The work of the San Antonio Experiment Farm in 1908


Material Information

The work of the San Antonio Experiment Farm in 1908
Physical Description:
Headley, Frank Burdette
Hastings, Stephen Harold ( joint author )
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
United States -- Government Printing Office
s.n. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29629364
oclc - 52098941
System ID:

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    The climate of San Antonio, Texas
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Soil conditions of the region
        Page 7
    The San Antonio experiment farm
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Back Cover
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text

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U. S. I)F1\'I \ 'I II T A( ;RIC I.' i'RE,
Bl Er' Al t,' OF PL\ANT INII'STI;Y -Aircular N*. 3-1.
B, T. T AL.l. \AAY. Ctiif iif ucilau.





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Chif oJ Bur au, BEV EARLY T1'. *ALLOWAY. (Chit] of Bureau, ALIIERT F. WOODS.
Editor, J. E. IOC(KW ELL.
(Ci'f (C rk, JxMiS E. JONEs.

('ir. :4 1

B. I' i ',1.

ItE \V(RK (F T u SA A\NTo NI( )iEX1 ERI-

Soiiethil.. more tlihan ia hiulred \(airs ago Sni Anlitoio wNas tlie
cen('('Iter of aI little Spanish agricultural votti ni t l that e'lwndedl for
its existence tpon ii o _', tion by dliversioi lrim lihe Sin Anioniio
River aiil somie i )1 its trilitaries. In tlie earlv ip rt of t1lie lias
centurV this a,..,ric llture sank 11to, imsigniliance eo j)C;)lPea d N\ilh tlhe
develolment of tlw live-stol, industry (in tlie surrounding prairies,
which heeai nie tihe iIterest ol" Imriilunt dt i |l)ortal nce. \\ithbin recetl
Sears tliis (old irrigation lias;i alniost entirely isapi eared, having.
leen repUc)ie4l by irrigation 'fron artesian wells, while a;ivaincii'
setlIlelienlt and v'efoestanion, or the prairies have prwac ivailx eideld
the re.iime o tlie catt vleilall on thle open rallre.
It is only in cmIral ivelv\ recent years til there las lheen ailn '
extensive agriculture without irrigation. The inereasin. s(arcitv
of farmi land t t thlie east ard, together wit l the need of lorage anl
g-rai i' crops to suplply tle local markets, hlas forced alttelntion to lie
plo'ssiilit ies ogl' general fariinig. As a result there is ow a xv er 'v con-
siderablle- .i i il lire X itiliout irrigation i ll the vi{cinil v of al Allntoni,
and tlie i.'i-on toI tlie s ulh and w ,st is also sietlinpg up rapidly.
(otton anl soi,-{ liiiiii have plowed f' irlx well d l pte d te o \ it i-
stand tlie piriods oft drl'u hilt thlat so fre h ihlt Ix occlr dirini1 lihe
_' l, ','i .. '-se o,1l. )l1an these U4411sti1 thl e ii4osi i mlli talnt IIonIlev
rop' oi f tle 'i- 'dry Ilarlllers.' \\Viliter cereal's 1"row\\I lor ihay ald a
little ,corn are also iprodlu edt. .ill crnqps are suiijecit t,) : i.t Ia1nl ta-
lions, il Y l'1 according to 4 lt4 season, a ld it can lir x 1e' aimi'ed
t atl 'Li Wlc ltulire \ithoul irriult;ition is yet on ; atirin r a~is, ev\ent thloughli
thle annual rainfall ,x'e44eds thai olf a lar4 paFrt olf t li u4 pper M+li-s-is-
s 1ipli \'aley. iwe, i h r icult lire is Well estallisheld.

'' l.;>t y,'.ir ;i rel, w.+ i-y",'| owiuhtin iik then w"A,, rtk "rricIl 1 m1 Ti vIt' Sxn ,\ tii iii(
l''xIxvim+ i il (' itu 1 l ircil r NW 11 Iq.; Burcwiii nl+ l'l~u t I ni l *tr + :, ; h Kiri,
+l4il4i4iUl t" l4 4w rk M nI 4444l 444r l4 l< 4 i lh,\ I n t44 + i 4 l \,' I) t lA in lW 1ir 1 ill
I l|r<-inl i+ir++ '1 t 144jl)l< h i rn, t th4 I l4 r +4 [ i)r +>n 'i4 1>\ L, ] i4 i i- + ;4i| 1l- (4 l thl< S" ) \i+\i4 ni 44 i44, ) .444 1 ta s ita tm141 t 4) f (i 1 4, 1144 44 ,4 t4' i ,4 .tit ill.
4141.li4 i, l ill l,'- \ [ ;>P B. TW I A I LO AY, I / l Q BU"I u


There seemnis good reason for believing that a substantial and
)profitable a-riculture may be developed in this section if thle best
lmethlods of tillage and rotation are used, tg.tcf.r with the crops
best suited to the local renditions.


The average annual rainfall calcutilated from the records of tlhe
Weather Bureau, !',iiii,,. with the year 1S7S, is 2S.1 inches, which
is about the same as at Lincoln, Nebr., or St. Paul, Minn., but
because of tlie irregularity of its occurrence thlie compact character
of tlie soil, which causes a large loss in surface run-off, and the higher
evaporat ion of thlie region the effectiveness of tlie rainfall is lessened,
imiking thlie coiuntrv semiarid rather than semihliumid, as at Lincoln
and St. Paul.
Tie suminers are hot and with a rather dry atmosphere, which
results in raplid evaporation of moisture from the soil surface and
from thlie leaves of plants. The winters are in the main mihld and
pleasant, but the rather frequent occurrence of thlie northerss"
(during this season often results in hard freezes.
Table I gives thlie al)solute mininumi temperatures and the dates
of the first and last killing frosts for each year since 1892. The
lowest temperature recorded in this period was 4 F. in February,
l1S99, and killing frosts have been known to occur as hlate as April,
although in the majority of cases the last one was in tlie month of
February. The sudden changes to low temperature often cause great
injury to fruit trees which have been started into growli duhiring the
wairmn, pleasant days of winter. For these reasons it is unsafe to
grow fruit trees except those hardy enough to withlstand a moderate
d(../,. .of freezin or those that will remain dormant throriiliit the
warmest days of winter or early spring.

