The most important step in the control of the boll weevil


Material Information

The most important step in the control of the boll weevil
Physical Description:
Hunter, W. D ( Walter David ), 1875-1925
Gov't. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29651472
oclc - 27941677
System ID:

Full Text
99 F: '7 'i

1 -* n^ -'
Cineui.a*n No 9S Riva, I's i it k*' "A. l .A I ,
United Smt:rtiii v.

liiBRl-AU OF" I:N ['OOIii -1
L. k) l 'll h.,! r ,.1 j.' I I ,. I! '.j-. M

THIE iMOST'' IIPIt'I'.NT STE1:1 \ Till: OV1 ,; )i, O l TilE:

!! I,. li t. 1.

Datiliv k. d kd h. pr li I ]- i ; .
.Jnl, (' i,., .i ,, ', o,.** It ",i ./ /. ,'. e i,. /i, /i,.,* e m l.,., *.
[)rt ll]i ,l,.,' I.,.v lr tl,,,, I, ,] ,,,, i, ,_] nlrn11..' lI in, ] r', -, n lt -.,. .I-,, (I I's4', I i ,rii,
v ery p u k-. lia r ffl iitt [', l i [ Ill 1 Ill -... i i.i,.r,, t1l 1.l 111 I LI ,1t.,l iJ111,.- r1.l
nreal the d all l.; Ik tlij.< ,; I l, i- I, n .- ,l, '.,l '\ h .-- li., 1.,rint.i].
This aitutltiml n .i- *'.li'-'1.l priir i'.il 1v k r'i \-, :, .1,,!,i i11 l li! i t li ii-
dlitiOnA i ti i l' l '+I '.I ]i,'l ,I 1 . i'I -, 11!. I rf ,I #lIl,,' r-. 'i \' ,', i]-
that Mpas e'dl tll Ir 'l-1I Ili'' il',' r. .\ .... i''' ,ii Ir ,',"Ili .i, ll- i ,,i l
( x ten d tl O ,w :!!>,.rll i.Lill- 1 t ],,' \\ ,, .,%-%il ,d-' 'i i. till'- '', ',-
h e e n c uit v e ry si ,m :i 1 L",i l,, rn I... ;I'" .,." i ',, I'. I .- :J,%,| I +,,t -!-i'ij in.
W ith n O r ill' t -q.,,l ,ilj[ ;,;- ,] i ri ,..' h il ., 1 Ill|, .; _- I' i,i :' i ,' ;,,l ,.r t ll,' \\ i. \ !
problem w ilv l ll' ;- -' ,i' r I, ;\,,\} .. ;i \% ,., .,- ,- I ti.F I.. n in Il.,.
Bouthern rv",i,,i, Iuiiiiin Ill,' !i', I,! i. i-.,':. 11 i 1 1 i 1 il:iir If ,iijis 'ill?
exactly liw pl.iInrtr- r i '.; .rt ..iI'i .1 .Al.i-tr'i'4 ili N ,i' i- lh tilFn t,
prepare for ti, I nipu ) ,if i \l,.t S'. -,l.
It lhiss h,-.t- n '[I ,..1,,lly p,,[,,i till( i llI )I'l ,i ,i,-w ,,," thn l ,liI -..,rt'it -'ut
nlf LAs- ri utl t r tl,. (lit iO w u ,i- t in ip'ir,, i, lt .-'l, I l i ,.,,ti,, llir,- Jl l' ,l'll
wt'fvil i.i thit' rni,'.l ,, II,, l ~l'r ,in tii +, l. .i II : -, I 'I p r i. ,.I
in th e fu ll. T liJ-4 ; s i: ii, nI, ,f tl'l .,,r ; i -, .i[ i-- ii: 1, li, l, I l ,- l ('1li, 1'
(if this Bureau w dlin th, ,ll- v. ,..', 'I i 1, I, I t. , I.jip., iif ..[ly
nm all airv'a in Tf. 'icn. .Mlc li sti '..i' .iriH" t v -.1l lI.'.- ,.I i. l \ f
the origitii I re, niiii'cii';it -in. L +' .! 'iii t ,, -' .. *t ,! I ,. -Ii n,.-
tiin of plants. f'ir I. -,nirni l!ii, t'.. I. II ..' \! -- 1I I..n : i.,' til lnt,,
hlow ly by the pl' iit,-r.. T hi I- i ,I i ly 1,11 :" ... i,, f Il,," 1' l,',-'ti, ,l dlif-
fihcuit-c'. r,'1'Ltin,.. t,, l !' tfii.,!-; --t, ~l .:i],l tl, !i, ,* r,.-il" ,, l.;i',,,r ^ il, ii i
htim interr'rrt' .i i ;'in kinic ,,nit t1l,.' 1 I'I.
T he lir it ti',n 'i f i1)f ii''i '- it, ', I r .r,,, ni in- :I ri .ir I 4 | I i i .t, r ,I
i ,,' iil l ,i +ni ,J I' i l" C 'it, [t n I ,,,l l .,., %% 1 \ .- I" 1* 11 1. L' : 11 F n 1,1 i 11 ;,t
v' tt'l' t I,' l 0 'r p .irti ll i, 11 oif .\A 'I 'llt1 1r',' Il .il i zi ... I:, ;.n };, I \'" I,- .i. i li+,
,~ r nni ,m ln, +wh ,,M-lri l -. l' ,.'lr ,. i.. ll ,',\ ,.r\. [. :; 1. T i, Ill .,l! T1 .V I rTl ,li
m allny pi nit r.- to l'>-.- sih .it ir f' :... f i Ft i' ,i 1' i ,' ii l' Ln I, y I r-,p i*'.
h ul t <,hi t :it-p : l 'l i- tri, itl\" -, .I~. t* % t ',, I .. ... 1T -1 ,'i i.t ll .1 v .
till,, ' tl I1 ti,,n i,: l O w. f i i i f t :!,. l| ilt,- in .. 1i l .A i, I I, r "
fart, e:piriy p 'iiitii_. 1 I i- 'I f t'.rl v rioi V-. iii. tl. u .-'. 4 f. rtilizi r-
iare sin.ply to fiuirthi r tOw- ,I .,t i' i ' i !I;, C',' iner '.- of f.,Il
.A f' rr' r \, PI .I."h\. 11 1 TI N.
In the fall of 1n."R E!. , ,tf 1K.,ti,( ., e,]._,y c'i n,,, f:"l a larg pr;Ir'-
tical field t.'v t If ti"' ,'IT,.i \v.' [ -- [ i>' r' il II.i- Jlit ti[., ii I lp' i pl:I:in ii] thp
control of the w,.".vvi. An i dci! .itl ii]".':Itl" W:i' fI,,,IcI iln Texa. where
over 400 acres of cotton were grown. Tiere 1%.j no other cotton grown


