Field observations on sugar-cane insects in the United States in 1912


Material Information

Field observations on sugar-cane insects in the United States in 1912
Physical Description:
Holloway, T. E ( Thomas Edmunds ), 1886-
G.P.O. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29647061
oclc - 25602462
System ID:

Full Text
. '. 3f,. .


l~iltl Marchi 1.!I ltJ3.

U. .. 1N~1.\RI[E\T I )l AGRICl' IT I'RI:,
BUREAU O'F I-NT'" I"[.',i;Y 1i!l'i.A. N 1-.
L 0. I I0 ,\ r ,. ..,. .,,i ,, o B u.


IN THE LNITl.i 1TAT[S IN '1912.


'.i, ... /,', Assit ant.


L *"* *-

A ~4, ~,T PNT~,~) f


-. /


L. 0. HOWARD, Ei,,. ,'i, '.. and Chief of Bureau.
C. L. MARLATT, Ei1,t i,,,,ho.j, standd .1, I,,l Ci. f in m/i ,- of thf
R. S. CLIFTON, F.', ,, Assistant.
W. F. TASTET, *l;, f Clerk.
F. H. CHr I"r F. -iL N. in charge 4f truck crop and stored plod.-, t insect investigations.
A. D. HOPKINS, in charge of forest insect 1i1 .i'lif ij,
W. D. HUNTER, in ,li,, i. of outherf) idl ,, insect ,., .;ti'.
F. M. WEBSTER, in <'ii j.' of cereal and '' ,'i.' infect ;,1, t.pI';Oii.d
A. L. QUAINT.\., V in charge of decuouou fruit in ect o11f *t ;,t,.
E. F. PHILLIPS, in charge of bee culture.
D. M. ROGERS, in charge of.. i. ;'" ... /.ii of ..... Ith ji,, l work.
ROLLA P. CURRIE, in l.i'. of editorial york.
MABEL COLCORD, in charge of U^o..,,
W. D. HUNTER, in haI./.
engaged in cotton-boll weevil inre tigationv,.
A. C. M I'..\, G. A. RUNNER, S. E. CRUMB, D. C. PARMAN, 'nqagid in tobacco
insect ;,,,, 1.*':1(1t'.1t
F. C. BISHOPP, A. H. JENNINGS, H. P. WOOD, W.V. KiN,.. 'i,:i"i ;, tck iniesiiatio, .
T. E. HOLLOWAY, E. R. BAR IER, i'qoqi, din .; gar-cane insect in vestigation.
J. L. WVEBB, engaged in rice in ect invetigation.
R. A. COOLEY, D. L. VAN DINE, A. F. i' I '*i C. '. KRuIBHAAR, ,iilbmiaft i's
[Cir. 171]

CIRCUL R No. 171. I~,uv Mi-- s I Il3.

United States Department of .A\ricultutre,
L. 0. HOWA I)D. h nIolm,ilI,:l-, and Chif I ur u.

I:. T. E. 1IoIowAV,
l '' ,' Aws'lud.

