The deterioration of corn in storage


Material Information

The deterioration of corn in storage
Series Title:
Circular (U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Plant Industry) ;
Physical Description:
12 p. : ; 23 cm.
Duvel, J. W. T
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Corn -- Storage   ( lcsh )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"Issued December 4, 1909."
Statement of Responsibility:
by J.W.T. Duvel.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029629665
oclc - 40726507
System ID:

Full Text
lAf/ 11

RI'I\K OF PLANT I NI'STl I Y- (Circular No. 43.
B. T. GiALLO*WAY, Chitif <( IBurvu.


IN STO) 1A('E.


J. \V. T. I 'xVErL.




C11,ff f Pinau, BEVEIRLY T. < ;ALLO<\A.
Assistant ('thnff lurJIU, A I. IRT F. NVO()I)S.
F'ditir, J. E. RI'KVWELL.
Chitf (C' rl:, J.\Ml Is E. JoN ES.
S('ir. -1:]


Ill February, 1909r, special ill est i,1itliolns %%cr Me iwn i ait Iil mre,
Thi, iin coopieraitio wN ith tli< Bait miore ;niil (h)lhe lW41lI44a4 ('am!) 4ii]>;n\.
for the p rpose of ol4 aininigL' de linite' iiit')rii il 101 rel'ardI Il b 11 W (I 4le-
riorai tion of sliell'd corn in leh'atrl biil, andi in ll rain car-s. li lirsi
series of experimjent.;s in Hiese in esti/ationis comprMised vtss \\itNl (1)
)5,,-5() bushels of corn itored ini a c-f'noul ''elevator l n ifor t w; ,a s,
until l tle corni l l tile tlop of the lin i' had W yinnme ladlI\ da ari;i e4d;
(2) 900 bIsheis of dried m ed daoern i f'ro4i) t l[o tile tp ( I l t i hAledI
into car No. (67 1; I aiid ilid ni the tra'k fr an a dditio ial ;7 dlays,
aid (3) M)() lW AS!ic's of' the I o'st colol (o I'oi thei sai nic lull lohidMd
into (car No. .7517 andti hteld on the track wiith tlie car conltaiing i
dried dlii,.1 C0'1 rn.
In tilts preliminary report no attempt lhas beetn made to "eneralize
the results of the experiments, to draw an\V delinite conclusions, or
'evenI to ive aily exte(i'led expr'CssiolI of opilidon. The aim las lnen
to outline lhel( conditions under which thllis first series of experiment 's
Xwas muaite anl to give ai brief summl4ary 1f (th' results obtained, le aviu'
the individual reader to ftormulate I'Si, own theories until tie ilnvesti-
gations are ilio'e adivan'ced. It is hoped, ho eer, loli' hat Hiis p)relin-
inary report will 'provoke' discussion iand brinli; about a better under-
standling of tlhe purpose ndi value 4f invest 0-. 1 ions of t Ilis character.
On February 17 and IS, 19m), 5o..() bushels o4r shelled corn XXre
storell in a W ro-' mnl bin I, in elevator (' ol4 tie Baltionre and Ohio adil-
1road (omiinly at Blitiniore (Locu't Point), Md. Tlisi c)orn \\as X et'i
without "running" until April 27. 1l9i9. il at iicht tiie X tlhe feormen-
tati"n at tihe to[ of 1 1' "ie Ain li e' Ilrog'ressed sto tut tlia e rn as ll'o l It,
am! sol, tli e telieraturev S inches tlow lia, sirl'act, huviui reached
1332 1`'' -......
(' (l'l i- ,i>] >rl' itly i' 't c!-:o 1i tt i-k,,'t It 4 l ii!,+ I 4 4 il r [. I l 4lt i iiii r
'4.1 11( 1 ll I il ,' i '. n D ;.lnl l hj 4l4i4l' l i 'i |t 1 d ll4lk ll, ,x i ('4i4lllni '1' I h4 l il,' i l it4 4
4r:i1ii- i t)- (tl \,u i i < )>;Vrt V U ,ll. Sl,'ri:il 4t4ak1 :1' u' ili tj li .:lm'I xt I 1441i4 it,'. l
l,'i~ (lll v >t1 I}," c'hov i ir\ t l i'r t l ;> ~~a- i '-I t lt t ti
'Xl i l'li4 lll4 V r,' it' !4 j i'4.' r<'". II. T ( li i \ ( 'l,,4 i/ / '1,1
1 4 1ht l 4i 4 in whi h h t i, trii V ; :- ( it-
011 lhn, 4 ;t 14 ,' t hl x lItr '. tl, tl444 14 1 +'4 t if it X li4' 4 ;ll of tl l i ,_ iililt
a; 4ii I lh h4 a\ 1,rik <1;t'friif( init nf llc v r
|! h q i- M e l k. w" W;|

