The potato-tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zell)


Material Information

The potato-tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zell)
Physical Description:
Chittenden, F. H ( Frank Hurlbut ), 1858-1929
Government Printing Office ( Washington )
Publication Date:

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aleph - 29682709
oclc - 631047077
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Full Text
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U. S. I)t-PART.I :\Tr O. .\GRICULII "IR.
L 0. HO \WI I ........ I, ad Chwf oi Bureau




F. 11. (CIIlFrFIT .',l)l.;\D ,. S(. D)..
In Pnir,.f' TI r-,, t' r,), anid -F,,r / r./ i F 4 If f Iti, 'i is.


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L. (). II(OWARD, I'i,,, liht,,, .i/ and C'lif of 1%B,,,ii',
('. L. MALATirr, I.',.,.,,,Iiq,..i and .1, i,.'i Chi!f in Absence of 1 .,f.
M. S. ('i IF Tri\, Executive Assistant.
wV. F. TASTETr, / ;I.f I l, I

F. in. f i i N ii -, in i,.,/, .,f/' truck crop and stored product insert ; i,.,i, -irs.
A. D. HOPKINS, in charge of forest insect 1, ti,,,,...
W. 1). I i.', i ir. in,hla,qf southern field crop insect in,,li,
F. M. WAV. i-ri t. in charge of cereal and fii',, insect eii,' ,ti/itiiui
A. L. QUAiN, \%, i... in ,',.. -, of deciuous fi ,,it insect iii'. ti,,iiii.,
E. F. i'nii.i ii-, in i'i,,i., of bee culture.
1). M. LROGERls, in charge of "' i 0,i,.i spread of imlh, ji, Id i,or.
ROLLA P. ('URRIE, in charge of edithorial work.
MABEL ('OLCORD, in chare of library.


F. H. H i TT in charge.
H. M. RUSSELL, C. H. POPENOE, \\ i. B. PARKER, H. 0. M\AH-H. M \ mir,
I. J. CONDIT, collaborator in California.
W. N. ORU, collaborator in Oregon.
THOS. II. JONES, collaborator in Porto Rico.
MARION T. VAN HORN, PAULINE M. JIOHN 'i\. ANITA M. I%\ I I B.t. preparlitfrs.

jDDITIONAL COPIES of this publication
1. may be procured from the SrupRE TNlI>-
ENT or DOCUMENTS, Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C.,at 5 centsper copy

* tt


United Staites -I)cpirtmcnt of A.,riculture,

L. 0 HOWARD) I nnioiolo-i i CIltf o'( Hkrei.

'TilH; I'4tTA'rT -Tl lltl M 'Il'.I

!/hi r11 ,

,'1 /7 % Il

I; I II IIflhI\I~\. ~ II

fit .... f P ik I ',p 4nl Sl I4 P .I i
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For 1iailiV -e*i t lit e ph otn ti-lulH'r in tih. kn i vwn l scien litiv llt 1.

f~ \ V 1h i I ~ ~ h~x i ptaopii
I'f, i f i.In it iH-.rcniillit I Il t. is l een ftll w"j-! I t |es(, in
( '.illl',,rliiii. !i1, hiis lilto irencl 'ie the Statle ... , 1
i' \\;i- iii ,i a dill miiet i adjacteni ct. a.!j.ic.'ii

States. Thi, insect feed(, al;so uon i(<,-
llit,, ,"_"_'t':i lII. I Ill tobacco, w\ ich I do
ii 11 i,, '\% asi rule. -,imii r IIIm ich inj 'I I
\'lii,' it t cei- oni toIbacco it i.' kJi\\o iis
i lir spliit worni.
Tie lltlat mlr ot lih 4l this "i"' 11,. whlicli
isi quite smiall anid ,._' ,vilh in color, is
shown in _Li-. i I I I ; I lie lr i is shon1 V) it I
. and c; and the ]"1'.'. in d. ,,. aet in-
dicvted by thI siz lines in tIIP !(-'ii1 .
"1'1.n ,.r_'L- mniuv I Ihid ii|in tlie l1euves or
on other parts of the plantns. and the mni-
iut l a caiitui 11-r-> or W~olins quickly b re
bl'twein the -i'rl' of tlie halves or inTo
tin* HitIalto skinm. wlhicih thlwy nine inl evel ry
direction, Il,.-,llv ,i, \,, *l i'i" tinh exterior.

