The oyster-shell scale and the scurfy scale


Material Information

The oyster-shell scale and the scurfy scale
Physical Description:
Quaintance, A. L ( Altus Lacy ), 1870-1958
Sasscer, E. R ( Ernest Ralph ), b. 1883
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture ( Washington, D.C )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29648429
oclc - 81861128
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page 1
    The oyster-shell scale
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text
f / ,-7)

I 1 < ,

L. 0. HOWARD, Enlomologist and Chi




A. L. QUAINTANCE, in Charge of/)tcidnoi. PrlI it
ln fscct hircst;n at{(I'Ki ,
A N 1)
E. It. SASSCEZ, SCn'nltitic AI.I'< ;fintl.


.'- I ir. 121--10-



L. 0(). HOWARD, ad......'..,'.1 a ( Chif f Bureau.
('. I MARMAlTr, Assistant Elitomologistl id i. '.*', ( Chihf in A bsence of .f.
It. S. 'CLIFTON, Executiv A.ssistant.
('HAS. J!. GILLISS, / .*',hClrlk.

F. 11. ('IIITTENDEN, in c'iarge of/ truck crop ald stored product insct iO'. i .,'.4.i.',. .
A. I). IIOPKINS, in 1., ,,,. o/ffirc.t inscct iiircstigattiotis.
\W. 1). II UITER, 'i chitiirgc of .'oati1nr.i id crop iOect in cfstigations.
F. MI. \VE3EBSTER, ilt Ch(iir(c/ of c)ris l n, d /ifrlyc insect, in'rstiqatlions.
AL. Q(UAINr'ANCE, il charge of dcid(ious !ruit insect ii,, /./'.,,,
E. F. I m iiL i's, in ,t. I-/oflw vic lftir.
I). llo(;ERs, in chi/'(f o/ prrcen tinq. spread o/ minoths, field work.
ROI.A P. 'UIRRIE, il c/harle of editorial work.
MABEL Co'O R)D, librari,


A. 1,. (UAINTrANCE, il cl/irgo.

IMAUC'HER, ( '. V. HOOKER, .1. I. IHowroN, E I. ODUDY, \\. POSTIFF, *ii, 0.- and
ijii rfs.
E. \V. SCOTT 1 1] ABLE, J. F. ZIMMER, Cetomoloyicll assistants.
[ (Cir. 1-11]

CIRCULAR No. 121. 1,- %prll i
United States I)eP)artment of Atyriculture,

L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bliureau.


A I. Q t. "l. v I oii I > / c ,I ,/ > l' m qI it l / /"i It /. t 11.i,

V... I; SlS'M+ I ('p /).,(* f Ifi" .l, I / ti I /


The oyster-slhell scale (1., ft, ,,//, '*opl,, ,Il,,i I,) !and(l the swurf'v scale
( /1( llfl jHt I'] f'I tili t Fitchi) alre, X it lit\ (.\, ' or Chin ese sciile (l l[]iXadiohf 11. l t i lc;. (ia i i .). i i r(e fr uiieli llYt I\a liie
subject (,f in(u 'iry I orcarl ilarlis as l lin ill tlr slpeci's a f scale inst.ets
o nhi et"l. T le;se. twt) st' uhe !)ests 're 11o4M v(Irv u 'i c (ari ll li.4 lrit, l it'led
tIl tI rm ii ()I lt It:( ii' l 1"h ;u l fIi )ii t t li[l'il"heir reh i( Itiv ,l ,- I i I i t (IIIs itppe't r-
ai : h'( i ( [i n ( I(tertell iV () tsl r v a. il l I ailit i'()\vr 's \\i 1() fl'(jlcit 'l Iv
believetl r e ll i t, lie') tere srit us SI ail l)s se cale. Thi e ,,i T ,or-shI ll
ani]d scIurfvscales, \\ while ti( (lIt a~ll rous in t lie sense o,, -c wrtIallv cau."si
the+ death o!f ilf'ested Ires, are, o1e(m ver, (of co)side(1r:aleh, (con'oiml ic
itnportalnlce. The "'o plete .ill i,,- ,f individulil bratic('s Idf apple
trees )*v eit her species is atte (-I' fIrequent ohbservat iol, 11(d 1 I'tees
sO badly invested are frtl' gro tl, rs ii:_" perhaps in e("I reme ca:1scs ill 1 le dea:t I I tIhe It e es.
Of the t t\o species considered, the oYster-shell scale lias e and is
it tlhe preise tl i ti l le mor i ptl a Its i juis (o 'ertai
shade trees, espe, iall3)y poplar and llaple, larve teenl, I tlie a e(' of I'mucl
complaint tim,. reent tts. Such sl eade l r(s are ,ordiilarlilY not
slray, ed fI'mr scalee ilsects, anil thl e i(n ease o' Ill(-(o-i- tpes (s lio v iear t,)
ear is thus checked ()Ill\- t)v tieiir iiatIIural eiemilies. Tlhe writerss
ill\e freq(ientInllv see imaple and( po(plai r ee literally inl(lYti ted flromiit
top to) ottomt with tlie o)*yster-shell s.calt lilainy (of tlie limtbs killed,
Wind inl rarer iilstaicel,(s thle trees (!Ilite dead-witliho t, doubt, vilin to
tlite attack IIf tllis scale ihl'sect.
t ('ir. I1t]


(Lepidosaphes ulni L.)


The origin of the oyster-shell scale is a matter of some uncertainty.
It has a world-wide distribution, and was introduced into the New
El',l;iii,,l colonies at an early (late. The first American account of this
pest was written by Enoch Perley in 1794, in which lie stated that it
was doing considerable damage to the apple in Cumberland County,
M.,iin. In the early sixties it had reached the Mississippi River, and
at the present writing (April, 1910) occurs in every State of the Union
with the possible exception of South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Texas.
Its occurrence in these States is practically certain, but there appear
to lbe no records in literature to this effect, and it has not been received
from these States by the Bureau of Entomology. The insect is very
troublesome in the Northern States and is especially common in the
New England States and those bordering the Great Lakes.


