
them would. And here are my reasons, and they are of the greatest
value, if I have made no mistakes. The autumns of 1884 and 1885 I
gathered the fallen fruit from all the trees for seed, and of course in this
way I got all the fruit with living larne in them, and when selecting
what good fruit there was for market, all wormy and imperfect fruit
was thrown on the surface of the ground in the shade of trees, day by
day as gathered, and on and convenient thereto were placed several
contrivances, such as the young beetles are known to seek as soon as
they emerge from the ground for shelter. These shelters were care-
fully examined until cold weather without finding a single beetle.
The next spring this seed was gathered up early and planted. A good
portion of the ground it had occupied was at once covered with strong
canvas, with its edges so covered and fastened down that it was im-
probable that the beetles could escape from under it.* Now, if this 80
bushels of plums selected from the 261 bushels marketed on one season,
and of course including practically all the wormy plums, bred no Curcu-
lios, and it takes 3,200 eggs to produce one well-matured larva, and if we
give it all the Native Plums it may require in which to lay all of its eggs,
This experiment was very poorly conducted and proves nothing. If the plums re-
ferred to were worthy, it is safe to say that at least a portion of the larvae were in
healthy collditioa au1 wolt throtugtl their trusfortuations under ground. We have
this is the, pertinent ilaition: M )i it nil saarit vcm1wii vv0 to, show
thatua levern trk gion tho. til ibahri-d portio i of it, \\aI. \ ~v
fully sayI o Ie N a ,t I 'In In I I iclk t I I I; it h r I I crI f (Ihen1-1 p! I IIls (-I I g li to
h ld t he P I nI [ ( 'n rc I It vn I I in 1heck Il c l .\ill, tll:11-1 he 1 "i 's it nlot
also conclu'i v'l~ Ith;]t 11f N% iv Irr I.11 a s ilil-wil 11n nih1 r oft hoes(
phlli trees to I~rollucc flili tor~ I he ha'-Ilcs to Icv,] on aid ll[ a,-:1 o(,
thwir eggs in am! such vqg dlo nut hawdl, a'[ W haI e 111.1 thtl the
0hI plumis, will again 111 red v its i nh I l elw, II, pl 011 (ofit pjr actica~l
injury, and in thii.s Nway piotect alll our t her fluirt fronli its idipri'la.
tionls Again, lil not our I'acis 1Iro ati it iI- trill that 1 he P i nIIJ
Curculio is att ravcd by these pl c arlyv ill [Ill 'wad~oll. mill hwlr ng
there on the plunr" she \\ill I~wa)I hei'lor lia r cogs Iiitheiccr'ivl
and that by planting these,( phiiii-im ist intiedly ainou adl alow ild ouir
Peaches, Applles, Chatierrie's, all AU her fi n it, liale to) 11n1uy 1 lichr,ithat
we will protect those fruits froil da lag by Iis lwe c !
MV have hut one~ iustini (if Pilliortaic to ails"ur e whii ',Are, tite
-Native Plunis a fruit w orthmy of, c'~tallillrI ,im (l at non I C in arw
t ti S 411 qu sin e 0fI Il I II i IaL Iy I ? s the i arev It. T Flwv alrt. onti -oI I Ie It o c r-
tainof'the fruits I"i Wh regularit'vof t 1"re rcrop, and the ild is 11,1uAlh
abundant, tilt' fruit wholesoue, atI trcI%(', itndl ea.l ga -.t Ila]('A, and' call
be shippwd any reasonable distaince to iiia lat. Wili-11 t holo(iLhi ly ripe
it is delicious. eatcn ill a na;turral state-that i's, swnill \~ .rie ilc Ill it
others are ninong thp tiniet of fuits Wtr paeparinig Ii th vaio uls V \S
known to the cuilinary' art-sewing, c-twwnig, d ryi lg, prcarv= u ill
supa, swect pickling &ii~,ic. And Ilany. ofl 1lit v.1n let cs (it fie
-Northern type will keep prrfcctl thlroughout the \\inlter 11 ll rpkvlLm
in an open earthen jar ai coveredi \Nithl N ator. ;ire ll ija'ke latest
hial silw vXpericIwo %%il th 1 ImrN 1 0,11f 11t li- ii lIi lio I I[ kici': cl- nr m i
criinate lwtwt- n s klawl, hil lt L1 111 %il iI~ll .( J, r(. W Ir l.~ ic I lkl p
caiutions taken o h r adc nT tlic Ili.,,tnr~ii~fom t1 ro a c i