in any direction nearer than 15 miles. Through an agent of the Bureau,
Mr. J. D. Mitchell, to whom great credit is due for the direct manage-
ment of the matter, arrangements were made by contract with the
farmers concerned, under which all the cotton plants were uprooted and
burned during the first ten days in October. Provision was also made
to prevent the growing of volunteer or sprout cotton. In this way an
opportunity was obtained for an ideal experiment to show what can
he accomplished by the procedure that is now recommended by the
Department. About 15 miles from the locality in which the experi-
ment was performed a considerable quantity (295 acres) of cotton was
grown. In this region the stalks were not destroyed in the fall, and
observations made here have been used as a check upon the experi-
mental area. The class of farmers is about the same in the two local-
ities. The experiment was performed at Olivia, in Calhoun County,
Tex., and the cotton utilized as a check was located at Six Mile, a set-
tlement across Lavaca Bay, in the same county.
Mr. Mitchell visited the Olivia and Six Mile localities early in May,
1907. At that time, in the former area, extensive search revealed but a
single weevil. In thle Six Mile locality, however, the weevils were so
numerous that practically all the squares had become infested. Other
examinations were made, all of which showed the same advantage in
regard to freedom from the weevil of the area in which the stalks were
destroyed. On August 20 Mr. Mitchell found an average of over 10
bolls per plant at Olivia and only 3 bolls per plant in the check area.
The conspicuous results of the experiment, however, are revealed by
the increased yield shown after the cotton was picked. The average in
all fields at Olivia was 0.41 bale as against 0.15 at Six Mile. This
increase of slightly over a quarter of a bale per acre (to be exact, 0.26
bale) was due to the destruction of the stalks. In order to determine
the exact financial advantage to the farmers at the Olivia locality, a
calculation has been made on the basis of the separate sale of lint and
seed. At Olivia the crop following the destruction of the plants aver-
aged 615 pounds of seed cotton per acre, that is, 205 pounds of lint
and 410 pounds of seed. At the Six Mile settlement the average yield
of seed cotton per acre was 225 pounds, that is, 75 pounds of lint and
150 pounds of seed. It is evident that the work done in the destruc-
tion of the plants at Olivia resulted in the gain of 130 pounds of lint
and 260 pounds of cotton seed per acre. On the basis of a value of 10
cents per pound for the lint and of $12 per ton for the seed. the increase
amounted to $14.56 per acre. This is about 29 times the cost of uproot-
ing and burning the plants the preceding fall, as shown by the actual
amount the Department paid for the work.
The full importance of the results just mentioned can not be realized
until it is understood that the.soil at Olivia is much less fertile than
that at Six Mile. Mr. Mitchell, who is thoroughly familiar with the
productiveness of lands in that part of the State, estimated that the Six
Mile land is at least a third more fertile than that at Olivia. This esti-
mate was more than borne out by the amount of seed produced at
the two places during the season of 1907. At Six Mile the average
height of the plants, determined hy measuring, was 4 feet, while at
Olivia the average was 2.2 feet. The estimate recorded of the advan-
t.iage resulting from the work at Olivia is made without reference to this
difference in fertility.