This insect has received the common name "oyster-shell scale,"
owing to the resemblance of its scale or covering to a 1,,ng, narrow
oyster shell, as may b)e seen by reference to figure 1. The adult
female scales are about one-eighth of an inch in IvIigt i, usually brown
to dark brown in color, though occasionally they have a grayish
appearance which is due to bleaching over winter. If present in
large numbers, for want of room they assume various more or less
curved shIapes. The scale of the male in shape and color resembles
that of the female, but is smaller and possesses at the posterior
extreiiity a small hinge or flap which permits the exit of the adult
If dliiriing winter or early spring one of the female scales be niii',vedl,
numerous small, oval, white c,_-s varying in number from 40 to 100
will be revealed, and at the anterior portion can be seen the lead and
shriveled body of the female.
In Canada and the Northern States there is thought to be but one
full brood annually, whereas in the Midldle and Southern States the
species is doul)le brooded.
The following records from literature and from the Bureau of Ento-
nmolo)gy will indicate the time in the sprin,,g of hatching of the vggs of
this insect, in various localities. This time will, of c'iii-,e. vary with
the season, but, in general, as ling ago stated by Doctor Myga it, in
Illinois, will for any locality be shortly after the time of the falling
of the blossoms of the apple.
W'ir. 1211]

()Oltir<-: E y hatch ;I i Iit fi rt week ,f Jui'i o J arvi ,
N4.1' Y-1+t: EI;as lim;rt A'< h' foiiiiipiin: Eq hiatclh in late M.iv I" cWHY\ June Saiio, r i-a .
'Ir 'o t : .... I a h (,'lh in lait Junei (Sio ,ar'l),
+l,'f-: I+ ". lih tri a|,it a ma inhlhle dI ,Inl e w11 lawnr+ 0 -nI,,ir litii in[))( the <
M -rl ii/nii.: h p In sl)ccit is rccivcd Junei s., 19-!), Arn l itll.\'illh, Mich-, naily all
tns. had hatehed (Sni.-qccr).

I,. I I 1/v U 1~ II 1/ 1 1 :

I [fi ini Mil: 111 **jirriit rc i divk l 1 l i. M ,+ii I V- nthimll< M :int (04S w ,re

I llt I it: In -tipci ir'n r,',++iX 41 I/cI I .\ 1 1 + I l' a 1 1. 1009. +"-/v W N W lh/l+ il+ ill

++.+1+1++' I l ';< ch hl+lh in laIwc MAiv I0 Cadyrl O ne arinc i l ; .
S<+.++ .+ lirnil ,,<.+:- r wer, i' tild ii r it+\+ :+r+i. \ ', .mil ;i 1'rw Av, m titi^ fr;2avl, -

+' n i,' w<'rr c+rawlini; ill i inl,+irpr (S;o-krr i.
I ir IUl I I

Missouri i\VriiJht Coiunty): T. '- hatch early in May. Insect double brooded
accordinI( t, a Mr. \Wright ({ilev).
Olden, Mo., eg-s hatched March 29, 1907; apple trees bloomed March 24 (Girault).
)Ozark region, M issouri, .- hatch about April 25 to middle of May (Taylor).
Ilinois (Cook (County): Eggs hatch about June 6, females reach full growth by
Auigust I, and oviposit August 12-28 (Riley).
District of (Colnmbia: Eggs hatch May 5-14 (Quaintance).
July 4, ..- already deposited by most females and young crawling (Quaintance).
Mlaryland: E. _- hatch early in May (Symons).
Eggts of first brood hatch in Max'; eggs of second brood hatch last week of July to
first week of August (Johnson).
College Park, many recently settled scales in evidence May 21 (S. W. Foster).
DJ laoraor: Eggs usually hatch in early May (lii,,l I.1).
Ac', Jerscy: Eggs hatch during early June (Smith).
',on(ssee: In eastern I'.i ii .i eggs hatch during first two weeks of April (I 'hli.ii-
IF.':- 'in' to hatchi in April I and those of the second brood along in Ju nly and August
This information as to the period of hatching of eggs in various
parts of the country is of importance as bearing on the time to spray
for the destruction of the young larva.
The female molts twice in the course of her growth, and in the
adult condition is entirely without legs or eyes, being nothing more
than a reproductive sack with her sucking mouth parts, through
which the food is taken, inserted in the tissues of the plant. The
adult male differs radically from the female in that it is provided
with antennae and one pair of wings, the second pair beiihg present
in the form of club-shaped organs known as balancers or halteres.
During the process of mnetamorp)hosis the mouth parts entirely dis-
appear, and a second pair of rudimentary eyes assumes their place.
Being without any means of taking in food the male is naturally
very short lived, its only mission appearing to be the fertilization of
the female.

Transportation by nursery stock, scions, or by grafting or budding
material is perhaps thle only wayv this insect is carried from one section
of the country to another, and this in a large measure accounts for its
wide distribution. Locally it can be transferred from plant to plant
only while in tlie youIng ,r crawling stage. The ',,i,,g are often seen
crawling on other insects, suclt as beetles, or upon the feet of birds,
and ma v in this way be carried some distance. M.1 T and domestic
an imal;s manv also assist in their d(lissemlination, and it is possible that
thle wxinds blow thlemi from plant lo plant.

