Citation
The cotton worm or cotton caterpillar (Alabama argillacea Hubn.)

Material Information

Title:
The cotton worm or cotton caterpillar (Alabama argillacea Hubn.)
Series Title:
Circular / United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Entomology ;
Creator:
Hunter, W. D ( Walter David ), 1875-1925
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
Government Printing Office
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
ii, 10 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Cotton leafworm ( lcsh )
Cotton -- Diseases and pests ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by W.D. Hunter.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029684242 ( ALEPH )
27979956 ( OCLC )
agr12000992 ( LCCN )

Full Text







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'I, I iC

~~~]U. S. D E PA



BUREAU OF E:,D.N,,LImY-CIRCULAR No. I:.
L. 0. HONVARD, F nomologi,,t and Chief of Bureau,



THE COTTON WORM O1 ('0 COTTON CATEIIPILLAR.
Ll(Albe!,fltfl (.lqdi~hC, a IlIu)11.).




BY
W'7. IIUNTEI,

In :,. of Nouthern F44Id (Crop Insect In J et /igilt ions.



----- -- I2 - - ........,
THE~'-2 COTTONTO :OR 01;P WETO NATERPIW -;0FlLAR.


s .----_

















B UREA U OF ENTOMOLOG Y.


L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist amn Chitf *f Birecao..
C. L. MARLATT, E7, 1..../.. ,i and .1, .':,, ( fin Abs ence f ( ..
R. S. C'LIFTON, Erccutirc Assistant.
W. F. TASTET, (C'hiif C('hk.

F. It. CRITTENDEN, in charge of truck crop and stored product insct ,i '.',tii.
A. D. HOPKIINS, in charge offorest insect investigations.
W. D. HUNTER, in 1.'.. .( of southern field crop insect i.. ,.t/."....
F. M. WEBSTER, 1n charge of cereal andforage insect investigations.
A. L. QUAINTANCE, in charge of dcidoatisfruit insect inrestigat/ions.
E. ". PHILLIPS, in charge of bee cultor,.
D. M. ROGERS, in. charge of prevencting spread of moths, fild work.
ROLLA P. (' CURRIE, in charge of editorial work.
MA.BEL ('OLCOR, in charge of library.

SOUTHERN FIELD ('CROP INSECT INVESTIGATIONS.

W. D. IiHUNTER, in charge.

F. C. BISHOPP, A. II. JENNINGS, H. P. WOOD, WV. V. KING, engaged in tick life-history
intvstigations.
W. I). PIERCE, G. D1). SMITH, J. I). MITCHELL, HARRY PINKtS, B. R. ('COAD, R. W.
MOREL.AND, t '.. I'..l/ it cotton-boll u'T Vil ilt 'stigations.
A. C'. MO, AN, ,. A. RUNNER, S. E. CRUMBi, D. 1'. PARMAN, ,,,, I in tobacco insect
itnt stiylioD5s.
T. E. IHOLLOWAY, E. I{. BARBER, t n'j.o. t in *i' -cane iDs(ct ... .'. .''i .
IE'. A. MC(GRE(GOR, W. A. THOMAS, ,. 1.,.,tf in red spidtr and othtr cotton insect
it r,'rt *';. I *- !, -
.1. L. WEBB. ..,''. .1 in rice insect in estigationliNs.
It. .\. A.Ct)LEY, D. L. VAN DINE, A. F. CONRADI, C. C. KitUM \tAARi collaborators.








CIRCULAR No. 153. 1-w.c MiY l" 1.1-2.

United States Department of Agriculture,
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chie f of Bureau,.


THE (COTTON WORM OR (COTTON (CATERPILLAR.
.*11ab .at i 9lo n'l l I bn'
I y W 1). lv ril-:w,i
In y .', of Soutlhern l ifd <'rof l( srt l'i i. ,eI "Itl ijNtlm .

