The dying hickory trees


Material Information

The dying hickory trees cause and remedy
Series Title:
Circular / United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Entomology ;
Physical Description:
ii, 5 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Hopkins, A. D ( Andrew Delmar ), 1857-1948
Government Printing Office
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Hickories -- Diseases and pests   ( lcsh )
Agricultural pests   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
by A.D. Hopkins.
General Note:
"Issued January 29, 1912."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029684928
oclc - 27941657
lccn - agr12000150
lcc - SB818 .C6 no.144 1912
System ID:

Full Text

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U. S. D)EPARTM'I- NT (W! .\ W K1]lI'I 'RIU,
L. 0 HOWARD. E.nimolowml anmi ChI .( Rurrau




In 'hnAnr, of Forest his,,t 1i, 1 st igations.

_t04'21 s"Ir. 144 -12-

* hGroPG GO% G ER[I~ E % T PqITI%., i .i r,, .

/ ".

. t;-. / AI *


L. 0. IIOWARD, Entomologist aiwl 'hi.if of Bureau.
C. L. MI.\RI ATT. Ei.loimologiit and Acting ('iiirf il of Chief.
It. S. CLIFTON, Executir' .\.'s.t W. F. Tisi.r, chi if r'l rl.

F. IH. CHITTENDEN, in harg, of truck crop anId ,,i rd ii.rodurict irtsect investiga-
A. D. IIHPKINS. in charge if forest insect imrc 'ign iw1'.
W. D. HUNTER, in charge eif ,outhecra, fild crop ibe-r.f inicsligationv .
F. M. WEBSTER, in charge of cereal and forag, in.m.ctl in vsti.igtlioins.
A. L. QUAINTANCE, iln 0hirg,' of deciduous fruit i,.nce.t iicexiigaitiong.
E. F. PHILLIPS, in charge of bee culture.
D. M. RoGERS, in charge of prcrcenting lit, aid -f mn,'l, field irork.
IR4LL.A P. CURRIE, in charge of editorial irtl.
MABEL COLCuRIi. in charge of library.


A. D. HOPKINS. inl ilrq'.

H. E. BIRKE. entomological l,''ifiit. iln ,.1,!, ,.f / '', I t-.l I Field Station .5.
Yreka, Cal.
W D. I'MONS1ON.. 0i1i1l and expert, in I il,,'', ,f ,ie .t lit.s.. Klamnath Fills. Oreg.
JOSEF BRUNNER, agent and i ripi'tl, in 0/,111w, 'f i':.., i .l i' l d tSfailion 1.
Columbia Falls, .lo, t.
E. B. I.'-0N, Cnlitei'iv loii, l a ,islvitt. in chargvf of I ,ri .w't /I'iv-'c Field Station 7.
.'.pvi iri aviiii ivi, 'S. C.
T. E. SNYDER, agent and tirpvrt. iii'lty-'d iil i,11 'i tihil. ,if ipi'ic'l damage to
telegraph and tli lihoic poles.
J. L. AVi ln:, i 'i.fiti gloigv il t-vi'ftinl,. specialist ,i, viiilbiivid beetlrs and luIrr .
S. A. ROHWER, agent and <.rlpvl, specialist on .'irfli s, i Tq 'iilli ri'd.inoidla).


United States D)epartment of A\.riculture,
L 0 HOWAV A I LT.r ...... .1.- I nd Chie( ,f Bureau.

'mle u n: !; i1 HI4IlI ''TllI::.--AlUSI A0N lI*l":11EDY.

t .II : \ I). I 1 It ,,i ,-

.1 l:li'_,' I,> r',.ii .,", of tihn lii kour trees
iiI ii. l,, Iil the iiuIrt hri I Ier of -i.iivt"

\\'ithii tll ., im .-.t lif.l \f.:il-
Withll II w I; 1 t I vll 1 I .% la r
frioln t1 iscoi -lIi l to VI.

1liroli h t li e t 11. 111 i'
SIilr tCuh rtriic.iI Iii iorL"
;ilitl to ai (w 'ilf' i" lr-
extli t within itir i.ilil'
i'illl e I f iiii 'il l lli
inf tlir v'lliriill- -~pr, n'>.-

I .\m sk..