The prnactical xpt'rinirnt. n. h.i.; hien stte.tfd, returned Pul'.tantil1ly
29 tinita the rt'c.t if ti,' lint a-.,iry 'ita l.iy. I'ii'lirr ,tlihrr imndiltinlis this
advantage wtiiulil iinrss.irily ibv .innaillr'. TliJ xps riii'nt %:ils arrivedd
on purposely toi slow thl r:re,:ilt ;iitrli.r of fall li.-lriltiiilii ,icrt
there are nin otliir fat'ors It intil'rf r, wlilh tin, rtesills. \Vhrri'e citta)n
is less isOli.te'l tliin.i thA.i It I Ilivi:L tinr. i ill l .. l'ss 1 ..S tTe'tiv'' ri.ullt (,f
course, on iltcuniiit of the inillux if dt 'vil.s fruii li l Lis that ia:iy not
have libttn proiI)rly tr,.itrel. .N.'irtlil,,,... sucIh.I iilillininis c 1iiii.lili lt
possibly lobliterails' :ill t't lTtt'l 'iii '.. IIn I .'t. Oily I liin''i- t'xtri'a ii,
aind excrption il ci-inli ii'iis .,,1ll, p i~--il'lyv r.'-m!l iin ili ii.., fill :iivaIli-
tage obtiLinit'l in th0 V'x\ i riilinilt 1'Y Il ,i''i tl;.iln .1) pi'- t 'iit. Jli:it l llii'.Lis
that an), cotton lilaitnh r. I.y ili, Imi,,'--A if fill lr,-irui Ii,,ii, t'.iin .4urre
himself an incre.iU.-'l Yii'lI to tI,. \:il' i l' if inrii .f"i ',t fl0 ( re hy :i
small amount of work ait the pr'it.r tinit inl tlI fall.
REASONS FOI1 Till; HiEs-TlIt'l I IL 1N (W Till 'I..\\IS IN ITHE FALL.
There are four principal T M.i-i. l- \-li h lit Pr'ict,.s of 'f:tll Elt-strurtii)ii
recommended in this circular. shcu1 til Ile pnlr.rticed uniiver.AiIllY by
ere in infested regions :
First.-Fall destructtion pr nt tii al'solultrely thi' il]\(Irlpriient oif a
multitude of weevils hliihli would itrwiei li cnil alL, L iltll witliin aL few
weeks of the time if hlil ern'itiln. Trlih- l,'rii-t iin 1,f tliei inmmattire
stages of weevils in iinfestet'Il s :iianl lills i :Ic'iIlipilliiIed, while
the further growth of squarst, \%lirch in.,iY Ilt (ia, infl..-leil I:l1r, is
prevented. This stops inmaterially t.i it veli plnineit of wee-vils wlihich
would normally hibernate in''rf'stllly, al b lit i.l d-,.reasinig tile
number of weevils which will (em''.r'- iln tll,- .spriil tIhe- clh incePs f'r a
successful crop the following ser.i.,in ar, vnry gri:itly in li'ro:ic(l.
Second.-A proper ina iiptliLitiln of thie \ %.t.ilk ill hriih n'hou.t thie
destruction of a great niajrily (,f lite wos'vil_ oI ,it.ih are ailn-andlv a'lult.
This will be acconipliish-d pl.irtl Iy '.iyii n1z thie sli;rvaition of nially
weevils before the n.lur,.il tinas fir },ilirnatiiini, .in partly 1by exposure
to severe cold during teli fill ainl wivinter.
Third.-It h|as been shih>n c(.,isnl-i'vlv tl- hulh k of ili- wt'ervils
which survive the i inter aire tli- n ii- ti i-T:re 'li ii turit'y lit' in tl i
season. It is evident thali.t tlihe s\r'vils t:t pa,; l lie winter awii at.Ltck
the crop of the followiaing s a;ison wire niiig tli, P tl,'ie'op'l l.iit-st in
the fall and which, in 'iiisequu'iai > o f tliat fiirt.: h:ave not 'xli ntisted
their vitality hy dirposit ii-, .,,'. f"r any v' n.silribrahl lio'nltli of timnie.
I Fall destruction of tlie pl.aiit, innrr.asiii '; tlie lIeitili of the lie il-n.inting
S period, reduces many flili thi,- niniber if wen-vils in tIhp fields that
would otherwise eliierge in tih' sprinirg t,' ',ii rt.'l- tlf, c'ottoin.
Fourth.-Cleiariig of thp tilil in the fill in.ikts it pssihl in- to prac-
tice fall plowing. whicli i- wit onrly. tine pri'per priocrflure in any svtePni
of cotton raising. Iht a1i.o re.itly failil.iies rtiet' early planting of ithe
crop the following spring. The orouri I bi,'ronif cliran by It Is pr., Ii'e.
so that but few placr-s fr shf-ltr ar-. 1,-ft to the ,.evils. and vrjnios
climatic conditions still further reduce tie number of the s'Jrtivor's.