INTRODIH'CT(N.

The cottonl worm, or cotton t caliepillar, also but incorrectly called
the "alrm11v wVoI)-111" 11 as I beeII klown t, o cott 1ol phllitaners in tlhe I'niled
tit t(s Sinie 17i>). Before the invaio-n vl le II bll weevil it and the
bollworim were bv all odds Ill' the mot destrucltive ct (oll insect' in
this counltrv. During s111oe seasons lle daie bv lthe catlerpillar
!,.:., ias early- as Ju1ne and occasiolaulv lie lields were comilleelv
defoliated byv th(e middle of July. 'lle de'structiveiiess of th(e insect
atnd the conslernation caused along cottonll plianlters by its 'raV._',-
are well described in aMn 1(ccount published h1*v Mr. Thomas A.leck of,
Wa-bIIiiIztoll, Miss.. in lie .Amelricl'an Ariculuri ist of Seplember 91,
1146:
The caterpillar, iotIiin worfi. ciill H nt ilh, <'r clh nilhI ifl tlew lre liW es \\ st I tl ifcs,
Guiiaa, ic., hias ittlerlv liLhiii'd llt h ojfc.a ,I" tlhe ',ttln p nL i fr ltI h pr- ll l \year,
and produced ini st :II xi ii fars f, r I li tfilli'r. I l ia lit r I r I i t lI if r tat'r pIart,
of tih' (,o.lt i,:_- rgi, n- tli ntw is i.all alik(- t. wh ,riin his d I \-lrr((d lthe cr ,).
I have uI idea lhlat aniy ( will ,.'.-,'ape. '' A The
pre scnl v r th1 'rp i. uii.-lsiall\v tiu kwar cal h'ast if, r wfeks later Ilianii lsli!l.
Wte lhi.ve but jui-t cinii eie'i'd piJ kinh ii-Uiallk lI.\ iiiniii i, niil ii- las! w ek in ,luly
or thlie lirs l ve k itl A.u -i. At1 hi- i ,l- In t 11 X i h111 t \ ii ilhil li lt r i ii ; f I u nlri,
sav, s-oulh o-f Vick-l iri,. is.- tripped of cvtr vlhiii_' hil thio -niw t h- lor_ r Ilcdi ,,
anid a few ov f the first loll-, alre-ad to. a hi', i fr IO wh iu pri li-?w r of ias iraliol. 'Ihi'
full i ., ni l)ls notl 1v 1 ) t,e icl li tard Marc ,ooltlr lcly c.l-en uoi ie o irctiig laiin et 1haNe
never hi ard of but ,n fr ,, in 1,,2s 1 Tt. lihlds prns.n'It :) Ilo',it Ii'[;n, hlo ;aifp<'ar-
anco; lokin- iroim th< bl)lf' al Natclhc/ .wr,'i i r iv<- Oi it, th.,sc lint, [)la(>laiiin- lpa of \'idalia. tilling is I'' lw, s-,ci it t r it 11x\ 01wnii rr l skcleh itn <'f lOwr plant
Until about Is71 no salisfaclory methods of combatin (le coto
catterplillar hall been dliscoe'redl. Manl fall'ious remilies, su-'li as
attracting the molhs to large lires in tlie fields, were moire or hles in
use. but the onll y l ones of even the Il_'!,tes- value ree lrushiiing he
I





THE COTTON WORM OR COTTON CATERPILLAR.


insects from the plants and preventing their invasion of the fields
by means of ditches. Early in the seventies the whole situation was
revolutionized by the discovery that the worms could be poisoned
quickly and economically by the use of Paris green or other arsenical
compounds. The practice of controlling the insect by these means
soon became universal in the South. Planters everywhere obtained
large supplies of poison each season exactly as other regular plan-
tation supplies were procured. As soon as the defoliation began tlhe
poisons were al)pplie(d. This checked the outbreak on the plantation
at the beginning, whereas without the use of the arsenicals it would
have spread over the entire cotton acreage. About the same time
certain changes in agriculture in the South also contributed in a
very decided manner to the reduction of the importance of the pest.