TA IlE I. Dlh!s o ff < 'ili, tfrtost.s (11.f abso/lato minmlum temperatures at San Antonio,
Tc.r.. from INO Io 191S', ticlt1sir8 .
[Compiled froin the records of the IUnited States Weather Bureau.]

Atsolute I a' F stFi- Absolute
I"-- F rsi '^I Last : First rilili
Y. ,:rr; finr-t i i earr .gl f
[lI froM+ Ilt ll frost. frost.
i I,, lie year.

/F. F.
IS 2 ...... ...... M ir. 19 Nov. IS 119 1901 ................ M ir I Dec. 10 15
1S.3 ... ...... F(ei. S Nov. 2-1 2( 1902 .... .. el 16, De'. 16 26
s 4 Mar. 26 N ov. 20) 16 w;............... F eb. IS Nov. IS 19
2sr, F. 1). 27 No)v. 27 11 li, ........... ). 12 Nov. 12 22
Si; G.' 15 No X 2S 27 i ............... Fe< 21 D)ec. 4 13
, .. ... ..... I. I 1l e. 4i liS 1906. .... .......... Fe 6 Nov. 201 24
Iis . .Jan. 1(t Nov. 22 20 1) 07 ............... Feb. S Nov. 11 28
S.. .. ... Fi'. 6 I I 4 1108 ............... Fel. 20 Nov. 14 22
... . ........ pr, 12 N ov. 12 19

| >'il i t ] ;-

Table III gives the dlata no, to raiinfall und evaporation ftw P1>(l7 aitntd
11104, fronti measuements taken ai the San Antonio Epxperimllcnt
Fann. The neasitementts of ev'!)oration wvlt+ oblainli y.dlvanizd-iin tank. s feet in diameter and 2 fee deep,. This tlnk
is enl ttdded in tlie soil to a dlvpthi of IS iidliths. TIh W"atier inll tie
tank is kept aboil I iN lies theep alit the evatiluiltli io ii'easuitld
BIv ('onipiii- i ln TalMe Ill and IN' it will be ntel tlat thite' raintiill
at tile lxel'iliitit fiiiii or the x veaoirs I Nt amind IS was HAS2,..S andit
26.S0 inchlies, respectively, whih' inll tie cit*v ,l' San Antonio it xwas
27.77 inlies i H107 anl 2' 2 inclies in loits. 'Tlie' rainfall in tliis
seetlio is often eXteIllni bowal in its charwiate. A heavv ainil mav
occur lit one poIililnt, while at a distance t' I or .> miles none fall.
This fact aoutilils for thie frieqluenit tlis'repancies i twee li tie' rainfall
reoi'dls ol' tie ,Weather Bhiureau in Stii Anitonio amn! tlise at tihe
exlperimient falrmiii, although tli the rain g-aitulges are but G miiles apart.
.illiii''l2li tle total annual rainfall for i(907 wvas vterv nearly tlie
same as in 19 1i' tile crop yields of tlie two yveatrsl x wir e eitiler"l'ilit,
as will be seeli by Co'mlpatring tlie viehl'ds i'ii 'low. ThIt'se M fields
are the aexir.i.., for corn, cottonli, anld sorglhlil l-rown onl t lie rotation
plats oni tihe experimlient ftarii.

TA+I' I: II.i ..'. i s ,tf ttUi, 1otiti, (amel on Il lhi e 1S'(( n A '" raW l', in ni'l Firt ] in,
i'inl 7 J d l'n >it .

1I K);. 1'.)lS.,

3I I
C orn ..... ..... .......................................................... i>u + lt ls. 17 : 27 :.
Sel~t ("Ot loli . .. . .. . - .- .. . . .. . .. . .. ... .. . .. . . ... .. . ... .. |H)I IIE^ ] -+ ^77 I oI' S0rT~h i Ot ,in n flr fnor ii<' .................................................... ions. I, 1 1

Thelil lnw vi'l t ia iiV ber acconiiitedl for b} tlie fact I hat t ie'e
was littl' ra in it lie fall aliind winter of 1906i 7, ot that at tseedin,-
thne in thlie siii- iir of 1907 sulfitielnt litiiiturie hiad not been iacCut-il-
lated Ato iv'e tie croplts a vigorous ;tarit. )Oni thie other hiandt, iii the
ifall of 1907 heavy rains Ilt'ell in October andI Nvetimbei, that alli' too,
Iate to heieifit tlhe cops of that yval, tut they stored ll)p a large s-tupply
of moistutlre tihat gylv' qutick t'lliiinationi aitInd rapid ri'owthi in thlie
spring ol' IOis, alind tlie lieav ani tiimu el rains in May of' that Velar
broutghlt tli uotirin to liatit ailing rei il t'v benehiti olerl cpli ps.
Tlie int is littr emphasized hat hI n'mont liii f t sealal rainfall is
only patlially indicative olf thie crop yields-M for i lie sae
I Y A l]



TABLE III.-Rainfall and evaporution at the San Antonio Experimnent Farm in 1907
and 1908.




1907. 1908. 1907. 1908.

January... ...... ...................
FebMruarv ......... ....... ......
M arch ...... .. ... . ........ ............
. \ k l a I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
M ay ..........- ... .- .... . ..........
June ... .................................
J u ly . . . . . . . . . .. *. . . .. . .. .
\ ;-.11r I t . I .........................
- 1. l,, I. ...... ...................
O ctober ........................... ....
N ovem bler .............. .... .. .......
December .............................

Total ... .. ..... - . ... . . ...
Monthly mean .....................

........ ..... 0. 56
...... .. ...1. 72
.............. .. 1.70
.. . .......... 4.50
. ... ... . ... 2.S1
............. .. .31
.-. -. -. .. .. .. .. ... 2. 65
..... ......... . 39
- -. --... .. ...... .64
... ...... .. 2.98
.................. 6.78
......... .. ...... A 4
.................. 25. 68
........... ..... 2 .14

Table IV gives the rainfall for each month in the year for eighteen
years, beginning with 1891. It will be noted that the monthly rain-

fall from April to September, inclusive, averages over 2 inches and
that in the renlaining months from October to March it averages less

than 2 inches. If the rainfall each month would regularly approach

the mean rainfall for that month, as given in the table, there would

be no reason why fair crops should not be raised every year, but the

rainfall during the year is so unevenly distributed that the yield of

crops for each season is exceedingly variable.

