The present status of the white-pine blights


Material Information

The present status of the white-pine blights
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Spaulding, Perley
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
United States -- Government Printing Office
Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

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aleph - 29629378
oclc - 14875559
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U.S. DI-t'IARTMNINT -(W' A(*Il\l(I.Tl !R1,
I'11t \l' ( 1 '.\ANT INIDl sTI;Y (ircifil .r N ;,.
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Vi'Nii, 81116,11,118


I'KI, .KY SlI.\l'l.lDlNt,.
P\TIIOUI.llIST. lN\'K.s'ri(;\'rII()Ns IN 1'4uti;:,;>1 |I 'A i'itoiiii.;i

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Chiuf of Burru,. BIEVEILY T'. (iALLOWAY.
Asi Nt (hnl Uif of Iiurniu, kii-rT i"., \Vols.
Editor, .1 E. {no, KWiELL.
Chief Clerk, JAMES E. JONES.
[(Cir. 3,]

.. "

H. 1% i 06

Tillm IIs 'r I, ST 1. \TI ( ) '' Ill' I WIIITI -
l'IXKli III.(7 TS.


I rin t hie, piast foti ur livi \ 'ei ars t he e a \ e lii0\A I w ii \ coi plaints
f lro n ow s j i l',f tilil b r liaIn-ds; critic nl i- i ;i p h vl h! tof while' pIiAeIV (/''P iiir
W fl. Thevse co pilaiits h' ili iln Iltl) and have' beowt ,i nwi n mci -
ii,..'1, fI'r iIntl ever since. \\ ihi 1 ere is solic fslw rat int filor ;ilWrA m iu
it is tii liltn i )te li\ t irue hlat t lie s* II ;i iim nii l t of (hi1 1i o fi ifte'i \y'ail's
.i',o WOUl[d harldl'iv have excitMd cwoiniltil. ''t l ric o (dc A M liiivl'r lis,
idvaVilled d" ilin I ilis pwriode is ndi Ijeo iht q 'c l'aly ; r I po I pihl ail a tart
llit h it ii lirwi-slliortelt is in ii d.i l t .
The oritl al s1.tand od wvliit,-[ iii' ies is lieixhau lstie and i h l iim elr
truh, c al depend ( l o'll l Ili lit e (v i i'i, s rulthh ii s odilini g r t lii" ti li is
usailly' v less tlihn 75 wears of age. This lias led to tlhe planting (of
Y,, Il tee.s in ve'rv consider bale quantities, in tlie I o|)e "f s, i l ,d.i."
the future nioe urlienatdemand il anl adeoidte po wit on tlie invest-
ien t. Thle li.id4lii,.' tle yoyounig, trees' either in the lie i iser' v ('r in
thle lp rmianeit plla tatioi lias hle to a iiin li ore intlellient aind
c'areful consideration if tlhe factors cont ollhig ti e l rowt li li lalit'v of
ilhis sp ieivs tiha was V li1 ie iae onlv\ ;i Gev \ars sineli I howe 'er,
nillh i yev t t" be a woiphlishedi in I his i'garl I ot oI lv wi\ it lit it Ie lihite
pimenhut with many oAlmer less esee( ed species od our forest trev'.
o This irmin lar f it sn s i t he r(,si lls of in st- in-ii ii ,ilis I I o th li l' il toii ali.
It shtows tlhat tin re aw se-- e rai l W WIin lK'1 li ,a'i s d win to ;, in:onp\ til l in it c i-' (t111-
paraitivly femw -rees l~a^- hen kiltol tlto lWed and tii lir ow ers A Mi wt liWmane undulyhliV
;l;irinn(tld, as l li t e s lhave n n aii v tonisV a h1Alr yl \ [i;l li! rc niw crn Ifnqn I 1 blie ii h .
A. j|ren l tiet-rn is ;i'-solnlely no reas in know 11 fo m i ing or d i.p'[ irsiii whilt-pine -trre-f- in xtii ii tA san f i resin W i4T riMi | "iA i iW liduln in ni iA 1s
fornw; ii r Asi ouhl w 'k iIsii lr p op ed [t tili i, in o' i11 -j ivs i e, re.iilquished' or
t fstrplledW iron itar of this troui l e. SM'i ies on i0 W rw o(f inw s to (fif ii.'lkht
hu.ix i h (ie n arrit om ly 1i )r 1. II Io kin t- e 1ire I' ftl ini fIl v. ;llldt I is
an-i-taut-. 'lti wrinf rliJd I,>o |nr ll'i kiwis ho' alo ma it -ome e'oIteti '. irix -uties
in iht fi l. 11. T'. ( iALL)WAY, I'n if / f l rmaii.
J(irt U :'


