The nut weevils

Material Information

The nut weevils
Chittenden, F. H ( Frank Hurlbut ), 1858-1929
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:


federal government publication ( marcgt )

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
29651282 ( ALEPH )
27943168 ( OCLC )

Full Text

C IR C U L A R N u 9 9 I ... '1 .
Lnited Statecs Department ,I A. riciiltnrc,
I. 11 H O W, K I). l-.j l'ot"l,.l,i)il r ., 1 1it t'

(I -)
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111' l ll [ l l 1illl i :ll 'i I .' ii i I\ 'l i l1 l,,''.l. I. 1, II1I.. I ,,I n, I I, ili l

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T he (-Aii .-I III r viiiih 1ii l h ro a tvs- ~iv los- midh ii w el, ". o d pri., 1 thiwn-*
f ilt Il i i- i |ia ii \ 1'-i ii i tI -ar 1 i, ( ,i -i I,. .il,' 1 i ii 1iii- i I hl i
t I,.h l 1 1f 1 ; 1 t il l ll', l i l ll 1 :l i ... . i ,-,', l I\ II, Il tl ,l .l- I.1 'Il -,1'' t4

1,1111 Ini div wlt-i uthicr-IA.,
l 'ii Iek I t ri ',' I l l i -I -. I' f.i ii] l, ,I l l- I I l.i-- 1 1 IIt -

11111.11 tiit ;1 1 Tp : C k cit a
liill \\D rill' "" ,if Il- ,1 ll,' i,.l. ilir Iii-I. \x,,rini- ". I ',' i l t

I lll'll l ii. I'l fi' -, l li l,' "i r ll I,, I,'-I il,', I 1, It i W t. I IIi- 1 Ii o fI
'I litr ln'-lii tio -eiir ,.l tit q ittLi 1o1 i ti (ii th 1,il ,ii i' (I i.'ii t h r aiw-

Ih'. tll trhb like t Olilnf ( dl arvii with ifhi 'h I )it I IIl i- ItI<> iI-
tIi'i-. ilill eei f l';. "io hes t hir\a'io dev h5.l p witht tiniiti. M thiit ili,-e

[H (, 11- F I ~EA1$
erlai.l w I tr- I atta in 11aturity h a re l' t l i to Iiiavt alid It' Il ict'1 f'Ih 'i Ii,'l
introdl\tion .'uiiis Ius heimtspiii s^ J aict nlEina alvratt
Iiirr i 'i- it l lril; otilt i iit1 .+^ ^g S ^\

-iillal 1 111 ll I 'ltS SO iUP All(. W- - 0 '- A .
, f'] la te r ; o it fre a( *^ ] tl*. .;+ " s ^
i'lllilr.\" happenll4 that 'I "l.l *I

f i .rri-li fl n tsii I Ob wk li. '1 . :,i ,,,ii T K' i ii .i i. n j .
w ae a "*| l: | ,.ll r| + || |111\ ( illid liir+v+ f E'!n+r ,rl +'ll*"-f.nrlh miitho+r' illl't+riti++ti
w h en -hli| ,'| ,-l alrt' ft illil, on 'a lii'it+1 _, lihf hr l sth ih i;itio n i ti, (+ih o ri l

-:i. hole in t Ihei itll. li.. 1). whih the epilsi t 1wl
aIt the bottoln of the I eUetacle. How to 7el witlh these weevil
liii'l- o ii ee 1 tl Ilost \+*xaitni su |ilI'l',.il
TIIE ( r'll-IMU I i:VI
hin efinp:ii':'l i\,,ri r deielt years ch+lestil t cult Ilre+ lias+ assum edi++ co si d-~l
erable proportions. ;,1r ha+ taikel ai lew ililnetls siince the e.xtensive+
intro ilctioin .itnl, ,dr ,'ell,,iijii i ,,f .hapalteset and __ Eiiiopeali \varietie>.
1 "1l ,- ,, r ,r i l ;i t l ,n l t i l \ l i l l 'i i : i ln *- ', tl l _i i ,l ( < T (l l \ t < .k ~ ;i i t l, ( i -
lilillil" vailii,.he-- It'!e0- ili ,,,lit:ill\' ii l ,,Itii'' ii.ii^ il .ir *in r~ nili!
Il ',l*'l r illtlil fr'l, lil ,,;li'rlr I ,, 1" 1i, ]ir|..ll-Illil, i ,IT rr I' I.\.' lli l', I r m-t. i' i _. I .

*J'ri-:;lli. Pia. XX\+lll+XNX. text Ti--.>. 17-211 ...
Ht'ir *n| |I----------
1 +.. U : -. *"** ,''"