Previous to May, 1901, there were five months and previous to

April, 1902, there were six months of drought. The year 1893 was

a year of low precipitation, but the distribution was of such a nature

as to be favorable to Sprin't crops.

TABLE IV.-Monthly preci pitatiott at San .Antonio, Tte.,for the years 1891 to 'i,,,
[C(ompiled from records of the United States Weather Bureau.]

Year. Jan. ,Feb. Mar. Apr. May.June. J uly. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total.

Inches. Inches, lnchfs. Inches. Inches.

Inches. Inches. s. Inches. nc. Incus
2. t16 ) 1 .. 1. 0 3. 0 1 0. 601 0.92 5.73
I 83 5 .11 9.09 1.01) 1.48 I .09 4 16h
S1.90 .91 92 10 .08 I t62 .76
3 09 i.1) 8.55 1. ;8 .89 '1'. .104
S2.09 1.07 1.910 1.25 1.43 3.38 .55
S.11 2. 9 : 2 .9 8. 87 06. 01 .7 .74
2.19 .28 40 1.6 1 1.35 .43 1.31
7.06i 2.24 3.35 1,32 .03 1.3- 1.54
4.32 2. S .00 1 .57 1.31 1.70 3.39
.78 2.224 41.05 .97 2.94 1.82 .70
18s( 3.79 91;) 4.20 .12 .61 .15
.02 38 5 .1110 52 2. 51 3.53 2.51
1. 75 7 52 .211 2.9),i 1. 61 *T. .82
I1. 73 :13. 5011 1.97 7. 74 2.81, .24 1.016
1 6.01 2.82 .51 1.80 1.831 2.63 1.56
i .12 4.34 2.25 1.74 1 09 1.33 1.60
.18 2.68 80o 1. 11 3,5)1 6.79 .80)
.30 .I66 4.27 3.92 1 7 2. 11 1. 1

2.42 2.39 2. 40 2.77Tre 173 .8 1.61

*T 'Trace.

0. 47
2. 61
2. 59

26 80

5. ,8
4 91
8. 36

163. 48

3. 31
8 23
3 26


1891 ..
1891 .-
1895 ..3
1900. .
1901 -.-
1902.. .
1903. .
190( 1
1905. .

1908- .


18. 24
26 07
22. 49
19. 65
37. 19
16. 44
24. 79
29. 38
20. 42
28. 72

25. 79

I Cir. :i4 ]



S,1an Antonio lies in the southern extension of what is known is the
"Black Prairie lezion," or t lie Pll;k I .andls" o"l' exas, aiInd ne;ir lie('
northern edg of an area known geologicallyI as lie '" iR (Mranihe
Plain." The soil is mostly tlie result of tlie wea tlin, i' of lile-stone
rocks of tlie paperr ('relaceous period. There have heen recent
alluvial deplosits washed down froin tlie hidl i lands nort'Iwest of the
city, resulting in hoVal mAMlilications.i hiely through I lie addition of
coarsler ilat'erial. The typial soil is a heavY black or brownisli clay
Or clayv loam.
The lt'*eion around San Antonio hIas been inade tle sulject of' a soil
survey by thlie Blureau of Soils" and twelve soil types have ,been recog-
nized, of which five are (iflerenit kinIs of i' 'lay amountini to 4(0 pi'l
cent of the area, two are clay loam amiounlting it) 27 per cent, three
are sandylv or silt loalim alloUntliltr to 20 p(her cent, lanld itwo arie sand
:1111111111infI to 13 per cent.
Analyses made in connection withi Ihis soil survey sAiow instances
wlwre ealciunii carbionatet colistit utlle s iore t li hall't lit e total soil mass.

TAHIKI1 \ '. Ic',n'nft Uh ff, qi./ / l tftii i ti c liuh abo cc ; sf/Is oc th I'ii 'fily/ o Sfic, .1 1,/al ,
7\ .t. /,U'.t li .. .,t^^! ^ Itf^'y I i't^ rofih+'i.d

X ,oilypc. In l .1h Q (, IQ

\ h is i [ ildv lo;iin .. ... .. ... ....... ... 0 1 47 i
ut .. 12 Io)
X ti ct lyu .t . . . . cit I ,
D)o ...... ..
lto .... .- . . . . I s :{, *,:i. I

This line occurs in tle soeil )oth as Min lv divided material a n d as
gravelly comretios. In thie ortuer condition it is z._' i, i MY dark
voltoried tliroii 'l staiiillr,- I de'om otsedl org i ,ii iiathter, while' in tlie
latter condition it is usually while. The ovincretiios are o)lneitli'c-
ally eliminated amd are o'ten iicemented to2. her Iv liner material, in
which condition hlie soil is alniost imiper'vious both to waterr alnd to
plantt otots.
()nt hie' aiII Antonioi l'x\lerinviit Armn there is a ,considterabtihle vari-
tion luoth in tliet l c e'nical c(',uip sit ion and the it"elaniiit i(al sl uictlie
of I lie soils. A le sute h et of I lie fIari otilv a I race of lime is found
ii lin ultpl'r 12 ii t's' of soil. while at t l i nortli end' where there is a
-li,-lt IX hii hi r 'iP ''er 'liage ol cla tlie' a tio nil t of linie in ti(lie tist foot
vait's Iiroii 7 to 23 T pir cetl. (Onei' of Ili' "\Xhlit' slpots." which are
fouiid so 'oniniltlulX in the bhl'k land,.- ofl ihis ect Hion, Xa- fo'u* l to

S,,il Strinn|' h S]! i "ii n ." T<-xas. I'M ,! ( ) t ;r i,,i,-. I4r|n ,,f S ,il.. I'lD 1.
I *' r, ; 1;.


