The work of the Umatilla Reclamation Project Experiment Farm in 1913


Material Information

The work of the Umatilla Reclamation Project Experiment Farm in 1913
Physical Description:
Allen, Ralph Wilmer, 1885-
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry. -- Office of Western Irrigation Agriculture
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Umatilla Branch Experiment Station
s.n. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

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Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29675890
oclc - 39896620
System ID:

Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Conditions on the project
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Field experiments
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Soil-fertility experiments
        Page 10
    Green-manure crops
        Page 11
    Ornamental trees and shrubs
        Page 12
    Irrigation methods
        Page 13
    Community breeding of dairy cattle and extension work
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
Full Text
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United States Department of Agriculture,
Western Irrigation Agriculture,

II 11 \V ..Al ll i. ..


The experinimnts carritl on at thie I1'n1n1ila. E\perri 1913 followed ili( samIIe glltrn'il linms as tli i-t, iiiliiv In'l in 1'112, R.s
reported in a previous puhlil Ati i1i. i n n11 It'i lit irf ti1' .iiLtil il/.-
of the farnis on the 1'rnaiilla proje't-'t wi-li e'iiii Jiil vei'rng ,f
.about 30 acres of irrigable laind--it i, imk,.-ia"ry tlint .r.v'-iii- ,"
intensive agriculture he cst )iih-.hei'd. Tit, tliiiIli. ',tiiiii ,i(1111
the project are wtll situildl to lt' protlllUtiii of I'*i'i;Li i1111-k k
and fruits anti to dLiry flu'niing. Ont' of ilit' iir.t rr(|toriinm iI-
of successful rop pro thitioi (on t liil" ji'jt't' i., tfi ii'i ruii- ,' iii' '4v1
of organic miatt er in the soil, (. as ti ihizprnn,, i'hir v;iIr-1huhliilil
capacity and productivity udll to lrsct'l t li t liLiigi-r ,f wiiLd t'rio.)'lii.
It is nec.essary also that crop aiiritis suirrtl to the 'lii ,idi L-. I'iL I lle4
project he found andti that saiti-fairtory i.iuilod- Il,, \orkril nit filr
handling the soil aid the irrigiaLion water.
Since its establishnment in 1 9'li, tht I'nitiiiilli t Expriniirit FLrini
has been devoted to the uive.rtiugtin ()f thlke, prolilrii-. Tli, w -rk oif
the farm hasi. been inLiIdY horticILItUral ILIiI i. lit pri'-nIii ,niiirII!
I The .Ut ilila ixprrimi'ntI Farm is local nn the IU'matill., iRclahmal i:,. I r. i' I.ti r nr it-- ni.rlh
ollisnlton.(o rerg. There larm contaiLn., i'Bcrt'sof l. l withr.iwi rrw ni i1 't ilr l J I I i '. jri Tl.o 1,1
iof l Intelrior for Iuse as l an e perip ment Iarm It is m.inar.ined 1I, li '' r. L- ii .1 Iri4' ili I Lpi rintir" I
Station and opeiraitedl in eopersil on wilh the IlLureat o[ ' Iilrl'i.frY. I h..;.l i '' I c 1 '.-. rlin ni. ri 1,r
.Agricullure, under ILa Coopert e agreemirnt. Operaltions werp I.',-',in 11 I .rIi Th t. iiili,, n-.4,1 %i r-
ernnslt nited by th,' In'Dlii N Siatis Reclamation SSn icr and t'. th i iIr' ' .1Ar \i 'I''ir.I l '% r r, riA l .r ..i iii
The expeniM ofI the farm are hard equally hy the Orr,'n Ci 17,ii, 1 cmi Iii,. ir *I,. %% t r'i Irrir ri..ri
JA tgllilture. The Invirli nrinal work is uInier Ih1, immilMilc ;l[uIrl. ii..n ..r i* .r'i -l'i" ri!t,. ril.i,.
*whkL l ail c a rllahioralor n I he Blirfui' 11 Pilant Inrdn.lry.
I1 AllabiJL. W T'lr w rk oi the I 'matilla Iperimenti Flarm uin Il-' % I',1, ,, .'Ti',- r*.ir,,. li -i i
of Pll lutryv Circular 129. p. 21-12, 1913.
52447- 14


clihiellv N to tting varieties, of fruit-, and truck crops. an
ini, mluetild-, iof producing these crops, including nimetilod.- of irriga-

tlil. 1'l'e present pullirati,,n' contains a brief dis.ussioin of the

ji),Ir,'.-- of tihe work during tlie 'ear 191...