Tlhe ovyster-shiell scale has a wide range of food plants, but is corin-
ionlvl fomnd (on apple, maple, horse-chlestnuit, )popl)lar, willow, and
[ 'ir 1 211 ]I


lihac. The foAhlowij is a list off tl(1 1|)tlis on lhich it i< kn.m"n to

Alder (k-It-" r- I-pma Spreni;.'.
Alnmnd 1t'r0-aus .np. 1, Chila.
A mIer qicantl atspfll {/'Ofinl::,' f' tri /iu :+ti~il ";
+Mihx. .
I ineitunWnhh
Amerihan hIadd(Trmt (Shy:!r, ,',,a triiMl,
l.iinn. ,
-0=1rla{li Itn., u xot ic.
Aj)|le (I' rn.iiiitiii Ioi U .
Apple. cra> Ir' /i p. .
Apricot (-'ra i ,,a : 10C i'ii Linnl .
Arrow-wood (1I~hiiriniii tspp.).
Asih lUrtI inn. id'. iinn. A, tF. t n
Cl'lxtin.' l .hlnl. /' +J l'l< .i'l a ll l + :.-p .'
lahn ,id ( iih'al iI'i, litis batls Siin. i.
BaIa.swootd I w fro1l1i trinaly).
Be-cli (Fi'fii/i atri, Tiii ni Sudw.).
Billbrry ( I'aceieiam. myrtillis IAnn.).
Birch, while 1-i Blit ia/t j iili olia Ait.).
Birch, riveTr (tli+ ia itltrt Inn..
Bittvrsw -ti ( ', lastriis I .
B3lackthJ rn (t'rt it xfiits) si linn..
Box (lKJus m.S/.sr< msir s r l inn.)
Bloxhvldr (.iTr t+ tqint/ i) il. 'Li
Broolm (CyIirisua, srcopariis (iurnsey.
(('. nuas Link, frim (iiurn--v i .
B uckeye (. 1. -,.,.i(. ., ; ', W ihl 1.).
luickhtrin (lhatim s ttlhtartta I.iiniii,
lutternut (ltitliii.s rtiria loinn.).
( +I,+ .... ,r p., sweden.
( +tinrll!i si>.
C amiphor trt (< nif tjilo irta i. '
So ad, +
(Aita -p.., in grtnihttni-tc.
I' t-rr- (l/'rnt s sI>.
( liestntt (I a."ttittin amt Ctriintt lMaY
(''nnl i>t;s p++:iniriloJli 'r ml>ht|.
(i'oa i,>a pali frtniti larbhados.

I irra li ti. k ; [ tibrn rih t In' i i. .
(Trraiil. m~ I, l,i i/f t Ioa in
('I ii i, rt.d i l r utrri l.i nn. .
lI)o! "l i ii ' Ilinl. (f . M ,
h i-u rir1, l h a'' tritai Mardti , Q
rhiiliii. r rii i t \. MI\ i1 'i Naa/ir t tla

K lhn, lUrpld ,4t..i' 'ijl < {W 'n i. t -.inlri. \ ;>r,

? '.' I'iiplirhin 1ntl i/ ir.\: l .iilii. ( nrlii;>\ ,
It'lr I ;- i

l0a -< iitlcr'wtt, ( i I, l, , I t ini r i
I1ili1t ( I'f. ri +r l inni ). nj
I kiltcrn ( l 'nr///ii ttl,+ I 1.
(li ivt)tli { !oal'->ii'ardi~ I1:, ++ iin.: "//1*< ">!< r K'-I .
hitrap rtt- ( I\'tl it a ritiltaa in.
Iltckbh rrv i I ,' ,'i l in ..
law lin/ r tqit rl i/. r itlll. 1. t t

St'i/(lit i. It-l~ I i tti tii 1it t/t n/. t.
i I/ u Ifaiat-A us fmi ,n,,,mit;+,r +,+s MilH ., Enliw-
bath (/J ''-, rica sI .i. I'i;Canl and Sw itit>n.
lrail HI)Ily ( II r cri. antil Thuinb.+
hit'vsny ckI h ( I.Mo im*, r si i .
Hi) tiri e (1't l,5 i tri lf/fiat Ii nmi. .
ilowse-ches [tlllt (J *',scrii lii.'; fi ii lti Iilt
linnti. i.
lr i n.a dhli.t TIhuinI.
Jtii-hcry (.i i dt ily r
W OlWher huItf ( ( 'r"Qpwhm i/ifliin 'u/Iiriilitlii
Monchll i.
Lilac ih i,/yrioya pt rsn la Iiinin+ + ilqars/
IL.inn. I.
Iit nw ( -t 'ilr .x 1.).
Li h' d it ,,k I a.- oo
IAic iti. uhllivati'd f lhl'hin i it fj.-< ii/t 'ti<-n
[Lcust, water ((;/< difsitx a aIn f I tir i l Marsh).
Mapllt Striped t .lc<'+ f /,
Linni. i.
NMlajp] .ui r t.lIor :,oii rl tiiiw ILinn.).
M aph l i, tw i ;i aill r+.*./urniiiiii I.;iil.).
_ .spi l.s t' Httff M il|., ,Ia[)ati.
Mi),.<-wI<)d k lJrw ,MIU40 \ I i nn+).
NM 4,ui lila i :i ,~l-h S : in: rir iiiiii M a rst )I
Minnlain at.hi l'.iuri>prtanl i ^i+rl:u.< a.ui+'u
NI(+;'1111(illi ah

M \ rtl" + !lir : ... f Kn' pi
XN 'tarillK-1inn"" IIn.
N m I ,r-, t,,i K+'+u+o/mi+ m, :,rowo:+ s

N '+.w .lt r^. \ { ,'i l311 s jn f1 ^ / i'u s,

Sir li Annl.
/'<.,irln : : i ,*n iiil ,riiu hi,! i,* Siflb. A ZuKCc.
P.a-h i I'r it : i r, ir, i Siol). & Zucc.).

b'u'ar, SO W:. :,

Peony (Pa'onin sp.).
Peppergrass (Lepidiumn sifruticosumn
Linn., Cav.), France.
'lfhmera k(cakci '. Koch.
Pliumn (run is domestic LAnn.).
Poplar, Loinbardy (Populus nigra var.
ialWica Dlu Roi).
Poplar, white (Popuuhs alba Linn.).
Quince ((v1,'.., .'Ai,t, r;.r Pers.).
Raspberry (Riibus idauus ILinn.).
Rose (Rosa rirjosa Thuilnb.).
Sassafras ( Sassafras sassafras Karst.).
Silverberry (ElIxagn us argentea Pursh.).
Spinra spp.
S)riucie (Abie's firma Sieb. & Zuc('c.).
Sycamore (I'lautlanus. sp.).
Tallow tree (Sapium scbijrmin Rloxb.).