TIhe results hliere snte are basedI on the recor ds of fi(ld obsrva-
ions made uli'iii, tim \i.i.r 191 2. T'iI,,l1 the informIation- on any
one insect is fi i-,iLlIIiitaIv i at 1-, it hlas beent tI,,,.'l t dlt siral he to
issue this II ri'rt. for the reasonI that so litle is delinitvlh known con-
virl incoliplete treatment of the ltbj,'i I is a contribution fo the cur-
rent li,\\ lI, 'I,.
A sur vev of the -l,'.ii'-cane areas of l1Anisianm In lexa's was under-
takein tl iit.. i' y'.i r, and tilis work as hh en -ii hi]>[ lenieted 1by 1oi.e
obscrvations made in Mississippi and Ala bana. In subisequelnt
',rer-, more attention ',\ill be '_'i'ito t the StaLtes last mea'nitionied, as
\v,.l as to hilr-',:c and Fli iI, but the i( has rendered it ilupossible to thesee atts thile attentionll '11.v
r.lii and the tIanks )IIk f the writer are due to r. E. I. Barber, ,f
this lizi ,iil. f'i'r rii.1,l ri-" a iunIl)er of field exali n1aliit P ilainilv tlie
fiiial o1s1er ations iln northern Loitis~ina and itos' in 1isissilppi and
.hill..ili t.
^ ~ I F~h.
'i" i:d1 attention was 'iven to tile determination of tile percent ai.'e
of iil'f.i .ii 11 i of thle Imoth borer, tilis 1,'iii_ the prlit, ci)al inIsect inju-
rious to -ii_.ii cane inll tlis country. "'I, il.i, adl,';ed was to exavlni.le
1-'.' stalks of -i-liffr canel in a fll. (lI l,' the st.l!.- in 5 ,lilerent
,.:,iil- of -.', -i.ill. eacl. The nnifeised and lhe infested stalks in
these I"r,'I|,- were count0l,. and thle wI ,iii i_ of iifestatioin w1ads
determninlled from tlhis datha. Inl actual lac'tice tlis 1i, ...'. I ,_ was
cri iijL',i to somllie extent. More than '125 stalks vwere' 1o2etimes
75507' Cir. 171r -13 I


(.xilliie.I. and sometimes it seemed preferable to examine 75 stalks
in each of two fields rather litnt to concentrate the work on one field.
The number of fields examined in one vicinity varied from one to four,
ditin.,lir_, on thle amount of time at the disposal of the inspector.
The infestation of thie moth borer seems to be fairly v uniform in a given
,i- ri.t, and it is believed that the results obtained give a good idea
of the relative infestation by thle insect.
Examinations were made from M;iy 24 to Novmcblr 2_(. 1912. It
was difficult to determine the full infestation of the moth borer during
the first part of the -:ii,. however, and in the table vwhilch follows
the results for October and NO\, rber only are gii'l. Early iii the
season tlhe cane can li;:tr dIl\ be carefully examined without damaging
the plant, and tic infestation of the moth borer is then small com-
pared to the infestation that may be expected later. The dailes of
inspection are given in the table because the infestation seems nor-
mally to increase until the cane is cut. Thus the infestation of a
certain field would probably be greater on Noveciber 1 than on
October 1. Comparisons of the different percentages can be made
more accurately if this is kept in mind.

Table showing the .... f.,. of .-ilar ,,*II, infestd by the mnoth borer at various pwiees
in t/, ul i .'X ,1, in 1912.

ir. u- i PIr .Ini
Staia I I 1, 1 .' .,I I'.lr ll *ir i Jn / i in -| i Of In1f .a.t -
S111 l tiOl!
Louisiana .............. i Alexandria................. Rapid es................... Nov. 8 0
Louisiana..----- Aleandia.. ~ets........ Nov. 8 0
Baton Rouge ............... East Baton Rouge..... .. Oct. 29 78
Bunkie ...................... Avoyelles .................. Nov. 7 0
Donaldsonville.. .......... Ascension................. Oct. 28 M
.d(o .............. \ ,li . do... 5&J
I i'Inki . .......... .. .tr. hi 1 47
1. i. ........ L-f 7 fI ................ Oct. 30 57
M .11 ........ 'r M ir ................ .. Nov. 1 4
.'. .. ..... Orleans ................... Oct. 17 593
tuston ............ ....... Lincoln...----..........--..... Nov. 11 0
I i ............ C(addo ...................... Nov. 12 0
Texas.................. I n t .... ....... Cai eroni ................... Oct. 7 62
Donna..................... Hidalgo................ .... Oct. 8 93
T rli', i' Caineron.................... Oct. 9 6i
SI.. 1 .. .. do .............. Nov. 13 61
-,+ ir I. i,.i. ........... . ".r.l.. I(. i.I ........ .. O.. 12 0
\' i, T..I i ............ .. Victoria ............. . O ct. 11 0
M ississippi............ Biloxi ....................... rrisoin................ .. Oct. 27 11
Brookhaven .............. Lincoln...-----.-.......... Nov. 15 0
II ,i, .i .............. Forest................ Oct. 24 0
i .i ............... 1inds ................ .. Nov. 14 0
Alabana.. .............. I. ... M r Oct. 26 0
.. .... ............ .. . J l. ....... .. d1O 0