Mea-surements of pi'< i p litaiti,,, t'va[J)(o',itit'n, winll velocity, and

temperaltu1' hlave Ib'cn matd]e at tlhe exli)rint'-nt farm iln cuoperatioti

with the Biopltysical Laboratory of tihe Bureau 4f Plant Industry

silltve Sep)t em ber, 1911. A summary of tlie limnat,'di .ical observations

f,,r th three v'i'iars is given in Tuble I.

T 1 ll 1: I --.,'it/4n nar' of '/l u tllviifv ll qii ut r,, i;,m,, ii /ll I lll't 'rl, rimnenl Farm

l i' U I'Tll T X'I l I ,'li ++
i'RH-. IFIT \TIn.\ [Nn. llL+ i

Y. Ir i ni ) in I .I. Mir .\.r M J'. Juiln J.lIl

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li ,4 I 7 I r

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.2, I 1 41 I 20 .62 9. 2B

S .2: . 74 .1 .....

I \P'IR %Tl''N IN- HEi',

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21 1 ,i 4. I 1,' 74 tL5l till

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M *\XIrnrlii.,

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NI iin tilii

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:4 .. .....
4 .* 3 4
12 3.1
16 2 19 8
15 4 16.9
3.. 15.3
).. .8
.3* .3

.34 .......
i i . . .
A1 .......
55 ......
t 1 104
51 105
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Si 11
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'1'i' dates -If tih last -Il in.. frousts m Iir'. autumnNl fArosts froml 1UNo
to I'l inclusi ve, were obltaiMned from I the lcal llice of the Ivclahima-
tion Srvil'e at tli1 iiiTi-.t'i,.l about 2 miles from tlhel e\priiiiirit farm.
In 1 .IL2 an1i 1913I the observations were IlIIC a t the fIarmI 111T, -..
dlata tti- tile five yVear 11'i'i to 1i91 ;. ilusive,, art, W.ziven in Tab&e I1.

190 ir't ill in F t in 1 1umii
1 II r,~ A ptIh vt'a, () q I1 -u ti' I U,

19I .. Apr. l: < >l Ill*l 17:
rAUL I I ;

..... ..... \. 24r :d '7 l 4. 4' *l t
lIBI1 pr. 2il 4 4' :4 2!! ',' "i.
11Apr. Z U Spt. 2- \ 1p
1913~ ~ 4 ~ p 411~

T i g ... .. .. . ., ,., ,,, .. .. . .. .. .

'Till season (of 1913 was espe' i:1ll\ favorable for crop prohucli,,'.
the number Iof heavy wids anid hlot days 1, il_, relatively few. A
hot wave which occurred l.1 t in July checked temIporarily the i.. l l, h
of the more tender crops of the pr ,j'i ,I. but was not serious. A light
frost occurred on September 24, but did very little ,*i, '1,;,. C(ontinu-
ous cold weather did not li i, until unusually late, so that fall-planted
C'ops hail verY favorable ;ill" iIL. conditions.
In I i13 the total i rii,.,ilild, area of the 311 farms on the iii jt,.t
was lI0iri'12 acres. Of fliii. an area of .1!) acres w\as actually irri-
gtld. T'l 1 VC ii1 1 iii i ti td, area Iapr farm was about 16 acres. Of
the lamd ac.ttuIlly innit.,,l, an area of l,'.il acres was devoted to
,u ii.. ,rlarid-, w1\ seeded :dlIf:t. i, for giii. manure, and other
crop.p, not liiure-ted., so that the total area from which crop,- ere
larve,-std was :i..;: acres. Th1-, area was Nabout 21H)i acres less than
the ira harvested in 1912. TliO' a ,.ri:.r, farmni value per acre of all
the crops on the pr,,'j'ct was Z27.72 in 191 :;, as comIparedi w ith Q24
in 1*12. "hie :i rr'.,_'r, \ilil. and farm values tof the crops i. ,M 1n
on thp Il'jlt in 1913 are stated in Table III, the li-i'i,'- beWil oh-
tained fiiii the United States l ii,.l, ,iii ,' "i vice.


TABLE III.-Acreage, qi', lds, and farm values of crops grown on the ('matilla project
in 1913.


Firm %aluu


Alfalfa hay..............
Clover hay..............
Other hay...............
Artichokes .............
Corn ..................
Corn fodder.............
Watermelons ............ !
Frui!, small ........
Pasture ..............
Peaches ...............
Less liiphlii, r ,m-.
Average % Ilur

Ari. 1 nil uor
(acres).l yield.

2,024 Ton.....
11 Pound..
9 Ton .
56 Bu.ln-I
76 Ton.
13 l'oind..
36 (Il .
91 .dr.
3 Bushel..
87 Pound
We 11ushpl
I lIs

Per ,fr'r.
_______I Per
Total. unit of Total.
Aver- Maxi- yield.
age. mum.