containn 22.S per cent of calcium carbonate in tile surface foot, while
the adjoining black soil contained only 7 per cent. Other analyses
ga*\e different degrees of variation between these extremes.
Table VI presents tlhe results of mechanical analyses of three soil
types oni the Sanil Antonio Experinment Farmn. The "light spot" on
lield B 5, where tlie first sample was taken, is one of the typical light-
colored spots just mentioned. Thle sample of dark soil is rel)resenta-
tive of the common black waxy soil of thle section and was the soil
that surrounded tle light spot. This sample wvas taken but a few
rods fr mii the first one. By referring to the table it will be noted
that thlie light spot contains a very mluich higher p'.rii(tt;ige of lime,.
both in thle first and second foot, than the dark soil, and it also con-
tains less organic matter. Analyses made by l)r. L. J. Bli.,,'_ of the
surface foot of these two borings showed percentages of 01 :;iiii matter
as follows: Light soil, 1.42 per cent; dark soil. 2.76 per cent.
Thlie samples of soil taken from field AB 8, near the south end of
the farm, showed only a trace of lime in the surface foot. While the
mechanical analysis shows about thlie same proportions of sand and
clay in this sample as in the samples from field B 5, for some reason
this soil is much more easily tilled and tools scour in it with greater
ease. Locally, it is known as "sandy" '' soil, in distinction from the
black gumbo, although the analysis sllOws little difference. Experi-
menlts have not vet been made to ascertain the relative productiveness
of tillhis type of soil as compared with thlie soil that is richer in lime.
This diversity in thlie lime content and of organic matter is probably
associated within thle irregular growth so often noticed in fields of sor-
ghium, corn, and horticultural and other crops.
T-ia E VI.--l'th,'su. of im'erhoticol uamlys's madn bi thri B iiren of Soils of samples of
T.iji VO's ltfs~ ()I YSi I101i, iJl iti fori
,,;oi m the S" *m -1^ .- Fine J^. x 1 ir
'haracler Filei (oarI' Nit- F ine Silt. (tlav.
Nmn,,r f 'h rale leptlh. C'aC'C) .gr. S .'a l "(;. filled s Silt.
iehl, of soil. saI l S tosland .

Fft. P. cf. '. 0t. P. 0, 7t P t. IP ct. P. ct. V'. c. I. rl.
I| I i '.,tspol 1 22 S 0I 5) 2. 4 2:3, G 11 :i 41 7 1v,2
I ... i',, soil.. 1 7 0 1 1.2 1.3 19 7 10.2 417 :3 21) 6
\ I 'S .-.... .... 1 Tracet. .0 .2 S 2; (i 261 25. ; 20 1
I ............ Li;ht sll t -... 2 23 1 .4 L I, 2. 2 2:1 2 9 2 39 .5 23, 4
1 . .. l. I k oil.. D r2 11 4 .1 .9'I 1. 3 17.7 11.1 45,2 23 (
\l ....................... 2 9 .1 .4 .6 21.2 24, 5 2',. 1 25.6

The Sanm Antonio Experiment Farm lies about 2'1 miles south of
thlie city limits of San Antonio, Tex., on the Corpus Christi road. It
ilhlch(les 125 acres of land, of which about 100 acres are now under
cultivation. The farm is a part of a tract of land b,.1,L'i -i to the
[ Cir. :4I1

cityv of ,-;an Antonio and was fot'rinrlv under irrigation byI hIe use of
(l1e cit A 's svwwV i S)onte vcurs since another /nicaiins of, scwii(V .
dlis)loslil wi as prI idled alnl tl e te use o 1f this rinic ls no sa w r 'irnl u ai s

iThe 'ilri ias Ii'in ili|)o b)liyrih ev n tion of ai dwelling l'hlu sa, a,
Imrn, a seed Iliolse and Q vlice, a g ni oiuilse, and it lirc iiii|)len(niit
shedl funds liiiving Inrin irovith, by a Ip pular subscription t lIroi/1yli
lhe li( si' ess Men's ('il) it' Sili Antonio, .
The working ili 'oi'ce colmisisl fi t I1 sueiil varin tlde tnt l, a ollice iissislaltll,
it lmlan \iw ti sixcimid oirtlicltural training, aitd sfv V I'a] furni Ila oers.
Thie fs i is well (Mliip tnd witlh farni nicliinu ry. s[)t',ial smi ltentio



having tIMeel ipvcn :" securing typsl, of
e-*v useful iln ctnsvrvin soil ilnois| ltr'.
shllows lilt' prselilnt arlr. -ii. iil,.t ol tliet'
'crois oni tlie fields in I tS.

cuhll ivaitorl.s atl lther iliii'liin-
The sketvich of the lrin (i. 1 )
!ielts and roads and flso (lie


('ooperiativt Xork with offices in liie Bureau iof Plaint Indislrv is
biilng carrietl on1 as thlltovs: The acliiiilizatiionl of ('eli*l ral Aiiiericini
types of (oni ald oto, with O (Y (AMok atl (K (I llins, of the(l
O(fliee o Bioil ii' llv"sliaitiills: tesis of vnrieti(es oft' fm i aI lt 'l mrcops,
witli ('. \'. lPilu'', of tlie (O)lice t',of Ir (Crot) Inveslialitions test s
of varieties ol' grains, with M. A. ('arl0oii. o tof Olfice olf (irniin
In\ ,-li-]iations- iestsof |lit iiii -,] iiisand piartic itiirl il ci'ro "s, wilth
SS77l6 -- ('i tr ; -It- I 2

SAN A\NTIO()NIO* I 'IE\l-;lM: x l \l"Al;M.

l':;.. A MT--hsowmil)ng ll Ith xal~ii & AIN fill. mps. Wir. in Own Sain %dln io V.\p~m [r Ii t Fam .


)David Fairchild, of the Ofi()fice of Forir_.ii Seed and Plant Intro(duction,
anti William A. Taylor, of tlie Oili- of Field Inve-.i .il i.,l in Po-
mology; life history studies of the pistaiche, (citrus fruits, and alfalfa,
within W. T. Swinrle and (Charles J. Brand, of the ( officee of Plant
Life I history Investi-.l ions; I rials of olive alnd p. iii r.ii, tvarieiti,.
with T. II. Kearne. oif the (O)flice of Alkali anId I)roiught Resistant
Plant, Breeding Investigations: andi tests of native cornl varieties,
vwilthi C. P. Hartley, of the ()11'-, of Corn Inivestigations.
The results of these cooperative investigations that are not pub-
lished inl the aiiilia reports of flie farln work will lie published from
timne to tine liv the cooiperators anid will appear as special reports
dealing witli thlie Sail Antonio region or as more general reports.
In addition to thlie cooperative work mentioned thlie following gen-
eral lines of investigations have been carried on: Till;..' experiments
with IcOi( alld tottlo, eradiiation of ,Jolinsoii grass, anid certain soil-
moisture s itudies.
It.XI'EImi I,1 ;NTS 'IIII I i ')- AI.So