The fr,.',i1t table indicates that the infestation of the moth borer
varies from 99 per cent (or practically ;aill canes infe.-t.d) at a point
in the Rio Grande Valley in Texas to 0 p'r cent (or no canes infested)
at places in northern Louisiana, Alabama, and Misi-ippi, and even
at Sugar Land and Vi t ri;i,. Tex. At Victoria our notes are corrobo-
rated by -Mi. J. D. M1i.lit.l]. a resident i.zriit of the Bureau of Enti,-
SI ,.'ay, and planters near there are entirely unfamiliar with the moth
C('ir. 171]

hdlz i.I, C'anei11 h ,i1s 1een rI 1 t' f..r >,r1' \t Vil 'rii4 tfoI r rlpilX i14 tkil.l

jI ) 14 1''4.4 I : I'XI rt ,ll 0 11 1II 111 -I 441 44 I WX il'~ l
an r it is unlike ly thml lilny Ie s% 111i+I 411 ee i tn,.d ii I, "4
ill a h *.: mr' .ili
hi ~ (6(tn 1:"' ,..l{n
It. ss p Ii e ideii t It,. ,'-* i t l xt iii li tli* i n i l in i ilh 1br14 }i s
ll>\.I 'l" i 'ltered+ n e r t I+js l lutic e ted 1tli l XX "" it .l -i I. It'll tbe l
ih p.ll ed w' ithi 1 .. :is f se ed tllh 1414" |>'1' t .1 'l* 4 41 1 lw t' iX 1.,11 'lis
l,','l lli ll' i"} )Kit 1 W t i'i '1 14U4 1 UI v4/ rirl + +1Jf / 4)l' 1 X +* \li
i,f thlt ii 1ttli 1ori ir inl l 1tti1i 'tl1;i i- 4ic W I iSilnxlilhl'tP l in s4luiliiK-nlis o+ lTl' ii i il/iir I'roiii l tlr T In *+ + tli1,'
tih4.,, in, iln the {l 'aXi ( 441' 1illl 1'y i- 1tL!iil'l. 1 '.l Ft 11>1, 1n'l tl i leliir -
dutm{t nlS flronii l~lni{+;itisini l o M-xic t '.,v 1 I ird i- not +;tiut +ivc ,t tl+ii
W 'irt of lIi'Cx s. ll,, fvoler tlis Iln;1y I441, t I ll' 4 II 'n1l 4r i i +*vi.lhritl4
. ii l i iii ti hdi '" +. 1.- 1 .1It- t, l. i i.
wiher" -I .-.Ir {iil is 'i..wI uitly us n i-NNtciill n1 o l ". a P. l ip li -rt
i e ,r t l I in tl t -, -.-I, -.,1 iT, ,_T I. I ._ lx, r i X1, i 1 14 I t i 1l hi Iein
.II'! I al e i orf vital it, I1 .i |,. tlit' iin- 4 lr 4c LIt t4. l t or1 ,!in ab i lI, i i, l r alai ln I ..] i f<,pt I' I in i tini- {t1 A li -
1)i., .i a11" M --i- I, i| ,| 'l fo i c .n ir up -jti )l,, 11 r m i i iii n c ill] to
b ithl the sl1- wtS from loxn- !inll L tis iiii. I.,*-{* . l, ii'_'thl 'n ti 1po}sition ittu l -itro) lld tions t+ .*.ir ';inc lwl /m l IH,
nmade vwith ._i, ,t. {+n if injurioul ik-1ti 1<> In' 1x'liOwln'.
.A nm wtl noitcw{rtlylh lnC',lt of th* ex'-allliiiitinin-' dur t ll ir' t v{++t is,
tl.,. ,l;-,,,,\ ', r ,1 ,.-'*_ _' f ihe ni othli {++q i;ir u i rk d lllii{+t t } ]+ liyltl~iK .i ,-
{t'routsi ]} l~i'nstf T.''" .., ,,it+I+! Inmt inlt l+ {]+,pri +/ 1uiti \* ] r M r.
( lliti t 1"'. I ..,; l,,,v rniillti/t fco+i/>ioiii I oi,, _" : ; of B IIirit .'lt{i ( l ln ,
o, ll, .\! A I;,'ri{' I'.\.:iri'ii'i.. -1i ",* 111' < itl In' w rIter ;It A u!luhonti
Im.,rk, N +w ( )i I. :ill- iii ". rin'I it' f i{d
s> l,1
tOle i bol r 1n Itn ayu s of tn illils .< I'. -h f+;Iliti/r I 1i0, tnf
work 4f lh, piwliosit,1 in BH itish ( liilfli tn w\i I liih ti 4.-n wnkln11
p:irUi-]i#,',] Para+ites wen' .il' l'lttlirds rrurrd l'n in tlw '. t b( th%;
Writer, ii tli, \" wen' foind io he of tli ", p i W O, -K" iii4lt I 4 1, lh
o;}curls in ilaii ll r 1,1,, in li t i+ ii{I oilier' cou tl+ + 1ie I r it{e,
ho.evevr, h; tilld not. pr iusly heteiil resu-red flrolmt "*_ of tliet ino+h bol~tre
w till, 1 niied Stntes.
c ater the \w %riter fcor id oi.,r;sitixed -* of tlie moth hoIer IIir
]h ,,i\ i \ ill,-, T ,'\ T e. ".'I x ., l) < l.,.'. .. . d F r..i!. ii,
1"t' l+ a' ,f a ir ed tc s !>eelle Fwer '-,'I I I>'I :- 11, (e e I)V
in II t 1 1I
"Mr. E. li. Biirin'r, itesir M.,.,i _',,[ii, i.*, Ahi.+ onu {}ctober'i -"',, +inl l~y the
writer l i{e Baton II ..,10 _- LQ ., aind I-1i a tte, l];i.. in {)ctob r, nind
near ^.111t Btenito, T, iln Novetnilx-tr. ''lt.'{ T liese In va:' re, not ob!served
t) attack thI T .wor Wt, T a,,,i._.Tir thev m v
"dvidelcn'e- s o:flhIrvl P1)rIistie. ti the hoe wcr dete{ted at a nuQeAln
Of 1l.,,U1-4 I)ut. I e e 114 t soU! ewh t I ou! t ful.
(ctr. il1

