The leopard moth (Zeuzera pyrina Fab.)

Material Information

The leopard moth (Zeuzera pyrina Fab.)
Series Title:
United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Entomology. Circular ;
Howard, L. O ( Leland Ossian ), 1857-1950
Chittenden, F. H ( Frank Hurlbut ), 1858-1929 ( joint author )
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
8 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Leopard moth ( lcsh )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"Issued July 6, 1909."
Statement of Responsibility:
by L.O. Howard and F.H. Chittenden.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029649998 ( ALEPH )
28141415 ( OCLC )
agr09001696 ( LCCN )

Full Text
r77' b iw/

CIRCULAR No. 109. "1 J. i... i-., I .i, '
United States Department ( W ricIlture.
L. 0. HOWARD. Entomologist and Chief of Burreu

(Zrii.r'- a /.ijriiia I.lj 1o
By L. ). low.AkRi' andI F 11. ( nIrrrv: N K
INTlII'('To )lY.

Deciduous trees of many kinds. grown fur slhinle anil f,,r ''
in northern New Jersey andl eastern New Yirk. art- siulijt it,
injury by the larval slage of the Eu'pt Iean le'pardI iinllI Zi, int
pyrina Fab.). -miong the shade trees, elms an',] i in1lhs suffer tlie
greatest damage, but as this species is i very general freiir it it :irk..
practically all descript ions of trees alind shrubs wit lih I ex, ,ption i,,f tlio
evergreens. In thle regi in imentione(l tliis -periev. is. r.vryviliiirg sidered, the most serious menace tot le grtI vt li 'if .huinf rhad es. I i. ie.
unlike the majority if lepidopteris insectl.. th li .rv:r 4f i lie h'.ipard
moth d(i not feed upon lthe foliage, but b.ire int I' lle bInranches if lthe
plants which they infest iandl feed up inm lite li\ in',_, NI.l. Ti.. l.irvza
usually begin operations in twigs and small 1ri nrhu,- :anil sitlii ithir
larger growth bore andi tunnel into tlie h.irger Irinclvs I a:ndl trilrnk-.
This work has tlie effect -if girdling, thle injuriI pi rtii n,. li,'ing blown1
down by heavy wind storms, % while in tlie C.:,i, if w.vrv'r,1 atilk tli,
growth of the tree is checked, I. frequent lv l im-i,'. it-, 'iatli. At Ilt, k is
not confined solely to shade and ,,rinerint :l plant-. lbunt air',r. ,re
often injured.
ESC' I "1% E}:.
Injury by this species is accinplislheudl ".l-'lv 1) hlie lrvi. which is
a fleshy. grublike caterpilliir, pale. y in (,, I.r. fr,,irntilyv v ilhi
a pinkish tinge. The head. th,,irix, .i'l:il aii l pl.iit,. ;,ar Ie i>i'n h-
black anid thie surface of lie bldy i-. verY >|nir-ely hiirv Iiot ,v,,rel
S F.a-mily i"iti*;,. Syn,,nyvmn 11i Z11T a 11" j.a T '- n f' ,
8786S- i'Ir. 1I)9--9 --.. -:. . i


with large anl prominent tubercles arranged as shown in the
illustration (Jig. 1, (). When fully mature the larva attains a total
length idf about 2 inches. A lateral view of the larva in its burrow
is shlwn in figure I at ,'.
This speqcits drives its name from the spotted appearance of the
moth, illu-trtliel at figure 1, a, b. There is great diversity in the
size of the two sexes, the female (a), which is a heavy-bodied moth
and a very feleble flyer, being much the larger. It will be noticed that
the smaller male (hi, has a more slender body-, which permits a more
ready flight. anid is :;ilso) distinguished from thle female by the pos-

~~~~0 111o,6 t
*W4 d* i *e i sM(, I

,.I* o. 1e .i* ip 1
*w .. .. ,.*I -'.-. sy- '
*.n- p"I' -" ,, to.14'" s *. wa4I I
^ ... ,( I, *'*e/*; g/"e" 6

^* I "'^r '*^ '*. \, I i S^S,

t *f' E lre O al.
t_ s ,a;.

sessio. o" ba ..a T.