(Irain crops ihave not beell comml*onl ruLsed other than for forage
purposes in thlie region about San Antonio. Wheat, oats, barley, and
rye do not ordinarily yield well. This failure to set seed see1is to be
due chiefly to tlie prevalence of fu ngous diseases and insects. Rust
appears early in the spring before tlie grains have headed out and
weakens ltheni very material v. WYork is being continued with a
ImiIrber of varieties of cerenls for hlie purpose of stil(dVinig these rusts
iinitl other diseases.
()On Noveimber S, 1907, there wVere planted on thle experiment farit
ili one-fiftli-acre plants three varieties of wheat, four varieties of oats,
ail a variety of rye. The rate of seeding for wheat was ,ill pounds
an1id for oaits 55 )pounds per acre. Rlust attacked the wheat about
(lie inid(lle of M.arch and so sapped thlie vigor of the crop that very
lw yields resulted, as shown by tle aieea below:

TA II: V I Y(icis a, f rIri ali"' of ,c Iit l ,tl a ,u, .11 Anto..tio E'.r rim i F.t Farm in Pos.

Yietld lir ;-ri Yiid per acre.
V;iri(l y. Vairie-ty. -
trairi i riw. drain. StiaI .

Pi ulis. P't ldS. Bl h(iu s Pois I'mutiIs.
Rosw ll \Vinler ow lx . At.b) 1 A l lruzzi's rYv . .. ........ 17.6 :3,i3il>
illl rsoi \ illl n roals 21- .:3 4, 170 lirt i wlieji .... . .... 7.0 2, 1.6
ird Al ur i o ls. 2A1.. *. SOiO I 4e 800 's wvl l ........... 2.3 1. 575.
\ tppl

TI.I v ne 'iie I os o I tried were IBosw ell Vinter, (C u I bersoii NV iit er,
R1cd Alreriani, and Appler lIust 1)roo'. The Boswel! oats were so
seriously injured bv rusIt hat no grailln waI produced.
a 'itr. :;i 1

S.\N ANTl(IN o ) EfXI'I lUlMI TN I'\I M.

The straIw 4ith iIlit el Ale-iamn alndt Ih l Aie lr on ats was -" weak a-
to cl iies th e's i t i- ti l>edlt ieislv. W yile Nt t s that 1 % ha Id I" 'Q t I" -l1
hand. ih straw tif the ('tiX tllri ,lo t. t lit. \e lver, \-is i v ,cr still' ani
tih* entire ,r(' t tood up|) well, giving this varieit c o' hiderable ;idl\lan-
.il_'' over tlil" otller tX I allth ligh it lid i1t elil s-- S" \ ll.
Ili addition to to e a1 ovw _.'od;ior varetv 1ests m fill v-o+ ne it I [-;itre
I'ttl ioittit i lIt la n u='I' llllte ol t exas- !led IR lstlrit l oals at tll e rali t
of 42 pI.Inds il r atl l, t ich g avli e a e on t\ l t y I ,l I 17.7 tli i-t' ptur
iacr', while thret'e' (I.l-tcrc l t tIlit i pNlatt t e' le illotedl to (ial alh.
W\ ileat. i\iiiit ;al aXl \et'er- ' yield ll't X.! i; tilelsrl.

t li >:ta ll'tt' lt'i \a-. Aitt i tl ( tlh t' hI -1 it i Ii haM :t XX l ev ll ti'-. lt'i, -util
I co |)i eriit X on e l itg tll l, Olie O t dee Olwn tnvesiitti .aIiii ; e ill Xelnive
test titl io \ 'varielies was made. The varitiev s under trial m mee en-
lhlted S un ille lites Iti hit h las nppe rc'd in tthe corii extihith t irlrondio"i
tlhe State() tit'Texas. Anllini the 6i3 strains tlihat we' tested, s veryv hiih \ieldling towes that seem well adopted to ti s settti wlNere
tifoundit. ()One-t entiliteti acre of eaoi? variety wNas p i- lla etid o Yeh l e i.irXv
2S on laundl that hadil been in eotth the lprevtious ear. lThe ldsl
varied friol 20) t io A Iishiels per acre, l i tl i etIv Lii known as- I .-imia
l,..i,- tile most p oldlucitive.
In ahdit o nto thlie vuri t v test- Is t hie nt ed, seed ,of' live va liosit ie \\ zis
btaiiilet fiW in lherinain, 'e x., f'mt trial. Liral VIii gi'vI es tir' area,
planted and iel-. oaited.

XIfH'Hf a Xi / WA. jf? it it' t h,
Fari Inx if "If 1. t,

I 44 4 .' .11 1 P'.

,I b+ 1- 1isl, -

so 12~
, t'x l x hits ( ull .l . .. . . . .. .. i tn r>
l-'c i~tI i.iii V cllot+ l >rii( .. ... .. <' :n, .*
Blo .+n .o im ly \\hir. .... . .. . . .. .... 7J+ _*:,7

These results w\ere MAWtaied bv "Qki hiuske estimatin g 70 [)olnds (of e onl coln Ie cobl It a b ousel otf slileld
\While ,I&\ mmilr \or m w s phlated onl) 21; rtation plait+ on lie s A\ A '
and It. 0, andal niav. i wi. lel'd'4 25A busels per acre was Wainvd,
Ili lithnh A (i 6 x pla h o l' 4 tior on land! \ Ahith ad mr.wii millet Oiw
previous year W WIhc at tlie I'ole (!4 -'J.l 1)1l^ d l |)er ace llihle lonulf r
plats llil liAh d meen in oats tlhe ple\hions \ ii vielde,| o l\ I.'1.5i
uslnv e Is |)er acre. TiwI vv de reased \ 44 d o'() i f coI" )r n toA I Ie oI I V l 11a d \I :Id
probabl d lie c I ihell\ l to to I(f ac i( li ol f1 cut I"Ills, minh' 11 ted e 1l=e
stand 44f cornl plates fli ll .'--t per colt.
I tCr. Al I I



Sorghmin is one of the surest and( most remunerative forage crops
in the vicinity of San Antonio. It is highly drought resistant, and
when planted in rows and cultivated will make a fair crop of hay even
in the driest seasons.
When sorghumin is planted thickly in drilled rows and kept well
c(ultivate(d during the summer very much better forage yields are
obtained than when sown b)r)a(dcast, especially during tlie drier sea-
sIns. The sorghum hay that hlias been produced from cultivated
rows is somewhat coarser thlianm when b)roadlcasted, but the greater
Yields obtained from row plantiir.,, particularly in dry seasons, more
than coml)ensate for tlie slightly decreased market value.
iSumac and Red Amber so(rghums proved to be the best yiehlding
varieties tried. Although thlie Sumac variety gave but two cuttings
a i Red Amber three cutt ings, thlie former variety producedd the greater
(liuanltity of forage per acre. For three successive years Sumac has
been thle best yielding variety on the exl)eriment farm. Its stalk is
coarser than that of the Amber sorghum, but is very sweet and juicy.
In tlhe rotation plats lthe Sumac variety yielded 13 tons to the acre
and Red Amber 7 t f)nr, from three cutll i-.
Table IX slows tlie forage yields of two plantings of sorghum
vw. ie ties. It will be noted that the yield was considerably reduced(
byv late planting.