The large cotton fields began to be broken up into smaller fields
planted to a variety of crops. This system of diversification of
itself prevented such great increase in the number of the worms as
had taken place in previous years. These two facts together seemed
to indicate for many years that the cotton worm was no lner to
be feared as an important enemy of the cotton plant in the United
States.
For 21 years prior to 1911 the cotton worm had not been generally
abundant in the United States, although there was local damage
of some severity during different years in that period. Indeed the
passing of the insect had come to be considered such a settled fact
that the outbreak of 1911 was as surprising to the cotton planters
as to entomologists.
TIHE OUTBREAK OF 1911.

The outbreak of 1911 did not originate in the United States, but
in Central or South America. The moths flew northward verv
early in the season and reached the rnighl,,ii'rhood of Brownsville,
in Texas, by April. By the middle of June practically all of the
cotton fields in the vicinity of Brownsville that had not been pro-
tected by the use of poisons had become defoliated. The new gene-
rations of the insects flew northward and eastward during June and
July. During the latter month there appears also to have been
another invasion of the United States from South America. Tlii'i
reinvasion took the moths into the South Atlantic States, where
they were soon found(l in very great numbers. They bred with great
rapidity and spread northward and westward. In August thle west-
ern an(l eastern invasions coalesced,(l and within a few weeks the
insects were numerous in cotton fields tli,,,r',iiit the belt.
Later in tlie season many of thie miothlis which developed in the
cotton fields of the South flew northward, where they attracted con-
siderable attention. Millions of individuals were found in Wash-





TIHE COTTON W0\SiM (IM O)TTION CATEIlHPIAIH.


ington. I). ('., l)etwen Se)tebl)r 1) alnd October 2'). (iOn iIep)-
tember 23 they rwere obNserved at. 1'it tsbur'li, Pa., and at lPhiladell-
p)hia on thlie same late. By SVeptemiiber 25.') lhie\y vere foundl in g-reat,
numbers in New Haven. ('Ironn., andi oin (Octobr I: at (Orono, Me.
L.i',r-f' numbers osf spe.im(eins werve observed in Sel)teimbr at Mil-
waukee, Wis., and ais) at Ottaw)a. (Canadia.
Manv of tlie motlis w"l0h i(Hle northward "were foundl upon fruis
of various kinls, hich (hey lpuntuired for (h lie purpose of fec(ii, .
Peachies. apple) rapes. and 1 otlwr fruits wore attackedl in this
lllmalll(ler e andi fears arse a iiig fruitgrowers that anl ipln)ortant iemw
pest had a)l)eare(l.

I BS'-i-IIHlTY (') AN OTBI 'r: l\AK IN 1912.

The cotton miotlt is of' South \Ame'ric'an (Wi-i. and doeo not siwi'rviv(x,.
the xvinters in th(e I.'nitel States, excelpi vhx li the lemperaturei's are
above tlie snorinal uor when individuals obltaini unusual sllte'r.
Whether therx will he an tsolt rieak in I9t]12 lspendnsls upon txo h ) con-
tinigesnies: l"irst, wheluther any iof tHlie mothis ONred in L ll s uiceededl'
in surviving tlihe inter in this co)untrv i' and. secosinl, xhietler a unew
invasion from South America, lake's place.
(areful searches' for the imth have bee'n naiase in favorable locali-
tie' in tlie' soiut ern part oif tlie ct toin belt during,' th l)past winter.
Thi- investigalion lias extindied 'fronl Browlisvxiille, Tx., to, SStIll
(Carolina. No live moutls have b(een found. Mr. A. I). Mlitlell. of
this bureau, )lacedl chrvsalidhs of lite noith i) in r'arinylg ca('es at Vic'-
toria, Tex., in tlie fall of l'11 1 and fundl that bxv lie endl (of ,ianuarv
they wex e all killed l)v thie (cold. Them'et tt xxo lat -s;'in Io indicate
that 11al of tlihe ilotis iproducedl in tlie I'nited Slats in I ) II failed to
survive' t lie winter.