J 1 r d ir 1 1,J
.^ .. / t,*.- , 'fI

a ,"T--r 'y
Fir,. 1.- _Tl,.ltiftaot-illn'r mno}l iPhtli-
tlal~r il vi ^ r hifv l, ,t r>itl Vlew, if,
jiHIii ; f. /. M-nl~llt'titi f Isirv ii f -
}tel. ,~i Idwiruttl urtm} {1n llnr itr
It )i
it i.' l~liCei I l lhii I h i're

arI tWO or inore .,ici.T i-olS in the course of a suminer, lanId certaillIN
anothlwr oiet cian ll h piro ed in store. It tliis lii], ,ents iuti ii insectl
l,,Ilii,..- to both truck-roI and Il torIed-produ t illsect pei I'.
An example of injury by this sIpecies to pot atoes is slot n in 1 'it I
2. Al a is section -l,\ inMi thle L,' '- at the top: at t. k ',:.i 1'. ,if -*l I

w i gi r w1 4 h 2s- n < 4 n 1 i l II ni i
i~ Cir. l~a-l2 1

!- n t .l | ,-


potalto in section; at the left is a section conti iainig, two pit',, d and
f, in which the larva has been at \itk. while at b and c are shown
the egg, highly iiinglificd.
I I.'T' I I 'TiOt N.
This species is widespread in its distribution, iLit in this country,
until the present year (1912), we did not know of its rap)id di semina-
tion. Alroad it is well known in Hawaii, all portions of Australia,
New Zealand, Algcri.a. and many other count rie,, including southern
Ei",rope. .A, an enemy to tobacco it has been known for several
years in Florida and in North Carolina, South Carolinai. and Virginia.'
The directions for a ppilyinig remedies
which follow are for the benefit of per-
Ssons itqui)'ing in regard to means of
control. Which of these should be
.M used can be best determined by trial in
T -the different localities under the differ-
S ent conditions in which the insect ex-
0 "ists. This applies .especially to tile
J 'S question as to the best material for
fumiga t i, ,t

y l }As evidence of the inimortwane of the
b pest a few quotations or notes sl11 ild be
B 7t'Mr. J. E. Graf, working under the
'i(. 2.- Work of the i.f.]ian-iik.r inrh i. direction of the writer, wrote:
Section of tuber, showing eye and eggs
deposited about it; 6, egg in outline; c, Ii Siptri'Li.rI 1912 an unusual outbreak of
egg, lateral view; d,/,mines of larvain this pestoccurred at El Mjiilte, (t .il.. due entirely
potato) a, Natural size; b, c,' en- to a combination ,i circumstances. Thousanuds
large; d, somewhat reduced. (Redrawn i C
froin Riley and howard.) of acres of potatoes were pldnt'l in s, .uthrii Cali-
frili.a -i,.ijy more than the market would stand.
'] I,- meant that the market was continually lor-,Ed and the prices were poor. so that
the crop was worked off very slowly. T'hi. tuber moth (J'llrinriiio.r i ntert-,culelai is
always found here, but the crop is gentierally handled so quickly and :aref til k LhaL small
lossresults. This year, however, careless work and the l..'vi,^ of ljotatoes in tie
r,',iiii,1 too long have given the insect a tremendous start, and now its ravages are
greaterthan ever before. A combination of the mi ith and low prices has so d iscourag d
many (of )'lo I.',, -.'r tl.t they are l]'-i i li. tlrirpotatoesto rot, and a;.ithe.e are becoming
infested there will be a great number ofi moths .,itiing ir the fall potatoes. *
Later, September 17, 1912, Mr. Graf wrote in regard to this species
that two growers near El Monte, Cal., lost $S(9I,(00 an I $70,000,
respectively, on potatoes that year. Items of this kin(l Ahow thie
necessity of ilvI-.t igaling the problem.
SIt, is somewhat doubtful if the dill .l ain on lohacco and the potato-tuber moth are ih umrnce insect,
although they appear to be identical i, i,.h to the best authorities on thesubject. Thi. i, matter to
be settled later.

TI'l PVtVla T ITOItlI I M"i I I.