B. F i.-52I.


The corn used in these experiments was taken from cars selected
fromin those received at Baltimore, Md., on February 16, 1909. So
far as the records available show, 4,050 bushels of this corn were
grown in the Dakotas, the remaining 1,500 bushels having originated
in Illinois. The 3,050 bushels first run into the bin consisted of
practically all Dakota corn. The next draft of 500 bushels was
Illinois corn with a small admixture of Dakota corn. The 1,000
bushels following consiste(l of Illinois corn, while the 1,000 bushels
in thlie tenth and eleventh drafts at the top of the bin were composed
of corn from the Dakotas.
In tilling the bin each draft consisted of 500 bushels, with the
exception of the first 50 bushels at the bottom of the bin. After
almost every draft, samples were taken with a 4-foot grain trier,
one from the center and one from near each corner of the bin, and
the different factors representing the quality and condition of the
corn were determined for each sample. Tlhe average results of the
analyses of the samples representing the different drafts are given
in Table I. These results show the moisture content; weight per
bushel; weight of 1,000 kernels; sound corn; damaged corn; other
grains; dirt, cobs, etc.; badly broken corn; and germination of whole
kernels. A comparison of Table I with figure 1 will show the exact
location of the corn in the bin represented by each set of averages
given in the table.

TABLE I.-A average condition and quality of the 5.,50 bushels of corn at the ,,fi,7 qn,
of the experiment, as shown by the analyses of samples taken with a 4-Joot grain trier
.. the ,t, ,i drafts were emnptied into the bin.a

Wii Veeds, Germina-
Weight Weight S 1nail Other cobs, Blyrokei tion of
N o.of r( A mount Moisre m aged r ) broken of
aft. per of 1,0 corn. aged irt,
No, or of draft, content. d kwnhos ergrains dit, o hle
TJI~h etc. kernels.

Bus. I'. ct. Lbh. Grqm,. P. et. P. c. P. c t. P ct. 1. ct. I ct.
(Bottom) ... 50 17 8 5 53 2S0 97.9 08 : 0.5 o. 2. 4 ..........
1 T.... 500 17.9 53. S 294 97. 1'0 .9 .5 3.1 ..........
2 ... I T 17.8 5. 6, 337 97, 4 5 1.2 .9 3 3 81.3
3 ...... 500 17.9 53. 3 295 96. 9 1 4 .9 .8 2.0 72.8
4 500 18 0 52. C 303 96. 2 2 5 4 .9 3.5 73.0
'5- 500 .~S3 20 b 2 1 3A 77.3
5.. OO;50 17, 8 53. i i 296 96. 2 2 3.3 77.3
I500 1s. 8 53 .0t 2s6 97.7 1.8 .1 .4 14 69. 0
500 1 7.5 .5 5, 317 97. 6 1.3 .5 .6 3.5 S 7.8
Sand9 000 17.t 55o0 30 30 .9 ...... 2, 4 5.4' 95.0
10 .(1( 6 53. 3 272 90(. 3 1.4 1 I 1.2 3.9 71.
11 ............ 500 18. 3 52. s 276 96. 6 I. .9 .9 3. 7 73.0
Average ........... 17.8 53.7 301 97.0 I 4 0.6 10 3.0 60.6

a 11 .... in the tatb, other than those in the first two columns represent averages, so that the final
average ,. ,1 the corn in the bin is based on a total of 43 sample-, or 1 sample for approximately every
130 bushels of corn emptied into the tin.