R.10 O 3.96 10 1 $8.00 $64.0'0
.14 1.7 4 7.35 2.50
38 .90 2 6.00 22.%
I..S"II 163.6 800 .04 72
4, 12o. 720.0 I.1i'M .05 216
119 13.2 25 10.00 1,170
L.(0s 19.43 85 .84 914
212 2.79 8 3,75 795
139,l0uli 10,692 16,000 .075 1.042
. 22. .Il41 615 5.760 09 l.'J9J
.^,1.2u 426.6 2i.uu000 .02 77b

....... .... i .
436 145 i
I2.2 71i o
7. Ii-I -S

b. UIU 1 1122
5 13 b4

I. 1ix
4, '24

m4.07 ..
.. .27.72 . . .


Marketing conditions on the project, while somewhat better
than in 1912, were not entirely satisfactory. The first peach crop
was harvested and marketed at considerable disadvantage, owing
to its not being of sufficient size to warrant the assembling of carload
lots and to the glutted condition of local markets. Early potatoes,
which could not be disposed of in 1912, brought a fair price early
in the season of 1913, but a quick decline made it impossible to
dispose of all the crop at profitable prices. Watermelons shipped in
carload lots brought as much as three-fourths of a cent a pound. The
distance to market makes it important for fruit and vegetables to be
shipped regularly and in uniform condition, which is impossible
without a local organization to assemble and grade the products
before shipping. Such an organization could also prevent wasteful
competition between neighbors in the nearer markets.
The rapid increase in the number of dairy cattle on the project
made it possible to dispose of a large part of the 1913 crop of hay
by feeding it on the farms. The prices thus obtained were higher
than those previously received for the hay. The output of the
local creamery increased 270 per cent during the 10 months since
it began operations. A total of s3.285 pounds of butter was manu-
factured during this time and an average of 35 cents per pound
was paid for butter fat. An increased area of land was pastured
by oligs and the returns were far above the commercial value of hay
which the pastured land would have produced. The hay crop sold
out early at $6.50 to $7 in the stack and $9 to $9.50 baled and loaded

Per acre

A ver-

31. 66





ofl caki fur IIhipnlelit. The detindil fr billed lin 4 nYtiiu'd, and
the price advaInced to $11 ,o to1in ltter itn te il saon'm.
n1"1-.1) I.xr: XI -{INI -i; <. "

iTh, Iriii;il,! i Iwnes of woIrk !i1,i,_., whiti oxp\rl ircliilts w,1, vtei-
ductiitd on thl farm in ll 13 ire as folho ws: (1) T I II, t.i,.ii,' ,f fruit
variielii-. anid mI thdI <,f their l rIln i ucti

PlO 1. l.-Di-&tg of thft ni'm l~ta 1 \ ain. rit i rni a rowrno the arrr.agin nt how lltit anAId -tt
IWat on ot the J.'Primnt il 191 .

of gtIr-dtol and truck crops; :;) experuients with mietlods of i rlZi,-4iL'.
til' supply- of ,,.:,ii matter in the ,il; (4) the tr-t iui,, of a number of
greell- i1111 rI' crops and methods of lialIliii. them; (5) gr,,wi,.
nucnieroI, hard trees and shrubs to find their value for ornamental anid as wuilidblrek-; : ti0;) continued tv-tiTZL of Ilitr',,itt
irmgtiion methods. The arraiiineIcIlit 4f the lieli and thile location
of the experiments in I'1:3 are shown in figire 1.