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session of broad bipectinate. or feathery anteanne. The wings are
semitransparent and white, thickly dotted with blackish spots
which are more or less distinctly tinged, giving them a dark blue or
greenish cast. The thorax is marked with six large black spots and
one small one, the latter being located in the center. The female has
a wing expanse of upwards of one anti a half inches, while that of the
male is much less.
An empty pupa-case in its cell in the wood is shown in the illustra-
tion at d1.
[Cir. MI]


"r ie I'lv ird IIil i Iik,. s I iil:uII\ IotIler .I; L1iT,' ,, l- I,- i-. is a -'ilr, i. in
specie's h' iwl r i.i.-,,n in tro duced iint4 the I'iitt'dl Stales inl coi-
parniilivT elv I'l'll ,i. Its old world distribution is credited aL
cenlitral niiil siiautlvrli I'.iiriM. southern S\\ e.i .1sL othwestern tAfrir:.,
Algeria, niii nortihernI M NIi'rIcco, anid tle western portion of Asia Milnir.
This specit- \\, niiintroduced into the U'nited Stiates somille time
prior to 1S7!, in w\li h li \ iir, oln the ant hority of I ,f .N I, .1 l D, II I
living ni 111th W L cii captured in a spider's web at Il.i1,-kri, N. J.*- In
1S.4 Dr. E. }1. Siutl I\ irk. then entlii l ..i-'t of the piIlili. parks .f
New York ('it'. ricognii.n il the destructive work of this .f.-ri,. in
Central Purk.b In 1.s.,7 it was seen at Ne\ark, N. J., but was inot
actually reehordld as ,ciLiirrilln in this country iinill the i',ll-i. i u
year. In i sM) tihe junior author observed the moths at electric liQli. s
at Orange. N. J.
Fortunately the spread o(f this in-,ect. particularly in the immediate
vicinity v of New York City, has been \cr\ shlow, a fact w which mnay he
attributed to several iiu-,I-. (1) the slowness of the flilI, i of the
female, (2) the dominance of -parr'' in lrirma i i,-. .,.nira.. our
native birds, sudih as wI",dleakr.. to be driven to the country, w here
they destroy tlie moth-,. and iS the bowl-shaped electri,-lii_,!t globes,
hollow atit the top and closed at the hi.utmi,. which were formerly in
general use in our large cities. Tle males are .t attracted to
brilliant lights anI inidnv were captured and perished in these ;4l,,,s
in earlier years. Other cities in New Jersey w here this species has
been troublesonime nare Eliza.ib i. Irvingil. M,.iirl;air, .\Arlington,
Asburv Park, (O)ccan r,,ve, and New Brunswick. Mr. II. M. Ri..-..11
of this Bureau cllertied specimens at BriI_','e.-rt, (',iin in 11,il.
The species is now ani inhabitant also oif Sit.i Is land and Ihas spread
on Long Islandl well M evymi the ward it as report ed I p,-t. in l'il, at Ocean ( ir,,e. X. J., and b\
1905 it was recordeI Iv Felt as oraiurrin,_ at Kensico, N. Y., 25, miles
north of New Yirk ('ii. By l',vI7 it was captured at New.\ II\l.ri,
Conn.. iby Prof II. \W. Foote. It is now stated to be iujnrimii- in the
vicinitv if l-iltl, \1.*[--.
In its origiinalli hmine the leopard moth is recorded as living on a
considerable number 4f common ir,.-. in,.ldil ,l_. .iii,. lime or liil,.ni.
ash. beechl. lbirch. w-limut. n:ik. h e-timult. poplar, alder, "nilA. rarely,
horse-chliestiniut. Amion, orchard trees it is rp'alrted to do iQnjumr to
pear, apple, aml plum. In the 1'nied 1 S.,-,. it attacLks A.ll of tllhese
i Entomological New., Mianh, 1904, p. I lit bImct Life.L Vol VII, p. 138.
[Cir. lB!

