Citation
The plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst.)

Material Information

Title:
The plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst.)
Series Title:
United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Entomology. Circular
Creator:
Johnson, Fred
Girault, Alexandre Arsène ( joint author )
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
10 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Plum curculio ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
By Fred Johnson and A.A. Girault ...

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029652159 ( ALEPH )
27943288 ( OCLC )
agr06000587 ( LCCN )
Classification:
SB818 .C6 no.73 1906 ( lcc )

Full Text




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n~\ I 1c 1: II. 1.111.
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IN Iii'I i i -,\.
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aLnil Ii'i -ilto fr iti ill or'hards ta.4 of tih lq rkII :I hii ttil, fat'
Iii i h lr i\ + i l i nl l lin ~ il l ,,' i ] tf I ,nl ; i h f +li lilp t u r f k l io w n+ l it> l il t ) l l i im
ciil.,'il l,. '1"1' -,' IM'etle i" il f ml i ( i rt w il ter iit m .tI'l. Iti "0t ''e1
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lililk I ll. I i liarlelt it lalt i I er a I I i '-






>i1 t'i~l.l4 Nl.l'l-,t 7 t hI-.
fl'e'id'-. "1"1it to..."h tih- n. u lhi lte +++ pupiitda + t h t'nii r+e++,l i t Ii r Iihn t. aiii lt t>( 1
l )..il ., I l liin l t h e +.s k in tl l'*^ **** *" " *,l ,i- t',ff11 1 1" 11 .^ + t huti if ii' fl'llil. it itch" ianto a.... it tue oneil wliith n'li .rLili.
"*llivhir li k its wayl into the tl<.-li of (thi fruiit. H +'r< it f+,rils ,,'-,.,.,lyl
iili i krii',\ -' ri- ll~lv. I .,,iiii i._,., inl the r.olir-< oif ;i tfli i i ..l't. tili flit,
alird faliil,. t"ho \\rmhll so i.', Ii k1owni1 .ii, it",i, frtiiit rert ii.
"I'l'l, phuni ( a i :1tilio i+ Il iitit' of Noleih A eiciwa 'nl f th- lieil thrill
O hilndri'el ind Ii1"1\ yepi lias Iw ktio\i fs atn clit iyof *'toi
f1'rilil-. I )iir nearly holti{ 'lltliril liter'atiilm ihtotind< with i rcf +iciKl+ + lto
it.- ,ilr r.,l.,t mi,, -. In lm orpl{ livcrtnit tilles thne ....,', i ilin'lti~i- i l i .| ,l lul,"-
oif fl'iili-. 1,rriL',,l, il ailwIt to suppl y tin* ihe illcrlcsiiscl t, in ,.l, hli+i p<+i+-
mittwl it to lIctompn Anie iire' i iii i-+ illtltllt |hllsi t',,iil,, 11 .. siinll tihe p~inin
r.,r', ,,tl,> t~tliistitliltt', at tih1 i*,.-,.iil tiime olie ,,f the imo-i s4'rioli+
in-~<, i ellen itii+ of ,',-i.iuI.i ,1 i -i'i-
Tlli i- r-1,,. i,. "ii, Ili,. :,ii,-i .il1+y ,li -[ ri1 nil ,,,, over thie I "i 'l, *'t, H.t.-- east1
witrl of about+ the one? i ,iitlr,,,Il, nimlridian., it?< 1.r.,.i'' e.x(. i,.Iii,,: froml
-,un(|i'riii ('.il~idi.i to I[,*'[oid,i alid Tea.Wswad"'tie.+~i-
2.-Si4-\,.> 7 ;-,i7 u








Ibordei III, tihe Mississippi River it rapidly loses its inuporta iie a-
ia pest,. owNinIg probably to the more 1rid .,iiiili, of the cliniail.

LI1''K HISTORY AND HiABITS.