It is extlr'mielV dilli' lit. lhiowever, to find thle miotlh in hiberl('natin,
quarters, andl tw lailuire tos lind ..sleciimns. is far lfrim 'oinclsive
proof tlhat tliv (Is, not exit: Lbut t mhere is asnotlier cnsiiilerattion
which bears ouit (lie concAlusioint tha tlie mntls bredl in this cunt rv
in 19i11 xvers' all killed during thie winter. Tlis i- that lli' ,istorxv (i
the osutbrwaks of tlhe cotton xx)rm in the I'nitedl States showx that the
insects wx ere all killed s owrin winters in xxhich thlie t0'11peraturis f'll
below tlie normnial. Tlihe xxinter of 191 1 -I12 was albnirtnally c(illd
throughout thlie c)ttosn belt.
()iur ('clsioll. thleeflsre,. Kioim all soUIes'"s o( iiformIlathion soi wlsh
hdep'lend'e can I)' pla(edl, is that tlie' oinlv fear of an ouitlrlak during*
1912 is in a r'inivaxsion of tlie United Slates, fro)li tlisi' sote ,oullien
l('alitits. Their is one fact which s'eemns I() indicat (s I hat i ssere mnay
possibly be suh h a reinxuchnshin. Thie elirsnoslsy sof it(s' olithbreiak- of
tlhe insec('t in this county fsroin tlie earlier acosiits shows a dsI-tinct





THE COTTON WORM OR COTTON CA.X.IiPILLAR.


tendency toward the recurrence of a series of two or three seasons of
abundance. Apparently the species reaches great numbers in South
America and remains abundant for several years, thus giving rise to
the consecutive swarms which have invaded the United States.
Since the region in which this occurrence takes place is far beyond
the influence of the recent cold weather in the United States, we may
suppose that the past history of the insect may be repeated and that
another invasion may be expected during 1912. This would seem to
be especially probable in case the temperatures of the spring months
should be above the normal.
We do not wish to be understood as predicting an outbreak during
the present season. The facts we have noted seem to indicate that
such may take place, but, on the whole, our position is that of giving
a warning rather than a prediction. In order to be on the safe side
it is advised that planters make the necessary preparations for fighting
the worm and that they begin operations at the earliest possible
moment.

TIHE COTTON CATERPILLAR AND THIE BOLL WEEVIL.

In regions where the boll weevil occurs the cotton caterpillar is not
an unmixed evil. On the contrary, it generally acts as a decided
check against the boll weevil. The defoliation of the plants drives
many of the weevils out of the field and allows the sun to destroy
numerous immature stages in fallen squares on the ground. In fact,
where the defoliation is complete the boll weevil receives almost as
serious a setback as happens when the planter destroys the cotton
stalks in the fall. It must be noted, however, that there is a point
beyond which, even in boll-weevil regions, the cotton worm is not a
benefit to the crop. Where the defoliation begins early in the season
the plants may be prevented from maturing the bolls, and thus the
damage by the one insect is merely added to that of the other.
In q;,,i't,, where thie boll weevil is abundant our advice is that planters
do not poison the cotton for the leaf worm, unless it becomes numerous
by the time the earliest bolls are about three-fourths grown. VWhere
the boll weevil is present but not in great numbers the p,,i,',ning
should be done at a relatively early date.

DESCRIPTION OF TIlE STAGES OF TIlE COTTON MIOTII.

The p.r.-lThe egg is light green in color and contrasts with the color
of the cotton leaf, so that it is easily detected by the practiced eye.
Thie eggs are generally placed on the underside of the leaves, never
in lustersrs. The female deposits about 500 eggs. The duration of the
v'-' stage varies with the temperature, ranging from 3 days to more
than 20.





THE coTTON xORAT OiR COTTON CA TF NIAi.


