The work of the San Antonio experiment farm in 1913


Material Information

The work of the San Antonio experiment farm in 1913
Physical Description:
15 p. : ; 23 cm.
Hastings, Stephen Harold, 1879-
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry. -- Office of Western Irrigation Agriculture
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
San Antonio Experiment Farm (Tex.)
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural experiment stations -- Texas   ( lcsh )
Horticulture -- Experiments   ( lcsh )
Farm management   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


General Note:
At head of title: United States Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Plant Industry. Western Irrigation Agriculture.
General Note:
Issued Sept. 9, 1914.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029675938
oclc - 39896556
System ID:

Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Climatic conditions
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Rotation and tillage experiments
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Horticultural work
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Spacing of cotton plants
        Page 11
    Variety test of cotton
        Page 12
    Grain sorghums
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Variety test of corn
        Page 15
        Page 16
Full Text

I i"l,I ~l tlnr'I ))(

United States Department of Agriculture,
WV e .tr'ii Irrig;.l, iil A..rt uliLIr-

FARM IN 1913.
Il\y", | II tASTl~tdH, I' .n S++ln'rln trndrto .

INTR(I)It 'TI4I'%.

Tlii' work ,,f th Sa.i Antonio l- 0 i1eriment Farm in 1 N;13 was con-
tinued 1oLhL the samie L.ene,,tl lines asI described in the report fur 1912.,
The more import un experimlents were those in crop rotation and
tillage Ireediu, and variety t,'-tiii, of cotton and of corn; rate of
seeding 1iiil variety 1v.e iiiL. ol -.,l.1nini; I|-fi ,f varieties of i,,;. 1l..
plumi ., auprnici, perslnim ons, I;I. p '-. .1ili11 alil,'iiil-. ( lii 1.,,
dialtes, anil some other friiil-, .f lesser importance; and ;1 -liir_' of
re.i-tant stockss for these fruits. Addlitiori.- were also made to the
ornamiiierintl I I i ,II L'-..
With the exception of frii-i and cotton the ,rl i1,1.l in 191:3 were
unusunllv heavy. The corn yield was the liis ,.t obtained 'liiiiL.
the seveii ve -r that the experiment farm Ihas been operated. The
yields If fIor'ge fr 'om boIth oats and -, rl 1iiiii wele the liheaviest so far
obtained with the exception of those secured in I 'is. Ti, ar.,'r
yield of miloh exceeded that of 1912 1' 7.7 bushels per acre and was
the la,'.lre.t so far obtained. "1i yields of miloh have been extremely
sail is fact liry 1 d show conclusively that this crop is- the 1most profitaLle
grain ciop fr the SiTi A.i\ i i, ,2i ',i. In the rat-'rf-.r,.,liji_' test
with miln it w-s found that with relatively close -ji..iriI of the plants
in the row L'e crp matured more riiiiifri1ly and liiii.'.\ yields were
o>taiiied. chietlv bause of etalier maturity and consequent escape
from the rava,_,'-. 4f the irlhliiin l iil..', whih 11 has been the prii,'i-
ipal menace to the production of Lrrain .,i-iiini, in tils ri..'i,,i.
The etiect of crop rotation and various +ill.,,'a ut,,',I.l i-s l,,.',,iiiir.,
inore noticeable. Suriiiner fIallcwiii._ and .-,'l ">iliiL have uniformly
failed to juliIfy the operations. ('Ciicll,-ior that have 1,e.-I drawn
S|lma.i-.. S. I I. The work of the San Antk no il-'rimraiit F i nn in 1912 In U.S. D pt. e f
Agriulture, BreA o Pf ait [nmihstry Cirular 1-2, 113.

from these experiments have led to the incorpo
rotations, which may be expected to give addi
to the best practices for the region.
There was a very light fruit crop in 1913,
frosts. Only two plum varieties fruited and


FIG. 1.-Diagram of the San Antonio Experiment Fairm, Ihngwi ihe ar-
rangement of the fields and the location of the experiments in 1913.

ration of several new
tional infurniation as

owing to late spring
even the best peach
varieties fru ted Iu t
siiriniigly, while the
others set no fruit.
MA vy)crop of fruit
was obtained( from
the ),,miigrail1ute
varieties, and tine
variety of citraiinge,
the u-,.k, fruited
this season for the
first time.
The work carried
on by the office e of
Acclimatization and
Adpt ,tioi> of Crop
Plants has shown
that a closer plant-
ing of cotton in the
row than has been
the p)rartice gives
higher yields. In
the variety test of
short-staple cot-
tons, a locally se-
lected Triumph
stock gave the high-
est -i,.li. The ar-
rangement of the
fields and the loca-
tion of the experi-
ments in 1913 are
shown in figure 1.