sour.ce-. of profit. Were it not for the "worm.,." "-borer.,." and
" bliglt-." cihe-tnut growi, iv l iliht develop) into a imo-t lucrative in-
dlu.sztrr in regioii adlipted1l to it.
IE-i M .Vi-IES o. IA-ISSFS.-A fair estimate of the damage d(lone annually
Ib "eevil-, to cihe-tillIt-. growVl ill the United State.- would probably
fall little -liort of 2.-P: per celt. while Ill .,ome vealrsi the percentage
ex(eedi. Ill; it figure. rIltning :a' highly as 40 or 50 per ctiit. Growers
in -0ome localitie- report no ,laumage. other-, place lo-'-e-. a; low as 5
or 0 iper cenlt. while instance, are cited of whole crop- Ibeing de-
strov'ed. Tit' aoln 'lit of lo-, 1. dlelCITi to a nIore limiited extent ()in lthel vat'vIiet of ult, grown. The greatest
daniiage i. ,ii-ially iti'iirred in region,- where ('estnnlt-, havr rown
wild foir nllli yrarI. anil tine leait lt where there ari no wild chestnuts
,,r c'hiMn uapiit- and the nuts arc trrown only for niarket and are care-
filllv gailiered. Thle ino- t exten-iv I lo,.e- 4. jilliginig fromn available
-tourceN, of information. a)pp)ear to be ini Massaclihl-ett. 'enn-; ylvania,
New .Ier-er. New York (in the viRilnitY of New York City). I)elaware,
Maryilamd. Virginia. Tenne.--ee. and North Carolina.
In (;eorgia. Spanish ar d( Japanr.-e varietie, have been cultivated for
era rN"itl o11t ;attack Iy wee, ii. b(eiing noticed. Ini New Jersey. 50 per
celnt of (lithe .-au varieties, have Ibeen ruined. A grower in Missouri
lias. reported no damage to 50 trees, of an American va riet': another
at South llHaven. Mhili., has reported no injury foir a period of three
or four year- to Japane-e andl Spani-h che4,tnut- grown there, while
froti -, to 20 1 i 4r cent of thle crop) (if native nuts was, annually de-
-tro,'ed. The nearly complete dest ruction of the chestnut crop of
New JerseY for 18!3 wa.. reported.
Tirr SPECI'Fs I, CIilESTNUT A\EEVILS.-The -plcies of weevils which
inifest clhstinut- are two in nif'mlber-tthe larger che.t tnut weevil. Rala-
1,,1;,iV, i,.r) it l,'i. Fab.. and the les.-er chestnut weevil. B. rIt-,.it Say.
Tliev have extremely long. slender beaks or snouts,-; nearly as fine as a
hoiirselair,. and consider hl longer than the body in thlie female. By
nea .i of this lontg beak the female is able to penetrate the thickest burr
of tlie 'chest lnuit with it,- loin 'pines and to cut -out. with thle minute and
,Iharp rmandibles at tlie tip of hir Ibeak. a little hole for the deposition
(if her egs. These are inserted through thle husk into the growing nutt.
Tile t\\wo peei' re-emblnd V ach other greatly in color and in .miark-
ing., tle general I color of both being go len yellow. cliraceous.orclay
\ello,,. frrellt.eiitlv tinged with olive, and ;' little paler on tlhe lower
'-ilrfat'e. Tlie ili-I of the thorax is a little darker, with a wide right
liand in ich -ile, and the elvtra. or 'Iing-co'ers. are mottledi with
rill liurlit l.ow\n or tldark Ilrown marking-s of variable -ize alid extent."
l" in :iii:,I il iTii', iili.aI k tihe ,a'I rh'r nmarkin::s. some ieing p.iler. orithers darker. even
i,.lilh -h Tih, ji'ii l ,i'olaI. t- miny I,' t tfn in al'ralhd sperime-ns. is really black. and the
.i 1 'Il tii' lr i- ilia t' ti sules i% ry ,.im :l;ir to glans.' of lilla erflies anil ninothli
I 'l :91 l

(~~ ,ill llt viih m'l l 114 ;:11 1
"l'] lrL'er chestnut wseeril (ti,, t ') i considherablv the lai,', : Itlt
i i.r, robDst s)pC- ies. The femIaloe r I-Itrui or beak, alt Iho k l'igi .. I i
ate'l ,If aIoI t tfi' I e IIi i l- 'll'I l
as ill I less er weevil. is I r 1\
ceptiblYmor t re )liiii]itient il 'I s ;
caul-se le C rved the lrv t lilt I' -ur 1 'II
'lu it.r i taI toward the tip. It is l *
;l-4 ,,ore widened at tile base.
'hl,. lIn lnea-turs fromi one11+
third to nearly onv-hial f of aI I 1 I f
inch in hItli. and the lieak w'
rI the lrhi, :il, is ,, il five-
,.i.,lih Ih of an inch ,mi-,. ThIat I,'
11f the male tfi,-. "2, is ) I rl\ a al'
as ln g as the elvtra. 'li, i1
,,74, is sIliall. a tII t Ol '-six- Fti. 2 Tih lri er IhnUnt vi) Ii U t,;
. '.i. ,. *d~t+ i ; iti 1 F'iniileI x't ir b+v ; b, I. J|n< i tl~l~ t o l etl ('+til
tl V l l t l l l l a nl i l n h 1 >I 1 L a n d o f s i e : h e a ,. r ,- ,r u m a m i ., > o f m a l . Tl h r e e
the outlline shlownll 1 i.,t'lll' tlimes natuirtl sizedtiuthor'a lllustrtniolni
:.d.A It is nearlv white, partially translucent .6., without sculpture.
The larva (li._ .1 ,1) iv
4,-i' -ii'I 7 + .. three times as l I : i as wide.
'" ;'l \ "'. \ with tll o (Iohi-al or tl)l)er
^~) s> j' V lprt ionl ro- de and ( con-
*J";U I *. vex. "r entire sitrface is
*\y v u \ ..+ ,*i
t I" ^ i ri 'ulv wrinkled
Srt I Arn trans )ersely, andl there are
Fito 3S.Lrgtr rh,+tmtimt we 'vit + li++'ini i riit U ' +i+lrv a few^, verV short air rs 'cat-
' ior'iitrtin egg A 'rg + tereid sparsely over the dif-
tt',ivi -t i n .,, 'it-. 'l i head (li. 4) is about one-fourth as wide as
the widest portion -f th(e body. It i provildedl with
-hort but str*,ILr iii;idill,.-, by means of which it 2,_ .1%%, Klv ik-
the kernel ,ni-liti ti Ii-.r its food. 'I li, fully developed I I v o
larva in ordinary rI.-li, I )I i sition r measures nearly half ".--"
an inch. \l,,,L-l' the larva has no true I,. '-. it is able -
to crawl. slowly and lumnsilyI it is true, )y means of I14ijjj
,,f the flattened lower surface, locomotion I1 ,,iiLr aided Fw. I Birirs
by transverse wrinkles. ,,,ni,,+:
"e1) lie pi[ is of a clearer whitish color than the larva. 1iii ,mh,,r-n
anil -ltii ill- plrin ili il external r' 11:I-i of the bIl v ,f iustratidn.
tle flII IIr beetle. all. except the beak. fhdh., It_,ltlv to tle Ibdy.
The fenialhe in pa is illustrated in ligir,. :'*. h.
[CIr. 991