I iI I II oi;-i VAI:\ vios I N'' i''.A I ryAII o I To MI I.W



(Pseudococcus calceolarix Mask.)
The examinations to determine the infestation of the mealybug
were made chiefly in connection with the work on the moth borer.
The mealybug appeared in small numbers at the experiment station
at Audubon Park during the summer of 1912, and by November 26
it was difficult to find a single stalk of the cane then on the fields
which was entirely free of the insect. Near Poydras, St. Bernard
Parish, La., a few nealybLgs were found on one stalk of cane on
September 10. On September 12 a small infestation was found in
Jefferson Parish, near New Orleans (on St. Martin plantation). The
mealybug in fairly lIrge numbers was found by Mr. E. R. Barber
at Eniglishl Turn. Plaquemines Parish, La., on September 2-1. Near
Fraidikliii, La., the writer found a slight infestation on October 31.
Tin, green fungus which attacks the mealybug was observed at two
places in Orleans Pairi'h, La.
The meal' bug was discovered by the writer at Brownsville, Tex.,
for the first time on October 8. A rather heavy infestation occurred
on a limited number of canes of various new varieties at the experi-
ment station. The insect had evidently been brought in with the
cane from Louisiana or the Tropics. The infested cane was soon after
destroyed by those in charge in an effort to eradicate the mealybug
from the experiment station grounds.
It is evident that the mealybug has infested only a limited territory
in the United States. Precautions should be taken to prevent its
spread to uninfested reg.ions. The problem of the mealybug is conm-
plicated in certain parts of Louisiana, where the Argentine ant (Mrido-
iiyri,.r humilis Mayr) also occurs, as the two species are of benefit to
each other, and the ant aids in the spread of the mialybug.