A.-il, from I lnntiiw l similarr ,* 1,ii, iijl in1, i,,lii, tlhe tl aiiil 111111
her from ('.:iil,,i iiili for hit' Ipast twto .';i-. thiis spe ies. hiats eei -i v
ret ived II.,,lii 1 1.Le Lltke aild alilluti ill'., T x.: Sii .lose (',,-i ;iKi ;
SrnIIl I I,, .\ il'ii it. alind Yil, iiii~i.\\a h.; ,\w Yorik ('ity a, w Ie-re it lil ii iot
bt ntle i ccliliatizied "o fgr at kliowin: Fort ('..l,,.. ('nli.; 11i4t1 Ltri-
inore, N. D )ak. Ti',. r,. eordsl 'l w i lide oui ly ut-ru ITt'iK'e ,i ( t p tlatto.
Ii t iiah tse of tile lut report t he tnuer iothit WHiOa >'tc t li ha

I II I ll It 1I
the talk'i or tlfh A1,a\ Iiti ill tli' itId, wli it ik l' i iIIItI' IaIIV it
jpirt, .,ii, liLllil-i thm \ ilt' t- u I I I:.h r ii.l li l i-t,. t',ri nuI t lit'

t(lil iii,,),,,i to inl relll Mll'{tfes-.
'1"1. il i-i t llt'ai-rllre a'in- ~to iii til' liiaillntt'ai if' f ti a ln tnt.t!14 of
I'olu teer pot ato-ti><* ini i ". aii, l in tilfrt- -a t- fa in-Hil.t rl.- til tl' loi i-o
fp -l!il' toe re i' li t le t iit a-anli, iitl' o e i,, iimii p i l lth iipttol or ii4
stio illn ts r ltatts u r 'tih- hi,, i ill fild, wiltthe i n i kt fo hi( i,,,t t oi{!f

11i1114l'lii ii 1 ])omn -4t-d anilial' "utli it -ilitt ati I ti i iFat valahh,
,,r1 ti ii. t:t' t iUtlion of ritliait t i iit li tlt zt I1 1s luv ertl' iln-ti
iii] thIo l into Itit iietd.

('i \%',, 'l ll ai in IlOn{ ot1ier va-u-, tif ilieet i olijU111 i- dt id'
whelr 1-i hh'- ant ts i co otpe li tio ni of .l1 ittaitil a. -v f I ie i, ,1 -

borhoot - .i a tlt-''it a Ili ct-liiili1) lit-eN, a-. iw n' I XI I 1, ,
in i1 io1 ll Vo hin-I' i ap- l i it aIlt e a Ii1 t I IipqI it iiili lC4 I l Isilh f y

'i-.i .i lII tt t'lfoIce t he di -olnt liner t't-, of I ll t tito phl t ii ,et folr s a nat-a,
l' i rli ll t t tile .-I) nt I in 'I t lie tltt liIti on of tiale 1 w[eI .tlI aI lie 'I'-rat It s
f,,,t 1hiii tldii,- art 4t.1vt-rid ai r 1at' 1 foItl IIIIII I, iti tii, n otO
( Its rin ert i t'l -~ i o 1 1 1 .i s aI fe t Ii jni i I' lI e wee s l

iit r iinil rir Lila l ti e m i, tIii l- 't. lt tlit' Niet t Iif it li-s ts arfe
l'iiini r i',,- lik, ti a ni a s a slie,, ,, a,,.- :d lio i anie vloa-er.
TI heI, dea tIt a tlal Ialue, Ia-as t : I d aI1 it l Ii Iil r'- Irel,' i 1..,
[1 n ele ant 1 .i iIr- are lt ti I I.d iI I ail. t-ill e foo11 rp ;.

tuber iilii. ('i', in ,ij,.i, i mase ofhh in re c t to n tlt irlit tile

tubr or P levt i i Iotl tooe a ill tZ o I I I oI r ioli ato ir oife t I ii4n

'ouhld t~wtir.
r voo is prcia l I a .I necess It It I'td eae, as.Io ii~ )*aI|II. Ile
un ar Io n I h r Ia y I~t te ar ';oIn IIII I IIIt m i_; I~ I osI bl tbII

I L t it IV I I t Iixrtt

l ii-lilhiii t of the re te dil stii ( oti of It lIa, i lah ,t ItIl dIa i lt,
fu iii I.I, I oIf i tf ettt'd tul ier I t Iith Ii-,IlI-i l f t areeon or h-i d r e a sIII lIic-


awid 1-. If bisulphid of carbon is used, it should be at 1In. rate of
3 pounds to 111111, cubic feet of air sp.c,, imnliding tl.,1ti ) t,.;ln';
1 ounce to at barrel of 96 pounds'capacity vulI not be c.,c(i-,,.
With an exposure of not more than 24 hours, no harm should lib diiime
to lithe potatoes for i liuiting. The bisulphid should be evaporatd in


FIG. 3.-Fumigator used for stored products infested by insects. (Author's illui rji ion i
tins, like pie plates, and at cover should be placed on the top of the
f liigit iig barrel or box so as to make it as nearly air-ti,.ht as u,,,si-
bie. At the end of 24 hours the potatoes should be reimoved. plaed
in a fresh barrel, and closed up.
Where it can be conveniently done hydrocyvanic-acid gis should
be used in a specially constructed fii.iiz;li.r (:-Ie fi., 3), also gas-