As will be seen from the table, thlie average moisture content of
tie corn in the different drafts varied from 17 per cent in thlie eighth
andl ninth to 18S.8 per cent in the sixth draft, within an a .rti'' of
17.S per cent for all of the corn in thle bin. The weight per bushel
I Cir. 4:i]


vaNid fRom 52.(6 piouns in (lIw fourth draft it) 55." pounds, in tilt
(i-Zith and ninth, with :i n lt? ;I ( i ,, of 5).7 pounds. Similar
viriattioils are shoi\uXl in tilt other li' itu r", lit"mst 4 "hilli iindli'att
tlh t the corn ot' tiino hi est qiuality mid in the lo'st condition was
the Illinois orn c tontainod in thl eighth anti in i draltfi s.


The bin used in tlids experimnt was previously , thir'teen elet'l rical l ,ln resistance li' iltrmoi 'tels, soi tha tetii 'ieat lItre
records d th lie 'tli in various lpartls oti l lie t ii iulihd bte i kin l at an v
ltimte luringll le course olf tlie experin en. Tieaom'nleter N". 1 wiasi
u tio i 3i feel ftrom tihe t Ol ttol, iear tlie aXeniler of ltie hot el' Tlellt
other itl'lier toineters were dlistlitel d th e t h iii (tl i e c ntlerl t lie lcorn,
pprol i maini tely 1, feet iipiiart, e u i till h i lie ati t C rnil Ineai r lit e t(l
of thle bin, where deeriXm tion is most lilY tlo le'in. ad1io al
thermlometersl were liied ait various pii' nts. e igiuri e 1 sithos- tihe
louition d tliese therui menieiisi, tnumbileed rn t' to 7 on lilWot''n -1
to /,', inc 'lusive. In tills slile d!.l i..iii tne aui sli heown t tie nulillher
of bushels co't ntained in each draft lte iverail e moii stur'le cottll'il
aim! tle weight i'r busleu l of ltie cot''ni in tie t various p'' ,l s of (t [iX bilie li
at the time of llit ina, thie telii ratur''t of th in'i li' o iittilet ita iv after
thie bin w' i s Wtill iand thlte miatimuiimi telmperature ol tle corl n ait llie
end ot' the experiment, ,ich extendedt owvr a pi d oml,' f( da& vs.
Tl it' te eratire of the corl n imnaldiatei ai l ti r t it e bin I was tilled
varied fromi 3.W" to 40" K As the bin wais being" filled tIle atlose):qiIwre
was clear and di'rv. the relaiiive Irmmiitth bi\ Isg t4S, I e n. Tl ie
temp1 rature ol' tile air hi tile elevator varied front 16) t" o I W;\l V.
Whiflit'l 'hti lie corn was i sttorae, teinieralre r 'iis were Made lver v
two or three dayi s until April 22, when tle cori at tle top of tle bil
gave e\idt ene itf very rauli deterioration, ieeessilatint: t'retlVienii
r'(eadinqgs turin tlIhe i, nI ,i Al _1 p z fve dtayvs o4 thle test.
The lirst indication tliat tlie cornih liti] beo 'iln to deteriorate wts on,
tlhe 26tih (ldo March+ enter it lI;/d xelo n WI stor, ,'. ;37 dayvs, at wliaIli tiie
ai sli itl IY sour odor was perVept ible in (l ie corn at Ilie tIop od Ilbe bin,
lih .',.it,_" thiat 1'ermentat l io hlad lwe in. Thie higl est tle iperat Ilre
recotrded at this lime was 12" F., by tthernlwniter :'feet Aw lowh v t he surface ol 1 wlte corn. NFroii tis time ot (lie increas'ie
in tlie lemlierature olr thle 5(i00 bushels of ,orin at I(ie t1op olf lhe l'bin
became mowe IproouceLd. lowevetr, 27 (ht vs Ilt(r, oil Aprl '22, lihe
hi-hest tleiperat tire recorded waos still less lin than 70 F. but during(,
tie 5*) daos inirediately follow in- a a;ixinum o4 1,33 F. was veaIced,
s inches below the surface (if the jrrain.
l Ir. 13;1l