tirely ilsulltlicut r e mroc l tn nc to o t mn r ra i i~m-
fvstv(I chivilv intuo'l a ir nlilg
will protect wir peatch-. a1prictsIl ni Itcd 10uiis, "A _1 .int los ;1 11c,m i
n u lvver (if Ilte t i it I io, are I-, ll tc ik~ ll ll II] l t Im o n m ll r~ll I c Ij Ic i ;h f,
thiat Ilie-w cuilt ivattv' fruliIt, Nll lIaIly IrittolcdI hy theI ('m rui 11[ (1mm 1o t, ;1,V "" c
ititroduiced is a iitliIu iit poro f Iha 1 t 1 i1 ('r n o Ihm I I', IIIII) h ''I I' [ IIc4e f-Ir
I t'e4e plan1 t s. NV ih ~I I 11 nm %Nt I'w i t Ie Ior 'ti'~ Iu Ir I~a I~ lI I ,orF
ti0o I thIat 3 large_'I Ir I 1tin )oC I I F 1i im _' -- I oI I W IlI I 'ii nI- m t Io e iitI i
vallse tHwy o)ftenlt In ka 1 n 1 nCI i IA I f 7 1mti' 1w 1 ch ri Ie I I. I I I 1 ~it. '
yelt we III o 11W ov 1 Iti' I ~ o Iii nu tni ou n h emc im. c ~ fn i
41 llit). Thw NV!h 1 ium 11 1r t wo g a moijlLi iCtm,1mc ai iI s e
i Std al;s a sptci onlI ti4 p:lan rI t'l i I I n i I inir ia Tlcm' tivton f mice
a pricots, chterrie ,& Iin l~ frI I- II th Inc nI Io It Io mnra'e at 1ml r I InI
pll CIt\ a1113nTI (1 t I f Ii Im tv tio lt cca~ I th mL e it I_ I T i
city of t lit Curtui Io.I Th I ,,t ate I f t'im' Iom ) Iut vil'rn if Mr NV rco
show ius how tot conpel the inmewt to o% n"-~t in l1w fi~ "i f th, W1d lii m, "r oMlMi
t'Vel prove by s:Itifaet.r) cirlltll( i_ no i th' rTP h o)f hi s1 ctin;ii t a
prefer71e1kce f4,r saigt% 1, Il-1rit -( V. 1
beautiful and delicious jellies. Such are the principal uses of the fruit.
The trees will thrive on any soil that will support common trees, but do
best on a deep, rich, moist soil; they thrive finely in the bottoms of deep,
steel), narrow ravines and alongdrains, on lands too rough for cultivation,
if reasonably rich. The trees are natural to crowded situations. crowded
by each other, and by other trees ; their roots do best rambling through
moist soil, shaded from the sun, and the trees do very much the best in
a location sheltered from the strong winds of spring (which blow away
the pollen). The trees are easily propagated; they throw up young
trees (suckers) freely from their roots; therefore when planting these
plains on. the thicket plan in waste places it is best to have them on
their own roots. Or, if we do not wish them to produce suckers, they
may be budded on the Chickasaw variety known as Mariana, which
variety grows freely from cuttings, is quite hardy, and seldom, if ever,
throws tip suckers from its roots. In the South these plumts do finely
when budded or grafted on peach (which do not sucker), but care must
be taken to prevent injury from the Peach Borer (_,Fgeria exitiosa Say).
North they do nicely if "root-grafted" on peach. Generally, as the reader
will have learned from this paper, the Native Plums have no very nox-
ious insect enemies or diseases here or over the country at large, and it
is safe to say that they in some of their varieties or tribes can be grown
profitably in every part of the country. There is a vast amount to be
learned about them as yet, and some very important facts to determine.
The most valuable one is this : I have some proof that certain varieties
of these plums will breed the Plum Curcuilio freely'; if so, such varieties
should be searched out and destroyed, and we should be sure not to
plant these varieties for fruit, be that ever so fine.
THE. SERRELL AUTOMkATI 'SILK REE1 L.
By PHIILIP W ALKER.
In previous reports the new Serrell automatic silk reel has been fre-
quently mentioned, but owing to the incomplete condition of the pat-
ents upon it, it has been considered unwise to publish even such a gen-
eral description as that which follows. Now, however, that these ma-
chines axe in operation in Washington, it is possible to gratify the
laudable curiosity of persons interested in this machinery, of which so
much has been said but so little known in this country.