The reasons for fill destruction _ivpn above aro based uprn ia ery
large amount of data from actual expPrinenis nntl thle work of various
planters. The information at hand was greatly aminplified in a. series of


large-scale experiments carried on (luring the winter of 1906-7. Three
large cags (50 by 21) feet) v'crv built over growing cotton at Dallas,
Callveit, ;inl \'icto)ria, in Tcxas. In different compartments of these
caMges nearly 7L0,U(0II) weevil were placed; several thousand in each
compartment. Alter the weevils were placed inside, the plants were
remnov'-d from the first section about the middle of Octolber. At regular
subsequent dates other sections were treated in exactly the same man-
ner. Consequently the re.,ults for each locality show exactly what a
fanriner could have accomplished by the destruction of thle plants at dif-
ferent times. The full rIPsults will be published. in Bull-tin 77, of this
Bure..u, by I)r. \W. E. Hinds and Mr. W. WV. Yotlers, who have had direct
charge of the work. In this connection it is necessary to call attention
to only a few features.
Ini practically all cases the siiallest survival of weevils was found in
those cnges from \% which the plants ii re removed at the earliest dates, and
the number ot survivors incre.iscd regularly as tlhe dates of destruction
became later. For instance, at I)allas out of between two thousand and
three thousand weevils in each cage, only 2.5 per cent survived when
the plants were removed on Octulier 1"; 4 per cent survived destruction
of the food supply on October 16; 6.2 per cent survived destruction on
October 19; 12.2 pvr cent surv'iveil destruction on November 6, and
14.7 per cent survived dletiruc-tion on November 12. Thesr fiqunres indi-
cate t(utl praclicrillq siev'n timni.-: t'i tnil eu' is s irivi d af/t,. dr.%trmc-
tiw, of plaits on Nr'wcc ber 12 as -inrr-i d ,iiffrr tr simitar destruction
on Olublr 13. This is a in most .-lrikii, *illfslrtatini of the effect of
HY(rlI' destruction.
In the cages at Dallas, Calvert, and Victoria, from which the plants
were removed in November, 14.21; per cent survived, while 4.41 per cent
survived removal of the plants in October-that is, tlie cutting off of
the food supply in resulted in the survival of three times as
many weevils as survive,1 wliin the wor-k w's done in October. These
figure-s are based upon avera-es of eigit large cng,-s at the three locali-
ties in which October deStruction to,,k place, as c,,np.tred with seven
inmilar cages in which the plants were removed in November.