I|E ll I..U k II *IK IN \ I \\M II\ II..

This -i,,'rie-, like the other weevils under coii-ideration, is native to
America and is known from Rhode Island to Virginia. the District of
(,,liliiiii;i. southern Ohio, and Tcniiin-oe. and westward to Kansa..
The g. ',':, ph i':il distribution of this and the other nut weevil. ha-Ia. w.
yet not been carefully ludic,. but in all probability it is considerably
more extensive than above stated.
In some rgiiii-,, this species is quite generally known as the chin-
quap)in weevil, but the investig,.tii,, conducted during l'04 indicate
(liiAl. although it breeds in iliimiiliiipin. and more commonly in -lie-t-
nuts, it occurs in greater abundance in the Lirg'er imported nut-.

(BIlahtnniitr u xrl y5.,
Tlit. lesser chestnut weevil (fib-. 5) has the scape of the antenna
],IiL!li than in the pre, iii,," species and the first joint lI,, 1cr Ill.111

". 1'

Fui,. 5.-Lesser chestnut weevil (BRalaiinis rectus)
adult: a, Female, dorsal view; b. fe-n ale, lateral
vie: c, heaiid of mule. Miih enilargid h author's
Ilil' It ,P1

the second.' Tli, a era ge
liigitli of the body is about ori,-
fourth of an inch, but ti, -izx.
varies, as in all of these it-,.-.
The distribution of tlii-
species extends from C'aa(lda
and Ma-.-;,.ii-etts to North
Carolina, Tennessee, and, ()hio.
and probably f:irihr wet-
ward. The writer has seen -ets
of specimens labeled "Arizii.."
Although in some localitie- the
laru'r species is Ilnuch imire inll
evidence, taken all in Ill. th lie
lesser weevil is the more com-

mon and is probably even more widely ,li.-vnliii:,led.
The '"l has not come under observation, but is undoubtedly very
similar to that of the iriie.lig. being proportionately -imiller. whiichli
is true of the vin iin ii -t;i~'-.
The larva is only a third of an inch long ;iil its length i. aboott
three times its width. The body is minlk-white and the lead i light
brownish yellow, while the x-mark has a short lateral branch each
The pupa ,itirr' from that of the larger species by size and by
characters shown in figure 6, which illustrates the male.

I In the .ir species the first joint (omitting the scape) is shorter tlhnn the
second. In the female rectus the rostrum is stri.mily ,urned, the thirnx is
longer than wide, and the elytra are strongly acuminate ipii.;ily. The tooth
with which the thighs are armiied is small, with the entering nigle rounded.
[Cir. 99]

