Citation
The greenhouse thrips [Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Bouche]

Material Information

Title:
The greenhouse thrips [Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Bouche]
Series Title:
Circular / United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Entomology
Creator:
Russell, Harry Merwin
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
ii, 9 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Greenhouse thrips ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
By H.M. Russell ...

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029684406 ( ALEPH )
28233478 ( OCLC )
agr12001177 ( LCCN )

Full Text






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BUREI U OF ENT1OMOLOGY.


L. 0. HOWARD, t. f...,, and( ini., f o./ in l.ln.
(0 L M.ARLAT, r' h f ,' I, n, A -tiy Ch/'ii ( iu)itt, f c/hif.
RI. S. C'LU.TO)\, E.,rcrufi' Assinlnnl.


F. IL. (HITTEN DEN, in ]' of tA] h'in'li crqop a(nd stored trolt ixc! in rtstfations.
A. 1). OvKI S, in ,, .,. ofII rt.t i1Nw t *i, .l it rtion .t
W I). HiNT ERt, 'il. ih' r i', o'f \l\l'i .c i fi ld crop i I.si,'l i lI rcs/ial'ions.
P. Al. \EBIiSTElt, iII i'l(a insecl in( risl/iqoliolix.
A. \. L QAIN'TAXC(E, in i qf (di n o,,slf'nitl ilsr,' ihrts5NYlioits.
E F. PHIm LII'mS, in ; /.. ... of fii,' cu liti '.
D. X. ROG l IS, in charge ,qf fr mrntibig fir'nl of J" oths ,l i.ti uork'.
ROIIA P. C'RRIE, in cr1yi1" t of i/ilorit! work.
MABEL ('OLCORI), i'n( Cfhtlrigj o" -ib,1ui!/.

TRiUCK ('WI' AND STI)EI) PIRliDHrT INsl:IPr INVEsTI;ATUINS.
F. II. i'irET i)E, in Chii fj'.
11. M. RCSSELL, (". II. POPExOE, WM. It. PAIRKE:R, W A ARSH, M. M. 1Ih1H.
FRED A. WIHNSTON, JHN I'E. GRAI'. (CW"oioMihW l WMsUistatx.
1. J. CONDIT, colla.torator in, ('all ,
P. T. C'iLE, colla rortor ;ia lidcil'wlr V'rgi'nia.
\\W. N. ORD, colhi(>oralor in. Or, ,!ii.
T'll()S. II. JONES, (ojiihorilor 11 I't 'to IRi)co.
MA.I(N T. V\AN HORN, 1tAI'I.INE 31. ,M)IlNUNSO, jnUi'Srators.
II










CIRCULAR No. 151.


United States Department of Agriculture,

BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.


THE (1REEN (I1]SI; TllRIPS.'
( lI lllinf/,r;i D,' h :i /iiri^" >r/
l;Q 11. N. RU .SSELL,


I NTIr()DI(' TION N.

The grenoduse thrips has leen tihe cause. of considerable injury 1<>
ornamelntalIls lurilln the past century, anld where its Iprseci('e is not
SUspectetl or treatlneli is neglected it will (atl's( tile IIItlte' ruin of cer'-
tain plans, ill thle gre'eollnlu', rn)vix pri'ncipally for the l bleaunt x
their foliage. likewis-e in ll thie more tropical sections of hlle united
States, suchI as southern lohriS a anl s lutlierin ('alifornlia, this insect
calI(ses I(qat (t. o S...', ome outdoor plants.

1)1S,('KII'TI()N AND IIE II I"S;T )I;Y.

Tile adult ofi thi- thripsi is a -lma, aci'iv e isle a)ou tll onIe twe(ntv-
fourth of an inch in leingth and lark lrtown in 'olohr, wtih life tip of h(lle
hodiv decidedl l I liter. Tllie aplla'i rant, of t i' s insect is s)iilicient I1vi
illustrated in figure I lo render a iliore dehailcd description uIlince---
sarv. Thlis insect fNeds on the f(,diag' of 4 (l, plant attaked anml
rnimoves all the coloring inatter, leaving he le(af wvliie and, ill se(v(er(e
(ases of attack, K lad. Dl,,ir,,_l this p)riod lthe female deposit-, hrer ,t ,s
dig. 2, o within thle hlaf tissue and thes-e' lhatchl ill Mhe ymm!'"'ruse in
lt)ou (,iVl(t days. ThIe larva, ,hiich lVat16hII fromns (-,.he im K a iniiute
white in-ect of Ilhe sliap)e indicated in Qi ume 2 h and it. During tills
l)riodt, which ruiiir-s froi 10 i() At) days, vair\yingv witli tlhe e(mpera-
ture, the larva' fQ4d together in (olonies on (ie t iurfl'ae of ti hleaf and
remove1) (' he colhoi ii,..: imal !tr ill t lw saliie linaliiert as do( (le' adlulis. W lViihe
*,' *'**.,J, ill f(eedili tllie laIrva exudes- ai lair( ( drop)t of rtddish !]uidI fromIi

