The substitution of lime-sulphur preparations for Bordeaux mixture in the treatment of apple diseases


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The substitution of lime-sulphur preparations for Bordeaux mixture in the treatment of apple diseases
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Scott, W. M ( William Moore ), b. 1873
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
G.P.O. ( Washington, D.C )
Publication Date:

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aleph - 29630136
oclc - 40726960
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    The importance of careful spraying
        Page 5
    Virginia spraying experiments
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 8-1
        Page 8-2
        Page 9
    Experiments in Michigan
        Page 10
        Page 10-1
        Page 10-2
        Page 11
    Experiments in Arkansas
        Page 12
        Page 12-1
        Page 12-2
        Page 13
    Suggestions for treatment
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Back Cover
        Page 16
Full Text


THE S"is I'ilIoN IF I,11I-SHI)IHIIIiiili..\
TIONs rt)1 m r IIv 1N FI,':
i W. M. r ( I,

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SHLT I )% ,M % I i. .T\ , I 1
THE Sl r llll'lITN ol' l .l -S ll Il;lll l' '.ltA-
TI1. S Fm\i 1OUDlttEU .\llXTl.M'l.;1 l. TIll.:

\v. M. ^('(oTr.
llIlAii l.ixil. T I\ C'Ii.\lli -:; orl ()114 II.II:I -.ri'I.\vI\(i;
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Fill IT-Dl-KA.-Kf Nvt.:'i' ll '-.

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Chiefof Biur, u, i.IEVERLY T. GALLOWAY.
Assistant ChitCh If oJ luraau, GI. HAROLD POWELL.
Editor, J. E. ROCKWELL.
Chief Clkrk, JxAMEs E. JONES.
'Ir. :41

Ht P. IV-1


In recent yetrs B1rdeaux mixture auis ,one int- ill faH or .onoli.
the :,Lil1 I..\,M i. on at1,otnt ofi its inljurious rl effect upon the fruit
Wil flii,' ,f certain wvar(ir -, and there is a ,1r, iIII d il- enanid fr a
11111,1h I'lIIlIlI, l ', ,, litl ,ic : l be lused for tihe control of apple diseases
\\itllont prl ,'iiiL:' such ilijury. Bordeaux mixture is undoubtedly
Ilr. best Ilal-. round fi l._i'il'l known, and it is iirilifrtunate that the
aple, ,ir.w\\,i- have to consiider the possibility f 4 i\ i iL: it ll: but
Ill- rii-....e tIL of the fruit and the t ii,,llill. oft tie' fli;.',, caused bh it
are so ,l'j,'.tionahle that it .seems livilly desirale, if Unot necessarv,
to) ,hipt a lessi ilijuriouls fiiii 1iii1, even ait the risk of a partial sacri-
fice of ctlicii.1,, in the control ,.f diseases. I'', sibi,'. I of Bordeaux
ihjilV hmis recently been admirable d isiussed by Prof. U. P. I Iedrickb
'if New Y',rk. and bh I'l,,' C. S. ( of llli ln-i.., and w ill be
considered 1ii1V i idii tii .t lly in this I I,'I .
Diil'i, tilt* Ii- three I,.,- th i, writer lis been wI'lakii,. on the
problem of -,, iir a satisfactory substitute for Bo(rdeaux mixture
and not w itlout some success. The self-boiled lime-sulphur wash
which was developed primarily for spra i, ]" I :i'. i trees has been
foInd to be an 1\i ,l,,iri spray for tle control of mild cases of ;iplIe
li:...cui.. :nl to be entirely harmless to fruit and f.,liI.:. Tllh con-
centrated lime-sulphur solutions, both commercial and home pre-
parl, when dilutedi to contain aIiut 4 pounds If -'lltur to .', ':.d-
a' \. ki,., 1. i:r,,. i r l maWrh n de t h t4 lWearim ill, wrilr of thi i p| [, i in hii i s tiv at i.n by lh e [- i,-,l,,..- )rchard (t'npanv, rf
Mount JaAck n. \V.i and the l.itn "-ri:- (rhiari d I "'i .i!. i I'L-i. r- il' Va,.
aIld la l> 1 M1 N M F '1 ilk, T-. of .i.iii:, 1. .1 and '\ S. il 1 ill ir of .. ..
V.i in whose orchards the txptrirneni' and dthnion ratiion- w r"> i l l I. **,; r I.- fA nf Bur In.
1,i fll. .'. 7, \., Y rk ., .i i \. ,:,li ii.,l Exp Shull.b i I '. Illinm is \W.ri. ,ilir.i l'A\j.&. r i'nt -'.i.ii I'w"'
( Cir, 541


Ions of water have proved to be about as effective in the control of
apple scab and leaf-spot as B 'rdeaux mixture anuiid to be much less
Prof. A. B. C,,rdl.y,"' in lii,- seems t) have been the first to point
out the possibility of dilute lime-sulphur solutions as a substitute for
Bordeaux mixture in the treatment of apple diseases, especially scab.
In an address before the l19.17 nieetinig of the American Pouiological
Society,the writer b -zive results of experiments which he 'nul'icted in
Arkansas, showing that a self-boiled liiii-.uilplIir mixture might be
expected at least partially to control bitter-rot and scab. Again in
the Western Fruit Grower of Januairy, 1909 (pp. 5-6), the writer
showed that the commercial lime-sulphur solution rigistering 32
dleie,. on the Baum6 .se<;.. when used at a strength of 1 gallon to
25 gzdl],n-, of water, would( control apple scab on the \VNinesp, about, as
well as Bordeaux mixture without materially injuring the fruit or
foliage. In the same issue of the paper just mentioned (pp. 6-7),
Prof. RI. Kent Beattie reported the satisfactory control of apple scab
by v<'ry much.-t'."ii,_'r solutions of the commercial liime-sulphur-1I to
11, 1 to 14, and 1 to 17-and he reported no injury whatever to foliage
or fruit.
In 1DolS the writer' controlled the the commercial lime-sulphur si.litii,. 1 gallon to -4() I galns of water,
and with the self-boiled limne-sulphur, as well as with Brdeaux miLx-
ture. During the same year experiments with the lime-.sulphur solu-
tion for apple scab, conducted by the writer I in Nebraska and
Arkansas, gave goid results, and similar experiments conducted in
New Hampshire dltiri,,: the same year Lby Dr. Charles Br(ooksc in
cooperation with the writer showed the commercial solution to be
almost as effective iviiii-t apple scab as Bordeaux mixture.
Mr. Errett Wallace I reports that in experiments which hlie con-
ducted in New York duinig 1l9II9 the commercial lime-sulphur solu-
tion at a strength of 1 gallon to 30 gallons of water did not injure
fruit or filig, and was as effective in controlling apple scab as Bor-
deaux mixture, altlh,,l the disease was not serious in the orchard
treated. Altl,]iiigli none of the experiments referred to above were
exhaustive, the evidence thus far points to the liinie-sulplhiur solution
as a valuable substitute for Bordeaux mixture, at least in the treat-
ment of apple scab.
u" Rural New Yorker, M.-i, IL 7, 1908, p. 'li .
bb '.... lii.-. American P iii.1 'i .1* Society, l1 7, pp. 3'l-i5.
cCir. 27, Bureau of N'l.iii llI,-iry, U. S. Dept. of A.-ricill ure. 1909. pp. 12-15.
d Cir. 27, Bureau of Plant uIndustry, U. S. Dept. of Ag'icutiuro, 1')li9', pp. 15-17.
e 19th and 20th Annual Reports, N w Hampshire A.gri(ultural Expi-rimnei Stalion,
pp. 385-
I Western Fruit Grower, January, 1910, pp. 2 4-25.
1 Cir. 54]