*<'. /--183% O/ISTURE. 52.8Zs. per Bu.
11TH.500Bu. TEMPERATURE 38 to /330F
7. .--1- ^ Th-; -
c-+ Thr*8 -/8.6% MO/STURE 533Lbs.perBu.
l0TH. 500 Bu. TEMPERAITURE 38to//5FF

7h.A.AIh 9T
8^ 9TH .O0uu--/7 0%MO/ITUR'E 55.0Lbs.perBu.
8T lw TEMPERATURE 380 to 56.50Fr

/-- --17.5%/MOISTURE. 54. 5Lbs. per Bu.
I'7TH. 500 Bu. TEMPERATURE 400 to 40.50F

| --/18.8% MOISTURE. 53.OLbs.per Bu.
746m. 500 Bu. TEMPERATURE 365 to 41.50E
-/178 %MIO/STURE. 53.6Lbs. per Bu.
5TH.500 Bu. TEMPERATURE 360to 40.50F

... <----/8. 0 %v MO/STURE 52.6 Lbs. per Bu.
*3 TH. 500 Bu. TEMPERATURE 36 to 39.50
= ---179 % MOI/STURE. 53.3 Lbs per Bu.
3RD. 500 Bu. TEMPERATURE 360 to 40.50/-
T-"-- / --178%/VO/STURE. 53.6Lbs.per Bu.
|2ND. 500 Bu. TEMPERATURE 38 to 4Z/.5F.
< -- --/79 % MOISTURE. 53. 8 Lbs per Bu.
IST. 500 Bu. TEA P-ERA TURE 3 60 to 4/5 OF

/178 %I/7t/Re. 53. Shs. per Ba.
B ----'- TEMPERATURE 36 to 41/5"F"

FI(. L--I) .. 1 h position of hlie tlhrrolej rs: t lhe numb er of buslhels, lho inmoisturecontent,
aiid lhe weight per bushel for each draft; and the lenmperature of the corn at the beginning and at the
nil of Ihe experiment.
[Cir. 1:3]