The season of 1913 was generally favorable to crop production
in the San Antonio region of Texas. More than the usual rain-
fall in December, 1912, put the soil in good condition to receive
the January and February rains, which were practically normal
in quantity. At pLinting time the soil was in excellent coiiondition, and
rapid and uniform germination and an excellent stand of nearly all

1r-,1 i,-.'iili,.i 'l'l i, distrib, utioii I f tll e -iJl,1 ;1 rainfall was favorable
to) tli, development of plant 1rI i, and the heavy 'i"p l'iialittiom in
.ime ii.,li.l in lil ,i yields ,'f jorn and f,,._',, rrops. At [it, sajIu,
time tihe abundance ,,f m oliisture( ctaused 1111 e'xi'essi\+e \,., < :*L~i~tiv
't \]i of cottoI an l favor d Ithe I, 'i, 'jull, it olf tie oltr to bIllI
rt.,. ii to mich an xt tnt that 1t,, weevil ii iii._',. at the k x eri ti I
fi i'ii wa muh ,-r,., i ,r lhui it had lImi for sverl v\i1 |ut-l. A
ilrimaiinlTl l:-ifiu'L. tl ,ii ,..ti lJ ,u13 itl tti h .' .,tu r part ,f Aiugust itiil thi
iiiiu-1i'il abmtiltailvl of boll vet'vils I Oiiflih',l 4i hl'sven tih' cut lon
cti'p ver lll ci.,ll1 .
DtiiiiL, th1 an thlis of SIptmlh r aml ()< lv 1Icr ,n i lly h nIIvs
rC Vin, II, :.iI-i sI t'rious tl ..'I I iu thK St i Anlr i> nii adjiact't
ri\'.r-. ,11 ,i railnts w reT fa-itiraldhc to (lie ilhcviohpnutiv t of Iit{ f<..,i.',
tr''j,, ., IMI(1 alulldatlt[ feed \\a-. ijiadi' Irri the se'ondl- rt'p ,_',i llib f
.-.t ^t ih i i i i a n d .T ,l j i i ,i i ,_'.r ., T i' r < :;i i i n d l ,r f it h e y v 'i r w as. > c l u i r +
ac,.lri/c'.l i,\ lhcaV i.:ii~-. which malusedl 1mcl( dhlhx in fall w hir,'ugh, ilI the I i' li t, 1ld in Isone parts of I xIs dis- r. t s I I...i I
t~' a ,I I I II
IIr 1 'l'l tt.
)Iiriig tlt' \r w:r tihe total prcipi tatiot at liO v I I InInIt farni w Ias
36.1.71 inch,'-. This was 12.05 inlies above the .,\,.,':,.1, fYr vi'r, l' I)7 to 1913,, inclusiv, and al)out 10 inim.hes abv11 e l nOrnml
fior a 21)-.'ar 11,iiil. as reported by the I1lniled States Weathler
Bureau iiL station at i, ii Al,111,nio.
Owing jnit hip. to tlhe excessive pIrecipitation, the cvapo(rationl at
(le experiment farm was somewhat s ssmwl than dIi d in!,- any \ ear (of thlie
lst six. 'ie total evaporation for 1913 was \ .- is il<, ,'-,~ while the
vteragtre for tlhe yea '1rsl7 to 1913, inclusive, is ( idihes.
Tlie temperature in the -ltrin.Z of 1913 was unusually low, the last
killing frr,--t o0. ,irri,,1 onm. M:rclh 17. The latest fro-st inl, i, t iu,.
lilte prtce, ii ri, six years was on February 27, which occurrtedi in 1912.
Thi.- Ilate frott inl 1913 resulted in fr.'/,.ii, th0e corn, which was about
2 in'nes iihi. New -ri,%ill started up, however, so that t-,'l.ihlilii.
w not neTeMary. Thi, frost also killed practically the entire fruit
crop in thie S;in AntoIio re.iibi.
Tlie li'-rt ill,.lin f-i t in autumnin came on October 27, when a mini-
mum temperature ,f 29 F. wais recorded. Tli- resulted in kilii,
to lhti gro'urnd all tlhe tendr crops.
he nii,,oriil,,_.i,.,, observations made at the experiimeint farm are
carricdti onl in cooperation with the Biiphvysial Laiora(irY of lthei
Bureau --f Plant aIndustry. Table I :1 ,.- a summary of these obIer-
jvntji,,r fu- 1'i|:' toeth.l.rT with the mealns for the 7-\ i rr period from
l'07 to 191:;,. inclusive.

TABLE 1.--Summary of 111 tI. ,riiqirnI observatiii.% nu" al thr .Sa'n I ntin,.ie, Ei peinent
Fari rm I'm 1: to 19, inl'i. r,


-I) I i; I 1. 1 M. NI \ %.r i % Ji,'ll Jill.% .\Nig. Sepi 1) 1. Nov. Dec. Total.

S.,.' for7 yeIars, I
1',,7 1. 1913....... 0.61 2.19 1.81 2.92 2.43 1.65 I. 11 1 W 7 .111 .1 I-1 2-.72 222 24.6.
For 1913........... 1.01 1.95 2.74 1.32 2.23 3.81l .1 1 7 21 -* r, 4.2h ,.71


A i r v. for 7 years,
"'', 1.1 1913 ......
For 1913..........

2.63 2.99 4.57 5.44 6.82 8.1,1; ',, 9. I 1 i 1i 5 I' .l s -'.. 1 5
2.10 2.21 3.92 6.17 7.93 6.61 41 4 il I 4 -. -7 1 'r2 5 IA

]l h; Ii
P'i l ..

For 1913......
A .' c "
1i-ii -1913.....
For 1913.......

A\ l-,jllu 1* Iin i\i-
munh i.
7 ', T. 17-1JI
] .r ,1 : .
Absolute minimum:
I .. r. l',j7-1,
7 "tr. r-,07-191
i" 'r I' i . .. ..

I. .Ilh



1 l ..,i 2 11 9 12 .