I'I I I' I 1,[ 4 :i (4 F >t4 111 'H l I( I '..
"I1 Il lift- hitoN' I of Iur ) 1 w, t h st ll 1 1AH4 w e ils is 1 of- .imiilanr al, t," be
practicIally 1i1t uni l filr I< ll i sp ,cies. 'l'ire arceU', i v e,, ,r [ii nr
,ill ',.r,'r, ,.- ese \, as well n-s rela ice Int iini ncorn mw ueilh, hilcritakl
excel, ively in the, ;ir l co1 diti0o1A all Nd in 11t0 Soil. ]Bo1h ImakeN OWNi
il-I lnI' I a earan 'e ani t I lt till S,;:- iI h lie t ti, 4 'il ll I' r.l l I-. 1144.._ of
ehestn" ts1 1h1t Ithis period 111:1.\ nr from' Nill' i11 J nt ito fill .
.t ie4 ( Ill I I- to 1.e 11; I(I I -l 1 ie 1 ll'1 llI I e. I ef, 0 1 er 1'irc | >1 '' ,[ I I 11 v I hpt il.
mleanll tcilul('TilltIII % t k i this tim e hl, ] ctihs a; futil ra civi v wind
scjttt.rii \.lv. ; in l wii <>vi[l .siti'l has ipiot lix n ,ll sc (,rv ,l O ni it is
doubl tflll whether it 1 .ir- inutil ,m< vsi(| frilly ]tcr. \\'ll; W hat fitw iwi l
tiep , o'v tirrive ls fulfill is lro'ldctmtitml. ri'I lh, 1thc inc1 1114,
n i Nil'r i n, t li t i imo | >3 .4.-l.ii 11,,i or it little il c b' fo e llt n t ia ll -1 n irk, il. 'i'lin
tli\.linmy hn1 t'et in LIt ,.' icr ;il' in l;oi He. 'vcril Imirs. frequ t "f ," lotlht
s1 e ies, ,,"I' l',. .... 1 I lll.... Il tl- I'I Ini1 h i l lh llu c
f b rrs (he .l. S ). Af .s it req ires ile on t tw,, f t /.4 i t 4
wtl's for Oilw rli,-h to ivheloy i it is mnot Prom -i t '
abhle that tiey aire htiid inHiWh Parlir thalin o il ii
Itr tIe li t i .,l.l ,, to F ront ,xaII- e a.m 1
illation ,f n1;n1y btrrs g,; tli red in Ithe fall I I -
of i11e Il \ Mr. 1. (t nritt. of thle Hlr ia n dt
il,,f I' l, iil,,1, v.', wl io visited sol e io (l i .'( th
principal he.1 -tnllit f\, or. of 1 isl viWi iii i a -. h'ni ,.v
3111+J/+fi V~t+ Ir.7I inlll lt ( ic Il v++lt-l (i 1
and \,lir',li ;I ii: t the ill :''Iil retqllest+< ()f *" ii.' +i,+h.+ ,1t i..,-, vr+m~nii vi w H t
eIll' ill tlihos tla l'> it is dt,1 ced thlat the r*'"* i*',"'*r*sfi aitinr+.
lir-t e- _,- de[posited nre Iniil (seldoi aind
\,i \ -|iiii'_ly) in tile loft, woolly niin trial thiroilndii,-, itie forii -ii-,
nllbut t hlaer :liey sire il4v nseted in tht, ke~rel jiis tnder tlie inner
-kill. anid occasl-iolalIlly theylw il, deplositiedl someit\whait illore deeply. In
Io sll hia s t(lte "._'..l II i fo nd in the on lter husk.
1'__" ar,, l ai d h -in ,_d liitl mal a eplla ed i l in a -illtzl,, nnt, as liigh as
IP lf morw (up f (|th alleT weevil) in 1impotdl inits, and asiu vai as
9 in native Hll-s. Thl, lanI.\ > wx\liein haii ed feeo oi, tf(e tiss)I[ II td he
1, 1 k 1 I.r It-, In,-lsi, larih il '"_, witII tI Ilei r owI m I rowl Ih (I ie cells lhius iiade.
W li,.ii, A, is IIsua il, several ( lar a II I 1 illih itI the -inill It!It. thIe interior+ is
!1 r e!1 r l e ss'+ c +, ii[, t 'l, t,' H h io llo wv e d o llt .ili. I lli a._sselli s o f c. x c relnll t'ie t
are :it l'l I. hiin lin, I !).
vBy lite end o)f Stemlhnber or tie I Hst wt"eek of f hjtcr tli h INeth, dIi-
app1 1ar. A t j the -jiIlii. lIfill.. w\lien ilie w itlls f1ist fall. thIp, IlnIa% I),~
,..i to IMitl'r1nn Hitd isstIle from rolled orifices which t' ey ,_'l,.iw thX i,,'1_,,m h
the shell aip 1d which I ,-\i1-v inT dhianete, r f rol1i one-six'teen th of a IIhich, in
the case of the saller slNehs, to I,,i,, il.hth of an ich 0 i thi e 1 ir-.1vr
(see 1i0.. 7). IQ- the siz/e of these, holes alole it cain he readily deter-
ined is i is the dominant' olie in ali iy i locality, IRarelv
et i r -' ,'

larva- bore through the burr. On le.;iviiig the nuts they burrow into
the earth to depths varying from 2 to about 8 inches,. according to the
hardness of the soil. If confined in -ot't earth or ,.liid they penetrate
still deeper. The larval period probably lasts from three to tive weeks
in the nuts, and about ten months in the earth, pupation t making place
within three weeks of the issuance
/ of the beetle, the latter remaining
several days in the earth before
t Pi pal Fl1ring above ground.
The beetles do not fly readily, but
'// '4 cling tightly to their resting place
e '- 'or drop when 4isturbedi; yet, ns
their bodies are not heavy and their
: _-__: _'' w \itg., stru-ng,_,, they are obviously
Fir. 7.-C('hinquapins, showing injury by le- able to cover considerable dista nce,.
ser chestnut weevil at left;with the wind. Ordina-
at right. F.r, ,r d (original).
rily, however, they are .lulffi.h.
like most other weevils, and probably do not gi far from the vicinity
of the trees which have sheltered them as larva, althoughh they
undoubtedly inigrate when food is scarce.
A natural enemy of the nut weevils is knii mn. a small four-winged
wasplike fly, the braconid parasite U1,d1Ai,,,.sii n (rmatu .,IIII.,
which develops in the body of the larva.'
The most practical remedy for nut weevils that can be ii-ggested is
the early destruction of the wornis in the nuts by means of bisul-
phid of carbon and the observance of clean orchard inanaiigemient and
other cultural methods. It may be well to preface the discussion of
these methods with a statement of the uselessness again t nut weevils
of ordinary measures employed in the control of similar insects.
STOMACH POISOXs.-The peculiar structure, in the nut weevils, of
the mouth-parts (minute mandibles placed at the end of a beak nearly
as fine as horsehair and as long or longer than the body) is almost
sufficient proof in itself that these insects do not feed on leaves, hut
depend for sustenance onil the substance of the rovingig nuts. The
beetles first appe..iriiinL feed on the oiindh\, loped. verv oullg nuts and
the juices within the husk. I'Thlere is, t therefore, no .eenlillg possibility
of reaching them with a spray of Paris green or other stomach poison.
aTWo other insects are :01"-iaiiriid with the weevils and are priliilil.v also
Ixheir enemies, a rii- ,t rt if 'iui parasite, Trichasis rufliji's Ashl., and a predatory
rviliniii tim,. tcholna mulfi9pi9M1a DeG.
[Cir. 99]