TAmE I 1X.- -'icl( of varieties of sorflkumi f/roirn ina ott-tcntlh-acre plats (it the San
.n1InM o l\.i pcriment Farm in 17,W .

'lantiiig I l'Ianling II.
SI.r I. number. Variety. Ni er 1,t N n,, ,e
D~ate Date f Yet
plaIii c'. of Yield. plnted. cu(if g

Tons. Ton,.
17 ........ ......... n .... ...... ir. 3 2 12. 21) Apr. 23 2 6. 3
175 .. ....... el .jlll r t. o 3 1 10.17 . o ... 2 4. 29
7;O ... .......... raii .. ... . M Ir. I 2 7. 12 .. (to 2 5 36
17 : ............... Planner' riid ..... o 2 6 00 .. o .. 2 5". 49
2 7! ................ Minnpsota A\inl er. ... lo .... 3 5. 3S do .. 2 3 22
17 ................ Kafir .... ... .. dlo 2 4. S3 .. o . 2 3. M84
l .......... ...... lwarf M ilo......... ..l . to 2 4. 3 do ... 2 4.74

.Mlillet grows well in seasons having at least an average amount of
rainfall and should prove to be a very useful crop in the farm rota-
tio ns. Those varieties that mature in from forty to fifty days
might follow thle winter oat crop when the May and June rainfall
permits, thus securing two hay crops from thlie field in one season.
After thlie corn crop is removed in July advantage iii- dil occasionally
he taken of favorable rains in A.:gili or early September to gr,,\w a
late crop of millet.
I Cit. : I


A large lumler of" varieties a wer'e ei\n a prelinminiary trial iii INK.
as shoIvn in Tlihbh X. The lIulki vairiely prodiucvel tfw ylcto: i
Yield, but it is so slb) h in ituringi thali it a;nl lhnrl, vll e considhrlIe :I

desirable varitel v] a, catch crop. The bv.e- variety wM ien both icldI
awl quickness of' ,_rowvth tare considered seem,, (o 6e the GWrmaln.
(Geriiian miilet is a w evll-knoun variety v in this 0llU1it i ani1d t'sem' cail
hle obtained fl'om fi o lmmercial smod sorcvs.
The V arietic'- limited iin the foltllo\inll table w ,ere planted ill onle-
elnth-are pl'A ILt inl Mav, I 'ltS. The land ln \]iwli ihey were planted'(
was fallow throl'ollgout th1e vo'i" 1907.

TAI'i E i .-i tltit. r if &y(t.* / M W to Mattu.'mm"M D trui rrn .lr y n i" t I/ ro-nt; fit Mc'
sn I n tot io I'rJnsri t [, 1'n, in ass,'. Ah yi; Ii t/ ,

II "YS Yost
S. Ir. I, riign^T, V \'rio't toi I"'
2li it it I., t .

21;i43........................ .....K. ti. (l'ftti U n pu ii . Sh m 1 ." , ., 1 30
212'.7 S]i 11 Utt !'.tittrutIn c'[t/too lt .. ... 1
22 74. .. .. . ... .. .. ...ti I t t I l ft t dd.. It .... .. .. .. 7 I 70
22 12, .. . . . . . . lllln ( I d .,tunI2hl t a .. .... . ... . ,
2I1'I ....... . . . .. Sa nw i (]t J (' f ,cIi m lt i . . . . .. 122 1 .'
22 12 . .-..-.- . . . ( oi i 11 ,o I f . S m (P n c i f u ti fH u i ) . . . . . . 1^ *7,t
2 12i . . . . . . .... .... I Ioll O l i t 'I ilna i t ......... . .. .. 7
22 '0 12 . ....... . . . . . . . . I i i ii g: . 1 .I1 -)
2 242, I .. .. . .. .. . irtlSk i 'tt I to nhl m o i /a c .. . . . . 4 1
2 2 l . . . . . . . . . . I 1i)
224 7 . . . .. . .. . .. 1 1r'i ( niIh h lin ............ 1a I 1 2
22 2 .. . .. . ........ ,I. .... 47aiu~ D ~ tl~ lm 1 091
2- 7 ................ ......... . t i ( w i i h oi t i .u .u ... .. ... . .. 25
22127 . ......... ... ..... fT i ll n holler qi'rlss ( I ticI IH f1"i tfh thK't l .M.U. to7 W IiM
2074. .t.. .-... ... ...........t..t..... roomt- l torn In't,1 ( U' t utn 1tti u it t Is) ........ *1") 2.
L2422. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... ... liroolniK'oni nillih!t ( f'ailu'c unt milhioi u n j. ... .. -If 2!<"