An understanding of the mechanical principles of ordinary noni-auto-
mnatic reels and of the Serrell serigraph are so necessary to a thorough
comprehension of the automatic reel that, althoug-t they have already
been) described by Professor R~iley in Bulletin No. 9 of the Division.*
it is deemed wise to insert ail account of uhem, here. The quotations
SThe Mulberry Silk-Worm, by C. V. Riley, M. A., Ph. D., Washingtou, 1886.
it Ati v I It ii I ddx Iiau Iu I I i tw ge i t I I'o o~ Ieligi
Most of, thus; tillet is 4.:llplo~ rd iii eat ing, hu;i a l li he IL-In-\ lw (~i'n.
sumxed in paswing Ithnro4h t hp no d I. TJhie MA i l"KKIIIH urni l n u thle
last tell dalys is almost t ('II ilv il o 4"I illI thw 1 rmlat im ol, a flidl
NV hIih IIll Is th I 0SIlIk1 d II -ts an i T I i IIi g e ut It xx Il tI I Ii fa rci tot
thlit slkell thrlleadi of Ih Icocoii (4o II.
In the blody or t he lurva Amper an, t wo (t o4t-s duorts, rach lx I' h ich
is connected withI ix o itlice c,-iI lh-il ;I n no.-1e t \\ 11 ie i- k I illte Ii lt e
lower lp of' the inwect. 'Thei lar%,t iii t ie tor Iation oI its (i0 col tfi Io\\s
out fron these orilices I "o iv Hx Lulaeit Is c mmered wit it tiattiral glue.
This gle st'rves to Stick Ithe I wo INa uncut s together and t Inu tor Am
into what appears to tilte naloed eye tot h(, one11 (ilipatf t l1 rad. All ex-
amnination of, this th reall. 1 nolor tilt xin il-4ewlPll ho c slomui its
doublite nature and its 11 irtelle I meini ),h wittl is thret e4 to our
time, its thickixcss.
The first step taken by till wormi, after it hao found a con ceit
place to make its coroon, ki tot throw oux t a V'(1t1i (t, tlhre.11,s ll, g-ne(
to forni a founda ionl to thle nmr iupi poll. T[ie ti-ysuc ldf til Svs-
tent is lose and is not appareutly wovi-j after amxy ti\ ,. plan. ()Once
this foundation coml)eteld, the lal-va, ihei-s the coni' action ill the
stronger wvall of' its resting, place, which is winatruwid or a lirin 1101l5in
laidi oil lit fignure-eight loops anlt il in Illy distincet Llyers Of)I t! I ("c
layers it is easy lo rev-ogzu at le ot4 a dIo/.el aix I to tear 11 h.eni a:) .t
bit it is pro~balel that inx reality those miiiht etlA Qe MASAOvul into
mnany more blit for tilt, lac1!: of' 01,t 41ue1ts' i Q-et eIicac .
Taking the yellow Mjlanxc~o rat- a a Ill, \%e findl that it lelluirl-s
about 250~ fresh ro )-! x ls to in ik~e :t p) )It) 1~ ;111 that (.at-I con tali us .1lolit
one thousands y ard's (oC Ilz-d he~ oa withI tlxe ill-losedl c'hl % ,-
alidesi couxtaixil however, 66i per cenat imo. (,I water.\ hlieh ill Ih !Wn~ of
three or fourl lxiolitll, di. firug will eciluially evaporate. O f Owe total
weight or these co01 )OxS', a,_aiul, hilt about 15 per~l ccl tillu is t"-Iiui or
silk, the balancee lwein i co:11pti't'l of' rhlxrsali'll- andll till hin', c 1 b'y
the larva, in their transorinatioi. miwus, Nwe we to reovvir all Kf Ih
silk containled ill a lot or ctoollis, it wollxhd not exceed1l I.- per1 cen.1tiun ofl
the total weighIt whcxesh or 3 1) 11cr cent iri or tht- weigt \\he1,1 dry
It is not, hwever, possible to amcmlikh sui a rc ,llt, both on aceollit
or the hoss caused in getting lihm or re vndl or th lt hread axil, froix till
fact that it is imtposile to finish the- eelig of at m q) )n t) it s vwo illn.
Manufacturers rarefy obtain more than one powold of, :ul f1 a thr-ee
anid 0110-h1AIl paunSIL Ofry Vox- win e'njQ-i 1, aWt it is not nmmn
for them to consume at least four pounds of raw material in the forma-
tion of each pound of their product.
Before reeling the cocoons must be cleaned by the removal of the
outer system of threads which, under the name of floss, is one of the
waste products of the industry.