trees amnd maniny others, the list including such important shade trees
as have been mentioned, as also practically all of the maples, elms,
and oaks, mnmiutain ash, tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), aspen,
the willows, and such shrubs as privet, lilac, and honeysuckle. A
list of trees which this species has been actually observed to attack
was compiled in 1S94 by Doctor Southwick and includes 77, observed
ill tie public parks of New York City alone. A total list of 83 trees
an,_ shrubs was minade at that time.a
It will be seen by the list of food plants already presented that
the number could be almost indefinitely extended, particularly in
reservations lik-e central l Park, New York City, and Prospect. Park,
ill Brooklyn. where special effort has been made to bring together a
great variety nf trees and shrubs. The in-
fsect, is, in fact. nearly omnivorous, attack-
^ ing, 'as previously stated, practically all
forms of woody plants which are of suitable
size for its purpose, with the exception of

i In Gernmanv the moths are stated to
make their appearance during July and
August, while in this cowitry they appear
I a s early as May and continue issuing until
late in September.
| The gravid female, being particularly
i heavy, is unable to fli very far or very
Shigh. She deposits her oval, salmon-col-
S ored eggs in a large mass or group, when
aSnot in confinement, and as many as 300
F. .. ,eggs have been counted in a single mass.
F iG. 2 I.--S(-:11 1 ,.,i L.\ ZJ H-.i0.iIU bur- ,' .i .
ruow and rdling eIi-Lt rrodu,.ed by This is, however, probably not the maxi-
I.. ,i It-.,i,'rel nioth. Reduced. Mum nu imber, since an est imate of as many
i From Iu;>r.t Lnilt.i ,,,i ,, m
SFrom I.':t Ie. aus 1,000 has been made. The eggs are in-
trOdtuced by the rather hard ovipositor into thle soft tissue of young
grow tl, where tihe bark is smooth, or are inserted into crevices in the
rough bamrk o-f older trees.
ThI larrvav soon hatch-in about ten days, according to Mr. J.
V. 1). Walker-and penetrate the wood, frequently entering the
nearest crotch but boring in ait other points, and burrow tunnels into
tlie liviart air pitl h of twigs and thlie heartwood of thlie larger branches
or trunks. When a larva lihas grown too large for the branch in which
it i, ft'cding it crawls out and migrates to a larger one. In a single
Sea. Ii -i o I'- 529', Rep Ent. N. J. Agr. Exp. Sta. far 1894. This article, by
Dr.J. lJ Sm.nith,'u r p.u% ,;. 51a7-33 and pres'entsa very com plete account of theinsect.
[Cir. l"ri

fi': tree Ii in,'in,. il, ,li ,inu tr.,r S'., i ,,ic,.k ,,li-,'rvi'iL ii. iii, ii, ;i- -.i I:rv:,'.
;++ll t ly Olr l,," ,,hlll 'l ,,,,,lllI| ll..l\ r lI,,.,.l ..l ,I,. t,, .Ir ,,l \ tl l r ., Ir if ,,Ii Ir,-
trOVee M rl .A1 llllll.,I \IT r,,I lilI ., l I II lll, l,,l Ii I1,..- '. -

WalS inf'-L'tg, il l (, (i it a r', , N .1 Olwi i :, ll .%% 'r:i;: :f fri'Ili
six to ightil li u Ir)-. I 1 I l, rI il, l l l.It fi' li,., i I l', ii'n l t'r'. -i T I II llifl' 'ii.
antti ill o ill' ii- 1 lire' il -. it, LI ii- t illth I -f -I '. Ill .1 -i'_' ir 1' 1 tIn'

certain s'im, iiI-- Ilik..l I.D l ri k*- ll of <.|icIil i r ii ; i 1,11-r.1 ; r I r
st,,rn f', r tlit, fiill-,..'r, l.,1'% :1 ill ,,.,i,, ,1'.,--, rl ,'- l llr- ,r ,, I,
T hle mi li n er ,f g irllii ,_" i m -I,,fn ., f tli. t, l| I tl,,. -,., f.,l i ,," '' ,<.. |
illustrIteli il ligii r '' I I''.1 .ili'f r r,.\ I.\ t 1iii ni 11 (Ill r i.l I 'lrkl
great (liitu itil ,'' ,, Illl,.-. t' -,'..i. -i, mt '1 it irrl, lh,'ikl ,11'"' .,i,'1
othi rs still lii in.,_'i t s. llit, I zr,1-.