.4 1.1 1.4 ,
.4 1.1 1.9 .

4.1 4.2 4.2 4
3.6 3.9 3.3 .3 I





108 1"-
96. Il,

56 4
63 Wij

82.: *-
79.7 7

12 I I. I.
5i 5 (1
13 I 5l
I L1 .5
l.A. ..5

.1 9 1 .1
2 1 2 1

I05 ,l1l
101 I'll

41 21.
'.4 41.

..T1 7I
.,1 I 7

5 9) 1 5 >*,0 5.q
4 3 4-5 5.5 9.9
5 .4 4 4
.5 .4 7 .4
21 2 71; 3..86
2.1 2 12 2.97

5 92
91 S 1. 5 79


;.'j 3 l') 5 5(1 4
1 5 I 17 17
9 27
t,') I 1I11 SO1 4
1.7 t .I h I ;)





L.,I1 1h -[irll;l

Date. lemperu-
I lrP.

Nov. Ii
[ '[ J
Ocrt 21
Nut 1;
Nut. 2
0li 27

1907 -.....
1908... ....
1910 .......
1911 .......
1913 .. ...




24 5


{ 'OTVI'I % %% ) TIllI. I. : i(.l; :\l' I:tlM 1.
'I'liI, it, ii IoI all l I Ill.i,, expl riinI lts w 1ere conm ti Hedf i.1'4", the same
line- ,s, outlined in tIh report for 1912. 'The crop eaon i of 191 ; v'm-
|lhtil., tli, fifth \,.ir of these, ,.\ iri.intn-lit TO.- smih so, fur oI-
tiiloidl nitrratited ti iie mllihi of four new rotations at. the r1 iiit- of
tlhi pr''eeiit season. Tw o I 4-\';ir roltathions anld t\ 0 \. ii"r rotaltionlis
Wee i1t' 4 tod,' to those already iItu 'r lii ,1, t tIIaI it II I t''1 Iisent ti -i
tie' work ocupies ',I q! uarter-acre I lht. I 1'i iI, I. a tot 1tl '" :;',
difTi-rlilit rl'-Iti. I i on f %I Il1 l I.-i ili~ 11ti t iere ari 14 pli ts oII t inuII I -
i uMAlv ropI',d to the samIe croi)s.
T"hi' fi VI'ni lii, rIesults o(Itlainel with I )warf Inil in theIII riot ationi
experiinl'iit'll, in tli( seas(illn ofI 1912, when it was s 111stit iI ted for cornl
in live ro-tilIiois aind for the first ti n '1 g ,I ii in i t w \I e iII iuuiil.,
niidt it de<,irabhlie to lred(ice still further th e nuiner of plats of corn-.
In 1913, D)warf mnilo was thereffore substituted foir c)rn in five of thle
old rot itiri-ns alnd included in thile four new rotations. The riesullts
olbtailled f-,ron this crop in 1913 were rrI\ -.ii i-l',tii v. Diillill, tIhe
3'zir, which h was an unusuall y favorable one for Indian corn illn the Sanll
Alitoliio, region the i;VIrilg e vi11 from 14 plahits of )warf niilo was
47.7 bushel-., per iir. as comparedl with :1 I bu shilirls of corn per "il''.
nil ii''lgil from 21 plats. In reality the indho w\as at a much greater
disiulviilititre than i Illi. fmr the rains ,''riini ili, aftcr ueilu 15 caime as
thle cilil \lls Ie"_'iiI!iiii,. to tassel and when the Wcrop was f,,liii,. the
elt'cts of tile lack o moisture. If t' Oe' rains had nlit I ,111 le, there
probiIhll \v would ihave h'ci aen extreomly poor I \ i,1i1 of (cornI. (n tlhe
I)tlie r IanllIId, theI iiI was practically matureI by ,1111 1l., -o that the
rai'll i. ocitt. -Iii. t 1r :iCl'lr, al i whic ti i ired thle corn crop, we-re of
Inti h, If |ii benefit t ho t ie iil, crop.
F111," Illr-' Oxpriell'e 1ii, dit'nomi,]t.rated tho unLdeosirahilit.v of
'i 'i ',w a tI \V sIe (.t) after ,t o111, o It )r I I tI (if
.ililni"ii'er u.,Il. At tie' lh_'iiii ra of lte s aisoi , 1913, 1,I I, Am'i .
I owpetli. a- a catch crop after oats ior corn were elim iuititI from iill
hillt It I' fttlionws iInI which cow peoa lla1I preo i'viosly\ |ect' planted
iftlir oal-. Ilriii. t%(t11e five ears'u l i' rotation work lias been on-l
tii'lo'l ill ii. pre'entl form theIre lias never bfeen a s,'ll ol wh ien cowv-
['Miat- hll Ute i cropI) when planted o.d te corn1 nIt Itlv IMO ', I 191 :, when
Ilhe\ % 1:,,h' -uilliieii' i, rowt.lh to ble of iiv v\alule uI a M' I I i-Iii., l'Ire
mri'lp litTI planted after oats. I)urin, lilost, I tle oil lia
lio'li -0 iliv Ls toi make 'i-lci tile Iplaiini of n\cow l p iet.f"er corn.
ani lli' .-Iiine has, been true f 1cow ipea .ifi1 r oats 1"li,'I tI le'e! of the
live y'earl I 'ib-ure 2 shows tle -,, i of ,, .. .i- l'ii'r oat;.s d,1 il-I
t.lhe ..ii 1 ,,) 1912. )iiriic, 191 '. (owpea.. ptlanit t'd after oats iI made
,le .rIll, Ii .b.i' il. but the s'lso1n1 wal s a ImI0st unitll nd i l tl lth pr'-