Twei tv-tlire otieir varieties f millet \v ere tesi etI in I i rows.
Thle best uf these arel' bein- 1"lxwii agaili in largo, pilts were, coyt't-
p)al'atie yiV ls ca1'n Ie olbtaiied.
A number oif variedivs of (liver have been tried diiri.,_' Ith last
two Years', ilt ntoe so far hav'e ivt' i ucllih promise of value. (Ol'
variety of crimson chtloer (S. P No. lKlI'(M gaXI, a yield of 1,210
p0ouinds of hay per aere, aised on ti lho results from i onle-t wonlietli-
'l'acre pl hit.
('olwpeas were gi'(1w11 (iln e rtot atioin Ilats follwinX g cti i anll ois.,
to l)t plowed slider fo'r green innl/ir'e. Fi'orait' yields were noit otb-
talinedt, lint tihe 111p lade a ranik grovuli iiand w1o11 ld 11Wha i hhelded a
fair crotp i hay.l\
iBonaivi .tli bins inade a1 verlv favorable sowit viilWg. The' iay yield
fromli these bealns wvasi at tlie rate of 2.560 pounds per ailet,.
A vari'i t" (v 11of ana )'dape wats phlalted in tlil fall ul' 191)7, a4ld ga Ive
)prollsi of lieini a very valuable, w\ilte crop'. Thie villes g1n,' tlo ai
ii'lli of G feet or iore, but as the crop was lft to imture in o r
to obtainli te seed tle ftirage yiehl was ot otawiiMAW.
A plat of Spanish panuts, oini-Wl\vent ivl nii vhhhded at tlie rate
of 191 bishlis per acre. Thie peanuts Vre soImelwalt slnlhr than
I 3'i 4r : 1t |


thle original seed from which they were grown, and in a considerable
numl)er of cases the nuts were not properly filled out. Peanuts are
not likely to prove profitable, at least on the heavy black type of
In February, 1905, at the su,-nre-tion of Mr. William A. Taiylr,
there were sent to the farm about 500 seedling peach trees that had
been grown by Mr. G. L. Tabor, of the Glen Saint Mary nurseries in
Florida, from seeds collected by Mr. G. Onderdonk, of N uzr.,rv, Tex.,
in the (lrv-land fruit regions of Mexico. As Mr. Onderdonk himself
The object in getting these peaches was to secure for the Texas-Gulf r'--i.ii, which
is too far south for the \.,rth (China 1' |" and too far north for the South China type of
peach, by selection from seedlings of Spanish stock in Mexico, a type which would fit
conditions as they exist.,,
These were set out temporarily in field A 1 a(nd in January, 1l'iw,.
were removed to field D 3. They came into bearing in 1,'i 1 and Mr.
Onderdonk was secured as an expert to go through the orchard and
select thlie individual trees that gave promise of b!ing worthy of fur-
ther trial. In thlie orchard there was found to l)e great diversity in
the character of the fruit and tlhe time of ripening. Peaches began
maturing on June 20 and continued until October. Several of the
trees seem to be promising, and there are many others that are to be
passed upon during the coming season. Especially interesting were
two trees of the Spanish type bearing a very superior quality of fruit
and one tree of the Chinese Honey type heavily loaded Iwith fruit,
fully equal to that variety from which all of our Southli China varie-
ties are descendedd.
All the trees marked "undesirable" )by Mr. Onderdonk have been
taken out in order that those remaining may have a better opportu-
nity for growth. Several thousand seeds obtained from the fruit
crop of I 90S have been planted in order to obtain stocks on which to
bud from the more promising trees in the orchard.
These Mexican seedling peaches seemni to be on thlie whole better
adaptled to San Antonio conditions than the commercial varieties
genOIerally planted there. This is particularly true as regards their
a)ilitv to resist the yellowing t)'of the leaves that is probably induced
I)v tHlie excess of limiiie in the soil. If they continue this resistance as
they gronw older t he. may prove toI) be of value as stocks for the ordi-
nary varieties, even it' they yield no new varieties of valhie. Another
p)inlt tof adIvantage which seems to be possessed by these .-,'.,liiin. is
tiat tlhey remained dormant throughout tlie winter of 1907-8, while
,, Mr. onderdonk's expedition to Mexico was made under the direction of the
OIll .. of Seed and PIlant Introduction and ID)istribuition of this Bureau. Thepeaches
x\ere distributed under S. P. 1. numbers 9320 and 9321.
[ ir. :;I I


mosit of the standard variet i's blohos, l hed before le lat ;prinl Il-roi,
whTicl occurred Ferl'ulary 2, 20. an iia- a result failed tio set fruit.
Tlie MexNIcan seedling or('har[d "qeqns to lhe latdlv inielted uitih a
disease of tlhet roots kinoinX is "crXown- all," or "root-gall." N ot es
vere take taen til e i' edition of the n roots f l unide"sirable Irees
revioved. Of the 17. taken up,9S wetre appjarentlyl i &good ('ondition.
35' were lIadly affel'tel d with crown-g-all, 41 sliightly all'eeld with
crown-gall. 3 dead frimn rot-rot, and I infested with ntinatlohes.
'Crownvu-all is ote of tlie dliseae' pItrevalent in tlie orcharlds about
San Antonio. It is easily idetiAied byv tillei l, _,il.irly shaped knots
apl)earin'h onl thle r(,oots (wr on Wle trunk 4f e he tree at or just below
the surface of t he ground After t he trees are plantedl not hlng cali be
done to check its advance. Preventive me1atstt(res' caln be l'lsed l)v
gixo\, ,- .rseed'llings' in soil that is knluxviin to be free from cr n -gall.
Then, before t ransplantingt, lie roots of all trees should bl carefully
insl)ecte(dl and all that sl nw any signs of having root- nll, or cIrowI-
gall, shuhAl l~e discarded.
TI I.A (, ; E X P E 1.: It E M NTENIS.

Thle tillage experinnts ouliined in Hlie lrevius reilrtl up(n tlie
San Antonio EXperiment Farmi' a ere continuedd in lft()<, inc'ludil
an explerinent to compre lithe drilling and check-rowing of owrn and
cott on. The following results were obtained:
Checked rows, 4. 1. l feet e mah wa 3 1.9 iihe-ls for corn ;mm l 9:7 pounds lpr cr fOr
(+ir ton.
Drilled rows, -.1 feet apart, :il.l 31 -|,1 +s fWA r rn ; and 1.01 V po nds per t ,re fQr