Like other beetlh-, the plum ciireulio has four distinct -la_,e- iII it,
life. Inamiely, the _'.J'. the larva or wo ,m.'" the putipa, and till, ;iduiiIt o,
beetle. 'Thle last three stages are shown imich ,i il:i r',ed in ti'urii, 1.
The insect p)asse:; tlie winter in the adult or beetle .aw'a', under a'ii-
inilations of partly decayed leaves, ;uii'u- the closely plmked1 dlridl
,:,-' of sod-covered orchards, 'Ind probably wherever suitable Iproltec-
tion from thlie weather miay be found. As its dp,,i-i,,li ,ii, are u-i ll"
tlie worst in those portions of orchards which are in close pro11Illlit \
to woods, tlie lweetles doubtless find the natural accuminulations o, if rulb-
bish in such sit at ionlls very suitable places in which to pass the w it er.
In Ni:ia;ra Counity, N. Y.. duriL, I lie
flSl of num e' llitnierolus careful searicl.- for
b-etles were made under leaves 11and 1 ,ihubbil-
in pliumni, peach, and apple orcliari- 'lld
woodlots and l _,,i.rrws -d iiii, tli.m.
;,,-J 1liese searches did not discover any Inier-
-- :, i,. ii,,_," lI)eetles except in onle :i, .' app!))! ,'-
~:"i-. cliard ( where the ground \\vas covered %%iii
:".. .'-. sod. Failure to find beetles in other place-.
/ /.... was probably due to the scarcity of ili in-
-.-- sect in p)lumi and peach orchards ,1ii 1ii1.'1 liet
\ *'. *::'. ,.::i-^",?' i,, re .,.,.,m mer. Ill the s,, i -, 'i
... "', i- tiple orchard iiiitiiiiiln a total of -12
'. I1!b )eetles was found at various tim ies t.t \\eii
-a.. ()October 14 and. November ",'. In evll i
case tiley were beneath pl,.rilv de(,.;IvelI
F. 2.-'h1c plum curcnulio: Adult leaves under apple trees and often ill d,'-
.ce nu pliinu, 1uoxiowigl t tl efir- ,1 i* i ,
ufemaler fimg i, mn, ntuh and their- p'ressiols in thle soil into which the lIa'e-
cublr feeding plllnctutr*,anlld the
crescentic egg-lyins ingct ures. were closely packed.
Enlarged originala. In the spring, when the fruit buiil- are
unfolding, the beetles b)eg'in to emerge from their winter ijiiartcr-
and feed to some extent oil tihe lblossomis and tender leaves. M iiiti
sooli begiils, a'nd 1bv thle limlie thle fruit is well set the beetles make tl i-
lfru-lit thlie chief object of their attention. Figure :2 is anll ei,1 r' .edI
illmtstraition of ;i "oun1 plum, show li, a female beetle 'iild the chliar-
acteristic feeding ait d c_,,t-liaiii ilpntres which she hat- 6-,eli
.nm'i aged. witli others, in iilol,,. The circular punctures are iumade
in f eed i'-i- : tlie others are i,., l)iictuln res.
A -iL,'- ,._L, is deposited in a 1ipunctuire, alltllmin'.li several lnlnv be
placed in a -iiiL' fruit. From onlle to eight l;,- may be dlepo-iledl
daily by all individual female. (O)viposition aMnd fi','iii, collilliet
I C'ir. 1 7








O r,, P% mril Wec,, aHIn iltl h Vl e Ulf 11 l- iniA r iVA dividuIA l.- limly
Icxthlmd ovr l u I" iVA "l f w+wUTwl I -+ l +'- '-' "Pi\',r-' 1a+ llo\rUir.
Hin"wit a I ive o ii ,I' 1 lit ir6 1i+ou or' li s, 14' 0- after ,,.r-!.I I .. ofI I I
,,.,.h-1 in -1.1 i ,_
1)111 hlI .'' i''tt" l 33'1- [I -2l.i. i ,-' 3 '-In rtro l 'or tli nvi'A Q, mii h 333 11 1 i
wi,, h el s'e rated 1 h,':IIl i.-. -,IK lx thai dI lional !"ii h oI :.'" IYi=..
ited I tli, 1s'i in' ih v% li -. \iA bI. 1 I M l; In +l r li l'r, l'-, Ir (Q ;,iu
tat~tl an1d M r. 11.1.1 S ith fiiiid lilt tll, n ilr hl| ,t-iitft| 1 |!li i ll i
1>\ f,.iii.,l,++- + f I-,0i=,, -i lifeV v1,11-5 l from *7i' l< I A t \ ;i.ti:,..t, I). (1. tIh jHiWKi r :iuIl ir thl rii..' tIl' li. -ta. Ii l;3iir'Il rw,,3' l. 4i>
ii l l,-i ili ,., ii jln !- w hi iii? ;! xiv tM r I -j. i' frox o T' 0 'i< i Ail. A
i,. i iin ', f ,. '. I .... il 1011 in |l nl ni, \\i- ;i i. ; '| 3 ii1i; hl 13\ l< o ii ill: or
in M I ttt i (If\ WrL I il ). K'. 1 t11 1' i 3-.i~1 i1 iill tliit h li N ,i ;i
qi~i'L -' "x fi3'1'iii'. T33 xxX'-(o &'3'3i ." \h 'Ir 33 x '|; ill Illiloi: o lI33inedI
li lords fi r i) l l i ih- n i L', ri.. I ". nf flr ii I- to 2.7,2 f6 r i lli'viln 3l-
,tf I t 1 i 1 I1 1 1 11 i1'. 1 311 3 11131) 1 1'4 11 Of A +- jiwl',,'r th r, '_'- m, hli1'h
\;U'uii'- ll ia i Il, tio t tell I ,,ri t': li "'m iw wd il m l f'r i 113' t-h tIo Iwl hA
that ik t W .,1-l ii,.l i i. I ('.. iht' iLi i\t w 'Iri 11; ii \i'I t'r\ ip i l N3w 11 3l i' t \ .1i aI1I t il moi f""3 r tIl