Some valuable results have been obtained from these experiments,
and some of the more important are briefly reviewed here. The
results of these experiments are in most cases not given as final,
but as a statement of the progress so far made. The methods of
tillage have in no case been other than can be followed by any farmer
on the project.
Varit tests o te tree fruits. -The principal experiments with fruits
are tests of varieties, of which but few have as yet fruited. The
success in starting trees and their subsequent growth have varied
greatly with the diif-,rcnt, kinds.
Practically all varieties of apples have been found to be hardy
and have made a fair growth. The hardy, large-growing varieties,
such as McIntosh, Winesap, and Gravenstein, and the Transcendent
crab have grown more rapidly than others under similar conditions.
The Hyslop, Martha, and Yellow Siberian crab apples blossomed
in their fourth year, 1913, .-iowing a tendency toward early fruiting.
The growth of the pear varieties has been very slow, but was much
better in 1913 than previously. Their behavior indicates that they
require considerable time to get established when set out on new land.
Quiwnce-, have behaved much the same as pears.
The growth of prunes and plums shows a wide range of adaptability
between different varieties. The Peach plum, Sergeant (Robe de
Sergeant), Lombard, and Maynard are quite hardy and have grown
rapidly, attaining in four years a height of 6 to 10 feet. Some of the
better commercial varieties of prunes are more difficult to grow,
especially the Italian (Fellenberg) and Hungarian.
The variety test of cherries is located on a steep, south exposure.
The growth of the trees has been very slow, and several trees
have died. The sour varieties of the Duke and the Morello groups
appear to be more hardy than the sweet varieties of the Heart and
the Biggareau groups. In 1913 several varieties blossomed early
and set a large amount of fruit, which was removed to relieve the trees.
The peach, nectarine, and apricot trees are also located on a steep
south hillside where considerable grading was done in preparing the
land for irrigation. The growth of the difTe.nt varieties is fairly uni-
form, but varies somewhat because of the uneven character of the soil
resulting from grading. The average height of peach trees in their
fourth year was 43 feet. A large number of varieties blossomed in
1913 but only a few set fruit, as the blossoms were destroyed by frost
on April 23. The slow growth of these trees is to be attributed to
their exposure to the sun and wind and to the infertile soil on which
tfhv are located.
M[tlI,,,d. of planting strawberries.-To test the four common field
methods of planting strawberries, namely, the double hedgerow sys-

tm the ..iiil.. i." ,'.,,i 1;1tem, the p iiatte lr i s1-, ,, I ( h }u
Ill .-\-l,. k eIII''lh'ieum Iui s been c,,,ndu. t. d fur Ilhri1, yearIl .
Phtiie o" the ('lark (I I I' .",,,, .. ,) variet- ere pjlam ed in SIep
temlur, 19111. oil newly .. .,d. ,1 li ,1...,,, ,'r 'lL Ih tll an cre r l,,._.
pli',d by each Iethod. Table I V shIis te illniutiNr f plants (i
ech plat and th] ph hIe a yields .t I, ,,.

H1 il ,i IV ll i; tn '. .' t .ttliT i ..

_ _h ..I..... y.. .*. I . .... I ' ii 1'.i

V. A, I ,, I 1I I I I. p.Ir
]l l w ,-I' I ,'

y I O h l p e r a c r e w na s (o l ta i n ed f r om It h el d m illb , ,_, Il I l ,I ,%\ I a,l : | .,
T he hill s y-ste mi of oin..t i Mi ,-,_ is thte ios t iieco no ical to) ha mldh, as the
IlalIItS 21re kep t II apart, w hI ich fa l itates .111 ,,1i il,-:. m e n k l,.,.,in,,-
o t weeds The Smallr ll (f ph t ;) li,. % Will If fruit lln
I'tllu iI.FI

T' ie V. -i n t. i. .......... .I f .;f, i.. .mo / c t a I t
ah ant i ie.n:t ,are* attributed theh inf ertil ". .ontio, of the hso1i.
Prvli-%iVin parieties of strawu rri&s. ( f the 74 strawberry varieties
iinder t i-nl, those named in TAble \ have *zi '\\i\ thie best results.

T iH X -fi:i[- F *' 1..,,..* 1' (O/ t a fd "''" Il Idi y/U* 1 iA r j wr I f of/ni /unur ,** *'
Turids *,: aru'hrrnn st it thr t iinitdl, f. "F Idlo n i

r .. ., . .. .. 'T..
. ... . i.l
Parquon ..' .. May 1 .I
rTi, x .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ..
f11T I 1. I1n-
MI ill r F . ...... l ..... IFF
K u1i.<;i . .............. F '' J n<> :i F .. F ,
'l.l k. . ..... .. ..... .................. .. 2 ... M ay .. 2

.Alti ,iiI I far inferior in point of yield, the 4 lirk is vIl.IIl. on
account of its arlyiv maturity and superior -hipi[iiw., quality. TIi
other varieties are rather soft and inferior for marketiii_'. The Tri'...
Kaiii-As. nd Parson can be -,ippeIl -,ir.-, 0-4f1l'y to local markets.
6m'1, 11 Fi, -T.. The fi.ll.\ wi I, varieties of gooseberries were grown
in 19 13: ])ow,,ninLg. Industry, Josselyn, ()r._',i i. Pearl. SIith IVict, rii.,
amnd T~'Iou.nli ii 0Io,1L'1 i.l, alnd "iTli. red varieties, and the Victoria,
a white variety, have proved the most hardy and plroductive.


