The limitation of the satsuma orange to trifoliate-orange stock


Material Information

The limitation of the satsuma orange to trifoliate-orange stock
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Swingle, Walter T ( Walter Tennyson ), 1871-1952
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
United States -- Government Printing Office
G.P.O. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

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aleph - 29629803
oclc - 32596422
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Full Text

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BURIAl' OF(" I'IA NT l I) I SN TtY G- ir- No. 6;,
B. T. 'I' ,AIJ A Y\ f hi B" r+++.


TO TlUF)ll.\IK-


PIY l!iI.iX;IST IN (NIARtG+ (1 ('l:OH' P llIYS )I.O);Y AND


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(Chif of Biu 7a., IILER LY T. <;-\LLOWAY.
Asistiiq I'hiitil'o url au, ALB..ERT V'. NI )0)I.s
Eflil(nr, J. F. OICo (W I-L.
ChilJ ( Inlk, JAMEIS E. JONL-S.

[(Cir. ;]

[RF0 IFD A '1T-O ) 1 \(;1; S [ ITO .


Thi Satstmla ,orange is a variety which has come to he wxhih'v
grown il thie v rliqieir imrtls "1f thie (G ilf Slates. \ itililt Mlterin-i
into a; discussion as to the merits and demerits *d> this variety. it is
pr up sevd in thisi circular tI call attention Io the lact thalit uniliLk i111-m t
coummovily gr n \"arti orangle sMAl; anl is a comldlhi failure on the somm-oange u..lock lupo
which, ahii ost il 1 loher 'citriis Il'l it:< ('all he ]) I \\ro n snt cessl4 nll\y.
In vihew tdf the fact that larg, experimnental awld eien motmerial
pJlant ii."-of tie ilts \ a ir iliaii re aI ll't I madeI11 n 14;4d i ln nearly all ,I* tie
iGull Stat 's and that satts lma t rts are being oil'ore f, 'el or sale iii-h s u i r-
,or, ,', stowk, it is ao i dered a visalde to I l ; n in tM li- heX ;till
failure thich will result from phlatting);r tsatm a oran es lguthldded (M
sour .stock. 1'ol" ilUtl j cV a si mpld et hod la I", dWlj v'qjisco\ered qlo
identifying with certain I Trifoliatv stok+, which taIke+'s it ea,\ to
1tard against the fI'rad ltll s\1 l)st ion ol' so r I-oraIn ow any otiier
sto1k I'or tlw Trioliatep.
(Krowers of` cit rns fruits in thi-s countlrli- \ 'e [Uiip 14mn at cusdto, d
to use tlh so' ,l trallt+ a d l sweet orany' as somls, \\ l14 in tfece1nm
years tle rt n,, h lemon ;i nd to ;I lesser exi eilt' t ille 4 Ta1 p frlit Ia\ I roite
into lsv. v ies s-iow widl i'' t ada[italtio t T' ,ndloW ,,
as \\-ell ats -really 'xar\'ing [mow rs of ,iiseas< res ist- ; ,i .
A+: niz,... ti' sl-te '< w i ti li;s\1 e \l0 6 I tot 4 p'rto i ti i e lwit 't I thie
[nst w
oroa iiL'c i ~i + ir vji-:t~ii r )>;> l~it+ f t, li<+ ; + li :i+lf ,it \\'iih, ,'I t f 'ii : rr i; : i +i ii .ii >r i +-
a ^ l i > 11In- ,. a11 1 6 -w i >l" I lii.i- h'.iri l, 10 mi.. .i in l inurk ri, i ii" i i -+ +.+ -A

r++iiiir lt t li<- +I+ L* !. l l \ h +,-l + r[ ++ + >li ita ; > n '*+t' ili ^ rir l \ i n t .+ '.+i :i +n' .' r +.r ;+ l + ir T i .:.+++
O,+r +l- .I 1 i l++ l>-l+ ++~ ~i+i" ,r l + * -> +, l + |r-.i +l +l ++ o V .I 111 .1 >, Il.: + + +. + + lr ir til l + t I 1] > \ .. iri .1 + .l i r
i>tri ir hli \ ,iri nwr t4 th .. W -

a iri n i r. l 111 r n ri t i ]'.: i- l <-.i + i\ 1 1 | i "I+r >i li ,, .+ ++ : If S j i -m n i i + .i ;i._, ,r .; i i .i il
l+ r +, I+ 7 +1 +, + W

stili+>titin ii'n ol' i Hir-i+r.HiL'r l'"+ 'l'ri'(iiilf -luc -- 1, 1+v1'.+ + + (..IU,I.OW^, l 1- ++ !,,/' i'' 1'iiriin
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.4 1M1IATION ()F SA\TSFMIA O]' AN :,'.