\Vlii. I tit, hitlil \ itiill 't's f ll _.f .,1 1 1i which req'ul'ir1Io .',i,1' IM A> t Iv<
Ato it., lt.,n tilyt it l.rv its MI;t ,f l of I'la Hliu 1it al"I wtila'rI lh 3 oi3l.
At ;I depth V\ir\il,,-' firoin oll IO lf i"cli to v, imi .l r;irl+ v ui,
ih.,l.r.i it ft'r, i!- a" tarthmli Acll in wlhielh it, [p ila w I i i hnr
m illirel f',i tIV, imp;ll st.,.- :ul lh A vinr'pHretr -of ti<" iiormi llvX
,-i>|,,r'.,l lvith, is from lhrm- to four w Ak-+ Thp+- thn- |,'riol Nof dvcl-
OIpmncllt f'illi ,L_'j to adlllf is covert! in Mrini .bnt l iv<- to, -vni
w eek,. i1llr,. n',. i, %\ ,illwt. :-lIn l S- il ctlli litioll llh OW\ 1Ihv tillie ,,1" ,1 .rT-, i .' of htli' wd ll- tw vir'V 11"vaily. '"Alimli t1". -oil
is \,rt i ll i. t lithls1 "I h li"l- tI I l'ilt 'l tn i I UIw l l II,113 14vi \Jj 1 1r 1 otl t
wO kls rl'i,,r lh: ir ii il liii lof ,.1 i_.i. llic .i iftr 1i i ivY
rtail they nili ,ii,.r-_',.in in linili 'l T'I ;I i not\ -kf iol'r lioli Orf I le I(s
frl ii T 11,- ,,1' ....ii'd c in l ii- h ;ih l pi i ) m ll';tr1 1oiil 1 ti1l"t' h -f si'n- ll
the |';i nt Ihvetics lhiv dliod. Inl t+;i t. 1`f t*,111 il o n'X i it iii,., IM*!*-
the- hlive I'ic li kl|t ;Iliv i!iltil Lit(e il O ctolier.
I' i 'l- i ,l '.L','li, ,' fl'nin i thie -oil. Invilt- or tihe new Iri ..tio1 :ililmost
inimni iilitlN h im tlih ir atientl in wo iJ,- illicrcd i'lhint, if this IMw jHiet"-
c+lit o( tilt, tire ". In (wc.kr.ii p ci,:l o-'hlilirl-. ;1> ,ol>rlved lY M r. .1. II.
h'r;iIli, ,,f ili It I nrllvl il. Ilit, lh t'te l ;li ittII k tIl!' f,,ti i_'' i to In c -ftl- \\ ho o
the 'lii 1 hts i himrv -tld. |L lilncs. p|inidiH ;ind p<';iflics" ofln -lf-
fl.r severely, \ l.id the injliry iN fanili!i to llW, ma i<'<'liliist- as tlid
c'ir'iila.r pl tlin rtliu r-s allid llt, nialih it ili- iill Ad of I frliitsi, call!-
ill th lattr t< rot and drot ilii, ftow daFlit I: forp Iili:i i,,_. TThe,
work 1-f tilt, new -I.liir ilioni of tlie = 0ii 40ilio i-" olslpi o s on hite
varieties olf ;ippl'- &Alo the Wietle, f'',.,lin,-L lpoi ilitese iti l tlhe
I t'll 7:111