In the filature the "cocoons are first plunged into boiling water,
whereby their gluten is softened in such a manner as to render the un-
winding of the filaments an easy matter. This done, they are brushed
with a small broom, to the straws of which their fibers become attached.
The bundle of filaments is then taken and they are unwound until each
cocoon hangs by but one clean thread. These three operations are
called 'cooking brushing,', and 'Ipurging The first two can be ae.
complished mechanically, and are currently so performed in Italy and
largely in France. But purging is a process to which the accuracy of
the human eye and the delicacy of the human touch have so far been
found necessary." The thread unwound in these processes is also a
waste product, called "frisons," and has about one-fifth the value of
reeled silk. In good working about four times as much silk as frisons
E G I -----
F'ia. 1.-Elements of the mechanism of a modern silk reel.
"The elements of the mechanism of all modern silk reels areessentially
the same. They are shown in Fig. 1, and consist, in general, of a basin,
A9, in which is a perforated steam-pipe, P, by means of which the water
in the basin may be heated. A few inches above the surface of the
water is placed a perforated agate, B. The cocoons having undergone
the three operations mentioned, the ends of the filaments of four or more
of them are twisted together into a thread which is passed through the
hole in the agate. From this it runs through the croisure 1 f, which
will be hereafter explained,l and over the guide E to the reel at F. Be-
tween E and F the thread passes a guide, G, moving to and fro (in a
line perpendicular to the plane of the paper), which distributes it in a
the silk. withoilt whil-h III, A I In wolld hil te I" hvv t le t linail ot
the skeinl as-- it docs t hose o, till cocollllN and, thn, us i" it, z "miivri il
VaIluO. The shafkt o' til 1-01.l cat rics at o)11 end IA frit jion woel. /1,
which re-Sts on t he .1 are f'rit ilon Mwo- hel, thiat ill ( n e.oh.v o
shiart N, andu thu., motion is illt ,Ar'l t tt- I -(-. III 'lidol to Nt4) fi0) 1lie
reel it is o ily, nvice ssar to) ii" I Ill \ l Ie I I'F11 fra i lts l III-" 1 i Ill". ;i
of the lover L~. ThIIis II I ovenei (411 li p Ii 1-NI' Iee atg I~ I (Ii h % Ir I,('
Shoo~ K, will it-, Ilotion is at onico avrk-st Ild.
"As has been saidi abo\'e, thl II] t (Ia. is- .I I-,~e )(-I welt' I It gAll and
the reel through the uroimire. The fit n hi g tlt croi-tre cotnsists ini
twisting the threal around itsmr or a mt her (Hoi iei so As to vonisiliiate,
its co"sttuVnit tilamentsl, anl \ri\ till' watcr I't-wt it ;1 1141 Hills aid i t it~s
d ry inIg. The Ilodle of I ho 1"lrlat iont of1 I his 4.t1-o urt orn I' s he prvi wi pall
d ist inIIguIIi shIIig m ;1r k I tw e t IIII F rt -I I I I Ind 1.11 N I ta Ia It I t s of t, I t .Ii Ig.
The former is calledI Itle Chainhoitn sei'Ee reller tIItAIIAges two
threads. ThesO MVe I)Asse I throllgh Stf'atl-Ae aga, tos, d ailte lhing
brought together allot twiste't t went or. thirty timest- Arotilill ecu1 ot 1er
are again separ'atedl andI Ipas -w tllring il guiiiitg tVo t ill' reel. ThIe .
oter systeni, called l tavellet t(,* c'onsi:Nt. ini J)A~~s.l- igt t hread up
over a siall puilley, (, dowi over anotMer, Itaiand thlin twistig it arotundi
KItsQf as shown at il1, in Flig. 1, and thenwe to the ree.
"-The cocoon filamnent is som(.what tiller ill the( llos.N or. hogitti ng" thick-
ens at the IVoint of foriltinig thtt n11wo comtpAnt jol, Amtl 1 thi "qty vuadii-
ally diminishes ill dialielter nu1til it Ill,* ozills s~o linle as to Ill ilwc~pAh
of standing the strain of rein, the In" Ill setiions at these p''Ints lIw-
ing abilouitlpropoitional~ to thigure 0 t, andl 25. -Theretfore, ; thread
Which is Ilade 111 of livet new ilahti-fas heovoinei so nill It, I llev thel4)
coonls from which it is drawi Arot, 11 11wotio ztiI as) t uo 1an adtli-
tion. This adldition might also Ie madmb. ssr by the rtifiiture of1
one of tilt constitnollt fiiflin ts. It i- hot that thl-e skill of thet (oer-
.1tor is valledl inito p"A~y. Win her (-\ lerionce tel hr that tilt till read
needs nour"ishling Irlo a it et' of, I Coe ill',, sli'. tAles the otol of I lit-
i IIg it a Is liht snIAp 4r w I II I I m vezin t I it I t II( e l i Iid I i t Fe, Ia H I S
i r to4 w id I I oII i d or adhtIe (IIi IIIre to th It t it tralt Iw I1 %I ih It 1t1o 11 1 i!