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IF'l,; L -A fri I i Ii I br" anc 11 Iif i Tri Io Iiai vi or:tin

LI M IIA I' I I N I l I I M \ NI I >l \N(;F-

Tlli,- was4-, introduced 11 1t III]4 co n r\" (' lt I i 1\ il( 4.irt 141w'In t > 1'A 1ri-
cultuii re i!, 1'.,1', ;I(I wa at I ll s! l th l ,r llmI;I a ;ota[I aI l c Iri Fi .\.
I 4 as1 soo. t*,i I i o dI lIn excIll nt Id '.'e4 [>l4i xIi IN Ihe I Ii 4 IiF (I II
SvF t' ;1 1 11i l' i F 1t i! a[ I \\ I III't'lII, I). (t ;in l t'r I aII' Y a INsl it i a
4:. : ,',., I t fo lr t i i 4Is rp ,sI 'F. 'l l';> l t l iF t is a ,1I e ,) \\ it t'- ,1111 It o tl
inIjury 1(, |)i ';r t iirr" :>s how zs Z<',) 1 1I11' 1) I' ii. it r ,,c i, 1, >\\ cr. ii;tktI.,s
it stli lt l t' fd c il It l'I I In : 1F tn h l; ll t IN w lt;II r(>;(I F t, Inl ,I u't itSl ,i .-
T l os I', f lt'i) s it' t hi T rifle' i;>t( 1 1 *r 144 ",(' Ni c. 11:1 v I'l', nlly ,\ ,' il ,'l
llII V(' s ";tirc izIIi ls )ii('e (irl' illlp t ;>", (,>|)c(i i i zllv \N li, l I I \ (,, i i->i 1 1
tile( s[)i, i i ad a in 1\li i h-,lcii \'l it;I t't0 crli! ),l \', li, )\ +i fr ir; 1 1 1
itii t t itll 1. 'lIl'r()rl lliIi tcl\V i tl V (i\ t* Illie T rif ,li+,i,, )J I I' n irc '>', it
in t h is c mtiIi t 'vI 11 it I I (I(' F l( ) t li' ir FI tr I I' III r hvw ; FI l,1 t
till of t heirii I l l 1 II 1(le ipide l.; l( i k I t n e .;i FI IIIll. r I I, IL; 'l; -
like -.. 4.4is (on tihe ( ,I(,,; n1 ear ()1 l,)..(F TiFF F (oeH ar n' -I im it
liiatural ize in Plate I. AF fruitili., r:i11c i its ..lFr inl l'.1 ir, aFdF
fruits in ,ross s191tin nnd in ll n itudinal sction inll i/ rcs 2 ad :;.

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i 'l<.I2.--Cro-I >'rFi< F4 1f Iltrii oi tii; i .. E.,to n i lh ii' i *4 !K ,t F f i
1 1 riNa l li ltF:; '. froitoI4I' i1i hthF oi 4 <: 14,'' .
\N~atur~i >,ze.) I'(N .ia : ir. .',.

It Would be v(rv (as.V, rol, ver, to 4r1,d p a lr -ll cr, d r4iace of
t he Trifolia)te I)ral I I t!at t c id IIh be prop z.I' (l v(I\rN rzi'IjIdl aIId
lc ;,41|)ly 1v frill t ie sele ra Isll t 11:4,1, uN -4' l't, fill ti he fr I I .
The Tr oli()at(, e oran) e Iw has been sed foI r aI. ,..cs. i II hina I ; I I !a]>; as
zl st (ck Ipo I IIn Ihih I IdI I I tIIhe I l, a e Iitrus frni-. aId Iiin I i<>
m iddle I ( lat F cent'urv it was b1'ro hll t1o) )t W., Fic 1 1'd,:1 11,1 :a
sto k fo(r t he kiminq iF t. T'I n.< hlatt r si e ,c s i t. only ;H('drio,) i dy, t .. a.Iaren llv v(Y rv few ex. pei ie,1110,11 ,vcr, in it
FE ro pe \\ it I t lhe TIril'oIli;t t* ora lr ;1s :1 't lowk 1o% W r n) I >-~. 11nioi-. 1011 1 (In
o Iher ,oi il l oi (*ilrl i s frltits,,.
A (mil :; (< inart cr of ;I ce ili Ir "a' ;II II Ile I 'I 'ritdlit. I ai, Ii ,