appr(i:,li of cold weather, when they leave the trees and seek winter
,11:, rters. In orchards where sod and other conditions permit tihe
acc.imulation of leaves and rubbish directly beneath the tree, naniN,
beetles simply go to the grii,. work beneath the leaves, and thliere
pass the winter, and are thus near at hand to attack the fruit when
it develops the following .pring.
FOOD) PLANTS.
Tli natural food plant of the plum curculio is undoubtedly tlhe
native wild plunt. Tfi. curculio also feeds upon and breed, in wild
cr::il;iil h"., wild cherries, and ],;\., and is reported to breed in the
persimmon. It has also been bred from a common fimngous growth of
plums and cherries called "black-knot" (Pi',,i '.,htia I,,,l.bo.ii
Sacc.), though this is evidently an abnormal habit. Of tlie clti-
vated pome and stone fruits, nearly all are attacked for feel lIing and
q.,_,.,_-l.'hivin 1p 'p,,,-,-. inIltlding plum s, ,n'.l .-. c'rrie-. iie.t..rine,.
apricots, apples, and i pcari. but of those listed the oiiiotlh--,kiin1ed
sorts, notably p)lums, are preferred. The beetle I',cd- also iipoi tlhe
blossoms and fli.i.r of its various, food
-. plants, but to a much more limited
extent.
CHARACTER OF INJU1'RY.
SThe plum curculio is iiijmiriou, in both
Sthe larval and adult -taue.. though it is
S1 in the adult -aige that it is m(,ot harm-
.. il fl. The oullng fruit become-. badlv
L scarred by the more or less tr,-centic
.-'-" punctutires and pit-like feeding
-_ '_.. ... lpncturies, and in late summer ..iul fall
FiR;. 3-Nearly fuill-grown larva of the fruit is iljir,.d by the fe,,lin,,gr iif Ibeetles
plum (curcilio in a ripe peach, show- of the new generation. The pnr-eiwe of
ii!g injury to the intt-rior of the fruit. the larva in the vo i fruit
Somewhat reduced (original). th l in the ollll frit .rllv
causes it to fall, and in cherries aind
nearly ripe peaches and plums in which it may dhchlop the, fruit i-,
spoiled. (See figure 3, showing injury of this character to a ,ripe
peachli.) 'h, character of injury varies somewhat :aci,'rdiiiLT to tle
kind of fruit, and for this reason is best discussed under -eparate
head,1 Ii -.
Pltum.-ThIe plum is undoubtedly the favorite food of thil- insect
and ;iirm-iiidi 1gy suffers severe injury when the curculio is aundlanlt.
Eggs are deposited in the vy ii' ,, fruit, aind this may soon fall to the
r,4iii,. a result of injury caused by the wiiiug larvaw. In sea-,oin. of
short crops very little fruit may remain to ripen. Witli varietie.,
which are inclined to overbear in seasons of very heavy ,ro.- how-
ever, this kind of work may result in much god in thinning the
[Cir. 731