\While' lhl'er, ;i1l -vrv:lil
:lli~l .sollint, ilii.-, 'olii]>ln-;':il,
rai; 1 e" otf t e ill i' ,. I f i 'll,'
Iree.s. [ll\'e-Iiti l~r l^ ,n-. li~i\v
r esll Ih' l til% fll- llt.Ii I m lie

liiek ir' : rlkl heti i IY.
far the lill>-I dh-Hii'rilivr
iri.ect elleillny. ainl i-. tll--
fore, in the I ia;j,'ril v ,f
ia'es., the i imaiaVry c-.ilnl< 4f
the dyilio3- of the tree-.

Ii'W TI p ire' i. 1/.( il7 :
WORK i'I Illi 1111 14,'i:Y
IH \.R It eh:TIr.!:

i ',' i -\ '* -i 1 ,,:---i",;

', -:.
W'V1 1 i ;''" T, I -

rI'. ] 1,-Work of thef hilckory biirkhw- ll ('<(
fu g~iJwp'B>'. n irii'' f ii~ (

T he fir.t evidence 1 of 111v ",a1h ti l rk: I. ''.-" ,. enl rw : If. I t I ;I
pIVe.-ence !iind work -tf l ll-
ieetle is the pre imatil I'. ,lviil, or f:.ilii. of a f':v. ,f the leave in
.T lh nuId A. iiu -t. ,-t -a I Il lvI the l','ft liI,-' I"' the .IIi li or )parent
I %rI iit. I P ii., ,. . i ; Orddr .I. .i1 -r 1 f1 ; 1111 olytid .


beetli- at tihe lp:;i of tlie leaif teini (fig. 4), Iut this w'irk alone does
not kill le trev-.
Tlin, next evidence a tree .r (if ;iall of uie or mioire tree,. If the tree, are dying from the
attack otf thie beetle. :aiI examiination of the inner bark and surface of

r'17^ ii(iiI

FIG. 2.-Complete brood galleries of the hickory barkbeetle on surface of wood.
(Author's illustration.

the wood on the main trunks will reveal curious centipede-like bur-
rows (fiu.. 1, 2) in the bark and grooved on the surface of the wood.
The-c are the ialleries and burrows of the parent beetlet- and of their
broods of y(,on l_,iriili: or larvae. The girdling effect of these gal-
leries is the real cause of the death of the trees.

The nrod- ,111 tile beetle r.i-- tir iiter ii the bark ,,1" the trees
li, dii ,I d uring the p m -rd~,lii,,. .sitnn Tinnr ld I ,ll I ,iii ,_,;. th e w arm
diiv'- .,f M .-ii',li ii,]d .\liil theche ov dicv. l pijlii li t< l lie ;c:idrili \Iii ,;,l f iorm and ,i ii l,.iy and J tune
een 'r'g Iliraiigli sinani i,,nin, hi'ile iii thn'i irk (n,.. 3) an|il lI\ to tlie
living 'lt'-. l'hh tiheli attack ti i w! ,- i N -N I o I* oi tihe 1).s 1--f
lIlr Ih:ILI ti I l 'i ]'r hirk aIi 'ilM Cut Iw ti rate on t he bark of lie
trui ilk-.iai l~ir', braiithtis ,1' soie of ihe
liviiig la illiv free s nd bore A tI, I ,it-l ,i tli I I tI IIIi
birk Ilo t.\ .i i te their short, ertical t*., I,,11 1 fli
lIiihli h ag. 1, a). "r l" I ,
t I.IL I I e ru I a tIL i I u I. _-t I';rroIw Ii c.. 1
1mI ,- I Ic t ol I I lllg t e i. L,h *f Ih~ I i li ,. t Il
a Iit] tlt- I'l\l h -'I II li ing. fl',l- l h l I, ....
v'ail t, lhe l'iilii lillio. I',w,, hillrrow (Ill. LI '
,: ii.. 2). "lioch serve to ,ir'll, thle tree '
)i- lErRllIcii.
"riw rnim i )).

Tl'lhe hlh lIi iN, recoInniendaItion i for,
tile 'ucc--fill control of this h, etle I- : l ''
hased i'tl ill I.I i:;li'iii--. expel'iili itls. and li
hle m o n '.triit ilo n 'ond ul tci' ,l ,lii l' ^, th e C
pait- tenll Yilr-,.