(l4l, c i t, I 'rnl It a, found t hut ;hle ., I -I-I I o1 1il" s or. : I I i


Although the Trifoliate is naturally a small tree and of slow
growth, whei used as a stock its growth is so stimulated that its
diameter always continues greater than that of the scion. This
disparity in size, while not sufficient to make the union a poor one,
makkes it easy in walking through a grove of citrus fruits udded oni
tliis stock to detect the point of union of the scion with thle stock
because of the abrupt increase in diIameter of the latter."
The Trifoiliate-orange stock Ihas one disadvantage in comparison
\vilii sourIll-orallge, sweet-oraw11ge, and( other commonly used stocks-
it does not sprout readily from tlie root if tlhe top is killed by a
severe frost. For tiius reason varieties grafted on Trifoliate roots and
growIn where there is danger iof occasional severe fr-eezes should always
l)e earlthed up) a few inches above tlie point of insertion of the bud, so
Slint in case tlic top is killed by a severe freeze thie )budded variety canll
he repro(Iduced by sprouts i--,1*ig frm that part of lie( trunk which
is protectled b ttle earth. It' this precaution is neglected there is
4 ,,_.' o (ange trees grafted on Trifoliate stock liiig, killed out-
righ, root l (' ini( blrainch, by an unusually severe winter.
T'.l,. are verv few varieties of citrus fruits thlut do not succeed on
thlie Trifoliate stock, Wprovided, always, the soil is adapted lto thlie stock.
So1mne variety les sticceed better oi thiis stock than oin any i(liethr. Per-
halps ithe moist striking example of this is t lie kumniquat, which is the
hardiest of t(lie evergreen citrus fruits. ()n Trifoliate stock it bears
hIavV (ro)ps oIf fruit w lile sti!l a mere busIh.
OI)n tle Iilier Ihand, the kunilquat i not adapted for building on sour-
oranmge stotk, and such budls often fail to( grow, or even die, after tll.\
harve started to push, sometllinmg very rare aimiong( citrus fruits."
Allot iher varitlv of citrus fruits Hiat lbelhaves verv differently on
tlhe various stock 's is lie Satsimia, a vcry early iran(' (of (tle imand(arin
(class intr(loduced from Japanii, where it is kn(iwn as thle V iishiti. This
variety, whi(chl is the earliest a'ld at tlie same lie(,e onle of tlihe hardiest

SThis 'f(rm i>tf knion wh -ere(inl Ih,, stock ,Zliuhlly outirows (he cio S b,,e noticed
also i iln ase (. he lun I i .1. ,I o1 tthe <| 1inee' Ilrwinl ; Euolisi, Flao. In ca.'-', lso. till' Vatrie\ so) afte(d l ai tl o ll ar whon still vciry ymm-li and l has borne
a{1111111 i 1i4(. I* is ill I I i I- Iu ) hai i )()ll ot Ii (i ) I (c ste cas 1s Ie have a
Iar)'.;e-lc,;ved **vr'(qHj'rc, plant, orafl',d 011 a smalldclaved dec(iduous anld not) v,,ry closely
nr,1ail -peci(.i.. Th, con irary uiomn, w erf tliw scion oiut,_rows, decidedly the stock,
iv ;t)l: Iv Ul( 4 sa l i )rv (i e scion ) i 11' il i 4 i v(ly to 1 re1ak i ald I lnt usutially
Ihrt It d, I .vt I w h1l, it ;,p4 1 r(k(n ilf.
SI i,. Trit 'li( rqyt. striclyslpcakig, is no killd ,u ,.l buhi z as it |ri(hduces no
'priii!.- il ;-o4 (in d s Irm slarvaliin.
Si l('' ti hicl.( liltc wr ilcr' is indch'l)i.' lo Mr. (>. I. Talxiir, ,)t (dlen S( Mary, I'la.
n ii ,li. |



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A F, n i T TAlFN.1T U N >1 .). I .1 > TAE'. F
EXPANDE.'f I 0 T-. LcEavE A 'Aq N .