TIMilt- \1it It H I'SH MC il,.

tight. In ithe ease of lii-il.lIi il rf ctrbon t eli I i _' .., ,it *l ., i i
Itii i,'ii-. t ihe hem i.i al int, ir txilnit i t- I., .,I'h r1 liri it Ih ur.
or di..'.,! Air thl o'n, is WA S'li iii.,ir,,.il,[0, und ev Xm ld, <.ih T1,1, i,
Wi.., the I'l-,,lndi -,'r-arA n method r T vt .ll._'lill, no~re timt| Him
h ,di., \,;iviii -ii ,I-l-_'.'~ method.
~l-' ,.i,_,,.i.,l ;t with hvdrorvunir-iieid ", ]'i |., lv rf,. r is
nlot IiI.ri. i, ~-. but if iH,i I,.i rl5 pet rforr meI d i is i- d. i I ill. -1 I r.ii.
to h) uma and other .uinud lif'd ss thie tuiiin s t (Tlt I'I 'u J itii ; 1t1d
ire .,i''ill\ w le i\l\t0t1d in ttv itimit tit t T hii *'.. i i. Ili -' 1jti- '-
Ir:i ili_' tihatll isaulphitl 'f carbl i n ;iid h( IN 1'id le :n ii t. u it ,,
petrl i i ii Il,,i tItImi de. if II lir-( fIii\ilari.', s liui i f tihrI f "ii lil
with the protedure hy i i, lt.f1I studtli,._' th t |riit ld tlir'ctio|i- (ir
-.-.i-h,, iii aII onZe who hoI s ha d l lexlt'ieirie e lt i in his \trk. Tlhe t(u ,id
contIints of the rteeeptule r to Il ftiiiiii_'.,it<.d. >i wi hi, h is hased theI
aimtuiill of chel iet i< i,t Ito used. can bIe readily\ toni|ui etd.
THI (Voll r CTItiiV oF A l,-l1M0;A\Til
A ,iiildinu.. l il\. or rmom *-v*, li.. 14; of i lot Ii' tI I ,,, ms l
Cili'it' v suitable for the fiii, i.,li,, tof ij (iliiintit n f (o at\tof w4uhl
ct4 tin in about .I 1,1 cubic feet. A fAiiii._.;ilr of tlhi- iibj ic ;I ii it(
niLhl( be liiill 8 feet square h N feet in lild't. A -....i. undl ]i>rlips
the l,,- m means ,,f li,<-\ '-Iiti'.r t1he' 1 -1 ;i|l' of the *.s.- wo l He to line
the fiii iimiaiiir with sheet tin. ith sMdilered joints, and o,\,er slitul iii:.
A.nIt Ir method would be t, sIhealth tie roo,m inside, over the T.,ll.
,.ili iii,. and floor with taU'red or heavy I i il lii_ iI popr, withi jints
well ,lhiiied,. and cover thle inside with mnt hed Ieili ,. laIrdsI. The
f,,nuigIiI or li1iiI1 al waves be e'(lquipiiltd with ti iht d t lr in w hich thIIe
J ,il I have been I -ri ik, si iilar t s the doo r o f a refI i i. r'.|or. or saife,
and -l1.,io l close with two rfri,_','r.i(r catclihts :i,.iii,-t a thick felt
weather ,tril, which shimild render it practl, 0il1 ,_'.,-iiht. Trlus
i', 111 r, n|'idl it would Il'i|'ni-i -till, iWill -1i1- for t50 e f0i0' tigwnd ,o af
alwmut 2ii Ii-.hliel-. idf material. There wold also be sulilient -5i,,, .
f,,r the .l11l1 ,tl i 1 nd i l,-,r| if the hi ivdrotvwmii-an id .L .'. carlIon
li.-iilllih, or othr o fiiiiiLli_ t fliii thie top n ith a hai nure than
necessary for the quantity ftf oit atoes treated.
N ,'T F. I! tll I7 II l. \ 11. II.I.I .
\\'I -II ;T1r(\ C., I .' pt, r t, 191).
Nyorin. 1-w IIril,.t i tnss withi h uthr a iisu M to um g ~ie uWh iontd'u'i tn "im lr ul ur
&II)tit&'ne~ wh qwuwsI it, StLt~ itt, lt toI be u.'tw fi (or tin A (x talbtnir initci


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