Specimens of diseased twigs were referred to the Bureau of Plant
Indust Iryv at various limes before the writer took up the problem.
Thle (orresp(omdence shows that a number of fungi were found on the
(dead( leaves, t lie more ((com)lOn onles being S1")toia sJpKicea Ptterson
and Charles," II ud cr'son .( fotiicola (Berk.) Fckl., Lophoderrnmium
p/iloo f/i (Shrad.) Cher., L. brai(ftl,,,,,,,, Rostr., and Pestalozzia
fil 1inra D)esm.
In 190(17 lie complaints were renewed with increasing insistence
andI specimens of affected leaves and twigs were received from many
sections of New York and New England. Accordingly, in August,
1907, tIhe writer was dletaile(l to study the problem carefullyy Exami-
nation of the specimens of diseased( leaves showed that the fungus
S(ptoria qp(adica( Patterson and Chic'h-a practically always accom-
panied the disease. In November, 1907, plots of labeled trees were
establ)lished at Westbury (Long Island), N. Y.; Windsor, Conn.;
Brunswick, Me.; Exeter and Nashua, N. II.; and Burlington, Vt.
Each tree was given a number, and one hundred or more trees were
in(chluled in each plot, except the one at Windsor, Conn., where there
were but fifty. Later, the p)lot at Exeter, N. II., was discontinued,
so that finally 600 trees were kept under observation. At various
times careful notes have been made on the condition of the foliage of
these trees, thus furnishing a history of thle progress of the disease on
the labeled trees.

At thlie very outset it was recognized that there was more than one
disease which was included in the term "white-pine blight," and this
has become increasingly evident with the further progress of the
inv,.. i-li,1-. In 1907 the disease discussed later in this circular
under the namie "leaf-blight" was by far thlie most common one and
xwas usually t lie one referred to by correspondents and forest owners;
but there was also) found a twig-blight caused by Lophod.rmium
bI'ic/.hyporuim Rostr. which was fairly common, though not notice-
ale inI (lestruc(tive effects. Some cases were also noted where winter-
killing might have occurred, though (his couhl not be definitely
asce('rt inl(ed.
SThis fungus lias e('I n (confused with IiSetoria pa ra, silic hartig, but is quite distinct.
A tec hniical description 1)y M rs. Hlora W. Patterson and Miss Vera K. Charles follows:
Srp foritI /'mdplc'ra I)aIt(rsOll a l1ld ('harls.
)'vcnidiat no, Spot, forming, late Ibecoming slightly (erumi)pent (on inner surfa('e
of !.I.. il 'edles, scal(er('d. meni .i iii., fus<.ous-olivaIccous, suiimnmersed,
190 2'2" in diameter. Spores il dno li i.i i(cal, -1i.-hly ('urved or flexuous, apex
afife, on' septalt', rarely cuti-iri f. I d at septum, 3 X 30-15 p. Basidia short.
( n leaves of P'i s str/obius.
[Lr. 35]