PiN I.-liargtr Iwhetnut w -vtl n Ih iniuiplin hIrrs Tw I natural sIi/- mrkln I,.
[Cir. ':




FIG. D.-Imported nuts, showing different forms of Injury by nut weevils. I-Parry's
(iant nut, showing exit hole of Balaninus proboscideus; 2-Same of B. rectuim. :-
Interior of 1' ir.j',n nut, showing lirva, of B. rectus In situ; 4-Snim,. showing work of
one individual of BIt. proboscideu;: 5--Reverse side of figure 2, showing scars made hv
puncture of female B. rctus in .% i,-ii inz: 6-Reverse of figure 1, with pun lur. nf
B. probosidecus. All natural size (original).
[ ir. 99]

pli'licularly ais we areit unable to iliv U tie =ins i eticile where ll, ,
',iill rw t I ,m,,li Wd kill 1the1 .
'I \I' t 'iil'S.-T lie 1cultila tAio of IMMilil variei ie, A if nuti w Iit il
\ t. ii iiil I 1i ii ii iil im iti y fr1 tiiit it it_ I i liii1 11t If hit il l' li,
Ili-,'cts fl',,ii tii* maui crop +lules nit uut|,r liV .1, 21, o f pomiue. Thi'
I rlii'. ni,,ll. Cooperl n Ild l I,1... I, \ v ri tsllq,-. a +ciorlii,._t, Ino M r. Ii. 11.
I' M i 11ll. ,,1' tllit H ii-,..ii I f lh nt I i eliiIrt s li 1 ii -+ [ (,I Icr los frill
,.,vil nattaick than JapiiF!il^, \vriet+.+ ('hliila|ljiidi|ji im e failvrel+ Itn
llir in lla Ier w evil aild -Iiltrlcr far itiorl .i.ii i-,+ a riiul, lhalin ild
li.- tnnlst1 It i iossiile thlA thlie ]'l. iiii 'o f thIe warietli- splc, jit i.
ii'. better, oif clhillq ii|tl ls, atl intiierval aro tint. ;:I Il- o t)lii,,n_'lj.
irlii iil,- oif tin' lea-st Aiileetl VIarliptV li ii_,.lii lescsei tlhe I') -u to he
liniiii crop. If a varit'iy coul ld be iwpoduicdl w ticli w oiNlild ititl' fruit
I,,.furl the O idveit of the beelis in greallit nuItili'r[. thi- woIldl
ialliially solve thei l prold mni. i);rtuiciil!l I t liTc enillie ut huts I riii,
theI hilhwilt priices. Tile hut ilt ,ilicri d tow[ardl Oie end of liie s"lsohll
are couiparatively unlilijured, buht y i his- tine tflite market v;alie is
fonll-i~l,'iId "iolvelower
(''NTI''T lPIlls.i S.- -'il'(ly vuiorll cali Ibe expected from)i the1i use of
vilialact poi-ni-. msuch i keriolsenii eiilt l ,sioln. .ic ill vi i\\' I tIhe1 ili-,
period1 pnt ly tlihvtse weevi -ls in thle adult m'.i. ( Mfroii iln.+, anid il iily
to S.ptiiilnln or O(ctolbr) s-chli f,, i.q ii|li ,ar. v that the explels-e would destroy tihe' profit.
I.1 N(; TIlE TREES, a-s practiced .iL-a'.ini ie ii lhni eiircullio. is for
thin,' alme lli l other resa-oill-s equally imnpracticable., ll.-ave. perli;lp-. on
VoI'llp tree- L'tiluii iln a simll wiay.
THit: WATER TEST OF INFESTATIIOIN. I( v il-, ig illts of tle, fli.-.niy of
thi- old-fashioned test of tlie diIiteretice 1i etweAn "i' wtori rlil and
heaiiilthi lilt-, ian experinient wa-s inihe liv thie writer with natiM e
chi,'-tnuts obtained from aI st reet veI' dcer. Tl !.. Ii\. ii per ceit were
obvi iin-I wormny," andil only *I p" i ce1t li!pii renltly soliind.
A" uIt awit h nflli ,f I i w, ith a iIi+ P'f l l Sl t .