Th'e larra. 'Ile1 larva' (f tIlh cot4totin mo1th vM _' it ilV i size a4id
coloratiom, but there an, certain characterisic mllurkis tlait e mwale o1e
to determine thlle sl''wCie-. (Sece Ii. 1. l'Earlx iI tile' sesm I le
larv' are vell'owi'h -ireell !11l not plrlv\ ided with col4is|ic1oiis lx
IIIL- As ;i m aller to' ffa ct, iIdlivi(uals I witlI ( 'omIIt c(s) p i s m aI0 1 in s
in11\ be fo IIl iI the cu Itto fields t 11Il'miud io t the so asoa I. T ll, t'orini
21111 ili Mv s4'el, olwxver, iiax lhe described as follo4ws1x: Lenigt h ilhmitt
1\ incl(we", upper sur'fa'e Wit it a bruiad bir'owi-hi ir e'rfectlt I l*ack
st ripe. Dol)wn tihe center of I he stripe is a hlie Yellowislh linhe andl
similar llines bo d1ill4 e t blact k li aez i 1 either ,i'de. lacli t'o 1imcit ;i-
see(1 f'ron 1tove sliows four black dotls, 1 xili, iif 'ho4Isae, aie uiiihn
1lio0V (consl1picuolls where tie dorsal Ihlck sl ripe i, less dist ilict. Wholl
viewed from the sido' I'i ach sIIIeit sio ws- foli Iorlack 4d(t, siiliiar t)
those (i' thle dorsaIl -mirfac'e, but solliewlhat, sialler iil size.
'Ihle lai'Va, feed by) preleiene 1)p1on lie (1 14tto leaves. I all 1
where they are so ainldanlllt tihatl li le es "i- ( are he-troved t hex t'eed
)lupont lie squres anlld bIlls id eviien lie t wig In t lie custe odil aiack
On hIols minlv tlie outr i'-ufailce is devoireed. O(ii liis accouiit tlie
work of tle (cot to1 W 1 li 1o o bo)4lls ('1call be distil uishedllle l fotl aii l t, l, (ie
bollworlil. Thle laittier sIe'ies gnax\ ll ile d(lire'tlv tilrlolli- the mut-
side olf lie boll anid f'eed;s uip Im le interior.
('Carefiitl iMv .-h it i11, ns 1av the thwn 1a tliel I o woii ''feeds, onlv
hupol tlie c('ltto plant. Iln lla casl s w ere a lttI' lllpts were al'n de 14t
breed it ( 41 on lther plainl.t falailure r1esultedl. lii 41ie iilstancii'le \.r A.A
chwiarZ su('('eedle'l ill ('ai n'i( aI laixIva to develop to lie tIhl sahli slveI z '
on nl 11111.l'-' lV ([Ki4 (I .p.). Ilie 1'1i.rysai lis, ho ever. was imper-
feet ali li failed to devel('' ). Tle s itatemeil't is frequent I lile v llado tlihat
the cottonin caterpillar feedls 1lponi lpokeweed (Plhi/ ,,hcc/ d stp.) Illd ot4lier
plant". Such reports are due to, niistakinl, somle other ihlecotsor (lie
cottoIn p)est.
Whel t lie woWims ariVe Inllmierollus anld ai cottoll tield lia:1 belle de'fo-
liHatedl he liev frequent ly t ravel over tlie ll'groid in (lretl lluibersill> in
seii('rcli of fo) d. Tlils ai is li s tle (''il, li4he Ioa1 l us( e olt' t11' Iterlil
Ml IrlIt\ wovirllI" for tle, hisect.
T7W chri,/sn' t or ])iifia. Th(e cotton calerpillar transillom s to tle
pI)lpal s1-it L I li4 co ti ol ai toplant. 'nl ike Ie bo(llwo r4i1, it II, 41e iierinI'rs
the l ronInd for wI I i is purple. Usliullv It spi lli I crude web,. 11iiW al
p)ol'ti on of tlie (coltto lea1i for tie( purpoi'se, blit il alil V'i cl- s Ito 4 ,'eb
wvhlatever" is forliled, and l ie iaked pupai linw-,s f'rl i I Ite c(oI(lito pla:nllt
bv mlleanls (of a I lhr-end splll byl Ihe larva f Ihe purl ose. (Se i,. I.)
