Control of the brown-rot and plum curculio on peaches

Material Information

Control of the brown-rot and plum curculio on peaches
Series Title:
United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Entomology. Circular ;
Scott, W. M ( William Moore ), b. 1873
Quaintance, A. L ( Altus Lacy ), 1870-1958 ( joint author )
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
7 p. : ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Brown rot ( lcsh )
Plum curculio ( lcsh )
Peach -- Diseases ( lcsh )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
by W.M. Scott and A.L. Quaintance.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029648471 ( ALEPH )
28185939 ( OCLC )
agr10000481 ( LCCN )
SB608.F8 S36 1910 ( lcc )

Full Text

U. S. I)IIPA\RT\IFIT ()1 .\(R11('Vl'l[ RK,
BUREAU OF I l'IiIl ''',Y 1 I;i LAR No. 120.
L, 0. 1O\OWARD. I nto, oIs, >.< (I>. ,of C ur,.,u,.

(ICONTRII ( Till1 )Iii\l V N-lis T AND 'L' 11I


WV .M S )c'r'rJ. f thn 1utr,, s ,, If'flinf lul ii/.U .
A N 1)
A.\. Ij ( I'.IN'T'ANt', fIt lu/K U / it I:f(P tf

- ---------- -. 1 .



L. 0. HOWARD, .... HOW.. ,. ond Chi iff Burcau.
('. L. MARLATT. Assistant Entomologist alt Acting (Citf ini Absen(e of Chi@f.
R. S. Ciiv.irON, ErTCutirf" Alssislant.
('HAS. J. GILLIKS, ( fChfrk.
F. II. CIIITTENDEN, itt of *.",.. of rtack crop attd sitorcd rdti ititifct ts 'ti in latiions.
A. I). IIOPKINS, in charge offorest iistit inrestigaiiotts.
W. 1). HUNTER, in charge of Southern jfitId crop) istc t 'i .. .j. ....
F. At. WVEBs'r in chatrg (f tccr'l a A. L. QUAINTANC, inti charge of dcciduousfruit ii itst i rstittJOitlts.
E. F. PIIILLII'S, in cihtrge of lNT cul ure.
D. M. ROGEIRS, int charge of .. I i spread of mtolths., jid tirork.
I{OLLA P. ('URRItE, in ciharq' of editorial tork.
MABELI ('O )ORI), librarian.

[Cir. 120] '2J

CIRCULAI- No. 120.

LUnited States D)epartnmient of An\ricuilture,

L, 0. HOWARXD, I:tiHogisl ;Id Chict of lif au.

('()N'I'TI)OL ()i, Till" B )N-IIiT AN) PIIM (I 1( i1L,10)
ON 1I:A'I iES.


A,' V 4 1 1S ACEI 4< /; ~irinn 'n t li l .lr/
;i!it i(
A.+ I .. ,'r \ vrNI\N i. nt" f' l ',ni' *ti iiiiii