T.arin- r-k ( Taminarix africana Poir.).
Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus glandulosa
Tulip-tree (Liriodendron tulipifera Linn.).
Umbrella tree (Magnolia tripetala ,inn.).
Viburnum sp.
Vir-i,,i.i creeper (Ampelopsis '";"!i"'f.ii!
Willow, ''.it (Salixr caprea Linn.).
Willow, Napoleon (Salix babylonica
Willow, osier (Salix riminalis IAnn.).
\ ill. w, (Snalir agIptiaca Forsk.).J ,
Willow, (Salic pcdicellata Desf.). J
Walnut, English (Juglans regia Linn.).
Walnut (Juglans sp.).
Yucca ( Yucca sp.).


Minute parasitic IHIymenoptera are often efficient enemies of this
scale, and in some localities they apparently hold the insect in check.
If these little friends are present, small round holes can be seen on the
dorsal part of the scale showing where the adult escal)ed. Those
more commonly found are Apliclinus tnytilaspidis Le B., A. abnmormis
Ilow., A. fiiscipenvis IHow., A. diaspidis How., Asp'r1'i,,lnllii.;
cilri'us How., Ana pin's gracilis How., and (lciloncurus diaspidtinarum
The larvam of coccinellids, or ladtvbeetles, are sometimes found feed-
in onm tliese insects, and certain species of mites assist in their de-
st ructlion. Birds are also credited with doing service, the most elli-
ccieit, being thlie titmiice an(I tree creel)ers.

('tioni sl is furfura Filch.)

The scurfy scale, wliile itifest lig a considher'al e number of plants,
is a less general feeder tlhan is h(l 1)pin l ili. species. It occurs prin-
cilpa1lly upon rosaceolus plants, such as thlie apple, peach, pear, plum,
lie ('V, etc., ani also onil currant and goosel)erry ,aiiii,ii cultivated
iaplnts, but seldom becomes so) an l)(ant as to cause particular in-
jury i r to require specific treatment. The insect may bI)e recognized
f'rmim tlie accolpal nyinl. illustration (fig. 2), much enlarged. The
scale of tlei female is dirty gray in (color, i le.'-ii1.rlyv pear-shaped, as
shlwn in lli te picture. Thle male scales are imuuch smaller, elongate,
snowy wlliil, with three distinct keels extending longitudinally
hi,_ llte Imback. Inlike tlie former species, tlie scurfy scale is a
nali-ve Northl Americiian insect, and appears to be less adaptable to
I1 ir. 1:21 1

the various conditions ti ,.I1.11 t lthe comntrvy. andti hans thus ;i ure
restricted dist ritbiutiol.


Tihe scuirfv scail, like th(e o)y.ter-slhell s'.lhe, winters iln the _'
condition untler tihe scales. "the iniuimer which may be deposited

FIG. 2.-The scurfy scale ( Chionl ipis furfutra). MN;fl at right fremale at li't. \l c rargd. Orivinial.)

by aL ,irl fmciiiailo, as 1iy 1)* e easilv verified Iy ex;iliuiitinn, lries'
(1oiisi(leral)ly. Th'e followitll reci(['l "hliow tlhe 111 1,,r of ,..,. from
cac(h of twentY individuals:

tinsc of ypI, Illump .11ar i' .;1, fl.i, lint Aroiltiim 1F'.a. Iii *

No, 'I > No N",> N IE'I' 1 +*'

IS 7
0, '
,'<.1 1n

NVlr+ 0 (niuil) 3(iS26('-ir. 121 10 -*2

The following records from literature and from the Bureau of
Entomolovgy will indicate thIe times of hatching of the eggs of this
ins(et in (the spring for several localities:
oli(irio: E>,s hatch about June 1 (Jarvis).
('om intoicot: E,> hatch usually between May 20 and iJune 1 (Britton).
X',w lorl.: E"l.-s hatch at aboul saiile time as those of oyster-shell scale.
Ohi,: Es hliatch, anmd youIlg are crawling, during latter part of May or in early June
Illiiis: E-',s hatch from June 5 to 12 (Walsh).
Mlissotri: Egs hatch soon after the formation of the young apples, the date depend-
ing upon locality and upon forwardness of the spring (Taylor).
District of ( o,uCmbito: Eis hatch from May 15 to June I (Howard).
l)ehhi arr: EIggs hatch about sAlile time as those of oyster-shell scale, which is usually
early in May (lloughtlon).
Ticssc'r: Eggs hatch in April, and there are two broods annually (Bentley).
(;Airqii,: In 1906 eggs l:tched March II to 22. Egis for second brood hatched
be(inIing about June 2.
In the more northern States there is but one brood each year, but
in thle South, as in Tennessee and in Georgia, there are evidently
two full broods, andi in the latter State there is a, strong probability
of a third(. Thus, at Myrtle, G(a., in 1906, the eggs were hatching
Marcli 11, and liat(iiit,_ had p)roabl)IV ceased by March 22. Mahle,
of the new brood appeared May 15, and q".__'. had been deposited by
tlie lena May 28S, the hatching begiinning, June 2.