I 1om11enIItitbe o e I C c 1t ,;10 t11 t i e t 11'1 r t-IvI. ThIIis Ian t g IaI i ti i "I. cad 1f thet(
end of the tilamient alt 1liotighI in 11andI reing ['- IwI["T'HtIf1(l Ini I ilie ?Ia1nor
described, is also actttlshe elhani-Ally, ea doevile's Ili% ill-
been invented for this plurpose. They co):nslt itgea, of Wa ttet
isil (occulpying the place of the ag ato 1) whic IW CPl, a smaIHll hok
to revo init horizontal 1)din1e aboit the rmnning thireal, ;Intl to t WIN;
around it any end if thto filamnt that mnay ho placwo1 in t ie. p) 1: 1i (,1 till
hook. The reeler seeing that a new filament is mtmOded Iols the. PtIN of
one in the way of thle attching device, and~ it i AutonmAtirillY caughtt"
The thread of 1raw or reeled silk is excessively strong, duLctile,an
elastic. As has been seen, it is composed of several double filaments,
drawn from as many cocoons. In common with other elastic threads,
a given length of one of' silk will resist a tende'ficy to stretch to ail ex
tent proportionate to its mean sections. This is the underlying princi-
ple of the serigraph. The mode of determining the irreg4u lari ties exist-
ing in a thread of raw silk by means of this machine is as follows: Th'e
end of the thread is brought from the reel or bobbin on which it is wound
FiG. 2.-The principle of the serig-raph.
around a drum, S, (Plate I), thence over a pulley, R, and back around
another drum, T, mounted on the same axis as S. From the drui T it
is wound onl a reel. The drum T is larger than S, so that the former
winds on the thread somewhat faster than it is paid off by the latter,-
and thus stretches it. In this manner we apply a constant force to the
pulley R, tending to draw it from its normal position. This pulley is
attached to the base of a pendulum, U, which, under the action of the
force mentioned, is drawn from the perpendicular. The weight of' this
pendulum overcoming the force thus applied to an extent inver~sely pro-
portional to the mean. section of the length of thread submitted to the
test the position of equilibrium taken by the pendulum depends upon
and is anl indication of that mean section. The portion thus tested is
that between the two drams S and T, and as, through the constant
action of the machine, successive lengths of thread occupy the position
indicated, the pendualuin oscillates through a course which depends fipou
the irregularities of the thread. These irregularities are graphically
recorded by a pencil, attached to the pendulum, upon a band of paper,
which moves constantly under its point.
The serigraph, it will be seen, is an apparatus for continuously mneas-
uriug the relative size of any thread passed over its drams and record-
ing the irregularities in its size onl a band of paper.
From this machine to the automatic reeler was but a slight transition.
easily accomplished. It has been in working out the details of the de.
sired mechanism that the greatest difficulty has been met with. The
result is attained in general by causing the pendulum U to close an
electric cir-ciit whliexever the tI b-ead 1w.-toicis sil weak as to) perm'lit III a,
certill .1noulit ()f Sirechng Ilig nuer t he t(en'A)Il applied to) it. Tile
electric current lint to t his tirvult closiig is ten eil() r cIi i- ecm'ci ijg
tile detenit of a si itale frdjgdr\ lcc. 1) \ Il Ic a nw clicoomi filaicit
is added it) the main I hi call anid Ii ,' mulg-11 Wlld.
In the operation oIf t hc autowia iI' it ill, re]l: Ill Ill 4read i, madoe as ill an
Ordinary Iland -re-el, allo plossed I Il roill I hie I--ilt I c of a liiit -t tae Iliiig
device, B, then(,,e t o g h eii cI isuIl 11. Thlictc ill I Ile (-I i _,laih, it
is passed around a small oil 11im. N, alon ('114 1 plleyr, Il. situal~ted ait t he c!I(I
or a pendulum, K ~ which is valhld in t h reCler the ('1011I od It \(. r, tl-e1CO
around tile larger drum111 T' aild in tilt (IlilIar a (I orer tile giving
pulley E, to tile reel. 4 )[I till endIl (it I he ('11tl d I e\ IT ( is o, circiuit-
closing contavt piece, a, %% ich ;let-; liit tilt pilley R, ovccmxiin the
resistance of the kthrea, rocedes frmn t he dlruins andi T'. Tin, tension
thus resisted by the thread inn; W regulated Ig the nmioable wegt1 X1
or all eluivalenit device.