'Fhile two most important troulles of the o fruit (of itt peach and other
stone fruit.t are tie so -calhd browin-rot !" (' t/, l{'t 1.111 j ''i /, t 'nit (I1.)
SchrOt.) and thO' plIum eI ureulio ( (' browi-rot is a ft,.ous (1i-ea'-e of tihe llowers, tw\\i-s. and fruit, hut i,
espt ciilly destrttctive to tihe laltter a'- it apl pr'oacla. ii'atu.rit*v. Under
weather col itiOns, l';t\orii!le to till, 3 tlilItts fr noiii o i' lalf to thre-
fourtls ol' tilt crp, oi PVtli tin' nt'itir cio+p. may lic dciist o\Yrd within
a few dayv's. "Ti. niarII ktft'd e 'iuit, liut. n(on ver, Itlrel v r'le clwics its d:-(c i
nation ini*_'"d condition and is often ;a disPtIpoimiinleut to Olit ,rom\cr
ts \vell as to thi c i'-milelr. This dcsiructivc 1,iscai i,, well known to
peaiclh ^TrVeirs, e-ix'cially in the 'Stutatrn Staes, and requires hiit
little in the wav of dhscription. Although vyoIi -Tlell fruit Illav
become infected, it is ill> ripcInIi '- 1'ruit. which s|utlrs mi st. Thie
disease first ap peaiI's ats at sinall IbIrown spo)W t,II w iic i I raplidlly Iv li:1r, cs
involving v i n ill few da\ s tiI' c Intire I ruil. (I n ttie herface o1 (he
diseased s )ots minuitte tufts oI +-spu e le; lil,_" lirettc-d- ai|lwear,_,+ivill/
to the fruit a graYislh, IolId appearanHe.
The plumi curculio, in tht, course o( it-, feetill- amid .'p, |ayini,.
puntl iiru e- tlh(e fruit, at d it] l so( ailuind iil t h(l1: il not a silngd, t'lf itl
escapes injury The putnictures t',riii at ti t- tll, o l 'o t (sp- o es,
"i. i llv fa\'ori'it w ilifecthiol. Larve o)C thle rlirctilio. tiual lill(:," I'roill the
e.._-._-s plaiced h eo atl/ il s.kin of, the piacih. Il lke tleir \ v to thl pit.
alid I'v their (ijur0 t1i1 t ilm u 0h o w tlte voul 1 f'rlill to) lrop. l'rlit
infesteld later in tile sea-on laV rii! Iti i'emiturelv and fill om. le l;adl\
1l1iSShlaptlen( W ()r^l. o intle, ol4 peltche. I itn I he E:t-t Ia tis l lirel v d e' ( the
phln1 C UlC tio0, 111d t1 e inj110 1 sIl d, (hi,; insect (.:1il-i0. I i t aIw e'e l
a loss( each \ear to fi t'ruilit "*ro(\4r,. olf 111:111\+ tv Il-h( i ta -,d- 1& dolla r-. A
[tir l, 12 ; l

the curculio, b)y its punctures, opens the way' for brown-rot infection
of peaches, plumns, etc., its control bec(nomnes (doubly important.
While the curciilio is not of itself the cause of brown-rot, its work
very greatly favors the disease. Furthermore, it is practicallyv certain
that th lie curculio distributess the spores of the fungus, and in the course
of its feoditg and egg laying actually infects the fruit with the fungus.
As is well known, the foli.-_, of the peach and other stone fruits is
especially sensitive to sprays, such as Paris -_ ,i. and Bordeaux mix-
tilre. This has largely prevetited the use of Bordeaux minixture and
othir copper compounds foir the control of peach diseases. While it
lihas bIeen known for several years that arsenate of lead could be used
in the treatment for curculi(o. some injury has resulted, and on account
of the well-known sensitiveness of peach foliage entomiologists have
been cautious about recoimmnending it. The comibinationl treatment for
fungous diseases and insect enemies so successful in the treatment of
the apple, grape, etc., has, therefore, not been possiblde oln tlie peach.
The develop)inment of the self-boiled lime-sulphur miixture, however,
as a fii,- i'I. has made possible thlie control of the brown-rot and( some
other peach diseases. Thie experiments made y v tlie Bureau of Plant
Industry. with the self-boiled limic-sulplhur minixture on the peach, cov-
ering three vears-from 1 907 to 19(09 have shown conclusively that
when )properly mIade it is perfectly harmniless to the foli:,j,-. fruit, and
tender growth of the peach, antid that it will satisfactorily control browvn-
rot, peach s, ;il:, and other fmi._ ,us diseases.
In experiments conducted during the past season it was found that
the arsenate of lead could be conimdined with the self-boiled limie-sulphur
mixtui-re for spraying peaches, and that this insecticide was apparently
less inj curious in the comblination than when used alone, and that the
combination was entirely successful in controlling the scale brown-
rot. and curculio. The addition of arsenate of lead, as shown by these
and otherll experiments, has !been practically without injurious effects
where not miore than two applications have been made. Three appli-
(.ations. however, of an arseiate-of-lead spray are likely to cause
shot -holing of the leaves and an excessive reddeniiwg of the fruit, and
under certain weather conditions such symptomis may appear as the
result of only two applications of the poison., though ord(inarilv not to
:al injuriolls extent. The great benletits to be derived froun sp)rayinLg.
it is Ielieved. wiiii much Itore than offset any possible slight injury.