pl.,r Ii l ,,. oln hI w t( d ty lh( litir eil ,If ]1 ,itI I l ,' I ili _
'ia l l'II ', n i, I.' rll1 I ,I I In' i e d),nc I htVl u e \I I(it t e1 ia I- I 4 1 ill.=

~eet'iii&'t1 ilout I n'Iiit summertia use.w Tilts expeim-entsicral wide ti- '1.11 e
,I, ,.,,ri ci tli..,-, h *^ ii.' Ibei n c on' duedin of 1h''I ii' iii 1 I '1., (, a, d
. 1it .,i-) t ',li \ ,i varti )e it ,e ie, 1 t(dl Vi l ,,"II' thI commIleri limI-sulphur olhtii ai I a -1,, ,f Iom -p p e

solution werte tresthed pt arodutiousn tf ,,_iil. Thei lomimrial ie anid
r,,r'+.i ,.'tn +c tlir Ii 'A to) '* iT,'.I','r- nI th(, livd i'+ w4ere used dl)ni, +,id in rmint~ ai ,)ii< within itirsiiic l lpm-iuiiM). 'l'l~i!-
|'',l|>.l '' txn t I at t t'.t'I i t.l" riite.Id l (f (ll

there \i t)i he silt ito ntui ,.I li;H0-1sulhi d i h61a1t iite< s fI B1d\% i hx
oixtur, ilM Ikht t-d \Ill t itm t.nt p y th, |x| l 4ist ,'. f 1 h 'HIL

''Ibe :,, i ,.,. in eAml,' or cha rd in tis p ol u) Itr i ni;rIk v ki, i ,ii lth ,
;id in t- lt future ti< i (, ) ne't in of adl he l i I !hiil )I u itiI d, h ila i
,,),..,l',. than [t. p ,scnt.. ''Il w rite, is thwe( will } i no serious ovep4rodu tion Vil tlht th(1,r rllf riacvs ti,

hia .ie,,Il teI ni forle .... r e :i[)l e,-. tueiil, t fi pour s l,1 so l(it Tin lln
u :1 rketi ta -da i ill nott pay h i ( e txnsis if ill 1 :li.a.-. It s (iruld
bT e ni,, am il o rf ,v i'ry (- t ,h'rd ist t ir pwlu.c e tndl ma nket i,'nl. .1111t
10I1-4 l- fruit, aund if he ein nithio i, ay easi= ona IXp m.t farm awlv
to obtain *,'.'" ... t rehturns from tih inveediien' .

Idi IIIv ppait llilart1 ri ttil, \le.'hich t~cirin Iti'. Inca Iitl T' V itt
pr;i1i 'it., is te onek ,1'r.ili,, i ove every other ehin ( irt re-tliii-e
which determine th~emrkt vint haf (hie feuit a dhcei d aetd vtet in

fil,, instancel s it r )e.4ivs the a hlst atte .nion fr ii t 1h t o r(cha id I'ork.
li. :- tin, h rehxar ist of th'L future i n w ill O t ,e h( l it ian \ I,,..1111tt..
,,lli.r *ITii,._,~. studies tlhe {.ondlitio)ns ,i \ i (i -. o)n his o)wn farm a)nd
: pi).' \ h is t r ee(s i,', ,,),ii i!:- t o th e n e ed, s u)f e' a e,' v a ri et yv f o) r tlie {' on tr olI
,,f ll ,. p a rH ti{'u la r tr o)nlI l es wliich occ'( u r in Ilis hl oca litv T i,, o( u rse, o)f

"tr -eatm tent est suiteld for tho o t!hts I o)f th.e Ih I li. ii', li thV i'.-f
"i,.'iie.. may nkt neutsarily iv, (ieh refeirce I ito therphards situ-
f e .t I, tlhe Blue iL.u iun thet. "i d i IaI. t, d .. t V ,i,- t Iihe treatmeId.nt
fr certain Ivarietie.s fof appleh, -.s may 'he rol( 1 roe happ \lruirlt
I'i," ertin orthdea variet hae t.1, in,' in til, sam(o e fruality. ''I,, itush

I, tireatm ,nt slhiuld In e n '! ,c,-,l not nlv with i,.f,-.i in .i thi ( ( rliet.-
easea to I)(, r., ,),inii ,ir~ but also w ith re'fere(nc e to) the ip robIa}he e'ff e,{t
of the hi i,..'i, id r, u p)o n the frvu it and{ If, li.,-., ,,f th e, v arvietv t o) b e( treat(,d.
TI' e, B en l} a\ i-. f orv \.iiip".", is so) ser, i ously ru sset ed l~v a p)I~lica-
tiols ,,1" B o)rdheaux Imixture thait ,,I'ien m ost o)f thie fruit spra- y ed with
this r,),,,..'i,-i,,, is r gender ed( secon dI cla s s. In \ i r,'n),i., thlis v a-ietv
doves not ,sil'.tn materially f',i, tle attacks of -, I1. hitter-i,,. or
other serious fruit dise'ase.s, the hl:ir-.~p,, whit-h is eo(nt.itII,'
b,,ii,,' its rliif fini. i,, enemy. T1h. Ben Davis in \"iiiiii i aind in
k'ir 5iJ