Concerning the weevil borer we quote our remarks in another
circular,1 which are as follows:
A note in the possession of the writer records a wee\ il as having been reared from
young shoots of sugar cane which were collected at Fairview Pljniaiunii. Berwick.
La., on April 2-. 1910, by Mr. D. L. Van Dine. Mr. Van: Dine f'iimd the larv-e just
above the surface of the 2rinil1. Mr. E. R. Barber of this ofticie states that he found
pupae of weevils in the sugar cane at Audubon Park, New Orleans, in 1911. During
the early summer in 1912 the writer found wce.t il borers in the young sugar-cane
plants at Audubon Park and at the experiment station at Bro', ns\ ille. Tex The
I Insects Liable to Dissemination in Shipments of Sugar Cane. By T. E. Iloiowa%. Cir. 165, Bur.
Enrit U.S. Dept. Agr., 1912.
iCir. 171]

IL"I II B-lil I;%ATIIIN- ON SI'.%II I %\ INE | .EV- ,

;ociili found at k I ..I I ,LI h Ier- i hn' l rv %l -L ,II in I --. i, .. I of I' t, blI
cine, below tih Iurfac o the r 'i i, .. and nea.(r the I Imit whi,-r the' .ot
llt the old t tubihlv In plant -ane at Auduibon I' 1r the 1 evil larxn w r* al, fou1 nd
below the IIrfa e, and near the pFini wh er he I ',,I' plant joined tVie -' Ia Ie.
The larve w're f i runi 1i. *iilIiil tvi one fIuirtl Af an in l in legIh '-.. I Ii, I. a
mborer w fa i i n the middle i i t ilhe stenr wii i n e ther r 1 1 tI1* I, (rfr r vir near
oneM Side f the stein. Iri ij, r t+i the plant is like tic he lr'ad heari caui d I nir
wi-tli h )rer. It i'iensi pr(bable tIha the i nuili btrer it lIhlandI fur I ife rf 1 the i,,jiry
(iail'-,Il 1. the wee vils.
V%'r) likely thele huib rw hai v been irti r tdrlre iii l|iiplrt I -I. ,r tane irvin
l. Tr''r Ti,, v' are In l, and l-ir 'ork 1k hard t, ili, tIr thlat 1 might
ei i yil v have Iescaped the eye If tie ., r ,.' pr? fe tf tihe x, efil- i a I I-eri
fi. -ii up t dlate that therI may ie ,o t 1(a0 i11; fIo :1larir '.iil. or1n tie' o1ti1r halnd
ithey may inicrcae in nui nbere a a. to l<,<.oiiit,1 ;t ieriJ+u pins


( q, "r.. .f ',..&rila A& )

FoUlh ini-- the wet weather of the -1'iilr-' of 1912 ian outbreak of
tie fall army worm, or southern ;.m:,- wori. wHt noticed in the
Southern Sialtes. C('rnii. rice, and fr,..r,, cro<(s silfred more than
sugar iainet, lult one field of (an-i that camie under the wril er' ol)serva-
tion was ruined l1\- this or a nearly related Spwcies. Thils li,.Il was
near La Fnavetc. La.. and was examined on J.l\ 20, 1912. The
hiinW!ws comparatively low amtn idiitr. rilr,',. thus 11 ri\ iliir-' a suiltalle
place I',r the development of the "grass wor("4," which lrrfriN a vwet
.uil. The charaeteristi work if the larv a was olbserved. liii..l, no
larva' were found. l..:tr\:'. however, were found ,,t1.1,kit,'i -war'.r
cane at Aidumilon Pairk. Nw ('rlr,.i,,.. lediriw July, 1912.
In most cases it seellms that no grrvo, injury from this species was
suffered l, su',.ir in the griidinirt season the injury was hardly perceptible, and only a
few leaves could ordinarily be found -lI',,in, traces of the work of
the larvT.
Lfi.<)tris ," 7,' I *. la+