III l9(NS ;i still greater ( liver.i- t \ l fo I Iris ,' i- eas(.I \\;is fI o ,ind ;ilIl.
ill somie sectii m s lit least tle leaf-l ,illh \1 l nIh I lI4 Xe( n -I oI | (i,V:liIlI
th I I recel ing sIi I I S1 \\:is X()l li ( lle ( dist4 ase'" 0 4 \ \ Ias -Ie\I :a'M I s-iI X -
attentio( Tt he at'-bh)[ i I I I- t \\ ; hlss prevent a dI a,;leI I r IIllv I I lI('II
less virulent thl n in 1l9 7", alltholn)ll it still ha:dil a o tl( the s;alme di>-
tribution. I t ro tbl, \\li I li a lctt a ( ld llil Ill (11c t iI 'ocalilivs,
however, w\ s a t\\i'- li) l, and 11 t 1t0 hleo f-blidif l ': a\ I i lila t dons
Iadei I in IIN \ Y rk a1t N(lw 'id1an1 slE \ I I I I I 1 ii4I\ i^ ilill
\VW S n1 s (Il 1)\ ss lral i. i l 'l,,rs. Ie y l' (t Is \k ;.
f( n1 1 1) w)(. : 11, (,ly l, alize, (I l o I sidh ,f I l ( i ll *d ll'rr-. ;nrl it
wis co' nc' l1dedi liri l XX is \11 as ;> case ,,f triic v\ iiit rleilliiii''." Sl-in rs
nints I)A Illt e l p thol i It is u' li Maine A ricl: fral \ i r I I Iii i I I l a-

tll tIII e )v Ii (v441 ) i \ I s t l -,I II e Nii i r s ili l it, A -.cI lit' r I Ft o l i~i I I I IIlS X
tion' serini I I I lat 11111 cli it' I le li t I Ill In ainN \\ as d; i to)\ iiil(r-
S1killinr. ThiIs \as nIl t i II 'e of a 11 se ti o1 ns I )\\ e( v r. B si e- ( Ie
several tVo0 rm1s o1() !1 lilIt airead! nI I nli .11 1 a:1n a1 t( io1,)1a1 l on(,o appeIwared .
ill certain t(':lo liti es w\lhich is ,I ppzr, 13 ca s d Ie isec).1.


Di :riir o s '' \ )1u 1 IO -1I -,MT !r
Leaf-blight is chara terizcd y t) v 1e dehali id the a i, l t(io, o)f
tlhe leaf, commoIlY for a forth or ;a third of 'ite, (eiilire I1 n( tl. lf tle(,
leaf, l)blu itI extreme cases lmallv ex (e din,-- to) the base amd 'a si
the pr(,nat u(e fall ,of (h4 e (hdeadened( leaves.
W hen first, attacked, tlhe olor (,f lhe dead parts is I)rightI red(d(lislI
blro)wn, different fro(i (h tlie color a ssu(mled in :1iv ,tther disease klt)no\\ n
to thle writer. It, is al this sta(,r that tlile (isense a( tracts lite io)>I|
attenltionll, ais the reddish c(d(olor shows co)nspictuous ly a;fain- tl ie I dho'ark
-,r,.,11 Of till li] nl Itv \ r ees. In t i\ i wr t liaree i ()nt ls tlie( color ade"s I,)
a dull brow)wnish Wray. at whiN.h sta,41 e, it is ( dl) i ingtuisli
thle diseased trees 'roill the h(ealllhv (ones at :a little disln:11ce. Thl'lis
chan (, in codl'or ivess hlle iln|)ressioIn llI I:,t tlIe to s lIarve par'l iallv
recovered fr m the tro-tlde unless a c('lose,1 e 1xam1i1(atiln is lmade. Tlhe
dead portions sometimes break off( during IIe '\ winter, bill are usuallY
intact tlhe next spring and s1mm1er.
Tlhe leaves of I lie diseased Itree 11, mav he (of normal le(ngthl. wr IheyN
III itV b( muI ch s-IJorte(r t nI ormal, Ind I(l samI vaIrialions o*I I cur in
thIe I ], 'th oI f tlI h,,aves (oI f unafIeI ted'l, I t(ree,(s, i. I., tle lli Ilt sI I, Is It
Iave, nv rela ion (I)o tl ltn, t I ,f Ile hleavec s excv,4pt in (le hlast( sl I .I t
of I Itli dseaseI s hI en h(,I hea (es are ver sroIrt.
I D)ana, S. T. l'I tum inl ' tanice of clh \Vhit)( l'il il ,:lll ]',,. I I. I)l)w .
1,(iallowa\ I.T I lporl, 'hici' ,|' I'urr;c o l' o l.f m ll I l u- ,l p.2'1, 1'K1W .
c M orso,, \W ..J. l l (')rl, NM iinc l ) (-'in i--iii \ ,l. 7, pp). 20'o) -_'.. I,)S ;nnl
lBulhlin I; l6 M inoVA.rriulthural iE:xim-rinicii ", 'IQ, pii. 2I `,'-, I)o(l).
f Ci r. :i>