NIute with r IN'r Na Ii!r r-. a
I'Blnt el ..-..-. -............. ......... 1t [n i 'rl a t l ue lit a I o .... .. ii
Slum I' L" rnlita' niarka onliy; g Iiavu r sasr f .e ........ ... .... *Sf i lll' ii Batd l ... ...t.......a.. I;
i',,nltarii~na ful+lraowa n grub-a........ 10 r i(inila ly Hllal ith Kli i . I
I ',l I lii'L* tntluta ra b gn .......t >i

As It \11 be -seen from thlis ex| 'rimniet noticeilhy wornimy nts. ais
evid lenced by lo-0 of \,'i-,lil and the exit ihole- of the worls,"
iniaturally rise when pla....1 in wiiater. hut the iirii iiii iits all iv or
niiy not be infested. :iid hence require further test than whether
theYv will sink or float.
tCIr. ,,]

BIsuIPiDn) OF C(ARBON,.-The value of hbi-iplphid of carbon as a fumi-
gant for chestnuts infested by weevils is now fully estal)lished.
Although at first thought it would seem diflicvilt for the gas to pene-
trate thr migli shells so firm and compact and kill the larvae, neverthe-
less a prominent grower in Pennsylvania uii.c ,-fiilly uses the bisul-
phid. applying it when the nuts are first harvested. The dead weevil
larvaw are at this time so small that the aver.ig, person would never
detect their l,.cii'e. while if they were permitted to develop they
would soon destroy the nut for food. Bi-.ilphid of carbon has been
used on the la rge.t chestnuts griown I in this country, aMid. since a .score
or two of larva find shelter in a single nut, one can appreciate the
desirability of prompt fiinig.ition. The griower mentioned lise;
bisulphid of carbon at the rate of 1 ounce to a bushel of Paragnon nuts
placed in a kerosene barrel of about 50 gallons capacity and covered
by sacking. After an exposure of about sixteen hours the nuts are
removed, the larva' 1'eing then practically all de-troved. Several
hundred pounds were treated in 1904 in this manner with pl)erfectly
satisfactory results. To verify reported results, MIr. Pratt was
detailed to visit 'the infested orchard and witness the process. This
method could be empl)loyed at less expense by using tightly fitting
covers, the eectiveness of the fminigation being in exact proportion
to the tightness of the receptacle and the length of exposure to the
fumes. Therefore, a longer exposure of one or two dayq. with per-
haps one-half ounce of bisulphid, should accomplish the same purpose.
SCALDING AND DRYING.-Some growers make a practice of plunging
the nuts as gathered into boiling water just long enough to kill the
contained insects and yet not injure the nuts for sale. after which
they are dried before being marketed. This may be profitably accomin -
plished by u-img a large sieve, which is filled with iiinut. dipped in the
water, and removed in about five minutes. The late W. P. Corsa
used a washtub, in which was placed a bushel or so of nuts, pouring
in enough boiling water to come an inch or two above the nuts.
Then, by stirring vigorously with a stick, the lulk of the weevilly
nuts would come to the surface in the same manner as do peas and
beans a tffe'tl by weevils." The infested nuts are skimmed off and
ide-t r,'vd, or they may with profit and safety be fed to hogs, pro-
vided the animals do not have a too exclusive diet of this form of
food. Salt water, it is chliinied. is preferable for scalding. the brine
serving to keep the shell soft and pliable and rendering the kernels
more palatable than when not thus treated.
Different methods are employed in drying. A good way is to place
the nuts in the sun and agitate them occasionally by stirring or
a Note the writer's observations on this ieaiid on p. 1f.
[(ir. 90]

Ili-aliin; in) a I,.,. ul il r lai I II,, lg ly dry. I% cause if mois iure r*mY i .s
i, ,.ii' :,u it it apt to f w lti h hl the iiiuts are lj pr um tuiirelv
p'.a'cked fur shilml'liet.
NutO, f,, phalim-ll shomhld li(t he sm hhcald andl van- shomhld Iw taken