No definite records have been obtained iuriir,, the vnir r,'.r'jiir,
the sugar-cane beetle, and it is probable that it has done very little
dainuuve this season.
May beetles (Luwchnosterna spp.) are also kitoi\n to attack -i-'ar
cane, but no injury due to them was observed d,1,rit. thie year, and
\ery few adults of the beetles were seen at New Orleans.
O(r. 171



S\\'i,:1-rlad wiigle-, forms of a dark brown :ilidilid, or plant louse,
were observed on -ugar cane at Audubon Park, New Orleans, on
July -I', 1912, and at various times thereafter. Tley were attended
by the A ii,( it. ant in the same way as the mealyliug is attendedI by
this species. Very little is known concerning this aphidid. It is
found in small colonies on the outside of the leaf axils on the cane
plant, and apparently works in a manner somewhat similar to that of
the mealhbuu, t iuhi it has bliij observed on the leaves uf the cane
rather than on the stalks themselves. In Li]rg numbers this -pecies
might be ilijurious to the *eyc of cane for plalitting.
These apliiiliils were also found near Donaldsonville, La Franklin,
La.., Ilil.r. Te.x., Mi-gan City, .:i and Poydras, St. Bernard
Parish. La.

The lai *,. red ant of Texas (P,,gi,,ni 1, m1,' barbatus Smiiith), usually
called the u( ulliiial ant, was recorded idin ini the year as ii( tacking
-ir.i.r cane. Near Briwn-vill,. Tex., on .Juri, 12, the writer observed
ants of this species busily ginlig a few Yu|ig cane 1plints. Tlhe
sound they made was similar to that of a gentle shower of rain. The
ants had eaten the leaves of plants about 2 feet high, as well as the
entire tops of two little plants about o.ine-eiglith inch in diameter.
This seems to be an exceptional habit on the part of the agricultural
Another species of ant was found !ic-tiiig in holes in cane stalks
made by the moth borer and in the spaces between the leaves and tlihe
stalks. This observation was made near Brownsville, Tex., on Octo-
ber 7, 1912.
These ants should not be confused with the At rentine ant, which
is of prime importance in its symbiotic relationship with mealybugs,
scale inslects, and aphidids.

Leafhoppers in very small nmimbter-, were observed several times
during thlie season on suiar .n ie, but no injury due to them could be
Mr. Gilbert E. Bodkin and the writer found friiilpers on sugar
cane, '+,ud-. and grass near PoyL-, St. Bernard Pari-h, La., on
September 10, 1912. The froglojijel- start on rank growth and then
Cir. 171]


traiw.frr their at e1, imon t, iiA. cliif "r thiA M reias n 1i0. iiAld sli.iul
olo k. lc|t free of weeds uAnd t;ilt '1.1.- -., "'"' i.,lly in in it h s ima li av a
|,umid f'liniiil is favorablyh to thle ul'x'1,lini,'l of tlesis in-ects-.

The writer foudl teirmiteso <'' "wlite aints" in -,I.' iri- 'ane w, which
hadl beein cil iuto piece' of thre joint,; ,al' aid l hi ii On
.1une, 12. 1I112, when s in e tf lhe cain' wa> i, uil ailu n \n llciid'l. lhe
sli.. il- fr, ni it wt'xx -,' 'i t lx wruik iin >-In if tiep (x < hIul not
"ri ilii~ii,'ilrl T1, 'i linun \\w.i |tlnnl(,d ncnr llruwti/> ill, Tvx., snil luidl
)li,.n iItporteti froin uorti t i ic I)it tle writr t>lii'v thul t lie
ternites w er(o 1rob~abl.\1/1 na ive 1 Io th i conni try tilid i l ii t t~ l i( iil lnr cl
ti n e I Iililyt, (lli a' itt li t i 'min l xali t11 t c ts. nI at' in iIi d-

i 'i-ilr, fi,,ii tlh( entonLioh .:I' i, 1% *' l >il t) cut catn> in small p11( cek
1)ilfiir'i ], ini2. 1-S liltV in-e,-'t- lllay easily _'ii ,w iii Uio e st,-.i[.-
lhroiughl the unprotected ei'd.