It is naturally irnpo:si.,;ile to fix any i ,ate ft'i-r Ilt d'-struct inn of the
stalks whi'h wnulil apply to all localitic- and under all conditions.
The condition of thle soil ru-It he considered :is w.ll nas tlhe maturity of
tihe crop. While the cirlition of the soil c;n nut he controlled, the
time of the im:turity of thi c-rop, ex t( pt in extren't-ly unfavorable sea-
sons, i. largely withiin tlie power of the planter, since w by early planting
if early mnaturimT varielti s the entire n'p imiy lie iii.tured before the
usual time of pi.king. of the Iitst cotton mrom ,.Ative .Se tl. Nevertheless.
whatever modifications ate nect ssary in different localities and during
different seasons, they do not decrease the general strength of the
Tlhe proper time for the destruction of the plants in the fall is when-
ever the weevils have hi come so numerous that there is no prospect
that any more cotton will I-( mAde. It will be an easy matter for any
planter to determine this., point by nn examination of a f,-w plants in
hiq field. Whenever it i- found tlh;it all, cr nearly all, of the squares
and soan- of thie bills are being punctured, there is no hope for pro-
A 6 -22

d tlclli any 11i I ii. ,ii'r rl,,. I l' rii* .-1,I i i ii *1 % ,It I ilt 1 l ' It I"d
pli iire ia y S II i'l it 1 1 I .I ., | l -Ir.I- l .,I -l,,ltil l IV-u .u
take p .i i,,lrii1.ti I .
"I 'ht tlll l t l l V, i.ll-, i |i a il'. Ii I- l, i...1 '- -I. , Il2 i I,,' ,1 -11,',i,. i
illt f l l I l i .l l 1 .- n I *.1 -110 < I 'wrt 1.'11 fir*
in Ot1 faIll I, ,,'-,, I% i- .i I I r I i rJI",,1
rf} t erL]l c', 'f i,, tilt r tI- Ii i0i i.'' I tI 11 I I \ .i isi l.r r Ill tflit 'i l'r .- l
zn aj Irit"y <'t (v ii1 -i 111 Ti ".- .t I i l11 1 n l- i ," i I I1 iA AF. 1 1, 1 i 1 i ] l
h at.tti -r iir, p,, 1 I,,,'. I - ,,'n .1- ,i , .{, -I i I .,l ,, .i I k 'ill i ,,l .Ir,-Ii,
le. i r:l.ti .19--1. N1 \, .i t ,l, -- ift I ii l l. II- t, Ii t f.i1 l L1 i.ri -*

tidf %%n il IW Ii I ; .. i'b I' I Ii l t I I' r'.' I itl i il t l *l' 1 l ,II. ,"

i l t '.i', a t u hn I- I l .i .i i ,, i'.i Ii. l,1 tl,, u... i- i ,I *l
[rn+.,t, lt~i t ti,';.tni'tI i,,t .Lii r lI .,-t l ; .'_ i i ,., i .,il\ .t- '1i" .r' ii, 1 -" ,1-
1tt iJ '' l t' L' i ,l I Il, ,l.l .111: i . i -., t ]| I I ,, ,
po~S~ibi., t+ rf.ii,,r ,. tlr,. pi.m l [it t \, imi~ -i .

t'i-r Ii ,l 'i i i0l lI ',I l 11 -; I d, I I'

'ji fyi .t ri>
"|'nt ta t tll ti t i r-.l I r 'll l .i I .,,, t 11 ,i'i' tl t l i ! l l limm l .i C.-
by h t lr 'iuif 1I tl Lst' r I i 1. ,,1 kI t t I ki r I'r. I It lk Ilk'.-)

I lltnat t .i.'i' i I I, t t l l ,I, -t 'i. tIi N tN" t -i .... .'..\ i, lr i ri ,it i t .i\ ,,il

incnn iuld r %ill. kli I un' .11. I Np l:~ Ia Ilih i a an 11 a' i f1
l:int ly li' ,,, ,, vil-. T II. -I ,. I t 1. I wv: _2 %- 1 1i.t % 1, ,11 r-
th is 1 1| i ll+ I t I I., ,. i, -, ',, -k I l 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 v, I ,1f
f,,u n il t1. \\ ,.\'i( if !I ;,,l ,,'i ,.rr t ., -1., 1,.. 1 .,I 1.. 1 I. t i .t O i ,l r .,l
thi.s. Illirl'l,[lt, t111 !... *' tl.l.- Hi' ,, -li,,+l 'i t' .... i ,l.. Itli,' l,,.,.^t. .tl*rix il-,-
2I o'r 3ntli t t ht t1, 'rI l1;i .'. Tl!.
' ti t r : ;, 1' t ,- ,,I I I. I I t. I II,, i pll. ., n I. ,,, li .I
t 1i l In I l. I :, 1 l l .. t :r r l ,,,. l l. i | t. i- I lu t l l .r r' t-
'- o r i h r 'li,. -lt.. ;",ii, l i 1 ,. i ,. I.,. r t, . t .-; I it, t r I. L 1,, I. TI,.,.
n~thcr i..< t,' 11 11 ,,i ,+ l t 1 l li -r l.+ I, .. F, ij ... > :, lr ... r" l,-,[ir v ,i i ~l+\i~ :i