The duration of Iihe pulpal st e.;" is f'roim o0e to foulr weeks.
Ti (14idlI. The 11dult, (if tli' 'co tlll wox 'Ill 'I s I Il o ilih, the x\ i'1 of
which expand ifroh i 1 to 1\! ilcx es. (-'we i'. I1.) Th1e I) criielr
solor0vh is bro(iwiislih-vellow or lawny lit1in 11in species show in ,I
somewhat, crimson01 lilt(. Tlhe mlost. cons~picuous features 44 tilt, upperT





6 THE COTTON WORM OR COTTON CATERPILLAR.









IF


Ii t .. '









I" i i .....
.->"' '/ "IA '.


1' 1 TI I' Olt I 1 '(Tlii I (A lh bat iti, ri lll fci ): 1 tg' It il I ork. (()riginalI .)







surface i. it distinct i lack s" )lt ni- i l s t thie iinli iii, jiust bex, nI
the tiiddle aind aloiit one-thirdI n (im distanTO e nn=fi tin atielii to
the ptosteri'o" iargins.; The front wing s iate aklo ontlaeteldil t \\tilt a
runuber o' tofransverse ..i- :& lin-s. T6e Iosl conspiuiois id ltlese
aroe Wite wliclh 'lcross'es thle nliterior hall of tII' \int imllt ediateily be-
Vollid t ih e spo t[ t ai d ;im lla tim'lr whi ie tits4t flro', jui s behind tiilie
eve spot lto thxe iposleior Iari". Iin sWeTifif \wicn have iteoeI
l uI l ilithese Il l'lie i sV l Iinalo / g i sonieliiimes indti ,lerillocia.
't'r he ni( li i i mi n i auin l in is t iiii" nd tin a tlia l .e rkai ii pwiier, I 'e iol
flight. This is shi"v\ li 1 -y itai croslingi li ti (iiulf offt \ltxio nl' d ria';i lnli_
Ih a'hilitics in tlih nlti i lirn I'*litc S iltcs aind C lnladii.
M'lliko tlhe gneat iiiijon ('l o' id itlts thi' ))t ()losis (if tits spcis is
-,n i . iheniw d. so littit il t tv in p it I li'in s cli s c ;itl l.l-i s as green pl t rs
or apples. In 1911 aid vatiis earlier \ears in xxhieh invasion oA
iloot hen l o, lisi il tooki plae tie datiiage to fruit in siiie eaollm e s a'-
(onsi-llIRli lie.
PASSING THiE WINATIE.

W ihtne'vetr tlie ittlion olrlil lass 'es It lie winter' ill thlie I liitedl late.
it i.s in tie adull stage. Inl tis it it s unlike tie iollwolx in and oilier
pecie-s, which pass ilie Wintller in in lie plpal s.i ,', in tie gondll.i
The question iof x h eh'r thie etonltl i li hiiLe atei-n ils i' wio allxv ill
tle 'llitilled t tles- is onite Il t xlia lisd isissedl at ,reat lel l t 1) l eltola -
ogists a mid plailert' in fiort'mer yearst. The early records anild Ieecll
observations aill seeln I beatr ut llite elief i thatil ie insoe t is in in"
sensiee i inelnil (I' t I li NorlIt Americanii faunna, anld i hat ii lani survive i,
tile winter in thi citII rV otnlv when the xteiteratures i'are favoIraibl,
IA fact, there in onil oi'e all ie it(iie i'e, td l'd 1 lie nintis sui'xi\ intii tie
winter in this country v. Tis was tel' winter iol ISSi 2, x whit? was-
unusually imnild. During thlint xiter live inoitli were found 'iil in te
viciit vi oln Areiie', Ila.. tduriing every miI ntilti io tie xw intel' toill il i Tl.
and vo ll *I larva' te ounllli at work onL v ,oViluTeer M0'll1,i at thle il,!
of tlhat lmlothi.