Thie following records of (list lribution have beem compiled front
vari(1us publications and from data, collected bYv lie Bureau of
( alilorniaC, (olora(do, Connectic't(, D)elaware, D)istrict of ('(li lii,,
(Gor-ia, (daho, lllino)is, Inldiana, lowa, lKansais, Kentucky, Maine,
Marland, Massachusetts, .MichZigan, Minnsota, Missouri, Nebraska.
NW\\ I lamipshiire, v .rsy,e J-v New\ York, Norlli ('aor(lina, OhiM,
P'cu,,svlva)Ilia, lode Island, South ('aro)liia. South Dzako)a, Ten-
)ss, l'tl, Viritia. \Va-shlintto, West- \irti ia, atnl Wisconsin.
Ill ('anadla it is 'ec(orded ( I'romi \c Brtunso wick, Nova Scolia, (O)ntario,
:)i,(1 Prince i '( ilward Isla, ld.

I(0)()1) I'1. X NT'l-.

The followim g lis( iIn'lu(des all phlanits Ipoln which (lhis- species hias
lc I'iond,, so fmr as it s bee1n possible t) determine l'rorm records
il litra(,l, lire anld from (hlose in (le, lB'reav of IE'nltomolohv:
I C i) v I'' II

Apple (P'v .. mahis Linn.).
Applh, Chimnse th(wvrinin (iM,/ .... slvt,-
1,5 AWil).
A plh'. railb (1 'rns sp. ),
Ash, VIiuroixeaiii motitil.iiii (1,orl-ix uif+,i -
jiria Iiini. i
Ash, ll illll ill t ,>i1itm.1 is t/uff'ilf. T i \ i .
Ash. prickly (XVanoiD,o,.ry u il.ur;fil,,ri 1n
M ill.)
Aflh. \v lilits ( Fi'dr ini.iti ilnK'ri.rii. 11.11 l ili.+
A:%spen, ltinri'iiilh l',/i,.iix ,,
Buk"ikliirn {/th/ unm s !u 'fihrlb# ]+iliil.^
Cleirry, chlioke (Irf / I'r fi / ii' f I li i.
Cherry, wil black Ii'riiiiks rnltiin
('livray, wvil r'd r /'riiiun s ti'.nnybS/li'+niiri
.'lhik tli'rry (l'y is j f1)lri iui/i 1 iiidtl.
* I h,, lI rr\y. l, l;k blarck 1 tifII rnrp Q. Kl h I.
(l'hokcl, 'rrx reld 2.oihfis .'i/ij'i f I'

"(horrv (ur.irTi t
Cu irrai red iI.....d

ill)h ( I'limu s / S>.).
(iiinclx)+tryv ( li;rsx sp, v
ll wiw llmirn ((Y l:+ ay ifiif da i!.r 'iim yt fn .i n li. ')
Ilickor, binbud M oif/l WKip,ra;,f I lirili.)
li I chlict! l 1 ch7+'.'t.s Il'c i+li i /'riitiH.'i fi ,'rni i iS cli. ^ 'u,+r

IU', < 1'ili'ii ,s i ull1 s Ili lin j i; 1'. I ,.
/ /i I ),If

Illllll c] l/'im ili, '.'a rd il tI l ilfli i Hi
Pi. 1, PIi 10 i 1.IS 1 .h l

pc Ir P us i/ Yon ui r il is i I) /it f;. iV
M ul"llI, Jvl[lntliln" ll t i l II ty nl sl m cmI'f-t>.lI.

Tldt> w[] rl'"\ h)1.ik ca ';j f Rulits omhh 'ii l t i l

I iic .i
Sltia -illh i ./ ii,/ (Chlboi ol uj; ,i. M r'
W.t Ili 1, ,+ t li. tlU, s o ul ,:I L + .

W tt )li <'ji j" lni, ll itlt/i:l'il rh ',"m).
I .in ii .i
V\ ;lll lll w il '+'' i >. 1/ ii ,it /i l Ii. n ilfl il 1.1 11. I.

"Th e s ilrfy scahe is tIspeially voin"ii i om apllt a;ml pear, less usu-
ANlly sY oi c rrt'l'l ail lp ach, (m w iicih 10t' 1 ost in & tih e thXIt, in cer-
tlain cases \ ihicli Ihavi flile n in er Ie wriltcri' or ll 'a\ odli lt, it pli I
VVr'V deslructivv, _'i, .ill\ sl"iin gi i h (lie tre(-, :tliouidi e had actu-
ally !i;wn M d.ilh,

IA ASITIC 01) ilt'Ill U TI S 1 \ I\I:MIES

T ii Spl cie- is i iapii r t \ ih ot s- qo u .il|i> to al t lack l' o ) I il;f, \ ;inld
[)redu direcoed t"o A llmns p i dieo 16 lie ecl' s co-m(>iv h) lo n c'|ia;l vwqoit.
'i'i'e I tll, in,\ i. IM1 i4f f. ,I' s)!i-. rleiif ;il' I fi> d Ij 1 ,ik > Is 1 11'' il 1 1 | I l ,
-cii l'v scI d l' : h ''ir, w oJl f iiii n i . Ii l S i ). I ill ir) !'/I M i i .,

I tl I t I IM i til I, ni. "f lli l1 H i lt -
Ai lll>: / 't l l irc < l;ll';liil li + 1C 1 1- l, ic lli ... )! ,r;] I l / i ; )/ /i.+< ii i,+ :,+,/ :,7,i 1 1 '.l

)U 1+(1 ;i l ci rs (if' (+1 i 7"t'111 -.; /{ '+'/* .'jn // lti lii


Pir' p a i';ti t tory I l sp ;it\ il'+f i n odl dii Ir imiiio ; t tl i f'IIl i It Ii i i ti
1,pla t st f1 -ihor'i iIc I a 'i-! l W -I 1 i <> I \l il I'II i U : llI ii, oti l XI ii l ;ili\
td ad alid weakei ed n i rlv [ir'- iil mol. I ,c p el'-..'cli (,1 -ilic lilt+ld
Anill d\'ln (16 ood is t ii-i i l c1 t thil/se i! :11)11 its, remotlt il! 1'teNlkX
sintlif Ithe w orlk "r m>lv';yiXiii
I (ir. l12 i