We will no\0W suippose tilt thread to We runin hg t the desiredl size, and
that tile tension due to the stretch iluipal led to it by tilt dillkvurlice ill
the circtunterenitial speedq of the n% n drums is suiHiciunt to Levip openl the
circuit-closing device of thp comtrol loera. it coiiiimiles in this colndi-
thi until, through the tiimui~oi W the size of tilt constituient filainenlts,
or the rupture of one of than, thle tWrall fills blwtill tonliald, and
the additi of a new loromi 1"=oniis i'ear Then the penduItltum
falls back, and the contact at it is close d.
'Just above tilt, water of tile bas\ wit Ii its edge dipping beneath tihe
murfae, is a wcorioiihlinyg device, (Jo, This, apparatus, nsuallY called
the mnagazie, rests ont a s"Vport which is iniioi oii o. haft ari'nj~
whose axis the Ilagazinec Illay Ill rIoeated. Tihe naai consists oft a
number of comlpartlneqtS" j.stuated at ()Ill ill- ct rcu.l Ili fline ofta lower
disk and a nundber of small pins. d. m~inicuil oill a parallel disk a1 short
distnce above the lower' one. Ini each c'milpartineint is pilarcd a cI)coonl
previously prepareor Neeling, hill, it, ti'lainlt is- conducted 11pwardls
and wound around~ one of the ptins d. A\ mago-azine thuls tilled is set
uponl its support ill re'-dilicss to flurli Iis cocoons to tieltimli threadl
as desred. Its pomition" is such that the hook of the filanicnt-altchxing
device passes Just below the disk hluling the pins d, owl in such a way
that it thread passing fromt its cocoon to the pill, w0hich fill th il11oIlleIlt
is oppiosite tin, attaching device, mill fill Iln the path )f the ]look andi ho
caught by it in its revolution.
Tile shaft oil which t he inla-azilne Iturns is coinxected l itlh a suitable
feed movenient, WV, which conlsists ill general of a caom to) which a rotary
motion way be given by a proper connect ion \,,ith the Nhaft ing of' Ihe
Mature, of a lever to which tilt caill imlports a to and-fro 11o1tionl and
of a magnet to whose armnature't is attached(1 a1 detenit which, whl no
current is passing. prv~vets the rotatiAm iof t he camn.
-Now, as we have see" above. nio current passes through the electric
circuit while the thread is at its standard size ; for under such condi-
tions the lever is so held by the thread that the contact at a is kept
,open. As soon, however, as the thread diminishes in size the lever
recedes, the contact at a is closed, and the current passing through the
magnet of the feed movement IV causes the attraction of its armature
and the release of the detent holding the cam in place. Upon this occur-
ring the magazine is advanced one step and brings a new cocqon filia-
ment into the path of the hook on the filament attaching device, which
catching it up twists it around the running thread and, with the help
of its natural gum, attaches it firmly thereto, at the same time cutting
off the loose end. The rotation of the cam is so timed that its detent
will Dot arrive at the stop on the armature until the new filament has
reached the controlling drums and bad its effect upon the position of
the control lever. In the reeling of fine sizes the addition of one fila-
ment will generally be found sufficient to bring the thread to its normal
size, though it is less apt to be so with larger sizes. In any case, how-
ever, if, when the rotation of the cain is completed, the electric circuit
still remains closed the action of the feed movement is repeated and con-
tinued until the thread is again brought to the normal size.
Owing to the irregularities in a thread of raw silk it is impossible to
obtain any measure of its size by means of a caliper or even, with any
degree of ease, by a microscopical examination. Merchants are there-
fore obliged to content themselves by approximating its size in the fol.