CONTROL.

wTvl contoln o4 tlhe wiotl, n cterpillar is noit at Al dilliruhl. 'n.,
me-thods to be describedl are shot&- allo i"eXpensive. (jqi'ojsepinl !v
tAere is imo reasoni why every pldnter should not ANekTli 11", i in' iz. t
tlie beginiling.
By far tlhe best meu hod 4l cint ind is Iv < iew "Ye "f powdered ni'sna!'e
of lead. his s tIlan- ill' lhas severl''al die ltiled ai vanl it'' "l ve a',
other poisons that i old le l'ie use It does noti inllj'ure 1l fo' l 't1 I" all
extent, whatever, id aheres to the leaves in spite of1
ainull In ot lithese resplets i is itsv c to In, preerredl ,l o Paris
_-' l. x lii sii ic lilci, I injitle the oi anill which doeIli In i i adhc-i''
t o t lie leaves well ex \ce llt xx 11mel tiixl'led \ it ii I uIr'.


THE, COTTON W\ViRM (1fi t*o'lTl'N" *ATF.1II;'1.1.\I;.





THE C (TTON WVORM OR COTTON CATERPILLAR.


Plowdered arsenal e of lead should be applied at the rate of about
2 pounds per acre. inmore or less, depeiili,_ upon the size of the cotton.
Ii is best to make the application when the leaves are moist with
dew as is generally the case early in the mr niii-z. The less wind
tire is the less will be the loss from the poison which drifts onto the
g-round. Therefore a calm time should be selected.
The earlier the application of arsenlicals can be made the better
it will be. The planter should not wait until extensive defoliation
has taken place. A watch should be kept upon the low moist areas,
where tlihe worms invariably appear first. As soon as the destruction
of the leaves becomes evident in such places the poison should be
;.pplied. By this means the outbreak may be checked, and the
necessity of poidsoiiln- the total .ii ig on the plantation may be
avoided.
After powdered arsenal e of lead the best insecticide for the cotton
caterpillar is Paris gqren. As has been indicated, however, even
small amounts of this substance are likely to injure the foliae.
Such injury may not become apparent until several weeks after the
application. Nevertheless, the bunuii,: of tie tender leaves will
show eventually in the stunted condition of the plants. This diffi-
(cultv may le overcome to some extent by the use of air-slaked lime
and Paris 7gi in equal parts. Whether the lime is used or not,
flour should be used with the Paris ni. 11 in equal parts. This will
assist greatly in ca,-iii.: the poison to adhere to the foli:ig.
Lon(don purple can also be used, but it is much less valuable than
Paris green on ac, mount of the frequent occurrence of free arsenic
which causes burnil,: of the foliage.
White arsenic should not be used on cotton. It will kill the cater-
pillars. but will burn the folli.' to such an extent that it does more
harm ian -. *. ,d.
METHOD OF APPLYING THlE POISON.
T method of application by means of sacks applied to a pole
ca arrid on horseback through tlie fields. wVhich came into general use
soe vars ago. will be found to be perfectly satisfactory. By this
1mean a single farm hand can poison 2 rows at a time and cover
l lou -i 20 acres ,iiil:,.. a day.