crop. As the ',iiI i I Ibeco l, i _'.. I tin. int ilv _'- anli, f'1,- 111 L 1 1uIt
tures which it has 1 .r.eiv.1 l cakalo il to I Hcuii, mn .iM.hapmci al <> I" Axudh
IIlI; '-, '- oIf L_.I I \' 'l thIe Illl'l II IIC uu'I of -+ t 'HC lIz ;l ld ;M ae .' n ,'.'
i11-- l'riplld l\ f, Ih larI se aI; rl ;I|r | 11 1l ,l ;ildl 11) d, ,-h1 |.. I but hurt en
tin If'ruiil is I+ lear itl C'i 'ni\ joItvr l Ife r \ o rn lwbitt'er adI tlo ur% ive.
;iLI thus ri'i|' fruit on thin tr1e1 i ,fte-n, "" t ovl'u ." I- r. ain 1" 1 l io 6 0li
it-, laIte \a;rietit's :a1' '-1 11'mn ti iun'H IMa liY ii ju I l l'feI h li,.ii ... pu1, cltulrest
(if lhit new I...,.r,, 'ti t' of .ulillt".
Ai l r~pk I '11. il",, injury t, tiho Ai l, hvis l ,tely l 11 1H t-' ca )e of
,.,,i-i 'lr.lil, (. c h|livint. It iV nmeit like thl;t ,lb i,+ t; (}n- plum .
tliiiirli the %, in'n fruit i- not w, likeii y ,I fall t, tlOne i. ', .I wheni
Il,,,ii ,',',l, ami ti l l I+'W a1, w ar l >v;ltly lu vdr vll, td no m"Itir ie in 1"11
, x rl'rli le lills +"n tihl tiw T hI p .iii,._ fruit Ii;l y la (int u,,i\
Ill- '.- inc'tulr', wh h \iNic li st ow hAit the ripe fM|il a- a lhroxr i ani
I., _hIn1 'I I-I l nI I rI ofr w. t l- cI sc tltic s-pot wlIich ( Ilo t no I nIIIt',i; lly
iatif-i its valut: hut whei n baIdly 0inctnurd. >p1utci;illy by f ieedtini of
flie hetl's-. [t'e fruit a;s it roxw l'toecolleC knottltd ,ii;d pitledI. Faill
and wilted varictis nvii Ie eriously injure ld Iby I the feeding 111por
the friiiii of bt'etles if the Iew .. Ir.i'. .,it I.
I'em h. -O(n ) 'tIlount of the thick fuzzy pllbesceicc oil hle -\,111 ,'
]itea'ii. this fruit is IM''lliI)ps aittaIckctI less eaIrly tlian is the ItlIuni, lut
th,, character if' the injury is essentially the sniti,. Miin\ fMa ll f ,H tI,
g,,lll, ll 'IIlo-,' Ioll il i ll,- O l e trels, if I (lld \ ulI 'tlic t ,l. l('le(
knotty and ,ii--li.ii',n a:,nd often exude niises of L-',ii frm tlie
"'voun ds, IsSnll fr'uii H ,,will su*| ri|en pOreKmaturd, ly+ipe fruit
which appeawrs- perfectly sound, but whii it'ltlins lieni'rl fiii-g-lroV\I
l.'rv,., is ,firn fiiiii I on the trees. To all a;lpptilra;lnles s-lili fruit is
in tir--'.l-s condition and is thus of'ten shipped to market.
1 A. ,.- In ll .nost ':-ts- infes-ted chiterrites do not faill to tilte' Ii, l.
thl larva* iii;lnirii-1' ill thle fi I on i tie trees'-. IU'siillv but al '-i i l'.
laIrv~a is fI'nd in a hubi. and iniestatiom is apt ti to h undetctel.
A't,, ;.,.: +.d ul iu'/.'th..-lhese +e usually injureli inmuch the same
W: iV as are 1)lum a11d peach. Isoated trees iadelt with a apricots are
ofl.n01 so badly infestedt that not a -i'''l, fruit esc-:Ies.
P/'r.. ( ',iil,'l ,i, larv a1 a ;iip.ll i t I e tly n ii ;ii'e ito develoil il l'ril
on the trees hen'e iin r\ is continued to tlhe, andti fediiii,_, punctures
made Iy tihe .1.Iult. when the 1ars11 are small. In fruit which does
not faill the injury may I) quite ',IlinII, liut in tases of excessive
Iu'rt'iirini,. the frui is b hadlv .,'' .
N AT1"* R AL ENE MI1ES.

I 'der hi tlhe head of natural enemies it r, to I t1 mentioned sverai
Im':-itr'- ,f the ptoi 'urcl'ilio Mi hili pilay a v\ery imlpojrtal1 t Irole in
Ildii..ii, the insect in check. I'.rl,.ip- tle mott iimportat oif thes-e is
a minute hymenoipteron-s inset I,,,i,,ii.iL- to the family MxI ,I:irida'.
LClr 73 1








,,\,ll,.lr l l ;itt. i,',- tlill. ^. ._. :,illJ l ti l ij i ll,' I;l l l 'r 1 ;| 1 1| ':| ',.n | | ',,e l | Ip l'-D
i 1' -'kl il l l ,, iIr t llI .ii ,,f Il||, fl iil. Tr ill- ili-c'' i- \ -i\\ l\\ II I- % 11% -1'1 i -
iilit lit I A I l 1111 l I ,. i I I ... iI, ,i II i i n. I a-\i\ I t i; l1( \\ k |ii \\ i ,I 4 l ) llll
ili 4; Jai rriii. orlli t'hi' lium i. Vr lli io ii. a il'\(lr a l. til'c l)i-rri't oi f ( -
Ilillllli K 1 R il fl \. ('IT h I W ill T' \, ;li I ir li I r TI '.c- ilI.V. h alin i.
;lj> ;i rl l ~l 1\. |lil ,l ll .i ,ill l l lit.i\,r ili- fir lit igiie t. i a "l"-i'o\- I t ;'\liiI f'e i r I a a ite 70 per
rie ll f t,, ,',,r :llt rI ,- I l iv l',- ',-1 I il .(lllilt \\;i el- i-l1\ lili_ Ile 1 .
-,\,>.rtll L', lir lt.ii,,l- ,,f I li tl- I hll 1-il ,, n -lii, ,--tfi' ll I ,v ll t \ -. l | il t |
i t,, o' nf ,,t" Io li ) l.o .i' l- ili4,r ,;4-- 1, I il. 11 .lii c.li V..
'IFli. ull- l ,'r pi,, i-h .- ,iltl ill lil I'li \ i u i'rll- TI'liev alle .','; //,Di .,
*o ,,, ,, 1,i',,; "itfli :ith ,1 it. :i i'de I i,,f,,, Iof ]lo\r ;it i 't I a n the ,,,i l i .i ,,i,, ,-










7.