In expe"rilieints conducted in the Ialel or-chard, at Fort Valle y, ( a.,
duril- 1!909, by thIe I)lepartmntt of Agriculture, the practicability
of lhe '(miitrol of peach scabl), brownvi-rot, and the cuirctilio \vas
For a diiailed aciunt of these expel riments, -see Bulletin 174 fI lthe Bureau of
Ph'liit In lastry, I '. S. I)eptartnm nt of \.-r i. ltr .
[Cir. 120]

thorouwhY deinmon'rated. 11m, ;a blok or l~ol How KIbrtatres was-
sprayed. l1r01,, with arsenate of lead at IAli rate o' *J 1101t1111- Wt< h) egAllhn..
of l water at ti tim( e tlin evtl o" shcl.ksr, w n'r hrv ediiin M-; se io i,
with 2 pounds of ai'senate ot lend in1 - (,)S S-,ll) threI o \\etk la te' t hiri'l, vl lith seldl l 'ileud lime-s I lth r Lmix.tllr
a lone a month laler: andtl, fourth, with s'ill' oeil+d limel -sullpthutr lix-
ture ;a n l 1before moI 5ipvi t ni n prriod of t oi Il ie fruit. At lil A ink ty itil\
9tor', pent'rllt Iot t i'e ft'ruitiI froti t Ihe s Iprayet Wolro w"vas flree ltr i ro a uI l
rot, :L'i tperl cel It' i freoet Omit sal. al d tlt 7:'.o err ci nt tr'i'rd r oi l ot t!" wttlir-
cttlio. ()tn ti. ln-p* iun t'ulp iti tl>l . tir v' enl t of tlrhe t'iii \tr a a i fr
SrItun hrwo\-p+of. I i i 'r ent W ,tee I ftmi and j'l l )r ciIent W 'ro't' i'tt
cutcilo injury' i1 lIa l,. ig' tie fruit Or marl a irmn t olf iteIteun'ltlIn d fruil t I )o th sliraiy t h(>ld wats I'n h ti'mr nti
.-r, it ans Kroin thie unspnravold hll cToinithiiii (l+e sain ntiiiinb r of
O)n a b lo.k of W a\dh ll tlies s|)raiyed with tilt s. nliixttrv alone. one nt hlt after thl, faillint od tIle pelwu s am! at';'ain o1e
month btlfore the fruit ripenrd, the Nves.tlt were not quite so <+Lood.1
ow z',_. o ci rueulio int'estatitn: but tWl( NMidd of mnerihiintabltI fruit.
asm.. ne\verth h'-.s, I1)1 per (-enlt tm re tlhan that on a sim< ilaihr block of
Ituspra+ed troee of Wie same vat'iefv.
Fromi these results and those of previous experiments we may con-
clude tAl the lunpach sTro\Vi" flow hits ait his command ai rasoialdlN\-
Wa anl tlHorou.:'hl etfectiv]e remedv for til plma h s-.a!, li()\vn-rott,
:;ti c trculitt. f\v eare+ 'uyftt llo\ h inl-_ the n d t l ions rive\ll hl(d w l'he
should lhe aleh ell'ectivelv t) lpvevent. these trom ldes at a snall cos.t.

