Experiments on the apple with some new and little-known fungicides

Material Information

Experiments on the apple with some new and little-known fungicides
Waite, Merton Benway, 1865-1945
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:


federal government publication ( marcgt )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
29630387 ( ALEPH )
48872602 ( OCLC )

Full Text
Itt'll:.11'O )I A ANT I Nill'.MTitY ( TimLir No.Is
B. T, hiLfllAY, 'htelof i
37..4.- .r....I.

Chief of Bureau, BEVERLY T. GALLowAY.
Assistant Chief of Bureau, G. HAROLD POWELL.
Editor, J. E. ROCKWELL.
Chief Clerk, JAMES E. JONES.
[Cir. 58]

EX PII \l\TS ()N 'Ili .\ vili: \\Iii S(. i 1\\
.\N1) I 'lLE-lKN)\\N 1I \(ICI DES.
For many yoli4r Wof Mlux 1x1t :t be1n e 1eat liy tilM fngit e
for S11111111 er Illire I n of 1 the ppe Ie1, jeIf. ; ilr (' tfil other fr ill s.
It as soon1 found, Who ver, thant i cll I 11!it b' (11u0deift I lie (iHNIa
ai 1 h Oap tns pll, it if lise& I Oflolls, it 1-i1ililn of I 1i Plees
ailtd1 su1111ner or pleillia n ure defoMliain of i hese fes.
Injry cilasel by lIrleatx mtilin re hi as not 1 icmen nrlinl wholly
to Ih peach. ThereW Ih ben an illfe. 112 IImerlie of compLtint
duing IV, last feW yeil ao11 ) 11 illi or w f: ly injur i to le fri1it
of the apple due io this mixture. Not on l the fruit is injured, but
Irole has ocurred onl tle fo liage a llo, ilie forill of dead spots,
minute reddish flecks, yellow ing, an, I ti is st ill moire srious, tI fo-
liation .
Th0 fruit russetlljg 1:8 erten pre:t vleay v aoglniz t I d I (i1 to
the spraying With copper. Minutate relidilhefl s on tle fruit and
particularly the potting and fleking of the foli e liie been lews
clearly attlritedIi to Sopier publl, ali t &11 Nin ta :I frtlit grw-
CrS underst it Idle others 1 :ve Ii i"tkei 11ie1 copper injury
fo diseae. While Bot lean1 I nif nt e h.. be11 t10 lil I lefli
and Stiffsdil flliftt li 1 his eer be11 mtl ived it h.a> been
openi to thi serinos objection, Wich for .oi1110 unknown remlor his
Ifil P 11 I1(P l 1m i 11 n ,N.itt rII-
SThi paper rr, tuniin repr r i n ie n r 41ri n1r1 I n thr aippl 1 ilsI ine
different iin ie-1 earri I ii in Vir.:ili ,urin t I -* In I4 t \ t1: the ,
an iron siphid antil a1 cpper -nilphi. iwer -0i11i ien ll tifre*:t 17~i is 'he- pr. vi aiiv-
used to be re ar~ld -. inew. The e xperin-t- were en lueted in eene. io- .1 i.< .a
talyk of the ri --f prIheI r -pray injury -.* atple 0I- Ibd r : e : \ in II
the results can e reied up I n theY will help I n i t ilL in I ing t ~ rob i 1 K\\hite
the resill. with the n le fixtures were fvehi e, the :ith r ler% pr, ,let-\ e- n t
recom n d ther IT r ,** [rl 1-,, hut It 7tral 1 i i \aperime1 taI l wa Th inter-
vet in fuil ides anlid ill praying fruit tees i-- n great xai the de Ialnd en the part ef
fruit Towers f, prilli Pt InfetrTllAtien I -0 i -t1 e th it 1' T** I)- Irahe 1 1 i 1x 1
these results before they can he further teotvd.-(ri if P'OWEL., .tig 'hijej I r, .
[nir. T5] 3

The matter become so serious that a special investigation was
started, and a series of field experiments was undertaken at Winches-
ter, Va., durin ,g the season of 1909 for the purpose of solving, if
possible, this russeting or spray-injury problem. These experiments
consisted in testingo, by spraying, nine different fungicides. In the
test were included standard Bordeaux mixture, self boiled lime-
sulphur, and various mod ificat ions of Bordeaux mixture. These
were the most promising fungicides known to the writer. Included
in the test were two new fungicides, a now form of copper sulphid
and a new iron sulphid, that were tested for the first time. To our
surprise these two new mixtures proved remarkably good and among
the best. The new iron sulphid, particularly, may have a promising
A full report on the experiments just mentioned, with illustrations
and with a discussion of the russet problem, is in preparation, but
as the interest in spraying and spray materials is so great and the full
report may not be ready in time for the spraying season, this pre-
liminary report is given out, particularly for the purpose of describing
the two new fungicides and the results obtained with them.
Mr. F. V. Rand, Scientific Assistant, aided in carrying on the
spraying work and in taking notes of the results.
The main experiment was carried out- on the place of Mr. S. L.
Lupton, at Winchester, Va. The most complete series, containing
eleven plats, known as Series I, was onl Mr. Lupton's home farm.
The following shows the formulas of-the fungicides used on the
various plats:
Plat 1.-Control, unsprayed.
Plat 2.-Standard Bordeaux mixture (3-3-50).
Plat 3.- Iron Bordeaux mnixture*(3-3-50 plus 2 pounds of copperas, or iron sulphate).
Plat 4I.--Standard Bordeaux mixture plus gypsum (3-3-50 plus 3 pounds of gypsum).
Plat, 5.-Neutral Bordeaux mixture (3-X-50, X equaling lime added until the
neutral point as shown by the litmus test is reached).
Plat 6.-Self-boiled lime-sulphur (10-10-50).
Plat 7.-Copper-sulphid mixture No. 1 (self-boiled lime-sulphur, 10-10-50, plus
2 pounds of copper ,ulphate).
Plat 8.-Copper-sulphid mixture No. 2 (Bordeaux mixture, 3-3--50, plus I gallon
of commercial lime-sulphur solution).
Plat 9.-Iron-sulphid mixture (self-boiled lime-sulphur, 10-10-50, plus 3 pounds
of copperas or iron sulphate).
Plat 10.-Arsenate of lead (used alone), 2 pounds to 50 gallons.
Plat 11.-Control, unsprayed.
To each of these fungicides arsenate of lead in the form of the ordinary paste was
added at the rate of 2 pounds per 50 gallons of spray mixture.
[Cir. 5s]