I I\1I -I I 1I' 1 l1l P\k\1A ItA.'NS l<' 01t %q'l 111 -1 .


itlier similllr sit kii, lti II ,\ tliiefoli'e vI sit ce.iully .-prayed with a
\i'ial, fkn[,i ih \li.I irli %%ill ltrip tn i le'i'f-hpt, .niotvy fungus, and
-lililt s ; )l, iil'ectins itli'iit iiijuriy to the fruit o, foliage. The
Yrik Iil'i'inil i. alltl'r variety \\i' ich Ihas n i "erious disease of the
fruit, and il ialilti'I, it i-, lit s.-iubjict to, Iileux ru.-.siet, s ci)mmon
(ii tiI,' Ben lDavi., Int tiit filiage i.I ..llsceptible to eil' and is
,,ot,.,, badlY injunredI blly alppliati-os 4f Bo'deax m mixture, SO) that it
i, ,i'ir.Iable t' splr. l i- i V;rii'tv illlii itli a lc.s c lnistic m ixture.
(On Hli e tliler halimd. tlh f<'lliw Newtolwnl" is Mriitsly subject to
il,. attackss Ef Iiitt'r-r,)t :ildl iiil.-t Ibe tr.'itl'il itli i strong fungicide,
.I.'lii a'. Bonlrdeaux inLxtiire, fillr tlie citrIl of thins ii'4itse. The fruit
l tills valri(ty i-, .-.I.-'cclt pti 11 ,, Biiriluix illijirvy, but since such injury
i,. p i'diic, l l (. l\ tli' 'a i rly ii|l )liictti ills iif lthe inixtiur the treat-
nilit mnaY heI si planned ;iiii tip avioli it O()li' if till, lille-sulphur
.l|r;Is luli\ v'l frl' till, fir'.-t tlll st'condl plriyings after the petals
fall ;inal Birlc'aiiix lniiixttlr' Fr tIl' o l itttr-ret tratiii'cnts which come
later ill till' .s ',iIIli. Tln'-i' ; 'irc ,iin 1 if tlle finer uiiniit. to be consid-
'el(d in ((iilll ctinill \ithli .prayilg, .1 til li tlrc llrli-it \\liot gives them
duill' c'ilsiderl;itini ll iltl)t;tin t lil I,',t r ilt- inll tl l production of
gtrjool fnlit.

In Virginiai LIili, IllIw -.'i.-i, i ,1' f lf10!l tlle rite itli the aissist-
ainI( sulq l nr p (', pa';l l io H in il (pilli r pa ith B,,'dvlmiix nlixture filr the
c(,ntr,,l of api hple i.(.iii.-s'. Till- expleriinvnts vre ma;ide in the Yel-
loWv NeVtiolvn, ;it (',izet: thlie Win a p. iYodirk Inmpl'rili. ;amnd Ben Davis.
at Fi-virsvill: ainid tic, York ImperilIl iind Ben Davis, ;it Mount
tlieK-i iii.
Thie s lf-bliled limi-sl.iilllinr Inixturi, thie liole-hoiled lime-sul-
pjlllr .-sdluitim ,, ;nld the c immeri(' l liine-sillpllur .slutioin, ias well
a.s Brhi.lix iiiixturI, \\ir' ii-uted. Tlie .-',ll'-iboiled mixture \%ais used
in t %\i st rl'ngt li-, .s-.n-d.l' ;ni lO-lt-50 aind the ltnile-hoiled! slu-
tion at a Ir l'ltl of pJlunik ds of ..iulilplitir and I 2 poundils of lime
til .'5ll ,;_imlN of WAItr, n1l;ile Ib Illing the liie winll tile sulphur
M\ itli ;i 1;ill Ill.'itltil. v ,f \\-;at<-i I li < i a 1 4. fi ',ll f'' t -tivt m inu tes.
T iw' h.iltlr i- v.-c-Iti'ily ,,f till, s;u i1 c,1 inliP,,iti,,n i till, 4*incelnti'.ated
]ii .--,il|>liii' ^,lul in,, ii \ lh i, Prn,,.. ,i lin P. S e\\ait' described and
\\ liicli, ac ,,,iill t,, hint. <',i ll kept indciinitelY. Tilt- co mninter-cial
lill'--idIlJ iir -ioilill iii \ii l-,l'i it tilt' i;ltes if I 1 1, ', ,and -21 aill-
a Synonym of Albeniarle Pippin.
b Whenever formulas for limne-sulphur mixture are mentioned in this paper the first
number shows the number of pounds of lime used, Ill' second the number of pounds
of sulphur, and the last the number of ,.illi of water.
cBulletin 92, 1'. il-, I'.1 i .i .\._ri' uilt ural Experiment i .ii 1111n. 1909.
[Cir. 54]

II .ML --l I.1.1' l 1 :l I'l P A t I "1: \I I I DISiIA\ E .

hlons to "'I '.1.Alli't ;f wate t\r Inate of lea1d lt thI rate ,f 2
l piII Iudf to .11 gallons wI a iiid wit the elf-boIiled l mixtureI ttile
h,,m i-h ,.-ilc- 1.,,,ti,,1 1 nd the 1,1it, 1 l".1 ,\ m mixture. The cImIIrcial
dtlution was use d w it Ih arsenate of let I at the rate of 2 poit unds
+ tO .+>l> :'dt ll,, w ith l'llr~i s .' ',.,.l >tt t h C r atl e (f ( o u n c cs it l ",II
.iilli'-. and withlut .iii\ piston. In the Mount Jackso.n ,,ruclard
the trees Were spra\'d: Fii-t MS sooI as the peta ffe ll; -. 'iiil
t three to f'lir week1 t l' it r I ith i,*t.i., fdl: I n thI ird nine k ,- t11 n 'eekl
fi, h the ,,l\.i l- fell. TI,. l'i- ,.I i II' orIllard, il ti accoI unt of Iscab.
received ai ,'|i li ,rii tIl :,[,1;ii tii .IrI. I (hid i "us taidc juIst Ibefore theI
trees bloIIned. 'I'l, ('ii/''i orclnrl reived the sie trea I ent t as
the MiV(t 7I orackson oi ilI ,d. an on Nccutou t of hit ter-ro t a. fotrth
,ippll~if ;.i,,"> three to four weeks after the third.
In the same orchards -plrli\ ii,' deiionstratiors for the control of
ins+ects and ,li-.i,-,,.- were conducted jointly h by tiie Bureaui of I.7l,,1
m,,uI....v and the Bureau ,f I'Iiiii Indiustry, f,,I ,, i,..., the sclhedules
of ,ip|) l iilii-. just riiiit i,,,ril. which were prepared hy Mr. \. L.
Qiiiiitai',, and the writer, the former l,,irii, responsilile for that por-
tion rfliitin._, to insect crottrol. A discussi in of tliese deotn-strations
"ill not be included in the present paper.