1 F~or :i fiilirr ir-,-hni < ilrtrr.it iici of I h]is i-i.'ec s ee ** TIhe i ;r(,*.i [i)U.< it, hrilis," Hlll. (1., 1't \I. litur l; :t,,
IU. lh'lt. A'tr.
I; I-' ,) ( it. I.. -1 [






THIE GREENII HOUSE THtRIPS.


the ,Ial (1( of the body, and whlen tills becomes too heavv it drops to
tie leaf surface and dries into a black dot. Where the insects are
lumeroi1'us thlse exudations produce a marked discoloration of the
f(,liage. Upon bIecoming full grown thle larval change to the resting
stags propupla and )pupa (see -ig. :)-d uring which time they
remain more or less motionless among the feeding 4 jo,._ and take no
food. iThese st -. require periods of about four to six days, after
which thle adults emerge. Figure 5 shows a colony of p)upa- onil a leaf
o)f crotoni. The total time required for this insect from the time the



.a /














''1. ,






2 dav, a his isect colie a ive III tie, greenhouse
ii IIclii aic grca tl y m a


tIII( ennire vear many generations occur ech,1 year.

OiJIN AN1) fISTRI ITION.

Aldiough1 tilliis ins-ect was first described from Europe and is there
widelY distributed. it is witliout doubt indigenous; to tropical
A teria. It lias been recorded inl tlie open in St. Vincent and Bar-
ados. I. s isect lhas been collected at iut amie, Fla., on plants in
III(' open iII mid wg i ner. At Santa Barbara, ("al., it caused consid-
era l dau m ,tage to ornam entals in one of tlie parks ini November.








LoAm er Anstal'i life zr o nes c,' tnis conitry Pointl .Iri'i j 'l\ t1 1:1 lpicil
A ei rica :'- i ot- ,"_ i l V A lumi 'I 1in i- I uLrII r i lt- ir ci Thpuml tloeiia sec
or' itS w eill-k ov 1iiX 1 l it hI t o li vinl 1l1 ri 1i-11 l. it In Lizi \ lnoca cities.
ulaon ex tlic ilaIts 'iroI i Ii e TrIpic4s.
Front tIii- lLIiI it l ias; becom' e X idelt v di.- (" \ /
tril" '.ii l in l'rope aind Notl Anetrica. l jI'i` ,i
In itn ,)ve it ii isrecordcd f'roim K 'lhnd, En--J ... /
( 4 i lrt Il\V. .\tis l'Vil, lRus im Ml umillh il. ( + +
l lFrance. Saain, ani l lal' I It is alt>o '
known to occur in Aindiviu itnl a id e /yiv
I ll\X aii i la Is Pin ils. ''"\ .;li7 *"i{ I'

In Iflis country it is r1 corded l'nr,,* '< + ";
l ssa lXIs. l'lro n o sov vn [ l ah es in +.'\ .... i i
MAILlNi_,. Im m I'roin W\ rishin ton, ). I ('. .
lh riOW iL A nl ('a lil'ornii t. I lti las el i ,ol- 11 j I; -+..... M
IM'ct't in lowa aI tl n itit n vlvniinia al;il in ut
the Barlad..os and the islald ol' St. Vhi-
cent, Bril i-li W "est Indl ies. 2., A. l.l;, ,] l.-n
Because of t ithe 'acl thl aii t lias beena W lit .\A X ,. : en.
lectIrid iln s vlit widely koitlnt plaIeXs in A Al lIl ,1 I
s
is .'_i,', rallh (listr'iltiled in g mI'reeiloua ses tih l '_'o ii t tle I[+nite' Statil 's.
NATl'IIUI AND EXTENT (W INI! lZY.
Tlih da aiii e c:lu-.ei li)y the grieeiliho se thrip' to ornamllieitaLl p)lails-
\ / \ / is confined to the foliage ontirr*ly,
"I /. in so fall as, Ile itlalith i'or is aware, for
*\. /' .<* 6 lie knows ol o record edl injury to
I lie hlossf"ol m 1' I i' lI ie plani t I to r 1i'i:, I1 e
\ Ix-notice d-a liei d'a ma e o I rIIs IX I
j' A Q 1 m' o