'.Iaim that the hit- water trieatitent is objvtioiiable Iecasime the int-
-0I,.1s h -o t ceirtaili dh.'o "f iuliVA. i, i,.l, lit11..," them h,-, &h-is raldh
fl"r l i' lket.
I IFTr. Infietld hinlts cal In suhjt'edl to a t'imi'rnatulre of be-
I ",'tl 125 FI. alHd l:0o F. M ilthit ill juiiL tn, Ti for food ior fur
-,.,d. and thi li, will effect tl uI d, ct It in of lthe liirv'i witlhiin. Sutow
-.rii.,r- f' chcf t li'nts de-It roy, t -he wele ils I\ kiln i,,..
(',,i i, ouiA .--('hold -liii.i, ha"S 6,1CII employed and is successful
il Urnv-tini..' the dlv\loiiiiillt of (the hur'a 4 AThe ap)learane' of lhI'
fills i scm'arlcety >Ilit' lli from that of tliose not so storedI. ihut tnuts
ii Is treated ai id suihittedI to tiht, writer after ','li Iin,- dr 1 w1 ere
,lilicienti illn tlavor, havii. aln acrid aind mohlv taste.
\. crude forim of cold -iis r.i,._' hals Iien suiccsst filly fhlowe* Il\ by
V'iii-i groWier. It consmist in |l:u id in, ults ill the tarth Uiiiidt, tlh'
-l,'ide a1it1'1i-114I l1v his house. wlhere tlie soil tenfiperatumn, after the
11111s are ailn it'red. tltes not exceeil .i>0'\ Since ti14 st Iiscct s are ilinat-
liAe hehovw 51' this iha the At,, t of restr.iiiniii-, their development.
c.lii-ili- the e. L.' or 1iin1te lir0 a, to die.
l1r1:1 \I ITI \ 1,:s.
('11 1 i OF i,(1 ATION FOiR TH 1i-'l ItlMA 'Th selection for the
hlliilin o 1r Ot' g lfllig tof che.tili ntt f a locality with referencet, to he
i liices of immunitv from injury by nut weevil is a miatiter of great
ilmplol'tance. For thlii- reason it is iiost iundlhesirahle to plait in t lie
ilimediate v icinitv if woodland iii ii idli i,' in wild chestnut and chlin-
ilii;|ini. since these t, rees furnish natural ',r,,diiL-. places fn i the in+
-ct-. and are. therefore, a collsianut tienacle to s1iccel"fiil f chestnuti
1,'ilture. Too freque(ntlly grotvers suir losses from wee s eil cause't
ili.y iitL'lh't to gtither the wihid cliestnults or cl inquapins in tihe iim-
mdiate vicinity o(f their cultiviiated roves. Anl(ither phase of bad
liiitia'llelic] it which is 'l,,ii,'ui i] practiced is the -iii'.iftL of culti-
vwited varieties on native chestnuts prowitii- in rocky anid uneven soil.
Often ion 0i il-i01". as shown in tiLi4i, 11. In such pIlaces it is inipos-
.ille to harvest a complete 't -p. and. what is of i Jiual inmportalice, to
ir.4ilr the reniiiants. 1hence. to secure, tliese results, it is inilpern-
iive to plant oc rTiift trees on simooth t igriuid (I-I,. 12). i'-in for the
'ike f economy, and second to permit thle collection of all of the
nulilts. 1ii0eli, l1Oe for thile 111,111Lriltion of weevils. It i- also neOces
-iry to keep the soil clean of li.i,:i '.,. as -hown at the left of ti-.
lire 1--not overgrown with bruiA. as illustrated at the riht.
EcIr 99]


CAREF'1,71I HARVESTING.-It is always advisable to gather the entire
cr0op, leaviiig none on the gaoul. arnd cipher place the nuts in tight
receptacles or fuiigate with bisulphid of carbon before marketing;.
1lir LIiZI-' crawl out soon aftvr the nuts have been gatlhred. and as
they require considerable moisture they will die if confined in closed
barrels or boxes. The trouble is that enough nuts are usually left in
orchards or in adjoii ig wood or forest land to serve for the propaga -
tion of the insects the folio" jl g year. In order to make the method
of treatment here described thoioiigb. it will be necessary to secure the
cooperation of itighIlb riig landowners who gr ket and of all who own woodland containing chestnut and chiniquapini.
The collection of remnants can be made I,\ children or thn unem-
pl] e 'dl. It is also profitable to allow hug- the run of the orchards to
destroy what nuts remain after the crop has been hiarvested. In th-
mountainous sections of Vii- riniia and Pt-iiy'; Ovauiiia it is a common
practice to fatten swine on the iunpiclild fallen nuts. ILu)" fatten on
nuts and acorns as well as on corn, and without. expense to the grower.
COOPERATION.-Tin- results of the observance of clean fanniuig on
the lines that have been indicated may not at once be apparent, but in
course of time, if this work is systematically carried out bY all grow-
ers over a considerable territory, infestation will be very materially
decreased. An important point is to ascertain how far the insect-
fly. Their structure indicates that they are strong fliers and capable.
with favoring winds, of iiiigr;iting cuii-idpni1>1 distances; but under
ordinary circumstances they probably (1o not fly many miles at a
time or in a given Year.
(Balanimis caryx Horn.)
With the increase of pecan culture in our southern States frequent
inquiry is made in rgirard to the cause of the holes in the nut-
(fig. 10), amd during
1 903 and 1904 there
were report- of great
iniiivof this nti u iv.
more particularly to
pecans grown in Texa-.
P'. -where considerable los-
wasreotd idi
(u~orgria. where in one
locality -5i .per cent, of
the crop was a failure.
FIG. 10.-Pecan nuts showing exit hole of pecan weevil larva. A hliniitige has One-third enlarged (author's illustration). b r t-
been reported in Ms
sissippi. The insect involved in these cases is the pecan or hickory-
nut weevil. a pest which is evidently destined to become one of tht
[ICir. 991

.1. I? I t~

Fiw. 12.-I'r, chestnut growing n plan t surface,. where h Tean methdsI of Iultvation
can be practiced.
[Cir. 99j