Oni Martch :1 three holes we re or,d thrniii the wall of the iin on,
thile side liearest tle ailteri i t" tle hotiuse. One lite \t ;is i oireid
approximately 10 hoee IInfit tl h )lie ctri ttm a ither 2.5 fQet I rhe i li le
ottomi, a dl ite th ird A 4l fe feet froIn the litt m (f lie lin. h l i 21) ifet
from thl e t of tl ie oft "rain. Sitn|ldas 12fe through tlis, l >(hs tith'
a 4-foot grain trir showed that the corn had nl m n(angd materially
since it ,as lhirst p)ilaed 1 le hi, n o the tnn tral 2 -l t odors ib ingil percep-
tilde. O()n the siame (tl ate' sami'les taken with a lion I rain trier front
7 feet below tle surface showed tlhe lorn at that point It) e. sliAghitly
must V.
Smihples taken on Al il 3 frnom 3, 7. and 12 feet llohtw tle surface
showed more pronounced odors in tle corn at :3 ant 7 efee, 1t no)
o(dor )ouhl l)e dbetvcte in the samples taken at 12 feet. At tiis time
tlie laximuml tllel at-o tehmperattlale corn 12 ft'e belw l)lihe surfila was
42t F. Tho highest tinperatlur, in tlie upper 50 lbushIels wIas .',
F. (In Alpril thie c(rn near tlit' top of lit bin wtas vI ry musty,
alieth"inth thie maxinnitt temperature was (inly .IS0 F. On April 1t:,
samples were ;iti' taken lnfromni 12 fhelt below12 tite surfa but rfveahd
nhl odors indicating deterioration.
Oni April 19 tit'e maximulm e' perItiu e in the 500 Iiushels of corni)t
itt the to)i of the b1in 2 is 61 F., as registerel by l he(,n vin(er /tt', S
inches below thie surface. The V orn near th(e top at this t(ime \as
very nnsty anw a (onsiderable (qlant ity of fresh niold was growing on
the k iernels. Thie tempeli'rature of" the cori 12 falit W lowh tile suIdia'ce,
as registered lb t(rnomneter .1, was MW IA., whlii.h was within (,n-
hilf (d,_ tlhe entire test.
On April 26, samples were ;,yak,"L taken through tlhe ihles in thie
side f thlt e bin at 10, 25i, anl 40 feet't from thie box toln, togi ethei r wiltli a
nunler of samples represent ini thie 1th 0 t us ls iat tAlt, toipof t' l, bin.
At thi ttime llie (n1 at the lop of (the bin wait s hot, ullt slty, and sltlIIr
but no odr (ouul be (detted on the samlls taken tihtrui the liol
10 fi:t, front I M(l ottom of thle in. ho\wv evr, tlie samples taken
throwu h the holes 27-) ann( -10 feet front the ott ,of i tle bin showed
that H(ie corn near tlet, 1in walls it those points w\as dI_,'htlv sour.
lhis condition was shown imor, lharly \lien tlle bin was ellptied
t1le f'ollhminim day. tihe corn having, ;iy enden to adhere Ito Ithe sides.
In eniptyingilie biu tI or I'rin IlIe sides (i((hbecame unevenllv niix(d
witli lite better ioni frS in thie interior, so that a;n odor "as percep-
tileho o a onsideorab ,le orlio o ()I e entire bhi ulk.
Thle ferienttat 1t01 in the tlpper AM00 ibusiels of corn "ms ver*v aciivo
at this time aind thie Mlt )(iraluire, "as iilric asingX rapiilv+ OM April
2")5 th rno,)nietr No. 7. in thle (enTer abo)t Al O ei tIt Aeneai tli e i suface
of tlie o rc( lre1istered ,'" F. t At s, o'clh k tIe folhlowii). inlorninig
[ 'ir. 431;



this same thermometer registered 102; at 11.45 a. min., 105; at 3.10
p). min., 107, and at 9 o'clock the morning of the 27th, 115, an increase
of 28 degrees F. in 48 hours. The highest temperature r,.' on
April 27 was 133 F., in corner No. 4, 8 inches below the surface of
the corn. In corner No. 1, 14 inches below the surf;. v. the tem-
perature was 110; in corner No. 2, 112; in corner No. 3, 125 and
in corner No. 4, 132,-. Thermometer B, in corner No. 2, the same
depth below thle surface as t liermometer No. 7, registered 71.5 F.

1 1,-- i- i -- I I - lI
l Il MU I i 1 T-1i i E --II
FI. 2.- l)iagra,'n showing I he temperature of the corn in var ious parts of lie bin, tihe daily miaxiimum and
minniiium air temperature, and the precipitation from February 17 to April 27. 1909.
A clearer understanding of these conilltions will be had by consult-
ing figure 2, which shows the teml)erature of the corn in various parts
of the 1)in, together within the daily maximum and minimum air teln-
perature, anti the general character of the precipitation during the
69 days covered l)v thle exp)erimeint.