l a, rvhirn w hin l I. iiii ii:tr,. t raii -l',i r -iii t,, l|i,, il,%> i t il1it, 1 lit-

il, r f. o'T1 Its lh ,nt, I'- tntuln~l,.hl 1,, f,,i' ,' l-i. x,, :,, al.,'ti\ ,utv ,it ili' butrr,,'''
buftt.r I.'il tini' l kii -ti li t-. "l1 1 I" ii1 [, iiI IIIe II', l -i'T, l i" r l |I, l'*
rtihu .iitc liii i a I In.I I- ', I I i I i % I II 'T i' -1 lt II I, I Ti, I V I -
t ri ,t l)I ., ,,i t II I rul' i liT-I. i H iii ii l II riill' li .;il I''.I l I I' ii i
unrpe inul it Ill i. I, iT- i' iiillx ,,i 1 ', i 'll1i l' ,i iil 1.-t -I iT lu-)Il .
after wh irl 'u ul iit ll -[ii ll 1l4I ;I t I Ill HO 11 P I I FLI'[Ali- 'xllil'

f t ill' f-ut I uIIIIIn, l I' 1 II, iiV t Il a iiI- i, lilir tj 1x It lii .-

8 T1ugl [rstal 0.iir "i'c'i iiiui lui' 'i if- 1 i'l~hiin li i- [ili.r~I AITr'. n lli
Rect' llitillrif II[IN l i c ll 11. ll.-l l l r i \ i rr ii- lr.--. %% li. |I Ni-.. it,-
thet' en l lt'tr i 'c I. i r i iit t i r i -. A f ri tI1' a t[,ii l,,r' i ii . I .i i .i, l
lfromt \vil tin hill t % 'it l kr it l i,. ,,I, .iiid i i 1l.--I t I i r I ", 'I Ti ii,', ii-
tain l t u ii It i a)Iir' I fi' t Iii f I, I''- '1 ,'u,,.- ., ,' lr ii-i il I i t
break ik ,IT ,Ill] iften ie i- ,tkIr v lu O w li f '-,\ it Ir'.al : l- it r niii lir-
have )'t'n l)rl imn..ii t ,ifl,,\u in blt liltr- i-\ I.,I'l t x iiiil i i. ii ulit, lrk
of th I n-4o rt i- lMr- r, ',..liip I ,l \\li. n', ll,. l r. .r l t IIr II
w orked j -,t uindler lli,, bI rk filnn-..l,lr. ,,l ,,'ii l ,.',.t -l',,-n,. lp.,\ Lnr.-
an ugly sn iir t-il t ''rr.i i 'if iit l i, ti n il, ,|, !II i'iI,, i

Cr r1 I; 0I. 9 1ln K".

N o( pect'ilic n itr l ,--tiv lir-, O|" f ln. l,.,, ii, r' i , l ,lwla,..,r -,i ll.l \ ,,
becn rtcor ih.,l in tlli >iiiil ,,Irl l- A ].'it, lI \,\.1
reared an indmh i't,'mii n t,. ,'lililidl ,,f ill-.I .l ,fa,,il'f n l\ -ir\ i i.,.."
I ll t n .x lil]illltil i' l lI ;it'. lf l ;,,..l ,,, -1-\ | r,.i l ,,f 1I l, l i i ,,%
from 'iti.s and ,ii .,,,,,,n, l., tllir ,,in -r. ,illin.i.,i lI,:- ,.,ni nn. Il,.
to f thl fact that it..ti l,,r'l- lir,,-il;il. l\ 1:-- 1 It d. l I.,ll --, 111- ,l l 'n-,i. I
in ciheck in tfli subnurl,.. A<.ln;il i'li,,rv, tii,, 1.1, t flit, Ir. :,-I ;ia p '.ir
to be w itntin,. lb nt th,,re art, ,lir 1' -t ,,f r,.ti l',,r ,.li ,' i,, l
birds, like thi,- wv,, l, itker-. %,hirli n;,ltir-.ll\ ,,.,k ,, ,r hi a l ,rk
anti collect t till kinds of bor.r-.. nr .y ,i, tili .i | i', 1- %%fil,, i W i- irl,. -\,, I|
a Entom M .i. Ma.I. Vol. X VI 1 I i It,. P. rh !.- .. !, .,. //,II l ii, .
m entioned by DR.,la T i Irr,, I \ii, .I% I 1'.i1 ,.'t- lI'. mI, T .ih Y 1'=! '.111 A I i-
(Cir. T0.11


that sparrows sometimes destroy the eggs or young larve in such
places. Smith has expressed the belief that when the insect suc-
ceeds in getting away from the outskirts of cities its enemies increase
in number, many insectivorous birds aiding in holding it down.