I)r, ,f the .,Iij,, I- tIf these experiments was1 to determine he effect
If the several lime-sulphur preparations in c minati on with i \rsetn-
ictals on the f,'li,,'..' ,l 'lil',.rn. iit varieties. -,,. .rr: times ft intervals
iiiiiitL. the season notes were madte on the condition of the f.,li:i,'
,f the trees in the experimental plates. The weather was mostly
cloudy ant r.1iix from early -Itir" until at bout July 1. so that the cto-
,iti,,tii- were favorable to the development of spruy injury. l),u irin
the latter Iilf of the -' .1 it-I. wev er, pract ic\ll no rain fell.
In every, .il- except tin the \1i,,.-.i,, where Plaris i, rl wats used
with thle commercial liiiiT --,Ilpl,1Ir sl, ii ,~ I tlie f I i V,: I was badly
S'iiI Ii I and in some instances the rees sprayed .ith t his combination
lost l:ilf of their t', i.-,'. "l'.. \\Ii,, ... di l not -U irr st i m uchi in ijury
ri 'ii, this h or .,1,\ of the either -] r.,'- as ,lid ,tin+ h other varieties. This
\,iri l was used in the experiments of the [ir'. iI ycir cIInduIIctedI
in NI',raska I,. the Bureau if Plant Industry and the fact that the
commercial solution at the rate of 2 gall s to ",,, I.. I-IN- of wi ater and
6i ounces .f Paris _n 'ikl, I caused I nly a -I_,l .ii,,:, to thle f. li.ilr,
indicated that the combination miiht be practical. It i's ri, .,i(.
however, from the \ Ir'iri experiments that it is entirely ,Ik.,Ii',I
to use Paris .'r' iiI withi the lime-sulphur sprays.
[',li commercial lime-sulphur sIlution at the rate of 1 i.'ii. tI "i
I:dl,'i, I' water and 2 pomlnds of arenate of leaI injured the f. li.,-,
,ir, -f t


only sliglt lyv, scarcely eimiugh to be noticeable to tlw casual observer.
At the rle (' t gallons to 50 gallons of water with ursenate of lead
this prepi r;ait I1n injured 't lie foliage considerably, ,,so that u small per-
'ei'nag, of tlie leaves dropipedi off. (See PI. I, fig. 1.) This injury
was maziilritl lby a slight sc.'wehing around thle mniargins and at the
tips of lthe l',ivs, and in sne cases by thlie firmiation of irregular
brown sfpt-.. lt\en lire, hiowever. tlie injury was scarcely more
severe thlmn t lnt tcauedtl Ib 3 -3-50( Bordeaux inixture'" on the same
varieties. (,See PIl. I, lig. 2.)
At a strength d'f 2 to 501 witlmit any piiison the commercial solu-
tion iniijur'l tl e filiage slightly inre tliaini tite same mixture with the
addition ,,f air.ciiate ,et I' Thlich' .-aine is true of tlie 1 to .51) strength.
The ars('natic it lea'd aillpp)rently rediltuctd the caustic properties of the
lpl1iidl. renderings, tll mixture It.s injtirious tit apple foliage. This
is probably (dlt( t, thlie fact tliat a por1tiin if thlie -ulphtur is taken out
of solution to uiiIiine %% itl i tlit' lend. firming le1ad sulphid and arse-
nate of lime.
TI'le same solution i t 2a idtrengtlh 'f 2. gallons to 510 gallons of water
-with an, I without ar-iiivte if lead injuredI tlie foliage very badly,
causing a lImrtial il.f'ilii;tion i'f tlie tree.,. This is iiiiili. too strong
for use in tlie Ea-terin State-,, altlhongli Profe.-sor Beattie,6 of Wash-
ington State, recoimn ten'leld even a stringer s-oit ion.
It appt'ear, frn tliese teslis that 2 ganllins f thlie c'ninmercial solution
to 50 galliin 1f water is (lie inaximum strengtli that can be used
on apple filite with any degree (if safety, ind that 1, to 50 is much
safer antl is-; atboutt as strong, as one should risk in spraying a large
The himte-Inihled :,-luticon, ci'nituininii 5 pounds of sulphur and 21
pounds ',f limie t1t 510 gallons of \eater, \vitli 2 p)lounds of arsenate of
lead, cai iled verv little or practicalIly no injury. This is practically
the same a;-s ;tie c nminiercial slutiun dliluted l It contain 2 gallons to
50 gallons ,'f \;Iatr. Ibut tlie foliage injury tcauwsed byI the latter was
more ( i-,liitil. tiu,.
The stll'-iiled lie-uiilplhur aiind ar'seinate of lead caused no injury
whatever: in fact ,, I' fliatge slprayei I with this mixture had a bright-
grli. \ i:',i,'ruII-, i'ppearam e tl iroul lioutt tlie season. (See PI. II, fig. 1.)
The leave, were iintic',ablY larger, the budts were plumper, and the
trees niade mtre growth ilmn those sprayedtl within the other lime-
sulphur Iprep'lara iiln antid withi Bcrdeaux mnixtujre.
The B, 'r Ica ux mixture ii tised ci onsi lerable spotting and yellowing
of the lea\t o, ,II tlie Yirk Impelrial, Ben D)avis, and Yellow Newtown,
a"\ i,.'-.,r I'muiila- f1Ir Ii,' t[jiix mi xtui',- aie given in this paiper, the first number
indicates iOi i ilinl',-r i,.iui'l-' i "plt r rul;phai.- u'ed; the sec,,ni], the number of
pounds of.-u'', liii,., .ni'I ihi laI,i ih.' iiiuumnl..-r if gillonrs of wuter.
b \\ .'i-i 'rii 1'1it i -.t r IfKt.,. Iip f-7
[Cir. -. I

Ca. 54. 81 P- W.I, , v . LA t.u r,.