^ A-^^^ ?.-^ .^"-'---- 7-" -^
7t^ < ~ ---- --- ---- ;- = -
^^^y ---- _"__ _----_ -___... -,.-.



Flt 4.e-Jarring for t hepl curcii-ito in a eorgia i or a rir-, inal..
h",uf-b:i Rile*. 'it- former is of much more importance than (lit-
fatter because of its greater abumiandlce. It is ta common parasite tof
severall ot(lhe r tcoleopterous larva and is quite widely di-tribtheil.
Limnited observations indicate that this parasite dlito about 21) per
cent of tlhe olavw of the plm)hnn curculio. T), rlOo.hs. eo1notr1acheli lins
not beell met with outside of New York Stait.. and the infllviiei it
exerts in keeping down the curculio is perhaps very slvll.
Besides tlie true parasites several predaceous beelehll and anitsl attack
and destroy the curculio larvav as they leave the fruit to enter the soil
for jiip;ulltion. Their value in most cases does not equal tliat of the
parasites.
I 'Ir. 7:i1








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Vl T b*. 'll f -t fil~l-l' its i ts jarrinl ri tn'|liii u rihn frr Snsrli il
fili.r" i,| tIjii- Ilaijllm |iji", |(.Sj S1 (ISS l i l|>('j in I fls l I 'l l'0t l-" 01 *-"ip'leI"w liii
Ior -)ir il I.. il li li tre thi Irev- 'f 111 j-i: vx oI --t lc. fIr
Cih)1* IMow~ -trndis w itlt i a si)i~'l pls'< sMir Iiniahll't ill (srdlr 1' dl'n's'
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lIn the ti ll,2'. ahiont tin til\te 4'I or -lin 1;111 l l.rii to
sl.ip ill fruiui (iii' ni'wl -.'i fruit. J~i 1i ..1' i-' *'( IiIiiis'irl ''.Iaii l i'- s'mi
tinued daily ora- s;i viias hi' ic r w ill p Irflu for ; |erriolil (of
four .)I tfit, o\ek- r until the 10x'niinii r''i-"'' to 'ii itiiiiv ilt'It'-.
111(1 ilt, 1i10 s lo0 e ii thi' eIrIll iI ii,'e. 'rop r l teI' i' i' v fo, ;at thI s'-s'
tin. the \tIs' ar l Is I -t"i' (ri i n' sli ami1 ;mI' lnt t
I l eikr to tec~|'a jw lv lb 111 or s'f Mli Ii i I sili ii th le s'?"- a-' they a !i'<' a
Illiddai
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There are several kinid-, of catchers in common use li- or.lhardii.t-.
One form is shown in figii-r. 4 and consists of a 1iglit framework l
feet long b)y 5 feet wide, over which a canvas is stretched. The jar-
rilgr gaglir consists of live persons. Two of thie frames- of the dimen-
sions giri_,i are used together, each frame I.hig carried by a couple
of women or 6,% V. as shown in the figiiri. One frame is held on eah
side of the tree, while the fifth member of the :...r, who carrie- a
loiig.-,liiidled padded pole, gives the trunk of the tree a -harp.
forcible blow. With this outfit a l,-ge. number of trees mia:v bIe
jarred in a very short time. It is therefore especially suitable for
work on a large scale. 'lle. curculios which fall to the iheet- are
collected and destroyed when the end of the row is rI;' l.1. and hie
beneficial insects, principally l..dlidli, are allowed to ePcape.
Where jarring on a smaller scale is d,-ired. sheets canl be muadc of a
size to be easily handled by one man. For this purpose frames 9 feet
by 4 feet are convenient and will answer for moderately sized Ipeailh.
p1 ,im. and cherry trees.
Another catcher which is in common ii-,. especially by the ptlum
grower of western New York (see fi.,ur re 5), is a two-wlieeled cart
upon which is mounted a canvas c',,.rig arrai'r:t,,d in the form of an
inverted umbrella. There is a narrow ope iingi at the front to receivee
the trunk of the tree. When the catcher is in p1,,iliii. the trunk of
the tree is given a sharp blow. This causes the beetles to drop to the
canvas, from which they are swept into the tin receptacle. or hop-
per," lia going under the center of the cart directly beneath an opening
in the canvas. Some operators place kerosene in the "hopper" to
destroy the insects as soon as they fall into it. Others have chestnut
roasters placed at the end of the rows, in which the insects and rubbish
collected in the hopper are finally roasted.
Although the operations just described are somewhat laborious and
expensive, many orchardists have demonstrated li.ilt the outlay in
time and money thus invested will 1,riiu profitable returns. Some
iitet-n'-tii.g fi,,res conceIningii- the cost of and results from thi-. work
as practiced in a Georgia orchard were obtained by M.'.rs. M.
Scott and W. F. Fiske during the season of 1!'10 and pimbli-lied in
Bulletin No. 31, new -eri.-. of this Bureau. Some .l.110O bearing
peach and 50,000 bearing plumn trees were jarred about 16 time,
during the period from April 18 to June 1. Eleven ga nig-, or .)
hands, with 5 atli -idiaiit. were cni.gaged in the work. Tin, ,tal cw ost
for labor and repairs was placed at about $1,000. The number of
curculios cauglit dlirnig the season was estimated at a.l),u t 1;7I,000.
On the assumption that one-half of these were fiimale., each capable
of Li'iiig 200 egg-. it will be seen that '".i.in r Igg. less those
deposited by the beetles before capture, were kept from the fruit.
Tle amount of curculio diimaigie in this orchard for the season was
[Cir. 73]