During the day the moths must be fed upon by birds and later
by bats and night-flying birds. The habit of the larvae of desert-
ing one twig and migrating to a larger one undoubtedly leaves them
exposed to the same natural enemies, as this has been observed to
happen in the daytime as well as after nightfall. It follows that the
protection of native birds, especially the woodpeckers and related
species, will greatly assist in restraining the undue increase of this
The protected and concealed manner of life of this species, as
shown by the life history, which will apply in the main to other
borers also, renders it. very difficult, of treatment by means of insect-
icides or other direct measures. The most efficacious remedial meas-
ure consists in cutting off and destroying affected branches and
in the injection of bisulphid of carbon into the holes or burrows
where the larvae are at work.
Pruning and cutting back.-Twigs or branches which, by their
wilting or by the frass which accumulates at the entrance to their
burrows, indicate the presence of this borer, should be carefully
searched out, the smaller ones pruned away and the larger ones
cut back, the amputated portions being promptly burned. After
windstorms, the affected branches which have fallen to the ground
and th_,se which remain attached to the tree should be collected and
burned. Wherever trees show that they are past recovery it is best
to take them out and promptly destroy them. The word promptly
is used advisedly, for this insect, as has been shown previously, fre-
quently migrates from one twig or branch to another.
Bisudiiiid of carbon.-In the case of young and rare trees and
others which show only a few larval burrows in the bark, bisulphid
of carbon is the best remedy and one which has been in general use
against the present species in the public parks of New York City. It
is injct(d'( into the openings of the burrows, and the openings are
afterwards closed with various substances. For this injection a
mechanic's long-spouted oil can of small size may be used on large
trees, but against a related species the wrTiters have made very good
use of a small glass syringe, such as may be purchased at any drug
store for ten cents. These glass syringes are most serviceable, be-
cause the exact amount ,f bisulphid may be seen when drawn into
the syringe and because the reagent does not injure the thread pack-
[Cmr. 109]


ing. Met ri n,." ai vi.-i1s mlay 1,kl'lii I Iml,eI. but it is iiimr. dillicullt to
measure the xini t imi niilll nill llh lllhiil acts on the [it father
packing. iulbler srii.,IZ.- 1', 1 1, li used beICauHIWilf rapid ,irr,',ini.
About it teavipooi. l'il if Olwir ciiiil bisulphid is t-llivic'il filr nlich
buI rro w.
FIr stoppingg tei. hh.s if,'r inji. li il- the licliiil. pllIv unil moist
vlav, (lvise II Iv som.j e. l inv i r iiN ii,.i f,. I0 I l sI s- eVrviceable 4s Iinfli i ui,
waix. (C>nl tnr iitiv yh, -ili-t ii itid for thle latter, or tlhe holes nay be
Ctloseil by in. rtil.'i 1 w,,,olidh n [Il I '.. :ild Ir1.,iii i. P r i ll0' '11- it I 'F level
willit tlhe triink. Ill til iia-e tlit, 'iitpjer shi1ild le tight, to exclude
water fromi rain.s. wliirh liui.lit i'ill to priiiro I e decoiiposition of the
surrounding \woiil or, iiiviie 1 ilI.r Iii' 1t. like black ants and v-v.,iinil-
arv iorers, of tlIiichI Il'r, lir, an ini \ -'. ii'-. atnd iaijiin'i ii' fili i.
Ca i-rbon lisnlpllid -'llill I,, lI l\il 11d with thIe usual precautions
against fire, uhicih iniiii- llini till operator should olit sluoke while
at work. Althlionih in diiillv poi-,li. it will not injure ordinary
trees when a)lppll ie s l,-.cril i .