l'Pl :l'+AI;ATO)\ 4WI*' THlEr Sl'li\Y MINXTI 11-:.
Thie tsprtays to he employed are thti self-boiled litc--lIthur mixture
and arsetmtv of lead. Vhe arseWi:al is added tb the lihte-sdtlhur nix-
ture, perinitlint the treatment of bhth nronvt-rot tin{ the plnn vtirettlio
at one and the saune thie.
,Ns "/*/ t /I,t i;;trl", ,,.-. This mllixture is Composed of ,s
poudsil o4 fresh sl.+one lime and "s; polulds-; of ssulphur (either llow\ers or
1-i, rI' may\ h"e used) to A">o ytall the correct -I r ., i-tlt altito ii K in mild at.,s of' s.a a dI brown-rot ;a
weaker mixture, containiin'-: 1; l )ounid of each ingredienA to ,"> pallhms
of water. mayItot t, ql-d \witlit sattisl' ttrv re-ul s. Thte mixture can bet' In. prepaired in ratlth rI hi y nltities ...-a. v. enour_',h fI, r 2'" 1 ;illonIs ati
at thi e, malking' tlle fOriiiiilal :S- p2 m ds of little atdi V_' |)pound'; o
-U ui)Iir to ie 1 cooted wi(lh a snall qual tit\ of water (s or |- lo .illoIn )
ain tlh n diluted to 2010 _- ,illn-.
The lime should e Ilnaed in a btarr l and (,notit, water pouredl, on to
almost cover it. As soon as the lime K A.'ii.- to Wlake thie suilpur
shlo ku l h e added after lir-t rttnninii-" it tironue.i a ..iteveo t, hieak up1) thie
'O ,

lumps. The mixture should be constantly stirred and more water
adIId ais naeledtl to form a thick paste at ,irsi and then gradually a
thin pasti. The lime will supply enough heat to boil the mixture
s>evrmal minutes. A.s soon is it is well slaked water should bIe added
to cool the mixture and prevent further cooking. It is then ready to
be i strained into the spray tank, diluted, and applied.
The stage at which cold water should Ibe poured on to stop thlie cook-
in/ varies with difl'erent limes. Some limes are so sl=-ish in slaking
that it is diiliciult to obtain ien,i1'h heat from them to cook the mix-
ture at all, while other limes become intensely hot on slaying and care
must be taken not to allow the boiling to proceed too far.. If the
mixture is allowed to remain hot lit'teen or twenty minutes after the
slakin is completed, thle sulphur gradually ,,'". into solution, com-
bini=. with the lime to form sulphids. which are injurious to peach
foli:i. It is therefore very important. especially with hot lime, to
cool the mixture quickly b, adding a few biWkets of water as soon as
the lumps of lime have slaked down. The intense heat. violent boiling,
and constant stirring result in a uniform mixture of timely divided
sullphur and lime, with only a very sinall pmrcentage of the sulphur in
soltutimn. It soul be strained to take out thlie coarse, particles of
lime, r ti thlie ulphur should i e carefully worked through thlie strainer.
A r,/ n/,fl o t (I,/. A rsenate of lead comes "n thle market in a thick,
Iputty-like paste, andl must be workeidl free in water before addition to
the lime1-sulphur imixture. There are seve'Ial brands upon the market
anl thie t i, r should be careful to purchased tolKm reliable lirms.
The addition of arsenatte (of lead to the self-boiled limie-sulphur mixture
will brin,,g about a decided iii,.', in color, bit without
afl'ecting thle value of the spray. Arsenate of lead is iiused at the rate
of 2 pounds to each N1) ._':dl' of water or lime-sulphur mixture.
Thle amount of poison required for each spray tank of mixture may
lbe wi igll d outintoa bucket, thinned with water, and p)ourled thirn.1_l
a strahiner into thlie spray tank. In extensive 1)terations, Ihowever, it
is much more convenient to) prepare a stock mixture in advance.
Place 1M) pounds of the material in a artrel with a bucket of water
and work it into a thiii paste within a spade or a large paddle, then
dilute with water to 'make exactly 25 gallons. When tliorn',,'ily
stir'iel, each gallohni will comtaini 4 potiunds of arstnate of lead, and the
amount of poison or feach spray tank of mixture may he minasureld,
thus avoidling li troble of weighing nismall lots.