The orchardi in wih W thIi' 'ie of tint lH- te wa h pilt d
inlst rips of four rI.H -. 1eac tIf l n I W 1 i l N)H Itl fs," sli YI k
finIlperial t ees. EAch Idat o -M -tral 0 a UIA I'tifiinii MNlr I le
Varieties so as to t 1tit l ie 1 il, I V h tW N .1t0 ili, ditt 2 Y Irk
Imperial tIees. IThe liT O i)i In i l u- kno lbe 1" cry baly nctted
by russeting, the Y\ciio New t wn intaInlera alected, and the York
Imperial notable uinle to ti t pe o ijilr
t71ti 0lOSs0ill b1ing Maill lilt 'd'ai1t ti11 t e blank on the hioine farm
81n1l (t, ties t1 iil V 10t112 ait1 Im~iiti e, N dII tie te "eries
(Peies 11) w affiliiril in Mr. AlpKint 8tsalof ofkr ai ill Ii lck
consisting entirely of lien Dvi- tiree. ThiS 'Sen vIIiie wa n car-
rled out oile it s ilc plali, w1 it ti 1n option of ArewIww r als I 9, w hlis
were lft out, a1s t they re \%V 11 tall t'rel exreaI i1 paintiitiilg lien
tis serie wA, laded. 1e I rvt in bOh Iltks, e- I I veau ofane.
Some trees wr eni ini in the pit 4f Sri's 1. 10"h plat in Series
II wsi'ited If 1 ll M \ k I l r 1lltr i f iled, 0 0NA (m(' (atr ilgl
several barrels of apples.
A suppleiental series, in Which the ml-hoil lime-sulphit and
the copper'-sulphid tixtutri i were J n the lien 1)0x i variety,
Was carried out in the ot'cia td oI Ir. St wuit I NH. Att r it p t' lie-
mental test otn the York Itprial and tih, lIen Dn is n as 'rried
out in the rchad of Mr. Phil (Cil. Cotipati self-hdiil limte-
sulphur1 and sI8a8tha'd B ral ix nI t1111c, I1, t e f if Ime t lent
being approximately the ain' a, in Scric I and II.
11ve sprnily Wtp applilt m it all l iig i 6i infre Ilillip. a 110%-
zAe with a fairly smt all "pcnitng which lowl, n tolaby fine inist-
like spray being Usedl. The filt app liti it a-' miait' May 1 I aind 12,
shortly after tlie petals li I fallen. w lile thie I nI x w xc% \1" er' still topen.
The second11 ap icaliol Wa-' Illde Jtile 11 Ial 12, jlt a inIlliI atler;
in fact. a week Liter than was intended. The third ajplicatition was
made July 19.
The first applicatit n was inatl in time to fill the enlx cipi with
the arsenate and in god saon to et c en il iifections of eilfar rI 1-t
and lef-light. This usually also a timely appliction to prtIect
from apple b. thouh not thoi'ouil reliable in a a I s'st1. It
a This variety i-- known alt-on Newtown lippme, nal in V irilinia as A1lemiar' P'ippini
or simply Pippin.
tr. 58]

represent' the timue of the second treatment for that disease, the first
one beincg made just before the petals open.
The second application, on June 11, While it aniswmered very Well
under the conditions at Winchester, mighlt be regarded as a little
late. June I to 5) would be at bet ter time for this application in ordi-
nary years. This application is intended to catch the codling moth
at the time of hatching and feeding, and ais the trees are just in full
leaf it is the best sin,-le treatment for apple leaf-blight or leaf-spot,
though a little late for the cedar-rust fungus.
The third application was made on July 19. This1, was also perhaps
a week too late, but is an excellent late for the las t summer treatment
for fruit spots and leaf diseases and is timely for the second b~rood of
codling mnoths and for the lesser apple worm. The spr-ay applied at
this time is expected to clin '- to the fruit and foliage and protect them
from fungous attacks for the rest of the s-eason. OnlY under un-
favorable conditions and on varieties subject to attack by the bitter-
rot fungus are later treatments neesr.In unfavorable seasons
one or, perhaps, two additional treatments might he necessary for the
The dates specified were arranged in conference with Prof. A. L.
Quaintance, of the Bureau of Entomology, who is responsible for such
matters as relate to insects and insecticides in this circular.
Plat 2,' standard Bordcauxr mixture, 3 -J-50 f'ormula.-Heretofore,
stronger mixtures of bluestone and lime have been regarded as the
standard, but for the purpose of this experiment the 3-3-50 Bordeaux
mixture was used ats the standard. It was made up in the ordinary
way, a stock solution of bluestone and a stock mixture of slaked--ime
paste being used. The materials were diluted and run together by
gravity into at tank.
To this mixture, as to all the other fumgicides, 2 pounds of arsenate
of lead mixed up to a creamy and pass ed through a sieve were added as
the Inst step before filling into the spray tank. The result was a
rather lighIt sky-blue mixture, which stood up very well without
Plat 3, iron, Bordeaxrar tur<.-On plat 3 was used standard 3-3-50
Bordeauix mixture, as- on plat 2, to wh-ilch 3 pounds of dissolved iron
suilphate diluted in ahout 6 gallons of water were added. Space was
left )in pouring the bluestone and lime together to allow for the addi-
tion of the diluted iron sulphate. The iron produced a brown colors
aTh)e add itioni of iron :-ulphate to Bordeaux mixture as a sticker has been recom-
mendal 1by Prof .A.. 1). Selby, of Ohio.