principal drawbacks to the cultivation of the pecan. Indeed, in many
parts of the South it already divides that distinction with the husk-
worni,. so that it has been truthfully said that what the hu.-k-worni
leaves the weevil destroys.
T'1, beetle (fig. 13) is about the same size as the larger chestnut
weevil, from which it may be ilitiiigti-lilcd by its much diuletr color
and by the relative lengths of the first aiid second antennal joints, the
first jiint linlg l longer than the second in the p<-cani-infe-ting species.
The larva differs from that of proboscideus in being decidedly yel-
low, having the head bright
Sj! re'd :in, wider than long. Its
Cervical plate also is darker.
-* The pupa is similar to that of
the larger chestnut weevil.
0 l .The distribution extends
1 from New York to the G(ulf.
and westward at least to Iowa.
S"'Thel life history of this wee-
b vii, as it occurs in the pecan
a in the South, is, so far as can
C bfe gathered from reports from
FiG. 13.- Pecan weevil (Balaninus carya): a, Female, G(ei'l'rgia and Texas and from
dorsal view; b, same, lateral view, in outline; laboratory experiments, very
c, head with rostrum and antenna of male. About
two and one-half times natural sie (author's similar to that of the chestnut
illustration), weevils. According to the ob-
servations of Mr. H. A. Halbert, at Coleman, Tex., the female begin,
to deposit her eggs in August while thle pecan is still immature, and
the larva usually escapes from the nuts in the latter part of Septem-
ber and in October; but most of them do not issue until the husks
open, allowingg the nuts to fall. In Georgia they have been found in
the nuts as late as the middle of January.
The same care in the selection of the site for a pecan orchard is
advised as in the case of chestnut culture, with this di t'erence. that the
grower should avoid planting in the vicinity of wild pecan and hick-
1'rv of whatever kinhl. The entire crop. also, .lilnlil be Iharvested or
hog-; should be turned in to devour what nuts are left. At Thorna--
vile. Ga.. Mr. Wilmon Newell observed in 1904 that where swine and
chickens had I,1ud access to a pecan rov,. the ground was well rooted
and scratched up and there was less loss from weevils than in the pre-
Tih' ground color is uniform dark brown, nearly black, and the scaly cCt feiigi
(which characterizes the chestnut wiqi'vi .) in this species is hair-like on the
tlhorax, fiinle and somewhat sparse on the wing-covers, and much duller. with
little or no mottling. Moreover, the beak of the female is, comparatively, a little
shorter, a Ithollmgh of about the s.ame curvature, 1nihl is less w\ idc'midi at the base.
[ Cir. 9)1

\,u js year. lE:videnItly 1otth II.I- and ,I ..lrNy devour tllt larva in thei
.\ t tine that bi si phi of 'a rb, i was tirst -I: .I_' -l ed as, a rentdy -
Ir 'I chestI nut wI oris it was ', r, I I hat tI,; ie tirin aIl I oin I pI;1it slll
t.,ninld ha.'rdly pernmit tihe i2;ii to penelltrate anld kill tilt. contaiined hlr\ve.
x 1ience, howeI er, has shoIwn that this rtItne Ilv is succi's flt in tI he
cii- f c hes tnuts, anIti is not i osil hat it .i : lt I e ada pted to
]1.i'alt -. ii-.i'in a lii.r'ri a otInu)Int of the elitical and a IliiLr'' exptIsIrc
in ;i pefv'r, ly tighlit *1 r pt:v l. We ca(t a vyet t sr'l V advise thi i
ilv.hodi on a larit r scale. blt it s-lihild Icrtaintlv be tried --\pi iiii\iil;illy.
TrleI I \ z I.NI T W1E1vII..
(lii IIit/,n0 ,' ohtt;UMUK Kilclllc.
I lazel nuts or ilblirts are injiired in tiite tle IIani(* mannerI asI aret
cItliuts and lans and la y a si;ila r w eCv il. Injury was r ; ..'i iized
HI, 0 iIrl\ as 111. but wasi attrilUted to
o, her species than that itnder conlidlera-
tiohi. Owing to the ,. ,ip' ratively I light v. I ,- '
in,,iii'lti,',e of the hazel as a nitt tree in l l/
this country, f'v notices of los-ses frl',ii 7
%tee-vil attack have been recorded. he1 110(1
weetvil which :i till -I the nut was not il .
ilti'teretiliilin'tl front others of its- kindly -
iit1til 1 Y 1. In 1 t it was rel)ortetd as I
lmaIlv )aI iiia iii IhazeIlnuts in Iowa. I m 0
Tlhe Ieetle (fig. 14) differs from others U a it
which attack edible inits. exclusive of Fw,, i-t.--ittitnt w1e1 iinnmns
l *t i l i ii.ei lufl/f ,Badntt: a. Fematle. dorsu1
1114,0i,'-1. lv its shorter, llmorle robust forill hd fro sde' e, ha o
111 shorter beak." It is alboit oile- anle fr, -i) i.t EItIarkg. (origTinal.
firth of an inch in iii,.lli. and the
lbea k do es not exceed half t he l,,ic .l, of tit oll Iv. Tlihe vest it ure
Vairi,- from _i .iy to ochronsi, and the el vtra are Inodcratelv mottled.
Tlhi.-1,'ii,- ocilurs from M.N;isichlIst-tts and Ncew IIl; ii linshire west-
wi'rd to Miinii'-ota and Texas. Injiti lias Ibecn noted in .lai-';ilii-
*-ett.. New York. Indiana. Iowa. ind Minnesot Ia.
Of the life history little has I-een recorded It.vidI tite f:i'I that the
wo', issues from the s'ide of the nut. and that paired adults have
beeti found on hazelnuts inll July.
Since hazels are not cultivated in this coilntrv to lany \. IltI.. no rein-
cdv need be .iii ,lovh, other than g:Itl,, I riii, entire crops and destroy-
ing isolated bushes where it is i-inrofitable to t.,ilh.r tIe nuts. It
wolidl be quite possible. owing to til, small size 'if tihe hazel plant, to
cot ili' II this species bv jarri ii l. as for tie pl!i It curcul io.
IThe appelndlt.s of til claw: ar% ... nll r'cta ., tl lar. ail tlhr n r ihIhs are
I1' rn.Ir t with large tIeth. Th, scape of thit int'nna In the T fmaln e I ".
[Cir. 991 0



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