VA., SEPTEMBER 29, 1909.


lint \. i little on the \\ it,-.ip variety, :.-.,,. of the injured hlievi
,|r,,li,,.,| I ,,,i time.toI (i ,,,II ,so thal thef,,li., whaht thineld out i",:,dW thle end of lthie seson, lhu tle .i.,,. .'. ,uhl
il,, be ,,,-i\ I',d o' I serious.

tl11-: C()NT|V{lo ()F )1|S.v\SIS.

In the ,i,' l.Ltrl-. in Vi'\ri~iii w here tlihs e\JxpeIrimeuit-; w ere c(o-
ducted none of the apple diseases e',, ii lef-fkm I. A'el..| to a
serious 0 -'.,. so that the test 0was mot a ('r' ()n(o.t 'lie :ITIhu leaf-
-l, ). I so ,,iiul,'i 'tli""r,'_'"i thi- State, wa -1 entirely the llixtulres uised. The -, I-I,.i i d lilPll--, llCl,,, iii d<> tli l)4-1t s-hl w-
111,'_' in this vo neci',l,'. I e ausIe it n t ot f nly I'ntr .olli t I lie l' f -" 't Iiut
did not injure the f. fand ., :i. ]Ill li l d a- stimulate ii, I il *,t on
thel trees. ", I'l. 11i.) All thelit hue-ullhir I|Ireptpal iol s v. 1 11' II castle
BIordeal\ux mixture, r ontr ll, I tie shot, f 'i- allnd aIn uInI deteriiiel
fruit -1'*- whIlch was coninli lithe |'.i-[ seaso) iTn i' \ I 'I P o
weather was so d40 \ifter ,iii'-ii a,, I tl at hitter-rot dF i ( not d(v\ 'l1p1)
-il, ,,Ilv to test tlhe value r" the liiue-sull)hlir -i .m.ys for its ro ntrlI.
i'.L-idi.i. .l scab ,h i'[,liId on lthe uln.spra el \\.. I -Im in the
Fi-Iri .' iI. o ( ii 111 so that a i..Ii ti est o( f the II Hi of Itlse ve.\ al
sprays in tlie control of this disease was I1,rhIdI. O)nly one sl, i. (hi
i2 to ,) of the commlerc'ial liiir --.l|liur was usel on tlis varit y.
The crop I',,I four tIree in eacha of thI more iliportnt an ts was
picked andi sorted, and the results are -shown in lie f..ll.,. ii,.' alde:

S [ t. I I" [ I l ll ii 1 i l h 4 t

'Fr i l rrl l

I n I I t I I I I

hu4 t 1 '4 Ii ',i4 llow th I it 144 1 I 1 !

le Iitd ~ I t v,
S I IIvIu I II( -. I 7I c 1 1r

It. will he seen from this tahhle that the .uu a) was hehld 414wn to less
than 1 per cent of the i,, I y the commercial limie-sul phur, to per
cent 1>. If l,.il, d liine-sulphur. and to about 2 I" r cent 1y lBordleanx
mixture, and that '.., per cent if thle '-l.,'a eed fruit was .,i,,'Stei
with the disease. This disease was well i ,,,i',. li, h, ly 1.,il (te ,ii,( ,,, .
but it will be noted that it. was not \' '"ticularly bI. I o)n lie uns|prayed
|iie- so that the text could not he considered a severe one. None
,,f the Winesaps were sprayed with tlie weaker commercial ii tions nor with the home-boiled lime-sulphur.
(|tir, 5.1

I.I.MIl "I 1.1,l1tl,'1 lii IN ARA!I 0 % FORl APplEr Dh-? \_L 1


Ill this experiment the ,iliijiirative lfeert of tlie different mixtures
oil thile (*odlig moth was deteriniiied, and, as shown in ITable I, tlhe com-
bination of lime-sulphur and arselnate of lead controlleCd this insect
about as well as Bordeaux mixture and arsenate of leadI. It seems,
therefore, that the poisonous action of this arsenical i, not reduced
by (colibiniinI,, it withi the limle-sulphlur i.repIriition.
In all the orchards treated the fruit sprayed with I the several lime-
sulphur mixtures was smoother and more lhig,,Ily colored than that.
sprayed with Bordeaux mixture. The Bordeaux mixture russeted
the fruit of the Ben Davis so that it did not have t lie finish" required
for f. ncv app le)l and a small pjcrcentiige of it had to be d(is-
carded as culls on account of the iiuglened al)l)pearance due to the
mixture. The Yellow N.\wtowns were russeted considerably and the
Wimc.,lps oinly .lightly, while the York Imperialls showed practically-
no russet effect.
The lime-sulphur preparations caused no russeting, or at most
very little where the strongest solutions were used, and the fruit
sprayed with these mixtures was smooth, clean, and well colored.
Thie difference in color between the fruit sprayed with the Bordeaux
and that sprayed with the several lime-sulphur preparations was,
vt-,v s0trikini. and this feature alone would ni-ke the latter sprays
preferable to the former if other things were equial.
Experiments similar to those in Virrini;i were conuductedl at Douglas,
i., in cooperation with the Bureau of Entniolh-v, and the results
were much the same. The work was done by Mr. R. W. Braucher
under thle writer's direction in the orchard of Mr. C. W. Gaylord.
The trees were sprayed just before they bloomed (May 19 and 20).
as soon as the petals fell (June 1 and 2), three weeks later (J.une 23
and 24), and ten weeks after the petals fell (Auii.gust 10 and 11).
There were six plats of from 13 to '20 trees each, including tlhe
Wilc. .r, Baldwin, Rhode T nlJnd, Roxbury, anl Ben )Davis varieties.
The commercial lime-sulphur solution, diluted to contain 2 gallons
to 50 g;illons- of water, without ;I:N- ;a'seiliic.l, was a applied to plat t. I
the same .,oll it iim, with the addition of 6 olincets of Paris green,
was applied to plat 2; and the same solution, with the addition of
2 pounds of arsenate of hchd, was used on plat 3. Plat 4 was sprayed
with self-boiled lime-sulphur (10-10-50) and 2 pounds of arsenate
of 14:111 and plat 5 was -pi-;v'cl with 3-4-50 Bordeaux mixture
anld 2 pounds of arsenate of leai,. while pint 6 was left unsprayed.
The plats sprayed with the commercial lime-'ulphmir solution,
ICir. 54]

Cit, 54 ri , I .' U $ D!.f>, \ I 'f 1




cinll\ plat -'. I.,.iii to l hol w vousid'er+al f,,li.. in jut, afteI (h se o't lud
al~pjIli,.i*,1 in. tiil on tlii+'+ avlcoiili I hl u liltitll) \!u tliltilvul to+ o*~iiliil

~iippiriiln t andO thef'isi~ Ijcuite bteillltionm ws dlthed 1 u1 Utlil 1 i,, Ih, ill I11 .til ',, i h of iii ,lte fdl i+ lh la t t w h 'lju .i.,+in h-
Od I- 1 ill 4 l \' lII; TIlI O I'MI+KNT.