EXPEI.11ENT ON 'Til x11 IT 1 SON!" NEW Ft NHi 101 7
P lt ffI;I.t y shi i lT n l IIq l ;5 \\it Iu 1 ilat P in I l i lr
f 1iallile its (toi s1ra for (I1.11 2 3 ldion 5ll \ 110li i \ I i l liti! 01
U at 3 poillit of gf1pstlill )I; \(" it I or 1 n I biis i H uittr itlvt PI
Sill ng 1i lfi d. \ c:11'' I 1ll olof IP IIlt i'l.
/sit1f I Pf ,/ r il0r ", 1;1, 1,1, Th i la H ilfa t il' i l I ;' till(
JDlatit us s1 n1hi0l l14 l (' 11 11li\t li--, P\Iwpt tA U 'V t'l \ i ll
(uiu lltity of lllie 11 ii -lmei a1h ath 1, of blue 1q 1 0'i ill rilillilig th ie
mR(ateri'll it10 t11' barrel. With the \01o of liuestom', blue it 1111s
paper is turned red1. ime was 't;it ieti, \ahIll4es lntil n'o inatked
change Was prod(l1ce ill 10ith' I lie b10 or the I li1111 u I )pp r.
Plat t, .w '-hlll lin; -sulphur. In h' e \ perien is, t he i.I her
strong 1) 10 3 self-hoiled lime-siulpliir was Plurpmsel el.sed so
that if spray injury resulted it wvoIl oecur .t its v\ors. li milk-
ing iu) thlt ir1 il tl aml tle 10 opler s1lpli 11111tlifev t l reform,
thl Same f11111r mla of I) -10- 50 as W1e IM In Fim1ll0al uIl Hok. how-
ever, the A N-30 f11ormua sould bI u'ed.
Briefly \ t teIed, t his mi1 1 1 tire 110 ni 1 up foll) :t
In a barrel lobling 5) gallons phire S poull of good stone lime.
Poutr over tlis enough W tel' to nearly c &'ver it A,the I ie 11 lns
to slake dlump in the sulphur. This shob1 preferably he run
through a screen, to break up lumps, am! mixed w ith ater to the
consistency of a slush. Stir the suIlpLur into he In king lime
with a strong paddle and adhl water 1lou agh to keep th lime from
burning and to keep the mixture in a isli condition. The stirring
should continue oc('nsion ially until tlte greater port ion of the lime is
slaked into a creani or pist e. Meantime the barrel shunld be cov-
ered with hurlap sacks or a piece of olI carpet or otherwise pro-
tected to retain the hot. At the emi of fift'en or twenty minutes
the lime will be found to be horoul slaked aI1nd the sulphiir part ly
combined with it. Considerable bro twlIisca t inn slows the extent
of the chemical co imbiinat ion. The iixtore is then dilute i, first
with a small (uantity of water stirred in witb a padhile and then
sutficiently to fill the barrel to the an-iln mark. Space i, left
before finishing to i the 2 pounds of nrsenate of lead, stirred in, in
the form of milk, in 2 or 3 gallons of water.
Plt 7, coppe r-sidphid iu irore No. 1. To make t his spray the
self-boiled lime-sulphur. already described (10-10-50 was uedl as a
basis. Space was left to add 2 pounds of copper iilphite il solu-
tion, diluted with about 6 or gallons of water. This turned the
mass a decidedly bright reshlish brown cr as it was st irred
into the mixture. On the addition of 2 pIonls of arsenate of lead,
previously mixed with water into a milk,. no o thlitional chae in
color was apparent. This may have been due to inabilitY to detect
M'ir ON!

any further color change on account of the (lark color of the copper
sulphid. This mixture is somewhat parallel in a general way as a
summer spray with the Oregon wash (so called) as a winter spray.
The Oregon wash is made by adding bluestone solution to the
strong home-hoiled lime-sulphur mixture and is used only for a
winter wash. It is more nearly like the copper-sulphid mixture tried
by W. H1. Valek, County Entomologist, Watsonville, Cal., and de-
scribed in a report on powdery mildew of the applesa The copper
suilphid used by Volak was made by adding bluestone to the commer-
cial limie-sulphur solution. This resulted in a strong mixture which
could not be used at once but, according to MIr. Valek, on decanting
and washing, it could be sprayed on the apple trees. The washing,
however, required two or three (lays.
Th~e new feature in making the copper-sulphid mixture is the use
of the self-hoiled lime-suilphur as a basis. This is so mild in its com-
position as to permit the immediate use of the mixture without
Plat 8, copper-salphid mixture, No. 2.--This is a copper-sulphid
mixture made by using, the standard Bordeaux mixture (3-3-50)
as a basis and addingc a gallon of the strong commercial lime-sulphur
stock solution diluted in 2 or 3 gallons of water after the bluestone
and lime have been combined. This is also a mixture somewhat
similar to that used by Volck,a but is different in that it has an excess
of lime, a part of which is combined with bluestone before add-
ing the sulphur. On account of wanting, to use this mixture at once
without washing and being afraid of its caustic action, only 1 gallon
of the lime-sulphur solution per 50 gallons was used, though li
gallons can be used in water alone.' The mixture gave the light
reddish brown color characteristic of the copper sulphid. It was
applied without washing or decanting.
Plat 9, iron-sulphid mixture.-The new form of iron-sulphid mix-
ture is made by using the self-boiled lime-sulphur (10-10-50) as a
basis. A barrel of the self-boiled lime-suilphur is prepared as already
described and diluted to about 40 gallons. Iron sulphate (copperas),
.3 pounds, dissolved in 6 to 8 gallons of water, is then added. The
iron suilphate might perhaps be still further diluted to advantage.
When this is added and stirred into the barrel the mixture turns
inky black. Then 2 pounds of arsenate of lead are added, as before.
Thie iron sulphate can be weighed out and dissolved in a large
bucket by stirring(-, or, better, it can be prepared in a stock solution,
" The Apple Powdery MNildew in the Pajaro I-alley," Special Bulletin No. 1, by
W. 11. Valek, County Entomohogist for lMonterey and Santa Cruz counties. 1Yatsonk-
ville, Cal., Ma y, 1n09.
[ Cir. 58]