. I..' .. .;. T ,. .' .' I n !n, ,h lir ,, t rvi ii f Mr i \ It ,.I.. ', -


cipitwl.i-in dluringl Septunbllr ,innl 'toher bring 1.3.47 inches, which
i- nitlh il,\v. tli,. ii,,iiiiil fur t.h1i-, mmi,,lt.i.. TIIher w; siufficieint
m ,i i-.t iir, ;It ])l;iIIt.i;[ .iin", ulib it. ,Jii lv 1, t., iiiiiu p ri -f..t g -erm nation.
TI'll plaiiit, iih. -.,ine growth :in-I thln tnmiiiin(ld ,prat.ically the
s'ill, .iZ/. lunil il lII';iv 'N iiis (;iilil1' in Sopti.in1 'r.
licihl pTie,.. I have heli gri, iw it, t.h,' ,xp>lrimnwnt farin during five
yVeri-. zinil verfiv i'iuill griwt.I (if grc<.l ill';i.,rizil inliI'a(tell that t.hlii- pea would miake na, desir-
aO], gre.i-m aniilr, c'rIp. Prvimuis t. i 1913 11 triakl were made with
thii, IIginie ist a irei-L-li.niifnlre crop. In tihe fall oIf '1912 field peas as
a \VitTr 'ov'\r alindl grvel-illilIirNc crop Were inlrodineed in two rota-
ti i -, iiI 1.\vt, 1l:it.s- were plnt<'ed to pe'i-; on, O(ctoe)r 31, 1912. An

FIG. 2.-Plat ofcowpeas in rotationexperiments, 1111 ivs a f.Fr rltant iri, a I the San .Antonio Experiment
Farmn, howiT.' the small growth made during the dry weather of summer. Phoorraphed October 8,
1912. (Compare with figure 3.)

excellent growth of green material was made before the peas were
plowed under the following firing. Figure 3 shows the appearance
of the peas at the time of plowing under. The excellent results
obtained with this crop during 1913 and previously have shown that
field peas appear to be the most satisfactory legume that can be
grown as a catch crop in the San Antonio region. How valuable a
green-manure crop this legume will prove to be remains to be deter-
mined, but there seems to be no question about its ablility to pro-
duce a heavy growth. At the present time the peas are under trial
as ai green-manure crop in five rotations and are being grown during
the winter on one plat which is cropped ;iyin;illy to cotton.
SThese are frequently known as Canada field peas.
SSee"', Y ...r.,,]i experiments at the San Antonio Field Station," ', S. D4ept.14 .a\rririduirp, MliLrea.
of Plant Indiustry Circular 106, 1013.

*I'liir f.i I Ii I in .l' i i r.,i ii.l- lit .il l i ii I F l li I .1 i 'Il .1 I 1 I1I 11 1''' I i
lI 'I l l 1 .| Ni -I I in I i I, 1 11 I I I I i ,-, 1 I 1 , I ,l I 1

I i .l ,1 I* ,11 f IIi. 11 Ii, -, ii .Il 'II I I I . I I1 I :. -

i ,Ll P'1 t. 1 -l,, I I 1 1 .in ",It* ito, -xi 1 11 1 r. .. l I I t ., , .' 1 1
M aqll I '" q t I ,'.

Th I i"' l ll n l(-, ,l h,' I r lL, i Il I I.i lI ld '. I'll , ni,_ t ,,
t. >n % ;i" r' -

T ill'~~~~ ~ ~ ~ I''- F l:ll| .i r lll l. *ji I I P I I I I I 'I _* [in
. f'gll. nl .i"I',e ria \per Ill -fe ., I.*,'\ .and ,l.o L, 1 ],- ,,I ,L,,-o, ,,,-e,- \u I l .2
"F u 'l I I .] i ",I .,t, l II ,' ,,i,-r ,,. (',, 1 -,' ,, '*,[,1ri/- rlt,. I ,,, n n ,1 ,,
o f |l, I.. l,-. | l~il i i l,.'ll ..." 1,1 ,] r,,I i.[i I il :;. l ,,i .,1'., .i.i_'," \ i, l 1 1- ], v, ,,1,,i' i iI
O fn l i-'ll','-- I I1 ,l -1 ,', l tihle l- .f lli. '.i ri, i. i l" I'li. n II.' I,, 1I'4T_' iif l -i ."