Svith l atrna- te sI e rc, .1nd auu pplia tio ,: wa- made, it 11,lilt-, t.ot

i ii i llvl I i ll t ilt' 1i tne !'uliiii aitlti iti a idi Wii'o li'tl CuI itia+ . ,,I dl, t1 Z
Mr. ithie t lii .' 1io41 s, tIh l on l e I lilir ili m e- ll ulp 1hul" plts I\ I .11 i o

,1i m~~r ~' 14.) SIl o!' I of 1 I le II It I r-t IT\ ; f 1ai -11~id
isho, f lit i'' e 11 ilijii'\ N ; I Ite Iade ill it.rv l .IIi ,.' li se
sdIf t )II the i':,i ,',t l sito he dh i j1ired b thI oI t he r t I ll ti
(Miltitien lind Palris L._i,.,.i fdmhimil~intlti unld ltlint tiln" s hlntiu+ii ~iltllimil,
t in it-t .irll c iats d atl ei t cab oin li h :. i i., _,, \- I I I tit i ili li iini
with arermi tI ,1 leaI \tiit. l i, li le ioj u tiu + Ali 'lrie tla c h I ii.A,-,
v ti.m 'td II, the I inI -sI ilpuIII r and i, i'll i'il l Iof Il[Id f IIndh i tli tn \k wI
n1o e oiL it w -iit li i to li ,ir i._ I lrhit it-, 1 .f tl I so -Ihll itll
1t the ., li I ll,, i of 2 _:ll i- to .'i1 ,. f l i II-'h o
1 2 t.ol'lll'Wll '. to .'ll r, i of wil e, mii tll nailiit f W uO l, ( iv d t4
,l)e pra'ln .illy ii 6iiij1iii1,1, iln Viriilnial anm w\ouh11d prk.lmbly he s a11f`11
in Mirh gmiii. The -W,11-I,,i1,., linie-! i ilil- nixtmre with ai enl of
h,;id Thie f,,llo\ f ili,_tble | h mows tlhe rir'+ '-i'hll,\ of tlile seveal -i.iy+ nix-

S lf4l Iff ~ I '. ill" .r 11)1 Cl li) W I d t 1 1 11 T, I V H I II.\, :I dIII TIII I Iv
t.ure in ]h'ninlili, apple tcabi' on tie V,.,,i'',i, vilritty, ai determined
liv s. lpi' iii,1 o an 1 h1 erilnlin, t Ile f ir i l frlio i ili '.i..tlt tIree', iln ea t phit:
'l".TlA lI- II+-- ,I iii ,,fri.r .. i, ,,*Iresu~lSts**'tthf us+ .,I ,' ....., ',, -' ,, ;.*pr mi s +silli l;iirittini+r i if s n;sl+ .
it the prw+ventium .. in re~ib < II' ,* ... pplms til I~ml iisb Miri

tn, t,* pfe e 1 ,i x. ,tl

.I I Vi -il it i per .... o1 ;r u2r 1
l ....... ... . r

A Il w n il li.e t ,ll.'i hr ... i. I i to 1) .. ..p ..i .. . ... ( 1. .. I. I. .. . i 1 '

was 2s not (m Q~ I&t min l t Iiiacnltto li), i ar,i'fit oflew inth
c (ci al^Mt P i '1 ,ilpIhi r pe io ht e ltd th e KM|. i I'rj: 111i, i li ...' 4 *^l. 1 i
I 3 C oin ', , [\il I ,ii i' ,,r ,l i 1-, lt l) ,\'1 h e I o ii d (.1(.11 'n1 llt, [11 1 . I r :I.I (
4 + if-till, ,l h n" ,,*ll|ii ,r I'T I lli-ln-.',O P iM t lw nti -' l> ft,;m> ul t .;. t ll. 4r
& Bir-6 6i: ', i ,, tl* : I i I I)i ll i( wtl" dwl f l t; ,l; . .I... ;\ *1;t
6 C heek; ,,,, ''. .. .... .. .. ... .. . .. . li Q 4 5

.A-0siown ilt the altollve tablhe, the sea> was he ld wn" till it, r .i'.

o1 ce' tper nt of the crop a1d i li cfil' of:,erial lel-sitirh t1o 5 ,tio.
to ;; l.! per cent by t~lie I ,irr I,,n\ nmixtutre, and~ 1 o 1). 1I -petr cenlt byV tilt
-rll'-l>"'d.,I mtixture, whlile 1 pe r <'elt of" lhe+ l- |i .,i.ed fti'rlt WHi-
..ial,!>y ,> ,,e I'1. I 11 .) T h is e -x p eri eni! l t s ,, I !1 s lllio-se !' oiid nl citl
hi Vir'"Liili:i. shio\ws that (liet, lin/e--~,il>l.'zi so+lutio~n is tls l;', .+tive in
plre\eni'itin' alpple s'abt aIs ]l,,rdesniUX lixi ture+,x+hli, le lie -, il-l-boihle
was h is nlot. so+ -_',,d in this tconne/itli >t. Thie alreenite o f hlead iii lli
+onimerciail iinme-sulphur sohition Iheld tie h ....Ill ,,_'' lmoth d ow\n to! 1 ,
pie" cent of ltie c~rop and inl the eaise of Bohrde~aux liixtuire it" 5.', p, ,
ct'eli. thus indiil i'.Ii that the line'-sulphur dlotes not i iij i ii'Il-!ilV i. I i
the pii-ln
lt'ir 5411

1.1~ll ..i I' l 'IIrit rI'i rI'\RATII NS i J'AII \l'ru-I i\ 1 A11 .