Gr(apss..-Of tih few varietin( of grapes that fruited in 1913, the
It-rditI1 is far 'u lperior, as it is a vigorous plant and produces abun-
dantlyva fruit i)f vi',yivigh quality. The Diamnoiid, Agawarm, Catawba,
('!.inj)bell, and (Concord arc promising varieties. The American
varit-ties a])|i)ar to bo well adajpttd to, the conditions on the project
glon arctiulit of late blossoming and adaptability to light soils.
Tie' quality of the fruit, is very good, being sweet and highly fla-
viiretI, anld tlhe fruit niatures early.
On account of their requiring winter prote-tion and a long warm
,'a-,on to i mature thrir fruit successfully and from their susceptibil-
ity to cro\own-g ,l, tlie Viiiftras (California grapes) are not as well
adal)tp to t, to i, ili t. a-; the Anmtrican varieties. Both do well, how-
over, and tli.-ir jinrluction should be extended.


Gnl/f-.t-,il, Ii 'i'"( ,t.-An experiment was carried on to deter-
mine 1i1, value of garden frames hi starting, tendler vegetables in the
field bfor danger of frot is )past. The exil)erimnent included egg-
plants, wat.erini'lon,., and cantaloul)pes. Half the frames were cov-
ered with burlap and the others with glass. Fresh horse manure
was J)Ut. uthder -1ome o(f the b)urlap) and glass-covered frames to fur-
nish a small amount of heat and as a fertilizer. Fifteen hills were
planted under each of the four conditions. Table VI shows in detail
the rt-sult' of thi-; ex)per'iment, and figure 2 shows, the frames placed
in tl)i' lili~l.

'IT t1 \ I I'. i.I, *. 1t b,, I,,/ ,, 'r/ / 0u, 1i"rn 1 i' i /,, l, fi l int Ei,/ p'riment Farm in
I" 'l

11\\'' T'l 'IIl1F' Vlh l rlmanure
i r.,l,'
I iui. r I iidrr 1 under i nder Iip glass l hrlap

Ninhitj r ot hlli . ,l..|..-.,i ; 6 3
ir-t rip,- friii ..... \i 1" iw 20 Sepl. 12 . ...
Nuim tt-r oM Inrii. . . . ... .. . .. ..77 33 7 0
W.- ..lrt ........ Iir 21 Itin "2 3.5 0
\ I.i-trrr tl lOrn-:
\'imh ,[ of hill- ,I-' .hl I . ". 1 9
Fir rip-,, ft'i l .. .. .. 11. h 'I I g. II July 30 Aug.3
N i m .,r of frin. . . . .. I' N Ill 17 I'
%\'.- i .... ,, Ii:. 1 4 In 131 102
t n i. l. l l.-I
N r t r ,, h ill,, i ,', l.)[...l . .1. I;7 1.1 6
Fir .I ri[,- frni .... Jill 24 .... .. July 21 July 30
Nupm lT.-r of Iriin . .. . i 12 l16
% ,il il-lI-r h-l ; ... . 32 9 0

'lite re-.iilt- (if tlii. experiment show that the covering of glass and
tlilj- ue of nmanure under the seed and plants are of distinct value.
The' cgrdlaits dlid better with the burlap covering and manure than
with the gla-- covering without manure, while tlhe melons each gave

better results uiiider t he -lI.- amitl with out ma inurre than with thet bur-
llll, t, VI '% i :mlnd Iiia tllur T iL I 1'1eSUlts 111.'* .1_'r,- (I) tli> \ Iall o f aIt
-tith.. , i.ii ali a deposit o ,f fresh manure u01 d1. hill- of Ir,'::''liiiits,
watermelons, atlnd iiilid,')',- (2) leshs marked value of manure foir

Nl naiulre ul tdter ,a:i.:l l:ii it h Ulp 11'1'l u' e of IIli-- a ,i ilailuret in
.tlrtilg thes'e crtps in the i,.i'l before ,1uiii,, ,t. frost is ]i-'t aieH'ars
to be advisabIt, or at hast worthy i f triia .
}yfI.' l, ..-T lt,', varieties of N'lilil wtn1 I,,"^tt in 191 II. This
is the third year this ,.,i, has been protIucd on tIn tIxi1rimFcnt farm.
A heavy yid. t, I f I'i o I f I . ... I quality was obtainetI. O(f the varitti'I
.rro.wn. the 11l1i.,k Beauty anld New York lipii.vetti are considered
the best, ont account of their heavier jiir, Iittion and the more uniform
..iz., alnd shape ,,f fruit. The increased demantid for this crop, which

