N A. B
U.S. DEIAI' TM NT OF A("" RK'rLTRF,
I)V'lEl':.A ()F PI.ANT IN I) -TIV (*ir.-iilir N1,.4I.
B T G A 1.1 A()\\ A\ i t if Ii r ,l- .
THE SOUTH A FlR CAN( \ 1I111E (\CAIA ASI11.
D.AVID FAIlK('IlII, A(;I:i(rrI-IRTtI E'XIpI.(oIKR,
G. S. COLLINS, ASSISTANT BOTANISr.
BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY.
Chice of Bureau. BEVERI.Y T. GALLOWAY.
Assistanat l'huf of Bureau, ALBERT F. WooDS.
Editr. J5 E. ROCKWELL.
Chief Clerk, JAMEs E. JONES.
B. P T--i1.
THEIl SO(TI1 AFRICAN III'E CALA.\BASII.
T '1104 1re.1I.,._'- popukli ritv of ealabt., pips ma ide frot (i e frOii s
of at South AIricaln halabal-, or ,t1ird. hla-s OrM-.e41 a widlespriead
interest. ii the gti'o' iih olf tlis vinle. A\ lpplication.s for sced at tile
D)epartllment to[ Agri'cultulre ale itiA't-iiii n i n llinimler., aini requests
for inl'oinnitiion t'trardint ciiltliral um liods and thlie iiiikini ol' tlie
I|ipes have tlt'liiu so rilliinv'll-s thit ;i diort [tul4i tlli;lt 44 on 1 lie
subject sel. dlesiriihile. a-s \ ell a a i X Qil o1 1 'itiii tl i tlos.e o ho
itope to imike tiSe co iiunti'tiall prn iu4 l'itn o1 f tis _o dsll' i a >rolialile
('ala alish piipts 1nadl fioni implirltt1d Sotili Africanl _il1i's] liave
been tii le fallstio a I lme. A i'oAr alit > lli nei and are1 ino\\ 1414111i14 into
\"- l,' lt i l A. wrii a. '"liu+
ot al large tm' m lu i ,' iJ r;h u ru+;lgw.) belollogilng to ili' \\w ell-i ltu \\'I
gl 4n4 ) ol 1ulaillVs luiili include s the 1melilllht'r. thle iiim ,lin aildl tlie
s liaslhesi I'. 1, g. 1.) Pip s. inade fIrom hlie illiporlted '7oIirds atre
expensive e, A.lki riciln dealer,- il-tllX 'Iv ctlitilni >^ andi ev li S12 apl!iee'
fo thilli Thev al n. i lt e li'jltest pipf.> Illade fll. their si/,e. are ''rai c-
fnl n sliiilape ', eol like i eersehll iims. ;in d art i, li_.lithlitl iitol.ers.
I nlilke' ti' eti ) pipel s \lleih are tuiirned out b1\1 l lli:n'iilll'X no l\wo
of ill cniialalma li p|ipes are alillke. Ili tills Aies A itli of llieir vl ialni.
In t kis, likew\\ise, lies tilir no.t, fr. tnilike Olie g ,eat mass of' tipes
turtued oi4t 1 ,v iJ ie tl'+\, the1' 1 ook 1 f lli+ of 4 ala iash va\il's so 4 t liatl
li 11t111iin l41pi4e 1 ll ali i- e le ll-det lo lit it ;ii1d a1 li1 lii 4in o1l' 1 l teer-
shamini ow Iplstr ofl'Pais iiiu>t be speially adaplt 4ed. In o r la" d iof
labolri'. X ltl i % i ii l 1i l -. 44 1\p n't Iive h l aii 4bor th1is is \ a'lit iiikes
Ile ipipm costly. l -, tW l, Unltil quite ren dittly lise lalihclab iah+
i!iirds li<'li forlm t1lte lb Is ol he pf i l a\'eone tlvii\ leeil illo\\ i
S miii AliW. N Oi'l Nw lite e lli' 11 I, \ X ble e l p 11 1 orted in l tilo h e
tlv l Tr le 1v l i"qi1 h:l been so lililit h41 1al t l l 1X' 1ia\" 1 lre n 'tatdl asi
novelties, iland have bLee'n ll 'aI d to ll+ie pJO liN Il at tl/l1 l p'ohilitive
TIHE SOUTH AFRICAN PIPE CALABASH.