\r ht 'l tht li,'. In. t 1 J, ,,,- l ,," ,,':,i t r..1t I T ir llt..Il l IlF i-
' 'l l t ll:ftt,. r t ,, I" I .,I I % I 1 l ., V r i ',-7 1 OI, I .t f ill 1.1'-
g et Inerall r ,'rl1t l n,'l t [, I 1 '." i- I' I. lilt'l l I 1,p l -1 it ,.,
11 tf .\ r< i 'L- i !. i .T, 1 1 ' i- i , ii ,,ii ,,l I Ii , J. I W.
h u .m ~ ,, .i'," i *I -,p. ,,- ~i .l i r ,'. i,, ,- i.i t t,,'. -i i, i; ,'r *I I. \', .' l,,'., 1 ,,n
h-,.ll, lr+ 1, J.; . ., H i ,. ; .. .! !. l l .* i r. ill J ,, [., t. ,l t ,,,l ,,l'l .l S t ".\ 1 ', i ,,

'+ r.. \ i.+ ) "'L- n .I '. i .t1 : .. i. .'r r i" y 'i 1 l '. it lp i .'" i l i ,'t 1 ;r l,' 11 .[t<

fli I. 'L I I .. ..I L I I \, i L... \ '. [ir I 'i '. I'i l, -i n i, ' *I

idrh -l. illk-.
It" I 'r ; l '. l'. \ i" n i iI, I'.,, .' t I I I. I r I n". Ii t
't i .l '. ,..' t ,i a sin ,,,i i .. ,11 t c i % "l % 1. :- 1,1'1 I th I I

U t.L littl P l ttl. 'l.,.; V t,,, .U I L II 1 t I i "l ], l]', l A\ 't, I- I I -, -l1,- t -l'
tm l, o f ti I,_ i ,( .lill t'v. l .I -I ; i, 1,, 1t ll,,l- ,.il y i, w ill a I I] d ilr- t 1.,1
'ro d fl ;1 till ,1 .-. th'e ,1 1t,', i ll, '.l tl,';! t r.IF 11 ,.11 1, ] I r I -, t t \ ,
.I't'ion .-f tlit'r ,]' "i.ii r tp iir- i' nI, t + "L'. i 'nl p n l',,i ,,'l ; ,.^ in r~ .i] i .ln t ],'n
jjICu I!Snn' t--r ,l.' .nit i l x i I.\prI) L f 11' WT; lz!r\ il- r.i i d I


hand picking of the Jweevils and infested fruit on trap rows would be a
considerable handicap to the method on many plantations. Neverthe-
less, on small places where suitable labor is abundant, traps could con-
veniently be left. In such cases they should be situated on those sides
of the fields which are generally leeward. They should be examined
daily for weevils and infested squares and bolls, which should be
immersed in crude oil. After such collection for teh days, the trap
plants should be uprooted and burned immediately with the aid of
crude oil.
The suggestion has been made at various times that grazing the cot-
ton fields with cattle is in some cases equivalent to destruction in the
way that has been suggested. However, in many parts of the infested
area there are not sufficient cattle to accomplish the work, and, more-
over, in very many fields the cattle, by disseminating Johnson grass
and other nlant pests, would undoubtedly do more harm than good.
At the same time the most thorough grazing always leaves a few green
sprouts or leaves upon which weevils may feed, and of course leaves
the stalks standing, so that the process of leafing, for the benefit of the
weevils, may continue indefinitely. Where the condition of the fields
permits and the supply of cattle is sufficient, grazing the fields should
be practiced, but this can not generally be the case in the infested area.
The Department of Agriculture understands that there are some diffi-
culties in the way of a universal following of the recommendations
given in this circular. The principal ones are the almost universal hope
for a top crop and in the labor conditions consequent from the more or
less universal tenant. system of producing the staple. These difficulties
are increased by the general scarcity of labor in the South, which is
becoming more and more a serious problem in raising cotton.
Planters in infested localities must understand that with the presence
of the weevil there is no longer any hope of a top crop. It is true that
after considerable cotton has matured, and after the plants have applied
their energy to the formation of seeds and lint, fall rains often stimulate
the production of a great number of squares. Many planters are misled
by this into the hope of gathering a large top crop. The joints of the
plant are short and the squares are formed rapidly and close together.
Though weevils may have been exceedingly numerous in the fields, the
presence of this abundance of food causes them to scatter, and they are
consequently temporarily somewhat less in evidence. In many cases
blooms appear and the hope for a top crop increases. Nevertheless,
this production of squares also contributes to the production of a large
number of weevils late in the season and just at the time for their suc-
cessful hibernation. As a result of this fact great injury is done to the
erop of the following season, with no gain whatever, or a very small
one, in the yield of the current season. From these considerations it
seems plain that within the weevil territory all hope of a top crop must
be given up and the destruction of the plants be practiced as early in
the fall as possible.
Another important difficulty lies in the tenant system. It is usually
the practice to terminate the work of the tenant with the picking of the
cotton, leaving the clearing of the field for the next cropper. At present,
after the cotton is picked the tenants frequently move to other planta-
A.6- 2?