Flo.' 2.-0fidai fri uw um's d at the t'imatila 'I:xruticnl Fa r I Il to, diterinti thi-ir value in pro-<
It'LiL 1. riT 11,r [,I Lnrl iromn frost Young plants wt prot'ct. d from Injur' against 4 1.grTvs- of froWt Iy
h tramnes.
gr1M. well onI the I, 1ii ill.: prt,'j. t. warrants more extensive produc-
tion. S0ue0 difficulty in -ifii,_ will be encountered for a liiii. but
this will be greatly diminished when it is known that good VI'.'11glint-.
are being produced in the district and markets are T-t:,l'li-hil.
Ptotaos.-The 14 varieties of potatoes -r,,wit in 1913 to drti, imine
their comparative value are the American Wondtler, Buribink. .Early
Ohio,, Farly Rose, Factor, tirevii M i., tain,. Irish Cobbler, Mechanii,,
Nettedl Gem, Peachblow (red), P,'arl. Rural, S.,1in,-i-. and I'p-to-Date.
Ti hiii.-het yielt s obtained were at the rillwiii rates per acre:
Aiii.ricin Wonder, 1112.4 bushels; Netted (Gem, I; bus-hels: Pe:rl
1216.3 bushels; and 1 F.:rly Ohlii. 116 bushels.
Ptanuls.--The viell.s of peanuts in 1913 were at theit fll,, wi rates
per :ire: African. 2,.4 bushels; Jumbo ;ln rie seed of Vii4 ..i ), 2i;
bushels; Spanish. 10.11 bushels: V:dlncii.. 10.2 bushels: aldt Vir-inia
( iryiniit l,.'l./,,. or IVrlfti;, Run nr), >S bushels. An ai'i:t yield

of peanuts in a commercial growing district is :,0 bushels per acre.
The stan(dar(l we iAt per bushel for Spani-h is 30 pounds; for Vir-
iIii:i, 22 pounds.
Tu, vid.hl of African peanuts obtained in 1913 at the experiment
farm compares favorably with the average crop yiuld in commercial
peanut-ro,\\ i i'- districts. IHowever, the cost of production is higher
on irrigated land, on account of the higher cost of land and the
giv.rtetr amount of labor required to zn'm-" the crop. The season at
Hermiston ;ipp:irs to be too short to mature a full crop of peanuts.
as has been shown in each of the three years of this test. The com-
mercial production of peanuts on the project is not feasible with the
varieties used in the Southeastern Stat'ts, but the reil t.s of the above
experiment demonstrate that they can be successfully grown on a
small scale and for home use.
Corn.-Seven varieties of corn were grown to determine their value
for grain production and for .ilage. The yields in pounds per acre
of cured grain and stover combined were at the fdlohwing rates:
Stowell's Evergreen, 5,683: Pride of the North, 5,073; Disco White
Dent, 4,146; Learnming. 2,974; Minnesota No. 13, 2,717; Stanford
White Flint, 2,593; and Minnesota No. 23, I,S91. The average yield
of the seven varieties was 3,582 pounds per acre.
All the varieties but Stowell's Evergreen were thinned, leaving two
stalks to the hill. The best combination of grain and stover pro-
duction was obtained with Pride of the North, which produce ed a
large quantity of stover and a high yield of grain. On account of its
heavy yield, it is suitable fr grain production and also for silage, as
a high percentage of grain is desirable in silage corn. From the
present knowledge of corn varieties for li-zlit soils, it appears that this
is one of the very best and that it is a very desirable variety from
which to select seed and build up strains that are better adapted to
the locality.
To determine the best and most economical method of increasing
the fertility of the soil on the project, which in its virgin condition
is very low in fertility, several experiments are being conducted.
One line of work seeks to determine the value of commercial fertili-
zers and the other to determine the rapidity with which green-manure
crops will build up the soil and increase its crop-producing power.
Commercial fertilizers.-The commercial-fertilizer experiment whi ch
is being made has not progressed far enough to warrant comparison
between the various fertilizers used. Fertilizers containing nitrogen
and oig-inic matter have stimulated the crop gro% th on the land to
which they have been applied, indicating that the addition of these
materials is of consider I l, benefit. Chemical ana l\ show that the
soils of the district are low in iiiltrog-in and' matter, and the