The price now cli. r' 1 b)y dealers for the pipes is, however, no indi-
cation of w hat American manufacturers would pay for the gourd necks
out of which they are made. Imnporters at present secure these necks
at prices r',:i-_.ir, from 25 cents to $2 a dozen. When it is realized
that only well-formed gourds, free from 11iiii1hs. are marketable at
any price, it becomes apparent that the growing of these gourds on a
commercial scale does not promise any Lig,. profit. It is not, there-
fore, with the idea of presenting to the farmers of the country a new
and(] lucrative industry that thIe successful cultivation of the South
African pipe gourd in this country is briefly described in these pages,
but rather to call attention to an attractive vine which anyone can
grow in his doorard and from the gourds of which a light and attract-
ive pipe can be made, even by those munacecustomed to the use of tools.
THE CALABASH PIPE GOURD IN SOUTH AFRICA.
The American consul-general in Cape Town, Mr. H. L. Washington,
sent a few seeds of this interesting plant to the Department of Agri-
culture in December, 1906, and within them a short account of the
origin and gr,,wth of this peculiar pipe industry. According to Mr.
Washington the use of the calabash as a pipe bowl was discovered by
the Boers and after the Boer war the fashion of using these pipes
was introduced into Ei,_],iii1, whence it has reached this country.
Knowing that so loiu, as seeds were not sent out of the country
they might hope to hold the culture as a monopoly, it is reported
that thle Boers tried to prevent the exportation of seed; but, as has
been the history of all such things, sooner or later a few seeds were
exported and to-day there are in America enough seeds to produce
all the gourds that it would he possible to market in this country.
When the small quantity of seeds of this gourd, secured for the
Department, were first sent out, it was not thought that the vine
would produce fruit over a wide range of territory, but it has been
found that from New England to the Gulf and from the Atlantic to
thle Pacific it yields the characteristic fruits from which the pipes are
made. The vines are very luxuriant growers. In the vicinity of
Washington, D. C., four of the broad-leaved runners early in the
season covered a 6-foot trellis 25 feet long and climbed to a height of
20 feet over some half-grown cedars near by, where they produced
dozens of thle loil., slender-necked fruits.
CULTURE OF THE VINE.
Tile vine forms a very satisfactory cover for iii--i.Ltly brush heaps
or fences, though its rather rank odor might prove objei' t ionable if
used for an arbor too near thlie dwelling.r
To grow the vine for the sake of its gourds is where the chief
interest lies, however, and to do this well it should not be trained on
C r. 4 B .,, ,f P nt
FiG. 1 .---CALAF ,H PIPE GOURDS
'l'hw a id t O w' I t- ll.i- Il Ihi, ltu fh lI-111 O l I W h t i-,, t 1 *[, ,ttt, [[ [
FIG. 2 -YOuMc PIPE GuR H: St A(E TC. BEGIN THE S**'* *; PROCEh- JUST
APT : THF FL Awr; HAS W THHR0;
Digitized by the Internet Archive
TiHE S'tn "lii AI+I!It \AN lIrl: <'Aii AI l\SI.
a trellisi bh ut al111h
,as di c.,er d t he pattt sIIIIIIimeir, \vitllt plants IrIIit o t ; ixt
\ ir fenc 'e. 'tihe Y ill iit'r ait s werle relpeFl e'Hi v l d i 1i i ll i e i i lFt t
to mit ke their n l tck's crtAt proi perl but as llt re,,w older ;hl 'it i
heaiviert thliei oSliIpIe tt it thlliecXX t F, It l 1 t" ti,,in .e antld l, i',
the se s;on closed had t(tieI tlli (i tIot i ke specimex lii.-,
wo th' tllsts 6 pip lakint If lte I 'r it iti F ;r(t > athe llt toi li)' fi et I he
-i .., 1i i Fhev form t lir t't cr l 'kedL ni ckt
itn'it I nd w li ile lio)tt '1 ( lt l, i l til" I)\ a i I llt'tis iiaike > tit lhlc it' lt
for pipes a. .'.,od ])ro)oplrtionI doI It s-iw'( i-IIs t1(o inIIlice t itII ci' plrfect
neck to stand the .'.mnitd- itl[ whewn hallf in som tli;it ll 'I re-t on
tl'ir h l it i end ls. I tint' tss ti' iI ex'rcl;ed' inlt dtii t ltI' I l n t 'tIt t -1;itp
oILf, Ior thliev Dre ext reSnv lANitDh Ie eve En \\l 'ellv MIE \I. It i- ,+Id
helln alI st Iils l t tlvre that they Iw tnwe lnrd anI tl lIen l l( t Ie, ;,N ire nlh ,Icd
almost un, brea~kalde.