ilINedI I a 1t i 14 peI r rent of 1 ih cropo. li ain idjairnd oIrcad :0 of
l:',II.(HIU peach treesi not jarzred l curulio injury was pd ucla e at I,, per
fr.ii tlf (th crop.
/I'eLjo;. It IMas Iiniis Iee n kn that til l6utlc. fhd, on ih p i, t h
il,,,n w hi ch ii ,,.r \ hlay their >' ,i^ irI num erout- d~iref'ul eXlperim entt"
i \, s ilow l that they ma l i. 1 ,, lly tIl, ],,,,-'li lh sp a\iii,- (te

Ir,-i withi arsenicals. The rnilt ,i osuch worlk. h .0+ver, appear to
V:II \' lin,'\ Ii.il. ihl 'p < li 'i ,, a ,_i M ,1 's c s o il + M al i ,n -hrr l i -i-ti t lI Hn !i~ lo [)( c ~ l ( I H ) >r u 'ir t e<
iif -pra\ iii,_1 AI' ll h curculio in lar ci fhm to jQn i, H,. ,n ;ncouni o,' Thli
l:,l14 i n olved in the hiler a11 l lhn!,. ,l' i. wtit l thic ll, 0h 1york
niii.t I repetn' eltl to iaiike it .ll'e'rti+v. l'rAl'ct) r ('riMhii l. in Illi.
mn1i'." has "hown thilat 1ilrilio injury to allhs liilm I. tlw tlh I swoi
1oil 0 I r c nt I" !I rcIm I"lA lo"Ohild l ll lilKber of pl 'ison a 'lici.tiuns-I 'I I,,
F't..l ,,' jierisistent s-H'a iti,-. lv viii Lhruists in w.'I.tcrn New York
ait' i't forth h' Prfssor Sli&i,.,rl.1,.l in lwullhtin No. h235. of the ( or
nIll Experiin!tt nation. It is hinre sAialet that the i- in,, are
Milniost all in f.ivor of |rimavir_' for thine 1rilit,. .lccially l)mon |lunis
n 111111herri. 'lI,, excit value of sictiical in conl rolling theO cur-
rnlio on pt'lv hl as Ih al|iircntl not yet been thtter inedll 1. tl,,,n.il, tli.re
lr't numerous ,lr'i" ,l \vii -|.'ly theil" peach trlc, rvery yrir and
'I~~~: I4, f111 E l' yEl I wI Vi hi. Ii t It i j t It i 1I 'I)(: 1 n veal' a m
U'loi l .'_nil I'esilt-. Thi' foli:i,-,, of penach is. likely ,, le i ij, ,.l.
I1lm\Vter y r,,'tp.ii, apuHicationt of airsenical )lriy,. and thfn 'I'e -I,,.
i-i1i, the:' sprays for tile tirst time -'ioult l>rocdte with ciu ll tionl. In
lihi.lities wh lere it has Ieen e-stalilisld, tlhat no injury resultsI from Hiluit
wiw. they are to Ie recoiiiiithnded. ()tlher stone i nits. \w hi liable to
foli:,a', inijury from repeated aplicitions o-f arsenicrls, are alppar-
iVlly n0ot aO -s.r i' 1 is tl- t i .pi'li. Ihn carv hiouil Iu takrn aIt :all
times that t16 poison Wh used a;- rlcommntodhl l60h",+ Applh aind
p;I'n le rarely if ever. i ijuminre In thie proper une of atinicalhj. ()f
(Ihe loisons aivaihtlh., stchll a : a is -re.t"" li ,' Iii a1r'tqlolid" and
:1r-nate of lead, hlie latter is ast likely t ih e injurious- anti s-hoihil
hIe uield w hIere stole ',iii- are to e treated. Lialbilitv to injury from
>r-.ii ,f il-,' spray tilhe Iilk of ulite nlaath slac lii,.' "2 or tt p lllns of zo....
l.tle l imtle. "W here Il'tt'dea \x mixture is el ij, ,, i : 'il" i :t sc ;d l and
oiler funll',l-i diseass- thie arsenicahl mIy lt I t'1.ed in tlie rlt fu i.' iil..
anMl the milkl of lime i- tIhen unnecesary. T,, lle v eaonalh iIT. jti\e
in killiml li tie beetle, ar-sellatIe f lead -h4uhol he usl'' at tlie rate of 2
po4,und1, to *:i ; ':Ill, t'i water. Iaris i i T or 1reen a1rsen+id should
10t. 011 stone fruiits, lI used .-lii, :,i, tI ti 1 p1io d to Ih, or o 'w -I \'
Iots-+ t water. (0 pIonie fruits a momlw hat i-.ler -tl,.-mL'iih mav lIe
i-1el without d'h v,,i llr" of inii i to tit fo i.i._', .