PIREgSNT STAT'IUS fi. THiE: \WH ITEI-l'lNr* 1!lI(;H"<


The white pil(e ordiiiarilv she(Ids its leaves in their second autumn,"
although it is not liniolllinl for theim to persist until the third sum-
mer an1l auituimn. I'sually the tree has but two sets of leaves and
one or 1both may be affected with the leaf-b)light. The disease may
affect tie wloile crown or only a portion of it. Usually the l)light
is generally distributed throughout thlie entire crown of the tree, but
many cases occur where the upp))er part is diseased while the lower
branches are healthy. ()n the contrary, thlie blight sometimes affects
thlie lower branches and the upper part of the crown is still healtlihv,
but single diseased branches scattered here and there among the
healthyliv ones never occur with this trouble.
The leaf-blight has been observed by ) the writer on trees of all
ages, from four years upl)war(l. It attacks young and old almost
indifferently when the comparative, numbers of each are considered.
Trees in thick stands are apparently as likely to be affected as those
stanliing in the open. As already indicate(ld, an affected tree is apt
to be generally d(iseased in all parts of its crown. Such trees are
usually found singly or in twos or threes among their fellows and
often healthy and affected trees in all stages of disease stand side by
side, and even witli thLeir bases grown together. But forked trees
may or may not have both parts diseased.
Tlhe disease appears oil the new leaves about the time they reach
full length, beginning in 907 and 1908S about July 1. It attacks the
leaves o()nly during their first summer.

The leaf-blight is known to extend from the southern part of Maine
and northern New I lampshire andI Vermniont to the Hudson Valley in
New Yoirk, central Pennsy Ivania, and along the Alleghenies to west-
ern North ('arolina. Whether it occurs in the western portion of
tlie xwhite-pille regiol(l i s s vet uncertain. In the sections where it is
present it is d distributed hocall/y, there 1)eing areas free fromin it, while
other areas are seriously infested(. It applarentlV does not occur at
thlie higher altituhdes in thie north, as it has not yet been found in the
Adirondlacks, where white pine is fairly common and is being planted
in I. 'L areas.
D)rv weather, resulting in an insufficient sullpply of water in early
summer, would seeim to cause tlie death of leaves in this manner, but
observations seem Io show that this can not be the cause of the leaf-
blight. A tree alboit 20 inches in diameter and which is in good con-
dlitioi otherwisee, stamlding besidle a reservoir (f water which has not
SSairgent, ('. S. Manual of Trees if North America, p. 4. 1'i,1
0 ir. :i j