S ;. \I t lie e lhod ol' feedi' l l tl i; plah iit
..... [ '> + li+ li al dl t,,ta X li[\ith
j'o ,' l+ tli eii i' il la X t iL 'rI iii\it i i+ t l ui'- arl


l1-^ ^J" iioithiparl-.,11;ind ztflrr lacernliln<'
h jcf t Ilie tlbs!n e tliwk s | o lie th e
,n.iii~~i *"''"'**- *l^l-**' ll*-tl.>l. (the poin t o f ;n t ack. TIle l l, cc
(ien a t a. .li K I, l l o r ll in a now place, m- .at ha i ii e I beioi mei
f l o I ttiny It it 11 1 mir'. ilial bei en eI t haa I iii l Pi|.
hll I l 'in "lIl "il'fiL+ i 1li "lr ILI-
at)Z ] I lila hia i' I aP lIi ,it X. il+l 1l, 'iI' l ,.
Ii+ "+aa"l Iit ~ jiai+ ll't-.' Lilali~ :l~la I' iLu a'irai 'LI
Ii af th ti i '.la ti~lX ai\k a, it It ill,' X+ "c
[ I + : I { + I + La I l
I ha' jti l al)tilll iii attacki'i. lla'l IIl-i'aI
tlila'n LlIIiIin \"~ ti~l' lL liP P ,r l'll i t in /ll\ I~la'XX jaill iitil t in tliiia' il tLea+ aiL +

ilI' "l i IiII t L Ii ".ia XF ii'P,'t ill' X+! a]+ 'tlai'I+.il P itI' iaa,'a'Iul+" +l[ n a'\ ]t I lalal.
I .tit' .i Laa'i\ Xli1' -. L B.T


THE. (;1;I Nt l 'St TIIINIIiPS.






4 THE REENHIIOUSE TrII 'S.

In the ease of infested plants, injury is noticed first to the older
l a v(,s and gradually, as these become badly infested, the injury






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IV.




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FI(. 4t--1l~ortiol of led of v'roton I ,it, ,i to show tpupx of greecnhousec thrips. (Original.)
"pl-vads 111161 ti he' N,,; h'env'e' 'al a ttcked, S oon after unfolding.
Il~le infe.'e, (d leaves firSt, Sho)w iijur-y oil the, 111d(rsid(h',where the





I I L' III I K I I I I l l FI I I;,>I .


4
- r I


F I, IItown !) t ii lo tI !r I of III I 1 -104MI 0

iijured I \I tI is in.iect. Tl to injury ien h I \ I IrolII-i a ppa)urnlt fr&lii, ilie
sliirface and deve & lops a txi td n d dist1iIeid i-}pect( I wor\e riI lien 1
laternal veins, a1dI is linall I \ e eh1'.ed by v\ ihld and deadt ar'as


opidernl(lis tippl'lls full of 111in1ul1e NNhli(< spots. As I ItIl.: c( <'illtmI>
tio sI [)I s l)IczIf ., hia i e -luni 'ous niicl unildc, l ov>ii ii ()I, cl.41l1 h:li4n,
(lhe leaft is (laiiiiii"-c {. IFi 'iir s *I ani l .", sln\vs h'>;vo>s ,l' croiiii li ,ll







TIIE REJEENHIOUSE THRITPS,








































































I'lt.. .-(roluil plant ahow'ing laallay laIpp:raalla't, Washinglton, I). C, DecemlwlM'r, 1911. (Original,)






TI lIF (;GI E, IN I W S1 TI I HIP .