Aidh7i o'ith iii-;r,,. It i p,,,--ilil to reach and destroy some larve'
by lorcing ait copper ,,r oilier pliia le wire into the channels. Tis- is a
well-known bore'r rein d'v. It i- iinpossi.ble, however, 1\ this means
io kill the insects in, nil c.-,e-. 'owinI to the li-iwili or crookedness of
the burrows. Bisulpl iif ,i irliii .liwiill then ie used.
Eht'tlric liqhts -'I' whll t extent electric Iigliit are serviceable as an
;iencvy in the ilisi ructi'in if tlie moths ,of this borer has not been
dtliinitelv ihlertnineii. (Odl. Nilli'la.. Pike and Dr. 1. B. Smitli.
however, have 1lIvi' placini, slitllow pInis around eh.ctrir-lirIht
poles in and arumind parks Io uttnrt t the moths. The pans are plir-
tially tilled witli wnter anil a few drnp)- 4f k-t-r,'lnt, are poured into
them. The moih-. livnim. a, in,.t the Il'ibe.-. drop into the pans and
are promptly killed when itI.y come into contact with the oil. In
this way manv miles .ciin be destrii ed.
In.prchiit.--Inl Iirlre piirk.- lie destruction w riiught blv this l),,rer
annually is antl iplioirlantil item, aind it will be foiindI a source oif profit
to establish a s1'1 t in -if inspecti'iii coInsisting in the emniphlivyment f
parkkeepers and Il iys. and others who iiay lie enliimtedI at lower
a During i h' .1 ar- ii ih, iiiiiniritiih "lintury a I'l,,i row of lii-.iiiilli red ks
borild rint Iho, si n'i-i h. iw ii iO. ,rmindln 4 i, if the Department of .\.ri,'ilt ir. and thoso
of ihe Siniilh' limiiiioini wir, ha'llv infested I the related carpenter worm
( Prionojxotsl'.. rob m,i FIir' i .N' anlri ,w\rr tree was iitf, -i, '1 and frequently two or
three burrows sh,. 'Id ilw'w rlI. ir lp-i '.f thr irunmks. Riiulphil of '*airl.cii as ,ppli.-il
as described above. and Ili hi's \ '- lsril with ii irai'ii' wax. A yvvar later no insects
S could be found at work. butl wlii rwvIr hi-t remedy lih:lI been .ipplilI a minall scar
S remained. Two years lat'r hie., hlad entirnly .liapp,.-ari-,l and the trees looked as ii
they had never been iniesred.
[Cir. 109]

8 I111111111 11111111 1 11 11 1 1 1
3 1262 09216 5439
wages, to keep a constant lookout for evidences of borer attack's .
valuable trees. On this head Southwick has reported that in. 1 W L
he spent two months in fighting this insect alone in the city par ... t .'i:
New York, collecting wagon loads of limbs and branches and d iestro.* -ii
ing the larvae or pupae. ,
Maintaining trees in thrifty condition.-If valuable trees are to be :iii
protected, the insect should not be allowed to breed in useless growth.
The borers in such trees should be destroyed or the trees promptly
felled and burned. Care should be exercised in transplanting new
trees, and fertilizers should be used in order that the trees may ,ip -,::
always thrifty, the better to withstand attack. This means prote.t- i
ingm them from the attack of aphides, scales, and defoliators, such as 7:.
tussock moths and the fall webworm, and keeping them free from m ;
disease. '...::.
Finally, in the control of this species promptness and thoroughness :
can not be too strongly emphasized. The bisulphid of carbon
remedy should always be used where applicable, and the inspection
system advised should be instituted in all public parks and on city
streets infested by this pest. Individual owners of valuable trees ,.i
should become acquainted with the pernicious nature of this bore,,:,i
and united action should be secured with neighbors who also suffei "::.i
from the ravages of the pest.. .....
NOTE.-After this publication was in type we received information that trees in .
the college yard of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., are beingseverely injured, :...
the large elms being the most seriously attacked. .,.,
Approved: *:.
Secretary of Agriculture.
WASHINGTON, D. C., May 27, 1909.
[C r 109]j :.'.i..
0 4

.......................... .. ......".:.9::i

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INGEST IEID EHMT8RIRV_T0I2XD INGEST_TIME 2014-05-30T21:45:07Z PACKAGE AA00020855_00001