Muchl eohld (lhoultle's lhe dome to, pertfec tie melthodws ()f culture,
nilst I > 'II'pe haps+ !i _,, .it r [)e i t'e l e o l[)i'p erl, 'r > crooked tiw k l ;ibd
1n,,A e p( rl'fcet sullfaces+ It co hld not ,w seen llith itil ritanlce A ZII, s
11nV 1n lteri'll )art in I tis mIP matter (it' per(eIenl.. ,* f cro, k,,. lI' h t, t t, ,
t t selves- thle in a )orit>+ \\Iill cr o, k I tlhi r n iw k, lIs t soIe f)II \, 'i
rcnii1 in ,|( ite strai lill i and I il he sIs ( I w am IeI v.i 1 itw I II t per t i ,
'I lIe plant-s \\ill thrive in any rhlt -'+atdeln so hil, e it i ler the l,, It r.
Beds (Of u\ ell-rottled Imii llire 'Ind illonlh v lo 11m .h ^ tii ld I)e tiltd r
ctlcllidlers or aelons ind at ti], s>allw se;n-)on, and thle .seeds philtl-(
11i11ch as tl n,_'+ti lliev were I (clI (ced ,atIomltt at ielich de p. I v i I
I 1(t 4 1)av in t he ititII ,e of W ,\ a hInII l ot, I). ('. d to i tlr'>t in a ll.,t-
tId m, colhd t'lrai/e d andl th(ll i n-.l tlalll. Ib it fa tIlle I r wo]t'I t i .I ii;I \'
I, I, then tI l re tl itilij s i:ol soil liW\\Iat, prlotv,+ide'dV tlt e tI I he i aa l ill-
S (T' V ,rv ;I*refltIlv d To I I" -'ro\tll of tlm II' Innd'" p lt, \p'll uncci ,
chlie led \\ill ile slo\, tilid seed s p< l etlted m ',ide \,till )>roducc, p mlnt:t
tHiat \\ ill o\vertake thlem ill thn i 1 It .
'I lit calalbash m rdl, v'ine+ i- a "_ >od Il Iarre r. woit. ,i',i*'o ,I- ",ines
,\ui ill Marylahind ili ItOWs pr( dIticed aloio t 75 -minrds. Bi il tIl'M.
n1,t I)' th..,i_Iit iliat t a l o (l e (dioi<| \\Ill h] lit Itl' i p Ipe l o\\ l<. 11111 -.,
vach+li fruit i> found whiile thle neck is still pIliblet andl >(o tiedl !l il it
ttiis 1lw Ie poper c1trve. A\ n l t hl e le;\ ,e... _. I i
v 4 v FY Yitr 'oull'rIs re~quires nnicl!) -,ar Cliii'1 a1nd at 're(|iyilent int \;i .
'I Iw n d .l 'lli. ild be left a- lmne ias pt -ibleo, (-i t lle viln t1 1l hir-
o,+,lj lvl th l,,ktn tluieir shells. IIf piclked ',. n, tlie slIell v, ill be+ li,
lli icker tlihm st 11"' caltrdboard[ and it (Itry, ing it is very lialhe to c : (-rack.
Fro'st, will injure the ...-,t'ds if the' ti,\ r left (n tlhe vim's Itoo) lo, .
DISEASES AND INSECT ENEMIES.