EXP I11 N I .N fI IllI U1 1.I 'A ill fI .M NI V I i ll I I) il 9
4 S IU'taiIlita l W it copper tildpiite ft tie ratc of I poilti to the
gallonl of watter.
The newN feature in til, iroi '-itiphid, as i the 71ew\ cf1PPerI 1111111141,
II10 I W 1 8 10 Il t t rile set! )II 1 1 11 41 Iillpf It it fo a t r i II
consists in using he sIlfhoiheil hliiin-'-lihr a a biadis in'ted of the
COfteen~tritel lille-Sillylitir soltit Irt.I \inh-k. in t he burlle ini lrenady
cited, described anI iron '11phii1l Ike bitl c, I Wr suIlph Iil. 1nnl. h1
ldit Il ro Ill 1 II IzIt to the I l e I ( I I I I lit loll, 011 1 it. I ke the
copper suit I reilr ed c n IIt a i 11 a,\ illy for t NN or t lree t th
to render it wilitable for us(e upon folin e, It \%:I- 1 erideal to uIse the
se f-)I le 111c-s1l 11r i Ill lope o- get i Jl Iir :ir l i \ liftre
Which could he mae 1up II 1 "ill u'wed at iCefM 0 Ie 111i H: 110t
considered practicalde or wa., at lea t \ er 1 object borihl e. The plion
succeeded I i that the ruilt tirfe \k, ;1 ile ha ifil ITh 111 \ hI twk
mixture Was apparnllt v colloiaiil 0r -,fi%\ h:t ehlt titll ill teltire
and after drvig o t11 t ree t1im1e1 I diark Lite ol or. Ii a few
days this oxilized It a redili brown colIr. which rena i ncl cinsti ant.
Apple leaf-spot and the cedar-rust fiungi- began t apear on tie
leaVs of thle illsprayld trees til le llale i tt b ii reatillent.
Furthermore a rattl VIciuI -pray 111 til of t lie foli gee aid fItl-
setg of ti fuilt befall to a I)I)08 oil t(i B1 leaill -Illlxture phats
at the sameI ti1e. Tie taking of notes of tie rt-il- 'Aa begun,
therefore, at that time and conittued at freq unt itervals through-
out the season. The fruit was orteId ani wAeighe at picking Ime
and a simple box o pple frol eachi Itillfymt aIll phi twaN picked
and placed i cold storage. Careful liotes fil tiII, cornitio if tihe
fuit from the d1(ilerent l)Ils H'A ;i1 l1 a t plC1j Ill timl aid iv gilin
at the time the fruit 0W reloved fronit col tuo ge. W n1111 itws
placed on exhibition before t ie Xirginia >t at- e HI rt mlit ural Society,
January 5 to 7. The deta il- ia t le II IfereicesI bet ween t Iese
plat and hetweenl the reu'-.ltinLI fruits Iii[ be d]dscribed moure fully
in a iter publication. Vir I I reitilt irpose. lo Iwever, Ie fol-
lowing iiportat result Ilmaly be stated.
881 IES r.
All the fungicides protected the tree< almo-t clmpl etelv from
fungous diseases, alnd All I the aF-011:1 of i WaN. ioirtw I wit1
them the)' also controlled the coming Inoth : and other in-e(t pests,
It therefore became a determining the mnerit- of te ditreIt mixture. Iargel through
their effect in producing prav injury.
372940--t'ir 3N-lit "

Plat I control.-The extent of damage to the leaves of this plat
by fungus diseases was estimated at 60 per cent on September 2 1,
a week before picking time, and the damage to fruit from fungus
fruit spots and insect injuries was estimated at 90 per cent on the
Ben Davis (of which slightly more than half was due to the codling
moth), 20 per cent on the Yellow Newtown (of which three-fifths
was caused by the codling moth), and 10 per cent on the York
Imperial (of which three-tenths was codling-moth injury).
Plat 2, standard Bordeaux mixture.-The fungus damage to the
leaves in this plat was estimated on September 21 at I per cent on
the Ben Davis trees, and the fungus and insect damage to the fruit
at 2 per cent. This was merely nominal. On the other hand, the
injury to the leaves by copper poisoning on the date mentioned was
estimated at 30 per cent, and the fruit russeting at 60 per cent.
This was the greatest percentage of damage to any of the fruit by
any of the sprays. The only damage of greater extent was that to
the Yellow Newtown leaves, which were marked 80 per cent injured.
The reverse was true of the Yellow Newtown fruit, only 30 per cent
of which was injured. About 25 per cent of the York Imperial
leaves was injured, while only 3 per cent of the fruit was injured
by spray russeting.
Since the fruit of the Ben Davis was very susceptible to spray
injury throughout, the relative merits of some of the less desirable
sprays can be described by giving the percentage of spray injury
alone. In the case of some of the following mixtures, therefore, it
will be the only figure given.
Plat 3, iron Bordeaux mixtffre.-This caused but little more than
half the injury of standard Bordeaux mixture. The fruit russeting
on the Ben Davis was marked 40 per cent.
Plat 4, gypsum Bordeaux mixture.-This was just about half as
injurious to fruit and foliage as standard Bordeaux mixture. Rus-
seting on the Ben Davis was marked 30 per cent.
Plat 5, neutral Bordeaux mixture.-At first this was not quite as
injurious as standard Bordeaux mixture, but eventually the fruit
russeting on the Ben Davis was so nearly the same as to be indis-
tinguishable, and the injury mark given was 60 per cent. Strange
to say, this mixture was the only one which seriously injured the
fruit of the York Imperial, its use resulting in 20 per cent of injury
on that variety. It was therefore more injurious on the whole
than standard Bordeaux mixture.
Plat 6, se flboiled lime-sulphur.-Fruit russeting was practically
avoided by the use of this mixture. There was a mark of one-half
of I per cent of russeting given to the Ben Davis fruit. This was
merely nominal, however, and was in the stem end of the apples, prob-
[Cir. 581