As shown in Ii, e 2, tie only marked increase in temperature was
in thlie (6 or 7 feet of corn at the top) of thlie bin. The maximum tein-
peralture r,..._i-a,.red by thermometers No. 6 and A, approximately 12
[ C'ir. 13 1


feet below tlie surface, was 51 and 56.1 F., respectively. The tem-
pierature o' t(lie co'Irn in tilie lomer part ol thi,' bin variclt frnim :~i39., to
41 V F., as cmiired w(I ith a variiatiom of frml 3oni to 4I0 F. at tlhe
,_iitr~ini,,+ of tihe experiment.
The moisture comtent of thlie corn immiediaitelyV at the srfa'ce wxas
14.95 per cent, or 3.33 per cent less than (on lFctrirrv 17. The
mioistuire content of tlie 1,000 bleshets at tile top of th le hill, exclIlsive
of the corn mn tihse frlfate., was slightly higher thl1n xwhlen tihe co1n was
placed in tlie bin, showix i1i that the deterioratim n of thle 'omi wzas
resvultin- in the formation 01f lore water tian was abeinei ivgen ol1 bv
evaporation. The weight per bihel olf t lie surface corn w.i 5 1 poitinds,
while thle weight olf tlie remainder of tihe upper 1,00t)0 bushels had
decreased from 53 to 51 pomindls.
The rri l,,i.t ion ti tie poorest corn front tilie top of tihe ,in varied
from 0) to 17 per cent, with a:n average of 10.3 per 'cent, as compared
with an av, : O., if 72.4 per cent on Flebruar v 17. This co rn was
,l:iii..',.d so thalit Inllynv of thle eerins were badlv discdlored. The
average germnination of the 1,070 bushels taken from tlie t, p of thlie
bin for further experiment, which included niit o)nlv the hi t < I'rn1
but all that had I a temperature over 50 F., was 12.6 per cent after
',1111 handled, dried, a1dl loaded into car No. 67031.
The corn in thle lower 45 feet of tihe bin, except 900 bushels of tlie
best quality which was loaded into car No. 75197 for further test,
after !win- handled over thtee elevators and dried to 1.<.S7 per cent
of moisture, was .iven a grade of "Mixed corn." Thle eriminiation
of this corn was Sx0.S per cent at tile bHegi ni. of tlie experiment, 71 .A
per cent when drawn from the bin, and S1.4 per cent after ',iiit.
ihantdled and dried.
Thle total loss in weight, as shown by tihe certilic'ates furnished i by*
thex weihnmiai of thlie (Chmlber of (Commerce, resulting from filling and
emptyitii, thie bin and tlie evapiiration during thlie 6i9 divs in storage,
amounted to :(10 pumndls, or slightly less than o0e'-tenth oIf 1 per cent.
Thle 1,070 bushels i4f crmn dlrawn from thlie tol) if tlie biln was
\\.i_'li, I, hadlihled oiver three elevator., and rewveihled., after which
it wx as rtificially dlried in a grain drier at a teipeli'ratl ur'e var Ying frtIn
151' t( t16:V l3 Tlhe av. i ,-,. moisture content ()f' this co ln aI,; taken
from lie bit x wi\.as IbS.61 per cent. The avx i, _',iioist rie ciiti'Iient
wxlien mlptiedI into tie drier was lS.,30 pler centt. or a redictio oif
().;31 (ol 1 per cent as a result of lthe hlia,)dlli wxhM1ic is ,,equivalient to
at loss in weighlt of 0.1 of I per ceint." In drviti. thie ii istir- e (4ion-
+ < ,,. +I ,.+ ;;2. I~trc+;+i +t" I'l Ii 1 l+, u try. I!' SI 1 ,' ) \ntriultturc. cillill |"d M' ,---
turc i 'oilfit ami Shrinka 61' in," explain- +, ," thi-I ll r I. ,. ', *c cxi-l- m how it.
i- calhulat Id.
I C'it V;;}