SB Il "7 III ri Xp. ip..:
[Cir.T3]+








Since lthe period of fI..li hig and ,..g la% iiig of the curculio exteund-
over several weeks from its ,rii'*r,.I' in -"iri-g. several applicat ion, of
poison are nIc.essary. 1 I1' first application should be mad(le as o i, a-
the blossoms have fallen, and three or four subsequent application-
should be made at intervals of tighlt to ten (day-. In the case of appl,
the usual two applications for the ,idling, moth or canker-\\i ,1i -" jili.t
after petals fall and again within a week or tenll days-will answer fir
the first two applications against the curculio. Iln -p'ia- il g for the cr-
cliio, too muchi stress can not be laid on the importance of liakia g tli-
applications as tlimtilogli as possible. The effort should be madie 14,
cover every leaf, twi,,. and fruit.
(il,/t''it',io.-Another vulnerable period in the life of the insect i-.
that when the larva has reached its _,i \wth and has passed into the soil.
At a distance varying from one-half to 2 inches from the surface t lie
larva makes a small earthen cell in which to ii its transfornim-
tion to the pupa, aild. later, to the adult beetle. WVhile these ,haing-
are tlakiiL, place the insect is in a perfectly helpless co,,,dliti,i. and tlie
stiiiil,- of the soil with a cultivator at this period will doubtle--
l)reak uill) the cells, ,ii.-in"g the death of many of the delicate pupal.
Since cultivation is a necessary feature of orchard practice. eff'ri
should be made to carry on a part of it at a period when a majority
of tlie insects are easily destroyed. Careful observations show that in
the vicinity of Wa-fiiiglt,i,. D. C., and southward the larvae begin to
enter the soil about six weeks from the time fruit trees are in full
bloom. In Illinois, according to Professor Crandall, about two
months elapse between the period of full bloom altd the date at which
larval begin to enter the soil. Since the period of maximum egg hlay-
ing" covers from four to five weeks, there is a like ,eriod1 when tile
pupae are in the soil in maximum numbers. Cultivations to destroy
the curculio should therefore lI.gii six or eiglh weeks, according to
latitude, from the time of full bloom of the trees and should be coiln-
tinued for four or five weeks. Such work could be readily arra'ige I
for as part of the regular cultivation given the orchard.
(/,, I,;/ ,i; fallen, fiwt.-The number of curculios can be great y
reduced by piikiii-, up and destroyiiig the fallen fruit ilife-.ted with
larvaw. 'Much of the infested fruit falls to the ground several dlav
before the larva is full nwI.,1 and ready to leave it. If this be gath-
ered and- burned, at intervals of three or four davy. it will result in
greatly lessening the number of beetles to attack the fruit in the fall
and follow illg spring.
Approved
JAMEKs \WlsoN.
m' cr'tn'i/ of0. 1 Jt ';culti'e.
VASHINGTON. I). C., Alprl 14, 19,G.
[Cir. 731







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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