In orchards well sprayed during the dormant period for the San
Jose scale each year, thie oyster-shell and scurfy scales will rarely
prove troul)lesome. While these insects, by reason of wintering in
the eg.g stage under the protecting female scales, are less susceptible
to washes effective against the San Jose scale, yet the treatments
will ini most cases keepl) them reduced below injurious numbers.
In orchards where spraying for the San Jose scale is unnecessary and
where the oyster-shell or scurfy scales are troublesome, specific treat-
ments become necessary. There is considerable difference of opinion
among entii,'it 'igi-t-, as to the effectiveness of sprays applied during
thie dormant season to effect the destructionn of the ,. >, but there is
gTreater uniformity as to the effectiveness of spraying shortly after
tihe voting have hatched and before there has been time for the forma-
tion of a thick protect Iii-_ scale.
Thuis Messrs. Parrott, Beach, and Sirrine, a referring to the scurfy
scale, state:
During the work of the past two years opportunities have been given to note
the effects of the sulphur washes upon this species. In several instances where the
infestation was moderate, such treatment has usually checked the further develop-
minent of the scales. When the incrustation was heavy, the results attending the
application of the washes have shown some variation in the amount of reduction of
the scales, but there has usually been a very appreciable destruction of the insects.
Writing of the oyster-shell scale, Mr. William Stuart says: b
Early spring applications do not appear to be a practicable method of eradicating
the oyster-shell scale. Summer treatment of infested trees, soon after the young
have hatched, with dilute kerosene emulsion, whale-oil soap, or tobacco infusions
affords a much more effective means of combating this pest.
Experiments were male by Mr. Stuart in the use of the cooked
lime-sulphur wash in 1904, and the kerosene-limoid mixture in 1905.
In 1',i; tests were made of the cooked lime-sulphur sprays. All
applications were made during the dormant period of the trees.
The Rev. Chas. J. S. Bethune states:',
Owing to the large number of applicants who were desirous of obtaining information
on the best methods of combating the oyster-shell bark louse, it was decided to carry
on a number of experiments here, to test the i.lii -ihi y of the -arious insecticides
commonly used against scale insects.
Of all the spray mixtures tried, the well-known lime, salt, and sulphur wash gave
the Ibest results.
Tt- lime, sulphur, and caustic soda, and the lime, sulphur, and sal soda were also
tried, buti without quite such good results. The lime, sulphur, and caustic soda
proved to 1le a little superior to the lime-sulphur and sal soda, owing to its apparent
power of better penetral ion.
Bul. 262, N. Y. \Ar Exp. Sta. (Geneva), l'i1."
b I 9li Ann. Rep., Vermont Agr. Exp. Sta., p. 294, 1907.
c 32d Ann. Rep. Ont. Agr. CoIll. and Exp. Farm, p. 48, 1906.
(Cir. 121 1

So aps, Varxims al- u ,were alt tr'i'd, ant 11 tilt-4 the it hal l -xni-t ,ap ntit' lot iii
'-' the best r,-lt's 1, ,many ,oI f hi, *-c'.l li- khthMw = Th' wlhal l+- i sup av-, o, o >d
results als). lilt not I equal l io 1iohinuiti.ti
Kcrosciii mIIt. Kctln-(itle tniilitt %Ia al-) tried, and thi't pnori <>+ l mirt
value than tlt, whalt-oil-stap e'mulsia biut nIt t i xxt( livit asil lh i' iitn salt, andt
mulphur wash.
Liene--Quick slaked lime, 11 ltuitdi to 1 all) I M t ('r. 4 i r<>n'I 'd ve\ry ('.l',a-ik,
applied as a wintr was i, anw ( Ualr't lhi rcfillt liin tt'r- tv thli li'-tl, t-al, and
Kt'trosit'Hi' litn' .. l' was 0l.t i ri(d, li ilt' i-u jI n ~ 1 rir i, t h kno i.o'i n(' \ ilin l-
ion, antiil t ihefrt'r is wt tI lit o e rrIl( d t, i iP .
Prof. T. P,. Sy -," us ; r'stlt <,f tit(sa-d &A, pay(d nwys uln thI ,iystcr-
shell scale on slhadhvl< Irnys in 1l9M, mmcinltdhs:
That, mnal>h tlres inkt'cstd wiQl the (,wswtr--sholl scah, can ( I b re at and early spin, wilh hlic lihin-sul)ihur and w ail N wa.h \\ l with >ali+'la irv rsbTqy lt -s as
I' z &.- (ontrollin: the Iw and witlhi)i itjQ ury I, li T tr".
That where orne a: |)lication is made IhI's--r thm-ls s+h+,v)\ ,i hlh< fall rainu i< !'n III be
Irefi'irablt It is th' wril r's l't',lif, h wever, thliat whe in early spring e ually th or v'<:( b+ttr 1.U l ci l ird
Trhe IDuke of BNedt'rd anti Spelm-'r IU. PiNA], s:inu' 6 t ,frt results;
of detailed eXleriinentis witlh vniions washes in the dlprittitn df
tlth' eggs of this insect, aind found lhat a 3 per cent (a-Istic sodaa wasAkh
gave 100 per cent eil'iciency in killn: (lh e .the .. A 2..'5 per cent
caustic soda wvash witli soap alst) -av excelle(hInt reI s hlts, hut dilli-
cultv was experienced in hantlling the wadi (in ac(ount "f its Winon-
i,... semisolli OW A{(stlts of tests of o caustic soda and potash, paratl'iii emulsion, cnmulsio sodtha washes,
emulsions wvit If lime, lime-sulphu"r s Concern In,.. the s'curfy scale. Mr. J. S. lloiisret states:
That the liinc-sulihur wash applied during ih, winter i4 c+hqq 'lix c. ;is are aim-,) con-
tact sprays ai)|)lied at hattrhm]i titni.