EXPEIl1ENTS o)N Fil 1.\'I.. WITi1 SO I- NIW P\ H t'[Nblell 11
ably due to water or to Ihe lend it ar IuIt e. ot her rniet i nj u rI to
fruit wa W t e d hut I fI w fIt IrI ous ,Nt were f I o I I n I tI I I ves.
PIt 7, pprI -s'ulphi / i' ture No. I. This mIixt Ire rIIuset l tohe
fruit of the lin Be I )a the least of aI I ti plr it rru'. The mark
given w sN It) per cent, ofr oI-n I I f 4.he 1attin'.'P 1,;tl 04 by t and-
atd ordealX ixture. fil( I)n th 1ote hlt the lill f Hij I as ol
I per cent, so slight as to be ourcel\ iubccale, In Ion the Yellw m
NwWtow an I he York I nuperia l pract icall perfect Inark were
given to this mixt tIre. ()ni ot Il Ieaves anl frit thit mi xl turv rwll
be used coruiercially under the I nit iono t he past seas on
these varieties, and were it not for the iight russeting on the Be.n
Davis it woul have ranked with the he"t and practical perfect
marks throughout. Possibly, by diluting. this injury col be reduced
still further.
PIat 8, coppet r-sulphi mirt AY. 2. Thi \:pra I was runaIe with
the strong lime-sulphur olti on inst ead 1of thlie f 'elf-oile id lime-
sulphur and was inferior r t t Ie oII,-i pr- iph it mixt ure No. I.
The damage to the fruit of the Ben )n1\is. however, was marked 15
per cent, only slightly greater, but the foliae injury was q quite serious,
reaching 40 per cent on the Yellow Newto wn. ituting the
conunercial lime-sulphur solution in making the copper sulphiid in-
creased the russeting frio m 10 to 15 per ceit on the fruit of the lien
Davis an( resulted in smie considerable injury to the foliage, 15 per
cent on the York Imperial and 10 per cent on t li Ben I )avis.
Plat 9, iron-sulaph id mixtiurn. This anew fnugicide received practi-
cally perfect marks both as to fungicidalcation arwl as to injury. In
the matter of record, or percentage of spraY injury and per(eitage of
fungous spots. it scored the highest mark. It has, however, a slight
physiological effect on the apple, which is described Inter, that may
sometimes he disadvantageous. There was absol utely no injury in
the way of russeting tile fruit even on the Bein Davis.
There is a slight russeting around the sterns of apples in humid
climates that is caused bY water in the form of raii or dew in the
cavity. The only apples free from this slight stem russeting are
those grown in desert or dry countries. The stemn rulseting on the
iron-sulplid plat, however, was reduced to the suIIIlet quantity, being
so slight that it was considered exactly the same as t hat on unsprayed
fruits. There was absolutely no injury. and the iron suiphid pre-
vented the fungo us dl diseases so completely that by close bservatin
only a few spots could be found OnI the leaves. A mark of one-half of
1 per cent for fungus injury was therefore given to each variety.
On the fruit no spots were found and a perfect muark was given.
The fruit on the iron-sulphid plat was slightly greener in appearance
than the unsprayed fruit, particularlyy toward the stem end. This
I r. 5S1

was not so noticeable on the York Imperial; in fact, it was scarcely
apparent on that variety. On the Yellow Newtown spraying with
copper sulpbid resulted in bright-green and apparently slightly belated
fruit of such a nature as probably not to be objectionable in that
variety. Although the fruit of the Ben Davis was fine looking, it was
not quite so brilliant in appearance as that on the lime-sulphur plat.
Possibly it might have improved by hanging on the trees a week
longer and getting somewhat riper.
On the other hand, the foliage on the iron-sulphid plat was hand-
somer than that on any of the other plats. It was darker green and,
as was afterwards found, it bung on longer than that in any other
part of the orchard. During the summer the spray stuck so tightly
and was so abundant as to give the trees a brownish appearance, but
this wore off at picking time, resulting in a remarkably fine dark-
green appearance of the leaves. The twigs were also more stocky
and the fruit buds plumper on these trees, although the self-boiled
lime-sulphur was a close rival in this respect. This fine appearance
of the twigs and buds was undoubtedly produced by the excellent
Plat 10, arsenate of lead (used alone).-Tbis spray gave excellent
results, not only in its abse nee of injurious effects on the foliage and
fruit but in preventing fungus diseases. The injury was marked
zero throughout. No injury could be found that was due to spraying
or that was in any way abnormal. The slight stem russeting, as with
the iron sulphid, was considered natural water russeting. Further-
more, the spraying seemed to protect the fruits from the fly-speck,
the smut fungus, and the fruit spots, just as in the case of the other
mixtures. On the leaves, however, a few spots of cedar rust and
leaf-spot were found, 1 per cent on the Ben Davis, I per cent on the
Yellow Newtown, and 3 per cent on the York Imperial.
On the whole, the plat sprayed with arsenate of lead compared very
favorably with the better plats. The leaves did not have such a
handsome and dark-green appearance as those on the iron-sulphid
plat, nor even as those on the self-boiled lime-sulphur plat. The
foliage, however, seemed to be perfectly natural, making it appear
that the extra-good plats were stimulated by the fungicides.
Plat 11.-No records were taken of plat 11, as unfortunately it
received by accident some of the treatment with 2-3-50 Bordeaux
mixture and arsenate of lead in spraying the surrounding orchard.
Remainder of the orchard.-The mixture used in the remainder of
the orchard was a diluted Bordeaux mixture, 2-3-50 (2 pounds of
bluestone, 3 pounds of lime, and 50 gallons of water), to which vere
added 2 pounds of arsenate of lead. This gave good results on the
Yellow Newtown and the York Imperial, particularly on the latter
[Cir. 581