F;. 3.-PIit of (Iolden Vine field I p rotation px|Nr iTn-ntI Ltt tho San Antonio r *,' F nrm.
Tbw wr pii ntr% ot! OI tobI r 31, 1912, a 1. photo rphfl on I ,.' rI, i' 23,191. Alut 1i tun*
0li mt~ril pr Mr were prrlt41T1t and plowed und1r for rri n 1 rinmur ... r ,. I1wfih r. 27)

T. .. ........ .. .*.v' yiids p... a

\ r i N nlh r
Crop. piT

I l. .o,,,.- I F 20 I
)warmio do I II .7
Cnni~. do 11 4 ith l..' i'.f 1 1 a i *;
D aF n l . .... ...... ... .io i'n i> ;ii d l\ l >7o ii :. -* 1:
Srr Ln I I I
4 li' T rill . . . *. i
-I.h drills. . . . 7 1 I ,7 2
Lta hay .......d t Ut 7 7 'V


TIe dilferen i rotatimis have wtit been under trial a sufficient length
of timne to determine which are best and thie best sequence for the
,various crops growiL in the region. However, tihe results so far
obtained show ti0e deride! s.uIperiowity of crop rotation as compared
with 1-crop systemnis. It lbas been thie practice in the rotation experi-
mients to have one or more plats on wlicli each crop is grown con-
tinuously with which to compare tire yields from thie same crop
grown in various rotations. Thie fields have been uniformly higher
wlhen ltie crops have been grown in rotation than when thie crops
were grown continuousVly on the sam,' land.

The results obtained from stibsoiling were corroborative of results
previously publishedd'
Tihe average yields of corn and cotton from land subsoiled and
from land not subsoiled were practically the same, and subsoiling
decreased the yield of oats for both hay and grain.

The results of fallowing were substantially the same as in previous
years. Thie yields of corn, cotton, and oats grown on fallowed land,
together with thie average yield (of each crop from all of the rotation
experiments, are shown in Table III.

TABLE III.- Yi',dds oj crops groun on "Thllouad nlod anu ateroge yields of all rotation
plats at the .'o1n Antonio Ej'pr'rimnie'nl Farm in 191..

:.\ers'. ur iii plats Summer fallo%%ed.

C r o p o .,io n .
N\u['r )- ."A Number .
of plans o f 1 .ts. I d

i.L -l ,I 't 1 i ulh,'l. I I 1 3-.0
C i Ir l i lT I. hi I 'I .4 i 30 7
Cot on 11) l', i ll jo, r-, of -'e., an.] filer .. I 11 ii I 350.0

It is .i.'n f r iP the tabl e li at Ifalli wing \;-I fav ra Ille to the pro-
d.ictii'n if winter oat- grtiwu for g-r;in, Iuit thiat the y-ieldIs of corn
an'i c',ttin wer, much itwer tliin thi. avrirage v\-ic hi obtainltd'(l in the
rotation.s. The increased Nivld if oat, -,n fi lllowrI land appears to
bt lue tt, .-,lowr growth' i during the uarly part. f tiIe .-sC.eason and to
ti' c''niL-. iqunt. le--enlrd damage fr, ii lodging or frtnm ite drought.
Oat- mn the otithr jlat. mnade such a Iu.Nuriant vtg luring tle early part. of the sa,:on thit. thlrV l, dgel l;i:d]y and the
i i" .rhn.'rTi iii hli..'1 ir: i ii \nlori ,I In t .' I1, i -.f \L'hTclll'J lr'. P'.ir.. I ni ['lint Iniluhclry
I ir, 11 i. r I I I, l
Ti,. \'.rr; ..r ii. :" 11i ) 1ii. l, :\[perinir'r t Fa.rin in I'll il 1 i.>. l ,i f \ i uhlltr., lurreau o Plant
Ln ,ii ir. I r,'Il *r 1 'l '

ip nlil ",fi water available ,iri ini the latter part .I, thii e t_.. iF, I
l,,ri-iid wL not .,ull,, ir,.i to, nialur, the jil:,nt, p~.i,,.rih It wan
',I.,.r, 'i that f ll,,\ ii did not uiake t he con dlitiosL hr more favorable
f,,i t i il, '. i, h l ir ii'l.,. ti n, season % a wh ol, ILLt th1t it w1'
thte ,,ijr(-E..-I i l i InI tha l.ative 5 'i",, t i Ii:rl in th1 stL on
which rf 1ulted in a Ti-0l. ivi of 1.r 1:,i II

() ilg, to late 1ri`ii1 ,r'-i whichI were Pnrchdd I.1 wari welatlher,
t.hern wa- pNt iT-i ill no fiii il crop. (f)nl a few peaches I ere found,
on the tr o ththe M, t i,.F1 -,., .lir,, peach 'iui.a. ,1l. and the same
was. true o if the other lteaeh varieties. ()ihly two varieties ,f )ilii,,

Il L.-Sn p~tus Iurainitew In the' orchair a t tl Skii A tonio I iu NI *x Fari Iml.
tll'i tiii/,- tnd Trr.'l. bore fruit. TI'l former set a heavv crop.
TIe (;II.I, Z p]lum i.s 1iii,1 ,,ltedlv the most reliai le vIrietI that Ii.,-
I)t.eeii under trial. "ii, Rusk I itr.I-,i fruited r for thi' i rI time in
l'il:i. Th., r itr.;ir,', i. one ,,' the hardiest ,.4 the citrus fruit-, and
t variety s particularly well :]ld to San Ant-nio conditions.
.\ I C.,'.y crp wap1 matured in 1913 from most of the I,0 i I,-
,'il:lit, varieties that have fruited. TIl' San 'iprt,- I)e .J i..,
Ind Ii.--t.1 varieties have produced the best t i. of the I .I',1 ii.I
,f ne varieties. Th, Papershell and Sul)acid varieties have ma-
t.ure I the heaviest crops.. Where i,,n \i,,r I-, ii- plants are ,h-ir,,,.
tlih.' San Pil ii.-, :,nil 1) .Jative should he II l.,III i .'1 I 4 .