It will be ain llipleasanlt surplrl'ise when ille crop lias bele h:1a el,-
to lind I ot(\\- few ol' f llfie illn11rd1 nlecks which in thw lie ld sc'(c+ilw'd liih
9r7 ('ir *1I 09 2
THE SOUTH AFRICAN PIPE CALABASH.
for pipes are really perfect en,,'_'l, to use. The small defects and
inse('ct bites Xwlich scarcely seerled to mar the gourds in the field
appear as malformations which throw out as culls a large share of the
From tlhe appearance of thie South African imported product it
seems 1prt able that a dry climate is best for the production of the
gourds and that water is best applied by irrigation. In thlie moist
regions of Maryland, althmigh perfectly satisfactory pipe _',,iirds can
be griown, there seems to be ,in'r.rr of thle necks becoming infected
with a pink mold doubtlesss a Fuisarium) that o()ften quite ruins them.
Especially liable to this are the specimens lying on the ground, and
this was one of our reasms for standing the gourds on end or for
placing a b mard under the choicest specimens. Any mechanical or
insect injury to the neck or upper third of the young gourd may scar
it s(' as to make it unfit for a lirst-class pipe.
There is a snout b1,etle in our gardens which persisted in biting the
necks of the gourds shortly after the flowers had set, and in every
cast thest, bites resultdtl in scars which xwere I)erimaint. To keel)
tlie insects from bitiii., the gourds, some were covered with cheese
clohl and( others with large paper bags with the mouths folded
closelv about the stem. The paper baps proved better, especially if
placed so that the water could drain out of them. In some instances
after a rain many of the 1,,.12 were found full o(f water and the gourds
covered with mnolhls.
THE ARTIFICIAL SHAPING OF THE GOURDS.
It was discovered that with a little care and( patience it was possible
to cause thliese gourd necks to growx into any desired shape. To do
ilis, it is necessary to provide half-inich b1)iards 6 by S inches in size,
riddHled with quarter-inch holes as close together as they can be bored.
Each board has its accompaniment of 5 or 6 p"'2-, which should be
about 3 inches long, whittled to fit thie holes, and padded withi cloth
so that they will not scratch the tender gourd. One of these boards
is reqtuire for each pipe until its neck is set at the right curve; then
it can be remove I and useN for another. The young gourd when still
quite v(mounlg andl before its delicate neck has hardened (PI. I, fig. 2)
is laid on the boardi and gently Ibent in tlie desired direction and
p '-i, d in place. By the following day the tension will be relaxed
and the fruit can be still further forced into shape. Three or four
Yi -, t ii2; of the pegs are usually enough to carry the gourd to tlhe
point were the neck is lixed in orim.
Pies i'ftormedl in this manner become invested with still greater
indixidualit. nlim ited op port unity is afforded for tlie exercise of
ii_. ,mitxy in the making of new forms, and individual tastes ie,.garding
the shaIp o(f a pipe can be fully gratlilied. (See Pl. II, fig. 2.) By this
F IG. 1, NA IT v OH A
OF THL BOW, BA. x 3 P AL T
CURVLD RUbbE STL1, oAND N
CA A -i Il E: GOU D READY FOR T[I FlI T N
U! P HS. M i R -CAUM 1UWL, MACMINI T'S DIL,
^ ss *
F-- 2 V-.R i, F')!: l (t- CA% A PI; I
method _,,,,r'ds w irv formed \illi ;i ru, lde culve ill lie neck., making
unnecessary %> a urvedi moro hpie. If Mhe v~ine" runi (oer tihe ground,
the hoairds U;ed serve I he, ;ddirll nl(ll qll p p olkeepidng I llC golds off
METHODS OF M .\ I';G THE PIPES.
1o) make ;iea IAit he ireco]r du If hel gourd il! l i w Af ald all
1|iiti caie ully reI o e'\ 'd f',i'i t e J im -i t in' llirho .,in -i d cutich,
should the scrap do! l l a -Wi "ii anq) il'e ,hclo it drio-: ait In"a-! it
comes/> ,otH' ea:isiel I n ii t hlef on ill f rlo in (od food l ds. \\'hit NIn1
or pumi ce Illi\' Iw' uI-m Il r t|t,)ohliardi lie hiiid l'i l 'c. if ih04 .^ilo(>) !i
f ol~lgh ;lt't l I lioi~it++I I lil scrald ig. Saniliidl) |rlyq ill -cralcli ik ;>ld
shio lhi not he >llcd.