inIrer e in -iip I, of thIes-e miiterial c<'d Ib eIW\ected it, increase tIhee
\ii,, of r, N consistent itvcra ses i ,c,.' U il hr+v4 IaI C vIet
rI-Iulted frmn i tihe iilicntiu n of poItash or ,.I iatic fr, l. i.,-
,'r, ,,1 iw ur' ':',,, lind on a Ihicl ti wo or t lrce i w- of huiry
vetch have been Ii' ii, anI WOlow Ied u.her shiyos a markd iii,', t... -
ii tn in tih l phys ical cM l iti'of -f the soil and ill li :.,,,,ii ,,,'i,,.
power. Tile, lateral sIpread of water tlI,,,._-'h Ihe soil i mch mn l ore
rapid and extensive I I.i i'.Lii bccozuIec les1 tro( lule-'o i, fr [m tIhe
reIluceil amount of w shin- ; an I .',' I, r ., ii-lit I it i wh ich lthle
water can he h1mleo Il'. This- work dieInstriat+s (tlie lue of litIIr-
en,,u-, and ''i'rz, i' feri lii.',.-. such a. iit,- r W.,,,,.,._,, table i an ,,int,
and 1i":imiia',,ii a.i,,i-,.it,,ire cro lw, al of which produce a decided
ii|"i L- ."' in i'r',i' *_i',i", on ( ll nil ( > which tiIhey are .iiioli,'l at the ex-
periment farnmi.
lI:I'.N-M \\l RI'l: I IM Pr",.
A niimler of crops are, tried ait the e\.Teriwientl farmi to
deltertiiii' their value for 11se ats ,_'r,'.ri iii!m re to inl+rese lie fer-
tility of the soil.
(reen-manure crot.i fan ITe C ,\'' I11 a:. winter coeer crops ors nllllier
sh14le crops. When winter cover crops are .zrioii the land tican lie
devoted to a salable crop in the sumniiwr.
Three varieties of vetch 0ri r. or coununt vetch (lici'i sdtii.,
scarlet vetch (VI .', i,' /,,1 1, and hairy vetch (1 V. cd7oa --have been
tried. I'. satiwva winterkills and is not detirable for fall lVl:iliir-'.
V'. i.i.'iarii' is fairly hardy, but does not produce a. heavy a crop
as '. villosa.
( )f a lIti gv number if crops ,'ro, k %ii to determine their valu Ie for
green aiianunre, hairy vetch (VI'cia Nillosa) has been mucntl the beht.
(See Fig. 3.) It should l)e sown in .\,_''i-t or September at the rate
of 15 to 25 pounds of seed per acre. By :illWo\mi' slAi, p- of the first
crop to mature, the -.-roundi can be reseeded b s;catt.rinz the un-
thral.-iel .-e,'d-i ,,wrinL |lants over the field and waorl.iri,: themni into
the soil. By this method the annual purchase of expensive seed is
avoidehI. Th;t this method is practicable was demonstrated l b
the results obtained on the A\w.ninriilt firmi in i l1.'
Several trials have 1een made with C(anada field j1i".l one with sov
beans, and three with sweet clover. It has been demonstrated that
theo.e crop, can be L' Io"I to advant,,_',' in the -,lii',r anti summer.
Field peas should be sown early in M. rch at the rate of i p1" '"1"i
per acre. Sweet clover can be sown at :-an\ tie tihrii ,"A tIhe iri-.,tiiiv,
season at the rate ,f 2') pounds wper acre. If it i-s planted ,lu i1i1, April
or varly a. ay, a crop can be plowed under as 'i i manure at the close
of the first summl r. If the pi.Iiiiii,_r is dhne later than May, % '.,,ra-
tivoly little gri.\ tih can be obtained before the flh',i,.n \ mi..

Soy beans were tried in 1913 and promise to be a very good summer
green-manure crop. (See fig. 4.) At no time during their growth
could nodules be found on the roots, so it is probable that they will
do better if inoculated with the proper culture of bacteria.
Cimson clover has been tried in both spring and summer without
success. The fall-sown crop grew slowly for a time, but (lid not sur-
vive the winter. Spring-sown plants grew fairly well during cool
weather, but when warm weather came they soon died out, evidently
from the effect of heat, as the land was kept moist by irrigation.
A number of experiments were begun in the fall of 1913 to deter-
mine (1) the proper amount of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) seed to sow
to insure a good crop of green manure, (2) the most, desirable propor-
tions of rye and vetch seed to sow in mixtures used for cover-crop pur-

FIG. 3.-Vetch ( Vicia villosa) and rye in field Cla, Umatilla Experiment Farm, May 10, 1913, showing a
heavy growth of this mixed crop, which was sown in September, 1912.

poses, (3) the effect of sowing hairy vetch in the fall without irrigation,
and (4) the value of hairy vetch as a seed crop and whether the seed
can be successfully harvested. The results of these experiments will
not be known until the summer of 1914.
The tests of ornamental plants have shown a number of very de-
sirable individuals to be worthy of recommendation. Hydrangea
paniculata and Spiraea pro nifdi are very hardy and desirable shrubs.
Privet (Ligustrum vulgare) and Russian oleaster (ET.7agnus 7nngusti-
folia) are hardy and desirable for hedges and windbreaks. Three
varieties of T;inarix, T. gaUica, T. g9 riiml iic, and T. hiispida. are de-
sirable hardy plants which attain heirhits of 6 to 10 feet. The Ameri-
can elm ( Ulnus americana), the white or silver maple L.Act r sacchari-

nu11), and thi sycamore ('J ,m,'wi' -' cidntiu) are jr"iii Iii i._- t Ir-s fr
shade and ornamental puroes. Tie1 Rocky M iunitain silver TedIar is
a vIey attractive and apparently hardy n r,' I.-'r ,'I. The w tern yel-
1,ow pine (Plin s p'/t, rosI) and te I Scotlch pine (1. s,'jli's r; ) are
very liuriv, and _.i\ r promis-o of I-1iI.- valuable for orzamenItal and
wiilld-,.Id, purposes.
11{RI(; ITI()\ nM I.:TII1 11' 1.