lowing, manner: They measure off upon a suitable real a skein of a
given length (476 meters) and obtain its Weight ill the terms of an arbi-
trary unit called the denir. If such a sample skein, for instance, is
found to weigh ten deniers it is called a Iten-denier silk." Now it is
found that the exterior thread of a, cocoon of the yellow Milanese races
has a value of about two and a half deniers, so that it takes four such
new cocoons to make a thread of ten deniers. When these cocoons are
half unwound the size of the thread formed from them woul be buitabout
eight deniers. :Now, in order to augment the thread and bring it to the
normal size we are obliged to add another cocoon which, with its new
thread, would increase the combined thread to ten and one-half deniers,
and it will be seen that from cocoons of this race it is impossible to
augment the thread by smaller increments than that mentioned. :For
this reason no attempt is made to produce an absolutely regular thread
of silk, but reelers are content if the variation from the desired mean
does not exceed two deniers in each direction. In hand-reeling, where
the regularity of the thread depends entirely upon the ability of the
reeler to estimate its present size and to add a new filament at the
proper time, only the most expert operatives are able to make silk with-
in the limits named. In the automatic reel, however, all this is taken
out of the bands of the operative and the indication of the need of a new
thread is made by the delicate serigraphic measuring device of the con-
trol movement. Its delicacy is such that when working under good
Conditions it will so mwt i nws 1ru1n (01* 111 Alm)t tlheoret11ically licrfectc
thread. A great,;( \dvamtaeeit in I I, i- i'.tr as I the w ei Ity ofd a pier''
Of woven gVods IepInd thblrgl nl'e re a It* thr ra;w sill,
catering inlto it-, comilositiomi.
In addition to thlit dtvices, ni ii 'In'4 :1) 1l .' e thle ai wn;[aI ic I(r 1e ( )on
t,-iIS' an eleCtr'iCalI 1top movehen th iicIle Inot jel 40sI thi. reel- is
arrestedL upon One rupture ()I' I he rn nn inig' t Illr4A], It 1AHit s 41C a SmnAl
falter on the endI oft which i.' 11mntited I hI, gn idrl- :I(e a V. Wh len t lw
thread is running the pully is drmwun in the direction ofteicl nd an,
eletrcalcotac, pacd o te Almer i- Ikpt opewn. 1-Imn t~le rupture
ofa thread, howev-er, this ;contact ;14 clse an a11tad1 mieciIiialdc
vieat V is set in operations bya letrgnant Therla. iwo l~
lever of thik appatratus naldes t, spring oim It NOl mrnk 1. t" wu't m)
the AMt of the reel iml draw its f'rictiont drunta :Iway fr-m its bearing
on the large druni 1, anod thus sto)p its lotion so) yuikly that the enl "I'
the broken threnad will rairely bev drawn into t he skein. When th ap-
paratus works promptly nd welt there rsultw a ver, cnsidevrabl
saving of time in the knotting of the thread, and less m-aste ik prodoed
I N)E X.
Aletia ilrjiLtao-, 11.
A110lllt Ilititla, 14
A tiit I, to t11 1 II
Ap im lk,
Aat c ri I It i I
A ilg it w n a t i c ti l l I r S l r c ..
I ttit I I Avc lthto I t I I i Io Iu t,2
Bvm m t, il tn 27
1)mod 1 io At, Ie or 111 ( I.e'2 I.n itu- to '
11Aillpitt I a l oml Srrkeli 52. r~. 5
I i A I,-I, Iu Iom 1.
t~lo I o, 1
Ia ue t*e' I I!
D tlul m ql Tte' 2.
Fitlhil of t,r~o for "x .,re,
I la 1i t ,4 i l I, 1 t
Ilimovl of inml) It, Ill iO~ I'l va 31.
Nr* it tur oft t r A 1 h c ,oo I I I i
X ot i t tL n, 32i. h
RhIlpor ofl hti 1aV.~ NI .
Ultor t f t t;I 1 I n r1 T3I-
qwarwA o' th m~ite, i 3 n4. k nf.
It. otI .J.IlNo t b lo l [, h of~ 'w it i
Valioatio qh of th Iu :1pi .i tn rt
Vtopa ph o I -,%'i n,ti ot~ 3.
Cabbage Xphli, 12,
EFewde plwandpitt, 13.
Itroditc-1 Iiom E ii pe, I2
Cabbiaget A phit Al~ti~
P'atl '1% lie'llol11
Cabbage, in Sol [0111,uU 1 k, I. 1i~Ibi
(,'11 Ia 11 1LIA O 1 11 rIL
D IA I i t'l 10 1. ,)
Lifohiso A, 10
A t ~io.
P tol 11. 12,
('.12 L1,lIf I .~.l III Ii 1, Ii,
~ 22.'~x, I 12..t,~ IA
i.sj.2~I..n ~ 1
I~,,, .~ ~,
('i~.na .j~ 2
4 %,t ~, 11.
* i~. 22
ull.' j..~2 .tu~ .. .~2 the ~ 0 ~ .' i.Iu~n tr~ v.~, 39.
4 ~ .1-. p *-i2i. **h ~ I I.