been empl y fvI tI lv lat-t lil'lecn ye'as, is II\ vert allected I nerallY
th 'ot Il' liltit the t )p \ill Ihatt x lit. O tle r s.iiiit' lla sitt iated trees
in other localitiWs silhow the samne condi(ioi.
W inter injury(' is; still a111 tinsettl e (ttIesti o). I t \vouhl seem t liati
trees which t were al ort t l t I l \\ihlt a l1. i1 il(.,- roots dul int the Iii' lst
two or t et'te winters wold siltw (he effects i olre plaxily during_ tlhe
past extre el v (r t v stilitiner (lr 0s). rxatlher iatla a lap rtial rxecox \erNl ast
was actually t' .le case \\lit x)() per Icenlt lt ( l disease t txx i'es otwhiht
have bein the ulder carefull liotzt\tien. Ill oitelr words, the rzeiianted
trees have I)eet reo{ verlill d t hinl' (le driest siiiiii 1 tlt lias beeni
exl)eriencedl ror inallY years. There is anti Ther l'orliii o' winter inj r 'iY
whlirlI is essentially a dtI Y: ino ,II t o I "t o l (I* e tissue do e tI c e(. tiIIIled tans-
pirat lo fr t ,l rtit- l e have is w' lIn tli soil nt d ro s a e 't/.en. i This is
It COl MiOl i caIse o l death (l( colt' liers i ll t e (O lv; lains i,.:1io, n o" thle
W est anil, 1las affected the \while line il rcrlail dis'triits(,,f tlhe IEast,
ias lias been -staed il otier parts or til l cula.
The late teeze i tit e ll'Fsp ili o)f 1907 iilit ailve killed tie ilps of
the leaves ,' tlhe white pine, butl 1roll,\,tI at that lime \was liail' l] v
more ilia, t e"ttun. MoreloVelr, o lrvalio lls ade la v thie writer" lipon
thie freeze ol" .ltine IOCS, slhow Ied tliat llie white pline was noti in-
juiredl li e t I i Adirondac.iks. ailtihoutih ot her native t trees w\+erIe tro/tei)znI Ild
innmlediatelv slhowed tlit, efecis ol ()I* eeziln,'. Thle \while v ine w\as N ot SC -
spictiously free from leal'-l)liT'hi tlitoll-iti/4 i l tie se ason, as it alwa ,s
1ias been it ttle\ Adirondack re'i(m, where both eairlv ind late i'rosts
are v'eVPr o prIe alelt+
Sun-scaIld \vould afl'fel tite tiree top more or le'ss hocallv ton mwe side,
+is is describe v t y S t ial" as occlrriii on cheio, andi, byi Stoniie
a d~ S hit 'I S1in siar laple, whlelreais such is not t lie t ase. 'he his- Occu.rls ener'ai lk ly ) t lhro li-honit thle tlree top o i, ()I- Ilire 1WOUpper
or lower portion ()I Itle loop: the leaf-'blilid t is I)(t localized )it le sidle
of tile t ree. However, thle heaft-b)ligl t applelai ;illt little \0lien s in-
seahd would seevll to) beo liiost likely v Ialt'ec(t thle \ liie p!ine jil't ;Is
tlie new leaves reach their full hcnt'ItI.
Ilnjiu'io Is Iases C:a al liIII zn v I) t I Ie (l t1e ,a i t'f h )af-1liht I. aIs l lie disease
oCe' rsll's locIalhites lar II'l.onli :iI )Y comshiderable source 4f smok(.e or
sulphur 71ascs.
Aeral' cItio Il l c ian ha e ) ohthiiei to do wit le Iteali ,If ile lips of,
leaves, Its thec d]is(ase o e't s oi (e s ill "a)(1i )ii( ;t< \\ ]H s on11
thoose il close sta ds Iete (tere is i l (hick l iade o l'eaid needle, s
covering tile itro ts.
++ St<\',;,ri. 1-. !'. l! u1 H *l In ...:. N'cw Y or,+lk ibIll+\ v, iri l t u~t r E | [xp+rlinii'nt 51 tio i,
pp. 17 1 17"; l 99'l.
1, Slu ( i i:,; S millt. If. 'I:. ltei, rt (t ; -:, \ :.-;i | l.- t. li watch A ,\tricitltur:+l
]xp~rilim'iH St;iii^ fpp. st SL_. lsI 7.