EXPlIltIMENTS IN Iill'I .I l'l I. W il11 1 IT \ I 1134.14 IiI M. I 3
Variety. 1100, W as m fiv leaf inlp ir liwvl r, wi I ep YoT0 111 Iut I
anid the YrlloW NeIa t ia I ii, 0l0co1ui11'" v t ri l tilo uinit (mf li t r '-. I t
probably aliiounted It) alniut iiue half oit' -r f"u-li5e, of tlint thillle
33 50 pint. Thi diffrrerwe is at triitIled to, the sma ller a ount of
copper ill the uti ture tiand i t e 11 ,'.- oI f l11e, Mid P1 i'' :sl- t)
the somalit ligh1 t1 r sprla) i11 ue- I ll C llunfl I oa rk. Th result
ol the frillt were sat is'fet irN cl enll t 0e-,e N Y del io. Ti ma n al l
true as to the l eaves of the Blin I)ni ilitIhe ijil, ij not he \in tcry
striouis, but the fruit of thbiN parity r \ nlei hll injueI inl
this orchard, the injury amnIuntingt at lea0t o or pibil, h t er
cent. The posiility of getting such n iiijutry on the li 1)is
shits out the iue of BIordran% 1 ini\ in oti t a 1rit .
In Series 11, which (tintained onl- lien 1)8ais lrees, th general
results Were exat lv t he same a i1 serie 1. kiiv 'Iiirert'neh wer' Nil
slight as to Ie attributed to neeiletta! a inatiio. The plt of four
trees each of the 1ien 1)avis carried lat uropN of fruit, rentlering
the difference ill tlitnit y oie fruit if tit NO r ilure etiPidili- p1llUps,
than1 ill series .Ihe ftdInge il I lie-tethee ti in w o iiea Ihi:1i st nHiLrer.
and therefore w it ht ood t le pray in i j ihti a bit t'r. I fort u-
nately, pIlats S anti ) na mere lft out of thi ries
In Siels II the s:m le ltl 1 r0 Wair 11 et I 1- 11i >tell I to i: lt litt)
the plats sprayel with dilertent inixtur. All of the pit- receiving
copper spray were injureti trare or l Th- le irjtlor i rnwl to bI
slightly less, however, at picking tinw thi a inionth before, a these
strong t'ees Otlttgrw t 0 iti-m ii -11 wli 1 0 ()l pi t 2, lowI ir,
where the stintartl Bortcle linin' was 1I1.d. fruit 111 >-e1 iln"
amounted to 85 per cent on Septhibr 21. The tiet spray I w it h
the iron Bordeaux alit I 0 (l i l t il li ill\hirt Wi 1il tv
l russeted than those il Serie I. lat 7 'prax Ilt I1 tper il-
phid, gave a corrtlih rsl thI I tIlt'jIii i Lr 0 iQtti 6 Q k I ni ,rk"t I s Itr "elt,
which was the ltast cautd Ib any i I pra. The 0ir-Ioilet
Ilm -sII lI r gale t It' >a IIIt' 0ti'lI t l't'--11 It-. Iii1 mWa, i1t i t it' of
the arsenate of tela u at ulonei.
In the suppenlntd weks 11l I it ofiri 1 f i r. Stewart Bell, tlie
Ullsprayet plat gave alniit the nllme infa orahli' rroult lit wa' 1"t
quite so badly afectet" by finet iii iaivei ae : a n Ser es 1. Tli' l-aa
Were Inarkel )I p 'l cent iainj'teI lV fun'i, however. on Se ti obr (.
The self-hoiled lime-sulphur gavt ut ifatoIr rt'uilt w ith 1 1, -
setmgl whatever, ex'rpt a tIra", at ihe wil d ci, Pr'n l the frit
spots and the leaf spots and, with the athlition of the usenali' of
I Cir. 58

lead, the greater part of the insect injuries. Of plat 7, the copper-
sulphid mixture gave the same excellent results on the leaves, but
produced 15 per cent of russeting on the fruit of the Ben Davis.
In the supplemental test in the orchard of '.NLIr. Phil Gold, self-
boiled lime-sulplair was used in comparison with standard Bordeaux
mixttire, 3-5-50. Plats 2 and 6 were located in an orchard which
had been quite seriously attacked by the cedar rust. The two
varieties York Imperial and Ben Davis were in alternate rows and
were include([ in each plat. In the plat sprayed with Bordeaux mix-
ture the Ben Davis trees showed 15 per cent of injury to the foliage,
and the fruit was considerablv russeted. It carried one-half of 1 per
cent of cedar rust. The Yori Imperial trees had about 10 percent of
leaf injury from copper poisoning and had smooth fruit, as usual,
but carried 2, per cent of cedar rust. On the plat sprayed with
self-boiled lime-sulpliur, corresponding to plat 6 of the main series,
there was no spray injury to fruit or leaves of either variety, but
there was a marked increase in the cedar rust, about 2 per ceiit on
the Ben Davis and 17 per cent on the York Imperial. Self-boiled
lime-sulphur, therefore, did not prove entirely successful in control-
linc, cedar rust.
All types of Bordeaux mixture were injurious. On the Ben Davis,
particularly on the fruit, the extent of this injury was so' great as to
compel the abandonment of Bordeaux mixture for spraying this
variety. On the Yellow Newtown, while the fruit suffered very much
less, the foliae suffered to a great extent, reaching a damage esti-
mated at 80 per cent, the highest percentage of injury produced by
any of the sprays. Oil the York Imperial the fruit was hurt but very
little except with neutral Bordeaux mixture. With the ordinary
Bordeaux or the modified Bordeaux mixtures the injury was so slight
on this variety as to be insignificant and was far overbalanced by the
benefits. However, the foliae of the Y6rk Imperial suffered seriously,
too much to be tolerated if it could possibly be avoided. As the York
Imperial is the most immune to copper poisoning of all important
commercial varieties as far as fruit is concerned, the. net result is that
even on that variety, on account of the serious damage to foliW,
Bordeaux mixture is to be discarded if other fungicides can be used
to do the work without this leaf injury.
.Neutral Bordeaux mixture was the worst form and did more harm.
than the standard 3-3-50 formula, while the 2-3-50 formula, with its
excess of lime, was distinctly superior to the other kinds and gave
good commercial results on the York Imperial. In blocks of the
York Imperial this 2-3-50 Bordeaux mixture with 2 pounds of arse-