tions or to other parts of thle sanrit, pl.iat.iticon. It shiuil rodt l, a diif-
ficult matter 'for pIl.niters to induct'rt tl-ir te'alLts tie pr't'tic' tht- .ill
destruction of the plants a;t the stpli ii, tli' iprueulticili ,f :a crip.
In any case thile pliints lilaV tip ie. rneiive I.e,-f ur tht- gr'iurLd raill lI,
prepared fur planting the following file1 thir Iere-'l.t -reu',i,-
mendation imerely involves apilyini'., att ;: titn, ni' iit'iitli- ;trjlier,
the same ailounlt of I:lbor as i iiec-s--.ry iin tier :rit., "Il- ..-t 4 Iulu-
tion of the dilit ulty arising froii tlir tn-ilit s ,t'ini W-uiiill ht- ill tll.
inclusion, in the lietvt provision which would 1Iil) thet' letter ti l-.atin the. la e thmruiiil
before leaving it.
In a comparatively small arc.: in s,,utlie.:lurn Tu-x:.- it iiiiiet It.
considered that there wouhl I'- ai furtlhr ii, iclj'tii, iTI tlhi- pr. ti,''- \liili
some farmers h:ave t'V iieitIUr'-iiig.L thlt' gr-'l, tif viiiiitetr cir si-p ea
cotton in thle hope (if ipr,.turilg .il ,.irly ,' iixlii-iv, ( rI,. .\A- lh..
been repeatedly pointed u out 1y tlti i i-p.artiiei beyond question the ii r.-t pT-Fileh prrcttU in ii vil-iif' ftlei r,. ,iii-
The disastrous exPerienct' of svr'Iral c'lintic.- ie t!e. $,uiltl-rn pJirtiuli1 tl
the State during several ',ea:SmIIIs ]aIs ;iluniil:%iidtl ,ilile ie,-tr.etu',l tlh fie .
of the warnings that h.Av' liCt'l is-Ut.i fir'ii tith, t, tiull. "Il"iT -t.plf.
produced by volutnte'r pli.tlts is shimrt, kinky, :iiul immmulh-ir:li'li'. i,.l'mrv
the advent of tile ive,'vil tlit- only reason tr eni ,etr.uiqie -ith h ier,,iTli
was to procure tht' tir-t liali. Now. iil :mct.i'tmnt [if it- v' rv"
bearing on the weevil proilhhm, ai ." atteinipt tep r.i :-e :,ttll t Ireem vo-flLill-
teer cotton should I1y all ime ans he fiisciiiragei-l.
The point mayli be raised tihat the burning of tlie pl.inlIs in tlt fall
removes valuable fertilizing nstitutu'llts a'mI tlieet tlit' .' f
the practice would seriously re,' luce li'ho ferility -if t..1- ,itl. In refer-
ence to this ;matter, lhowev.r, it i niust lito stated tliat tle pri-snt ,-,nral
practice is to eliar til- lfelds liby lurniIlg tht pl:iimt? in ti,- lerini ..r.
Therefore, practically time only ailelitiii.iil dr.ift uiln tile, S,-il }tr, tlt
method recommended is in tile Iurning of i many if the loav os .1mil :i
portion of the roots. However, (lestru tion if thle lh11t.-_ (.ell on ly t.ike.
place after many of the leaves have fallt.n, and,. in ,,tli r ,raz'.-, wvici.
the plants have become completely dfolieatd li by th ictctt-'n 1l':ti.rpill:i.
The fertilizing constituents in various parts of tlee cotten pl.eint l:hv-
been carefully determined.1 An e.stim.1te of thet. v.ilhiP of :illI tli. ."i-
stituents which could poFsilily lie renmovede liy f: II llin-tru i- Pi, I :i,- I1
upon the schedule of trade valtuet's adopted Iy expcrini lt .,t.itiil- i'.r
189S, shows that tile loss per acre Wvoilil be veryv small. It is plaiie
that the planter ('coull not only regaiii this ?,:nill -1-. Ihit aiii ;illv
greatly increase the fertility of tile landl hy tie siie of c,-iiiin i-rci:l fi r-
tilizers, which would (cnst an inconsihrralile nnimcint i, ,vtncij;riSoln illti
the gain in the following crop, as a result of lessen, i d tl.il1:L"' Iby, tlh
boll weevil. In some c:ses, of course, the r,, of ltniql.t fucrni .-l,-ed
by the stalks may be more important than tlie r''n'-v.l ,f th,' f r ilizing
elements. It is urged. however, that thit e(' and' in!-t rIT.trrtive
way to add humus to the s,,il is hy green manurinw, whlicli i:. rueceiving
more and more attention throu.hiout tile cotton ai-lt.
As a matter of fact. the preceding objections ar- not nf.',ssarilv
serious. They deal with general changes in '-otton citlltur miad, neces-
I See Bclltetin 33 of the Office of Experiment Strations of tlits i'cpartnment, pp.
81 to 142.
A ----22