Drilled rovs, 5,5 feet apiart. S'50 poundI per .ure fr cltllon
('liheck-rowedx c otton vietld less olth in I1=7 and Ius' tlian drilld
ct)tton, wXhile c'hiec('k-rowed 'corn vie'lded slightly Mor' e'ac t'l Year.
Although thlie resu-is ol'f the two x, ears are in accord, I lhe differ. en'ces are
too small to le si'gnificanut. (Cliekn-rowel fieds lhave th lite advantage
thatthht e ca ( ble "1)kept c'hlene' bV ('ttclt ivat ion thal drilled lields, and
it is believed in the case of cotton that milore boll ,weevils are dest ro ved,
n thlie heat of thlie sun wlen thle o' ,tton is phlatl ini cluecwks than
when it is drilled.
7hr ail ,'idtittiit/ of cat/on cIf win t4 tw; /,h lu ,/i / ,l;n/ ;lu/. In llil;
aind again in lS tests wvere iade ,to dieto rine the ime o4f l]alnting
ttmost favoiralehi to vcn ni th est yields of cotton. Thle results in-
dicate that t i early ldantings max1 result in lesse-ed it'l xiels d et to1
lie cl('eckig i l g t a poxf Ii e 4oth t'h u t i h plants lx d,1 ('old W4 tat elir
oC'curringl after tlie cottonl ha.s .'., ,iiw,.ted l'.iseis t lie \ ig,,,r andl c4-
Seqluently th'vMl #1l of the crop). It is toI e expected tlhat tlhe l.u.t
time for lplntinii xwill vary ('tin.idtraly froin vear "t \at'rl. ac4r4tliqiL
to thle c'hari cter f 1I' oftli'esao.ILi In 19'i tlhe leslt vield was a obtaiit'd

" Circular N-\ /3. lBurc.tu f 4'l Plnt Itidis>tr

"* ":: ; :din:-. :. In MaIr -. a i 1 the best viehi was
S -. Tale XI gives he resu le wo

at the vy.V n7

'-.-< 7 .:: ~ *Jt-:.: 'iA .

'* ;. 'r . -. -.. . . . .. .. .. ... '. -'-' M ";'', 2-" .. .. .-. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1. i'w
til 7 7n n.. -

T > rs rJ no s .- ., ]t uaie ti be 1 elusive. ut
x..-} in i :i r thai ti very early -:._". m- ehnmet n ....- .: ticed in an
-- i-'>r avu tt i r i "f t e may n ot be adv:. 1,I,.

T.t f H ti L-n Sxn W1 rP o .I7ti-:e kL

In the "eviu .1- r t}ii work of the San Antni, E 'h:..[t
Farm iit ,-.- stated th,:t the cost ,f er. ".'." Johns 4-acre *l n wXliic >t- were inrwn m the winter 1' .,,-7 was only
S1 ._ per a-pre f r extra etVvat i n afier thhe oat s were removed and
tLe hn was plwe. Another case was 'rted in the same ,.,ier
,, the era- ii0-ati-i ,f .l hnso mn _as :'. :-i a 2-acre :" that had been
f;J owe i d u:rin. e wInier ,tu f 1'00-7. s*,wn to : in thie .:'rir,.
rii; then f xilwex fr thI remande-r of tlhe sIuininir e"r the removal
,.f th:: ... "- ,- re' ne t cost 81".1.4 :.* acre fo-r early -'irr.r,.
;i: ilac s e <-utiai' nto ura ticate th :.ras-.
An ad ii n-md i -sia ce siwi x ILue cost : erai eat ion can now be
{,-..n A _\ -d''re f-I d '. f .1l Ku-.n -r; s.s meadow thmt iad lteen .'.* >. ,v.
, .; in Ih,-f;;[ f 1 w k w k f w thr.w .,. ut 1 ''.,- -cultiva-
.n '. : *. -. attaK.- t I tw,-I rserid'r.- cultivator an Ib vthe
K:n *'-ii- u'* -* l. no t~k n t I> llhe ultivato.r. r'F.' cos.t f
": :-.v k n ,t inrlii'.!; ih _: rst of ",' in-;in 1 *7 was S12., per
yi -. -rl:-.** on.T rid i t" :;- tr ;si: 0unt "f r 1 'in l lthi;n inI lL'i. The
r:.i:n fdl from: Marfl t0,(,.v Oi>>-rr. incl sive, wa- 1> inclhes in l',.i7. w';, !,
f r t- : } -;ir ~ -i in I '. it w .' n rlv 2ii iin, 's.
It :~ evidt-n: fr0iiii th*'-e re-~'.ilt tliat in atlfii,,.' '._ to er.,,. ,:'.!e
.1 ipi .- rs- i -. < .- tn more "rt- ivf 1.o Cr.Iw a winter l.,*;
,of *>;i L:,v iL;;i bv k .. ',._ t17 1 nd f l.llw hir, ._'9...." the xe~ar.
t r' o -rai is>n 1 iltid in windter tles :. oeinnt thue
~ .- : r*r, :" tx <,ix-,r,. whiif -tvrehlv ..cks andI w akens t Ie
-, : r- ;I~-. ~ t i' f ;+- : '..r s .r w'.. tIo isolated -p;..,-
*': *<,iri 'n 'rts' i iild i~ 0 .t,,n or mother oro<,>,. It is l)0th expen-


SAN AN 'l ] I 1I: i\ I IAi 1

IIe ;U i rd t r I', t I l I Al It l

St I,,A R YJ
_v i n. I if* w ii v i, ;c >l- 1 ;i NI it I11i- |li: 1, lt r N : T I
li 1itpd .1n the jf rowi t, Io ;l 1' T i i- l ,, itn, fiii -:,a n. .

iS .' ti-ol 1a in V t}. },l,;:) olH i :l l : :r al p -'rn)>: t l- l; 'i ,if \ r 'lli

t in < t'l t w f ti i a llrl f }l ;l'-i ; ta ll _- :: t a i- onXX o I .oi -', t .-

ckte t ii t Xlh l i t. Xt.-l II'I t'r Ii iiiaiir 1 i t

Al .t!. Itit' i ,n llII Iii.o Sil tt l alt A'n'oII o .l i IV 'i ;u I- ( n ieil
&i lk, A I t ha t l wivll l -' o lol 4-Sa it .0, 1i)> ( \ :, ,: t l, r nt-..

"lsi>', ;i \";ale T in I>oilh: ,',:,) nnd (',,:'li avv ;nn!:: ::- :,o i'- i c ,,,:i}
>,l ,t lji ln t if "
rsl t tia' u er y Wtv IAi i : l I. 1-
mak e ,t n .r i me -.v, ri. i ln': i Y-} H, IV of o t ;, TiOr4rr
te t l iold. v d v h'anT I'! .H,.r.l

Owl butrNv ed I:

T ] MEl S Ia k!e er EN l2d

EI'xIe N. ;IiNt, it a, <- to
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i At 3-a n:o m TO a I 0*~ii' c Mf i im 1 'lii. olit> 4-tw in! clivrof

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