l{)ot-rot can no)t apparently produce such a trouble as leaf-blight,
as a considerable number of white-pine trees have been examined )y
Ithe writer which had their roots killed by %omes annosus (Fr.)
(Cke., but their leaves were green for their whole length, and in fact
showed no disease, although the roots were so badly rotted that the
trees were blown over. ('lint,.I, a has described diseased trees which
Ihad a fungus on the roots, but he was uncertain whether the fungus
killed the roots or not. In this case the tree top died downward
As before mentioned, a number of fungi have been found fruiting
on the needles affected with leaf-blight. These are Septoria syadicca
Pattersoi( anid ('Charles, HIIedcrs.oniafo4iicola (Berk.) Fckl., Pcstalozzia
fun<-rea I)esml., and a number of others which are known to occur only
on dead tissues. Of all these only the first has been found occurring
at all regularly on the diseased parts. Inoculations have )een made
by the writer on young white pines in the grii.iii ,-.. but no infection
resulted. This proves nothing, as the leaves of the inoculated plants
were not young and newly grown, which condition may be necessary
for the attack of the fungus. Also, other conditions necessary for the
growth of the fungus might not have been obtained in the experiments.
Scptoria Sl]adic(a Patterson and Charles has not been found so gener-
ally accompanying the disease in 1K. as was the case in 1907, but
this may possibly be explained by the extremely dry season of 111 I'.,
which might have hinilered( the development of fruiting bodies.
It is impossible to definitely state what is the primary cause of
the leaf-blight, but it probably is closely connected with extreme
climatic conditions which have prevailed during the past few winters.
I)uring the past two years there has been considerable mention of a
diseasee of larch and Abies pectinata in Scandinavia and France. This
diseasee was characterized by the reddening and( ultimate death of the
leaves quite generally throughout the top of the affected tree. A
number of different fungi have been found b)y various investigators
associated with the (i .i-,.:1-, but proof of their parasitic character was
in most cases not ol)tained. The outbreak simultaneously in Europe
and America of a somewhat similar disease on closely related trees is
at least interesting, an(d it is barely possible that they are both
primarily idue to extreme weather conditions, which are not thoroughly
understood at present in either localit v.
The leaf-blight has been known for a number of years and several
wood-lot owners say they have known it for ten or more years. The
outbreaks usually 1n-gi about July 1 and vary in intensity from year
I ( liii -i,. ( P. PRep)ort, Connecticut Stale Botanist for lii'., pp. :;2t-.21 .
[Cir. -1

to *vea 'I, thast or I i iT beingi especially had, while il F ia t liii lun m ch
less serious.
lhe lahl'-hlight ilniy cause the dIeath atI affe''te- tr ee'as. In a fe\\
instanmes it ha~s local known to d" so in ;a sin_le, scasom. but it usually
takes two or oeit setatso's. i Even in tin ha rt wont MI!'O d tt i .ti'te tih'
linnnlX r oi t rasi kilH i is M at s all,'I. ill dlt. te id ag is 'tne 1ti, l i-'
i ..ili-'ible I'or i lthe present ai la t. lOur iec odls sh"ito t hat I tli17. n e'.
wa+ 1m h less vir hlentt it lUS{ than in 1())7; ithat oi< new ti 'v-
l)(cinlie MOW'ct in Mrls; that Inalpy of theo tM'S bait wvrv affivl'cd in
1l9 7 were also diseased in 190s; I tl" at that |)r (*le t clein, hich ,vere dis-
easeld in 1907 (Id not hiave tlh ir HI0 leavie-, afflcteld and .I1-r, tlis
slhi) .' ti pmrlX il rt ov ry Orin'. tilt'te trouble. m u, status aa t-he
trouble is generally numli more vniconm~ijiig than il wits in 1907.


In lPH7 the lhef-blioht ]) dherilxd WKIS found to oe tlhe
lprevalhnt wuhite-inedisease, I ltt t is ,was no I lt i t case generally if) I lo,.
Except in lhm'ailie' where lie l'al'-blli lht iad Wi'eii o ,t prevah'ni
in thle pirece Iii_. steasot a tvi l-blilht w s found' tt o e t It st It- lln'llt
in 190S. It \was also l'tunl that there were several different Iloi'iri o'
types of ta'pp--.ll t, apparently calvsed by ;>s mally different factors.

TI\\I;-MI K;HT CAV.U'+S llI: Y W\ INT I! IYI.I.I \ I. .
One' f iorm tdf l\\..''-li iht in wlh'li the injiry was tus ally iliitled to
the north anl west siles of tilie trees., wihil lie lopp)osite .sides were
uninjutred", was lprevalent in aine. Somtetit' I lit'e entire' itee wa,
Mwl'ected, but this was rather uancommon rihis lihtUo tll'r(1t(' only
small trees', u usually less than 10 or 1t' feel in iheigliXht. ,lil' largI tt' s
weire .seldom or only slightly blighted. Akll ille indicationsI. seeeld
to show that thlis was a real winter injury, caused by excessive
transpi)ration of Xwater from (lie l'leaves wXlt' th' roots w'ert' fit,'ten
sHlilly in tlie earth. 'lh leaf tiss s wer ti itli-r Ils draiiel' of their
necessamrv water intent w,,.itlog Join: ale toepl) ace it rom the
roots aitnl of co' set' i'l i 'rom i la ,k of Xalte'l. Akside 'Witti (lit r'he la-
tivelv s, iallt lnum er (If trees whv li wvre entirel, killed (Ihle I.,n1.,.,e
Was very >li...lit, aIllmllu tilt : at ot I11ost to) a set vtback in g lni\\t for a vear
or possibly t\, wo eas.
*I'M I+I.-11II. IT < II I :) 1N1\ t.T'l -