'T lhe dr in of itire plicrds sctslii sia il hd tliitiiu, Iil t i iin reolil v
so d i lii, ,ilo l lih l i 1 lioilld ItW leMAi llv kn>\[liiioird .A l t r lic |i[)(,
_...'ii'W ar liar vair\'st d, l lire inecks, Ipa ticularl\ il iioo |)ipcl\qt1 cleanod
and scrapld, are ill ,'rcl l dan e lro)i molo ds. 11' II r'or d 111 ai \or \;JH! ,
cnose n- ii fom ()l v ill\- a to\ dav\s Jie cuiticlc will he covered w it i 1111-
-i +lil lV spIts, ME &iic riltli tlie J aIlM lhard In 'ver elieathl 1)\ v di-co l iini, it.
The ecks, sift er temi ; cliiea e ;and s'nraped, will cure We-t il Imlmy ii)
il it ol;,) v 1 \ roo l w e e ple tiy of ;>il is cir iula iin I L! t and whe e I\l\h er
witl 1ot freeze. If ;i "l I va, w,, erc llie >!tni cani strilr e thlletI can le
fommdhso inncu leh e JIM beti.
Tfo mWiaking of At l~elpp<' sti wl lie [sl [)oned /Jillil Imail ie toiirls liavc
l leonit \ ell seasIoed. Ttei, ee Vssarv acessories a re a l nit lm/ ll-
104mcel,a 1d Iso e ltlii t in cork slils, the (0s! ot wdlcli lioildtnot
xcee d A') l lts. (IT1. II ,, I 1. ) In adlditio t these ;" lw c inwts'
wortli of |hlasster olf Pnrii will Ie lleeded. ('Ill ,oil' smlloothllli\ Jhe tip ot'
tlhe stnnill end ilamd bho e m li h ii r l, ih "MIii it knife I do" le iA i l ilie noIrrrow\
cavia v of thV n eIi v. Into this screw firilv a y oolt el cini hher illolln l-
p)i ee(* witli its ivory-il we lted niplple. If tlincre is difliculiy in ^ tll ini
tlie lirird inurv tor lo jut ils own 111v ead. even al'lle sopdvin_ l liet of Iho
gnmid lniek in i 1ot water. n nu ielr 11 or I; Imiachini:st's Wie. wiwcc linoi
to the thnred of the ipplQe, should Ire ised to cut tlie thread. The
lai'ie t lnnilwetlike end oW tlie -itird VeCk is nlexl ill t with lit[Ne s.aw\ at
tine proper inn le and low elnoigi so, litat ai I l riir c(leap ieeschaulll
howl will tit intto it, lihavin, is r'i Hirisli witli lle o, tsidtive o l, itie m uonrd.
.k few teaspoonfuls lf plan-.er of o laris 111041 With alert to f'orm ii
stfiir |ias ie is spiel as a Ithick laote* for lihalf an ichi inside IlIt, diii of
tlie .',.irii[ neck. The mecerschalllm lom l is Ili1t ir- <.i'el "Ind It ie
fW&ced into i|lace .a_' Anlns tAVe frlhei plaster ad heft 641 l lnn i' mvnl"l Ati to
MiWio t lAiV laster to set '.I lig h ly, not lioee i miite, att 111ot : ot hier-
w Ais it will st ivk fast.
Tie set t i,_ for t lie howd is now iade, uti ot(i v' ".'et1 e" 1 Int il a -rip
of thin tcok, such as many cigariete are lt ipped ,ill lias tIeel ghl,,t
[Cir.t I j
THEl'1 S111il \IMC1; \.N 191n; (U\\.\lASK1.
TIHE SOUTIr AFRICAN PIPE CALABASIT.
sm111()ohl ov" liet surface of thile plaster. Before doing this a little
of t he plaster of Paris shliouhld be scraped out to allow for thle thickness
of cork. If too (much is removed and the bowl is loose the difficulty
Cal Ibe correct'edI by cutting (h down tile -.I' of the gourd. This can
best be done with a flat file or by hohling the end of the gourd against
the side of a glrindstone. When properly done tIle llieersclhalum bowl
fits snugly, but is easily removed by a twist of the ftirjcis when the
pipe is to be cleaned.