The resistance or nonresistance of the various stocks to the adverse
soil conditions was more pronounced in 191.3 than ever befor.. The
testiing of tie various resistant varieties as stocks is to be continued,
for it is evident that there is great. variation in the different fruits
and varieties of the same species as to their resistance t(I disease.
A collection of five different lots of peach seedlings was made during
the year, and these are to be tested in an orchard devoted to resistant
The fruit stocks that are receiving special attention are peaches,
grapes, walnuts, plums, persimmons, and pears. The results obtained

FIG. 5.-View of ornamental plantings at the San Antonio Experiment Farm, showing palms, yuccas,
bamboos, and other semitropical plants. About 150 different species are being tested.
along this line indicate that by the use of proper stocks niminy fruits
heretofore considered not adapted to local conditions may be pro-
duced and also that many new fruits may be added to the list.
Tim, ti.ti1ig of ornamental trees and shrubs suitable fir the
San Antonio region is receiving much attention, and iimany (if tlhe
plantings have reached the stage where their adaptability t, the local
conditions can 1)e determined. There are under trial at present 149
diffire.t. species, as follows: Mi-'rraluiis species which were secured f!.,mii various nurseries, 65; importations of the Office of
Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction, 30 species; yuc(.ls.l, agaves, etc.,
most of which are native, 19 species; palms, 19 species; anlld native
species, most of which may be used as ornamelililt ;il, 16. In addition
to the above there are under trial 86 varieties of roses. A view of
a part of the ornamental plaitinlgs is shown in figure 5.

O i ir u1 I\ I t 1l" '1 -i' 1 p i. t III.
D)lu'rig til' inpast two veinsi l*xtensio(X~ifil'i!e exerme ts q have bee rarrird
OIl w il i (th cot lIon ]l.,iiilci itn ri>wvs ,ill',i'r lit disi ta lices nipnirt ltlld w ith
liw Idiiil- tlinn d to v.,: \ i,'.' disLtaii's in (i ro1.. Tts u1e ii nT I
[n'li' ln lI;ade \with cottoln1,1 thillnined ;it \nrious .f ,.',- (df growth. Ii,,
oIji.i of these \[,'i lii ii,, lt a be n to tst tile p ssiiltiity of s -P4 '
ing earlier tcrop y ('(niti lli_ i1ir foriiiiioin itf lile '. '. tntivr
'lliilui li'-.. It Iai l'e i f ii d l lia tht e H ,' .l'lit iv Irii(ii 1e4' 'Ai l III
suppressed Il'. tl]ijiiir.' tihe cotltuil Inter l Id'lea. iiir' tihe limitss clos-r
t(hgtilil'r in the roIws than hrais Iweii (*lst(>ilinry. "i", w ork is tarrh'd
on 1y the ()1lim, of Aeclin t izaition nid Adhiptiiti ln f ('r Co lPiliiits.
Re'll t |iilhii it ill .-> by 0 !'. (',,,, i :Iv' ti\ e rel' iits of 11i -. (xpPri-
enwnt carried on in 1912 and 1911. In ties1 |Piliicatl iitns it is sh1,n1
thO it clsel r Il iill ill.' than is u't toinnrx .i\,. 1i._1 r iehlF. (1 ', 1
sp. rliig 'If the plaints in t11I row illas 1beei adlf)t! li in IiI( field
plliting.s at the -l.itii'i. Nwithi results \ ih'li s(eeml to justify t1ie4 inu1r11
ix tfii-vi Ii uso of tlihis lmet1il ihi tih sectioti. The distan'e i)partl
which the plants have heretofore heei spaced was\ 21 ii. i, -~. hut this
it lil'nc' itas leenii reduced to 12 inchlies r less.
Mr. {It. M. Me:inl, of the I )Ilii, -- Aiccliniatitaio i aid Adapittiatlh
i)f Crop Iliiil-. lI:,- Ifliriii,,hr i 11 oe tigi 1res o tl lie iresii1- of sh I 1e
expeiriint- carried oni at tie aini Attonio Exurhient. imnren to
ietle'1niiri, the lost delSiralble distaniees to which o llii th tie pAindts in
theo r,\. These ti'iel-. areo .,Vi\,ii i Table I V.

TAlI IVi Yuids, (f ton i 1and 19l 1 / ,,*,'. *, tF wi ,' d '."
ll the .'.,111 Into no '' r t ; I
]r ttcr

..... .t ...... ........ ......
( ip H onl
.ni r 1. i Tit.
'- t~l .^. .rs W

V 11)2 ........$ lii... 4
im I.2 i rTiI..,m mI itr*i I, kl 11 17 '
I i rT I I.I mI'd 7 I tn lii>
{ ii hirt.

'mllrli i-'l,%%t .1m i li ld. to th( is ki~V -\V-,.ii n ur "here the )dints
are :la,', chaser I,,,_-,t ,-i .,, I in a l,,. .ik ,, fori itt lI11 n v I"e
l'lo- readily I i i, k l, eit her by ha.iitl or by niltcl :i h eri (i e fv4t urI
thiit makes this III, \ Vs\ i i.~ "]i .e *.,li ,ted to twhee then Anltsliiu

I A eL w ny o of litlon ultirro In S ]' |. o( AnrrrtIllmrv ltirro i4f vil t I:i it t ir Lr
i1l' 1913. An xew y -tin of tit totn culture anld ta | I I ip t \ w ha P it+, l';>rnners'
Bulletin nM1l 1914.

re,'giun, where the growing period is frequently shortened by drought
or by the boll weevil, is the fact that a crop nmiy be matured earlier
than where the plants are spaced at greater distances.