Ili lI'I~*l A 2 jII~t I It, 22
I 4~ ,*2i2 I
jI .41 121..r.
\I dli. 2,1' .1. M rI he'll 2
I 2,. 1'~ 11,2 2. dl. ~ to Ilor,,bi, 20.
pI -. 11
II 2 '~.
I. I.LIvj.2 I I 26
IIi .Ii it~.. i,,o.. 2.. 2,rdfl CTup~ III 2).
(IA4 I o~. 2 *'.~u ~ ; ~re ]~..2t ~
4 ~~l2 ii I
I Lu-I. pun 4 .2.l.,~.. 11 15.
Ii. ri. n,' tot ~u ~-2. '. on. I2.u,'r 2"..
2' .1.1. ..e lou. ti', 2
Lan., f .r 4 .bh ~,' Fl oi, 11.
I.nn.'r ~ I.e mu i 11 12
M-elon Boler, 2G.
1) 1,11iv 26.
I ',t t rit (-, 27.
MLelon la loume, 27.
Eiwenjie a ;mil larasites, 28.
1 1-1dlaphnt, 27.
Na-tiril Iiistory, 28.
S w now 27.
-Mm itntiai histrionics, 153.
Nolda Sol :1iella, 16.
(E haltus pu-naX, 16.
071talis sp w6.
Oscinis spt., 22.
l1achyneurou allographr., 15.
Pea, insects injturious to, in Florida, 21.
RPhylloptera obloo-ifolia, 22.
Pieris inmi,00t, 1.
p rwtodivt-, 15.
Pirutpla cemiqi itor, 27.
P'jolkeaL 1111os"Ai'. 15.
Pint Cut (rcinl io, 44, 48.
It Irllk~ t,- eO native Plum for ovipiosition, 49.
Lwrx notih dvolopiug in the native Plurn, 44,49.
PluTm tl kec1. Lol ei11gn and native, 39.
Cut (ulio Litr \. not developing, in the native
spuecies, 44t. 49.
Failure 6t' European varieties in -North
F'ertilizationt of native species by other varie-
ties arid species, 45.
Native species and their failure to fruit, 40.
Wild Goose Plum in the South, 47.
l'lutella, cruciferatutm. 12.
lPrionidus ci status. 16.
Pvei ,ttni Lowf Ca'bbage Plusia, 11.
], 'tuvinls E Epeltnid, 24.
hiley, C. V., c-riticism of Mr.\Wier's report, 7, 53).
Introduction to the Bulletin, 4.
Letter r of transmittal, 3.
Saltpeter for squiash borer, 23.
Seynin cerv icalis, 15.
Serrelts automatic silk reel, 8, 52, 56.
Seri_-rapht, 52, 56.
Silk reel, elements o'f mechanism, 54.
serrel's automatic, 8, 52,356.
Silkworm cocoon, how it isspuu by the worm, 53.
preparation for reeling, 54.
Sipitonopbora, cticurbitte, 20.
Southern Cabbage Butterfly, 13.
Splienophorns rotbustus, 1t;.
Sp~hinx c~roliua, 17.
Ecra Teleas, 18.
Squash, insects injurious, to, in Florida, 22.
Bore r, 24.
Egg_ Ene-Yrtid, 2-3.
E1nemio-s andl parasites, 23,
F.ood -pla IIt s, 23.
Inju i4-s. 23.
L i Cc Itist o i 23.
'Vine Borer, 24.
Distribtt ion, 24.
Life-li istorY. 24.
Svrphuis Fl%- Paclt .zeuron, 15.
Tcheas -phinlgis, 18.
Trltnonus aiaste .2.3.
Telesilla einereola, 21.
Tomato, insects injiurious to, in Floridat, 16.
Aphjis, 1 -
A I Iotria, 19.
Fnt-mji,-s andi parasites, 19.
1)j I T 'ijurie V19.
Thomas' description, 18.
Stalk Borer, IS.
Ene(tnlis anid parasites, 17.
Fo odIplauts, 17.
Trichol-ramlia pirttiosa, 11, 15, 17.
Tridart % itis miii us, 13.
TrionyX pi1CenL]S, 13.
Tripltlepi int,idi-lis, 22.
Tweve ,poredDiabrotica, 22.
Walker, Pht., description of the Serrel automatic
sil k IeCl 52.
Webst er, -. M., Report on Buffalo Gnats, 29.
Wielt, butg, 16.
Wi r. 1). B., Report on the Cturculio-proof nature
of tlte native Phitue, 39.
Zebra CA bbage Worm, 15.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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