Tills is tlie completed pipe, and with all the necessary things at
hand it can Ibe made in hail' an hour. (PI. II. fig. 2.)
Many smokers prefer a pIush stemin and thlie calabash lends its lf
readily to this style of pipe. Recourse must .r.Z.,ii, be had to the
tobacconist for tlie moouthliiece, and this time instead of the bone
nipple a ferrule of suitable size must be secured. The operation is
exactly tlie same as for tlie fitting of thle screw stem utp) to the time
that tlie liole is imade in tile small end witli a pocket knife. For a
push stemi this shIould be c(Mntinued until tlie liole is slightly larger
than tlie stem tio be used. If tlie ferrule is of tlie proper size it is
then oni ll( nc('essarV to force it into place over tlie end of tlie gourd and
the pipe is complete.
WIien a Iush1 stem is used the bowl can be made entirely of plaster
of Paris and tile c()-st of tlie pipe still further reduced. A thin piece
of cardlotard within a central iperforation is fitted into thle gourd just
below tlie lint where the Ibotmoi of tlihe bowl is to 'omte. A thin
mixture otf i masterr of Paris is lien poured into the gourd to tor'i a
layer abolt t a (I quarter of all inch thick on the paste board disk. Any
Slm(ootl ci vlindrical obli, I, such as a lhoneopathic vial with a, diameter
suitable) for tlie inside of a bowIl, is well greas;'d atnd placed(l upright
in thle end( o thle gourd to form a core. Tilie space around thie core is
then filled w ihi plaster of Paris, and as soon as it hias ",,.iii to set
tile ('cor' is ''removed. A small pelrforation in tile bottom of the bowl
about 111te siz, of a large knitting tnedlle is iimade as soon as tlie plaster
of Paris lias ('completely set and( tlie pipe is c(mle te.
This style of )bowl is l)permlissille in a pushl-stemi pipe, since the
pipe can be readilyv cla ned l'from the steml en(dl, thuls (ol)\viating the
necessity of a removable bowl.
A well-minade calabaslih pip)e will appeal to tlie dis'riII .tii ig pipe
smoker as possessing tlie muct'h valied c'hlaract etristics of tlhe long
German )II)e in a much more conv('lnient fo'rm. Tli l)owl occupies
but a small part of the liollow neck and the remainder of the space
forms a rece'ptacle below tlie bowl that answers (li same purpose
as tlie lower b()wl (of i tle (German pipe in keeplij:- juices from entering
the stemt and allowing the smoke to cool.
The aash piMpes nrow inmpor i [ 1 ted iiall i r u i( n i& frIom
Erii:htl aml ieninanv are madh frlm t10e frid i,| tal l "hl Alricani
pipe -,,urd, a varict ,o /j' .,ip isrnoi riil-vt/iri. Seeds of ItI-. varil't v
havehbein intr thinccd Su+oni o10it Wi A icam tic lant li;m. INot Woitid
to thrive in all ip rt' ot f (le 1n"tid Slall t-. The vit A ma \rm s Ilxui-
riantlh nip! is^ of conlidetr;+t e value as an mmanvii tentlal,
lmihl a di al Ira l ive )i|lw (s can hie a ld uint thlie rL it.. f (tlhis
gouli lb>v anyl\ol at a inlominal ol.st. Thew'e hoitimuade pipes. posjse-.u
great inldivhidtulitv and are in n, way inllerior ill -mllingt qualities to
thie exIle sive ilpormtld Pipes ,whicl 'are om so i\uicli iln la-.oilm.
The gtirdls are produced in great a!lltplda lmi t lie prices paidl
for the inecks hby lA ianuhu'cturcrs e are v i \\ ailndll the demlindl is
limited The raisin of tl (lie iutrds (on a lrte sca ih in 1ie expe tati.on
of a cotnllimltial d emald is, ItieeIole, lnot aMiX sa
;sc l' tlfr'i otf Air''tiltfair..
WAS1IINGTON) D. c.'.) (< fl< ti.ll 111 19,i l9.
1IllE .S)VT1 AFM\lCAN 1'11'1 ( MA AHA. 11.
3 1262 08928 9424IIII
3 1262 08928 9424