For thle Elberta, IBell, Reeves, and other varieties of peaches of
a ult, thlie ame ripening season, the followiv is adv ised:
/'/;,.S, /,iI/i,/,'ulon.:-About the time thlie calyces, or u-,iAlt are shed-
ding front the yonngl fruit, spray withI arsenate of lead at thle rate of
Y N. I

2 pounds to jl-t I 'lohn- of .- f +t iheAle lIp i -rmlyl t iW r ixtunne. Si, I hLi-
applic tio i- atl e r t irl u l v fot r sr i b.:l, anld sin i-e ari, ii- outl rei k- f
browll -ro d t d not U ut all\ occur It tis tiime. till st lfeoilod m6i\xtlre
Iatev bee olmitted if In 11tYi -Ca 's Nith I t i-oltna le -afc' t l'>I t dunltL'r
warn1. (rainvT .lptit <_': espeially in the Sout th. t lirlin --ullht" mixtute
wvilli ( b1Jte' ,t l'lecelssar l in lltlis i )iplii'a itli. lit ta tIle A, lf- oile
lln :-iui lp r l ixtulre i< In t -od there l titouled he tidxlh to +chill Aii
'_'.illA W i x of w aitt'r tH" ,nilk of liW tl, initdc t' roni slaking or 2 ', ponilt s of
_'.,.od -'liic ilir, ill order l o count riict ;.in\ (atl'tic action ol the arso-
Iatctl of hlead.
+Ii it,!' ti',+ f,,i.*-Two or three \eiks i t. l Otir, o bout, one iontIlh
aft)r ti'' UaIlii'" ofl the In tal-. s- pri y+ with tli c r '--I', thell -S .ihl lilno-
sullt|>ur niiixture am i d a lo iiend'- o2i ix'-ctte + WI Iiri rad.
'iiil w ith tint-+ s 5o)(> so -l o, ih'(l litnins il|l tiur inixtittro, oIiittin tlhc [t)isotn.
On-t twrlih r uii aturin tL' varieties of trlete-.. sit'ih :os \\ al d rl]. (tiAr-
'inr and lhllh'v, i it L lr.t t o) tral t m tll Ole tli ;tl o\-( "Aill ustI.iallv
ie sullhicient, utt in \ ,'\ w rt seaso oI ll Irotting ll\: v'arietics lwoutld
prohbaNly3 tr i trc tli r'- thew ratlt't :. itiR vlariet isi- -n.tli as l ie I-ck and
Salwav. ha\ii ,_- ai lohn- ,..'t season. \Mi 4ld nt he, th l. tli()r I' rlil\ p tlo'e d bv
threein apllia:tins. lWitt on acttrI l Iof thi exh lnl ir tiheri is htsitat ain
in r ronimendin. a fourth si)raayint. In view fl tle results oltaineud
o)It nilid-a .moi varieties. it se( Im likelv tlOn thlre t ratitnents will ordi-
narilv le sut ifiennt An thle late \'ariel".

Di ri x -. thi (>n'ia-eit o if spralving. hi tlhe iixt r-I shlii d hetl ein kept wllI
agitated. () inr to the te endhen "v of tle .elfboiled In:e-ttp lmix-
ture awl the arsenatt .f hlad to settle rmdilv. llis pot too stromngly e+nqdhmlsized. If thle< splrayin" onhttit is not e, tuiil)edl with
aood a-il"tatOor. tlhe pray will not be evenly distrittittd, with tlN
result that soelli of the trees will lIe oVersla3+etVed w\tile others will
receive aill inlsilidient application. The tarlv applications of spray
,should be i(ade rather hea, v and vvrt t hirrolu!"!lv to ill-uire the edo-
struction of the cu!rctllio and protection l,'ainst scatb. The last spra3v-
in'o a month ifor, rilpening- tinie of tlof fruit, should be, mahd, with
fine noxxih.e-, the objett I, i0,'._ t1, h o 5 ig the fruit a uniform coati,,' 4f a
nistlik. spray. lh avv (Irmt~n,.in-" ol' fthe trW e- at this Oltne sh ioild
ev avoid d,l to -,: ,ird as ln ch as powsilile oz iinst tlie st4ainin," of tlhe
fruit at jick',ii tinie.
JAM, 1:-' ,\\'ll:s \.

\\'Asll l\ <;1< \. 1 ). C ., l ,h i I'l '*. l ', l.
[Cir. l.'+


3 1262 09216 5116

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