11e sanue anttlio (1 0.), in speaking, f l(i) o"ster-slidli -cale, s;Iates:
'I Lr him -sulphur "anth is ui n tul ediv tI&' ("imtra, imei s Male, lolt in tW e aulhtl sr': vxpmTniic it Wlas pri ', i siiiiir'i'. l>. I t a di-.ttppiiinp wm- qt.
Rorn) ll (Awervatilais liadle upon hundred. (,f t4+f'cs n d a hrn~ i~. s|>+: i rd il O a ix, l e
made byv ox|) i in-
dlitins are t oe Inosi lav'ira ldc arv the' rn,-ull- !+ i iiiv i ii, us,' :++ti-lr ir,. \ ts-li lrht
dam pil '-s, -u h at. ;i liWOhl 1'i. agal the t ,1+ aIi)lirat iui. a t-' inn--', 1 V1- o lot r m. m"Ik -petvinii,
l i\ I I (r + an t t 'a I'as > -latii i, In l,\r% !~-'\' il -ilr :, -,Il+ro piln 11 1- "11 1" -no ith r ,
ae h ti [ ra lrf l+,,hiw :t'_o d I,+ r-,,+ an.\ nt' ltl il". i i.+ +t r ri invliti+n~- ]+ : o to
pgivc' li,+,r ri++.u.'lts.

I'r,)f, R. A. A. Cooeyh [m)resetnts mtieltsof extensI t+'.t +- the l dvstruclioil ([' J tlhe ivstpr-s"JA I snale: (It As\ ;c;iinst lle c(,-` iluir-

o IBult ll 11. M d. AkT. 1-:X]', Sta I'Kti;.
++'' t s I t K lp \\'iiliiir+ l 1+i, Il-'m il I*'.+rni I+ ;> > I'Jt~s.
t hl' l 1 l.+ ( Ihir A+ l' ',xp. Sea I I '- pl,
'',!J+iirn. lri+++n. I'.nt .. vnl. :. p+ ,"7, 1l().
[ (lrh 12 -1 1

ing dormant period of trees; (2) early (lIlriiig hatclin.g period of eu.,
and (3) late (diiiiii, hatching period of (.,j:. The results were not
entirely consistent, and further experiments are promised. Tlihe two
following points, however, are emphasized:
(A) E-L- -of the oyster-shell scale are unaffected by the application of lime-sulphur
solutions made previous to the opening of the buds. On trees so sprayed the young
were killed very soon after hatching. The intervention of rain storms before the hatch-
ing ,f the egs may more or less affect the value of the treatment.
(I!) It is indicated that emulsions of linseed oil and cottonseed oil may be useful for
the treatment of this insect while in the ( .: stage and during the hatching period.
On the whole, therefore, it would appear preferable, where the de-
struction of these insects alone is to be considered, to spray as the young
insects are hatching in the spring. The table of dates of hatching
given under the remarks on life history for each species will indicate
approximately when the yoing insects may be expected to appear,
but this time may be accurately determined by frequent examina-
tions of the infested trees. The very small, yellow insects will be
seen in numbers crawling over the limbs and branches in their efforts
to find a suitable place for settling.
The data on the dates of liatcling of the two species, considered
in connection with blooming dates of fruit trees, indicate that for any
locality the young of both species will have hatched and( settled, and
may be effectively treated (u ring thlie period of from one to three
weeks follomijng the blooming period of the apple; and from two to
four weeks after the period of blooming of the peach. It will be
p)referal)ble, however, positively to determine the time of crawling
of the young for the particular locality and food plant, by actual
In spraying for the yolii'ii, insects when the trees are in foliage, the
presence of the leaves will render thorough work more difficult, and
especial care will be necessary to reach all limbs and branches, treat-
ing every portion of the tree from top to bottom, as only those insects
actually hit are destroyed. A weaker wash must also be employed
than during the dormant season, as will be indicated later under the
head of formulas, or else injury to the 1'.lii-,'e and fruit may result.


The oyster-shell scale will often require treatment on maples,
Lombardy and Carolina popl)lars, ashli, an(d willow. As these trees
will be rarely sprayed during the dormant period for other scale pests,
it, will be advisable to give the treatment just after the hatching of
the x,'iiig, as already explained. Effective sprayinig of shade trees,
when tliese are of some size, will require painstaking work. In many
c(ses it will be necessary for the man handling the nozzle to climb
[Cir. 121]

into thle trees t ) reall th li h)r lims ; lan branches iand ;- ltnmi exten-
sion X r bamlb)o r l is illndlis penatI I hb ll. The le ltI l ( hl sit' lltlst ibe
adapt' d tX i It the],I t oti tilt' Iirs t litMIreated 11lld I coar-se ii llftt i
sulich a the Bi r.deaux, l w ill be )raelerible, I s alblin' lie -o)erator 1t)
throw thie sp(Taiy sil'e distance to iaccessible branches. A Ii.-
pressiine pump. from 1.)0 to 200 pouds, is 1,0es2iall desirable.,
th()oiiu:h tlhe writer, thave seen _ood(1 work accomplished with an or di-
na y' 1harrel o t (
Sprayvin during lte dlormant season, hlo(wever, manv Ibe practiced,
if tlhe work may be more c(ovenvenienl ac,(o()mlished lu,,_ thLis
timlli', uiS on te o(f t ie winler sprayvs later If it ol t led s li e ulp r
wash, kerosene (r crude petro()hlm e(XXlsiton (20 to 2"> per celt
strength (or some of tle miscihh, oils.

After proper pruning, shiruhls aind bushes, infested 'with these two)
scale pests should be thoprouhly s .rved, preferably as th(e .voun
atr(e hat( l~ii,;:- in lit e sll inj :, usin thie sun mtl ,r-stren (li kerosene or
crude-petroleum niln.kimn ()r whihle-mil soap waslh. A knapsack ()r
bucket pump will be Suitable for tveating a few plants iII yards, anid
in vieNw Of the small amount (of Ilmor involved, a supplelehnitairv
application is advisablel in a week ()r ten daYs to destro)v any belated
larv-w which escaped the first applicatioll. Where infested wyard
plants are I l\'.l -, close to lihe vall (if a buildinll, this maely be pr)-
tected during tlhe operation oif sprain a Y iee of t,1'-)auli1 01r
other heavy hoth, .r even refused paper.