EXPEl .IM ENS' (IN 1 1111 \'lI.F IT II -nI.11 NI W\ I UNi''ii 11 15
atO Of lh-tal Iiiebt p sibK. ly Still II- H-10, alt houahi it i a itI, tin)
Severe on1 I h la ve..t
O fil t I othe II litl, tlin er tf iriidiftol Olt:LilliiF at M wilie -tef,
V L., lI4I the '111111 HR i nto I tt other \\:L;it t at ill Vifinia d iil
t110, the lf-h il lime-s lhir witbl tIie ai'ceri of leail adhlded
17' L O IW f l ied I 1 )et'e F, llc, I tteII ft' I ilt I (II t II- I I iftl and1 uldlfHVIt.
satibfaiktorv re'.t) is oil th fo 0liage.0 i 01 un tee e( tar11 iili'.t at hn lf-
Il11R hatd, Wit hout a1 Inill fi t 0 1g or la il itfl H 1 1t"ver. 11 1N ilit
seeilled to he cYell hirig iffmid 10 thwPYt' an l riiai flit. TIis
mixtulire 1a nut1 proved t b 1 a1 \ l o I w I fill f i leI for Itp le
dis Iases ultI I 1reIlie r,0n1 litions.
It shoul he noIt I that Mr. W. i Sro i of the hurra if Plant
Industry, has Ilevelopeal t he self-hiled lim-'hulhir Inairily u' a
funicide fo0r u1se oI1 the peachl, for whi Ii pIrp,, it is PilmiilV
suICCessf111. The dowi on t Ie pear1 1h1i ,'r1 :4 liif 11 i 1 in rptail-
ing the mixture ItI. the fruit. Mr. Srtl 6 ,'. al-o Ilotied oille VerV
good res I uIl I 1h arple tindAr f v10ralIe c, IIt i 11 ', bu lai pIiiiIed
out tht t Ili 111I t ire hals not i lvel l ll rl 1n 'al fuall re iiI i-a he
treatmient of ap -ea) tider cxtminle m, lh lit iull In Ii ex pel-
1101t3s Oll jccan sel r ) rvicd inll b I 1i h i e i I diin1 lie Ia't Pear in
South Carolina, where heavy at I freqpilt arua ins nrrun Jl, >of-boile l
ille-suiphu11 failed ill prenltilE, the a t ark K i(1 hi i107us.
The self-boiled lim-sulphu10r hot not at pear t witistad leavy
wA 1iing rains. TIIs throws sonil doubt oil hr IA\ 1 of the swtiigi
self-boiled lilme-sulphur to prdoct anin-t ie attk of fungus
disease under varied and 1mif1Oavrabl contit itli.
It shomd he noted that the s.1lf-uiim iHe- lphur permnittteI
2 per etill of illfeilton on the Ieaw of the Ih 011 1 ) W irr Irilt
o1 lte Yellow Nwown, anti I per teil oil t Yirk limipeial in
Series 1. While this amint 4 funou iii ease in thlie leas e' is
insignificant, never 1 hIr', it Hil i lil iQ U i lie 111i11i e I 1i f he
plats of this series. It therefore bIrii ouit 1ie ut a- to the
funglidal treilih of t oh herime menifrl 1 mixture.
The 11OW forill of irn1 stiphIIl nov proirI leai ier (Hfect result' oil
both leae. anI fMili of alt 1 le i It Ma' nibtilitelv i ini till'ols.
Utrt'i110e, it gavi tie 1n ( erfrit jirtetil tiln f lungi, the fruit
havig11 no infeeitalll an di e I0 \ e' e aill" iveii ;I Ialrk of
one-hlf 1of 1 percent of til igall. injii r o11 all vaTlet irs. Tue fliage in
this plat had In ap1firtil1 r ine dark-creen cn I or' and bli, n later I han
allv other leave in ll oIr'liafd. Th 1 i'. were ito kier Iad tlie
buds were liner and lumper than on any olier plit. alilt though the
self-boiled lie-sulphur pl wa a cloe seci I I in i r enl It
should he note, however, that le fnit w) a Iligh ty greener in cl Ir
and1( apparently a lIl Iter I rilpenin I 1= o the oer AlatS,
t ir. 5 II

particularly the lime-sulphur plat, its real competitor in efficiency.
In the case of the Yellow Newtown, the slightly greener color might
not be objectionable. With the York Imperial it was not sufficiently
marked to be important. On the Ben Davis it might possibly be
slightly objectionable, unless by allowing the fruit to hang later it
eventually attained full color.
On plat 7 the new form of copper sulphid gave entirely satisfactory
results on both fruit and foliage of the Yellow Newtown and the York
Iniperial varieties. It gave excellent results on the foliage of the
Bej i Davis, bu t russeted the fruit abou t 10 per cent-that is, one-sixth
as much as standard Bordeaux mixture. Under the conditions at
Winchester the new copper sulphid was almost., if not quite, abso-
lutely harmless on the Yellow Newtown and the York Imperial, and
this is the only copper spray of which this could be said. If these
results can be depended upon in the future, this spray could be used
commercially with excellent success. The 10 per ceni of russeting of
the Ben Davis would entirely prohibit its use on that variety if the
self-boiled lime-sulphur and the iron sulphid prove as efficient as
indicated by this experiment. The percentage of russeting on the
Ben Davis might possibly be reduced by cutting down the amount
of copper from 2 pounds to I pound, or even to one-half pound. Fur-
therinore, this copper sulphid may prove to be noninjurious on the
Ben Davis fruit after it has reached a certain sta--e of zrowth. We
may say, therefore, that we have in the copper sulphid the least
injurious form of copper, and if copper is absolutely necessary for
ultimate success in c(Introlling the most difficult diseases, this form
of spray produces the minimum amount of injury.
One of the surprises of this experiment was the remarkably good
result obtained from the arsenate of lead plat, it showing entire,
freedom from russet injury. Under the rather easy conditions in
regard to funaous infection prevailing at Winchester during the
season in question arsenate of lead proved eflicacious in preventing
fungus diseases. It is certain that under more adverse conditions
this freedom from fungi can not be depended upon to the extent
hidicated in these experiments.
The efficiency of the arsenate of lead cast some doubt as to whether
it was not concerned in the success of the self-boiled lime-sulphur
and the iron-sulphid plats, and perhaps some of the others, since it
was added to all of the mixtures used. Self-boiled lime-sulphur,
however, has been successful in several of Mr. Scott's experiments on
the apple, and still more so on the peach, and it is now recognized,
as the standard fun-icide for the summer treatment of peach diseases.
An iron. sulphid somewhat similar to this one, made with the sulphur
'Solutiol), in the experiments of Mr. W. 11. Volck, at Watsonville,
Cal., on the powdery mildew of the apple, proved superior to Bor-
[Cir. 519)