A variety test of cotton, which was practically a duplicate of the
test made in 1912, was conducted in 1913. Table V gives t1w results
of this test. The varieties were planted in rows 16 rods long.

TABLE V.-Results of h' / 'i tests of short-staple cotton at the San Antoni, EFp-riment
Fanrm in 1913.

Relative Stand. VY ild per atTe
position. (ipounds)j.
--- --- ~~~~~Variety. .-- - .. --

2 1 S.A. 1000, Triumph............................ 163 100 544 169
3 2 S. A. 920, Triumph ............................ .150 92 496 154
3 S. A. 917, Triumph ............................. 143 88 4*6 166
6 4 Rowden.......................................... 140 86 492 132
3 5 Roundnose ............................... .... 147 90 410 127
6 Trook.........................--- .......... 149 91 4t4 130
5 7 Lone Star...................................... 147 90 4.12 I 140
8 Boudurant................................... 148 91 416 106
9 Triumph, San Saba............................ 149 91 411', 120
10 Lanqum....................................... 150 92 .39 I 131
11 11 Acala..................................- -.......... 159 97 .14 104
8 12 Durango ..................................... ..... 162 99 3 6 96

As shown in Table V, the San Antonio selections of the Triumph
variety ranked high during both years. Considering both yield and
quality, the Triumph is the most desirable variety tested during the
past two years. The Virgatus gave thle highest yield in 1912, but the
lint produced is very short, and consequently the variety wu- not ii-
cluded in the test in 1913.
A test of 10 varieties of long-staple Upland cotton was made in
cooperation with the Office of Acclimatization and Adaptation of
Crop Plants. Thie-e varieties were plunt,.,l on field D3, aInd it. was
intended that they should be grwnii under irriguitin,. They received
a light irrigation soon after ]plantiing, but ,wilig to the heavy spring
rains it was not necessary to irri-atle again unt il late in thlie season.
But at this time the boll weevils appeared in such numbers that it
was not deemed advisable to stimulate an excessive vetzitiv. growt h,
so that no further irrigatii'" was done. Table VI gives tlt. results
of the test.

t. i ,u i 'N I It I 0hi !

'I IAJ ,,r i+' r
I Sc+T1 +++t [ i+i'it.
I toll.



V+ ,l+na +f Illll.

l)t _1 $.W
. l. .I .+()
.I H i Ii
:!ii; iiS2"
1. 1 1 l
11 .!'. lsI

iIn, coIl'ln headed "I V lhr (f lint Ier pM ud00M1I is lIased ("I the, o0ri-
nai'y short staple -,l ii. at 1:i; cents ptr p[nuit. It should e uniher-
stohid that wliil these estimates are o4)1\ relative Ili,.\ shi1ulh not hW
ignored'. It is ,l..:,l ipossilhe to pro)duceh *IIL,---I ,1,, ot'tton in this
reI,,_i,,mu whenever nmarkett conditions are s"ich Ni to )justify it especially
oil land that can ihe irri.,iI'. whIen necessary 1in dry seasons. Tlil.
best 4f the a))ve vlrlieties ill be testetdI :,:i.-i in 1914.

In 191 3: the work with ri iii -Irt'iiiii i- consistied of a variety test of
four varieties and of some ilant--,.,, i I' exiieriments, lboth with the
pl.fink dtitrireniit distances apart in t he ro()s and with the rows .lT'rri,
disttim apart.

Tabl, VII ,i'.i,- the yields obtained ini 1913 in the variety test with
g-lhlin +,)['ZILIlI])-

TARII F VII. -Y .if *i ., ..... .i, .... rnrai,'it flu an+ .1 tttin l' '.. t I m
in In I91

Yi ,1+ n r


II. 2 I~ h ni t i I ii I un
Ri, ', lh~ di k ~ n

Cuon1-ider:ibe interest is b1il- I shown in feterita as a substitute
for milo or kafir. .\i the experiment t'f2iri it has not yitldehd as \\'I.\
as minh, alhii.Ll it has generally outyieldted kafir. Table nVIII -1,,.
thve vraLze vyi,1l of DM airf milo and fOwnrta for the years 1911 to 191 .

V irtl,

Il+ilrirM .

Il i iii
I I .Iir" | I '
Fillln fl it ,I

i I,1,4 I I,
K ]'z .i>n, ..

Dwwrf miio.
White milo.

S l+iI+

% aw I,'

TABLE VIII.-., Iriq, !fiq bs ,f Dwarf milo and feterita at th. San Antoi, i, Experiment
F,ui' in 1911, 1i# .', and 1913.

Yie'l pIr acre-
I ,jr[ mrLJo Felerita.