On A. gu-st 9, 1912, Mr. E. It. Bart r (mu i l 'i:i--,,,- -] '. very
aIliiiiiiliil in the ('lne lii'I in'ar I'Z,'" fand, T(X. Many strippcd
leave:, due to thlieir work, were seeni. I I,, writer vislted Si,..,r Land
on Octoir 12, but r','iii I ino githoperi it tlat time. i, '1cane0
S.M1eind to have recovered from the injury it liad -,ii l. red earlier in
the li -'-'ii lr,,ii those inhscts. vA raliss-1ill[r in the act un a" ir'-
a t'aii' hleif waS o!servedl near BIalt i l> -',i.:, Ia.
Tie pecrilidur weather drlii thlie tea -oi of 1912 proal) v accoiti s lit
in part at least tf'r certain iAexPl)ectdel di(velojlnl'nts i i ins:c't life
duiril., the A kli,'_ and cold winter was followed in Louisiana
by a wet -lrln'l,. Breaks in the levee of thie ili--i--ili liver canned
VNat rea of land to 1be TWAi,.,. and thle excs-, of water l,'-ated
inmtlltr- further. We iiii, a nlow develohmntn ,,i tlie iiotli trer
and(1 the iial]lii:. wxhicli are ii,'i, .il -pi" i and evi. lenitl I ,ii',.
a greiLter amoillnt oif warml wNetlhr tliiin our native insectl-. A> to
ihe -il,.Lra -cane ,,.,utl,.. the statement has Ibeen mtadle I my some planters
tluit this insect doe. mos1--t ,.1[ill... ihi dry sa-ons; andi oi 1) 1 .anil
ii, so that we I may believe that tle w et we athler retarded its
dive\l'iihint.2 The fall army 'viil. or southern 'i.-. weform. on the
contrary, i- more iiijilri'i' I I, ,11 in wet weather, which will iicount
for its CxI r.tiirdi llry abunIIdance l1ini- the sumlllr uf 1012.
Pri'ct iu-illy no moth borers or uneal\,''ui"- were found in the ,il.-
trict near M 1r.i-, I it t Ii ..i. wli cli had Ixeen ,,, rill,"e so nie muont(Ts
(tlr. 15]

I1 I I 1w )I; l I1:iV\ \'I| it N ( S 1 \li,( \ i I ', -I I I


previous to our observations. This indicates that these insects
nmylu possibly be controlled by flodliing or excessive irrigation.
bThoul these inferences are mainly, perhaps, of scientific interest,
they may at some time be useful in an economic way. More impor-
tant from the planter's point of view, however, is the evidence of
the uneven distribution of the principal insects which are injurious
to sugar cane. It seems that with reasonable caution in the ship-
ment of cane the spread of most .pecie,, at least, can be curtailed
if not piit gct lr prevented.
The number of species w]Licli were detected injuring cane is per-
haps Mirpri.-ing. and it is possible that still other species will be
discovered as the work prgrc-.-. Some of the species are appar-
ently of no great importance, though there is a possibility that the
weevil borer and the friglhoppcrr, which are now rare, may increase
in numbers and become formidable pests. The aphidid, also, which
is rather widely distributed, is to be regarded as an in.ectt which
may be capable of considerable injury.
Secretary of Agriculture.

WASHIINGTON, D. C., January 18, 1913.
[Cir. 171]

D D I T I N A. L COPIES of this publication
1ia y L.' procured from the SUPERINTEND-
ENT OF DOCUMENTS, Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C., at 5 cents per copy


3 1262 09216 5389