KI '(>S( I n f mu. on (Pock, (o t f;; lit ., 1 ttt 0;l.}. l ,Ker()osene
emulsion is made after Ilie following forrmutla
K cro(-cu (coal o)il, lam p uil) . ....................... allon- :2
W hale-oil or laundry .soap ((,r I quarl *I't ......... .f tunm l. .
W after . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. ... . . .. ;llo .. l
T'Ih soap should first be (issolves d ie Ill oiling ,at': th(n r(move
vessel from the fire. Immediately l th, l re ker)osn,, an1d tIlio-ronu lilY
a..itate tle mixture until a S0ea1 so)lt0ion resIlts. Thle stock
emulsion may he more comvenwientll nmade(, I)\ porin tl l'I xmixII t(,
into th(e tank ol1' a sprav pump, :n1ld l)lin lie liolil tro)uh tle
nozzle back inio tlie tank for some m tinuts. Tlw stock solhtion,
if well mIfade, will keep for Somie onll)ths,, anl i-, to e diluted bef,or
11,iil-,. In order to make n 10 per celnt spray (tlle st i'_"t foi. trees
in fo ..i_' addl to ,ah I alh)l) (f t(, ,ltock solh tion ab) iI ,')
-.Ill.)ns o\f wate(r. F(r 20 and 25 per cent emulsiokns (foi- use on tr-
!' (* r, : l ) I

maint trees an(d plants) use respectively about 21 and 1 gallons
of wNater for each 1 gallon of stock emulsion. Agitate the mixture
in all cases, after adding the water. The preparation of the emul-
sion will be simplified by the use of a naphtha soap. No heat will
be required, as the kerosene will combine readily with the naphtha
soap, in water, when thoroughly agitated. Double the quantity of
naphtha soap given in the above formula, however, will be required,
and soft or rain water should be used in making the emulsion. In
regions where the water is "hard," this should( first be broken with
a little caustic potash or soda, as common lye, before use for dilution,
to prevent the soap from combining with the lime or magnesia present,
thus liberating some of the kerosene, or rain water may be employed.
(rude ptrolciumn emulsion.-Crude petroleum emulsion may be
prepared in identically the same way as described for kerosene
emulsion, substituting crude petroleum for kerosene. The grade of
crude petroleum employed in the East is that known as "insecticide
oil," having a specific gravity of 43 to 45 Bauin6. The same
dilutions for wNinter and summer spraying should be observed as
stated for kerosene emulsion, but it should 1)e noted that for summer
treatments of trees in foliage the kerosene emulsion is )preferable,
as it is less likely to cause injury.
W11ale-oil soap wasli.-'lir, are several brands of whale-oil soap
on thle market. Potash soap is preferable. and it should not contain
over 30 per cent of water. For spraying dormant trees the soap is
dlissolved in hot water at the rate of 2 pounds to each 1 g;ill.,,. and
spraying should be done before the wash cools, otherwise it is forced
through theli nozzle withi difficulty. For spraying trees in foliage
use the soap at thle rate of 1 pound to 3 or 4 gallons of water, or even
Lim -s .ulpl? a was/i.-Lime-sulphur has become thlie main reliance
in spraying orchards infested with tlhe San Jose scale, and is effective
in controlling numerous other insects and is valual)le for certain
fungous troubles. Thei foil!,x\ il., formula is used(l only on dormant
t rees:
Stone lime... ................. ..... .poUnd.. 20
Sulphuur (lour or 1...... ..... ... .... ............. do ... 15
Water to imake ...................... ... .............. .-- allons.. 50
Ie hat in a cooking barrel or vessel about one-thiird of thlie total
qua(litity iof water required. When the water is hot add all the lime
aid at once add all thle sulplhur, wichi previously shliould have been
ma;hde into a tlhilck paste vwithi water. After the lime has slaked,
4dbout another third of thle water should 1be added, preferably hot,
;iiid tlie cooking shliould b)e continuedd for an hour, vwhlen thle final
dilution may be made, ii-iii,- either hot or cold water, as is most (con-
I Cir. 1211

venient. The ,,h ilii: due to thie,_i of teo lime Ie tholouglhly
mixes the ingredients at the start, hut subsequent stii ,_' is neces-
satry if the wash is cooked by direct heat in kettles. If 'okedl bv
steam no still iii_ will he imcessary. Alter thle wasli lhas been pire-
pared it inmust Ihe well strained as it is 1" in1- run inti tlhe spray puilp
or tank. The w iash max he cooked in large kettles or preferably by v
steam in iItarrels or tanks.
Mi.scible oils.-I'nder the lead of iniscible oils are designated
several commercial insecticides co(niin): into considerable use as sprays
for scale insects during the dormlant period of tle trees, ad their
use will often be at dvant(',,',,,- es[ecially where Iut a few trees are
to be treated. Miscible oils should be used o()n dormant trees at tlie
stij,'th riecoimiumeded by thie ianufact urers.
(omnuitm rcil liui -sutlphfr na,/shs. -There are on thlie market several
brands of concentrated lime-sulphur solutions, d -i.'i'd to replace
thle hoileiiade limte-sulplihur washl, mentioned, alo)ve. These washes
in general have proved to be satisfactory for the control of t(lie San
Jose scale, and will (doubtless he alout as detective against the o vst er-
slihell and scurfv scales as thle luhomelmaide wai, lie preparat ion of
which may thus he avoided if desired. These mav be used on in r-
mant trees, or, much more (lhilute, on trees in oliaQe.
Nim '< tri f Ai ri culturI.
WASHINGTN, I ). (K., ]Irch &L, 19U1.
[Cir. 121]


3 1262 09216 5553