('I ,idei nI Il work lhas been doi(e on the farii to determine lithe
bet methods of cL,1ii1(iii, I water in iil riil-, different crops, IIndI
observations have been mi'ade on methods in practice oI the project.
F.itui succeeding year's work on the farm alnd observations made of
irrigatntii, pract iices on the project emphasize lthe importance (1) of ,.',,irti ir t i:,ti.i fili ir \v riiiL'* iII from 100 to 200 feet in Ilil tl,,
(2) of iaki n.ii irri, .i tiiii furrows I,''iii 20 to ;i1 inches apart; (3) of

Via. 4. 1m b1a s 1 eldd 11 ( '!a I i I I xp r rini m r l i19 F, i T h I n Ir
without in-q ulii -,.n Thk* bas ann a promising s mmer crop on account of their wvvy growth andi
ih,,ir aIii m ito withstand con siderbl, drought.
using fairly sv aIow furr 1w. \\\- I opened, to facilitate the flow of
water; (4) of ruiiniii, water for but a short time in one p,i. ,. as
Losses soon occur fr IriI deep percolation; (I ) of the us'e of a small
amo1iunt of water for each irri,:;ti,,iIn since the It,,r ii, capacity of tIhe
oil i. very low; (6) of the frequent application of water to maintain
0ni ad e, uate supply for plant ,ir,-ith, as the small quantityy that it is
pos.-ihhe to store in the soil is r V iully removed by plant a, tiinii. evapo-
ration, anid percolation; (7 of using a lni,.',, stream .f water while
irrigiLt ing, to hasten the operation and diminish the 1 -. from !.,Ip
Iperolation that results from Aiiiwii,; the flow to continue too 1-'iin
in eli, phlLC. and to diminish the labor of applying thlie water; i 1,f
furrowing alfalfa fields for irrigation after each crop is harvested;
1id (0) of the use of fliim.-, concrete-lined d(it lie-,. or pipe lines for
coniveying the water to the field,. to prevent the heavy losses in the
distribuntii, of the water.

Where water is allowed to stand for a long period over porous soil,
heavy losses result. The water-litlding .il.icity of a soil and the
rapidity with which water moves tlhi,,uiglh it vIn-v with the size of
the particles c,,iiil-inig the soil. The coarser the soil the lower its
capacity to hold water, and consequently the more frequent irriga-
tion it requires. The frequency of ir'ig"iti,,i necessary for a coarse
soil varies with its ti'rlgi. caipacity, which diminishes as the size of
the particles increases.
It is recognized that one of the best methods of increasing the
productivity of the soils of the p1)rojet is to fhcd live stock on the
farms and apply the manure to the land. With this point in view, a
large number of farmers on the project have recently started in the
dairy business. To assist the settlers in this enterprise and to aid in
improving the quality of the dairy cattle, the Oregon Agricultural
Experiment Station maintained a highly bred Jersey bull at the
experiment farm in 1913. During the year free service was furnished
for 122 cows.
The staff of the farm devotes considerable time to extension work
on the IUmatilla and mneig]liring priji' t-. In 1913 a number of
lectures were given on subjects relating to the agricultural problems
of the district, and frequent trips were made over the project to inves-
tigate difficult conditions which the farmers had enc countered.
Four priining demonstrations were held diiring the year. at which
the pruning of apples, peaches, and grapes was discussed. Two of
these demonstrations were held at the experiment farm. One was
held on March 1, when the pruning of apple trees was demonstrated,
and the other on October 31, to discuss pruning and covering grapes.
Two demonstrations were held at Stainfield, the first on March 13,
when the pruning of apples and peaches was demonstrated, and the
second on November 10, when the pruning and covering of Vinifera
grapes were discussed. An experiment-station field day was held on
September 9, at which over 200 farmers were present. All the experi-
ments in progress were fully expluainMl and the results discussed. In
all, :21 farmers were brought together during the year for outside
demonstration work.
C,1i ; f of Bureau.
JUNE 3, 1914.



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