EXPERIM N rs (IN Till \1,14L.1 \ II It >11M NY." I'NGIb II0,. 17
(daux mi txire. NOWs lb I II, orI If irn 1 it 1 Illu on as
superior ty il the ca1e of 1c1rt ilf It ther II III
II I, IH IVt\IT fl t I riIi0(I, Y4 t r i 1 fit 11 11 1i l I 1itlI0 t 0il il -
s1l I f rt I 10 copper 1 lil *():1 fIr Hi'iT c 1nt 1lH ia I u- 111ni
St, I 1 ia1 I) been furt 1er tce i It is ntiio. 1a I h t li I dilyr.i t
diltitonS m a be founl .1 l irall. PIrhnps tlo elfbo lIed limie
Stilphr1 lltX le reelnorced in its full"iriduI pron' rtie-s by iddi~lf
just a lit altnp, St I 11i10 of w\en hilf a poIlifl jwr
barrel. It wouHl I hus i t 1 erv Ii lle ingp 'r -Il 1i4 N iti an P* ws
of self-boiled lim-""IlpItir. It is 1miible Ant e atouiln of Iup-
per sulphate ahled might be a j uted o sit the ieeptibhility of the
different variety l Thei full Hillitiit 2 pimurl c01uld be wihIleI
for the Yellow Newtown York Imperi, anI prIbably some other
Varieties, while the 1 iiii1nium 11 1 llil of I poith or pe fin P enpi
half a pound could he added for the len Davis.
The iron sulphid made with the self-boiled hine-sulphur as a basis
sticks so much better than self-boiled lime--ulipiur and in the test
above describel was so suiceT-eful tHint it sees very pronisina. It
is capable of endless modification. Perhaps smaller qWintiy than
the 3 pounds used in tIe experiment otll he thIled t tthe barrel
of 10-10-50 or -) 30 self-koiled Iiime-ulphur with hbneficial results.
This may serve as a sticker for the self-aiiled line-stilphur mixture
and increase its fungicialal powers. It miay permit tie use of an
even more dilute form of the self-boiled line-sullihur than the S3(0
formula which is- no1 w rIcWomenw ed for commercial pfrparttitinll<
There is a possibility of cmbining the two mitxtures of iron sulphid
and copper sulplidl in various prlarations for tho e filigots diseases
Or COIrlbuinations of fugtius disnse' that cnur. hor instance if
the cedar rust requires copper for it etiful it may e preferred to
add a little copper to the iron-suilphid mixture. It is evident that
considerable experimenting will ble needed to Stle tihee q estils.
Tile tharmlles c acter Id te 1 wi il p11i is t'it (' t be pretty
well shown. It will require tt iut le sevvre ()ill IIlreals of fungois
diseases before its fungicilal powers can lie properly determined,
however. The iron sulplhid or even th e copper sulphid will not be
recommended for cornmmcial work until further tested. They
should be tried, if at all. inl experiments in a small way. Mr. scott
has shown that the c n1uercial lime-suIlphur solution diluted to I )
gallons pr 50 gallons of a I a Ili11e plWerfl fulng1icide than t1 le
self-boiled lime-sulphur pr'partioll and i5 perfectly safe at that
strength on the apple. This mixture is therefore recommeIIlled in
spraying the apple and is available for those cases \ here apple scah
or some other serious disease is feared and a stronger fungicide than
self-boiled lime sulphur is desired.
(Cir, 581

Where a dangerous outbreak of bitter-rot occurs late in the season,
probably, with our present knowledge of the subject, a moderately
stronu Bordeaux mixture-say 4-4-50-would still be the safest
thing to recommend for use.
All ffie fungicides containing copper used in the tests here reported
upon russeted the fruit of the Ben Davis apple seriously, injuring it
frorn 10 to 60 per cent.
The copper-sulphid preparation made from self-boiled lime-sulphur
was the least injurious copper spray, causing only 10 per cent of
iniur y to the fruit of the Ben Davis trees.
Neutral Bordeaux mixture proved the worst spray mixture used,
even injuring the fruit of the York Imperial. An excess of lime,
tlierefore, is an advantage in tending to render Bordeaux mixture
Standard Bordeaux mixture, 3-3-50, was the next to the worst
mixture for spray injury, giving 60 per cent of injury on the Ben
Davis fruits. Cutting down the quantity of copper sulphate in
Bordeaux mixture from 3 to 2 pounds reduced the injury, but did
not prevent it.
Copper poisoning occurs seriously on tile leaves, even damaging
them to a greater extent than the fruit, reaching 80 per cent on the
Yellow Newtown when Bordeaux mixture is used.
The susceptibility of the leaves to copper poisoning bears no direct
relation to tile beflavior of tile fruit in this re,,ard. The leaves of
any variety may be badly injured while the fruit is not hurt, or vice
Adding certain materials, such as gypsum, iron sulphate, lime-
sulphur solution, etc., to Bordeaux mixture in all cases reduced the
injury, but did not entirely prevent it except in the case of the
S T- oiled 'lime-sulphur in part, where a new compound was
A new form of copper sulphid was made, the self-boiled lime-
sulphur being used as a basis, and tested for the first time, proving
effective and almost completely noninjurious except to the fruit of
the Ben Davis variety.
A similar fungicide made with the commercial lime-sulpbur solu-
tion was only slightly more injurious to the fruit, but was distinctly
injurious to the foliage.
A new iron-sulphid fungicide was made and tested for the first
time. It was entirely harmless and gave remarkably good results
under the conditions at Winchester, Va., in 1909, except that it
produced distinctly greener fruits. It may therefore be regarded as
[Cir. 58]

EXPERIMEN i's (N Till1 .\lI' \\ II '1 1 l NI.\\ IA v (It'N)1 1> 19
Arsvlt( te 14 ti, 2 iomiita t 114' t af I VrI, (, Ml tI (d ill Hill W4 dt16
Mixture s lt h's '. 1Vh n mes i t I 11 l lk t h1101le 'euq its tH oWs
('usiAtrAle flingltidal Viit. Ilatl I 00 jw t 1 ljI 114 P t ly Ih to be d'-
ponleul 11mil (fo gcwief d II (.
Apprmeu l:
tern hirt/ of .qr 0 fiitre .
ANil QiT XN, 1). 90., .1/rch ?i, ] .
(t'Ir. 5M)

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