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in 2013

olr tn I w rii _, .- Y 'i; i ws \i r %v w eli l it ,\ (otn tw -...I s tock .. hI ettit lr t in
N ,ict, itin ,i (li, Trifli ati or i,.. on iio-t si ,i.- b1it Wie I 'ilN i, of
T O WNid, \ inl'Tior (palit on ,l lu lP rncr s .lim.l lini co rsilt Y, ; l
insipidl, beside, ripeningit Liter I ( an o tint T dilo patt wtock.
(ni -lf sp orange ttne +rt a goi in t- a ompinlet lailir tli<> mrro, li+
!,irii_: s i slow and st nted lhtIt it e eI A n ir i)(4 tti is l o're tt ;ill :I ,I\i lN e l
b)ush.i T]' e fi'uit (li;it is borneli( bv+, tlIns sl iin~ti'd It ) i-- <>1 \ >l*\ iilrrior,>l
(|li!i litV 'l'lnt~'ri i'-+ (*V(lr\' ("'l\ liihcil >!' ;if (*it i'-, l t'i '; lct~ t l + l<,I+c l'iin ,'uin-
1,." til) ilit f iiXt' Iitnlit ti S al i llit a1 (lll sl u ti11l4l 'ii. I \t i n no1c .-
VI ,-.,iA In 10 sav thiail lie \1 lNu pluldls ai u llu I tlli i oila 'll tr tI I'v +rafll t oI1
"ir stcli ]i il. Mttl r iii rv ai l i\''-(lollar lii l iltl t n I lin', 1t m m.1
W1lniiNi, i1f lantedt. W ill X lin_ r il'il l r t h ait only I i I I- Q liii I lh Ii; Hit
U-s 11 rtlil'>-. l ii(i ry anIliX olf \ oli i Satil-lliila orai '_ il ti I riida.
A la )allt a. M i' sis' ;Ipl. l ,, iiia, ''it ', a diiil li Tliii' a idliii t l <'. it ,> lal
tihile t lo ( irit ;i titll h it It i; II; C 1 o tiX'(l M -I Ul 0'ro\\ l lit ii dti i l:ik it or\
f:, li > till i s f t'ii't Ilil fi t ,l oi Vo ri -o al+d(1 sto !. 'lTIM, \l ril('I
\';is stali oltt I ori [ l\ \(>uii Ai i l l idl in\( -t ,tilt;il itru,- I'riii,. in
all iPa it, olf tle i t itate, and during tiat tim lit l t ia i \ i'a % i'i n s
Sit tunin t r o iw \" _,i od i. ro[>s ol ('a-l"\'-ri[q(>diiiii lein c-llav\,r'o d Sul!-
sti na "*i l o iir o1 trims "l odi l oi lir-olii- n -tolck.
O(il t oti Wi nd On, lSialidt tiM M =atstt1ii Imddcd on l Tir l',Ill1 ,,i;ii + ,'
pro)duces< t i~tlstc \\ tlici, ri| iuarly and ;ire of cx,'c li t <|iialil \ + aootll
kinm d, Wiri, aiid juir T ly t t1d- l iW oi ll tl-ii k ar siiillc'r
tll tlio-ll iddct oil swecc t 'ora ii sl<'l\, nut t tlic\ 1,Ix- ('r e Id i ae d
tri iin or pro! thl'u- y's. Tliy\+ al>o r ,i llnir l'; iit> fa'rlir in tlt
eao n tiii arit tillded i earlier.
Th10 orantgl(e is itin oilv mic 4 lhv mn1ondy gr"wn vi
frulits (tx..ivsi thv lkiii([l iat ili' W -lio,, i- m marked dir/nc!il ii
in irow lh ;ind ('liiar vi'v ol' o i'f r il \1 tlc l t1tl~t c o01 ditil'c ilt -IW,-.
Since l' o SvItsiiina o iil;' an ncitW oi I til m e, k ,t 1"cl ti, il-
ikh te IM o allt it <'a i pIx 'rown \\ ii A lih c ol, (Id c*itum a iil >"c+'~w--, Ill
(oI W,,ils to whic tli TWl' linit ]; slorl< i- ada! tt d. t;i ni(d[V+ o k'I iil\
S'Tii. sotmc l-h-t io|lt > i prvf ivrltcra 1 >1\ ts i \ ,,ilv \>u illi a \1;Q 1 >dt>-oil.
It is mint -t inil[)os>, tlh t sm -iccc--i'illk' L, ,\\ ori' :<; trvc Ior : t1t:'! t
[()on "triloli:>l w stock on lin lk -tidid\' soi-+lsi il ;- iilt ii [ l ln I li h
tile soil o|l ^0111ilIci !1 I- i'id a; atild p):u't-- ol >o+Iii |i r '1 l'r\;i+.+