At Sili..i, Springs, Ark., ldurilig I1.ii19, Mes.r I. F. \. Faurot and
E.. L. ., ir, o)f tlie Bureau of Eit' iiil h,_',. conducted another set of
experiments under the writer's dirt,.ion -r. 'The results of those
experiments throw considerable doubtt onll Itli the' elliciency and
safety of the commercial lime-sulphir irht ion as a summer spray for
apple diseases. 'I"i1. Ben Davis, .lm.liiii, rkanra-,, and Elkhorn
varieties were sprayed with several dillcrnit t rengt iv s of the commer-
cial I'rr|);)r:iiii, in combination witli ar'e ,i,.al prisons. The self-
boiled lime-sulphur solution and tht BIrlrdeaux mixture were also
used. The trees were sprayed five t ilit-", ais folollw-: (1) As soon as
the petals fell; (2) three weeks later; (3i) eight to nine weeks after
the petals fell; (4) two weeks later, arId i.i three weeks after the
fourth application.

The trees sprayed with commercial liinC.-,t.lpllur .solution diluted
to contain 1 gallon in f1) gallon of 0 waletr, wi Jr the addition of the
usual amount of arsenate of leail, shlx\vdd very little or practically no
f',lia ge injury after the first a d second i pIplit:ti, in; in fact, according
to notes made on June 30 and July 22, no seriouss injury followed the
third treatment, which was appli l ,,i Jtune 2. After the fifth appli-
cation, however, the injury increased rapidly, and at picking time
li It' of the leaves were on the ground. It seems that thle injurious
effect of the mixture was cumulative, the injury being increased
1'y each application. Three aIpplica tions wi'uld, perhaps, have
resulted in little or no damage, but five spraying. were evidently
more than the trees could stand. ('onsidera ble ruin fell (luring May
and June, but the remainder of the ,eai-,,n was dry. rThe trees suf-
fcreI severely from druiglit, which ipplitrently exrggera ted tire spray
injury. On account of the short ;ge of fi'li;wLe oin the trees a portion
of the fruit was sunburned, but no rueti INg was caused by the spray.
Tlii- -.,iiiibiiriiig also occurred on ihe fruit sprayed with Bordeaux
mixture, but to a much less extent.
The commercial lime-sulphur at a -trength of 1 tor 30 in combina-
tion with Paris &rreni began to burn tlre foliage soon after the first
pjilicat was made, and by midsuminer thie trees were almost bare.
Arsenite of lime was also used wit1i tlie 1 to ;i solution, and the
results were disastrous. The f,,lie w\is, buIrned t) a crisp and the
fruit badly scorched I\- the first application. Even the new twig
''.', l111 was killed to a considerable exten t.
The self-boiled lime-sulphur and ar-,enate of lead caused no injury
to fruit or fli;ig. The fruit sprayudI willi Bordieaux mixture was
quite badly russeted and the Fiiliage ,ul'ered considerable injury.
I Cir. 5 41

4, . I A r PLAT III






T hc lilii '-llili ll spra I 1 ,r.! tu 1,ltro| apl e l o i' /q/ /,' I/ ;.
',,litnr-,n), which is the liulst troull csonu"il dli tieus ol' ilitl .M'cltmii.
AltIii '.i.') per cent oIf the I it, I pr d ii liii : \W .*', ted i .h blotch-
iitl about li> i,.r cent of the fruit splr.,d w'ii x ith te lselfdiodhd washll
11 so iill'r i The 1'r coni li rcIlul '11 i i' it ltt 1 .1 ,i iw ik -1 il
lI,,tlt, r,-'iil'., 'while BordeauIx miixtuIre almoist <'(iipl~hct lv runti trolled
ih ,li"i-.i'.c. I itter-rot ( it0ll - Vri'i i-. inI the exI tlriinental .r liurl, I, tIil\ pIr' i. l. I IIt i ..ll I 1
IiV \ of thIe Ii I I -- I lll i Iir I\' .y wliil, ll l ci-'k i t 'ii, Iiir l o, It t 'i,,m V illt ilt tIt ln I IIt tli '1 IIii -h ll 'i iiii
iv I i ,i ra t i- n^ of rt o ll ) u vn u in Il I*> t~ \! 11 I I I I rn
bititr-r, !: but of course fur other tcsts Ul' I'c'sslti before hial con1-
Clu.iu Ic'a te reached.

T'h I ri r fI cl- that v he informnatiol tt I I utl is I i (t uilt II1 lui(' llnt

ef1 ,,\i iliit, however, that a liio-t'-"upluihr pirtei)irtion inh onle form
or iil1nIhcr is ,h,'.lici. Ir.,.pl, to t l' t h ll lace of uirdc'Iix nix-
(mv ill -prni'ViliL. varieties of piplv'h isul'i I i to nriou' i 'iLur froIn
Il pplri, t il i- C the tatter.
A lme-sulpI)hur solution r,.il.ii,'. wh'n dtild, about I pouutlid
of sulphur to .' ll i i of w tter Ii[>i' .11. at ) r'st' tI iI' the- iitoIt
lit'uiti-i iiL prcp.irinli,,u. 'li'l- mu V lie oltsilm' h ly .i-ii,."' tilhe coin-
iin't i-i1 solution at the rate of 1 '.Llln-' to .4t) illi.- h of ater or h
prrp-irii'wz the lliu i,.--.alilliiir 'ntiution at lioniuu and dilutlii.' it .so tliat
iiri ."l l ; o v-1 il l ill contain I il l in f ulphilur. '1 Ii ixture Iit
this .lI el It I jiiiiurl apple I1 liZ..- in V ii I vIx Ft little, and if tie-e.
I'r-iilt-. cold bet taken a a reliable ii 1', there I eedl le Wt o heit1aniv
in ii-ii,, n it; h ut under ,lill,(rent )i1tiis lithe results iu._lii He .'liiW r-
tii. iiiil the matter mnus.t still lie' considered as more or less-. experi-
m mental. A -i r i-. I Iz 1h I I ll. .I r- of tlile It'( i--I ritil i ltli lo II
proe to be -11111 i t ii i in most I'aesI, aIi til' I ,I I',i' of iI. ury would
I lhln. 'I,,1Ip-. be entirely eliminated.
Our experiments I', anl 1 i',. as .il as the pulisd/l recor ds
of other ii '(i'.'.il show that tilt' lhime-sulFp1ur sIlutitin is .I|1,m r-
cii ll as effective as Bordleaux mIixture in titI conItrol of i|(, !, scab.
Il"nehr more severe condition lhan those ihith existed in the exlper-
imental orchllards the treatment iiil fail: bu t at |Ir-'i it is I' rV
Isroi'iiu-iLu. lime-sulphur ,.,ili control 1..,f--p..i and either minotr
troubles, as well as apple scab, but sot far it has not pIrov(l to bIe a
satisfactory remedy for .,i lh blotch il'lli.~i 11 ) and bittter-rot.
I however, the experinlients on those two diseases have not been car-
ried far liii m,,ji to determine what may be expected .f it inl this- co(n-
nection. In sections where -prli viuI' for bitter-rot is required the
l> ir 5I