Bwush,'. Bushcls.
1911.. ... ..... .. 1 .3
9 1 .. .. . . . . . ................................ ...... . 11
1913~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ *.. . . .. . . . ................................ . ..,, 2 1
1913.. ..... ... . .. .. 1.- 4 24 4
A average .................. ............ 4, 11 27 6


The successful production of grain sorghum depends upon early
maturity because of the ravages of the .,,rghunm midge.' Milo tillers
very freely at San Antonio, especially when the plants are spaced
some distance apart. The tillers flower v.v\vrail days later than the
main stalk, lengthening the season of the crop, and as the margin
between the fl \\ crilng of the plants and the emergence of the sorghum
inidge is frequently very short it is of importance that th. crop be
matured as uniformly and quickly as possible.
In 1913 ten plats of milo were devoted to a test to dettrnmine the
effect upon the tillers of spacing the plants to various distances.
It was found that the plants can be placed much closer together
than is generally supposed without decrl asing the yield. Where the
plants were relatively close together in the row the number of tillers
was very materially decreased. As the tillers are later in maturing
than the main stalk, earlier and more uniform ripening was obtained
with close spacing than where wide spacing was practiced. Table
IX gives a summary of the results.

TABLE IX.-Summary of results obtained ,';Ah milo plunrd in rows dtifl'ri'nl distances
apart and with the plants spaced to varying distances within the row af tf.' San Antonio
L'i ,'r,im, ,i Farm in 1913.

I i h iid iT .\i T I r. ,.- rniltn .r I lt infi ,- jprik* .\.f 6ur numl.r. 1
i. ii i r, r pl iji. ,,rich1:, p r rLinr
_____'___'i Viii ___________ __________ Yield
r l |- p T.ri p ? r P 'e. acre.
Ii rii i rill,.rs on I ,%% lt Ih ,, Til r. o15.

B 11 h. I B sahdls
1 1., I I 41. I N 1% 5 2 7 i2 5
49 2 1.5 1.8 46.4 44 5 2.8 1 7 4 3
4$ 5 2.6 4.0 46.2 40 5 2.2 43 A
48 8 3.6 4.5 43,8 36 5 2.5 12 j
48 12 4.3 5.3 42.1 '

I See .r .,Y-..'tiini production in the San Antonio region of Texas." U.S. DepI orf agriculturee ,
Bureauof I'Iii I i,.luy r Bulletin 237, 1912.
2 Not thinned.

A -shown in Tabe, IX. va \in: (I h -~i:n, r, I n-' li, '- I1 I i.ti 111 Ive ly.
I ll' o' lm the Ii 1.i- )ut tl\ liI_'l \i lt- w r ol It.i ':, ft I)I rI ela-
ively close -p ii\ :o tiL, I', o c t, ,IttIolt I I I I I'f I[ I' ,-' Ish I', o w II
in the tIadle was the w' creased numI Ir I f heald a, l (,f till |'\ per
pl.t I where tI i< pihlt 'tI w re rf'ItIivc cIlsc i,,' I hIr I- ithin I th r Iw.
Tih, ibCtelit +h'riv+ui fro)tn tian i;rj fuw till i,- liu'" in thit fa') tlint few
tlli 1- I'.,\-,i early ianl iutifl tirn it Iiit ri v. ( )On .luinc 2", wdllin 9ii pj
rent of the heids on t(he ('l<>s- ip lhoase thiiinecI t, '2 in hit'es wI tr il, :1 I1es than tI wl p r Intit of thi'
hit.,l- o) thie wider Simch(,I p lint1 h1 I ",I'h('id I tM ur it I i% l rl ant i
iiifi in, m aturiy hessens t1 nl:i,,,er, ,) 0 1 ,i, ti;, In' ll Will the results (d)t ain d in 11913 sti,'ir b.j h i ntId c m th iAt -l sr "1 i" ":
tlha hns usually been ice!l will rfaiuh in ('|lin'r ;Unm t|nd m', unifoWm
I|''u lp(Ili' r hocal vaictiC" of corn were t'st \ itn (' pa)lrison
\nth two I% ) al 11ni1111cd varieties whilih :tr rithlr Icxt ,nsivh'i l oNNIn.
T',bdll, X _.'i,- the result of this t st.
T I.iL X. ) ',a ,,r t ari'iu'nd thr ..u 1t1 A i t ri p + of at A \p a w ifil.

Vai S, V.,ri..i,. sir, ,. Y it

filrle.. Bihi u | /1 r N rr a u1 hai,
l..ili,'il i .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. I '.)5. 1 al. O E vins. .. .. .. . . . '.r.. Ki a 3 .6
F'prc'l ,rl'i" Yepllw lD 'nl......|+ <.l,fl ;il..)"iI Siirwrwppr . . .. .'+Z ; 3+1.3
I 'l~ii'h ,,il .. .. . .. . . . . . i i:). ;t-. 9 L utrtln .. .. .. . .. .. . . . . .. 21.,3

ThI I, Alt'iiii. a strain ', It"n and selected at tlih' uxpetilmtettt farm
for livt' eCr", -, ":\i" the hti-lir-l -yi''ld. ('onditions were somewhat
inore fi.LvoI'r: lIl for this variety than for the ,iiit-. which tar a1 lit-
Ile earlier in nmat I ri nl,. The earlier varieties w'C somewhat injured
by the ,iitl|i/l ,,.. linii,, early in June at fthil, time these, varieties
had l,,gun to taAssel. The June rains came int time so that It'l I..-ii.;L
variety was pr,,ib,,lly but little injured.
A approved:
(";, ',f Bur, au.
JuNE 3. 1914.

%ASI Ii ; \ N ,r, 1R ClX \W>T printT!; FF- ; F 914

3 1262 09216 2451

j D O U ME ST O ""
I~ ~ !_________