tent was reduced from 1S.3 per cent to 14.57 per cent, a reduction of
3.73 per cent, which is equivalent to a loss in weight of 4.44 percent.
After this corn was dried and th roughly cooled, 900 bushels, having
an average moisture content of 14.57 per cent, were loaded into car
No. 67031 as if intended for shipment. The car was run out into the
yard( and left standing on tlie track fully exposed to all atmospheric
changes'. The temperature of this corn immediately after it was
loaded into thle car, after drying and cooling, on April 27, varied from
57' to 5S F. Frequent temperature readings were made up to and
including Mav 25, when the highest temperature at any point in the
corn was 66(0 F., an increase of only 8 or 9 degrees, although the
temperature of the air in the car had varied from 56 to 82 F.
and(l tle temperature of thlie air outside of the car from 41 to 9O F.
(O)n May 25, after being in the car 28 days without any noticeable
chanlre in condition, the corn was unloaded, elevate(l, and weighed,
and then returned to the car and left an additional 9 days on the
track. The air temperature at this time was 73 F., resulting in a very
slight increase in thle temperature of the corn by the time it was
returned to( the car.
On June 3 the temperature of the corn was 67 F., an increase of
only 10 degrees ,ldrii, the entire 37 days that this corn was in the
car. Thle condition of thlie corn was fully as good if not better than
when it was placed in the car on April 27, although thlie odor resulting
from the fermentation of the corn while in the bin liad not entirely
On June 3 the moisture content of the corn on the surface was 13.1
per cent, with 14.48 per cent for the remainder of the corn in the car,
a difference of 1.38 per cent in the moisture content, which is equiva-
lent to a shrinkage in weight in thlie surface corn of 1.59 per cent in 9
days froin May 25 to June :13.
In order to secure data for comparison, 900 bushels o)f the best cool
corn from tlie blin, principally thlie Illinois corn from thle eighth and
ninth draft were hloadled into car No. 75197 anI(l placed on thie track
ahlon.gide of thle car containing tlie 900 bushels of drie(ld damaged corn
from thle top) of thle bin. Thle temperature of this corn wblile still in
the bin valried(l from 40 to .12 F., b)ut in "running" from the bin,
elevating (to tlie scale, and loading into tlie car, tlie temperature
wals increased s) that thle temperature of thle corn after being loaded
was 4SA F. Thie air telliperat Iire at fhis time was 51 ' F. and the rela-
tive hiumiidity of the atmoisphliere 76 per cent. The average moisture
content of this car of corn was 17.5 per ceint, and tlie weight per
bushel was 55.3 poun(ids.
I C'ir. 4;;

()n M av 20, nif,'trt taiindlitL, (ml tlic I ra'k -2':, hliv,-, the' c, r In illtil- (,Ir
l,,..':,t, t JI s ow u1 nuistakahi -.le of eleirriorntiolol. A t t1liit 1 iiii, tO w,
Maixim umlnn tetn iicrnt re ,t ti4 , c tn I- 7.' 1. ;\\t l7l ; it : 1 (1i-. win'tl,
s(ttIl illdti Ill lt[s \ t ldtlr. I ive tda -v h li el O' lit' li \iiixi n l lil Ii cri l tI it ',
w as 122" 1". it lth bl+r+iko <'in l of tild )(*CZ '. ;H)]to i, il (>l\ ,; incli-. l'l.I,,lo\,
t he surt'ace (tdft IhO cori. TliiL ;I av(rrII Nvel_,tit pe'r b slhi l hiIid lecre')e-'dl
from 55.:1) l'S ii .'2.( ; 52 ,1) j indt -. "Tliw nioi-( 'lre ct,,m tent \+artd fro in
13.6) per cl'it tin II<, c(* ri ;a( tI h siirl'iw to I17.5' ['p r ceill \ hen, 1 he
tl:.i|t; > l et" ,'n ini- 1t'2 ull il i t' F ii t-i i ar c t' \ itt a 7+ l;i t'+i riil fr m It 0 iP
cent toi 17.7 pi t ent il t [ h tie liiicr tli c N a- ii a loidt'd inti l li t i :l '.i




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44 1 ,V_

S / /
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FA rIE? ,QEcoftpo
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l,'|;. t i. l rt r t h~,~ui ini ti0 t ] i .tV, of l ! I t7i '1 TAWI
corn in r, r rNo 1 i ; {!i h ily Ii ki i',/l i .rr l liir" .nrl
Jtl I~ i Ii+ h q > lt 't + )1I I Il i. > i. ii ", >+ ,