\lnotlir t Xig-hligllX was 's iltuhie, mre espec'ially in >\'Xv Iamip-
she v lt heBureau o Ktn, o Deparl melt ,ol kgricult ure.
It was choraracterizedI by I(he \ ,iltin t, I (hat h I" lihe previous pear's
M r-(,, \\ .. Kr, nir;, M titnr l:'<.rM.-t h 'I -ii i i vl. 7. pWp. 21)25. I'- am] Bul-
lWtin 1(;1, Mailii a\ ricdt+llitral lxlIo n 0 S tis ,in. p I. :21-2S,. M ITI.
Iva A I+.+



growth onil the lateral braunchlies onit all sides of the trees in April and
May, 19i0S. The leader or central shoot, was very rarely affected.
Thlis type of t wi.-l digit was al)pparenltlyv caused by insects, and is
mentioned here to differentiate it from thlie other forms of blight.
This blight was found in thlie more northern part of Maine also, but
nlot in the belt of lower altitude, ill Idii,_g thlie well-settled region
near tlie coast, where llie winterkilling previouIsly mentioned seemed
to be especially prevalent.

Thlie twig-blight caused by Lophodc( ,i un ii l,,ji'porun Rostr.
was noted minore especially at Brunswick, Me., in a sniall tract of young
trees from 1 to about 10 feet in height which was located on thlie edge
of an ohler stand and thus at a disadvantage by b.i),i._ overshadowed.
Here some d.,.i',i ', was done, a considerable number of the young
trees being killed outright. The disease was also noted on tlie lower
branches of older trees, n]ot only at Brunswick but also sparingly at a
number of other stations.

Among all our native forest trees th(e voung white pine is especially
liable to serious and permanent injury from wounds which are almost
of a trivial nature. If a branch or young tree becomes sharply bent
without any external indications of ,r1j.I ,-e it is almost sure to die
front thlie ellects of thlie unduie strain. Many trees which have a conm-
lparatively small wound, extending less Ihan one-third the circum-
ference of tlie stem, (lie from thlie ellffects of such wounds. This is
especially true of small trees. The white pine, too, is said to be par-
ticularly susceptible to injury from poisonous gases and smoke.a
These statements must not be taken as an argument :ig,..iljst planting
thlie white pine, as its many valuable properties far oii\kighi any
sensitiveness to injury wNixhile yyouli.

In any fairly dense stand of trees it is inevitable that some of them
will dlie unless thinii,.1ng is properly done; it is perfectly natural that
some should (lie from various causes. The mllost potent factor in tlie
death of such trees is competit ion among thlie trees themselves. There
is a very keen comleitioni amonlig lthe roots for food, water, and(
space in we soil. There is an equally sharp competition aiil'_6g the
Sclirenk, Ilermann von, and Spauildin, 1'erlhy. Iullhtini 149, Bureau of Plant
Industry. 1!90!9.
I Cir. i.) I

t t'i ll II sh(I )ot-Is z I lt( 1:1eral a) .hes- IfIo( l.:l_' 1 it and su sll hllinl,, wx illichl
results ill H it Io()s ,( vioro s trI*(e)s Ii,'iI:._. tlIhe lead amid kvvplin;;
sligh1l- .v al lead ever after if i(, ;acriicid(et happens to) prove )ll. lis
-Aresults iH the weaker tr lees lhemi, pl icedl at ai c(IIi-st itl lv inc -easli.+
disadva lt a t'e, and i ll\i v I heix t,'i cr olwded wut of ile a' s- u sl pt't'ressed,
allld lti II itelv killeid.