y U lr llt I 'lr -,)i lr .tlll l (*l l l+ l ,. i l l t l ir r,l +. I l l >, ++ +V. "l r il ': 1+ + * 1' i .* 11
+Jl~ ~ 'Wo i I item:, F + w 'k atI ,i + :

lIIN ITIAr 10N (l I F A I'SiMN A ( I|;.\N(;F.


lii case lthe sil is inot adapted to the Trifoliate orange, thereis
lit ht p oe' iwp (d the Satsuma orange successfully unless some
nlew stock not as vet known is found adapted to this
._,-"_ -varilety and able to grow on light soils. As a last
i. resort, grapefruit, citrange," or some other stock could
b.... J be tested, but it is useless to set out trees of this variety v
'"-*" gr"'aftedt'(l oIi sour-olange stO(cks.

;--* ...-. ORANGE STOCK.

-l. In 1SS7, Prof. Otto Penzig, director of the botanic
-.'-- garden at Genoa, Italy, published a very interestilng
-1 -.- a t ( (.ono 1 cirus fruits for the Department of Agri-
z.- culture. ]ndustlry, and Commerce ._ .... ---
_-;- ~of tlhe Italian (iovernilent. In the : -
F,;. 4.- Loi- course of his investigations of the '--'... _
,linj i fi. ioll anaii tomiv of thie principal l types -_. v e-
of 1 1w pith of' of p1
iii, Tilolii( f olal-,c. Iliw- striking difference in thi structure \ --b '--
in l the' t(irk- I- -
ii. I of'. le pith or t t riloliate orange ; -
,ceil, Ihth ike Is ( im[);ilred \vitli that of other
ip Xlif t I 10 ( ti* I
pItes. i ui-- It' a section be made leng1htwise i
ll iAndl.i fl l /{iP ( ,:. I l
eri.s:.) ('n,, ot "I stem or twig of the riolinate :
1,y D)r. Theo. (oallge, tile pith is found to con- (
1tain rows of cells arranged so as to
fori more or less impe vfect patlrtiions some- r1..."-.. oii,"ii:i.spc-
thin of whlii, like the ,parlitiion-; in the pith o(f' the(, wal- sour o,,ni,. Nof Ihoe
I~~~~~ sou orno.Nw
1nt. Such a section o)f the Tritolhate or'angte aise.,(- of :tiy thick-
illhld cell'. kM lagni-
sliohx iig the cro-ss plates of thick-walled 1'ells ,I,. i 5,i,,ters.)
in the pitlhi isi shomni in ii'u1 e -1 to be contrasted "w, l'y Ir[ Theo
1. 1 ol;(>)
witi fil1-ure ., shioIving the labscnlce o(l any such
plates in tlih, pith (d' tlie somr orange. A few of the thick-walled
cell-s wlihich make up l he imperfect hlngitulldilinal crss arlit ions of the
T..rifolia'e oanec are shio\n under higher 1nagnilfic1ation in figure 6.
*' Thir -ilran -iL i I 1 hardyv c'ilrus fruit ori., ni lted by tih' ]>c[>a)ri ti(,f .\A riculture
bv <'ri.- in 0 cihc I1iii ni ,,raing(' and ltic Tril'oliale onral-'e. C'ilr;lloi s _, IiorfO viior-
< .-l\ tli0 ii (*ither ]>;r<' nl, :1n1d s,,ic \vari('tie- can lo, rrpr-duced praclically N' l.i._..1
frn h tilt, wm i rou., :eeiL?-. lc 'aui: of thel ir \iror and llt ir hxiiu half .... i. t. (il-
l r ^*.-{, <-;in Ix w <'x|>('ctfd if, 1hrivo in slilk I(or lighl fur' dlw sl ,; L, Trif'dlialo Aks the
S "'loc-k, it \Miulil jIri)l sucro'cd o)n the cilrinu''e. al hlbrid 'f these I\w stloc's.
/,l' I' i'HZ i 0 Studi Int,, l c 16 -i u'liap ir iiii sdllc ian a Annali ti \_-i,.,1-
tur;), I'-s,, p. I:;,;, p1 1:;; fi'. di (i M inisi,2ro t I, i rK,, I St .,
| 'ir. >,)