()ni M ay 25 i t I ,ll <'o i \:-, 1nhmido\d. w i/h, eld, 11:1 l ,d I o er th \ ei+
tol's, r',v\i\( iJird, ,c're'liwd, vwc'i ted! It I1 11rd lii Ime ;ml id it'< il0')li thle
(;t:it" foo rlh.r oda-l) r, ;iiom W hen the corii \\,I- ],(,Il lined to IlIe I iic
lh ,tn s<>c id 11tim (I ;IIv 2,-') /It e l )(ll' Ici lte il ul+ wv"- 7', V., i]>ltlo.\i l/lt
the n meiIIK ;ot the l tllip iitull'l ( d t' 1 i ;ir ilt ile liiti the t i n f \\11 ;,
handled. O n ,lIttle :i, t1 ,itv',- Lilcr, ltie c ' the m axiitIlii l(iliii itlrM c cM.-it I 11'2 F'.., showin:r tliil liol 0 cf!li i,
Din t nidl il, t' ffc fIor >hipincl ii \d,/l l> c ol)(de, .siIldH|' [I.\. lhail lliwirj+
Feigu 3 s tl m s (ItS he fhu iULll. It l<'ui|<'ral lr1V in 1)411 I lic <-;[' of
rlll idr t co11i and tihe calr of drtited i il.iiii 1_', ,1 co ii wliile o tih tri I Cio. 1:; I

42 Ji~-1 N

N '-

THEll Dlo'TFW(WU \TiN <1' (IF (OHN IN' s'Tufl: .


_-_ from April 27 to May 25 and from May 25 to June 3, together with the
- daily maxiltmumill air temperature and the weather record for the same
u_ CO
period. The diagram also shows that only the corn near the surface
>-- was influenced by the temperature of the outside air.
C -

I V When tlie undried corn from the bin was first loaded into car No.
S 75197, on April 27, the avr;g;, moisture content was 17.47 per cent.
-- On May 25, when the maximum temperature of the corn was 122 F.,
the average moisture content of the surface corn was 13.55 per cent.
Samples taken from 5 inches below the surface showed a moisture
content of 17 per cent. The highest moisture content found was
17.5 per cent,, in samples taken at the point where the temperature
was 122 F.
The shrinkage in weight in the layer of corn at the surface, based on
the re(lduction in moisture of 3.92 per cent, was 4.53 per cent. On
May 25 this corn was unloaded and reweighed by the weighman of
the Chamber of Commerce on the scales regularly used at the ele-
vator. The loss in weight in the loading and unloading and through
evaporation while in the car from April 27 to May 25 was 367 pounds,
or 0.728 of 1 per cent. This corn was then handled over five elevators,
screened, weighed, and reloaded. In this handling and reloadiiing
the moisture content was reduced to 16.55 per cent, or 0.92 of 1 per
cent less than when the corn was first loaded into the car on April
27, which is equivalent to a loss in weight of 1.1 per cent due to the
evaporation of moisture while in the car and in the handling of the
hlot corn in the elevator. On June 3, this car of corn, cooled by
handling, was again hot, the temperature having increased from 73 F.
to 112 F. from May 25 to June 3. The average moisture content of
the surface corn was only 13.95 per cent, as compared with 16.55 per
cent when reloaded, a reduction in moisture of 2.6 per cent in 9 (lays.
The low moisture content of the surface corn showed that water
was 6-iii.: lost by evaporation and that this evaporation is quite
rapid when the temperature of the corn is relatively high. It must
be remembered, however, that this car was opened frequently and
thli corn on the surface more or less disturbed in the -rij iing of sam-
ples, in reading temperatures, etc., so that the same results might
not apply in thlie same d,..,, to corn in transit where the cars are
uno opened from point of shiipm(ent to destination.
Sfcre nar!/ of 0 ,i , ru .
WkASIIN(I'ON, D. C., Noreuhr, b5, 1909.
1 'ir. 4:3]