aroIund ( ti1 c( I( f (l ,e II al.
lin sl v r( i attar-, tic ii sievs

li Ic I-(, i IIatI el I I. a I at I
ls Il I t t 1 I e Iil t I.l rf\1 ill
tIlli leave s, x tit(] iM .1 ,.-lr' la it Inc
thi is i w ell n-, lit ] e Iilt, I' ile ie F
narlv ldevoii ml1" i lr, 'i Ba t h
sides ibecolie ta Ilil v Ci)Vx rt'it I
with l 1aia il (llr |.s ()I rt vi r idlix-
Iluld itl l Ic i' t( t l i' I I tltI i-t'
\liiarl;i I I-I' ill z I v l ixit-c I It
Slak. a Ats A l ie tainack o ,ii-
tinit Ia, thl ]( ', ; 'S Ix Petlt- lal- ll
i lit vt ll w rvit 1 ( tI*Ilv lI lle II I r )
Off, slo I t It ic' I l, nI s li it' l riax
Il r ad Io In"" I t ( ) r(' vcu I I l i jIurY" I inI
Inyt V cases I os I le I I. I I l ine, f'li-
SI', re'ii 6 irt (i sl \, ,)\\ I I ( loll I
111(1ian fi"'urc 7 cni*(tcii to-
('l ( 'I() I' ;ll tcd l I )Yl( '"! 1 1 {
tillly dct'oliated tiyv tler sidlfll s
Of this insect.
"lTiis il l( lljlllre |lants lit
lt I\\ oM11 t vhO itii (-of tlhe p]nlait is
~rod lucedt l\ lit vfee in'of k I 0 1-
Saildfs of tlirilps, so, tliat (lilt

ill I I ctcd caIe I s II'tl lie
dcnth if th' t in' laI)l. S(ec'ond(, it
d stro vs (I I )t:IIlIv of llec
f)lails lo,*r orn1 a1u11'1i 1)\"v c v c i-
IIallv d -lt(ilil; I li nii o1 1 t1ir

Insoliihlirii I londi~ t lsiisnecci
attacksls li ni/i s~o ;tidt( ;dli';>l nut
picaratti tilcauses -i, { iliiur- thv
I II lit i Y i: llic calia '(s ;iidij it
lItVi/ia\" a 'lso last itnpirv ttv feed'<-
Si t It I vI a Bz fru.1 I. I t -I ar-
a eili ( i ) to- a Sii I. I xt o t.l I
At. Sailta Ba:rlarai, (al., lllis
illsecl, (Ciccshionallv becomesll'> so
t uI I IIdanit (1I II, iil-_" t as l' I
ruiII t10 fruit, alIIc raIlse. (lie I I -
live, tloli.,-,' to indust rI tles r lias iIlso I Iu''mrc 1
sevNrely froNii tvi1 s insect.


I, i
ii., 1






THE GREENHOUSE THIRIPS.


FOOD PLANTS.
The, grecenhouse thrips feeds on a large number of ornamental
plants. In tis country it, has been recorded as feeding oni liliaceous
plants, azalea, PIlla ha.l/ala, asp)idium, croton, dahlia. phlox, ver-
bena, pink, ferns, Vines, cherry laurel (Pr ius carol ;iaia), laures-
tina, palmins, Ficus, and fuchsia. In California it lihas been found on
raspberry, guava (IP'idum guajara), and or.ii i.. Tlus thrips
damages the .iii,,', (i.L,, .'fcra odica), ,liliw;,t,)r pear (Persea gra-
tissi,/a), and maple in Florida, and has been recorded from St. Vin-
cent and the Barbados onil cacao ( T7iohromna cacao), kola, and the date
palm (Ih ceni.rx di, l,,i; frra). In Europe this thlirips lhas been recorded
as provingg l tUpon a'rides, azalea, begonia, camarotes. c'attleya, crinulns,
dendrol)ium, eucharis. Ficus, grape, la-lia, lefortia, marcintacia,
panicratium, lhalenopl)sis, banana, and viburnuml. In Australia it is
recorded as occurring on dilferent species of eucalyptus.

REM ED)IES.