l Itre ). It ,\ill Io Ilol (I 11 ll li(or, i- ;i le irei v a >'I ii Tii --.
| ; ir l i l i o n .- ; >i i l l lt ( h e r e ,; r c n ( l u r k' v ,;il ., i ,n l ), - e c . \A l > i i f , oi( l ii -
ar I I I If il I fI I ic- iivlo) i li ,
i In1 .oi -' i) It a ii iI d ; i i ;i!'
itvr s w i i rI I I l ,. II- i tlhI ,iiit 1'1
!i:1 \ c Jlit h )' tl -l c'l;i :ic l ,r \\ iltl'v > it m.l + .. . "
a i I I '. t r c) | ;i i i i > l I illt 1p) '-"'.. I

kv. I I S I I I- fl, I t ii I I I Ia 1 ~ *1 1 0 1
( ti i I' I li Ik-\ will l Ill Ts. da I, ai I-

twili It i o t III k,11 i l tu, ~ cI I I,
Tit '\ n cit ie lin rlt', ;i r 1'ttl s ii lili;i kjlii tie JIii "i\I 4 ll
TI \ \ 'i

It Ia ZI)

I II hat -l Ii i't \, 1i t > I'I w k I iI I I I It I' tn I11iii~ 1 l I (I ccI i
t iai'. t' h< 'l ii l(' T;>Is 'e l I i I> i i lv i ('; i in I la IIl':
1t )l i.. _" ;t Is w( -pwt r i" l< tl iieic,' a it ('r, 't
()l) SII le1 4l l)f I->, I (' p it h )(')l(4, 1 he I c k.
,li-liitiilin>l) l tw'1 'cci. T t'rilnlialic milt, \ ; .. \
soI i/ 1" ', li .'c s ,'t c<, i 1 .l l f; l ( i ) tI -.- I I i
tIII_ ',V0ii o'' dil'oli fi.' c- o "i'iliu' i'f )ili ;>niv s a ci,.
()t o]i( il"( it h al f w:' t1tur -' ),I \\ it l i 1> n l)s<( l lt (I (*W ir- !Io .... h
tniiitlv. T i> iiiak*c' s- l' ic li.: (*\;iliiuilii- /

l Mi )It it is fllp(' cou rse n )ll t S ,l> l (ll ( if t it lP [)l ltlt ( f i tl lC t( H-, l( l,. n; +::irl .;:.>.i.i i r |ir.;,,. ,[ !.: i r .Il; )..
Ill tht' <';isc c' () iurse'ry s.toc(k this+ J~+.
(;/i). t"'('cIt l)(c (d li(c, ifl t' de irted, witlll )Ul l.Iillini; tlie p)]lan sillce( ai cut
(cxitlndtii hl~lf \valv t l/n'i *i_"'i In cccss' il\ !D() k f out+ )! t !ic l( !lli \vill
soonl) !l('c l !l!).