IttI 011 M EN1) I TIAoN ) .
Tli liv I%.-t time to ,.,,,lit the con-
trol "ork i-1, bi-tween Oct(ober 1 and [.,iy i
1. liul! it IiiII-I lot 4,.,i4 lllh Iifci ,. Ihe 1st
to niddhlt. of .Maiy inl order to de-tro v the
l)rool. of the I*e tle Ialii 4l,,.v I ,Iiz- to
j'21 Llemiill :iid mark the hickory trees
itlili .ill .iln'a .]f seve Iral square n l.' F;. t- 1lt hoh'. In bark of
hickory tr<', frtn which bro xr q
lltit ,lied llilliiig the summer llid f.I'l and It t the hickor biarkbeetlIe haw ,
-i I. .I I '.I -t-1li r' 1lh r r;i-
tlio-t of uii,'i part or all of the f|I or i I th"Ir I tr
hli re lri nih'lie., died.
:;) Fell I It li :Ir1rhed, dead trees and cu t oit ] dead or inflted
pIortlionI- of il ie rlii.llill,- iiinarkeit'd trees whlichi still have -. lli, ilii
life to niiake :i new growtIh.
M4 Di-tio:e of all iit',-le iik- ad r a branches in such a manner
as to kill tlir ov,,rwilrinl broods 11' thle beetled- in the bark (a) by
utilizing lite wo\\ (od for r,. liriil' l, lirii aind 1'iiriiiiLr the rfii-e.
or (6)b by ittilizing the wood o)f the trunk- .inl bralichel' f6i fiuel;

Till- 1M INS ; Jill 'KI iY I 1, I I, % \I .,I % AN 1D I. I IJN .


or (c) by placing the logs in water and burning the branches and
tops; or (d) by removing the iiife-ted bark from the trunks or logs
and burning it with the branches or as fuel.
(5) So far as combating the beetle is concerned it is unnecessary
and a waste of time to dispose of trees or branches which have been
dead 12 months or moi oe. because the broods of the destructive beetle
are not to be found in such trees.

Fi,. 4.-Injury by the hickory barkbeetle to the twigs, buds, and bn'c of ,nws.
(6) Spra yiin the tops or branches or the application of any sub-
stance as a preventive is not to be recommended. Nothing will save a
tree after the main trunk is attacked by large numbers of this beetle
or after the bark and foliage begin to die.
(7) The injuries to the twigs (fig. 4) by this beetle do not require
(8) The bark and wood of d/!n/,, and it,, trees are almost inva-
riably infested with m;inv kinds of bark and wood boring in-ects

F liII 1\ IPNi IN II '1:1 1 ,\ a \ iIMc U 5

if'h; h iit i /,i i ) I harm to lltf';,,,, I r#,. Tlir i, I. i,. all I l, 'rt 'ihou< ld Ill
o'Uneiil riutiI on the ,'i-p,,il ,t the brWood A f the hickory mhark6tle
.M .c ,rd in-, I t lll ilii lr ,]:il liii1 -.
To in illre tl i]- ii' t'rliuili of the I i itllil ll-, li\iir trl'W' it i \' r'.'
inrllliiortli( that leat a 1.11'r ilajoritvy of the dead a iflr.- I amid
iurii illv i l.eati in'r.i.l- tI treel f.,,iiil witlin li t entire lrea of several
s|iiiiirri mIile- hIv dispoed ,'f within uiiilh 'aisi ill ordr to kill the
bronold, of i lins beetIth. T"l'r.l'irc there -1hoild Iw Wlconverted actiion l.\
all om nl r' of li i ( )in ac-ilill f te value of the e hickory for hliade and it,:1 and f1,r
nainlly colili ilerii \.I w ii 'trW ilI Pt- it i i 11111, IIt tIIliat tht ie people q 1 a+
L'OlillliitityI. 1hiliit ,or 01 1.ti, who aret in ai V manner interested inI the
Aprotet iom of hickory trees should 'i w 'll l I' i, .1,'lll :ll 1 and i1i? iior to
lill '.cii 'l'th'd i fl or ,, .ilrl e t,'llirl on l the pi! t ,If the owners toward
th, 1CProer ,1' ir, I t' the hickory ha rkheeth .
.\lip.,v\d :
,-1 \ 1.- vi I tN
Aji.T la*si
I' IF t iii'"i 1 0f 1Wif't.
W .i oIIs I 1 ,, XovrmfH '+ ,"', /.''//,

T llS. 'PUB'i.I'ATION i m.iy li. pro-
cured from the Suptrinrpnm enl 4f
D)3cumenri.. Government Prinhi, ( IITi',,
Wi.-hlin,zt.. I) C, at 5 cents per '.)11..


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