For the treatment of this pest there are a number of good remedies.
The question as to the best method to employ depends upon the size
of the greenhouse infested and upon thle experience of the person
e4i ':,,I in treating tihe insect.
Fulimiqa/tlon w'hith nicotine papers.-Any of the standard fumigating
papers will give good results a-.,iini-I this pest if they are strictly fresh
and kept tightly sealed. Fumigation sliould bt)e dohie at night in a
miloist atnmosplihere, and the l)papl)ers should be used at the rate of about
2 sheets for every 1,.()000 cubic feet of space. Early in the morning
thle house slho(uld b)e opelled and thol)rougIly aired.
l'u/ uia/fion. vit/h nicotine liquid (.r/racs.-IAqluid extracts of nico-
tine offer o01e (f the best methods of greenhouse fumigation and
against this pest are very successful. Those made up) of -10 per cent
nicotine should be used at thle rate of 1 ounce to every 1,000 cubic
feet of space and tlhe weaker solutions at greater sti'ii_'ilis. The
prep)aralioll sliould he evaporated over small lamps or stov..-, and
to pr'event scorclihing sl iould be dilu1ted wilhli water, approximately
two-I lirds. Fumigation sliotl 1)0be carried on at night in a moist
atmioslphelre, and the greenl(house slouldi remilain closed all nIight.
in /nmati, w/irt/h I,/i d. *_iiic-acid ta'.. 1-Wheln i fumigating with
hyIdroc'(yanic-avid gas great care sliould Ihe taken, as tillhis gas is fatal
to ill animal life. Thlie work must be coinlucted at night, aInd the
plants slitould have dry foliage. In t.t-;iI -iiil this inise('ct, use from 0.01
to 0.05 griam o(f p)otassium ('yallid p)er cubic foot for from two hours
to) all tiglt, lie strenIgth anld lit.1'(tli of exposure varying according
to (lite ligtlless of the house and t(lie kind of plants that are being
I l rt 1lip) trl i l or tlli l l lt [ he lswuf iys irocyanfl u'id g ,h, >,v ('irs. :7 and .7,7. Bur. Elit., I". S. l)ept. Agr.




Tl Ii (; E I IN I I()I's TI1II' P'.


treated, as (here is co .iderale diee ce bew een var,, plantsti i' it)
their re(.isIllg l;^ power to> this ''as.
S't'iitn' li/i t' li.Il /Qu;,I .'.-Nio tie ex-rac. (lilulted with
water, if curef'illy appliedl to plaml.- will kill lar .e num ersoq (4rtIh
gTeiwiot tlhiripsl t l hi iT a iont iyi i m k ili( tn Iv i li, I 'tan o i t hi i inrs s
are niot W l v the si)'wav. m tolre h vrf the plants Y)) hm r.inf(-lctcl
in aUii 4 1t iiit.
IS']r !i iynq r /> /'l'orwyn, m, "Abm'i ). It is< i[('c jw.<[il ) i Ita 't -
elnulsiol) '|pra.v will he' efir(ctive against tIhle ,ree,,ilhmrse Ilhri)-s wlirii
tooe at tlh s t'nztivii id I part df sitek t" I" parts ,f wa ,er, and il
costs C( sidrialv lWSs aMd is niuor redilv olh);ii(,( i an the i ii )iio it'
iprip rations. It 'h ld he 'v carliilly pri'(>]aie'(d andl used experi-
m entallv at lirl t until the ,ll'et on ile l',li;) l' ,Illie, (lill'hr('ein |)lplant,
is nmted. ('are should also(e the taken tow pe e t fronm (olhlectin, ali.illl t e r'oots.
llt, r on.lmy/. Frolient treatimeni with a sill' id water l, 'f m
i ,rirden i()se (,r syri ..'.- will tend I key) thisi i -ert down. h, It nlets
there are oilv a fe\ |plants itvwo ld e = 0e I l twer t( ( i)| (wel4te ole
remedies,.
Anv treatment fOr this insect should he, repealed in fr'(ri 7 to 10
thyvs to desMroY ilie voun! larva' (ta1 lhaye ladmp I'that (lihe eggs.
This sh iuld he s-ullirient. hut it may e I)!eqtt" (give a third Iteatii nt
in another week (or lwo).
7ra tl 11 f< tt o,...in A m n.. -In thset e 4f inijtry t" thle vabious
subtropical frlits it is reo (imime ded to sp)rla i th ,lielo e A i lia, ) thtily
with a nic()tine spray. A ito ai(io extract of 2_ I i pe (e ofi n( i ot1i e
sulphate, diluled at the rate (if I part too l): parts in a o per cen)t
distillate-()il eimn lioin, lias given sluhl im od rv-esilts agail-,t (lie p(ear
tIlripls that this treatrllent should h e t,'ied.-'
Applroved:
JAMES Mi. II.Sw)


A \-II (.TO I). C(' > IH, I .'.




VDIIDITIllNAI, COP IESI of t hi-; :, <~i ili, ,>'i
Vo. ln >)<* o('rc rl IIo I" >i ";i NN.


IV!V
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O)ii]wl WV;t-liin :Hllo l I'), e'. .: ;u ,:n-. :i < ,, ;. e lru >


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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


3 1262 09216 6114




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