B iIll! Billl BBlIII 1I111l 11l1111 1QI lI
8 3 1262 09216 4929

sary by the ravages of the boll weevil. As is beginning to be "
known to planters, it will not be possible for tenants to work as m
land as formerly. More cotton will be produced by decreasing a "reag:.
and increasing the attention given to what remains. If this is daSm
the objections mentioned will largely disappear.

CONtLL.',lON. ":*.ll
Having studiedl and tested the methods of weevil control which have_,ii:
been hitherto reonminended,l the writer firmly believes that the destruio-.ji:;3|
tion of the .-stalks in the early, fall is (he most effective method knowil::,,
of actually re Iluing the nunmb('rs of the pest. This destruction will -I
cost but a small fraction of the expense necessary in the frequent pick-:
ing up in the spring of tlhe squares infested by tlhe hibernated weevil,.."i
andl is f;ir more tlhornugh as a means of reducing the numbers of the:i
weevil tlihiLn is ilie practice of picking hibernated weevils from the
young plants. Early (Idcsruction of the stalks is essential to the great ,.:
est success (f any system of controlling the pest. All other practice i
recommended, though very valuable in securing a crop, are of the great-
est value as th(.y are fI,!oweil in connection with this one prime essential. '
Since the earliest investigatif-Ins of the boll weevil made by this Depart-
ment, it has been recognizeed and pointed out by I)D. L. 0. Howard that :
this practice is of the first importance, and the experience of recent
years li;ias added but certainty to this conviction. A number of planters
have adopted it, and their work and the large-scale work by the Bureau
of Entomnology have abundantly demonstrated its effectiveness. It
ni.%t nt be ti hlit that thflip proruring of the inmirdiate crop is the .
only /hiu.q to bei dshired. Early and complOe d(r'lrueltinn of the stalks :.
is undoubtedly ihe most important single element instrinig success for
th/e .s'%absq t atif "/fl
Concerted action in fall destruction is, of course, desirable. The
greatest benefit will result only when whole communities adopt the
method. But no planter should hesitate on account of the indifference
of his neighbors. The fact that weevils move about hut little until the
time whlen the bulk of tlhe crop is safe will assist materially in saving....
one field though near-by ones have not been properly treated, and even
under such circumstances tlhe success of the method in one field will be
a powerful stimulus toward its general adoption the following season.
It is true that the recommendations contained in this circular involve-
-r.nsid ruble change in the culture of cotton. Nevertheless the impor-
tant changes that have been brought about, up to this time, in the use
,of improved seed and fertilizers have also been revolutionary in their
character. It is hoped by the Department that the agencies assisting
in this nI.ettr-namely, organizationsof bui:tinez.s mnen-willeverywhere ...
devote the same energy toward encouraging the practice of what is, after
all, the most important step in maintaining the supremacy of the cotton
crop in the weevil territory.
.Sec'crrtary of Agriculture...
NWASHINGTUN, D. C., September 3, 1908. i

A6-- i2a