lit spItic of the fact. that Saltillia ()orallgces !)tdl.(l nil (- it -o)aii"'"
stock ;tl(, lmoix)k to l)be o total fadliure. so1ir *!U!l'~crl'V iiii av li m1 ,1i
tliciili lair'"Itv o)II this1 s. l(tock atdI(I It re ev n ot dlerm ll <'i ti 'wll -n(f ,iJ
the groulnldw tliat I hllh Tril'olli[;t(, st(o k (wi:do s I)( t l-nlccc( d ()11 lit'lol, sanidlit I
stil, ,vlt( ol'li so l-orii _, (Wk (1 s lock do s s cc('((d in I ll s ilti;>l .)l -. A ll
this, is pl -rfect iv trtle, t)11t iio) nii(Illi)oli is ilmalhId of I he aI(liti It;onal ;iiid
v rVY im ,po)i' t Z ual ilit lh: ion lt!;il lilt, Sats lila oo' e budd d t "i
soII-o)i'ail('< stoC i7.s potfe(t lY wv ort ilh .< fl im ,i ( a c aitii rcial )o(ilil 40|
View\V 0o 1 ;ilV still.
In vih w olf tl,( fa ts, thls4 (o siol i is t; t t lk) ID 1 '1 ii,1A l" l ti'di
])p i h iattscrs- ()f S t il or ,e to i sis- t llialt i1w .v lhe I) dl(cd (t])
'rifoliatlc'-o)rl stor ilk. I i) no -<'as s, ould Ill''\ the a 'e >lci (,I I,
so i -,o!ili.'e s.tIock. If thle cx l,'rillineli s i' l(, ho i dc l, ":I \ I'l,',''.
sa"tts',' ( al -' es it al re('tI i t \\ 'h el the lli s-oIl 1i l 'l ,i ("e ;i
s()o it i1,: .... I|lrid ;i a s a d s il I l icrn T e'as, i w i vli \ !le, t' X I1j, t ,'-
inlit Nvilh tlie Satslnollli i cltain o ilir s> o ks, sk, c ('1clapcl'm i :I-
01r se(Vdll'iI Cll'iallL''e h)ill there is litl]e Io )e f( r I ()[. li ( ickd 1l succ(''- iII
n" \ilig Sat'slnliia o)l'nuI_'Vs il snlli sitiutlaioils.

I 1),IITAIT 1() N ()I,''' A 0.1;.\N(..K.


InI order to make it possible for orange growers to be sure that
they are gettil. i2 plants vraited on Trifoliate-orangre stock, the De-
lIartmenIilt of Agriiulture will undertake templ)orarivly to determine,
free of char-e, whet heoro nlt nmI rserv stock of citrus fruits is grafte,
on Trifoliate-orani e stock. It is hoped tlhat Ihis method will be
adopted 1) state horticulturllal inspectors and bY stale experiment
stations, as well as by growers themselves. It is thlie ipurp)ose of this
tempo)(raryV offer of t(lie Department to make known the possibility
of dis4i ii,,Jishling readily whether or not the stock used is the Tri-
foliat e orange.

It is not the purpose of this (cir(cular to discuss the merits or demerits
of the Sa;tsl1uma 0Illrange or to attempt to define tlie 121_'iill in which
it can lle grown wit lt reasonable 1Ilope of success.
Tlie Satsllll'a olanllge is almost a complete failure on sour-',i:,,_,e
stock ()n allvn soil a.nd I in any climate, and succeeds well only wlen
lu((de([ (oi Trifoliate-oranle stock. It call be m-grown, but less sue-
cessfullyv, (on sweet-orange, graipefruit, and perhaps rough-lemon
Thie Satsuma ,orange, i. i,. limited to tlie Trifoliate-orange stock,
(cal I be gIrowvii wi h reasoinalte Iihope of success only on soils to which
this stock is well adapted, namely, fairly rich, fairly heavy soils,
preferablY)v with a cl ay substoi.
Purchasers of Satsuoma oa'0ane trees should insist thit they be
0ra1fted (n Trifoliate- ora nue stock, and to protect p)ur(clhasers against
svlbstitut ion of trees -"rafted mon soir-oranye toc, k tIlie )epartment
(d A/riculture wXi ill n111(1iertake for tile presellnt to determine whether
or 11nt thI' s- ok is Trifoliate orange.
D)o iho! lii/ >ity Sf !a /'ww i( Is hildd ld on woir-olo0ge ,dock,! If You
suspl('ct suh,4tit tiion, enI a sailile to tihe l)elpilartiienit of Aig'ri('cutltur(e
fur 4 l(t eriitnlalt ,Iol.

App)rovcd :
JIAME.S Wiimsox,
S(c'(1 ii ri ( 1';'l i f(*llti .

.SHIII\'V;TUN. I). (C'., Pt.v lu,/ t I/vti).
I( 'ir. *li

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