l.M I:-%'l1.' ll 1 1. 1 %1.1 I'\I ';\TI N ru \ A\ L| K I l I I% -;I-,.


I!iii'--'Illpliir treatment for seal) and leaf-spot could be followed by
applications of Bordeaux mixture for bitter-rot.
The self-boiled lime-sulphur is entirely harmless to apple foliage
and apparently has a stimiulll;inig ellect, but it 'is rnot as effective
.,i,:-ii,.t scab as the boiled wash. Our experiments show that it will
control mild cases of scab and will entirely prevent leaf-spot. "fruit-
.i)'i '" and the sooty fungus, but in sections where scale) is a serious
disease this wash would probably be inefitcient. In the Shelinandoalh
Valley of Virinia, where scab rarely occurs except iln 1 mild form,
and under similar conditions elsewhere the self-boiled I lime-sulphur
would perhaps be preferable to either the boiled wash or Bordeaux
Acc. Iii di.o to the information at hand arsenate of leail is unques-
tionably thle poison to use with the lime-sulphur mixtures. Instead
of iii'ir;i-ing the caustic properties of the mixture, a;i, at first feared,
it apparently has the oppoSite effect to some extent i11d does not
i,-. any of its insecticidal value by reason of the comihiunation.
In all the experiments the combination of Paris green and the
lime-sulphur solution proved to be quite injulioi,. to apple foliage,
and in the Arkansas work the combination of arsenite of lime and
lime-sulphur was exeedlinLi1y injurious.
.\ ,'odini to the results obtained in the Arkansas experiment,
three applications of the commercial solution at a strength of I
.,allon to 30 gallons may be made without material injury to apple
filiag,, but aftivr the fourth application the injurious effect becomes
.-.rii.'. and after the fifth the injury is almost di.-astro is to both
fruit and fo]ihig,. It appears, therefore, that the injury i, cumula-
tive and that it is unsafe to make more than three a pplic(.ations, or
four if one is made before the trees bloom.
It is at present more difficult to make satisfactory recommenda-
tions for spraying apple orchards than it has been for years. Until
recently Bordeaux mixture was preeminently the best known fungi-
cide for use on the apple, and it was comparatively easy to outline
a course of orchard spraying for a given locality, but the .Iidvent of
new fungicides which, though insufficiently tested, give promise of
di ,ing the good work of Bordeaux mixture without its harmful effects,
makes the problem more difficult until further experiments shall
have shown the exact value of these new preparations. The writer
is of the -,pinion. however, that the information at hand is sufficient
to warrant inaking substitutions for Bordeaux mixture under certain
conditions, thus avoiding as much as possible the very undesirable
fruit r-i.iting and foliage injury produced by this fungicide. Tlhe
f. ll,, wing tentative outlines for the treatment of diseases of different
varieties of apples are suggested:
dCir. 54]

I.I %1 I --, I I Ill l I I ,RIP I t ) III\ S II I \|I*I U| I IS V \ I

,, )..n a the I,,' fsui: t : a ili'I' it k fp l r ,, ,mkb e p ifllr tih' d ,i alst

wnl I ni'IiI hi is tea let foir' tlls, ose fi roT i l0f ,. e ,t 1ii, limi-su lplol u
'oli-l i' ViLi'i" t li" tii' tabou '.Ht ji' l. '.i I4Il on the' BailtiI'U scalheft ire lie
Ih I, u' I I ll t her t, tI I ir f 1er ro t l ltI s I I ii'l

,ifi'If i l li l an ilV la' o ftlo l u, i l it l illi t po' n "I o 0 ,ii h 1 ll lIt1I. S r
lldihrnI i res(1 julteli.( be for th':y bloomi l.iftr II<'l iell lit' i <{>4 *I" |firt( ); (2

%jli'iilr.."-. as tlic1 I ilu) t i i\ liN ;rcc t8 1 uu uifi tira-'.uiiail of iv~l in
I!, T ie l h itlli-. it,4 t 11,-, for hiit t'r-rt i, a'. fodlo\ Aiioiii uliill' eellk'
1ift1'i* Ii., petals fail andll att iuterlxlil aT i f t att 44r thller i, t'ti~'. utl I lirt'e
filli. .ii'iii t nk shlli t ti l l tt l il'. lli ('I f
iu iar i Vilisit e io le he rk ii ,l , i.I i iIili o Iini t ll liu I tiII
li- im nl (1) ns oIii or tue ls.

tliu \ ..i y ahnwtill n varietio 1t'l e- i sl-y 1 f 1ti' petoL s!ili 'Flir
.ilii I iof t ins r i se s i, is notlit T Ilt' a \li' lie,'fo ttt i lit 1
f 'sla litl cot e m i o I It ed d t edl IeIfI. I I li .I t e re idlie tih I -ItI il.,
w Il, T- ll'' ~ lt' I f eI I l I) I lll't \I" th oi i h l I- I I ,I I 1. 1 111*t

I sniilt- i l'i nds f i'sll, i ti ( of lein l t nv t ,i \v se ifl(,lie thot, tl( l~ i re f.ll iirl
Owi ;pplir;l l'ni'-tl ri~iiiiri! f or tt-o, iitllh f ltrlows:ttI A lJoiih ti sec we ks

flit' anf er in n d a t ii t w o th1e If*I, i t1il t h

hiOn\ lia nicsi vaito fru a ns f,, Y klinp ii.\lih. trine tlien Dai s, (hit ori
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