Tlb r',..,atus for in l.ii,, the application is simple. A strip of
hardwVooid :3 inches inl widtli, 1 inch thick, and 1 foot I-ii_' than the
(i-lta iiCC I)etweell tlie roiws should be selected. Two 1-inch holes
>houhI lie b6ired tolgm h the stick 6 inches from either endi. The
sack> tom c(lntain thile p, ison houlmId i made of S-ounce duck (r similar
i1:iiril1. Flour -sackks \ ill answer thie Ipurposc. but when powdered
ar-a if lcail is -. .1. two thickinesses will be required on account'
\ th~I~e tmuclie inccs- of the poi.,in. Thie sacks should measure 6






by _',, indie., amit -huld h e h4f .. or "f ,4 l:_*>'u
i nn< ii i i' >b fit- t ir n I i il -d f i ; p f ;
Which i1, to, 1w I Ni T1 0il h u-i y ina i ifm u!m the a .'. ho .
(Carv ie shoul I>* H a e t ii i H.iiin v. hrur: xx;< 1:'~ 7m '7 *

pole itin -ackx- '* I > n1ail I fr ;i kti wi urxx Lii Vt'' r T'
I'nless tii-i i- dinif t}.n r i- ik. tv 11 L 'l IHJ x; fr.o1 7 l
.,i; i*cn itii~n f I4 iini lip } it ini\ I} I. 7. t 1 1; r .iu i .77
iha i nl uini t (-i i"-in-i.xi. x- '* i "f i*. ..... i -



thoul) t Ix i i tr td I inf f th a t'h>- I1
easily rI'v ulti x iiiT ly ,li v,-. ;:: f' <'f ,. 1'

I)ole. It i- imItr ant -ta in a ik. o, K : < .

the cO tt l f i-. If they do i ti- poi -xx i i:i 1 tl- vx xx_
real ily a di' t in will t* foiudi ii tha: the aii i ni i ,' x



been rniadc arviolent ; :.d-on-. l nt lli'rrfi- n ian.:':: ; l ": ;'r: on..
C, .tton if a f cn I xOl'lllllol-.>ll-1 m, V U lxI t .' *-*I A *III'-" -
ofpim-, n ." ',f* of li.n-tim aniialn known avH Ir: w' :,-: t 'k wx -
alhowid t rI ;k intlu, coit-n '.. -. ,Io.in a flxir '1i-minh o rf w_':_ x
s,,met ,fi ln ~oi-,ox wa- cai ih'-i-l tli< .'w r:poi 'if -'r --. T 1 o 7.
i precautiono m -j .m a nt 1 nxc-ai. at t k< .- ok f Ihr
fields ."'' i(''i- in n di t ;Voids xx ro m:I 11:'.Df !i :1
V- i .'a'i; n l l lat w ill V i.v- : 1)\ ll ,' -.,ock. Iz x x '. :
some crt to imi/zl, l}e i x L I i iie> on whi'- x}> ir- : d
when tlie app'li 'ationl i- hem::; made:,:.
There i- practicallv: no danirfr: of poi-,,:i_' live -:;:(} afl'T on.': or::,




t lij Ki-iii I ii o . x r



o ie n r in fi ; xx o i-Will k w


For tie pntIl o x -t f I xx T
of le,;i at tim rate of 2 i:,- :, xwre .-x... ; x1i
means. Thiils,,an c o .. i,, o I r w


'1
~ I
A,


Tilt" lTu W-11-M




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

10 THE COTTON WORM OH OTON Ii Ill II II l il
3 1262 09216 5801
The work of poisoning the insect should be undertaken as soon as
injury becomes apparent in any portions of the fields. By this means
tlhe expense of control will be greatly reduced.
In regions where the boll weevil is abundant the planter should
take care not to poison the caterpillar too early. If he does so the
production will certainly be reduced. Where the weevil occurs in
consiIderable numbers no poisoning for the caterpillar should be done,
unless there is considerable ]i:-.-ii_ of the leaves before the earliest
bolls are three-fourths grown.
Approved:
JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.
WASHINGTON, D. C., April 12, 1912.




ADDITIONAL COPIES of this publication
may be procured from the SUPERINTEND-
ENT OF "'t IMI['T, Government I'rirtiln.-
Office, ',:, hi L1ori. D. C. .at 5 cents per copy




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