It has been ,s lo h'vl I lit ii( l11:iiolo1ist 'li-t ise, cts re rel'psi li.-
ble fu t (lie te Il d, I 1.,4 1od alI I e. s a Il I h tI I e o'ftetv1 caIse i(Iju ies.
to) t he leaves, twi + \% )(l. a d II ran chle, wh IIichIlI are (4f m l(o e or less, -evl'ioI)Is
C(oIns -eqtenCMe. ThIecre at re ai[lso() ce rtattiI tIroui- l hes nfl'ec'in: tlie li\hnIv
t ree-s iM which it is ve Irv di ci IllI to d ete'lrImiIeII \ IhetIhe or t )It. I14 1 isects
or I'ilit'i are tlie p-1a1:tI'\+ V luse or Whether it is aI comibital ill 4f
facltl. s, i ticl i tit i itirs, dl eia se climiilite, etc.

Therie t 're se e iii al ditlere l Ili tt i titit fitlit`'which a sero t-iot aidil it is IaY
111o i' tetns- a1i e tlii -,t'< i i i li i I i t to find tree's killed in h i t' wa The
It'\o ) I'lii \- which at re foiitil lim s 't oliiii ntl l ill ail oilo -r't reill
Armillfl/tirm l. (i o iOis ioH (F r.+ 'kv.

1,I(;I t (N I \ t;.
L1ihttt11111; also Iills s1attered t1ees and 'ii o' trees, ami tl ile(
loss fromlll thlis so1ce1 II:[\. liot be ;is insit ifical lt a il is now s*p-
posed to be.
Alll ( lf tie factors mentioned c1ilpeittit io lllji tlie t( ee, filr
food, water, i' tc.: i-nt-jutiies lc a xeld btv iilslects, lritl- ot, Ind li-thtl-
11i11ii '1re1 CoI stantlyv ca siilllg tlite deotil ()I white-pille trees, and thle
timliber mvncr ml"sl deadI trlees ai l' ca C:uII sedC l ti (lie blight. Thle blig t do :es kill Itlrevs, but
llie ~ iii,,:, tiil+ i'il' +iil~ i, ] 1\+ i l t ii rl _+,i'+ t,ll 111( ait p[ pll -cpilit v w,\ill
tile (~I m i tllius far1 caused 1)v 't is mi r .a d a p rn l Il
not become a serious l atte ill ost lw o alit ies.
Tihe white-pinle blight is at I o complex ()I* s,\everIl ,lif'ereit dliseaIses.
The leaf-blitit i ll, lie dtease which la ersisted |oi,,',.t in mantlmiV
localities-. It,, ; ils is ] ts, yv l vet undletermined. It wa ls m 1ch le lss p vi-
leit In HXit l lt i i it i 1 0(>7 and twlillv+ ate]'c,- d tree's; have partiallY
ricovered, while Iino new o',es becalme dliseaisd. Th is is believed to
be0 ti ll, os ii1mp r1tiil fo m ll o < *f t1 .1I1.
T ile twi -Iil' llth l icaused b I;\ 1 jiltti, 'ilci Ii \ l i + i iloccur allo tierse
sollr t' the \ tl i>+ esp c iall\v favo rable I'mo the fbuii_',s, bit ser'io s



damage from this disease is not at all common. The other twig-
-~-"'- blighlits are transitory in character and have thus far caused no
o_ permanenl1(lt damageg. Any or all of them may not occur again in
o the next tein years, and they may recur within one or two years,
i-- though this is not likely. The total ,.ii,.i'e caused by the blight is
c-- o I(o1i| )aratively slight, only scattering trees having yet been killed.
_ f I Tree(s (fie comstanitlvy from the effect of competition ,ia,,,ng them-
S selves, from t lie attacks of insects, from root-rot, and from li1l] iiin,.,
and the timber owner must be carefull not to confuse trees killed in
this way with those killed by thle blight.
Those trees which are so l adly diseased as to be unable to recover
ought to be cut and utilized, for the same reasons that any dying
tree shouhl be removed from the forest. There is absolutely no
reason known at present for cutting trees that are able to recover
or that are healthlv.

Sec('(far' of'icuh tu',.

WASHINGTON, 1). (., J4,] S, 1909.
[Cir. ;17,]